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Sample records for subject areas-dance music

  1. Subjective appraisal of music: neuroimaging evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    In the neurosciences of music, a consensus on the nature of affective states during music listening has not been reached. What is undeniable is that subjective affective states can be triggered by various and even opposite musical events. Here we review the few recent studies on the neural determinants of subjective affective processes of music, contrasted with early automatic neural processes linked to the objective universal properties of music. In particular, we focus on the evaluative judgments of music by subjects according to its aesthetic and structural values, on music-specific emotions felt by listeners, and on conscious liking. We then discuss and seek to stimulate further research on the interplay between the emotional attributes of music and the subjective cognitive, psychological, and biographic factors, such as personality traits and cognitive strategies of listening. We finally draw the neuroscientist's attention to the sociocultural context as a relevant variable to study when considering music as an aesthetic domain.

  2. The Death of Narcissus: On Musical Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Currie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On the first page of the preface to Michael Steinberg’s excellent book, Listening to Reason: Culture, Subjectivity, and Nineteenth-Century Music, the author states that the book’s origin can be located specifically to “August 1990,” when he was giving “a short preconcert lecture on Brahms at the first Bard Music Festival.”

  3. [Subjective and objective effects of music use during mental effort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptak, V; Egger, J

    1981-05-15

    The subjective and objective effects of music consumption during intellectual work were assessed by a special questionnaire and the concentration paper-pencil-test (Brickencamp). Three different styles of music (pop-music, classical music and folk-music) were presented in a standardized way. It appeared that pop-music was experienced to be less conscious, less irritable and more pleasant than classical music. Although there was a subjective preference for pop- and folk-music an adequate increase of the concentration-test-scores could not be ascertained. On the contrary a significant discrepancy was found between subjective recorded music-effect and objective measured task-performance. Under the condition of classical music which was least preferred there was a significant greater variance of false responses than under the condition of no music. Nevertheless the total output of the discrimination-task was relatively the highest during classical music. The results are interpreted primarily as an enhanced psycho-physiological activation and a different selective concentration on music-presentation and task-demands. In accordance with empirical findings on psychological and physiological effects of music the results of this study reinforce the statement that also i mental activities music per se does not principally increase or lower the task output.

  4. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  5. Subjective and Physiological Responses to Music Stimuli Controlled Over Activity and Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga; Moroki

    1999-01-01

    Results of physiological responses to music are inconclusive considering results of several studies, probably due to the insufficient control of the musical stimuli. The present study aimed to examine the effects of music type and preference on subjective and physiological responses using controlled stimuli by subjects' evaluations for music activity and preference. Subjects were 47 undergraduate students selected from a pool of 145 undergraduates. Results of evaluations of music activity and music preference for musical stimuli in preliminary research determined participation in the study. The music used in this study included the 4th movement of Tchaikovsky's Symphony No. 4 as an excitative piece and the 3rd movement of Mahler's Symphony No. 6 as a sedative one. The excitative music aroused feelings of vigor and tension more than did the sedative one, while sedative music eased tension. Favorite music, regardless of music type, lowered subjective tension. Physiological responses (heart rate, respiration, and blood pressure) were greater during excitative music than during sedative music. Music preference did not, however, affect physiological responses. These results indicate that the dominant factor affecting emotional response was music type but not preference.

  6. Subjective Criteria for Choice and Aesthetic Judgment of Music: A Comparison of Psychology and Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Patrik N.; Isaksson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted the important role of choice in listeners' responses to music, but relatively little is known about the subjective criteria on which listeners base their choices. Hence, the goal of this study was to make a first attempt to investigate the relative importance of various criteria in listeners' choice and aesthetic…

  7. The spatiotemporal characteristics of elementary audiovisual speech and music processing in musically untrained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2012-03-01

    Previously, the EEG technique has been used to investigate the spatiotemporal properties of audiovisual (AV) processing by taking advantage of the violation of the "additive model", which is considered to be a very conservative approach. In the present work, we used a less conservative and novel approach than the criterion of superadditivity for estimating AV interactions. Hence, we estimated AV interaction patterns by comparing the responses to AV stimuli with the averaged responses to the unimodal visual and auditory stimuli in musically untrained subjects and by presenting syllables and piano tones coupled with flashlights. Our results suggest that the two AV objects elicited consistent interaction patterns within the time course of unisensory processing in the time range between 80 and 250ms post stimulus onset. The scalp topographies, as well as the source estimation approach we adopted, indicate that the first interaction pattern at around 100ms was partially driven by auditory-related cortical regions. Additionally, we found evidence for a second interaction pattern at around 200ms that was mainly associated with the responsiveness of extra-sensory brain regions. During this later processing stage, only the music condition was associated with putative responses that originated from auditory-related cortical fields. This study provides a novel approach to investigate the basic principles underlying elementary AV speech and music processing in subjects without formal musical education. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Debates in Music Teaching. The Debates in Subject Teaching Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Chris, Ed.; Spruce, Gary, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Debates in Music Teaching" encourages student and practising teachers to engage with contemporary issues and developments in music education. It aims to introduce a critical approach to the central concepts and practices that have influenced major interventions and initiatives in music teaching, and supports the development of new ways of looking…

  9. Effects of Background Music on Objective and Subjective Performance Measures in an Auditory BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sijie; Allison, Brendan Z; Kübler, Andrea; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wang, Xingyu; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI) systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory, and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill) using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other) BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.

  10. Effects of background music on objective and subjective performance measures in an auditory BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.

  11. Are risk preferences dynamic? : Within-subject variation in risk-taking as a function of background music

    OpenAIRE

    Halko, Marja Liisa; Kaustia, Markku

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates whether preference interactions can explain why risk preferences change over time and across contexts. We conduct an experiment in which subjects accept or reject gambles involving real money gains and losses. We introduce within-subject variation by alternating subjectively liked music and disliked music in the background. We find that favourite music increases risk-taking, and disliked music suppresses risk-taking, compared to a baseline of no music. Several theories...

  12. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L O; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  13. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  14. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  15. Favored subjects and psychosocial needs in music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin

    2016-05-12

    Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4, range, 2-10). Applied music therapy methods and content were not pre-determined. Therapeutic subjects and psychosocial needs addressed in music therapy sessions were identified from prospective semi-structured "field notes" using qualitative content analysis. Patient- and treatment-related characteristics as well as factors related to music and music therapy were assessed by questionnaire or retrieved from medical records. Seven main categories of subjects were identified: "condition, treatment, further care", "coping with palliative situation", "emotions and feelings", "music and music therapy", "biography", "social environment", and "death, dying, and spiritual topics". Patients addressed an average of 4.7 different subjects (range, 1-7). Some subjects were associated with gender (p = .022) and prior impact of music in patients' life (p = .012). The number of subjects per session was lower when receptive music therapy methods were used (p = .040). Psychosocial needs were categorized into nine main dimensions: "relaxing and finding comfort", "communication and dialogue", "coping and activation of internal resources", "activity and vitality", "finding expression", "sense of self and reflection", "finding emotional response", "defocusing and diversion", and "structure and hold". Patients expressed an average of 4.9 psychosocial needs (range, 1-8). Needs were associated with age, parallel art therapy (p = .010), role of music in patient's life (p = .021), and the applied music

  16. Comparison of music perception in bilateral and unilateral cochlear implant users and normal-hearing subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veekmans, K; Ressel, L; Mueller, J; Vischer, M; Brockmeier, S J

    2009-01-01

    Music plays an important role in the daily life of cochlear implant (CI) users, but electrical hearing and speech processing pose challenges for enjoying music. Studies of unilateral CI (UCI) users' music perception have found that these subjects have little difficulty recognizing tempo and rhythm but great difficulty with pitch, interval and melody. The present study is an initial step towards understanding music perception in bilateral CI (BCI) users. The Munich Music Questionnaire was used to investigate music listening habits and enjoyment in 23 BCI users compared to 2 control groups: 23 UCI users and 23 normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Bilateral users appeared to have a number of advantages over unilateral users, though their enjoyment of music did not reach the level of NH listeners. Copyright (C) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Quality and loudness judgments for music subjected to compression limiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croghan, Naomi B H; Arehart, Kathryn H; Kates, James M

    2012-08-01

    Dynamic-range compression (DRC) is used in the music industry to maximize loudness. The amount of compression applied to commercial recordings has increased over time due to a motivating perspective that louder music is always preferred. In contrast to this viewpoint, artists and consumers have argued that using large amounts of DRC negatively affects the quality of music. However, little research evidence has supported the claims of either position. The present study investigated how DRC affects the perceived loudness and sound quality of recorded music. Rock and classical music samples were peak-normalized and then processed using different amounts of DRC. Normal-hearing listeners rated the processed and unprocessed samples on overall loudness, dynamic range, pleasantness, and preference, using a scaled paired-comparison procedure in two conditions: un-equalized, in which the loudness of the music samples varied, and loudness-equalized, in which loudness differences were minimized. Results indicated that a small amount of compression was preferred in the un-equalized condition, but the highest levels of compression were generally detrimental to quality, whether loudness was equalized or varied. These findings are contrary to the "louder is better" mentality in the music industry and suggest that more conservative use of DRC may be preferred for commercial music.

  18. Favored subjects and psychosocial needs in music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients: a content analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Methods Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4,...

  19. The Role of Musical Possible Selves in Supporting Subjective Well-Being in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; Varvarigou, Maria; Gaunt, Helena; McQueen, Hilary; Pincas, Anita

    2014-01-01

    There is now an accepted need for initiatives that support older people's well-being. There is increasing evidence that active engagement with music has the potential to contribute to this. This paper explores the relationship between musical possible selves and subjective well-being in later life. The research reported here formed part of a…

  20. Interactive effects of music tempi and intensities on grip strength and subjective affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, C I; Cheek, P; Simpson, S D; Bigliassi, M

    2018-03-01

    Pretask music is widely used by athletes albeit there is scant empirical evidence to support its use. The present study extended a line of work into pretask music by examining the interactive effects of music tempo and intensity (volume) on the performance of a simple motor skill and subjective affect. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial design was employed with an additional no-music control, the scores from which were used as a covariate. A sample of 52 male athletes (M age  = 26.1 ± 4.8 years) was exposed to five conditions: fast/loud (126 bpm/80 dBA), fast/quiet (126 bpm/70 dBA), slow/loud (87 bpm/80 dBA), slow/quiet (87 bpm/70 dBA) music, and a no-music control. Dependent variables were grip strength, measured with a handgrip dynamometer, and subjective affect, assessed by use of the Affect Grid. The tempo and intensity components of music had interactive effects for grip strength but only main effects for subjective affect. Fast-tempo music played at a high intensity yielded the highest grip strength, while fast-tempo music played at a low-intensity resulted in much lower grip strength (M diff.  = -1.11 Force kg). For affective valence, there were main effects of tempo and intensity, with fast and loud music yielding the highest scores. For affective arousal, there was no difference between tempi although there was between intensities, with the high-intensity condition yielding higher scores. The present findings indicate the utility of fast/loud pretask music in enhancing affective valence and arousal in preparation for a simple or gross motor task. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The effects of auditory perception and musical preference on anxiety in naive human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Elliott; Bernstein, Steven R; Kim, Seung-A; Kim, Minsun; Stefano, George B

    2003-09-01

    The use of music as a method of relieving anxiety has been studied extensively by researchers from varying disciplines. The abundance of these reports focused on which genre of music best aided in the relief of stress. Little work has been performed in the area of auditory preference in an attempt to ascertain whether an individual's preferred music type aids in their anxiety reduction at levels greater than music that they have little or no propensity for. In the present report we seek to determine whether naive human subjects exposed to music of their preference show a decrease in anxiety, as measured by systolic and diastolic blood pressure values. We furthermore contrast these values to those obtained during non-preferred music listening. We found statistically significant reduction of anxiety levels only when subjects were exposed to their preferred musical selections. Students participating in the study already had knowledge of what genre of music would best relax them. It is our belief, that within the general population, many people do not have this self understanding. We conclude that music therapy may provide a mechanism for this self-understanding and subsequently help alleviate anxiety and stress.

  2. The subjective experience of music in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rory; Hill, Elisabeth; Heaton, Pamela

    2009-07-01

    Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 high-functioning adults on the autism spectrum in order to examine the nature of their personal experiences of music. The analysis showed that most participants exploit music for a wide range of purposes in the cognitive, emotional and social domains, but the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) group's descriptions of mood states reflected a greater reliance on internally focused (arousal) rather than externally focused (emotive) language, when compared with studies of typically developing individuals.

  3. Homosexual Subject(ivitie)s in Music (Education): Deconstructions of the Disappeared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to overstate music's persistent and uneasy relationship with homosexuality in Western society. Associated with femininity for centuries, particularly in North America, participation in music has been believed to emasculate and thus homosexualize men and boys. The linking of music to women and emotion (as opposed to men and reason)…

  4. Active music making: a route to enhanced subjective well-being among older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Hallam, Susan; Varvarigou, Maria; McQueen, Hilary; Gaunt, Helena

    2013-01-01

    This research explored the relationship between active music making and subjective well-being, in older people's lives. The research focused on how participation in making music might enhance older people's social, emotional and cognitive well-being, through meeting the basic psychological needs identified in earlier research. The research comprised three case studies, each offering a variety of musical activities to older people. In each case study a sample of older people were asked to complete questionnaires and psychological needs scales related to autonomy, competence, relatedness and self-realisation before and after a substantial period of active engagement with music. Principal components analysis (PCA) of responses to the CASP-12(1) and the Basic Needs Satisfaction scale(2) revealed three factors: purpose (having a positive outlook on life; autonomy and control; and social affirmation (positive social relationships, competence and a sense of recognised accomplishment). Comparisons of those engaged in music making with those participating in other activities revealed statistically significant differences on all three factors with the music groups giving more positive responses. The enhanced subjective well-being found among participants in music may have been due to the potential for music to provide a sense of purpose through progression in music and creative expression. Control and autonomy may be supported by the holistic nature of musical engagement, whereby meeting new musical challenges involves physical and cognitive engagement. Finally, social affirmation may be supported through social interaction; giving and receiving peer support; and performance, which confers status, a sense of giving something back to the community, pride and opportunities for positive reinforcement. Further research needs to identify the mechanisms through which music is able to achieve these effects.

  5. Risk ON/Risk OFF: Risk-Taking Varies with Subjectively Preferred and Disliked Music

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Halko, Marja-Liisa; Kaustia, Markku

    2015-01-01

    .... For each risky gamble they choose whether to participate in it, or pass. Prior to this main experiment subjects identify specific songs belonging to their favorite musical genre, as well as songs representing a style they dislike...

  6. The Effects of Music on Subjects with Alzheimer and Dementia Disease in Cache Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Landon

    2014-01-01

    Music has been shown to trigger old memories and induce various levels of stress relief and relaxation. My research focused on the effects of music on subjects with Alzheimer and Dementia disease. Eleven patients were selected through an informed consent process which included permission from responsible family members. During the course of three or more visits to patients in their care centers, the subjects listened to a variety of songs. These included songs that family members thought woul...

  7. Inter-subject synchronization of brain responses during natural music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Chordia, Parag; Khouzam, Amirah; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2013-05-01

    Music is a cultural universal and a rich part of the human experience. However, little is known about common brain systems that support the processing and integration of extended, naturalistic 'real-world' music stimuli. We examined this question by presenting extended excerpts of symphonic music, and two pseudomusical stimuli in which the temporal and spectral structure of the Natural Music condition were disrupted, to non-musician participants undergoing functional brain imaging and analysing synchronized spatiotemporal activity patterns between listeners. We found that music synchronizes brain responses across listeners in bilateral auditory midbrain and thalamus, primary auditory and auditory association cortex, right-lateralized structures in frontal and parietal cortex, and motor planning regions of the brain. These effects were greater for natural music compared to the pseudo-musical control conditions. Remarkably, inter-subject synchronization in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus was also greater for the natural music condition, indicating that synchronization at these early stages of auditory processing is not simply driven by spectro-temporal features of the stimulus. Increased synchronization during music listening was also evident in a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal attention network and bilateral cortical regions involved in motor planning. While these brain structures have previously been implicated in various aspects of musical processing, our results are the first to show that these regions track structural elements of a musical stimulus over extended time periods lasting minutes. Our results show that a hierarchical distributed network is synchronized between individuals during the processing of extended musical sequences, and provide new insight into the temporal integration of complex and biologically salient auditory sequences. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Inter-subject synchronization of brain responses during natural music listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A.; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Chordia, Parag; Khouzam, Amirah; Levitin, Daniel J.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Music is a cultural universal and a rich part of the human experience. However, little is known about common brain systems that support the processing and integration of extended, naturalistic ‘real-world’ music stimuli. We examined this question by presenting extended excerpts of symphonic music, and two pseudomusical stimuli in which the temporal and spectral structure of the Natural Music condition were disrupted, to non-musician participants undergoing functional brain imaging and analysing synchronized spatiotemporal activity patterns between listeners. We found that music synchronizes brain responses across listeners in bilateral auditory midbrain and thalamus, primary auditory and auditory association cortex, right-lateralized structures in frontal and parietal cortex, and motor planning regions of the brain. These effects were greater for natural music compared to the pseudo-musical control conditions. Remarkably, inter-subject synchronization in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus was also greater for the natural music condition, indicating that synchronization at these early stages of auditory processing is not simply driven by spectro-temporal features of the stimulus. Increased synchronization during music listening was also evident in a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal attention network and bilateral cortical regions involved in motor planning. While these brain structures have previously been implicated in various aspects of musical processing, our results are the first to show that these regions track structural elements of a musical stimulus over extended time periods lasting minutes. Our results show that a hierarchical distributed network is synchronized between individuals during the processing of extended musical sequences, and provide new insight into the temporal integration of complex and biologically salient auditory sequences. PMID:23578016

  9. Risk ON/Risk OFF: Risk-Taking Varies with Subjectively Preferred and Disliked Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halko, Marja-Liisa; Kaustia, Markku

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we conduct a within-subjects experiment in which teenagers go over 256 gambles with real money gains and losses. For each risky gamble they choose whether to participate in it, or pass. Prior to this main experiment subjects identify specific songs belonging to their favorite musical genre, as well as songs representing a style they dislike. In the main experiment we vary the music playing in the background, so that each subject hears some of their favorite music, and some disliked music, alternating in blocks of 16 gambles. We find that favorite music increases risk-taking ('risk on'), and disliked music suppresses risk-taking ('risk off'), compared to a baseline of no music. Literature in psychology proposes several mechanisms by which mood affects risk-taking, but none of them fully explain the results in our setting. The results are, however, consistent with the economics notion of preference complementarity, extended to the domain of risk preference. The preference structure implied by our results is more complex than previously thought, yet realistic, and consistent with recent theoretical models. More generally, this mechanism offers a potential explanation to why risk-taking is known to change over time and across contexts.

  10. Risk ON/Risk OFF: Risk-Taking Varies with Subjectively Preferred and Disliked Music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Halko

    Full Text Available In this paper we conduct a within-subjects experiment in which teenagers go over 256 gambles with real money gains and losses. For each risky gamble they choose whether to participate in it, or pass. Prior to this main experiment subjects identify specific songs belonging to their favorite musical genre, as well as songs representing a style they dislike. In the main experiment we vary the music playing in the background, so that each subject hears some of their favorite music, and some disliked music, alternating in blocks of 16 gambles. We find that favorite music increases risk-taking ('risk on', and disliked music suppresses risk-taking ('risk off', compared to a baseline of no music. Literature in psychology proposes several mechanisms by which mood affects risk-taking, but none of them fully explain the results in our setting. The results are, however, consistent with the economics notion of preference complementarity, extended to the domain of risk preference. The preference structure implied by our results is more complex than previously thought, yet realistic, and consistent with recent theoretical models. More generally, this mechanism offers a potential explanation to why risk-taking is known to change over time and across contexts.

  11. Risk ON / Risk OFF: Risk-Taking Varies with Subjectively Preferred and Disliked Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halko, Marja-Liisa; Kaustia, Markku

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we conduct a within-subjects experiment in which teenagers go over 256 gambles with real money gains and losses. For each risky gamble they choose whether to participate in it, or pass. Prior to this main experiment subjects identify specific songs belonging to their favorite musical genre, as well as songs representing a style they dislike. In the main experiment we vary the music playing in the background, so that each subject hears some of their favorite music, and some disliked music, alternating in blocks of 16 gambles. We find that favorite music increases risk-taking (‘risk on’), and disliked music suppresses risk-taking (‘risk off’), compared to a baseline of no music. Literature in psychology proposes several mechanisms by which mood affects risk-taking, but none of them fully explain the results in our setting. The results are, however, consistent with the economics notion of preference complementarity, extended to the domain of risk preference. The preference structure implied by our results is more complex than previously thought, yet realistic, and consistent with recent theoretical models. More generally, this mechanism offers a potential explanation to why risk-taking is known to change over time and across contexts. PMID:26301776

  12. [Music-Acoustic Signals Controlled by Subject's Brain Potentials in the Correction of Unfavorable Functional States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotchev, A I; Bondar, A T; Bakhchina, A V; Parin, S B; Polevaya, S A; Radchenko, G S

    2016-01-01

    Literature review and the results of own studies on the development and experimental testing of musical EEG neurofeedback technology are presented. The technology is based on exposure of subjects to music or music-like signals that are organized in strict accordance with the current values of brain potentials of the patient. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the effectiveness of several versions of the technology, using specific and meaningful for the individual narrow-frequency EEG oscillators during the correction of unfavorable changes of the functional state.

  13. The Improvement of Memory in the Music Language subject

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Berrón Ruiz; Francisco J. Balsera Gómez; Inés M. Monreal Guerrero

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an experience that was carried out in the first two levels of elementary education in Ear Training courses at the Professional Conservatory of Music in Segovia (Spain). The main objective of the research was to assess whether there is an improvement in 79 students’ memory using different classroom-based educational intervention proposals and if such improvement fosters students’ learning. This research has a constructivist approach and begins by describing the ch...

  14. The experience of flow and subjective well-being of music students:

    OpenAIRE

    Avsec, Andreja; Smolej-Fritz, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we were interested in the concept of flow – an optimal psychical state which is connected with high achievement and positive experiences. It was supposed that experiencing flow during different musical activities (e. g., rehearsals, solo performance, performance with the orchestra) should be related to subjective well being, common in life. Eighty-four students of the Academy ofMusic (28 male and 56 female) completed the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PAN...

  15. Generalizations of the subject-independent feature set for music-induced emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Chin-Teng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition has been an intensely growing field. Yet, how to achieve acceptable accuracy on a practical system with as fewer electrodes as possible is less concerned. This study evaluates a set of subject-independent features, based on differential power asymmetry of symmetric electrode pairs [1], with emphasis on its applicability to subject variability in music-induced emotion classification problem. Results of this study have evidently validated the feasibility of using subject-independent EEG features to classify four emotional states with acceptable accuracy in second-scale temporal resolution. These features could be generalized across subjects to detect emotion induced by music excerpts not limited to the music database that was used to derive the emotion-specific features.

  16. [Subjective difficulties in young people related to extensive loud music listening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimcić, Milenko; Ignatović, Snezana; Zivić, Ljubica

    2010-01-01

    For human ear, noise represents every undesirable and valueless sound. In disco clubs, as in some other places with loud music mostly attended by young people, the level of noise sometimes attains over 100 dB. As reported by numerous studies, a high noise level could induce subjective difficulties (ear buzzing, audition loss, vertigo and palpitations, anxiety, high blood pressure, decreased concentration, lowered memory storing). Assessment of subjective difficulties occurring in young people when staying in places with a high noise level (cafes, disco clubs, rock concerts), which can produce health problems, due to loud music, in association with demographic data, addictions and personal life style data. One of the goals is to find factors leading to subjective difficulties, which would be objectively studied in the second stage of the research and marked as early predictors of possible health problems. The study was conducted among 780 students of the Higher Healthcare School of Professional Studied in Belgrade. We used a questionnaire with 20 questions, divided into four categories: demographic data, case-history data, subjective problems and addictions of the subjects. In the statistical data processing we used the methods of descriptive and exploratory analysis, chi-square tests, correlation tests and Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio. After listening loud music, 54.0% of examined subjects felt ear buzzing, and 4.6% had hearing damage. The habit of visiting places with loud music, mostly once a week in duration of 2-3 hours per visit had 80.4% of subjects. The presence of subjective complaints after listening of loud music was in association with loud music listening and disco clubs visits.The major reasons of the present subjective difficulties could be predicated by listening of loud music and club visits (r = 0.918 and r = 0.857). A relative risk for subjective difficulties presentation was 1.599. According to the results of our study, over half of children

  17. Subjective difficulties in young people related to extensive loud music listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budimčić Milenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For human ear, noise represents every undesirable and valueless sound. In disco clubs, as in some other places with loud music mostly attended by young people, the level of noise sometimes attains over 100 dB. As reported by numerous studies, a high noise level could induce subjective difficulties (ear buzzing, audition loss, vertigo and palpitations, anxiety, high blood pressure, decreased concentration, lowered memory storing. Objective. Assessment of subjective difficulties occurring in young people when staying in places with a high noise level (cafes, disco clubs, rock concerts, which can produce health problems, due to loud music, in association with demographic data, addictions and personal life style data. One of the goals is to find factors leading to subjective difficulties, which would be objectively studied in the second stage of the research and marked as early predictors of possible health problems. Methods. The study was conducted among 780 students of the Higher Healthcare School of Professional Studied in Belgrade. We used a questionnaire with 20 questions, divided into four categories: demographic data, case-history data, subjective problems and addictions of the subjects. In the statistical data processing we used the methods of descriptive and exploratory analysis, chi-square tests, correlation tests and Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio. Results. After listening loud music, 54.0% of examined subjects felt ear buzzing, and 4.6% had hearing damage. The habit of visiting places with loud music, mostly once a week in duration of 2-3 hours per visit had 80.4% of subjects. The presence of subjective complaints after listening of loud music was in association with loud music listening and disco clubs visits. The major reasons of the present subjective difficulties could be predicated by listening of loud music and club visits (r=0.918 and r=0.857. A relative risk for subjective difficulties presentation was 1.599. Conclusion

  18. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening.

  19. Effects of listening to pleasant music on chronic unilateral neglect: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the positive emotion induced by pleasant music may improve cognitive functions. We used the single-subject design to study whether listening to preferred music may reduce unilateral neglect in two participants with post-stroke neglect. These participants were instructed to listen to their preferred music every day for 5 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of follow-up assessment. Outcome measures involved the Star Cancellation Test, the Line Bisection Test, and the visual exploration task. A combination of visual analysis and the two-standard-deviation band method was used for data analysis. Both participants showed significant intervention-related improvements on all outcome measures except the Line Bisection Test, on which one participant showed no improvement. The therapeutic effects were maintained during the follow-up phase. The findings suggest that positive emotion, evoked by preferred music, may be used to ameliorate unilateral neglect. Further research using controlled trials is warranted to validate the findings.

  20. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension–Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  1. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension-Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  2. Subject-Oriented Approach in the Professional Formation of the Future Music Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Karkina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the possibilities of introducing a subject-oriented approach into the practice of professional education of the future music teacher. Particular attention is paid to the forms and methods used in this field, as well as to the conditions of the modern cultural environment, which allows for the free self-realization of the individual in accordance with his subject needs. Subject-oriented approach is the practice-oriented research. The study identified a number of the most significant components in the preparation of a music teacher, such as individual forms of studies and a number of special methods, which include the method of artistic associations, verbal "allegories", metaphors, the method of heuristic tasks for mastering creative activities. The openness of the musical and pedagogical system has great importance in its ability to respond to changes in the music and educational environment, which includes educational institutions and various cultural institutions: theaters, concert halls, orchestral and choir groups. All that conditions are necessary to ensure the possibility of creative self-realization and self-actualization of future music teachers.

  3. Psychophysiology and psychoacoustics of music: Perception of complex sound in normal subjects and psychiatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovides, Stefanos A; Iliadou, Vassiliki TH; Bizeli, Vassiliki TH; Kaprinis, Stergios G; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Kaprinis, George S

    2004-01-01

    Perception of complex sound is a process carried out in everyday life situations and contributes in the way one perceives reality. Attempting to explain sound perception and how it affects human beings is complicated. Physics of simple sound can be described as a function of frequency, amplitude and phase. Psychology of sound, also termed psychoacoustics, has its own distinct elements of pitch, intensity and tibre. An interconnection exists between physics and psychology of hearing. Music being a complex sound contributes to communication and conveys information with semantic and emotional elements. These elements indicate the involvement of the central nervous system through processes of integration and interpretation together with peripheral auditory processing. Effects of sound and music in human psychology and physiology are complicated. Psychological influences of listening to different types of music are based on the different characteristics of basic musical sounds. Attempting to explain music perception can be simpler if music is broken down to its basic auditory signals. Perception of auditory signals is analyzed by the science of psychoacoustics. Differences in complex sound perception have been found between normal subjects and psychiatric patients and between different types of psychopathologies. PMID:15050030

  4. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, C. G.; Dell, S.; Hensley, B.; Hall, J. W.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Antonelli, P. J.; Green, G. E.; Miller, J. M.; Guire, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is availability of an established clinical paradigm with real world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects. Design Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93–95 (n=10), 98–100 (n=11), or 100–102 (n=12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of four hours. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured prior to and after music exposure. Post-music tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and one week later. Results Changes in thresholds after the lowest level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a “notch” configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean=6.3±3.9dB; range=0–13 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hours post-exposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1-week post-exposure. Conclusions These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function following digital music player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be

  5. Examining complexity across domains: relating subjective and objective measures of affective environmental scenes, paintings and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Subjective complexity has been found to be related to hedonic measures of preference, pleasantness and beauty, but there is no consensus about the nature of this relationship in the visual and musical domains. Moreover, the affective content of stimuli has been largely neglected so far in the study of complexity but is crucial in many everyday contexts and in aesthetic experiences. We thus propose a cross-domain approach that acknowledges the multidimensional nature of complexity and that uses a wide range of objective complexity measures combined with subjective ratings. In four experiments, we employed pictures of affective environmental scenes, representational paintings, and Romantic solo and chamber music excerpts. Stimuli were pre-selected to vary in emotional content (pleasantness and arousal) and complexity (low versus high number of elements). For each set of stimuli, in a between-subjects design, ratings of familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal were obtained for a presentation time of 25 s from 152 participants. In line with Berlyne's collative-motivation model, statistical analyses controlling for familiarity revealed a positive relationship between subjective complexity and arousal, and the highest correlations were observed for musical stimuli. Evidence for a mediating role of arousal in the complexity-pleasantness relationship was demonstrated in all experiments, but was only significant for females with regard to music. The direction and strength of the linear relationship between complexity and pleasantness depended on the stimulus type and gender. For environmental scenes, the root mean square contrast measures and measures of compressed file size correlated best with subjective complexity, whereas only edge detection based on phase congruency yielded equivalent results for representational paintings. Measures of compressed file size and event density also showed positive correlations with complexity and arousal in music, which is

  6. Subjective difficulties in young people related to extensive loud music listening

    OpenAIRE

    Budimčić Milenko; Ignjatović Snežana; Živić Ljubica

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. For human ear, noise represents every undesirable and valueless sound. In disco clubs, as in some other places with loud music mostly attended by young people, the level of noise sometimes attains over 100 dB. As reported by numerous studies, a high noise level could induce subjective difficulties (ear buzzing, audition loss, vertigo and palpitations, anxiety, high blood pressure, decreased concentration, lowered memory storing). Objective. Assessment of subjective difficulties ...

  7. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift in normal-hearing human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Dell, Shawna; Hensley, Brittany; Hall, James W; Campbell, Kathleen C M; Antonelli, Patrick J; Green, Glenn E; Miller, James M; Guire, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is the availability of an established clinical paradigm with real-world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal-hearing human subjects. Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93 to 95 (n = 10), 98 to 100 (n = 11), or 100 to 102 (n = 12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of 4 hr. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured before and after music exposure. Postmusic tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and 1 week later. Changes in thresholds after the lowest-level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a "notch" configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean = 6.3 ± 3.9 dB; range = 0-14 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hr postexposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1 week postexposure. These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music-player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function after digital music-player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be taken to fully inform potential subjects in

  8. Neural correlates of musical creativity: differences between high and low creative subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirta F Villarreal

    Full Text Available Previous studies of musical creativity suggest that this process involves multi-regional intra and interhemispheric interactions, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. However, the activity of the prefrontal cortex and that of the parieto-temporal regions, seems to depend on the domains of creativity that are evaluated and the task that is performed. In the field of music, only few studies have investigated the brain process of a creative task and none of them have investigated the effect of the level of creativity on the recruit networks. In this work we used magnetic resonance imaging to explore these issues by comparing the brain activities of subjects with higher creative abilities to those with lesser abilities, while the subjects improvised on different rhythmic fragments. We evaluated the products the subjects created during the fMRI scan using two musical parameters: fluidity and flexibility, and classified the subjects according to their punctuation. We examined the relation between brain activity and creativity level. Subjects with higher abilities generated their own creations based on modifications of the original rhythm with little adhesion to it. They showed activation in prefrontal regions of both hemispheres and the right insula. Subjects with lower abilities made only partial changes to the original musical patterns. In these subjects, activation was only observed in left unimodal areas. We demonstrated that the activations of prefrontal and paralimbic areas, such as the insula, are related to creativity level, which is related to a widespread integration of networks that are mainly associated with cognitive, motivational and emotional processes.

  9. Neural correlates of musical creativity: differences between high and low creative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Mirta F; Cerquetti, Daniel; Caruso, Silvina; Schwarcz López Aranguren, Violeta; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldán; Frega, Ana Lucía; Leiguarda, Ramón C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of musical creativity suggest that this process involves multi-regional intra and interhemispheric interactions, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. However, the activity of the prefrontal cortex and that of the parieto-temporal regions, seems to depend on the domains of creativity that are evaluated and the task that is performed. In the field of music, only few studies have investigated the brain process of a creative task and none of them have investigated the effect of the level of creativity on the recruit networks. In this work we used magnetic resonance imaging to explore these issues by comparing the brain activities of subjects with higher creative abilities to those with lesser abilities, while the subjects improvised on different rhythmic fragments. We evaluated the products the subjects created during the fMRI scan using two musical parameters: fluidity and flexibility, and classified the subjects according to their punctuation. We examined the relation between brain activity and creativity level. Subjects with higher abilities generated their own creations based on modifications of the original rhythm with little adhesion to it. They showed activation in prefrontal regions of both hemispheres and the right insula. Subjects with lower abilities made only partial changes to the original musical patterns. In these subjects, activation was only observed in left unimodal areas. We demonstrated that the activations of prefrontal and paralimbic areas, such as the insula, are related to creativity level, which is related to a widespread integration of networks that are mainly associated with cognitive, motivational and emotional processes.

  10. Neural Correlates of Musical Creativity: Differences between High and Low Creative Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Mirta F.; Cerquetti, Daniel; Caruso, Silvina; Schwarcz López Aranguren, Violeta; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldán; Frega, Ana Lucía; Leiguarda, Ramón C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of musical creativity suggest that this process involves multi-regional intra and interhemispheric interactions, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. However, the activity of the prefrontal cortex and that of the parieto-temporal regions, seems to depend on the domains of creativity that are evaluated and the task that is performed. In the field of music, only few studies have investigated the brain process of a creative task and none of them have investigated the effect of the level of creativity on the recruit networks. In this work we used magnetic resonance imaging to explore these issues by comparing the brain activities of subjects with higher creative abilities to those with lesser abilities, while the subjects improvised on different rhythmic fragments. We evaluated the products the subjects created during the fMRI scan using two musical parameters: fluidity and flexibility, and classified the subjects according to their punctuation. We examined the relation between brain activity and creativity level. Subjects with higher abilities generated their own creations based on modifications of the original rhythm with little adhesion to it. They showed activation in prefrontal regions of both hemispheres and the right insula. Subjects with lower abilities made only partial changes to the original musical patterns. In these subjects, activation was only observed in left unimodal areas. We demonstrated that the activations of prefrontal and paralimbic areas, such as the insula, are related to creativity level, which is related to a widespread integration of networks that are mainly associated with cognitive, motivational and emotional processes. PMID:24069414

  11. Relationships between Flow Experience, Life Meaningfulness and Subjective Well-being in Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines relationships between flow experience in musical activities, life meaningfulness and subjective well – being. Life meaningfulness belongs to eudaimonic good life, subjective well–being belongs to hedonic good life and flow seems to be combination of both approaches. It is supposed that flow experience in musical activity and life meaningfulness should have positive impact on subjective well –being. The research sample consisted of 96 university music students (37 males, 59 females from the Music and Dance Faculty, Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dispositional Flow Scale–2, which measures nine dimension of flow, was used for measuring frequency o f flow experience. Life Meaningfulness Scale, which measures three dimensions of life meaningfulness, was used for measuring meaningfulness of life. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured affective components of subjective well–being, and Satisfaction with Life Scale measured cognitive component of subjective well–being. Categorization revealed that the most favourite performing musical activities are creative musical activities, such as reproduction and production, during which music students relatively often experience flow. The results of correlation analysis showed that total scores of flow experience, life meaningfulness and components of subjective well–being, significantly correlate each other. Aspects of flow, clear goals and autotelic experience are positively related to cognitive and motivational dimension of life meaningfulness and also to positive affectivity. Loss of self–consciousness and autotelic experience are positively related to emotional dimension of life meaningfulness. Challenge–skill balance, action–awareness merging, clear goals, concentration on task at hand, sense of control and autotelic experience are negatively related to negative affectivity. Challenge–skill balance and autotelic experience are related to

  12. Relationships between Flow Experience, Life Meaningfulness and Subjective Well-being in Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines relationships between flow experience in musical activities, life meaningfulness and subjective well-being. Life meaningfulness belongs to eudaimonic good life, subjective well-being belongs to hedonic good life and flow seems to be combination of both approaches. It is supposed that flow experience in musical activity and life meaningfulness should have positive impact on subjective well-being. The research sample consisted of 96 university music students (37 males, 59 females from the Music and Dance Faculty, Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dispositional Flow Scale-2, which measures nine dimension of flow, was used for measuring frequency of flow experience. Life Meaningfulness Scale, which measures three dimensions of life meaningfulness, was used for measuring meaningfulness of life. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured affective components of subjective well-being, and Satisfaction with Life Scale measured cognitive component of subjective well-being. Categorization revealed that the most favourite performing musical activities are creative musical activities, such as reproduction and production, during which music students relatively often experience flow. The results of correlation analysis showed that total scores of flow experience, life meaningfulness and components of subjective well-being, significantly correlate each other. Aspects of flow, clear goals and autotelic experience are positively related to cognitive and motivational dimension of life meaningfulness and also to positive affectivity. Loss of self-consciousness and autotelic experience are positively related to emotional dimension of life meaningfulness. Challenge-skill balance, action-awareness merging, clear goals, concentration on task at hand, sense of control and autotelic experience are negatively related to negative affectivity. Challenge-skill balance and autotelic experience are related to satisfaction with life

  13. Music

    OpenAIRE

    Deinert, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The musical ending [of Goethe's Novelle] recalls the fascination with "music as metaphor", "the power of music", among recent and contemporary poets from Pope and Dryden and Collins to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Kleist and, of course to Goethe himself. Music saves Faust's life on Easter morning at the end of a dreadful night, and we'll encounter a similar role of music in his Trilogie der Leidenschaft which we'll read in this context.

  14. SUBJECTIVITY AND HYBRIDITY IN THE AGE OF INTERACTIVE INTERNET MEDIA: THE MUSICAL PERFORMANCES OF CHARICE PEMPENGCO AND ARNEL PINEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi-Anne Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines hybrid subjectivity in the performances by and in the reception of musical artists utilizing the technology of interactive Internet media. It focuses on the career trajectories of the popular Filipino music performers Charice Pempengco and Arnel Pineda, taking into account how their transnational presence and dissemination through internet media communities affect perceptions of locality, nationality and race.

  15. Benefits of music therapy on behaviour disorders in subjects diagnosed with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romero, M; Jiménez-Palomares, M; Rodríguez-Mansilla, J; Flores-Nieto, A; Garrido-Ardila, E M; González López-Arza, M V

    2017-05-01

    Dementia is characterised by cognitive deterioration and the manifestation of psychological and behavioural symptoms, especially changes in perception, thought content, mood, and conduct. In addition to drug therapy, non-pharmacological treatments are used to manage these symptoms, and one of these latter treatments is music therapy. Since this novel technique in non-verbal, it can be used to treat patients with dementia at any stage, even when cognitive deterioration is very severe. Patients' responses to music are conserved even in the most advanced stages of the disease DEVELOPMENT: A literature research was carried out using the following databases: Academic Search Complete, PubMed, Science Direct y Dialnet. The period of publication was 2003 to 2013 and the search keywords were 'Music Therapy, Dementia, Behaviour, Behaviour Disorders y Behavioural Disturbances'. Out of the 2188 studies that were identified, 11 studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Music therapy is beneficial and improves behavior disorders, anxiety and agitation in subjects diagnosed with dementia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Children's Subject Positions in Discourses of Music in Everyday Life: Rethinking Conceptions of the Child in and for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestad, Ingeborg Lunde

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss children's everyday uses of recorded music (such as CDs, Mp3-files) in the light of sociological notions of "children" and "childhood". The discussion provides perspectives on musical engagement and musicality that supplement perspectives within developmental psychology. The study is based on…

  17. Effects of music therapy on subjective sensations and heart rate variability in treated cancer survivors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chih-Yuan; Han, Wei-Ru; Li, Pei-Chun; Young, Shuenn-Tsong

    2010-10-01

    Data on the effects of music therapy on subjective sensations and the physiological parameters of heart rate variability (HRV) in treated cancer survivors are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine whether or not music therapy affects the sensations of fatigue, comfort, and relaxation in cancer survivors, and affects the activities of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems as indicated by HRV parameters. Twenty-three patients aged 30-67 years and with cancer that had been treated at least 6 months previously received music therapy for about 2h, which included singing, listening to music, learning the recorder, and performing music. Subjective sensations and electrocardiogram were recorded before and after the music therapy. The low-frequency and high-frequency components of HRV were assessed by the frequency analysis of sequential R wave to R wave intervals of electrocardiogram obtained from 5-min recordings. Subjective sensations were quantitatively assessed using a visual analog mood scale. Two hours of music therapy significantly increased relaxation sensations and significantly decreased fatigue sensation in treated cancer survivors. Moreover, the HRV parameters showed that parasympathetic nervous system activity increased and sympathetic nervous system activity decreased. This study provides preliminary evidence that music therapy may be clinically useful for promoting relaxation sensation and increasing parasympathetic nervous system activity in treated cancer survivors. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...... and more from the everyday topics, music similarly lost part of its importance within the plays themselves....

  19. Musical emotions: predicting second-by-second subjective feelings of emotion from low-level psychoacoustic features and physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    We sustain that the structure of affect elicited by music is largely dependent on dynamic temporal patterns in low-level music structural parameters. In support of this claim, we have previously provided evidence that spatiotemporal dynamics in psychoacoustic features resonate with two psychological dimensions of affect underlying judgments of subjective feelings: arousal and valence. In this article we extend our previous investigations in two aspects. First, we focus on the emotions experienced rather than perceived while listening to music. Second, we evaluate the extent to which peripheral feedback in music can account for the predicted emotional responses, that is, the role of physiological arousal in determining the intensity and valence of musical emotions. Akin to our previous findings, we will show that a significant part of the listeners' reported emotions can be predicted from a set of six psychoacoustic features--loudness, pitch level, pitch contour, tempo, texture, and sharpness. Furthermore, the accuracy of those predictions is improved with the inclusion of physiological cues--skin conductance and heart rate. The interdisciplinary work presented here provides a new methodology to the field of music and emotion research based on the combination of computational and experimental work, which aid the analysis of the emotional responses to music, while offering a platform for the abstract representation of those complex relationships. Future developments may aid specific areas, such as, psychology and music therapy, by providing coherent descriptions of the emotional effects of specific music stimuli. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  20. The experience of flow and subjective well-being of music students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Smolej Fritz

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we were interested in the concept of flow – an optimal psychical state which is connected with high achievement and positive experiences. It was supposed that experiencing flow during different musical activities (e. g., rehearsals, solo performance, performance with the orchestra should be related to subjective well being, common in life. Eighty-four students of the Academy ofMusic (28 male and 56 female completed the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS and the Dispositional Flow Scale (DFS-2, which measures nine dimensions of flow. Results confirmed that several aspects of flow are positively related to measures of subjective well being. Clear goals, challenge-skill balance, concentration on the task, and autotelicexperience are important predictors of positive affect, explaining 36% of its variance, challenge-skill balance is an important predictor for negative affect, explaining 26% of its variance, and clear goals is an important predictor for satisfaction with life, explaining 8% of its variance. We conclude that experiencing flow is more related to emotional than cognitive aspects of subjective well being, which is not surprising, since flow is an extremely emotional experience.

  1. Musical Creativity and the Subjective World of the Artist: the Context of Culture Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morshchakova Nataliia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of creating music in the light of postmodern artistic imitation of ideas is characterised by the compositional focus of attention to the expression of subjective meanings and ideas that actualizes the possibility of an intentional world of the artist, originality of creative thinking, the ability to specify and deepen semantic sphere-shaped piece. The personification of artistic meanings within subjective reality is related to the processes of objectification of artistic and aesthetic paradigms prevailing within the culture; defining the inner meaning of culture contextually, a creative person is able to understand the deep, concentrated essence of the cultural epoch or cultural form. A creator-man, who feels or is conscious of an internal impulse of culture, thinks contextually, creating new stories, images that outgrow the limits of the author’s subjective content, finding expression in interpreting the meanings of concepts.

  2. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music

    OpenAIRE

    Irrgang, Melanie; Egermann, Hauke

    2016-01-01

    Music is often discussed to be emotional because it reflects expressive movements in audible form. Thus, a valid approach to measure musical emotion could be to assess movement stimulated by music. In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9). The quality of prediction for different dimensions of GEMS varied between...

  3. Effect of self-selected music on adults' anxiety and subjective experiences during initial radiotherapy treatment: a randomised controlled trial and qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Sproston, Michael; Wilkinson, Kate; Willis, David; Milner, Alvin; Grocke, Denise; Wheeler, Greg

    2012-08-01

    Patients may experience radiotherapy as anxiety provoking, especially during unfamiliar initial treatment. This study examines whether patients' use of self-selected music while undergoing first radiotherapy treatment reduces anxiety, and how patients describe their first radiotherapy experience with or without self-selected music. Using quantitative and qualitative methods, 100 participants preparing to commence radiotherapy were assigned to the initial radiotherapy session either with self-selected music or without music. In both participant groups, the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory measured pre- and post-radiotherapy levels, music preference questions examined future music desires during treatment and a semistructured questionnaire examined additional subjective experiences. Overall, participants were not highly anxious pre-radiotherapy, anxiety decreased in both music and control groups following radiotherapy (P = 0.008) and this change was not different between groups (P = 0.35). However, music group participants were significantly more likely to want music in future radiotherapy sessions (P = 0.007). Some reported a benefit from the music in terms of feeling supported, distracted or that treatment time seemed faster. Participants in both groups often commended helpful staff. Negative reactions were only occasional. Although preferred music does not reduce anxiety, it can support some patients undergoing initial radiotherapy and departmental staff should invite patients to bring music to radiotherapy, provide music libraries and offer to play patient selected music during treatments. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2012 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  4. Use of music during physical therapy intervention for an infant with Erb's palsy: a single-subject design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlin, Mary; Cech, Donna; Rheault, Wendy; Stoecker, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Evidence supporting the use of music during pediatric physical therapy intervention is limited. The purpose of this single-subject design was to evaluate the effects of music on patient progress, the amount of crying during therapy, and parent satisfaction with physical therapy services. The subject was an infant girl with Erb's palsy who participated in this study from age 8 months to age 20 months. An A-B-A withdrawal single-subject design was used. The patient's progress was assessed by using the T.I.M.E. The amount of crying was documented in the Crying Log. A parent satisfaction questionnaire was administered three times over the course of the study. The subject's progress in the music intervention period increased on three of five primary subtests of the T.I.M.E. The amount of crying decreased and parent satisfaction increased when music was played during therapy. Music may be used by pediatric physical therapists to decrease the patient's crying, increase parent satisfaction, and possibly to increase the child's rate of progress. Further research conducted with a group of infants and toddlers may help generalize these findings to a wider patient population.

  5. Subjective acceptability of various regular twelve-tone tuning systems in two-part musical fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, J

    1988-06-01

    Musically trained subjects rated the overall acceptability of the performance of two-part musical fragments. With the help of a computer these fragments were produced with intonations according to various regular 12-tone tuning systems: Pythagorean tuning (tempering T of the fifths equal to 0.0 cent), equal temperament (T = -2.0 cents), Silbermann (T = -3.9 cents), mean-tone (T = -5.4 cents), and Salinas tuning (T = -7.2 cents). In experiment 1, two systems in which T = 2.0 or T = -10.0 cents were also included. In both the lower and the higher parts of the fragments we used complex tones with a spectral-envelope slope of -6 dB/oct. Mean acceptability ratings were about the same for -5.4 less than or equal to T less than or equal to 0.0 cent, whereas for T greater than 0.0 and T less than -5.4 cents the ratings strongly decreased. This effect of tuning system was also found when acceptability was determined by means of the method of paired comparisons. The specific effect of tuning system was not affected by the tempo of the fragments. The perception of beats in the harmonic intervals was manipulated in experiment 2 by varying the spectral content of the tones. The condition in which the interference of the nearly coinciding harmonics was canceled resulted in higher acceptability. The effect of tuning system was the same as in experiment 1. In both experiments overall acceptability could be accurately predicted from a linear combination of the purity ratings of the isolated harmonic fifths and major thirds. It is not precluded, however, that for T greater than 0.0 and T less than -5.4 cents, the subjects based their acceptability ratings partly on the subjective purity of the melodic intervals.

  6. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Irrgang, Melanie; Egermann, Hauke

    2016-01-01

    .... In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9...

  7. Output capabilities of personal music players and assessment of preferred listening levels of test subjects: outlining recommendations for preventing music-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinbauer, Hayo A; Anabalón, Jose L; Gutierrez, Daniela; Cárcamo, Rodrigo; Olivares, Carla; Caro, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    Our goal was to assess the impact of personal music players, earphones, and music styles on output, the subject's preferred listening levels, and outline recommendations for the prevention of music-induced hearing loss. Experimental study. Personal music players' output capabilities and volunteers' preferred output levels were assessed in different settings. Based on current noise-induced hearing loss exposure limits, recommendations were outlined. On three different devices and earphone types and 10 music styles, free field equivalent sound pressure output levels were assessed by applying a microphone probe inside the auditory canal. Forty-five hearing-healthy volunteers were asked to select preferred listening levels in different background noise scenarios. Sound pressure output reached 126 dB. No difference was found between device types, whereas earbud and supra-aural earphones showed significantly lower outputs than in-ear earphones (P music style groups were identified with as much as 14.4 dB difference between them. In silence, 17.8% of volunteers spontaneously selected a listening level above 85 dB. With 90 dB background noise, 40% selected a level above 94 dB. Earphone attenuation capability was found to correlate significantly with preferred level reductions (r = 0.585, P preferred listening levels the most. Safe-use recommendations were outlined, whereas selecting the lowest volume setting comfortable remained the main suggestion. High background noise attenuating earphones may help in reducing comfortable listening levels and should be preferred. A risk table was elaborated, presenting time limits before reaching a risky exposure. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  8. Effects of Background Music on Objective and Subjective Performance Measures in an Auditory BCI

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Sijie; Allison, Brendan Z.; Kübler, Andrea; Cichocki, Andrzej; Wang, Xingyu; Jin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI) systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory, and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using po...

  9. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, Melanie; Egermann, Hauke

    2016-01-01

    Music is often discussed to be emotional because it reflects expressive movements in audible form. Thus, a valid approach to measure musical emotion could be to assess movement stimulated by music. In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9). The quality of prediction for different dimensions of GEMS varied between experiments for tenderness (R12(first experiment) = 0.50, R22(second experiment) = 0.39), nostalgia (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.30), wonder (R12 = 0.25, R22 = 0.34), sadness (R12 = 0.24, R22 = 0.35), peacefulness (R12 = 0.20, R22 = 0.35) and joy (R12 = 0.19, R22 = 0.33) and transcendence (R12 = 0.14, R22 = 0.00). For others like power (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.49) and tension (R12 = 0.28, R22 = 0.27) results could be almost reproduced. Furthermore, we extracted two principle components from GEMS ratings, one representing arousal and the other one valence of the experienced feeling. Both qualities, arousal and valence, could be predicted by acceleration data, indicating, that they provide information on the quantity and quality of experience. On the one hand, these findings show how music-evoked movement patterns relate to music-evoked feelings. On the other hand, they contribute to integrate findings from the field of embodied music cognition into music recommender systems.

  10. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Irrgang

    Full Text Available Music is often discussed to be emotional because it reflects expressive movements in audible form. Thus, a valid approach to measure musical emotion could be to assess movement stimulated by music. In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9. The quality of prediction for different dimensions of GEMS varied between experiments for tenderness (R12(first experiment = 0.50, R22(second experiment = 0.39, nostalgia (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.30, wonder (R12 = 0.25, R22 = 0.34, sadness (R12 = 0.24, R22 = 0.35, peacefulness (R12 = 0.20, R22 = 0.35 and joy (R12 = 0.19, R22 = 0.33 and transcendence (R12 = 0.14, R22 = 0.00. For others like power (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.49 and tension (R12 = 0.28, R22 = 0.27 results could be almost reproduced. Furthermore, we extracted two principle components from GEMS ratings, one representing arousal and the other one valence of the experienced feeling. Both qualities, arousal and valence, could be predicted by acceleration data, indicating, that they provide information on the quantity and quality of experience. On the one hand, these findings show how music-evoked movement patterns relate to music-evoked feelings. On the other hand, they contribute to integrate findings from the field of embodied music cognition into music recommender systems.

  11. Effects of music on seizure frequency in institutionalized subjects with severe/profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Patrizia; Giuglietti, Marta; Baglioni, Antonella; Verdolini, Norma; Murgia, Nicola; Piccirilli, Massimo; Elisei, Sandro

    2017-09-01

    Approximately one-third of patients with epilepsy continue to experience seizures despite adequate therapy with antiepileptic drugs. Drug-resistant epilepsy is even more frequent in subjects with intellectual disability. As a result, several non-pharmacological interventions have been proposed to improve quality of life in patients with intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy. A number of studies have demonstrated that music can be effective at reducing seizures and epileptiform discharges. In particular, Mozart's sonata for two pianos in D major, K448, has been shown to decrease interictal EEG discharges and recurrence of clinical seizures in patients with intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy as well. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of Mozart's music on seizure frequency in institutionalized epileptic subjects with profound/severe intellectual disability. Twelve patients (10 males and 2 females) with a mean age of 21.6 years were randomly assigned to two groups in a cross-over design; they listened to Mozart K448 once a day for six months. A statistically significant difference was observed between the listening period and both baseline and control periods. During the music period, none of the patients worsened in seizure frequency; one patient was seizure-free, five had a greater than 50% reduction in seizure frequency and the remaining showed minimal (N=2) or no difference (N=4). The average seizure reduction compared to the baseline was 20.5%. Our results are discussed in relation to data in the literature considering differences in protocol investigation. Music may be considered a useful approach as add-on therapy in some subjects with profound intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy and can provide a new option for clinicians to consider, but further large sample, multicenter studies are needed to better understand the characteristics of responders and non-responders to this type of non

  12. Can active music-making ameliorate neglect? An assessor-blind, within-subject, controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodak, Rebeka; Mazhari-Jensen, Daniel; Evald, Lars

    functional gains. Drawing on recent successful case study pilot work, the aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of an active music-making intervention compared with a control. Stroke survivors with a diagnosis of neglect will be invited to participate in an assessor-blind, within......-subject, home program study that lasts 12 weeks and comprises four 3-week phases: baseline, control, intervention, and follow-up. The intervention and control each comprise six 30-minute sessions plus daily homework. The intervention involves playing scales and familiar melodies on a horizontally...... and on an assessment of their activities-of-daily-living. By validating and extending published case study work, the knowledge gained from this study has the capacity to pave the way for future clinical interventions and deepen our understanding of the use of music as a clinical tool in neurorehabilitation settings....

  13. 1967 : a year in the life of The Beatles : history, subjectivity, music

    OpenAIRE

    Engebråten, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about The Beatles and locating them in 1967. It is a historical analytical study where I describe some of the most important events of 1967, and turning to hermeneutics and acknowledging the value of intertextuality I look at some of the ways the music, the events, and the social are interrelated. In this way I also try to map out The Beatles and their musical influences during this period. My perspective is also partly historiographical as I am interested in how the history a...

  14. Subjective appropriation of musical form in Schumann’s Carnaval, op. 9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Palma Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze musical form in german composer Robert Schumann’s works (8 June 1810 – 29 July 1856, particularly that of piano solo piece Carnaval, op. 9, trying to understand what is revealed by the way he uses it in relation to his personality, not only in artistic terms (taking into account the context of German Romanticism but also on a deeper psychological level. To come to an understanding of Schumann’s use of form, this paper begins with a brief description of the evolution of musical form since Viennese Classicism, with additional references to the baroque system of ‘affects’. Form in Schumann is compared with that of other significant composers of the romantic period and various points of intersection between music and other arts are analyzed, especially literature, in certain key works of this period. Parting from these reflections, we explore the question of the expressive intention behind his handling of form in Carnaval, op. 9. The aim of the investigation of this aspect is to understand how far the innovatory use of this parameter in Schumann, reflects a unique vision of the art of music.

  15. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to sever hearing loss: subjective impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Marinda; Pottas, Lidia; Vinck, Bart; van Dijk, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users' quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on hearing aid users' subjective impressions of listening to music. DESIGN & SAMPLE: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants' (N=40) subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users' perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users' enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  16. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to severe hearing loss: Subjective impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on hearing aid users’ subjective impressions of listening to music. Design & sample: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants’ (N=40 subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. Results: The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users’ perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. Conclusion: The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users’ enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  17. Music performance anxiety in skilled pianists: effects of social-evaluative performance situation on subjective, autonomic, and electromyographic reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshie, Michiko; Kudo, Kazutoshi; Murakoshi, Takayuki; Ohtsuki, Tatsuyuki

    2009-11-01

    Music performance anxiety (MPA), or stage fright in music performance, is a serious problem for many musicians, because performance impairment accompanied by MPA can threaten their career. The present study sought to clarify on how a social-evaluative performance situation affects subjective, autonomic, and motor stress responses in pianists. Measurements of subjective state anxiety, heart rate (HR), sweat rate (SR), and electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper extremity muscles were obtained while 18 skilled pianists performed a solo piano piece(s) of their choice under stressful (competition) and non-stressful (rehearsal) conditions. Participants reported greater anxiety in the competition condition, which confirmed the effectiveness of stress manipulation. The HR and SR considerably increased from the rehearsal to competition condition reflecting the activation of sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, participants showed higher levels of the EMG magnitude of proximal muscles (biceps brachii and upper trapezius) and the co-contraction of antagonistic muscles in the forearm (extensor digitorum communis and flexor digitorum superficialis) in the competition condition. Although these responses can be interpreted as integral components of an adaptive biological system that creates a state of motor readiness in an unstable or unpredictable environment, they can adversely influence pianists by disrupting their fine motor control on stage and by increasing the risk of playing-related musculoskeletal disorders.

  18. Music preference as a factor of music distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, J A

    1976-08-01

    The present study is an experimental analysis of music preference as a factor of music distraction measured by the Stroop tests. Significant differences were found amoung groups given, most preferred music, least preferred music, and no music (quiet). Each group of 10 subjects were randomly chosen from 42 screened subjects. Performance was better without music and better with most preferred than with least preferred music. The results were not consistent with those previously found for the effects of noise upon Stroop test performance.

  19. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  20. Music therapy in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šírová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  1. The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

  2. Relation between musical aptitude and intelligence among mentally retarded, advantaged, and disadvantaged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, C; Decuir, A; Hoskins, C; Kvet, E; Oubre, G

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in scores of 59 mentally retarded adults (mild, moderate, severe, or profound), 133 advantaged, and 130 disadvantaged (low income) children in Grades 1, 2, 3 on the Primary Measures of Music Audiation. Test-retest reliabilities for the Tonal and Rhythm subtests were .81 and .86, respectively, for the retarded group. Analysis of variance indicated that the mildly retarded children performed significantly better than other groups of retarded children on these two tests. 2 x 3 analyses of variance indicated that third graders from both advantaged and disadvantaged groups performed significantly better than the first or second graders on both subtests and that advantaged children performed significantly better than the disadvantaged. However, disadvantaged children made greater gains, especially for third graders, than the advantaged.

  3. Music Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; Odgaard, Rasmus Emil; Bitsch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of breaking the barrier between deaf and hearing people when it comes to the subject of making music. Suggestions on how deaf and hearing people can collaborate in creating music together, are presented. The conducted research will focus on deaf people...... with a general interest in music as well as hearing musicians as target groups. Through reviewing different related research areas, it is found that visualization of sound along with a haptic feedback can help deaf people interpret and interact with music. With this in mind, three variations of a collaborative...

  4. Library Resources in Special Areas of Music: Film Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. Stephen

    Intended as an orientation for music librarians unfamiliar with the film music field, this presentation addresses the most common film music questions received from library patrons, including queries about composers, soundtrack albums, the subject of the music, and scores, and describes the basic film music reference sources to consult for…

  5. Relationship Between Subjective Preference and the Alpha-Brain Wave in Relation to the Initial Time Delay Gap with Vocal Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOURI, K.; AKIYAMA, K.; ANDO, Y.

    2000-04-01

    Previously, it was reported that the most preferred initial time delay gap [Δt1]pand subsequent reverberation time are described by the minimum value of the effective duration (τe)minof the running autocorrelation function (ACF) of music signals (2 T=2·0 s) (Y. ANDO et al. 1989 Journal of Acoustical Society of America86, 644-649). This paper shows whether this result is supported or not by use of the electro-physiological method. Experiments were performed for sound fields changing the initial time delay gapΔt1 of a single reflection with vocal music as a source signal, which has large changes in runningτe . The results at the time interval when (τe)minof the music is observed reveal that the scale value of subjective preference is closely related to the value of τeof the alpha wave obtained from the left heimsphere.

  6. Composite effects of group drumming music therapy on modulation of neuroendocrine-immune parameters in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, B B; Berk, L S; Felten, D L; Westengard, J; Simonton, O C; Pappas, J; Ninehouser, M

    2001-01-01

    Drum circles have been part of healing rituals in many cultures throughout the world since antiquity. Although drum circles are gaining increased interest as a complementary therapeutic strategy in the traditional medical arena, limited scientific data documenting biological benefits associated with percussion activities exist. To determine the role of group-drumming music therapy as a composite activity with potential for alteration of stress-related hormones and enhancement of specific immunologic measures associated with natural killer cell activity and cell-mediated immunity. A single trial experimental intervention with control groups. The Mind-Body Wellness Center, an outpatient medical facility in Meadville, Pa. A total of 111 age- and sex-matched volunteer subjects (55 men and 56 women, with a mean age of 30.4 years) were recruited. Six preliminary supervised groups were studied using various control and experimental paradigms designed to separate drumming components for the ultimate determination of a single experimental model, including 2 control groups (resting and listening) as well as 4 group-drumming experimental models (basic, impact, shamanic, and composite). The composite drumming group using a music therapy protocol was selected based on preliminary statistical analysis, which demonstrated immune modulation in a direction opposite to that expected with the classical stress response. The final experimental design included the original composite drumming group plus 50 additional age- and sex-matched volunteer subjects who were randomly assigned to participate in group drumming or control sessions. Pre- and postintervention measurements of plasma cortisol, plasma dehydroepiandrosterone, plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-to-cortisol ratio, natural killer cell activity, lymphokine-activated killer cell activity, plasma interleukin-2, plasma interferon-gamma, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory II. Group drumming resulted in

  7. Material musical como acervo de conocimiento: sujeto, acción e interacción en procesos de improvisación musical = Musical material as stock of knowledge: subject, action and interaction within processes of musical improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Dreher, Silvana K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta contribuição explora a potencialidade da abordagem subjetiva representada na teoria fenomenonológica de Alfred Schutz para explicar processos de improvisação musical a partir de uma perspectiva sociológica. Isto constitui um desafio para a teoria de Schutz, uma vez que sua ideia de projetos de ação tipificados podem explicar ação improvisatória e interação apenas parcialmente. Contudo, esta mesma teoria abre um novo caminho – ainda menos explorado – para explicar fenômenos de improvisação com a noção de estoque de conhecimento subjetivo e social. A principal contribuição deste artigo é conectar a noção de estoque de conhecimento com o de material musical e, com isso, vincular ação improvisatória e interação

  8. The Predictive Relationship between Achievement and Participation in Music and Achievement in Core Grade 12 Academic Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouzouasis, Peter; Guhn, Martin; Kishor, Nand

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between musical training and general intellectual capacity as well as academic achievement has been discussed in numerous contexts. In our study, we examined the relationship between participation and achievement in music and achievement in academic courses, based on data from three consecutive British Columbia student cohorts.…

  9. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  10. Epidemiological evaluation of hearing damage related to strongly amplified music (personal cassette players, discotheques, rock concerts)--high-definition audiometric survey on 1364 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Bisch, C

    1996-01-01

    Listening to loudly amplified music can be responsible for hearing damage of the same nature as that caused by industrial noise. This study of the repercussions on hearing is based on isolating different types of risks (PCPs (personal cassette players), discotheques and rock/variety concerts) using 'pure' exposed groups matched subject to subject for age and sex to control groups. Hearing is studied with high-definition audiometry and an 'auditory suffering' indicator. Although discotheque patrons present on average no audiometric damage (211 subjects), a statistically significant increase of average hearing thresholds is found in young people using a PCP > 7 h/week (54 subjects) compared to those using one 2-7 h/week (195 subjects) and compared to their matched controls. The same is true for subjects who go to rock concerts at least twice a month (87 subjects) compared to their matched controls. Signs of auditory suffering are found in two subjects out of three in this last exposure group, as opposed to 12% of the controls. Measures to conserve young people's hearing must include a reduction of sound levels, the education of music and entertainment professionals, and making PCP users better informed.

  11. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gingras

    Full Text Available Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  12. Exploring shamanic journeying: repetitive drumming with shamanic instructions induces specific subjective experiences but no larger cortisol decrease than instrumental meditation music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Pohler, Gerald; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to repetitive drumming combined with instructions for shamanic journeying has been associated with physiological and therapeutic effects, such as an increase in salivary immunoglobulin A. In order to assess whether the combination of repetitive drumming and shamanic instructions is specifically associated with these effects, we compared the effect of listening to either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music for 15 minutes on salivary cortisol concentration and on self-reported physiological and psychological states. For each musical style, two groups of participants were exposed to two conditions: instructions for shamanic journeying or relaxation instructions. A total of 39 participants (24 females) inexperienced in shamanic journeying completed the experiment. Salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and after exposure to music. In addition, participants filled out a mood questionnaire before and after the experiment and completed a post experiment questionnaire on their experiences. A significant decrease in the concentration in salivary cortisol was observed across all musical styles and instructions, indicating that exposure to 15 minutes of either repetitive drumming or instrumental meditation music, while lying down, was sufficient to induce a decrease in cortisol levels. However, no differences were observed across conditions. Significant differences in reported emotional states and subjective experiences were observed between the groups. Notably, participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with shamanic instructions reported experiencing heaviness, decreased heart rate, and dreamlike experiences significantly more often than participants exposed to repetitive drumming combined with relaxation instructions. Our findings suggest that the subjective effects specifically attributed to repetitive drumming and shamanic journeying may not be reflected in differential endocrine responses.

  13. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  14. The relationship of music preferences and the selected risk-taking and autodestructive behaviour among teenage girls subject to inpatient stay due to mental condition – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krajewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, related to the crisis of identity, attempts to separate from the family and rebellion against the reality result in the youth to be particularly susceptible to the impact of peers. Identification with the group is most often based on common interests, one of which being music. The aim of the pilot study was to assess the relationship of autodestructive and  antisocial behaviour and  music preferences of  girls subject to  inpatient stay due to  mental problems. Material and methods: Own questionnaire was used concerning music preferences, consisting of the following genres: metal, rock, pop, jazz, hip-hop, reggae, film music, sung poetry, electronic music. The studied group comprised of 26 girls diagnosed with mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, eating disorders and behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. Exclusion criteria were the remaining diagnostic categories, especially active psychotic process and mental retardation as well as lack of understanding of the questionnaire questions or not being familiar with basic types of music. Among the patients aged 13–18 subject to inpatient stay at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź in the period 2013–2014 and consented to the study, the incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse, taking psychoactive substances and the presence of antisocial disorders were assessed. Questionnaire verification was carried out in a group of 30 people tested with a test–retest method with a two-week break; reliability was obtained: 0.89–1. Analysis was carried out with the use of Statistica 9.1 programme. Results: Among the teenage girls subject to inpatient stay, music preferences were not related in a statistically significant manner (p > 0.05 with a greater incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse and contact with psychoactive

  15. Finnish Primary and Secondary School Students' Interest in Music and Mathematics Relating to Enjoyment of the Subject and Perception of the Importance and Usefulness of the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossavainen, Timo; Juvonen, Antti

    2015-01-01

    Based on an expectancy-value theoretical framework and data (n = 1654) collected in 29 Finnish municipalities using a structured questionnaire, this study examines primary (grades 5-6), lower secondary (grades 7-9) and upper secondary (grades 10-12) students' motivation in music and mathematics. It explores in detail the students' interest in…

  16. The relationship of music preferences and the selected risk-taking and autodestructive behaviour among teenage girls subject to inpatient stay due to mental condition – pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Krajewska; Antoni Florkowski; Agnieszka Gmitrowicz

    2017-01-01

    During adolescence, related to the crisis of identity, attempts to separate from the family and rebellion against the reality result in the youth to be particularly susceptible to the impact of peers. Identification with the group is most often based on common interests, one of which being music. The aim of the pilot study was to assess the relationship of autodestructive and  antisocial behaviour and  music preferences of  girls subject to  inpatient stay due to  mental problems. Ma...

  17. Music preference as a factor of music distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, J A

    1976-08-01

    The present study is an experimental analysis of music preference as a factor of music distraction measured by the Stroop tests. Significant differences were found among groups given, most preferred music, least preferred music, and no music(quiet). Each group of 10 subjects were randomly chosen from 42 screened subjects. Performance was better without music and better with most preferred than with least preferred music. The results were not consistent with those previously found for the effects of noise upon Stroop test performance.

  18. 'Rhythmic Music' in Danish Music Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Kaj

    In Danish state schools from elementary to upper secondary school music is part of curricula at all levels. It is widely accepted that both individuals and culture benefit from art subjects, creative activities etc. This type of motivation was sufficient support for maintaining music as a subject...

  19. Music feels like moods feel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris eGoffin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1 moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2 music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is correct to say that a listener's entire mood is not relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music. However, the experience of mood consists of having different feelings. Music induces feelings that are intentionally directed at the music and clusters of these feelings can be recognized as typical of a specific mood. Therefore, mood-feelings are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music.

  20. Music feels like moods feel

    OpenAIRE

    Kris eGoffin

    2014-01-01

    While it is widely accepted that music evokes moods, there is disagreement over whether music-induced moods are relevant to the aesthetic appreciation of music as such. The arguments against the aesthetic relevance of music-induced moods are: (1) moods cannot be intentionally directed at the music and (2) music-induced moods are highly subjective experiences and are therefore a kind of mind-wandering. This paper presents a novel account of musical moods that avoids these objections. It is cor...

  1. Ethnicity, music experience, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy.

  2. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  3. Music and emotion / mood

    OpenAIRE

    古賀, 弘之

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to create a new kind of problem in the area of "music and emotion" research. Before surveying and reviewing articles about mood responses for music, I redefined "feeling" and "mood" for the purpose of this article. From the reviewed articles. I inferred that mood induction studies were effective to induce positive or negative moods in subjects. Recent studies, however, suggest that negative music not only induces negative mood but positive mood as well. Thus, f...

  4. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with

  5. Mood Dependent Music Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Music is one of the most expressive media to show and manipulate emotions, but there have been few studies on how to generate music connected to emotions. Such studies have always been shunned upon by musicians affirming that a machine cannot create expressive music, as it's the composer......'s and player's experiences and emotions that get poured into the piece. At the same time another problem is that music is highly complicated (and subjective) and finding out which elements transmit certain emotions is not an easy task. This demo wants to show how the manipulation of a set of features can...

  6. Analysis of music-brain interaction with simultaneous measurement of regional cerebral blood flow and electroencephalogram beta rhythm in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Sadato, N; Oohashi, T; Nishina, E; Fuwamoto, Y; Yonekura, Y

    1999-11-19

    To elucidate the neural substrates of the receptive aspect of music, we measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with positron emission tomography (PET) and simultaneously recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) in eight normal volunteers. Compared with the rest condition, listening to music caused a significant increase in EEG beta power spectrum (13-30 Hz) averaged over the posterior two third of the scalp. The averaged beta power spectrum was positively correlated with rCBF in the premotor cortex and adjacent prefrontal cortices bilaterally, the anterior portion of the precuneus and the anterior cingulate cortex in both the rest and the music conditions. Listening to music newly recruited the posterior portion of the precuneus bilaterally. This may reflect the interaction of the music with the cognitive processes, such as music-evoked memory recall or visual imagery.

  7. [Contribution of the study of singing in tune in musically non-expert subjects: importance of short term memory of the pitch (19 to 28 year-old subjects)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, S; Peuvergne, A; Sarfati, J

    2005-01-01

    In the singing, which requires precise knowledge of the relevant musical code in use, accuracy of intonation plays a central role. Singing in tune requires to perceive pitch precisely and to memorize it before planning and executing the accurate vocal motion, which allows the exact emission of the correct pitch. Our work investigated the role of short term memory of pitch on singing accuracy. For that purpose, the experimental protocol of Deutsch (1970) was adapted for a perception and a production task. Participants were selected for their singing accuracy and separated into two groups of ten singing in tune and ten out-of-tune. All participants perceived pitch height exactly and were musically non-experts. For the perception and the production tasks, participants had to either compare or reproduce single pitches or two-pitch-sets. For the perception task, participants had to compare either single pitches or two-pitch patterns, all separated by a five seconds delay. For the production task, participants had to reproduce either single pitches or two-pitch patterns after a five seconds delay. The five seconds delay was either filled with intervening numbers, or with intervening tones, or without any disturbing sound. In perception and production task, the presence of intervening tones disturbs deeply the success of the subjects for every trial. Performance of the in-tune singing group is better for all the exercises while the other group had difficulties on single pitches and two-pitch patterns and was more disturbed by the effect of the intervening material. The outcome suggests that short term memory of pitch and accuracy of intonation would be closely linked. Further research needs to specify if that would mean that troubles in singing in tune are a consequence of a low-efficient short term memory of pitch, or if that troubles would hold up the right construction of the short term memory of pitch.

  8. Music for Social Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patricia Zarate; Danilo Pérez

    2016-01-01

    .... Pérez's thesis goes on to describe the problems ingrained in Panamanian public education and suggests that the inclusion of music-both as a subject in itself, and as a general method of teaching-can...

  9. String quartet chamber music : the personal way of music development

    OpenAIRE

    Montant, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is about chamber music and more specifically string quartet. How and why chamber music should be a real part of a musician’s life. In the introduction, it is explained why it is important to play chamber music and what qualities a musician needs to be good at it. Then a description of what is chamber music litterally is exposed. The history recounts what was chamber music from its early beginings until our days and why it has so much evolves. About interpretation, t...

  10. Musical agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; McBurney, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music.......The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music....

  11. Sheet music

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Sheet music is a handwritten or printed form of music notation that uses modern musical symbols. Like its analogs – books, pamphlets, etc. – the medium of sheet music typically is paper (or, in earlier times, parchment), although the access to musical notation in recent years also includes presentation on computer screens. Use of the term "sheet" is intended to differentiate written music from an audio presentation, as in a sound recording, broadcast or live performance, which may involve vid...

  12. Emoções de uma escuta musical afetam a percepção subjetiva de tempo Emotions from listening to music affect the subjective perception of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou se emoções percebidas durante uma escuta musical influenciam a percepção temporal. Músicos e não músicos foram submetidos a tarefas de escuta de trechos musicais do repertório erudito ocidental com 20 segundos de duração cada um e tarefas de associação temporal de cada trecho ouvido a durações padrões, que variavam de 16 a 24 segundos. Os trechos musicais empregados eram representativos de uma dentre as categorias emocionais Alegria, Tristeza, Serenidade ou Medo / Raiva. Uma análise de variância mostrou que, enquanto os não músicos apresentaram subestimações temporais associadas a pelo menos um trecho musical de cada uma das categorias emocionais, os músicos subestimaram todos os trechos musicais tristes, relacionados às características de baixo arousal e valência afetiva negativa.This study examined whether perceived emotions during music listening tasks influence time perception. Musicians and non-musicians were submitted to tasks of listening to musical excerpts from Western classical repertoire of 20 seconds and tasks of temporal association of each piece of music to standard durations, ranging from 16 to 24 seconds. Musical excerpts were representative from one of the following emotional categories: Happiness, Sadness, Threat and Peacefulness. An analysis of variance showed that, while non-musicians showed temporal underestimations associated with, at least, one piece of music from each emotional category, musicians underestimated all sad musical excerpts, related to low arousal and negative valence features.

  13. Cooperating Teacher Perceptions of Music Student Teacher Preparedness for the Elementary Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Charlotte V.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the strengths and areas of improvement for elementary music teacher preparation from the perspective of multiple members of a single body of music teachers. Subjects for the study were elementary music teachers from an urban school district in the southern United States. All elementary music teachers in the school…

  14. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  15. Umbanda, Music and Music Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira de Queiroz, Gregorio José

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations among the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of...

  16. Umbanda, Music and Music Therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira de Queiroz, Gregorio José

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations among the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of its approaches...

  17. Music in the Life Skills Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Eurika Jansen; van Niekerka, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Generalist educators in South Africa shy away from music in the subjects Life Skills (Dance, Drama, Music, Visual Art, Physical Education and Personal and Social Well-being) and Creative Arts (Dance, Drama, Music, Visual Art) and universities are not delivering generalist students for the subject demands. In-service educators, as well as subject…

  18. Using music to change mood while driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Janssen, Joris H.; Nass, Clifford; Westerink, Joyce H. D. M.; Chowdhury, Shrestha; de Waard, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether gradual or abrupt music change towards more calming music is most effective in calming drivers during high-demand driving situations. Twenty-eight participants were subjected to two types of music change (gradual, abrupt) in a within-subject design. First, a

  19. Tuvan music and World Music

    OpenAIRE

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-01-01

    The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of t...

  20. The effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation-scaling behavior in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucci, D; Petrosino, L; Banks, M; Zaums, K; Wilcox, C

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation scaling behavior in young adults. Three groups of college students, 10 who liked rock music, 10 who liked big band music, and 10 who liked classical music were tested. Subjects were instructed to assign numerical values to a random series of nine suprathreshold intensity levels of 10-sec, samples of rock music, big band music, and classical music. Analysis indicated that subjects who liked rock music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked big band and classical music. Subjects who liked big band music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked rock music and classical music. All subjects scaled classical music similarly regardless of their musical preferences. Results are discussed in reference to the literature concerned with personality and preference as well as spectrographic analyses of the three different types of music used in this study.

  1. The neuroaesthetics of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter offers an overview on the state-of-the-art research under the agenda of the neuroaesthetics of music. This research agenda, inspired by the neuroaesthetics of visual art, represents a paradigm shift from neuroimaging studies focused exclusively on music perception, cognition...... and emotion to studies that consider aesthetic responses such as liking, preference, and aesthetic judgments. The existing models depicting information processing stages of the musical aesthetic experiences and their loci in the brain are summarized. The latest findings point at a synergy between neural...... systems, and particularly between superior temporal gyrus and limbic reward areas for issuing aesthetic responses to music. Future challenges for the field are the discovery of the neural mechanisms of inter-subject communication during musical performance leading to an efficacious aesthetic experience....

  2. On "American Music for American Children": The Contribution of Charles L. Seeger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Marie

    1995-01-01

    Profiles music scholar Charles L. Seeger and his contribution to U.S. musical life. Seeger played a significant role in introducing vernacular music to schools, extending the definition of U.S. music in the curriculum, presenting music as a cultural subject, and promoting musical diversity in the classroom. (MJP)

  3. Why Music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTamaney, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of music education in a child's development, and how music experiences affect the development of students' intellect. Music education has long been anecdotally linked to increased intellectual ability. Research suggests, though, that music education is far more than an entertaining diversion.…

  4. Intuitive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and some improvisational pieces....

  5. Music and light during indoor cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaulov, Naama; Lufi, Dubi

    2009-04-01

    The present research is a field study assessing effects of music and light on physical performance and subjective feelings of 28 participants (14 men, 14 women) in fitness classes using indoor cycling. Participants performed four sessions under different conditions of music and light. Analysis showed a sense of pleasure was significantly higher when music was introduced during the exercise. A significant interaction of music and light indicated that participants experienced less sense of tiredness when they trained with music and lights were dimmed. Light alone had no effect on any of the subjective measures. Physiological measurements showed that light and music did not influence amount of energy exerted (heart rate) or energy expended (calories). Apparently, participants do not work harder when music is present; however, they report more pleasure and less tiredness while exercising with music and dimmed light. It is recommended that music and dimmed light might be used during such activities to heighten pleasure and reduce tiredness while emphasizing fitness achieved.

  6. [Music and health--what kind of music is helpful for whom? What music not?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, H-J

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that music not only may improve quality of life (QoL) but also have different effects on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV). Music emphasis and rhythmic phrases are tracked consistently by physiological variables. Autonomic responses are synchronized with music, which might therefore convey emotions through autonomic arousal during crescendos or rhythmic phrases. A greater modulation of HR, HRV and modulations in cardiac autonomic nerve activity was revealed with a greater effect for music performance than music perception. Reactions to music are considered subjective, but studies suggested that cardiorespiratory variables are influenced under different circumstances. It has been shown that relaxing music decreases significantly the level of anxiety in a preoperative setting to a greater extent than orally administered midazolam (p music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction to suggest that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open heart surgery. Music intervention should be offered as an integral part of the multimodal regime administered to the patients that have undergone cardiovascular surgery. It is a supportive source that increases relaxation. Music is also effective in under conditions and music can be utilized as an effective intervention for patients with depressive symptoms, geriatrics and in pain, intensive care or palliative medicine. However, careful selected music that incorporates a patient's own preferences may offer an effective method to reduce anxiety and to improve quality of life. The most benefit on health is visible in classic music, meditation music whereas heavy metal music or technosounds are even ineffective or dangerous and will lead to stress and/or life threatening arrhythmias. There are many composers most effectively to improve QoL, particularly Bach, Mozart and Italian composers are "ideal

  7. A randomized controlled trial of two simple mind-body programs, Kirtan Kriya meditation and music listening, for adults with subjective cognitive decline: Feasibility and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2016-06-01

    In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), we assessed the feasibility and acceptability of two simple home-based relaxation programs in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline, a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants were randomized to a beginner Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) program or a music listening (ML) program. Participants were asked to practice 12min daily for the first 12 weeks, then as often as they liked for the following 3 months. Participants underwent assessments at baseline, 12 weeks, and 6 months to evaluate changes in key outcomes. Feasibility and acceptability were evaluated by measuring recruitment and retention rates, assessment visit attendance, practice adherence, and treatment expectancy; exit questionnaires completed at 12 weeks and 6 months provided additional data regarding participant experience with the study, perceived barriers to and facilitators of practice, reasons for drop-out, and views regarding the assigned intervention. Fifty-three participants (88%) completed the 6 month study. Adherence in both groups was excellent, with participants completing 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions on average in the first 12 weeks, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3 month, practice-optional, follow-up period. At week 12, over 80% of participants indicated they were likely to continue practicing following study completion. Responses to both structured and open-ended exit questionnaire items also suggested high satisfaction with both programs. Findings of this RCT of a beginner meditation practice and a simple ML program suggest that both programs were well accepted and the practices are feasible in adults with early memory loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet, Martin; Kian, Arash; Berthaut, Florent; Franco, Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  9. MUSIC THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Archana Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Music Therapy is an established health profession in which music is used within a therapeutic relationship to address to physical, emotional, cognitive and social needs of individuals. After assessing the strength and needs of each client, the qualified music therapist provides the indicated treatment including creating, singing, moving to and/or listening to music. Through musical involvement in therapeutic context, clients, abilities are strengthened and transfer to other areas of their liv...

  10. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  11. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...... music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive...

  12. Music teacher identity and professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik

    2017-01-01

    The present article is concerned with transformative learning and identity formation in student music teachers acting as researchers of a music education practice as part of their MA study programme. More specific, the aim is to discuss how engaging in a research perspective may serve as an eye......-opener for student music teachers and widen their perspective on subject didactics, teaching/learning issues and professional practice....

  13. Music Publishing

    OpenAIRE

    A.Manuel B. Simoes; J.Joao Dias De Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Current music publishing in the Internet is mainly concerned with sound publishing. We claim that music publishing is not only to make sound available but also to de ne relations between a set of music objects like music scores, guitar chords, lyrics and their meta-data. Wewant an easy way to publish music in the Internet, to make high quality paper booklets and even to create Audio CD's. In this document we present a workbench for music publishing based on open formats, using open-source too...

  14. Effect of music on anaerobic exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atan, T

    2013-03-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to "slow rhythm music", "fast rhythm music" or "no music". 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  15. A Rediscovered Alliance: Can New Music Performance Teaching Policy Save Music Education? A New Framework for the Music Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Music education in K-12 school programs may continue to lose ground to other subjects unless music education and performance studies are viewed as interdependent. The author argues that the reinvigoration of both music education and performance requires that the studio experience integrate a research-based pedagogy, multi-stylistic range of…

  16. Sensorimotor adaptation is influenced by background music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar

    2010-06-01

    It is well established that listening to music can modify subjects' cognitive performance. The present study evaluates whether this so-called Mozart Effect extends beyond cognitive tasks and includes sensorimotor adaptation. Three subject groups listened to musical pieces that in the author's judgment were serene, neutral, or sad, respectively. This judgment was confirmed by the subjects' introspective reports. While listening to music, subjects engaged in a pointing task that required them to adapt to rotated visual feedback. All three groups adapted successfully, but the speed and magnitude of adaptive improvement was more pronounced with serene music than with the other two music types. In contrast, aftereffects upon restoration of normal feedback were independent of music type. These findings support the existence of a "Mozart effect" for strategic movement control, but not for adaptive recalibration. Possibly, listening to music modifies neural activity in an intertwined cognitive-emotional network.

  17. Measuring Music Education: Music Teacher Evaluation in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emert, Dennis; Sheehan, Scott; Deitz, O. David

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge currently facing Pennsylvania music educators (and many music educators across the country) is change to the evaluation process of teachers in Non-Tested Grades and Subjects (NTGS). The law directing this change is known as Act 82 and comes from the Pennsylvania legislature, authorized through House Bill 1901. The Pennsylvania…

  18. White Matter Correlates of Musical Anhedonia: Implications for Evolution of Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche; Patterson, Sean; Sachs, Matthew E; Leung, Yvonne; Zeng, Tima; Przysinda, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Recent theoretical advances in the evolution of music posit that affective communication is an evolutionary function of music through which the mind and brain are transformed. A rigorous test of this view should entail examining the neuroanatomical mechanisms for affective communication of music, specifically by comparing individual differences in the general population with a special population who lacks specific affective responses to music. Here we compare white matter connectivity in BW, a case with severe musical anhedonia, with a large sample of control subjects who exhibit normal variability in reward sensitivity to music. We show for the first time that structural connectivity within the reward system can predict individual differences in musical reward in a large population, but specific patterns in connectivity between auditory and reward systems are special in an extreme case of specific musical anhedonia. Results support and extend the Mixed Origins of Music theory by identifying multiple neural pathways through which music might operate as an affective signaling system.

  19. Imagery, Music, Cognitive Style and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette

    Paired associate memory was tested with imagery and repetition instructions, with and without background music. Subjects were 64 students enrolled in an introductory psychology course. Music was found to have no effect with imagery instructions, but significantly improved performance with the repetition instructions. Music had different effects on…

  20. Music Listening Preferences of Macau Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Wanfong Viny

    2009-01-01

    This is a pioneer study of Macau's music education focusing on music listening preference. Adopting models from Western cultures, the study, launched in 2006, aimed to explore the factors of age and gender in regard to music preference. The subjects ranged from fourth-graders to university students (N=2495) (15 missing). Participants rated their…

  1. Does Musical Training Improve School Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Olive Emil; Koerner, Fritz; Schwaninger, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    In a retrospective study, we compared school performance of 53 children practicing music (group 1) with 67 controls not practicing music (group 2). Overall average marks as well as average marks of all school subjects except sports were significantly higher in children who do (group 1) than in those who do not practice music (group 2). In a…

  2. Visual analysis of music in function of music video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antal Silard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide-spread all over the planet, incorporating all music genres, the music video, the subject matter of this analysis, has become irreplaceable in promotions, song presentations, an artist's image, visual aesthetics of subculture; today, most of the countries in the world have a channel devoted to music only, i.e. to music video. The form started to develop rapidly in the 50s of the twentieth century, alongside television. As it developed, its purpose has changed: from a simple presentation of musicians to an independent video form.

  3. Music Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    Music Information Retrieval has received increasing attention from both the industrial and the research communities in recent years. Many audio extraction techniques providing content-based music information have been developed, sparking the need for intelligent storage and retrieval facilities....... This paper proposes to satisfy this need by extending technology from business-oriented data warehouses to so-called music warehouses that integrate a large variety of music-related information, including both low-level features and high-level musical information. Music warehouses thus help to close...... the “semantic gap” by supporting integrated querying of these two kinds of music data. This paper presents a number of new challenges for the database community that must be taken up to meet the particular demands of music warehouses....

  4. Promoting Metacognition in Music Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Carol W.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition is a type of thinking in which learners think about their own cognitive processes. Because it transcends disciplines and grade levels, metacognition is useful in many educational settings and can be transferred from the music classroom to other subject areas. Music educators can promote metacognition by designing and implementing…

  5. Music: Universal Language, Universal Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John H.

    1992-01-01

    Suggests greater emphasis on middle school music education, both as part of general education and of the curriculum's exploratory component. Argues that music can add emotion to social studies and promote learning in all subject areas through rhythm, rhyme, and repetition. Calls for student opportunities to explore instruments and composition. (SG)

  6. Music cognition: Learning and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmeier, M.; Rebuschat, P.; Honing, H.; Loui, P.; Wiggins, G.; Pearce, M.T.; Müllensiefen, D.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in

  7. Intuitive Music and Graphic Notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    . Students' works are quoted. The writer discusses the theoretical context and advocates for giving more attention to music as the medium in which music therapy takes place, referring to language theory and Jakobson. NB: the description of the two subjects are, at the present moment (2011) no longer up...

  8. Music and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud Cabanac; Perlovsky, Leonid; Bonniot-Cabanac, Marie-Claude; Cabanac, Michel

    2013-11-01

    In a previous study we demonstrated that listening to a pleasant music while performing an academic test helped students to overcome stress, to devote more time to more stressful and more complicated task and the grades were higher. Yet, there remained ambiguities as for the causes of the higher test performance of these students: do they perform better because they hear music during their examinations, or would they perform better anyway because they are more gifted/motivated? This motivated the current study as a preliminary step toward that general question: Do students who like/perform music have better grades than the others? Our results confirmed this hypothesis: students studying music have better grades in all subjects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Music & Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Gemma; Camps, Laia; Herrera, Isabel Herrera; Guillamat, Roser; Vallés, Vicenç; Sanz, Maite; Martínez, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific literature suggests that music may serve as therapeutic function among populations with different illnesses or disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies that incorporate music activity or music method shown an increase activation in several brain areas, with widespread bilateral hemodynamic responses in occipital lobe, bilateral cerebellum, temporal lobe, in the right lateral prefrontal cortex as well hemodynamic responses in the left middle frontal gyrus.Music activ...

  10. Music for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M S; Carr, D B; Lau, J; Alvarez, H

    2006-04-19

    The efficacy of music for the treatment of pain has not been established. To evaluate the effect of music on acute, chronic or cancer pain intensity, pain relief, and analgesic requirements. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and the references in retrieved manuscripts. There was no language restriction. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of music on any type of pain in children or adults. We excluded trials that reported results of concurrent non-pharmacological therapies. Data was extracted by two independent review authors. We calculated the mean difference in pain intensity levels, percentage of patients with at least 50% pain relief, and opioid requirements. We converted opioid consumption to morphine equivalents. To explore heterogeneity, studies that evaluated adults, children, acute, chronic, malignant, labor, procedural, or experimental pain were evaluated separately, as well as those studies in which patients chose the type of music. Fifty-one studies involving 1867 subjects exposed to music and 1796 controls met inclusion criteria. In the 31 studies evaluating mean pain intensity there was a considerable variation in the effect of music, indicating statistical heterogeneity ( I(2) = 85.3%). After grouping the studies according to the pain model, this heterogeneity remained, with the exception of the studies that evaluated acute postoperative pain. In this last group, patients exposed to music had pain intensity that was 0.5 units lower on a zero to ten scale than unexposed subjects (95% CI: -0.9 to -0.2). Studies that permitted patients to select the music did not reveal a benefit from music; the decline in pain intensity was 0.2 units, 95% CI (-0.7 to 0.2). Four studies reported the proportion of subjects with at least 50% pain relief; subjects exposed to music had a 70% higher likelihood of having pain relief than unexposed subjects (95% CI: 1.21 to 2.37). NNT = 5 (95% CI: 4 to 13). Three

  11. Music Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Jason A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, music programs in K-12 schools have emphasized performance opportunities for children and young people. Until the release of the 1994 National Standards in Music, targeted instruction in composition was frequently overlooked due to the emphasis on performance as well as the expectations of what a school music program ought to produce…

  12. Musical Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Colin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the physical and psycho-acoustic principles underlying the production and perception of the sounds of musical instruments. The first section introduces generic aspects of musical acoustics and the perception of musical sounds, followed by separate sections on string, wind and percussion instruments.

  13. Musical Religiosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoondert, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this essay the author explores the thesis that music is by its nature religious, or rather, that it has qualities that correspond well with what religion, in a broad sense, aspires to be. Four musical qualities are explored: timbre, the tonal system of western music, the time relations within the

  14. A Perceptual Study on Dynamical Form in Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Nielbo, Frederik Laigaard

    2010-01-01

    The concept of dynamical form is presented as a dimension of music perception. Dynamical form refers to the subjective perception of temporal events in music explosive, fading out, rising etc.). In a behavioral experiment listeners were asked to categorize musical excerpts varying in musical peri...

  15. A perceptual study on dynamical form in music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Nielbo, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    The concept of dynamical form is presented as a dimen- sion of music perception. Dynamical form refers to the subjective perception of temporal events in music (explo- sive, fading out, rising etc.). In a behavioral experiment listeners were asked to categorize musical excerpts vary- ing in musical...

  16. Pre-internship Fears of Music Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen; Kaiser

    1999-01-01

    This study examined pre-internship fears of music therapy majors. Additional analysis included comparison of pre-internship fears of music therapy majors with pre-internship fears of music education majors. Subjects for this study were music therapy/music education majors at a large southeastern university (N = 61; N = 32) who were surveyed during the year prior to their internship. Utilizing identical procedures, each subject was asked to list the 3 greatest fears that they had concerning their internship. Two independent evaluators then classified the perceived fears based on a taxonomic structure developed during the initial study on pre-internship fears of music education majors. Reliability for the classification of pre-internship music therapy fears was.97. Ranking reported fears revealed a hierarchy of pre-internship fears and provided comparisons between the two populations. Analysis of data indicated that the music therapy interns listed "general preparation/being prepared" as their primary fear followed by issues relating to "failure/not cut out for therapy." The next most frequently noted fears related to concerns about "internship placement" and concerns about the "physical environment" (money, moving, housing, etc.). Music therapy subject responses were also examined in relationship to the responses of music education subjects. Subject responses revealed a very low fear concerning "discipline" for the music therapy majors, yet this category was the highest listed by the music education seniors. "Failure/not being cut out for teaching/therapy" was expressed as a concern with the next highest frequency by the education majors and was rated quite high by the therapy majors. Fears about the "physical environment including money, moving, etc." were quite high for the music therapy majors, yet these fears received very low ratings by the music education students. In addition, fears related to the "supervising teacher/placement" and "students not learning

  17. Increasing Social Responsiveness in a Child with Autism: A Comparison of Music and Non-Music Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnigan, Emily; Starr, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of using music and non-music interventions on the social responsive and avoidant behaviours of a preschool child with autism. A single-subject alternating treatment design was used in which two interventions were presented in a similar fashion except for the addition of music during the music condition.…

  18. Using music to change mood while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D; Janssen, Joris H; Nass, Clifford; Westerink, Joyce H D M; Chowdhury, Shrestha; de Waard, Dick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether gradual or abrupt music change towards more calming music is most effective in calming drivers during high-demand driving situations. Twenty-eight participants were subjected to two types of music change (gradual, abrupt) in a within-subject design. First, a relatively happy mood was induced with personally selected music during an eight-minute simulated high-demand drive. The drive then continued and the mood was changed either gradually or abruptly. Subjective results showed successful music mood induction irrespective of gradual or abrupt changes. The results further showed lower skin conductance (less arousal) and more facial corrugator muscle tension (more sadness) during the abrupt music change. Fewer accidents occurred during the abrupt music mood change. To conclude, the results support the abrupt way of changing music type to down-regulate one's mood: during high-demand driving, abrupt changes in music led to more physiological calmness and improved driving performance, and were thus safer and more effective. The current study shows that during high-demand drives, drivers are calmed more effectively using abrupt music changes compared to gradual music changes. This is illustrated by reductions in physiological arousal and improved driving behaviour. Hence, in-car music presentation can be used as a tool to improve driver's mood and behaviour.

  19. Motor Music

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, John

    2014-01-01

    Motor Music II (2014) for small group and motors What happens when an AC or DC motor is plugged raw into a mixing desk or connected directly to a speaker? Motor Music II explores ‘low level’ instrument design and a reductionist approach. The piece also sets up a proposition concerning electronic music: ‘How can it be done simpler?’ The motor as ‘instrument’ encourages an objection-orientated approach to sound and music making: the motor itself has inherent musical qualities and po...

  20. Processo de criação no fazer musical: uma objetivação da subjetividade, a partir dos trabalhos de Sartre e Vygotsky The process of creation of a musical: an objectification of the subjectivity, based on Sartre and Vygotsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maheirie

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O sujeito é compreendido neste trabalho como constituído e constituinte do contexto social, e a música como uma linguagem reflexivo-afetiva, capaz de construir sentidos coletivos e singulares. Entendemos como reflexiva toda atividade humana que objetiva predominantemente uma racionalidade; e, como afetivas as objetivações que, embora mediadas por uma racionalidade, contemplam sobremaneira emoções e sentimentos. A partir dos trabalhos de Sartre e Vygotsky, compreendemos que nos processos de criação musical os sujeitos unificam dialeticamente a aprendizagem dos conhecimentos técnicos, numa postura afetiva, a qual implica em relações entre percepção, imaginação, sentimentos e emoções. O músico, no processo criativo, transforma os sons numa objetividade subjetivada, como negação dialética do determinismo de um contexto, já que nele deixa, necessariamente, a marca da sua subjetividade. O processo de criação musical deve ser compreendido sempre como um produto histórico-social, completamente inserido no contexto no qual se dá.In this workthe subject is understood as constituted and constituent of the social context, and the music, as a reflexive-affectionate language, capable to build collective and singular sense. We understand as reflexive every human activity that, above all,aims at a rationality; and, we understand as affectionate the objectifications that, although mediated by a rationality, they contemplate emotions and feelings. Based on works of Sartre and Vygotsky, we understand that in the process of musical creation, the subjects unify dialectically the learning of the technical knowledge, in an affectionate posture, which implicates in relation among perception, imagination, feelings and emotions. The musician, in the creative process, transforms the sounds in a subjectfied objectivity, as a dialectical denial of the determinism of a context, since it he leaves, necessarily, the mark of the his subjectivity. The

  1. Music through the ages: Trends in musical engagement and preferences from adolescence through middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span.

  2. The effects of sedative music, arousal music, and silence on electrocardiography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousty, Mehdy; Daneshvar, Sabalan; Haghjoo, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that music can affect heart rate, blood pressure, and skin conductance. Music can stimulate central emotions in the brain and release biochemical materials that change the physiologic state. We sought to compare changes in the electrical function of the heart in response to music. Subjects were asked to listen to 2 types of music, namely, sedative and arousal music, in conjunction with two 30-second periods of complete silence. The experiment was conducted in 4 segments: the first and third parts were silence, and the second and fourth parts were music. First, the response to each type of music was compared with that to the preceding period of silence. Next, the responses to both types of music were compared. Finally, the response to music regardless of the type was compared with that to silence. The amplitude of polarization and depolarization changed in response to different kinds of music. The electrical function of the heart in response to music, irrespective of the music type, differed from that in response to silence. The 2 types of music impacted the electrical function of the heart in different ways: the arousal music influenced T-wave maximum amplitude, whereas no such change was recorded in response to the sedative music. The bandwidth of the polarization and depolarization of the heart rate and R-wave amplitude increased in response to music by comparison with silence. In addition, the heart did not seem to try to synchronize with music. The mean R-wave amplitude in sedative music is higher than the arousal music, so our heart works differently when different types of music are heard. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mozart, Music and Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Ernest K.J.; Volterrani, Duccio; Mariani, Giuliano; Kostkiewics, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    According to the first publication in 1993 by Rauscher et al. [Nature 1993;365:611], the Mozart effect implies the enhancement of reasoning skills solving spatial problems in normal subjects after listening to Mozart's piano sonata K 448. A further evaluation of this effect has raised the question whether there is a link between music-generated emotions and a higher level of cognitive abilities by mere listening. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that listening to pleasurable music activates cortical and subcortical cerebral areas where emotions are processed. These neurobiological effects of music suggest that auditory stimulation evokes emotions linked to heightened arousal and result in temporarily enhanced performance in many cognitive domains. Music therapy applies this arousal in a clinical setting as it may offer benefits to patients by diverting their attention from unpleasant experiences and future interventions. It has been applied in the context of various important clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer pain, epilepsy, depression and dementia. Furthermore, music may modulate the immune response, among other things, evidenced by increasing the activity of natural killer cells, lymphocytes and interferon-γ, which is an interesting feature as many diseases are related to a misbalanced immune system. Many of these clinical studies, however, suffer from methodological inadequacies. Nevertheless, at present, there is moderate but not altogether convincing evidence that listening to known and liked music helps to decrease the burden of a disease and enhances the immune system by modifying stress. PMID:25060169

  4. Mozart, music and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Ernest K J; Volterrani, Duccio; Mariani, Giuliano; Kostkiewics, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    According to the first publication in 1993 by Rauscher et al. [Nature 1993;365:611], the Mozart effect implies the enhancement of reasoning skills solving spatial problems in normal subjects after listening to Mozart's piano sonata K 448. A further evaluation of this effect has raised the question whether there is a link between music-generated emotions and a higher level of cognitive abilities by mere listening. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that listening to pleasurable music activates cortical and subcortical cerebral areas where emotions are processed. These neurobiological effects of music suggest that auditory stimulation evokes emotions linked to heightened arousal and result in temporarily enhanced performance in many cognitive domains. Music therapy applies this arousal in a clinical setting as it may offer benefits to patients by diverting their attention from unpleasant experiences and future interventions. It has been applied in the context of various important clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer pain, epilepsy, depression and dementia. Furthermore, music may modulate the immune response, among other things, evidenced by increasing the activity of natural killer cells, lymphocytes and interferon-γ, which is an interesting feature as many diseases are related to a misbalanced immune system. Many of these clinical studies, however, suffer from methodological inadequacies. Nevertheless, at present, there is moderate but not altogether convincing evidence that listening to known and liked music helps to decrease the burden of a disease and enhances the immune system by modifying stress. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Stimulating Music: The Pleasures and Dangers of “Electric Music,” 1750–1900

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennaway, James

    2014-01-01

    Far from being a purely modern idea, the notion of “electric music” was already common in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The shift in thinking about music from cosmic harmony to nervous stimulation made metaphors and speculative theories relating music and electricity irresistible. This essay considers the development of the idea of electric music, looking at its associations with a sexual “body electric.” It will then examine how this conception of music went from being the subject of sympathy to becoming part of a medical critique of music as a dangerous stimulant, with echoes in music criticism and beyond. PMID:24587689

  6. Variations of the perception of mood and tension of music excerpts depending on the visual context

    OpenAIRE

    Payri, Blas

    2009-01-01

    We study the influence that image features may have on music tension and liveliness perception. 72 music excerpts from different genres and periods were selected, and 72 still shots were taken from different animation features little known to the subjects. 62 subjects rated the isolated images for tension and liveliness, 37 subjects rated the isolated music excerpts for tension and liveliness, and 153 subjects rated the music excerpts combined with the images for music tension and liveliness,...

  7. [Application of music therapy in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zárate, P; Díaz, V

    2001-02-01

    Music therapy is a science that has been applied since many centuries ago, but it has been organized as a profession during the past century. This science studies the therapeutic effects of music in human beings. Professionals who practice this science are called "music therapists" and they must be trained not only in music theory and performance, but also in psychology, anatomy, research techniques, and other subjects. Today, we can find music therapy research in many areas such as the effects of music in children with autism, adults with psychiatric illnesses, elderly with Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, people with brain injuries, among others. Numerous studies demonstrate the functionality of music therapy in patients with neurological disorders. These studies show that music helps patients to gain control over their walking patterns after a brain injury, stimulates long and short term memory in patients with Alzheimer disease, and increase self esteem and social interaction in elders.

  8. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  9. Is the Perception of Music Related to Musical Motivation in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaga Sanz, Cristina; Madariaga Orbea, José-María

    2014-01-01

    This paper contains research on the relationship between factors that explain the pupils' perception of music and musical education and their motivation rates to study the subject of music based on motivational explanatory models of cognitive orientation. One hundred and sixteen, sixth-year primary education students belonging to four schools in…

  10. Cultural constraints on music perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J; Demorest, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that music, like language, is both a biological predisposition and a cultural universal. While humans naturally attend to and process many of the psychophysical cues present in musical information, there is a great - and often culture-specific - diversity of musical practices differentiated in part by form, timbre, pitch, rhythm, and other structural elements. Musical interactions situated within a given cultural context begin to influence human responses to music as early as one year of age. Despite the world's diversity of musical cultures, the majority of research in cognitive psychology and the cognitive neuroscience of music has been conducted on subjects and stimuli from Western music cultures. From the standpoint of cognitive neuroscience, identification of fundamental cognitive and neurological processes associated with music requires ascertaining that such processes are demonstrated by listeners from a broad range of cultural backgrounds and in relation to various musics across cultural traditions. This chapter will review current research regarding the role of enculturation in music perception and cognition and the degree to which cultural influences are reflected in brain function. Exploring music cognition from the standpoint of culture will lead to a better understanding of the core processes underlying perception and how those processes give rise to the world's diversity of music forms and expressions.

  11. Gender and the performance of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Desmond C; Himonides, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. Were they present in the musical "message," gendered qualities might be imparted at any of three stages of the music-communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or imposed by the listener in the process of perception. The research was designed to obtain empirical evidence to enable evaluation of claims of the presence of gendering at these three stages. Three research hypotheses were identified and relevant literature of music behaviors and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the three hypotheses: (i) two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, (ii) four "music characteristics" scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically-trained listeners listened to the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that gendered properties are imposed subjectively by the listener, and these are primarily related to the tempo of the music.

  12. Gender and the performance of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond C Sergeant

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. If such propositions are substantive, gendered qualities might be imparted to the musical ‘message’ at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or superimposed in the course of listener perceptions. Four research hypotheses are identified and relevant literature of music behaviours and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the four hypotheses: i two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, ii four ‘music characteristics’ scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically trained listeners heard the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that if gendering of music is a reality, the properties are imposed subjectively by the perceiver, and the respective qualities appear to be primarily related to the tempo of the music.

  13. Music interventions for preoperative anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Dileo, Cheryl; Shim, Minjung

    2013-06-06

    handsearched music therapy journals and reference lists, and contacted relevant experts to identify unpublished manuscripts. There was no language restriction. We included all randomized and quasi-randomized trials that compared music interventions and standard care with standard care alone for reducing preoperative anxiety in surgical patients. Two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. We contacted authors to obtain missing data where needed. Where possible, results were presented in meta analyses using mean differences and standardized mean differences. Post-test scores were used. In cases of significant baseline differences, we used change scores. We included 26 trials (2051 participants). All studies used listening to pre-recorded music. The results suggested that music listening may have a beneficial effect on preoperative anxiety. Specifically, music listening resulted, on average, in an anxiety reduction that was 5.72 units greater (95% CI -7.27 to -4.17, P effect on heart rate and diastolic blood pressure, but no support was found for reductions in systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and skin temperature. Most trials were assessed to be at high risk of bias because of lack of blinding. Blinding of outcome assessors is often impossible in music therapy and music medicine studies that use subjective outcomes, unless in studies in which the music intervention is compared to another treatment intervention. Because of the high risk of bias, these results need to be interpreted with caution.None of the studies included wound healing, infection rate, time to discharge, or patient satisfaction as outcome variables. One large study found that music listening was more effective than the sedative midazolam in reducing preoperative anxiety and equally effective in reducing physiological responses. No adverse effects were identified. This systematic review indicates that music listening may have a beneficial effect on preoperative

  14. An EEG study on music listening with ICA approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qi; Yoshimine, Norikazu

    2017-01-01

    Music listening is one of the most popular and convenient entertainment method for human beings. When listening to music, people can get relaxed by soothing music or become excited by rock music. As we know that mental feelings are generated by the human brain, studying the human brain activities when they are listening to music may reveal the mechanism of mental processes for generating these feelings. In this paper, we conducted experiments to measure the brain activities when the subjects ...

  15. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  16. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-...

  17. Music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, M; Chlan, L

    1999-01-01

    Nurses have used music as an intervention for many years. A sizeable number of investigations to determine the efficacy of music in managing pain, in decreasing anxiety and aggressive behaviors, and in improving performance and well-being have been conducted by nurses and other health professionals. Nursing and non-nursing research reports published between the years 1980-1997 were reviewed. Great variation existed in the type of musical selection used, the dose of the intervention (number of sessions and length exposure), the populations studied, and the methodologies used. Overall, music was found to be effective in producing positive outcomes.

  18. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  19. BRAIN PLASTICITY: MUSICAL TRAINING INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónika Diaz Abrahan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main research about the effect of musical training in adult and childhood brain was revised in this work. The music realizes unique demands to our ner-vous system. This call the attention of several researchers causing, in the past years, an enhancement of the exploration about this topic; this increment was benefit for the emergence of new neuroimaging techniques, the music positioned as an investigation tool of human cognition and superior brain mechanisms. The musical perception and production are specific functions of the human brain that depend of a wide cortical-subcortical neural net distributed across both hemi-spheres and cerebellum. The main findings in this area indicated structural and functional differences in the adult and child brain due to musical training, and this is more relevant that innate properties of the subject. There is brain plasticity due to adaptive processes product of the environmental stimulation.

  20. Loudness in listening to music with portable headphone stereos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, T

    1999-04-01

    The usual listening levels of music (loudness) using portable headphone stereos were measured for 46 young volunteers. Loudness was associated with sex, Extraversion scores, a subjective mental health state, and impression of the music.

  1. Hearing speech in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth-Reino Ekström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA. The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01. Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01 and SPN (P<.05. Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01, but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01. It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  2. Gender and the performance of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Desmond C.; Himonides, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. Were they present in the musical “message,” gendered qualities might be imparted at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or imposed by the listener in the process of perception. The research was designed to obtain empirical evidence to enable evaluation of claims of the presence of gendering at these three stages. Three research hypotheses were identified and relevant literature of music behaviors and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the three hypotheses: (i) two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, (ii) four “music characteristics” scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically-trained listeners listened to the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that gendered properties are imposed subjectively by the listener, and these are primarily related to the tempo of the music. PMID:24795663

  3. Ghost Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo.......Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo....

  4. Tuvan music and World Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of the Union, has been as if put on hold. During the Perestroika and national revival processes, traditionalism became of high demand. Symposia and festivals started off in Tuva where amateur participants took the same stage with professionals. Special honor was paid to old masters of xöömei. Scholars started engaging in  discussions about the origins and a role of xöömei and its genres. Хöömei attracted a good deal of market interest from outside Russia. In the late 1980s American scientist and producer T. Levin made first field records of xöömei to be released on a disk. Ethnographic ensemble “Tuva” was established. Later, members of “Tuva” started their own musical bands. Musical programs were compiled as an ethnographic variety show – a principle that the public has been seeking for both in Tuva and abroad. Disks were realeased and artists started active touring in foreign countries. Boosting interest in World Music was marked with hallmark attention to the phenomenon of throat-singing and overtone music, and further evolution of Tuvan music has since been tightly linked to Western musical market. The author traces the peculiarities of such bands as “Huun Huur Tu”, “Yat-Kha”, etc. and remarks that the value of Tuvan music is not only in star performers shining on the Western skies, but in the rise of a stable community of people inspired by Tuvan music and culture, and seeking new ways of aesthetic and spiritual perception of

  5. Regulation of emotions by listening to music in emotional situations

    OpenAIRE

    Thoma, Mirjam; Ryf, Stefan; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M

    2006-01-01

    Musical stimuli are among the most intensive stimuli trig- gering emotions. Therefore, we investigated in the present study whether subjects use music to regulate their emotions in everyday situations. We set out to examine whether dis- positional emotional regulation styles are determining the situation-dependent choice of music. In a pre-study (N = 72), 20 music stimuli and 16 emotionally laden situations (on the dimensions valence and arousal) were determined. In the main study, 89 subject...

  6. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  7. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST) under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN) tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music) was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p > 0.05). On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise. PMID:24744463

  8. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  9. Pleasurable emotional response to music: a case of neurodegenerative generalized auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandy R; Chang, Chiung-Chih; De May, Mary; Engstrom, John; Miller, Bruce L

    2009-06-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies implicate the network of mesolimbic structures known to be active in reward processing as the neural substrate of pleasure associated with listening to music. Psychoacoustic and lesion studies suggest that there is a widely distributed cortical network involved in processing discreet musical variables. Here we present the case of a young man with auditory agnosia as the consequence of cortical neurodegeneration who continues to experience pleasure when exposed to music. In a series of musical tasks, the subject was unable to accurately identify any of the perceptual components of music beyond simple pitch discrimination, including musical variables known to impact the perception of affect. The subject subsequently misidentified the musical character of personally familiar tunes presented experimentally, but continued to report that the activity of 'listening' to specific musical genres was an emotionally rewarding experience. The implications of this case for the evolving understanding of music perception, music misperception, music memory, and music-associated emotion are discussed.

  10. Effects of music and music video interventions on sleep quality: A randomized controlled trial in adults with sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Chang, En-Ting; Hsieh, Yuan-Mei; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of music and music video interventions on objective and subjective sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. A randomized controlled trial was performed on 71 adults who were recruited from the outpatient department of a hospital with 1100 beds and randomly assigned to the control, music, and music video groups. During the 4 test days (Days 2-5), for 30min before nocturnal sleep, the music group listened to Buddhist music and the music video group watched Buddhist music videos. They were instructed to not listen/watch to the music/MV on the first night (pretest, Day 1) and the final night (Day 6). The control group received no intervention. Sleep was assessed using a one-channel electroencephalography machine in their homes and self-reported questionnaires. The music and music video interventions had no effect on any objective sleep parameters, as measured using electroencephalography. However, the music group had significantly longer subjective total sleep time than the music video group did (Wald χ 2 =6.23, p=0.04). Our study results increase knowledge regarding music interventions for sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. This study suggested that more research is required to strengthen the scientific knowledge of the effects of music intervention on sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. (ISRCTN94971645). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Music Listening as Music Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Charles D.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most fundamental, ongoing debates in music education involves scholars who argue for a "performance-based" curriculum and those who promote a curriculum that is fundamentally "aesthetic-listening based." Rather than arguing for the primacy of either performance or listening as a basis for a music education curriculum, the paper attempts…

  12. [Music therapy on Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrte, Beltrina; Lodovici Neto, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    This study is a result of a qualitative research, in the Gerontology and Music therapy scenario. It was analyzed the importance of alternative practices like playing an instrument (piano, violin, etc.), singing, or practicing a guided musical exercise as a therapy activity for elder people with Parkinson Disease. The analysis, systematization and interpretation of the data pointed: music therapy is an excellent way to improve the life of the patient that becomes more sociable, decreasing physical and psychological symptoms ('symptomatology') and the subject change for a singular and own position in the relation with your disease and the people around.

  13. Music listening while you learn: No influence of background music on verbal learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sandmann Pascale; Jäncke Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still disputed. In this study we investigated the influence of listening to background music on verbal learning performance and the associated brain activations. Methods Musical excerpts were composed for this study to ensure that they were unknown to the subjects and designed to vary in tempo (fast vs. slow) and consonance (in-tune vs. out-of-tune). Noise was used as control stimulus. 75 subject...

  14. Development of Musical Creativity of Higher Class Pupils Using Musical Computer Technologies (MCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rimkutė-Jankuvienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to find out possibilities of development of musical creativity by using MCT in the music education of senior pupils.Design/methodology/approach – literature review, qualitative survey methodology (interview with music teachers.Findings – implementation of MCT, like any other innovation (as well as ICT in different spheres of education, including pre-school education, bring forth a certain positive effect. The results of the interview showed that in the praxis of music education, MCT is used for different development purposes (to make a lesson original, help pupils memorize music, expand their imagination not only by listening, but also by watching and evaluating performance of music, listen to music recordings, understand music and evaluate its quality, etc.. But for the development of musical creativity, MCT has been used very poorly.Research limitation/implications – musical creativity’s concept has not been uniquely defined so far. The aim of scientific literature review is to show that musical creativity is not meant to be separated from general creativity. Moreover, this is compounded by the search of the possibilities to the development of musical creativity. Analysis of scientific literature shows that the use of MCT can make an influence on musical creativity. However, empirical researches on this subject are still missing.Practical implications – the results of the interviews about using MCT in music lessons in order to develop musical creativity could be significant in formulating strategies of the development of musical creativity, preparing methodological instruments as well as in teacher training programs.Originality/value – the object of the survey in the chosen theme has never been explored in Lithuania, while the comparison of the obtained data with foreign scientists’ discoveries could contribute to a musical creativity’s definition.Research type: literature review, interview review.

  15. Music, memory and emotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music...

  16. Music Education in the Twenty-First Century: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of German and American Music Education towards a New Concept of International Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz-Welzel, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Comparative Music Education is often considered to be an unnecessary subject because there seem to be more important issues for research than studying music education in various countries. Comparative music education is not a luxury, but rather a necessity in the twenty-first century. Scholars and music teachers in many countries are struggling…

  17. EEG dynamics during music appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Chen, Jyh-Horng

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the electroencephalographic (EEG) correlates of emotions during music listening. Principal component analysis (PCA) is used to correlate EEG features with complex music appreciation. This study also applies machine-leaning algorithms to demonstrate the feasibility of classifying EEG dynamics in four subjectively-reported emotional states. The high classification accuracy (81.58+/-3.74%) demonstrates the feasibility of using EEG features to assess emotional states of human subjects. Further, the spatial and spectral patterns of the EEG most relevant to emotions seem reproducible across subjects.

  18. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... frequency sounds are typically highly amplified, they play an important role in the subjective ratings and the 63-Hz-band must be included in objective measurements and recommendations....

  19. Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek eFranek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al. 1999 on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of movement

  20. Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franěk, Marek; van Noorden, Leon; Režný, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al., 1999) on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route that was 1.8 km in length through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the world pop music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of

  1. Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franěk, Marek; van Noorden, Leon; Režný, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al., 1999) on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route that was 1.8 km in length through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the world pop music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of

  2. Music Faculty Perceptions of Multicultural Music Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Katherine

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the perceptions of selected college music faculty on multicultural music education, focusing on such issues as a definition of multicultural music education, whether or not it would benefit from hiring minority faculty, and its benefits and problems. (CMK)

  3. Communicative Musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    plots of the interactions of mother infant dyads, the theory of communicative musicality found precise formulation in terms of the parameters: pulse, quality and narrative. This was first reported in Malloch (1999/2000), in the Special Issue of Musicae Scientiae, known to many of NJMT’s readers...... of the hearing and production of our musicality? If musicality is an intrinsic aspect of being human, how does it express itself in our living, feeling, thinking and being? What is the basis for this in our psyche and biology? The proposed answers come from different scientific areas: evolutionary theory...... of meaning for a sexually abused child (Robarts), and fostering communication in children with autistic spectrum disorders or with Rett Syndrome (Wigram & Elefant). Communicative Musicality is also shown in dance therapy with a group of children, born partially deaf and blind with disabilities (Bond...

  4. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  5. Nigerian Music Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Music Review is aimed at the scholarly review of the developments in various musical practices in Nigeria. It considers well researched articles in any of the following areas: Musicology, Ethnomusicology, African Music, Music Education, Performance, Composition, Music Technology, Music & Related Disciplines, ...

  6. Driven by Compression Progress: A Simple Principle Explains Essential Aspects of Subjective Beauty, Novelty, Surprise, Interestingness, Attention, Curiosity, Creativity, Art, Science, Music, Jokes.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidhuber, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    I argue that data becomes temporarily interesting by itself to some self-improving, but computationally limited, subjective observer once he learns to predict or compress the data in a better way, thus making it subjectively simpler and more "beautiful." Curiosity is the desire to create or discover more non-random, non-arbitrary, regular data that is novel and surprising not in the traditional sense of Boltzmann and Shannon but in the sense that it allows for compression progress because its...

  7. Music therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes Cf; Vink, Annemiek C; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-11-16

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. 1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies.2. To compare effects of different forms of music therapy for people of any age with a diagnosis of depression. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR; from inception to 6 May 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to 17 June 2016); Thomson Reuters/Web of Science (to 21 June 2016); Ebsco/PsycInfo, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, and PubMed (to 5 July 2016); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Guideline Clearing House, and OpenGrey (to 6 September 2016); and the Digital Access to Research Theses (DART)-Europe E-theses Portal, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (to 7 September 2016). We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant systematic reviews and contacted trialists and subject experts for additional information when needed. We updated this search in August 2017 and placed potentially relevant studies in the "Awaiting classification" section; we will incorporate these into the next version of this review as appropriate. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing music therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU), psychological therapies, pharmacological therapies, other therapies, or different forms of music therapy for reducing depression. Two review

  8. Perpetuating Nigerian Cultures in Musical Arts Education within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ike Odimegwu

    In order to encourage aesthetic, creative and musical activities, Government will make staff and facilities available for the teaching of creative arts, craft and music in primary school. This policy implies that music is inclined as one of the core subjects to be taught in the Primary Schools to help inculcate aesthetic values in the ...

  9. Music Education as a Panacea for National Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunrinade, D. O. A

    2015-01-01

    This paper appraises music as an essential part of Nigerian culture and its implication for national development. It discussed music as important aspect of culture and the rationale for the inclusion of the subject in Nigerian schools at all levels of education. It also explicates music education available in the community as well. The music…

  10. Teaching Materials and Strategies for the AP Music Theory Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Each year, many students take the Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory Exam, and the majority of these students enroll in specialized AP music theory classes as part of the preparation process. For the teachers of these AP music theory classes, a number of challenges are presented by the difficulty and complexity of the exam subject material as…

  11. Music Inspired by Astronomy: A Resource Guide Organized by Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This annotated resource guide presents 133 pieces of music inspired by astronomical ideas, discoveries, or history, organized in 22 subject categories. Both classical and popular music are included, but only when a clear connection to astronomy could be established. Depending on your musical tastes, you are likely to find some pieces resonating…

  12. Music as Illness; Music as Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Throughout the Soviet Union, the arts became tied to ethnicity through the project of Socialist Realism. When, in 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic became independent from the Soviet Union, its national narrative continued to be built upon tropes of Kyrgyz ethnicity. Through their engagement with images of the ethno-national self, the arts provide a great source of beauty. Defining beauty as a representation of the self that is pure whole, and stable, Julia Kristeva asserts that beauty and suffering are part of the same phenomena. Arthur Kleinman argues that suffering is best understood as existing within the triangulated relationship of cultural representation, collective experience, and subjectivity. Music too is part of this triangulated relationship, and therefore, a part of suffering. Drawing upon ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in Kyrgyzstan, this article explores the illness experience of a single Kyrgyz musician. In doing so, it illustrates music's role in self-formation and the development of social, economic, and political ties and the shifts that occur in these during illness. In drawing forth the role of music in the construction of racialized ethnicities, this article demonstrates how the experience of transformative beauty can coexist with turmoil, marginalization, and violence.

  13. 19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford, 11.-13. 7. 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Myslivcová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, 2-3 (2016), s. 300-301 ISSN 0018-7003. [19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference. Oxford, 11.07.2016-13.07.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : music ological conference * nineteenth-century music * Antonin Dvorak * opera Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  14. Tarnished Gold: Classical Music in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A few articles have appeared recently regarding the subject of the health of classical music (or more broadly, the fine arts) in America. These include "Classical Music's New Golden Age," by Heather Mac Donald, in the "City Journal" and "The Decline of the Audience," by Terry Teachout, in "Commentary." These articles appeared around the time of…

  15. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  16. El Sistema and American Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The brainchild of Jose Antonio Abreu, El Sistema, a music education program for aspiring orchestra musicians launched in Venezuela for students of limited means and now spreading to other parts of the world, has become a subject of interest to music teachers and teacher educators in North America. This article examines a bit of the program's…

  17. Self-Efficacy and Music Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Gary E.; McCormick, John

    2006-01-01

    This study is the second in a series of investigations attempting to clarify relationships between variables that impact on a young musician's ability to perform music (as assessed on a graded music examination). Consistent with studies on school academic subjects, our previous investigation demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy in…

  18. Investigation of synchronization between musical beat and heartbeat with cardio-music synchrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Makoto; Nomura, Shusaku; Sawai, Masahiro; Imai, Jun-Ichi; Nagashima, Tomomasa

    To illuminate the synchronization phenomena between heartbeat and music, the effects of a sedative music of variable tempo on heart rates were investigated. In the experiment, nine subjects were exposed to the sedative music with having changes in its tempo. The tempo gradually increases, decreases, or stands stable in the music (hereafter these experimental condition are named as Up, Down, and Flat condition). With regard to the analysis of synchronization, we introduced our formerly developed Cardio-Music Synchrogram, which was used to extract statistically significant synchronization period between heartbeat and music. As a result, it was suggested that the sedative music in Down condition induced synchronization more frequently than Flat and Up conditions.

  19. Popular culture and tourism: the case of music tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Metodijeski, Dejan; Stojanoski, Hristo

    2014-01-01

    The subject of research in this paper is the popular culture and tourism analysed from the perspective of the music aspect of tourism. Although tourism and music can be characterized as a popular culture, these two terms are not analysed individually. Instead, this research is taking into consideration their mutual relation and synergy. This paper is making an attempt to define the popular culture, tourism and music tourism through numerous examples of music tourism around the globe. In ad...

  20. The Social Construction of Digital Recorded Music : A Preliminary Map

    OpenAIRE

    Trollsås, Brede Tarald Fannemel

    2010-01-01

    Following the advent of digital media, recorded music has been subject to radical changes in recent years – both technologically and economically. Formerly the dominant sound carrier, the CD is experiencing plummeting sales; while a new format, the digital music file, is on the rise. But digital files are easily shared over the Internet; and as the industry struggles to adjust its business models to the new realities of the recorded music market, file sharers are disseminating music across bo...

  1. [The relations between music and medicine in history and present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2011-12-01

    Since the ancient world relations exist between music and medicine. In the prehistoric music, dance, rhythm and religious practice were important parts of shamanism and early medical procedures. Important philosophers of the classic period already began with the scientific research of musical and medical questions. During the middle age convents conserved ancient knowledge. They offered medical care and taught the ancient knowledge of medicine, arts and music. The Gregorian choral was created. Traditions of popular believe expressed the relations between music and medicine. The Renaissance became the great époque of art, music and science. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius presented a new style of artistic working and scientific knowledge. Also the basics of western music, like tonality was developed. With the separation of scientific subjects in natural sciences and humanities, the relationships between music and medicine fall into oblivion. During the classic and romantic era music and art were important parts of cultural live of the well educated society. With the development of neurology, psychiatry and psychoanalysis more physicians and scientists were interested in musical questions. Questions about the role of music in human behavior and the ancient method to use music in medical treatment became popular. In the early 20th century the music therapy was developed. Today the effects of music to the human brain are investigated with radionuclear methods. A lot of investigations showed the effect of music and music performance to humans. Music plays an important part in psychotherapy, therapeutic pedagogy and medical care, the importance of music and music therapy increases. In the 80ies of the 20th century the performing arts medicine was developed, which asks for the medical problems of performing musicians. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Influence of Music on Steroid Hormones and the Relationship between Receptor Polymorphism and Musical Ability: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime eFukui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1 music they preferred (chill-inducing music and (2 music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

  3. Influence of music on steroid hormones and the relationship between receptor polymorphisms and musical ability: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females) were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1) music they preferred (chill-inducing music) and (2) music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor (AR) and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T) levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

  4. Semi-automatic approach for music classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong

    2003-11-01

    Audio categorization is essential when managing a music database, either a professional library or a personal collection. However, a complete automation in categorizing music into proper classes for browsing and searching is not yet supported by today"s technology. Also, the issue of music classification is subjective to some extent as each user may have his own criteria for categorizing music. In this paper, we propose the idea of semi-automatic music classification. With this approach, a music browsing system is set up which contains a set of tools for separating music into a number of broad types (e.g. male solo, female solo, string instruments performance, etc.) using existing music analysis methods. With results of the automatic process, the user may further cluster music pieces in the database into finer classes and/or adjust misclassifications manually according to his own preferences and definitions. Such a system may greatly improve the efficiency of music browsing and retrieval, while at the same time guarantee accuracy and user"s satisfaction of the results. Since this semi-automatic system has two parts, i.e. the automatic part and the manual part, they are described separately in the paper, with detailed descriptions and examples of each step of the two parts included.

  5. Can music preference indicate mental health status in young people?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Felicity; Bor, William

    2008-08-01

    In the aftermath of the double suicide of two teenage girls in 2007, the media linked the themes of 'emo' music and the girls' mental state. But it is not just emo music that has been the subject of scrutiny by the media. Rap music, country, and heavy metal have also been blamed for antisocial behaviours including violence, theft, promiscuity and drug use. It remains an important research and clinical question as to whether music contributes to the acting out of behaviours described in the music lyrics or whether the preferred music represents the already existing behavioural tendencies in the subject. This paper surveys and discusses the relevant literature on music preference and adolescent music listening behaviours, and their links with adolescent mental health. Studies have found a relationship between various genres of music and antisocial behaviours, vulnerability to suicide, and drug use. However, studies reject that music is a causal factor and suggest that music preference is more indicative of emotional vulnerability. A limited number of studies have found correlations between music preference and mental health status. More research is needed to determine whether music preferences of those with diagnosed mental health issues differ substantially from the general adolescent population.

  6. A Stereo Music Preprocessing Scheme for Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Wim; van Dijk, Bas; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Listening to music is still one of the more challenging aspects of using a cochlear implant (CI) for most users. Simple musical structures, a clear rhythm/beat, and lyrics that are easy to follow are among the top factors contributing to music appreciation for CI users. Modifying the audio mix of complex music potentially improves music enjoyment in CI users. A stereo music preprocessing scheme is described in which vocals, drums, and bass are emphasized based on the representation of the harmonic and the percussive components in the input spectrogram, combined with the spatial allocation of instruments in typical stereo recordings. The scheme is assessed with postlingually deafened CI subjects (N = 7) using pop/rock music excerpts with different complexity levels. The scheme is capable of modifying relative instrument level settings, with the aim of improving music appreciation in CI users, and allows individual preference adjustments. The assessment with CI subjects confirms the preference for more emphasis on vocals, drums, and bass as offered by the preprocessing scheme, especially for songs with higher complexity. The stereo music preprocessing scheme has the potential to improve music enjoyment in CI users by modifying the audio mix in widespread (stereo) music recordings. Since music enjoyment in CI users is generally poor, this scheme can assist the music listening experience of CI users as a training or rehabilitation tool.

  7. Studies in musical acoustics and psychoacoustics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises twelve articles which cover a range of topics from musical instrument acoustics to issues in psychoacoustics and sound perception as well as neuromusicology. In addition to experimental methods and data acquisition, modeling (such as FEM or wave field synthesis) and numerical simulation plays a central role in studies addressing sound production in musical instruments as well as interaction of radiated sound with the environment. Some of the studies have a focus on psychoacoustic aspects in regard to virtual pitch and timbre as well as apparent source width (for techniques such as stereo or ambisonics) in music production. Since musical acoustics imply subjects playing instruments or singing in order to produce sound according to musical structures, this area is also covered including a study that presents an artifical intelligent agent capable to interact with a real ('analog') player in musical genres such as traditional and free jazz. .

  8. Music therapy in psychiatry/mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    This special feature is a series of papers from a symposium held on 15th April 2016 at Aalborg University, Denmark on the topic: ‘Music therapy: A profession for the future’. The two core questions listed in the title: ‘Why music? Why and when is a music therapist needed?’ were the vehicle...... wondered if common answers to the two core questions in the profession of music therapy would emerge at an international base during the day, or if multiple ideas and subjective answers to the questions would come up. As the contributions show, it is mostly multiple ideas; yet with regard to case material......, the way of carrying out music therapy in a relationship with the users of music therapy is very similar. The theoretical understanding and ideological positions are different. There still seems to be, however, a growing integration of theories and ideas by many presenters and discussion partners...

  9. Music therapy: A profession for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    This special feature is a series of papers from a symposium held on 15th April 2016 at Aalborg University, Denmark on the topic: ‘Music therapy: A profession for the future’. The two core questions listed in the title: ‘Why music? Why and when is a music therapist needed?’ were the vehicle...... wondered if common answers to the two core questions in the profession of music therapy would emerge at an international base during the day, or if multiple ideas and subjective answers to the questions would come up. As the contributions show, it is mostly multiple ideas; yet with regard to case material......, the way of carrying out music therapy in a relationship with the users of music therapy is very similar. The theoretical understanding and ideological positions are different. There still seems to be, however, a growing integration of theories and ideas by many presenters and discussion partners...

  10. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  11. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  12. The Effect of Feeling of Similarity with Music on Relaxation : Relation between Mood before Listening and Music Type

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 孝子; 岩永, 誠

    1999-01-01

    It is empirically said that music which has the similar characteristics to the negative mood in listening is effective in relaxation (ISO PRINCIPLE, Altshuler, 1954). However, previous studies suggested that the types of music influence relaxation; negative toned music elicited negative emotion. This finding couldnot explain the effect on relaxation by Iso Principle. The purpose of this study was to examine (1) what type of music a subject in what kind of mood feels the similarity between mus...

  13. Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Music Club

    2011-01-01

    MUSIC ON THE LAWN 2011 As part of the Fete de la Musique 2011, the CERN MusiClub is organizing Music on the Lawn, an informal concert for Club musicians/bands. The event will take place from 14h00 to 20h00 on Saturday 25th June on the terrace of restaurant no 1. This year 8 MusiClub bands will be performing… WOT Home Cookin’ Picture Flame DANGLERZ The Nearlies RISE A Drop of Red The Groovy Gang So put the date in your diaries and spend a sunny afternoon listening to some great live music (and unlike Paleo and Montreux it’s FREE!!!!) For more information on the CERN MusiClub see http://muzipod.free.fr/  

  14. Personality and music preferences: the influence of personality traits on preferences regarding musical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific study was to determine how personality traits, as classified by Cattell, influence preferences regarding musical elements. The subject group consisted of 145 students, male and female, chosen at random from different Polish universities. For the purpose of determining their personality traits the participants completed the 16PF Questionnaire (Cattell, Saunders, & Stice, 1957; Russel & Karol, 1993), in its Polish adaptation by Choynowski (Nowakowska, 1970). The participants' musical preferences were determined by their completing a Questionnaire of Musical Preferences (specifically created for the purposes of this research), in which respondents indicated their favorite piece of music. Next, on the basis of the Questionnaire of Musical Preferences, a list of the works of music chosen by the participants was compiled. All pieces were collected on CDs and analyzed to separate out their basic musical elements. The statistical analysis shows that some personality traits: Liveliness (Factor F), Social Boldness (Factor H), Vigilance (Factor L), Openness to Change (Factor Q1), Extraversion (a general factor) have an influence on preferences regarding musical elements. Important in the subjects' musical preferences were found to be those musical elements having stimulative value and the ability to regulate the need for stimulation. These are: tempo, rhythm in relation to metrical basis, number of melodic themes, sound voluminosity, and meter.

  15. Hate Music

    OpenAIRE

    Chastagner, Claude

    2013-01-01

    On August 5, 2012, Wade Michael Page killed six Sikhs outside their temple in Wisconsin. Page was an avowed white supremacist and belonged to several bands playing openly racist music and connected to neo-Nazi organizations. This article explores the connection between “hate music” and racist organizations, and wonders about the potential power of music to generate violence. Le 5 août 2012, Wade Michael Page tue 6 membres de la communauté Sikh à l’entrée de leur temple, dans le Wisconsin, ...

  16. Glitch music

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Robert Anthony do Amaral

    2016-01-01

    Este trabalho traz questões relacionadas com a glitch music, gênero ligado à estética do erro que surgiu na década de 1990. Divido em dois pontos: no primeiro, a pesquisa parte de definições iniciais sobre o glitch e a glitch music, buscando delinear um contexto geral que o gênero se desenvolveu. Levantamos também questões conceituais sobre o “erro”, procurando apontar o uso do erro como estética na música. No segundo, mostramos três perspectivas de abordagens distintas do glitch em três comp...

  17. Using music[al] knowledge to represent expressions of emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stewart C; Garner, David Kirkland; Somoroff, Matthew; Gramling, David J; Norton, Sally A; Gramling, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Being able to identify expressions of emotion is crucial to effective clinical communication research. However, traditional linguistic coding systems often cannot represent emotions that are expressed nonlexically or phonologically (i.e., not through words themselves but through vocal pitch, speed/rhythm/tempo, and volume). Using audio recording of a palliative care consultation in the natural hospital setting, two experienced music scholars employed Western musical notation, as well as the graphic realization of a digital audio program (Piano roll visualization), to visually represent the sonic features of conversation where a patient has an emotional "choke" moment. Western musical notation showed the ways that changes in pitch and rate correspond to the patient's emotion: rising sharply in intensity before slowly fading away. Piano roll visualization is a helpful supplement. Using musical notation to illustrate palliative care conversations in the hospital setting can render visible for analysis several aspects of emotional expression that researchers otherwise experience as intuitive or subjective. Various forms and formats of musical notation techniques and sonic visualization technologies should be considered as fruitful and complementary alternatives to traditional coding tools in clinical communications research. Musical notation offers opportunity for both researchers and learners to "see" how communication evolves in clinical encounters, particularly where the lexical and phonological features of interpersonal communication are concordant and discordant with one another. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Influence of Musical Knowledge on Musical Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Alejandra; Tena, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The psychology of music can be found within a conceptual and empirical framework that is useful as a reference to explain the human response to it. An important research line of this discipline is the one that studies the musical taste, on which is based this article. The comparison is between musical taste and preferences of musical genres among people with musical education and those without it. The sample was constituted by 104 participants that were divided into two groups: a) individuals...

  19. The association of noise sensitivity with music listening, training, and aptitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliuchko, Marina; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Monacis, Lucia; Gold, Benjamin P.; Heikkilä, Kauko V.; Spinosa, Vittoria; Tervaniemi, Mari; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    After intensive, long-term musical training, the auditory system of a musician is specifically tuned to perceive musical sounds. We wished to find out whether a musician's auditory system also develops increased sensitivity to any sound of everyday life, experiencing them as noise. For this purpose, an online survey, including questionnaires on noise sensitivity, musical background, and listening tests for assessing musical aptitude, was administered to 197 participants in Finland and Italy. Subjective noise sensitivity (assessed with the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale) was analyzed for associations with musicianship, musical aptitude, weekly time spent listening to music, and the importance of music in each person's life (or music importance). Subjects were divided into three groups according to their musical expertise: Nonmusicians (N = 103), amateur musicians (N = 44), and professional musicians (N = 50). The results showed that noise sensitivity did not depend on musical expertise or performance on musicality tests or the amount of active (attentive) listening to music. In contrast, it was associated with daily passive listening to music, so that individuals with higher noise sensitivity spent less time in passive (background) listening to music than those with lower sensitivity to noise. Furthermore, noise-sensitive respondents rated music as less important in their life than did individuals with lower sensitivity to noise. The results demonstrate that the special sensitivity of the auditory system derived from musical training does not lead to increased irritability from unwanted sounds. However, the disposition to tolerate contingent musical backgrounds in everyday life depends on the individual's noise sensitivity. PMID:26356378

  20. Music, memory and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  1. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  2. SEMINAR IN MUSIC EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PALISCA, CLAUDE V.

    A SEMINAR ON MUSIC EDUCATION WAS ORGANIZED TO BRING THE WIDEST POSSIBLE VARIETY OF MUSICAL COMPETENCE AND INTERESTS TO BEAR UPON PROBLEMS IN SCHOOL MUSIC. THE THREE CENTRAL PROBLEM AREAS PUT BEFORE THE SEMINAR WERE (1) DEVELOPMENT OF MUSICALITY THROUGH PLAYING, SINGING, AND CREATING MUSIC, AND THROUGH LISTENING AND EAR TRAINING, (2) CRITERIA FOR…

  3. Educating the Music User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    To better serve students' evolving needs in music, music educators must connect classroom learning with how students use and interact with music in their daily lives. One way to accomplish this is by approaching classrooms with the music user in mind, which can open new possibilities for meaningful music making and remove students from the…

  4. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe N. Moreno-Gómez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and deteriorated speech intelligibility. Music impairments in presbycusis subjects can be attributed to the normal aging processes and to presbycusis neuropathological changes. However, whether presbycusis further impairs music perception remains controversial. Here, we developed a computerized version of the Montreal battery of evaluation of amusia (MBEA and assessed music perception in 175 Chilean adults aged between 18 and 90 years without hearing complaints and in symptomatic presbycusis patients. We give normative data for MBEA performance in a Latin-American population, showing age and educational effects. In addition, we found that symptomatic presbycusis was the most relevant factor determining global MBEA accuracy in aged subjects. Moreover, we show that melodic impairments in presbycusis individuals were diminished by music training, while the performance in temporal tasks were affected by the educational level and music training. We conclude that music training and education are important factors as they can slow the deterioration of music perception produced by age-related hearing loss.

  5. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gómez, Felipe N; Véliz, Guillermo; Rojas, Marcos; Martínez, Cristián; Olmedo, Rubén; Panussis, Felipe; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Delgado, Carolina; Delano, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and deteriorated speech intelligibility. Music impairments in presbycusis subjects can be attributed to the normal aging processes and to presbycusis neuropathological changes. However, whether presbycusis further impairs music perception remains controversial. Here, we developed a computerized version of the Montreal battery of evaluation of amusia (MBEA) and assessed music perception in 175 Chilean adults aged between 18 and 90 years without hearing complaints and in symptomatic presbycusis patients. We give normative data for MBEA performance in a Latin-American population, showing age and educational effects. In addition, we found that symptomatic presbycusis was the most relevant factor determining global MBEA accuracy in aged subjects. Moreover, we show that melodic impairments in presbycusis individuals were diminished by music training, while the performance in temporal tasks were affected by the educational level and music training. We conclude that music training and education are important factors as they can slow the deterioration of music perception produced by age-related hearing loss.

  6. Musical and film time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulezić-Wilson Danijela

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of linear, non-linear and multiple temporal dimensions in music and film reveals that the understanding and utilisation of time in these two arts reflect not only the aesthetic inclinations of its creators and their subjective experiences of temporality but also their philosophical views and, sometimes, spiritual beliefs. Viewed in the context of contemporary theories about Time, particularly Shallis' interpretation of different temporalities as symbolic of various levels of reality and J. T. Fraser's concept of time as a hierarchical nest of different temporalities or Umwelts, the results of this comparison lead to the conclusion that the time in which music and film unfold belongs to a separate, artificial Umwelt of its own - art-temporality.

  7. Music and Psychophysiological Recovery from Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radstaak, M.; Geurts, S.A.E.; Brosschot, J.F.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Method: Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to

  8. A Musical Investigation of the Kamin Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarico, P. Thomas

    1973-01-01

    Author attempted to relate research in the area of musical studies with Leon Kamin's research with animals. The experiment with human subjects set out to measure the presentation of auditory stimuli without punishment as an indication of memorization processes. (RK)

  9. Music and Psychophysiological Recovery from Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radstaak, M; Geurts, S.A.E; Brosschot, J.F; Kompier, M.A.J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Method: Participants (N = 123...

  10. Individual brain-frequency responses to self-selected music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höller, Yvonne; Thomschewski, Aljoscha; Schmid, Elisabeth Verena; Höller, Peter; Crone, Julia Sophia; Trinka, Eugen

    2012-12-01

    Music is a stimulus which may give rise to a wide range of emotional and cognitive responses. Therefore, brain reactivity to music has become a focus of interest in cognitive neuroscience. It is possible that individual preference moderates the effectof music on the brain. In the present study we examined whether there are common effects of listening to music even if each subject in a sample chooses their own piece of music. We invited 18 subjects to bring along their favorite relaxing music, and their favourite stimulating music. Additionally, a condition with tactile stimulation on the foot and a baseline condition (rest) without stimulation were used. The tactile stimulation was chosen to provide a simple, non-auditory condition which would be identical for all subjects. The electroencephalogram was recorded for each of the 3 conditions and during rest. We found responses in the alpha range mainly on parietal and occipital sites that were significant compared to baseline in 13 subjects during relaxing music, 15 subjects during activating music, and 16 subjects during tactile stimulation. Most subjects showed an alpha desynchronization in a lower alpha range followed by a synchronization in an upper frequency range. However, some subjects showed an increase in this area, whereas others showed a decrease only. In addition, many subjects showed reactivity in the beta range. Beta activity was especially increased while listening to activating music and during tactile stimulation in most subjects. We found interindividual differences in the response patterns even though the stimuli provoked comparable subjective emotions (relaxation, activation), and even if the stimulus was the same for all subjects (somatosensory stimulation). We suggest that brain responsivity to music should be examined individually by considering individual characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. LHChamber Music

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    LHChamber Music, an experimental piece and an "experimental" ensemble for the 60th CERN Anniversary, based on the sonification of the data recorded by the 4 detectors during LHC run 2011-2013. Performed in the four experimental caverns and in the CCC by physicists and engineers working at CERN.

  12. Increase in Synchronization of Autonomic Rhythms between Individuals When Listening to Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F; Codrons, Erwan; di Leo, Rita; Vandoni, Matteo; Cavallaro, Filippo; Vita, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    In light of theories postulating a role for music in forming emotional and social bonds, here we investigated whether endogenous rhythms synchronize between multiple individuals when listening to music. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings were taken from multiple individuals (musically trained or music-naïve) simultaneously, at rest and during a live concert comprising music excerpts with varying degrees of complexity of the acoustic envelope. Inter-individual synchronization of cardiorespiratory rhythms showed a subtle but reliable increase during passively listening to music compared to baseline. The low-level auditory features of the music were largely responsible for creating or disrupting such synchronism, explaining ~80% of its variance, over and beyond subjective musical preferences and previous musical training. Listening to simple rhythms and melodies, which largely dominate the choice of music during rituals and mass events, brings individuals together in terms of their physiological rhythms, which could explain why music is widely used to favor social bonds.

  13. Increase in Synchronization of Autonomic Rhythms between Individuals When Listening to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; Codrons, Erwan; di Leo, Rita; Vandoni, Matteo; Cavallaro, Filippo; Vita, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    In light of theories postulating a role for music in forming emotional and social bonds, here we investigated whether endogenous rhythms synchronize between multiple individuals when listening to music. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings were taken from multiple individuals (musically trained or music-naïve) simultaneously, at rest and during a live concert comprising music excerpts with varying degrees of complexity of the acoustic envelope. Inter-individual synchronization of cardiorespiratory rhythms showed a subtle but reliable increase during passively listening to music compared to baseline. The low-level auditory features of the music were largely responsible for creating or disrupting such synchronism, explaining ~80% of its variance, over and beyond subjective musical preferences and previous musical training. Listening to simple rhythms and melodies, which largely dominate the choice of music during rituals and mass events, brings individuals together in terms of their physiological rhythms, which could explain why music is widely used to favor social bonds. PMID:29089898

  14. Increase in Synchronization of Autonomic Rhythms between Individuals When Listening to Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò F. Bernardi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In light of theories postulating a role for music in forming emotional and social bonds, here we investigated whether endogenous rhythms synchronize between multiple individuals when listening to music. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings were taken from multiple individuals (musically trained or music-naïve simultaneously, at rest and during a live concert comprising music excerpts with varying degrees of complexity of the acoustic envelope. Inter-individual synchronization of cardiorespiratory rhythms showed a subtle but reliable increase during passively listening to music compared to baseline. The low-level auditory features of the music were largely responsible for creating or disrupting such synchronism, explaining ~80% of its variance, over and beyond subjective musical preferences and previous musical training. Listening to simple rhythms and melodies, which largely dominate the choice of music during rituals and mass events, brings individuals together in terms of their physiological rhythms, which could explain why music is widely used to favor social bonds.

  15. Effects of music on arousal during imagery in elite shooters: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Terry, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.

  16. Effects of music on arousal during imagery in elite shooters: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.

  17. Music and physical activity in psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macone, Damiano; Baldari, Carlo; Zelli, Arnaldo; Guidetti, Laura

    2006-08-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of listening to music during exercise of moderate intensity on mood, state anxiety, and time to exhaustion as well as to evaluate sex differences in 27 physically active (14 men, 13 women) subjects between the ages of 20 and 30 years. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States and the State Anxiety Inventory before and after treadmill running in Music and No music conditions. Music and No Music conditions were randomly assigned, and participants exercised at 75% of their Heart Rate Reserve until voluntary exhaustion. Analysis indicated participants reported statistically significant mean changes on Tension, Depression, Fatigue, Confusion, and State Anxiety. However, the findings for emotions yielded no significant effect of music, except findings suggested that women, but not men, reported greater mean Fatigue after exercising in the presence of music than in its absence. Also, there was a statistically significant finding suggesting that women exercised longer with music than without.

  18. Cognitive approaches to analysis of emotions in music listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.

    2013-01-01

    interested in musical meaning the emotional impact of music has always been a major concern. In this paper I will explore how multiple cognitive theories and empirical findings can be applied to account for emotional response to three subjectively chosen excerpts of strongly emotion-inducing music: Namely......In recent years research into music cognition and perception has increasingly gained territory. A fact which is not always realised by music theorists is that, from the perspective of cognitive psychology and empirical methodology, the representatives of the expanding field of cognitive music...... research frequently address questions and propose theoretical frameworks that ought to have implications for music theory of a more traditional kind. Yet, such cognitive theories and empirical findings have not had radical impact on general analytical practice and teaching of music theory. For theorists...

  19. Effect of Preferred Music on Agitation After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soohyun; Williams, Reg Arthur; Lee, Donghyun

    2016-04-01

    Agitation is a common behavioral problem after traumatic brain injury (TBI), which threatens the safety of patients and caregivers and disrupts the rehabilitation process. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a preferred music intervention on the reduction of agitation in TBI patients and to compare the effects of preferred music with those of classical "relaxation" music. A single group, within-subjects, randomized crossover trial design was formed, consisting of 14 agitated patients with cognitive impairment after severe TBI. Patients listened to preferred music and classical "relaxation" music, with a wash-out period in between. Patients listening to the preferred music reported a significantly greater reduction in agitation compared with the effect seen during the classical "relaxation" music intervention (p = .046). These findings provide preliminary evidence that the preferred music intervention may be effective as an environmental therapeutic approach for reducing agitation after TBI. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The Physics and Psychophysics of Music An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Juan G

    2009-01-01

    This book, a classic in its field, deals with the physical systems and physiological processes that intervene in music. It analyzes what objective, physical properties of sound are associated with what subjective psychological sensations of music, and it describes how these sound patterns are actually generated in musical instruments, how they propagate through the environment, and how they are detected by the ear and interpreted in the brain. Using the precise language of science, but without complicated mathematics, the author weaves a close mesh of the physics, psychophysics and neurobiology relevant to music. A prior knowledge of physics, mathematics, neurobiology or psychology is not required to understand most of the book; it is, however, assumed that the reader is familiar with music - in particular, with musical notation, musical scales and intervals, and some of the basics of musical instruments. This new edition presents substantially updated coverage of psychoacoustics, including: • New results f...

  1. Musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Belenkaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to justify theoretically the need for musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical supervision. Results: the main directions of musical training of coaches in aesthetic-orientated sports were reviewed. It was discovered that in these types of sports coaches must have specific musical and rhythmic motor skills involving the use of musical accompaniment as a methodological technique for training sessions. The means of music and rhythmic education, which facilitate effective musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports, were determined. Conclusions: the necessity of improving the teaching methods of the subject "music and rhythmic education" as part of the musical training of coaches in aesthetic-orientated sports, was theoretically justified.

  2. Enjoyment of music by elderly hearing-impaired listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leek, Marjorie R; Molis, Michelle R; Kubli, Lina R; Tufts, Jennifer B

    2008-06-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that hearing loss interferes with the enjoyment of music, although it is not known how widespread this problem currently is. To estimate the prevalence of music-listening difficulties among a group of elderly hearing aid wearers. Interview. Telephone interviews were conducted with patients who wore hearing aids. Questions regarding several aspects of music listening were included. Sixty-eight hearing-impaired people served as subjects. They had all been seen in the audiology clinic for hearing aid evaluation during the previous year. Subjects were asked questions concerning their use of hearing aids, the importance of listening to music in their lives, their habits and practices concerning music, and difficulties they experienced in listening to music. Almost 30% of the respondents reported that their hearing losses affected their enjoyment of music. About half of the respondents indicated that music was either too loud or too soft, although only about one-third reported difficulties with level contrasts within musical pieces. In contrast to a similar survey carried out 20 years ago, there were many fewer complaints about listening to music. This result may be due in large part to improvements in hearing aids, especially with regard to nonlinear compression. Although new hearing aid technologies have somewhat reduced problems of music enjoyment experienced by hearing-impaired people, audiologists should be aware that some 25-30% of patients may have difficulties with listening to music and may require extra attention to minimize those problems.

  3. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  4. Extreme Metal Music and Anger Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A.

    2015-01-01

    The claim that listening to extreme music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 extreme music listeners aged 18–34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to extreme music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative ...

  5. How musical are music video game players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that formal musical training is associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive advantages in individuals of various ages. However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types of everyday musical activities. Here, we show that people who have frequently played music video games outperform nonmusicians controls on a battery of music perception tests. These findings reveal that enhanced musical aptitude can be found among individuals who play music video games, raising the possibility that music video games could potentially enhance music perception skills in individuals across a broad spectrum of society who are otherwise unable to invest the time and/or money required to learn a musical instrument.

  6. Music Is Sound Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardue, Tommie; Rager, Brenda

    1980-01-01

    Presented are suggestions to help acquire increased community support for music education in general, and MIOSW (Music in Our Schools Week) in particular. MENC (Music Educators National Conference) has selected March 9-15, 1981 for MIOSW. (KC)

  7. Music therapy and depression

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    .... This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression...

  8. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  9. Emotional Responses to Music: Shifts in Frontal Brain Asymmetry Mark Periods of Musical Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain-Abdulah Arjmand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo – and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation – is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18–38 years who listened to four stimuli—pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music, neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3–FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a

  10. Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies

    OpenAIRE

    Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenz?l? Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29?99 s in duratio...

  11. Music Production with Changing Tools – a Challenge to Formal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gullö, Jan-Olof

    2010-01-01

    The Millennials, today’s pupils and students, is the first generation to grow up with tools for interactive communication and media production. Many students choose to study music production in higher education establishments. Therefore music production is an emerging subject and important research topic. The aim of this thesis is to develop knowledge of music production and to identify key skills necessary for music producers and music production teachers. Three sub-studies were performed to...

  12. After-school music educational activities as a part of professional training of future teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lypa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of preparing students for extracurricular musical andeducational activities in secondary school and highlighted ways of combining music andperformance and outreach for individual classes of musical subjects analyzed featuresbetween teachers and students in the development plan and the educational content of themusic and creative project.Key words: musical and educational activities, educational and creative musical project,tutoring, teacher-student collaboration.

  13. Metal music and mental health in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recours, Robin; Aussaguel, François; Trujillo, Nick

    2009-09-01

    Although numerous authors have associated metal music with social problems such as suicide, self-destruction and Satanism, few studies have been undertaken to examine the mental health of fans of heavy metal music. This study attempts to determine if there is a link between mental health and the enjoyment of this type of music in France. The researchers surveyed 333 fans of metal music. Their mental health was evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a widely used instrument that measures anxiety and depression. The scores of the sample of metal music fans were then compared to the scores that reveal possible, probable, or severe mental disorders. Qualifying variables included age, gender, status, education, motivation and participation in metal music culture. The results indicated that fans of metal music are mainly young adults (median age = 22.67, SD = 5.29) and tend to be male (87.85 percent). As a whole, metal music fans have levels of anxiety and depression that are similar to and lower than levels in the general population. Specifically, music fans surveyed showed pathological symptoms. Subjects that scored higher levels of anxiety and depression were those that had literary and/or arts backgrounds rather than scientific backgrounds, that wrote metal music lyrics, that consumed alcohol and that engaged in the body modification practice of scarification. This study suggests that opponents of metal music should re-examine the basis for their criticism. More scholarly research is needed to better understand the effects of metal music on fans and on society.

  14. Extreme Metal Music and Anger Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A.

    2015-01-01

    The claim that listening to extreme music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 extreme music listeners aged 18–34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to extreme music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased) in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that extreme music did not make angry participants angrier; rather, it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to extreme music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners. PMID:26052277

  15. Extreme Metal Music and Anger Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Leah; Dingle, Genevieve A

    2015-01-01

    The claim that listening to extreme music causes anger, and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency have yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 extreme music listeners aged 18-34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 min of listening to extreme music from their own playlist, or 10 min silence (control). Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS). Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased) in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that extreme music did not make angry participants angrier; rather, it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to extreme music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners.

  16. Using music as a signal for biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Ilias; Seinfeld, Sofia; Arroyo-Palacios, Jorge; Slater, Mel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the potential benefits of conveying biofeedback stimulus using a musical signal have appeared in recent years with the intent of harnessing the strong effects that music listening may have on subjects. While results are encouraging, the fundamental question has yet to be addressed, of how combined music and biofeedback compares to the already established use of either of these elements separately. This experiment, involving young adults (N = 24), compared the effectiveness at modulating participants' states of physiological arousal of each of the following conditions: A) listening to pre-recorded music, B) sonification biofeedback of the heart rate, and C) an algorithmically modulated musical feedback signal conveying the subject's heart rate. Our hypothesis was that each of the conditions (A), (B) and (C) would differ from the other two in the extent to which it enables participants to increase and decrease their state of physiological arousal, with (C) being more effective than (B), and both more than (A). Several physiological measures and qualitative responses were recorded and analyzed. Results show that using musical biofeedback allowed participants to modulate their state of physiological arousal at least equally well as sonification biofeedback, and much better than just listening to music, as reflected in their heart rate measurements, controlling for respiration-rate. Our findings indicate that the known effects of music in modulating arousal can therefore be beneficially harnessed when designing a biofeedback protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Extreme metal music and anger processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah eSharman

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The claim that listening to extreme music causes anger and expressions of anger such as aggression and delinquency has yet to be substantiated using controlled experimental methods. In this study, 39 extreme music listeners aged 18 to 34 years were subjected to an anger induction, followed by random assignment to 10 minutes of listening to extreme music from their own playlist, or 10 minutes of silence (control. Measures of emotion included heart rate and subjective ratings on the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS. Results showed that ratings of PANAS hostility, irritability, and stress increased during the anger induction, and decreased after the music or silence. Heart rate increased during the anger induction and was sustained (not increased in the music condition, and decreased in the silence condition. PANAS active and inspired ratings increased during music listening, an effect that was not seen in controls. The findings indicate that extreme music did not make angry participants angrier rather it appeared to match their physiological arousal and result in an increase in positive emotions. Listening to extreme music may represent a healthy way of processing anger for these listeners.

  18. Symmetry in music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  19. Emotional Impact of Musical/Visual Synchrony Variation in Film

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Andrew; Gibson, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The emotional impact of synchronous musical and visual prominences within the cinematic experience awaits thorough empirical evaluation. Film composition is defined here as a genre of stereotypes, whose methodologies are not feasibly subject to significant redevelopment. As consequence, the research focuses on improving components of the audience recognisable functions of film music. Subjects graded cinematic clips with musical elements that varied in their synchronous interaction with visual...

  20. The beginnings of Serbian music historiography: Serbian music periodicals between the world wars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition of the 19th into the 20th century in Serbian music history was a period of music criticism, journalism and essay writing. At that time, Serbian musicology had not yet been developed as an academic discipline. After WWI there were many more academic writings on this subject; therefore, the interwar period represents the beginning of Serbian music historiography. This paper analyses Serbian interwar music magazines as source material for the history of Serbian musicology. The following music magazines were published in Belgrade at the time: Muzički glasnik (Music Herald, 1922, Muzika (Music, 1928-1929, Glasnik Muzičkog društva „Stanković” (Stanković Music Society Herald, 1928-1934, 1938-1941; from January 1931. known as Muzički glasnik /Music Herald/, Zvuk ( Sound, 1932-1936, Vesnik Južnoslovesnkog pevačkog saveza (The South Slav Singing Union Courier, 1935-1936, 1938, Slavenska muzika ( Slavonic Music, 1939-1941, and Revija muzike (The Music Review, 1940. A great number of historical studies and writings on Serbian music were published in the interwar periodicals. A significant contribution was made above all to the study of Serbian musicians’ biographies and bibliographies of the 19th century. Vladimir R. Đorđević published several short biographies in Muzički glasnik (1922 in an article called Ogled biografskog rečnika srpskih muzičara (An Introduction to Serbian Musicians’ Biographies. Writers on music obviously understood that the starting point in the study of Serbian music history had to be the composers’ biographical data. Other magazines (such as Muzički glasnik in 1928 and 1931, Zvuk, Vesnik Južnoslovenskog pevačkog saveza, and Slavenska muzika published a number of essays on distinguished Serbian and Yugoslav musicians of the 19th and 20th centuries, most of which deal with both composers’ biographical data and analysis of their compositions. Their narrative style reflects the habits of 19th

  1. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and...

  2. Investigation of global and local network properties of music perception with culturally different styles of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Rui, Xue; Li, Shuyu; Pu, Fang

    2014-11-01

    Graph theoretical analysis has recently become a popular research tool in neuroscience, however, there have been very few studies on brain responses to music perception, especially when culturally different styles of music are involved. Electroencephalograms were recorded from ten subjects listening to Chinese traditional music, light music and western classical music. For event-related potentials, phase coherence was calculated in the alpha band and then constructed into correlation matrices. Clustering coefficients and characteristic path lengths were evaluated for global properties, while clustering coefficients and efficiency were assessed for local network properties. Perception of light music and western classical music manifested small-world network properties, especially with a relatively low proportion of weights of correlation matrices. For local analysis, efficiency was more discernible than clustering coefficient. Nevertheless, there was no significant discrimination between Chinese traditional and western classical music perception. Perception of different styles of music introduces different network properties, both globally and locally. Research into both global and local network properties has been carried out in other areas; however, this is a preliminary investigation aimed at suggesting a possible new approach to brain network properties in music perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Music Educators' Perceptions Regarding the Inclusion of Students with Severe Disabilities in Music Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to: (a) examine music educators' perceptions regarding the practice of full inclusion, (b) conduct a descriptive analysis of their perceptions, and (c) compare and contrast choral, instrumental, and general music educators' perceptions regarding the practice of inclusion. The data collection technique used in the study was personal interviewing. Participants were instrumental, choral, and general music educators (N = 35) in a midwestern school district that supports the practice of full inclusion. Written transcripts of the 35 interviews were coded and analyzed for recurring themes and patterns using content analysis. Music educators identified 13 critical issues related to the inclusion of students with disabilities. The need for collaboration or consultation with special educators, music therapists, or others knowledgeable about students with disabilities was identified as a critical issue by nearly all of the participants. Many participants also identified as critical issues: the need for more information about the students included in their music classroom, the amount of time required to successfully include students with disabilities, and the range of abilities often found in the inclusive classroom. Most music educators felt that inclusion has had a positive impact on students both with and without disabilities, though reservations were also expressed by some of the music educators. Subject responses were also analyzed for frequency of: disabilities mentioned, positive and negative statements made regarding inclusion, personal anecdotes, and references to music therapy. Suggestions are given for the role music therapists can play in facilitating the inclusion of students with disabilities.

  4. White Matter Correlates of Musical Anhedonia: Implications for Evolution of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche Loui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances in the evolution of music posit that affective communication is an evolutionary function of music through which the mind and brain are transformed. A rigorous test of this view should entail examining the neuroanatomical mechanisms for affective communication of music, specifically by comparing individual differences in the general population with a special population who lacks specific affective responses to music. Here we compare white matter connectivity in BW, a case with severe musical anhedonia, with a large sample of control subjects who exhibit normal variability in reward sensitivity to music. We show for the first time that structural connectivity within the reward system can predict individual differences in musical reward in a large population, but specific patterns in connectivity between auditory and reward systems are special in an extreme case of specific musical anhedonia. Results support and extend the Mixed Origins of Music theory by identifying multiple neural pathways through which music might operate as an affective signaling system.

  5. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Benjamin P; Frank, Michael J; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy.

  6. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin P Gold

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB, and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy.

  7. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Benjamin P.; Frank, Michael J.; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy. PMID:23970875

  8. Electrophysiological correlates of aesthetic music processing: comparing experts with laypersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mira; Höfel, Lea; Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed the processes of making aesthetic judgments of music, focusing on the differences between music experts and laypersons. Sixteen students of musicology and 16 control subjects (also students) judged the aesthetic value as well as the harmonic correctness of chord sequences. Event-related potential (ERP) data indicate differences between experts and laypersons in making aesthetic judgments at three different processing stages. Additionally, effects of expertise on ERP components that have previously been proven to be sensitive to musical training were replicated. The study thus provides insights into the effects of musical expertise on neural correlates of aesthetic music processing.

  9. Continuous Versus Summative Evaluations of Musical Intensity: A Comparison of Two Methods for Measuring Overall Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Ruth V.; Duke, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    Reports on a study where subjects were asked to evaluate the level of musical intensity expressed in various music excerpts. Defines musical intensity as that which conveys strong, ardent, or concentrated emotion. Compares subjects' ongoing evaluation (continuous) with a single concluding (summative) evaluation. Includes a list of orchestral…

  10. Males Performing in a Female Space: Music and Gender in Young Adult Novels

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Nodelman

    1992-01-01

    In a number of novels for young adults, the apparently gender-free act of performing music is connected surprisingly often with concepts of gender. How do these works define and encourage the construction of subjectivity, particularly male subjectivity? What does the connection between gender and music tell us about conceptions of gender, and what does it tell us about conceptions of music?

  11. Effect of music tempo on task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, C; Moss, S

    1989-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of music tempo on task performance. In Study 1, 44 undergraduate business students were asked to be "workers" in a stock market project by collecting closing stock prices and calculating the percentage of change in the price from week to week. Subjects were randomly divided into groups such that they either listened to fast-paced music while they worked, to slow-paced music, or to no music. Analyses of variance and covariance were conducted on both the quantity and quality of the subjects' work, using music listening habits as a covariate. There were no differences in either the quantity or quality of the work produced by the groups. There were some methodological concerns regarding Study 1, so a second study was conducted. The 70 undergraduate business students in Study 2 completed the same task under the same music conditions as in Study 1. Analyses of variance indicated women performed significantly better than men, performance was significantly higher in the rock condition than in the heartbeat condition, and subjects in the rock condition had a significantly higher perceived level of distraction by the music.

  12. Impact of frequency compression on music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussoi, Bruna S S; Bentler, Ruth A

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of frequency compression on music perception, and the impact of previous music training and hearing status. It was hypothesized that lesser amounts of compression would be preferred, and that this pattern of preference would be more evident in the musically trained groups. A paired-comparison paradigm was used. Subjects listened to pairs of musical passages as processed by a hearing aid with different frequency-compression settings. Subjects indicated their preferred passage and the strength of their preference. Fifty-seven subjects divided in four groups, according to hearing status (normal hearing, mild-to-moderate hearing loss), and previous music experience (trained, not trained). Subjects generally preferred the conditions with the lesser amount of compression. Listeners in the group with previous music training showed stronger preference for less compression than those without training, as did listeners with normal hearing when compared to subjects with hearing loss. Although less frequency compression was in general preferred, there was more variability in the comparisons involving the default settings for a 50-dB hearing loss (i.e. start frequency 4000 Hz, compression ratio 2.5:1) and no compression, suggesting that mild amounts of compression may not be detrimental to perceived sound quality.

  13. The status of music in contemporary Nigerian school programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the status of music in Nigeria's Secondary school system. Necessary data were collected, analyzed and discussed to bring out the true picture of how music stands when compared with other secondary school subjects. The findings showed that out of the forty different subjects offered in Nigerian ...

  14. Musics, Cultures and Meanings: Music as Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary explores interpretations of concepts that lie at the focus of Richard Widdess's paper—"music", and "culture"—with the aim of specifying frameworks within which issues of musical meaning can fruitfully be addressed.

  15. The Philosophical and Mathematical Context of Two Gerbert's Musical Letters to Constantine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otisk, Marek

    -, č. 8 (2015), s. 19-38. ISBN 2038-3657 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Gerbert of Aurillac * mathematical basis of music * philosophical context of music Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  16. Prevalence of Vocal Problems: Speech-Language Pathologists' Evaluation of Music and Non-Music Teacher Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study, a preliminary examination of whether music teachers are more susceptible to vocal problems than teachers of other subjects, asked for expert evaluation of audio recordings from licensed speech-language pathologists. Participants (N = 41) taught music (n = 23) or another subject (n = 18) in either elementary (n = 21), middle (n =…

  17. Music for count Morzin's court. Antonín Reichenauer and the first edition of his Concerto in G major

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vytlačil, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2017), s. 24-26 ISSN 1211-0264 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Antonín Reichenauer * music history * baroque music * bohemian music * composers * critical editions * music for oboe Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  18. Is There Musical Meaning in the Musical?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindall-Smith, Marsha

    2010-01-01

    The study of music contributes to transmitting cultural heritage, learning self-discipline and teamwork, developing creativity and self-expression, developing multiple intelligences, engaging in problem solving and abstract thinking, and influencing academic achievement. Whether a performance has "musical meaning" at the core of music education…

  19. An abstract approach to music.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  20. School Music Goes Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2012-01-01

    This article explores ways for music teachers to influence music making in the home. Often preschool music programs include parents in the music education process, but when children enter school, the parent connection is not usually continued with the same intensity. This article will serve as a catalyst for further conversations on ways to…

  1. Music You Can See

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shannon Sweny

    2012-01-01

    Children of all ages love painting to music. Aside from discovering the natural correlation between music and art, the author's students learned about Mozart's life and work in music class. In this article, students discover the influence that music can have on their art. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  2. Music and Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    Thematic analysis of 13 personal narratives on the meaning of music in the life of 13 contributing authors to the book "Musical Life Stories"......Thematic analysis of 13 personal narratives on the meaning of music in the life of 13 contributing authors to the book "Musical Life Stories"...

  3. The Nature of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Music, as language, is a universal human trait. Throughout human history and across all cultures, individuals have produced and enjoyed music. Despite its ubiquity, music is rarely studied as a basic and distinct cognitive faculty. However, recent evidence suggests that music might well be distinct from other cognitive functions, in being…

  4. National Stereotypes in Music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lajosi, K.

    2014-01-01

    Music became a marker of national identity in nineteenth-century Europe. Western art music consists of tonal systems that are universally intelligible, but certain rhythms and musical idioms have been associated with national styles. How, when, and why does a musical phrase or piece become national?

  5. Conversation on African Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Leslie R.

    1985-01-01

    A voice and music education teacher at the University of Lagos, Nigeria, talks about African music in this interview. Topics discussed include differences between African and Western music, African melody, rules for composing African music, the theory of counterpoint, and the popularity of classical composers in Nigeria. (RM)

  6. Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Anne E.

    This paper emphasizes the importance of music as an integral part of the education of the young child, and draws attention to a few ways in which parents and teachers can contribute to children's musical development. Sections of the paper focus on seven questions: (1) Is music really universal? (2) When should musical training begin? (3) When…

  7. Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, John

    1990-01-01

    Argues that music activities in early childhood education foster a variety of developmental skills. Analyzes Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, contending that music intelligence is a separate intelligence. Provides ways to identify and promote musical intelligence. Suggests methods for encouraging musical development. Using songs…

  8. Embodied Music Listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents the receptive music therapy model "Guided Imagery of Music (GIM)" as an embodied way of music listening with documented effects on a number of physiological and psychological symptoms and problems. Relaxation, guiding and (classical) music stimulates and supports the work...

  9. Music Listening Is Creative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratus, John

    2017-01-01

    Active music listening is a creative activity in that the listener constructs a uniquely personal musical experience. Most approaches to teaching music listening emphasize a conceptual approach in which students learn to identify various characteristics of musical sound. Unfortunately, this type of listening is rarely done outside of schools. This…

  10. The Musical Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristen S.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the experience a collegiate Music Educators National Conference (MENC) chapter had when running a musical petting zoo, which is an exhibit of musical instruments that passersby, under the guidance of "zookeepers" (the MENC students), are allowed to touch, handle, and attempt to play. Considers the success of the musical petting…

  11. Music across the Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Scott; Kautz-Sindberg, Laura

    1998-01-01

    Describes an example of community music making in which middle school students, their parents, and a senior adult band all participated in a concert. Indicates the concert intended to celebrate the participants' musical accomplishments, gain support for music education, and demonstrate that music can provide joy for performers of all ages. (CMK)

  12. Supporting Music Teacher Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffini, Erin Dineen

    2015-01-01

    While much discussion and research is focused on the importance of music teacher mentors for preservice teachers and novice in-service music educators, little discussion has been devoted to the topic of how we, as members of the music education profession, can support the role of music teacher mentors. This article explores some of the benefits…

  13. Music, Mathematics and Bach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    musical scales, counterpoint and harmony was given. In this part these themes are developed further with reference to Bach's music and the emergence of the equally tempered scale. Bach's Music: Counterpoint, Canon, Fugue and other Patterns. Most readers of this journal may not be very familiar wi th Bach's music, and ...

  14. The effects of Western music on postoperative pain in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, M; Chin, C C

    1998-02-01

    Music is a method nurses can use to help relieve pain, however little is known about its effectiveness across cultures. In this study, Western music was tested for its effectiveness in reducing postoperative pain in 38 Taiwanese patients, and its acceptability was explored. A pretest and post-test experimental design was used with visual analogue scales to measure sensation and distress of pain. Before surgery, subjects were randomly assigned to receive tape recorded music or the usual care. Those who were assigned to the music group chose among 5 types of sedative music. On postoperative Day 1 and Day 2, the effectiveness of the tape-recorded music was investigated during 15 minutes of rest in bed. Patients were interviewed on Day 3 to determine their liking for the music, its calming effects, and the helpfulness of the music. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between time and group in the distress of pain on Day 1, but not on Day 2, and in pain sensation on Day 2, but not Day 1. Subjects from Taiwan were similar to subjects in a previous study in the United States in their liking for the music, and in reports of the helpfulness of the music for pain sensation and distress, but fewer Taiwanese found the music calming, and they had different choices: more chose harp music and fewer chose jazz than subjects in the U.S. study, and some would prefer Buddhist hymns or popular songs heard in Taiwan. Findings support the use of culturally acceptable music in addition to analgesic medication for the sensation and distress of postoperative pain.

  15. Model of music cognition and amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casares, N; Berthier Torres, M L; Froudist Walsh, S; González-Santos, P

    2013-04-01

    The study of the neural networks involved in music processing has received less attention than work researching the brain's language networks. For the last two decades there has been a growing interest in discovering the functional mechanisms of the musical brain and understanding those disorders in which brain regions linked with perception and production of music are damaged. Congenital and acquired musical deficits in their various forms (perception, execution, music-memory) are grouped together under the generic term amusia. In this selective review we present the "cutting edge" studies on the cognitive and neural processes implicated in music and the various forms of amusia. Musical processing requires a large cortico-subcortical network which is distributed throughout both cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum. The analysis of healthy subjects using functional neuroimaging and examination of selective deficits (e.g., tone, rhythm, timbre, melodic contours) in patients will improve our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in musical processing and the latter's relationship with other cognitive processes. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Crossmodal transfer of emotion by music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logeswaran, Nidhya; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-05-15

    Music is one of the most powerful elicitors of subjective emotion, yet it is not clear whether emotions elicited by music are similar to emotions elicited by visual stimuli. This leads to an open question: can music-elicited emotion be transferred to and/or influence subsequent vision-elicited emotional processing? Here we addressed this question by investigating processing of emotional faces (neutral, happy and sad) primed by short excerpts of musical stimuli (happy and sad). Our behavioural experiment showed a significant effect of musical priming: prior listening to a happy (sad) music enhanced the perceived happiness (sadness) of a face irrespective of facial emotion. Further, this musical priming-induced effect was largest for neutral face. Our electrophysiological experiment showed that such crossmodal priming effects were manifested by event related brain potential components at a very early (within 100 ms post-stimulus) stages of neuronal information processing. Altogether, these results offer new insight into the crossmodal nature of music and its ability to transfer emotion to visual modality.

  17. LSD enhances the emotional response to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelen, M; Barrett, F S; Roseman, L; Lorenz, R; Family, N; Bolstridge, M; Curran, H V; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2015-10-01

    There is renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD was used extensively in the 1950s and 1960s as an adjunct in psychotherapy, reportedly enhancing emotionality. Music is an effective tool to evoke and study emotion and is considered an important element in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy; however, the hypothesis that psychedelics enhance the emotional response to music has yet to be investigated in a modern placebo-controlled study. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that music-evoked emotions are enhanced under LSD. Ten healthy volunteers listened to five different tracks of instrumental music during each of two study days, a placebo day followed by an LSD day, separated by 5-7 days. Subjective ratings were completed after each music track and included a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the nine-item Geneva Emotional Music Scale (GEMS-9). Results demonstrated that the emotional response to music is enhanced by LSD, especially the emotions "wonder", "transcendence", "power" and "tenderness". These findings reinforce the long-held assumption that psychedelics enhance music-evoked emotion, and provide tentative and indirect support for the notion that this effect can be harnessed in the context of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Further research is required to test this link directly.

  18. Persian music meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Ardalan, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    I have based my bachelor Thesis on the presentation of a completely different musical world, compared with the western musical world, which is Persian Music. As a Persian, I started to study music as a Persian Setar player; then I followed my musical experience through western classical music by playing classical guitar. As an ambition I have always thought about how to express Persian music in an understandable way for that of non-Persians. In this thesis I began with a short history of Pers...

  19. Music retrieval in ICOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterle, Lutz; Fischer, Stephan; Rimac, Ivica; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we describe music retrieval in ICOR, a project of Darmstadt TU. It is the goal of ICOR to find new interfaces to support applications of music video and music CDs. Although the project consists of audio and video analysis we concentrate on a description of the audio algorithms in this paper. We describe our MPEG-7 like data structure to store meta information for music pieces and explain which algorithms we use to analyze the content of music pieces automatically. We currently use an applause detection to distinguish live music from studio recordings, a genre classifier to distinguish pieces with beats form classical music, and a singer recognition.

  20. The influence of music on static posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Stella; Filipponi, Eliana; Di Berardino, Federica; Barozzi, Stefania; Cesarani, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high intensity sounds modify balance by activating the saccule, which is sensitive to both vestibular and acoustic stimuli. Few studies have examined the effects of music on the postural responses in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of music (Mozart, Köhler, Köhler with a carrier of 12 KHz and subjects' favourite music) on twelve healthy subjects standing on a stabilometric platform. With each type of music, all subjects underwent static posturography with eyes opened and eyes closed, and with and without foam pads. We evaluated the length and the surface of body sway and the correlation between them, and we analyzed the visual, vestibular and somatosensory sub-components. Listening to different types of music did not significantly change the stabilometric variables, with the exception of listening to Mozart's Jupiter, which caused a significant reduction in the visual component with a consequent increase in both the vestibular and somatosensory inputs. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of Mozart's music in modifying the sensory strategy in the rehabilitation of patients with vestibular impairments.

  1. Music therapy-assisted labor and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M E; McCorkle, R R; Williams, S B

    1981-01-01

    This article describes a new clinical music therapy program for application in the labor and delivery setting, and presents results of a preliminary study to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment. Over 50 women participated in the project; however, inclusion of patients in the data collection portion of the project was limited by criteria designed to minimize the effects of spurious variables. An experimental group of 13 patients participated in six individual predelivery music therapy training sessions during the third trimester of pregnancy. Experimental patients listened to preselected musical works throughout labor and delivery, with the music therapist in attendance. A control group of seven subjects participated in labor and delivery according to regular hospital routines. Data consisted of patients' responses to questionnaire items reflecting subjective perceptions and recollections of the labor/delivery experience and reports of frequency and duration of home practice. Experimental subjects achieved significantly higher "success" scores than did control subjects on five of seven indices (p less than .05). A moderate correlation between music home practice and successful childbirth outcome was demonstrated, with frequency/length of music home practice revealed as a significant predictor of success in the childbirth experience.

  2. Psychiatry and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy. PMID:24891698

  3. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  4. Music evolution and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Charles T; Zimmermann, Elke; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    There have been many attempts to discuss the evolutionary origins of music. We review theories of music origins and take the perspective that music is originally derived from emotional signals. We show that music has adaptive value through emotional contagion, social cohesion, and improved well-being. We trace the roots of music through the emotional signals of other species suggesting that the emotional aspects of music have a long evolutionary history. We show how music and speech are closely interlinked with the musical aspects of speech conveying emotional information. We describe acoustic structures that communicate emotion in music and present evidence that these emotional features are widespread among humans and also function to induce emotions in animals. Similar acoustic structures are present in the emotional signals of nonhuman animals. We conclude with a discussion of music designed specifically to induce emotional states in animals. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Psychiatry and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-04-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry and music, neural processing underlying music, music's relation to classical psychology and psychopathology and scientific evidence base for music therapy in major psychiatric disorders. We highlight the role of Indian forms of music and Indian contribution to music therapy.

  6. Exploring the influence of cultural familiarity and expertise on neurological responses to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Steven M; Morrison, Steven J

    2003-11-01

    Contemporary music education in many countries has begun to incorporate not only the dominant music of the culture, but also a variety of music from around the world. Although the desirability of such a broadened curriculum is virtually unquestioned, the specific function of these musical encounters and their potential role in children's cognitive development remain unclear. We do not know if studying a variety of world music traditions involves the acquisition of new skills or an extension and refinement of traditional skills long addressed by music teachers. Is a student's familiarity with a variety of musical traditions a manifestation of a single overarching "musicianship" or is knowledge of these various musical styles more similar to a collection of discrete skills much like learning a second language? Research on the comprehension of spoken language has disclosed a neurologically distinct response among subjects listening to their native language rather than an unfamiliar language. In a recent study comparing Western subjects' responses to music of their native culture and music of an unfamiliar culture, we found that subjects' activation did not differ on the basis of the cultural familiarity of the music, but on the basis of musical expertise. We discuss possible interpretations of these findings in relation to the concept of musical universals, cross-cultural stimulus characteristics, cross-cultural judgment tasks, and the influence of musical expertise. We conclude with suggestions for future research.

  7. Music and the Mind: Music's Healing Powers

    OpenAIRE

    Caroilyn S. Ticker

    2017-01-01

    Music makes you smarter: or at least that is what the "experts" are saying. CDs are sold of Mozart's Sonatas for babies, and parents are urged to give their children music lessons in the belief that music does something to our brains which in turn makes us more intelligent. But is this really true? Does music really affect the brain in the powerful way that scientists are suggesting, or is it hearsay? In this paper I investigate the effects of music on our brain's plasticity and cognition by ...

  8. Music and psychophysiological recovery from stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radstaak, Mirjam; Geurts, Sabine A E; Brosschot, Jos F; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2014-09-01

    This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to induce stress. Afterward, participants were randomly assigned to one of four "recovery" conditions where they (1) listened to self-chosen relaxing music, (2) listened to self-chosen happy music, (3) listened to an audio book, or (4) sat in silence. After this 5-minute "recovery manipulation period," participants sat in silence for another 5 minutes. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were continuously measured. The recovery conditions caused differences in positive affect (F(3,119) = 13.13, p affect (F(3,119) = 2.69, p = .049). As expected, mood improved while listening to either relaxing music or happy music. The conditions showed no differences in subjective arousal (F(3,117) = 2.03, p = .11) and rumination (F(3,119) = 1.10, p = .35). Systolic blood pressure recovery, however, differed between the conditions (linear time trend: F(3,116) = 4.50, p = .005; quadratic time trend: F(3,115) = 5.24, p = .002). Listening to both relaxing and happy music delayed systolic blood pressure recovery when compared with both control conditions. Listening to self-selected music is an effective mood enhancer, but it delays blood pressure recovery.

  9. Time flies with music whatever its emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Bigand, Emmanuel; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José Lino Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task to investigate whether music affects time estimation differently from a matched auditory neutral stimulus, and whether the emotional valence of the musical stimuli (i.e., sad vs. happy music) modulates this effect. The results showed that, compared to sine wave control music, music presented in a major (happy) or a minor (sad) key shifted the bisection function toward the right, thus increasing the bisection point value (point of subjective equality). This indicates that the duration of a melody is judged shorter than that of a non-melodic control stimulus, thus confirming that "time flies" when we listen to music. Nevertheless, sensitivity to time was similar for all the auditory stimuli. Furthermore, the temporal bisection functions did not differ as a function of musical mode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Metaphor and music emotion: Ancient views and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, Alessia; Rappaz, Marc-André; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Music is often described in terms of emotion. This notion is supported by empirical evidence showing that engaging with music is associated with subjective feelings, and with objectively measurable responses at the behavioural, physiological, and neural level. Some accounts, however, reject the idea that music may directly induce emotions. For example, the 'paradox of negative emotion', whereby music described in negative terms is experienced as enjoyable, suggests that music might move the listener through indirect mechanisms in which the emotional experience elicited by music does not always coincide with the emotional label attributed to it. Here we discuss the role of metaphor as a potential mediator in these mechanisms. Drawing on musicological, philosophical, and neuroscientific literature, we suggest that metaphor acts at key stages along and between physical, biological, cognitive, and contextual processes, and propose a model of music experience in which metaphor mediates between language, emotion, and aesthetic response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Change of Music Preferences Following the Onset of a Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; von Georgi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A psychiatric population (n=123) was examined on how music preferences had changed after the onset of a mental disorder. Most patients did not change their previous music preference; this group of patients considered music helpful for their mental state, showed more attractivity and enforcement as personality traits and used music more for emotion modulation. Patients who experienced a preference shift reported that music had impaired them during the time of illness; these patients showed less ego-strength, less confidence and less enforcement and used music less for arousal modulation. A third subgroup stopped listening to music completely after the onset of the mental disorder; these patients attribute less importance to music and also reported that music had impaired their mental state. They showed more ego-strength and used music less for emotion modulation. The results suggest that the use of music in everyday life can be helpful as an emotion modulation strategy. However, some patients might need instructions on how to use music in a functional way and not a dysfunctional one. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists as well as music therapists should be aware of emotion modulation strategies, subjective valence of music and personality traits of their patients. Due to the ubiquity of music, psychoeducative instructions on how to use music in everyday life plays an increasing role in the treatment of mental illness. PMID:26266024

  12. The Change of Music Preferences Following the Onset of a Mental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; von Georgi, Richard

    2015-02-24

    A psychiatric population (n=123) was examined on how music preferences had changed after the onset of a mental disorder. Most patients did not change their previous music preference; this group of patients considered music helpful for their mental state, showed more attractivity and enforcement as personality traits and used music more for emotion modulation. Patients who experienced a preference shift reported that music had impaired them during the time of illness; these patients showed less ego-strength, less confidence and less enforcement and used music less for arousal modulation. A third subgroup stopped listening to music completely after the onset of the mental disorder; these patients attribute less importance to music and also reported that music had impaired their mental state. They showed more ego-strength and used music less for emotion modulation. The results suggest that the use of music in everyday life can be helpful as an emotion modulation strategy. However, some patients might need instructions on how to use music in a functional way and not a dysfunctional one. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists as well as music therapists should be aware of emotion modulation strategies, subjective valence of music and personality traits of their patients. Due to the ubiquity of music, psychoeducative instructions on how to use music in everyday life plays an increasing role in the treatment of mental illness.

  13. Complex network structure of musical compositions: Algorithmic generation of appealing music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct networks for music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurring connections. We analyze classical music from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music such as Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. We conjecture that preserving the universal network properties is a necessary step in artificial composition of music. Power-law exponents of node degree, node strength and/or edge weight distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be composed artificially using a controlled random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. By generating a large number of compositions, we find that this algorithm generates music which has the necessary qualities to be subjectively judged as appealing.

  14. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face-name pairs. Participants' memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults' associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults' failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. These data have important practical implications for older adults' ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Music and the heart

    OpenAIRE

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2017-01-01

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR...

  16. [Study of music electroacupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Yi-hong; Bai, Yan

    2005-08-01

    To explore characteristics and advantages of music electroacupuncture instrument. Investigate clinical therapeutic effect and action mechanisms of the music electroacupuncture instrument, the relation of music therapy with improving looks and genes, and the links of music therapy with theories on 14 channels to prove its characteristics and advantages. Music electroacupuncture can overcome the decline of late therapeutic effects of pulse electroacupuncture and its disadvantages, beat of the local tissue of electroacupuncture. It is a generation of electroacupuncture of a new type.

  17. Satire in Music

    OpenAIRE

    Leon Stefanija

    2011-01-01

    The article surveys the scope of satire and suggests its range. It is divided into six sections. The introductory comment (The semantics of music) briefly outlines the fact that music has always been a part of communicative endeavors. The historical background of the semantic issues in music is described (Historical surmises), which is necessary to define satire in music as a specific genre combining features from different musical forms. The third section discusses six areas as the most...

  18. Role of music in intensive care medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The role of music in intensive care medicine is still unclear. However, it is well known that music may not only improve quality of life but also effect changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Reactions to music are considered subjective, but studies suggest that cardio/cerebrovascular variables are influenced under different circumstances. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to “Va pensioero” from Verdi's “Nabucco” (70.4+3.3 cm/s) ...

  19. ['Sensus Intellectualis': Pietro de Abano's musical thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    With the discovery of the Aristotelian works on "natural philosophy" the philosophical discourse expands its subject of study to the physical and material dimension of men's nature. This philosophical tendency would also influence the reflections on musical topics. This paper shows how the physiological and physical view of the human being had influenced the theory of music. From a terminological and a conceptual perspective Pietro de Abano moves away from the Boethian authority. Comparing the musical theory of Pietro de Abano with the traditional "musica theorica" it becomes evident that there is no opposition between sensitiveness and intellect.

  20. Music and the Mind: Music's Healing Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroilyn S. Ticker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Music makes you smarter: or at least that is what the "experts" are saying. CDs are sold of Mozart's Sonatas for babies, and parents are urged to give their children music lessons in the belief that music does something to our brains which in turn makes us more intelligent. But is this really true? Does music really affect the brain in the powerful way that scientists are suggesting, or is it hearsay? In this paper I investigate the effects of music on our brain's plasticity and cognition by looking at several different experimental studies. Specifically I will address how music affects brain plasticity, emotion, physical health and linguistic processing, and how these effects in turn make music a beneficial tool for therapy, particularly in patients with Traumatic-Brain Injury (TBI and Autism-Spectrum Disorder.

  1. Music Education and Music Therapy. Introduction to Plenary Session 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2002-01-01

    Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics......Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics...

  2. Music Brings Us Together: Testimony to Music in Our Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Well-known peoples' views concerning the intrinsic value of music and the importance of music education are presented. The statements represent a few entries from the Music Educators National Conference's new publication "Testimony to Music." (RM)

  3. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music: the effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helleman, Hiske W.; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the change in hearing

  4. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa; Lee, Jae Hee

    2015-09-01

    Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners).

  5. Music Listening and Stress in Daily Life-a Matter of Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Wenzel, Mario; Grammes, Jennifer; Kubiak, Thomas; Nater, Urs M

    2017-11-21

    Despite increasing evidence suggesting that music listening in daily life has stress-reducing effects, studies mostly rely on subjective, retrospective data on music listening. Thus, the temporal dynamics underlying the stress-reducing effect of music listening remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the temporal dynamics of the associations between stress and music listening by assessing subjective and objective data on music in daily life. An exploratory Ambulatory Assessment study examining a total of 60 participants (37 women), aged 18 to 34 years (M = 22.4 years, SD = 3.5) was conducted. For 1 week, participants answered questions on music listening and stress six times per day via an electronic diary device, which additionally objectively sampled the exact time point of music listening and its duration. Self-reports on mere music listening were associated with lower stress reports, whereas objectively assessed data was not. However, concerning duration of music listening, both subjective and objective data on music listening showed associations between a minimum of 20 min of music listening and lower stress reports. Concerning the latency, objective data on music listening revealed that the association between stress reports and music listening occurs in a time-delayed manner. Although the study design does not allow for causal inferences, substantial associations among subjectively and objectively assessed data on music listening were found to differentially affect the experience of stress after music listening. In particular, when focusing on the temporal dynamics, objectively assessed data allowed for a more fine-grained analysis. In consequence, subjectively and objectively reported data on music listening should be assessed jointly when investigating effects of music listening on health. Experimental research with rigorous methodological control is required in order to corroborate our findings in a laboratory setting.

  6. Lefthandedness among students of architecture and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götestam, K O

    1990-06-01

    Three groups of subjects (60 students of architecture and 88 of music, and 87 from a general student group) were assessed on lefthandedness, reading problems, dyslexia, and stuttering. There was a higher frequency of lefthandedness among students of architecture, as well as a higher frequency of reading difficulties, dyslexia and stuttering among students of architecture and music, than the comparison group. These findings were discussed in relation to Geschwind's hypotheses.

  7. MUSIC CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    MUSIC CLUB

    2010-01-01

    FESTIVAL HARDRONIC The CERN MusiClub is proud to announce that the 21st edition of the famous CERN Hardronic Festival will take place on   Friday 16th July from 17h30 and Saturday 17th July from 16h00   on the terrace beside restaurant N°3 on the CERN Prevessin site. The Festival will feature music by your favourite bands and artists from the Club. Food and drink will be on sale and there will be stuff for kids (organized by http://www.adventureart.org/) including face-painting and a bouncy castle. Entrance is free and the event is open to Club Members, CERN staff and Visitors, all those working on the CERN site, plus families and friends. For more information, either send an e-mail mailto:music.club@cern.ch or see http://musiclub.cern.ch/ The CERN MusiClub would like to thank the CERN Staff Association and the CERN Management for their continued support. Without this support this event could not take place.

  8. Ability of nucleus cochlear implantees to recognize music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, S; Ito, J

    1999-07-01

    Eight adults with cochlear implants participated in experiments to test their ability to recognize music. Some subjects showed good ability to recognize songs that were sung with instrumental accompaniment but poor ability to recognize songs played on an electronic keyboard without verbal cues, indicating that they were recognizing the songs by verbal cues rather than by musical qualities such as tones and melodic intervals. This conclusion was strengthened by the finding that subjects were barely able to distinguish between songs with the same rhythm and pitch range, and they showed poor ability to discriminate musical intervals. (The closest discrimination was 4 semitones.) Subjects had good ability to distinguish among the synthesized sounds of various musical instruments played on the electronic keyboard. We speculate that subjects could distinguish the various musical instruments in the same way they distinguish among human voices using spectrographic patterns such as formants or maxima.

  9. The influence of music on mood and performance while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D; Dijksterhuis, Chris; de Waard, Dick; Mulder, Ben L J M; Westerink, Joyce H D M; Brookhuis, Karel A

    2012-01-01

    Mood can influence our everyday behaviour and people often seek to reinforce, or to alter their mood, for example by turning on music. Music listening while driving is a popular activity. However, little is known about the impact of music listening while driving on physiological state and driving performance. In the present experiment, it was investigated whether individually selected music can induce mood and maintain moods during a simulated drive. In addition, effects of positive, negative, and no music on driving behaviour and physiological measures were assessed for normal and high cognitive demanding rides. Subjective mood ratings indicated that music successfully maintained mood while driving. Narrow lane width drives increased task demand as shown in effort ratings and increased swerving. Furthermore, respiration rate was lower during music listening compared to rides without music, while no effects of music were found on heart rate. Overall, the current study demonstrates that music listening in car influences the experienced mood while driving, which in turn can impact driving behaviour. PRACTITIONERS SUMMARY: Even though it is a popular activity, little is known about the impact of music while driving on physiological state and performance. We examined whether music can induce moods during high and low simulated drives. The current study demonstrates that in car music listening influences mood which in turn can impact driving behaviour. The current study shows that listening to music can positively impact mood while driving, which can be used to affect state and safe behaviour. Additionally, driving performance in high demand situations is not negatively affected by music.

  10. Identity in Music: Adolescents and the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Music teachers may feel most comfortable teaching the music they know, in the way that they were taught and in the way that they were taught to teach it. Music and the teaching of music is a strong part of their professional musical identity. Adolescents have a passionate attachment to music but insist that this must be on their terms, which may…

  11. Walking with Music Is a Safe and Viable Tool for Gait Training in Parkinson's Disease: The Effect of a 13-Week Feasibility Study on Single and Dual Task Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Natalie de Bruin; Jon B. Doan; George Turnbull; Oksana Suchowersky; Stephan Bonfield; Bin Hu; Lesley A. Brown

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the viability and efficacy of integrating cadence-matched, salient music into a walking intervention for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-two people with PD were randomised to a control (CTRL, n = 11) or experimental (MUSIC, n = 11) group. MUSIC subjects walked with an individualised music playlist three times a week for the intervention period. Playlists were designed to meet subject's musical preferences. In addition, the tempo of the music closely matched ...

  12. Influence of music on operation theatre staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyjumon George

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the perception of influence of music among surgeons, anesthesiologist and nurses in our hospital as well as to critically evaluate whether music can be used as an aid in improving the work efficiency of medical personnel in the operation theatre (OT. Materials and Methods: A prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 100 randomly selected subjects were interviewed, which included 44 surgeons, 25 anesthesiologists and 31 nurses. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS Windows Version 16 software was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Most of the OT medical personnel were found to be aware of the beneficial effects of music, with 87% consenting to the playing of music in the OT. It was also found that most participants agreed to have heard music on a regular basis in the OT, while 17% had heard it whenever they have been to the OT. Conclusions: Majority of the respondent′s preferred playing music in the OT which helped them relax. It improved the cognitive function of the listeners and created a sense of well being among the people and elevated mood in them. Music helped in reducing the autonomic reactivity of theatre personnel in stressful surgeries allowing them to approach their surgeries in a more thoughtful and relaxed manner. Qualitative, objective and comprehensive effect of specific music types varied with different individuals. Music can aid in improving the work efficiency of medical personnel in the OT. The study has reinforced the beneficial effects of playing music in the OT outweighing its deleterious outcomes.

  13. Influence of music on operation theatre staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Shyjumon; Ahmed, Shafiq; Mammen, Kim J; John, George Mathews

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the perception of influence of music among surgeons, anesthesiologist and nurses in our hospital as well as to critically evaluate whether music can be used as an aid in improving the work efficiency of medical personnel in the operation theatre (OT). A prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 100 randomly selected subjects were interviewed, which included 44 surgeons, 25 anesthesiologists and 31 nurses. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) Windows Version 16 software was used for statistical evaluation. Most of the OT medical personnel were found to be aware of the beneficial effects of music, with 87% consenting to the playing of music in the OT. It was also found that most participants agreed to have heard music on a regular basis in the OT, while 17% had heard it whenever they have been to the OT. Majority of the respondent's preferred playing music in the OT which helped them relax. It improved the cognitive function of the listeners and created a sense of well being among the people and elevated mood in them. Music helped in reducing the autonomic reactivity of theatre personnel in stressful surgeries allowing them to approach their surgeries in a more thoughtful and relaxed manner. Qualitative, objective and comprehensive effect of specific music types varied with different individuals. Music can aid in improving the work efficiency of medical personnel in the OT. The study has reinforced the beneficial effects of playing music in the OT outweighing its deleterious outcomes.

  14. Brain networks that track musical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr

    2005-12-01

    As the functional neuroimaging literature grows, it becomes increasingly apparent that music and musical activities engage diverse regions of the brain. In this paper I discuss two studies to illustrate that exactly which brain areas are observed to be responsive to musical stimuli and tasks depends on the tasks and the methods used to describe the tasks and the stimuli. In one study, subjects listened to polyphonic music and were asked to either orient their attention selectively to individual instruments or in a divided or holistic manner across multiple instruments. The network of brain areas that was recruited changed subtly with changes in the task instructions. The focus of the second study was to identify brain regions that follow the pattern of movement of a continuous melody through the tonal space defined by the major and minor keys of Western tonal music. Such an area was identified in the rostral medial prefrontal cortex. This observation is discussed in the context of other neuroimaging studies that implicate this region in inwardly directed mental states involving decisions about the self, autobiographical memory, the cognitive regulation of emotion, affective responses to musical stimuli, and familiarity judgments about musical stimuli. Together with observations that these regions are among the last to atrophy in Alzheimer disease, and that these patients appear to remain responsive to autobiographically salient musical stimuli, very early evidence is emerging from the literature for the hypothesis that the rostral medial prefrontal cortex is a node that is important for binding music with memories within a broader music-responsive network.

  15. Role of music in intensive care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The role of music in intensive care medicine is still unclear. However, it is well known that music may not only improve quality of life but also effect changes in heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Reactions to music are considered subjective, but studies suggest that cardio/cerebrovascular variables are influenced under different circumstances. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to "Va pensioero" from Verdi's "Nabucco" (70.4+3.3 cm/s) compared to "Libiam nei lieti calici" from Verdi's "La Traviata" (70.2+3.1 cm/s) (Pmusic (69.4+3.1 cm/s). It was reported that relaxing music plays an important role in intensive care medicine. Music significantly decreases the level of anxiety for patients in a preoperative setting (STAI-X-1 score 34) to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (Pmusic group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared to midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 34) (Pmusic a useful alternative to midazolam. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (Pmusic produces significantly better correlations between cardiovascular and respiratory signals in contrast to uniform emphasis (Pmusic and meditation music, whereas heavy metal music or techno are not only ineffective but possibly dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias, particularly in intensive care medicine patients.

  16. Music Education for Every Child – Idea or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Bačlija Susić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary pedagogical, psychological and sociological research highlight the need for music education available to every child. Starting from the fundamental point of view according to which music affects the development of the child's whole personality, this idea stands out in history since the 17th century. Various educators in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century emphasized the importance of music education for every child. With historical and theoretical overview of this idea, this paper tries to examine the possibility of its realization in contemporary educational practice. The Venezuelan music education program El Sistema, that promotes humanistic idea of changing society through classical music education stands out as a unique example of a good practice. As a form of music education which particularly promotes the idea of availability of music to every child, the conception of Functional Music Pedagogy by the Croatian music pedagogue Elly Bašić (1908-1998 was shown as well. Considering the status of music in American educational policy, it is indicated as a significant change, in which the music is recognized as an educational priority for the first time in the history of education and it became the basic academic subject in the American federal education policy plan, as well as unprecedentedly incorporated in the federal law.

  17. [Role of the music in the operating theatre].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sármány, Judit; Kálmán, Réka; Staud, Dóra; Salacz, György

    2006-05-21

    To investigate the effect of music on patients, surgeons and staff in the operating theatre at our Ophthalmology department in Mária street Clinic. I. 150 patients, 7 staff and 19 surgeons have been asked to fill out a questionnaire. II. 29 patients who were listening music during surgery and as control group 27 patients having surgery without music therapy filled out a different questionnaire dealing with their preference on different kinds of music. In order to obtain more complete results, psychophysiology tests (STAI H test, Face-scale), blood pressure and pulse rate were measured, as well. Almost all the patients, and every surgeon and staff member like music. Music does not disturb the staff during their work, but does not help in their concentration. The majority of them considered music useful in the recovery of their patients. According to the answers most of the patients think that music has beneficial effect on their treatment compared to those patients who did not hear music. Subjective answers show a mild anxiety during surgery, that is supported with the data of the psychophysiological test results. Results so far demonstrate that the use of music therapy at our department during ophthalmic surgery is beneficial. Further examinations are necessary to measure the objective effect of music during surgery.

  18. Music therapy in the psychosocial rehabilitation of people with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramaviciute Z.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a pilot study analysing the application of music therapy in the today’s psychosocial rehabilitation of people with epilepsy. The study is based on the analysis of the up-to-date application of music therapy in psychosocial rehabilitation, outcomes of epilepsy and special needs of people with this disorder. The analysis serves as a basis for making the assumption that music therapy is an effective measure addressing psychosocial issues of patients suffering from epilepsy. To achieve the objective set, an on-line survey method was used. A questionnaire was sent to the European Confederation of Music Therapy, the International Fellowship in Music Therapy for Neuro-disability, and several members of the World Federation of Music Therapy. It is difficult to formulate final conclusions about the today’s role of music therapy in the psychosocial rehabilitation of people suffering from epilepsy on the basis of this study as the sample is not representative. The analysis of literature and the results of the survey prove the issue of the role of music therapy in the psychosocial rehabilitation of epileptic people to be complex. The service of music therapy should be integrated into health promotion programmes focused on meeting special needs of people with epilepsy and implemented by an interdisciplinary team. Music therapy is applied specifically and diversely subject to symptoms of the disorder and the therapeutic objectives set. Crystallising the specificity of the application of music therapy in this context requires further research.

  19. Adults and children processing music: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Fritz, Thomas; Schulze, Katrin; Alsop, David; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2005-05-01

    The present study investigates the functional neuroanatomy of music perception with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Three different subject groups were investigated to examine developmental aspects and effects of musical training: 10-year-old children with varying degrees of musical training, adults without formal musical training (nonmusicians), and adult musicians. Subjects made judgements on sequences that ended on chords that were music-syntactically either regular or irregular. In adults, irregular chords activated the inferior frontal gyrus, orbital frontolateral cortex, the anterior insula, ventrolateral premotor cortex, anterior and posterior areas of the superior temporal gyrus, the superior temporal sulcus, and the supramarginal gyrus. These structures presumably form different networks mediating cognitive aspects of music processing (such as processing of musical syntax and musical meaning, as well as auditory working memory), and possibly emotional aspects of music processing. In the right hemisphere, the activation pattern of children was similar to that of adults. In the left hemisphere, adults showed larger activations than children in prefrontal areas, in the supramarginal gyrus, and in temporal areas. In both adults and children, musical training was correlated with stronger activations in the frontal operculum and the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus.

  20. The classification of involuntary musical imagery: the case for earworms

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Tim I.

    2015-01-01

    Involuntary musical imagery (INMI) is the subject of much recent research interest. INMI covers a number of experience types such as musical obsessions and musical hallucinations. One type of experience has been called earworms, for which the literature provides a number of definitions. In this paper we consider the origins of the term earworm in the German language literature and compare that usage with the English language literature. We consider the published literature on earworms and con...

  1. Towards brain-computer music interfaces: progress and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, E. R.; Durrant, Simon; Anders, T.

    2008-01-01

    Brain-Computer Music Interface (BCMI) is a new research area that is emerging at the cross roads of neurobiology,engineering sciences and music. This research involves three major challenging problems: the extraction of meaningful control information from signals emanating directly from the brain, the design of generative music techniques that respond to such information, and the training of subjects to use the system. We have implemented a proof-of-concept BCMI system that is able to use ...

  2. Suitable reverberation time for halls for rock and pop music

    OpenAIRE

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2010-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of popular music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of 20 rock music venues in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers as expert listeners. Correlations between the measurements show that clar...

  3. Psychophysiological study of arousal modulation model of music

    OpenAIRE

    岩城,達也; 林, 光緒; 堀, 忠雄

    1994-01-01

    Music is known to have both stimulatory and sedative effects. We investigated whether music modulated the arousal level. EEGs, EOG, SPR, plethysmograph, and skin temperature were recorded on 14 students (mean=22.1 yrs) during sessions of (1) baseline (pre-rest), (2) preparations of arousal (task or rest), (3) music (stimulative or calm), (4) after-effects (post-rest). Seven subjects, who were assigned to the high arousal group were preparatively increased their arousal level by the cognitive ...

  4. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  5. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants' self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects' selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca's area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions.

  6. Music interventions for mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Dileo, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    group. One study found significantly higher sedation scores in the music listening group compared to the control group.No strong evidence was found for reduction in diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure. Furthermore, inconsistent results were found for reduction in heart rate with seven studies reporting greater heart rate reductions in the music listening group and one study a slightly greater reduction in the control group. Music listening did not improve oxygen saturation levels.Four studies examined the effects of music listening on hormone levels but the results were mixed and no conclusions could be drawn.No strong evidence was found for an effect of music listening on mortality rate but this evidence rested on only two trials.Most trials were assessed to be at high risk of bias because of lack of blinding. Blinding of outcome assessors is often impossible in music therapy and music medicine studies that use subjective outcomes, unless the music intervention is compared to another treatment intervention. Because of the high risk of bias, these results need to be interpreted with caution.No studies could be found that examined the effects of music interventions on quality of life, patient satisfaction, post-discharge outcomes, or cost-effectiveness. No adverse events were identified. This updated systematic review indicates that music listening may have a beneficial effect on anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients. These findings are consistent with the findings of three other Cochrane systematic reviews on the use of music interventions for anxiety reduction in medical patients. The review furthermore suggests that music listening consistently reduces respiratory rate and systolic blood pressure. Finally, results indicate a possible beneficial impact on the consumption of sedatives and analgesics. Therefore, we conclude that music interventions may provide a viable anxiety management option to mechanically ventilated patients.

  7. 'The Music Herald' 1922: A esthetical and ideological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Music Herald was the first music magazine to appear in Belgrade after WWI. It was published monthly, for a year (January - December 1922. Its editor-in-chief was Petar Krstić, a composer. Other members of the editorial staff were Božidar Joksimović, Stevan Hristić, Kosta Manojlović (composers Vladimir R. Đorđević (an ethnomusicologist and Jovan Zorko (a violinist. Over 200 articles were published in the magazine. It dealt with different genres of music writings, such as articles, treatises, documents on the history of Serbian / Yugoslav music, music criticism, polemics, necrologies and bibliographies. Twenty-four compositions by native composers were published in the musical supplement of The Music Herald, among them the works of its editors as well as those of other Yugoslav musicians. The Music Herald dealt with three fields of interest: music historiography, ethnomusicology and the current topics of its epoch. When the magazine started, Serbian musicology was in its initial stage so the editors were trying to foster its development. They published numerous biographies of Serbian 19th century musicians, as well as documents on Serbian music culture during the reign of Prince Miloš Obrenović. Music folklore was also very often the subject of interest in the magazine. The Music Herald was interested in current topics and covered the Yugoslav music school system, opera houses, military music music associations, etc. It was especially interested in choral societies which in the course of the 19th century took up not only an artistic, but also a political and patriotic role in the liberation movement. After WWI choral societies entered a period of crisis. Their political raison d'être was lost, so they were faced with the challenge of achieving higher professional standards. This study deals with two aspects of 'The Music Herald': aesthetic and ideological aspects. In terms of ideology, the magazine was strongly in favor of the

  8. Universals, Relativism, and Music Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Wayne

    1998-01-01

    Argues that relativism has the potential to help music educators better understand themselves, other music educators, musical endeavors, and their profession. Defines musical relativism in detail comparing it with universalism and essentialism. Discusses musical value and focuses on the reasons for music education in the search for professional…

  9. Nigerian Music Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Music Review is aimed at the scholarly review of the developments in various musical practices in Nigeria. It considers well researched articles in any of the following areas: Musicology, Ethnomusicology, African Music, Music Education, Performance, Composition, Music Technology, Music ...

  10. Self-regulated processes as predictors of students' achievement in music theory in Slovenian elementary music schools

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Smolej Fritz; Cirila Peklaj

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine the relation between processes of selfregulated learning and achievement in Music Theory (MT), a basic and obligatory subject in Slovenian music schools. A total of 457 fifth- and sixth- grade students (153 boys and 303 girls) from 10 different elementary music schools in Slovenia participated in the study. Students completed a questionnaire about affective-motivational processes and a questionnaire about (meta)cognitive processes of selfregulate...

  11. MUSIC IN ENGLISH LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Mangesh Rao Nehe

    2017-01-01

    Aristotle very aptly remarks that music is the very food of soul. It is undoubtedly true when all pervasive effect of music is taken into account in all realms of life and of nature as well. Without music, we cannot imagine the very existence of Nature. In each and every aspect of nature, there is the invisible and invincible impact of music. In almost all cultures of the world, where music is an integral part of life, music has always held its dominant niche and imparted multiple dimensions ...

  12. Musical Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenkov, Dima; Dawin, Jean René

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  13. Mind as Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLloyd

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience typically develops hypotheses to explain phenomena that are localized in space and time. Determining functions of brain regions in spatial and temporal isolation is generally regarded as the first step toward understanding the conjoint operation of the whole brain. In other words, if the task of cognitive neuroscience is to interpret the neural code, then the first step has been semantic, searching for the meanings (functions of localized elements, prior to exploring neural syntax, the mutual constraints among elements synchronically and diachronically. Researchers generally assume that neural semantics is a precondition for determining neural syntax. Furthermore, it is often assumed that the syntax of the brain is too complex for our present technology and understanding. A corollary of this view holds that functional MRI lacks the spatial and temporal resolution needed to identify the dynamic syntax of neural computation. This paper examines these assumptions with a novel analysis of fMRI image series, resting on the conjecture that any computational code will exhibit aggregate features that can be detected even if the meaning of the code is unknown. Specifically, computational codes will be sparse or dense in different degrees. A sparse code is one that uses only a few of the many possible patterns of activity (in the brain or symbols (in a human-made code. Considering sparseness at different scales and as measured by different techniques, this approach clearly distinguishes two conventional coding systems, namely, language and music. Considering 99 subjects in three different fMRI protocols, in comparison with 194 musical examples and 700 language passages, it is observed that fMRI activity is more similar to music than it is to language, as measured over single symbols, as well as symbol combinations in pairs and triples. Tools from cognitive musicology may therefore be useful in characterizing the brain as a dynamical

  14. The effect of symmetrical and asymmetrical hearing impairment on music quality perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuexin; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Yuebo; Liang, Maojin; Chen, Ling; Yang, Haidi; Xiong, Hao; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zheng, Yiqing

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of symmetrical, asymmetrical and unilateral hearing impairment on music quality perception. Six validated music pieces in the categories of classical music, folk music and pop music were used to assess music quality in terms of its 'pleasantness', 'naturalness', 'fullness', 'roughness' and 'sharpness'. 58 participants with sensorineural hearing loss [20 with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), 20 with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss (BSHL) and 18 with bilateral asymmetrical hearing loss (BAHL)] and 29 normal hearing (NH) subjects participated in the present study. Hearing impaired (HI) participants had greater difficulty in overall music quality perception than NH participants. Participants with BSHL rated music pleasantness and naturalness to be higher than participants with BAHL. Moreover, the hearing thresholds of the better ears from BSHL and BAHL participants as well as the hearing thresholds of the worse ears from BSHL participants were negatively correlated to the pleasantness and naturalness perception. HI participants rated the familiar music pieces higher than unfamiliar music pieces in the three music categories. Music quality perception in participants with hearing impairment appeared to be affected by symmetry of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss and music familiarity when they were assessed using the music quality rating test (MQRT). This indicates that binaural symmetrical hearing is important to achieve a high level of music quality perception in HI listeners. This emphasizes the importance of provision of bilateral hearing assistive devices for people with asymmetrical hearing impairment.

  15. The Cardiovascular Effect of Musical Genres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, Hans-Joachim; Voit, Gabriele

    2016-05-20

    The effect of different musical styles on serum cortisol levels, blood pressure, and heart rate is currently unknown. 60 subjects were randomly assigned to three groups that listened to various compositions by W. A. Mozart, J. Strauss Jr., or ABBA for 25 minutes. Their serum cortisol concentrations, heart rate, and blood pressure were measured before and after the listening session. The same variables were measured in a control group of 60 subjects who did not listen to music but rested in silence. Music by Mozart and Strauss markedly lowered the subjects' blood pressure (systolic: -4.7 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [-6.9; -2.5] and -3.7 mm Hg [-6.1; -1.4]; diastolic: -2.1 mm Hg [-3.8; -0.4] and -2.9 mm Hg [-4.9; -0.9], pMozart: -4.56 μ/dL [-5.72; -3.39], Strauss: -4.76 μg/dL [-5.94; -3.58], ABBA: -3.00 μg/dL [-5.28; -2.69], silence: -2.39 μg/dL [-3.26; -1.52], p*lt;0.001). The observed effects were not correlated with the style of music individually preferred by the subjects. Music by Mozart and Strauss lowered the subjects' blood pressure and heart rate, while music by ABBA did not. Mozart's music had the strongest effect; the piece used was his Symphony No. 40 in g minor (KV 550).

  16. Listening to music during electromyography does not influence the examinee's anxiety and pain levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alon; Drory, Vivian E

    2014-09-01

    Listening to music is a low-cost intervention that has demonstrated ability to reduce pain and anxiety levels in various medical procedures. Subjects undergoing electrophysiological examinations were randomized into a music-listening group and a control group. Visual analog scales were used to measure anxiety and pain levels during the procedure. Thirty subjects were randomized to each group. No statistically significant difference was found in anxiety or pain levels during the procedure between groups. However, most subjects in the music-listening group reported anxiety and pain reduction and would prefer to hear music in a future examination. Although listening to music during electrophysiological examinations did not reduce anxiety or pain significantly, most subjects felt a positive effect and would prefer to hear music; therefore, we suggest that music may be offered optionally in the electromyography laboratory setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effect of music on pain for home-dwelling persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heeok

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of music on pain for home-dwelling persons with dementia. A quasiexperimental design was used. Fifteen subjects listened to their preferred music for 30 minutes before peak agitation time, for 2 days per week, followed by no music for 2 weeks. The process was repeated once. The finding of this study showed that mean pain levels after listening to music were significantly lower than before listening to the music (t=2.21, df=28; p music intervention to control pain for home-dwelling persons with dementia.

  18. Aura music art - Aristotle's philosophical aesthetics of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2001-12-01

    in music. Referring to Damon, Plato and other philosophers of music Aristotle develops his own conception of musical imitation, which conveys the similarity between art and life. This affinity is the ground for different powers ofmusic: entertainment, education and civilised pursuits. The responsibility and care for the education of children and of citizens is conceived as care and diligence about art and music which becomes a real care for the soul, cultura animi. The article has following sections: 1. Poetry, music, education, 2. Ethos and musical mimesis, 3. Music and Education, 4. The purpose ofmusic and musical katharsis, 5. Musical katharsis, aesthetic pleasure and art experience, 6. Concluding remarks on music and katharsis.

  19. Expressiveness in musical performance: Pedagogic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Natalija R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our research relates to pedagogic aspects of expressive vocal-instrumental musical performance. We intended to examine: (1 how undergraduate students see/conceptualize and evaluate expressiveness in musical performance; (2 whether and how they were trained in the skill of expressive musical performance during their musical training; (3 whether and in which way they rehearse the expressive component of musical performance and interpretation and (4 whether there are any differences regarding gender, age, instrument, department, year of study and years of instrument playing in relation to the group of dependant variables related to expressiveness, tuition and practice. The sample for the research included 82 students of instrumental and theory departments at the Faculty of Music in Belgrade. Psychological and pedagogical aspects of musical expressiveness during vocal-instrumental performance were analyzed. The results show that students highly evaluate expressiveness but its place is secondary compared to mastering technical and tonal requirements. Statistically significant differences were shown regarding gender, age and departments. It can be concluded that there is a potential for the development and enhancement of expressiveness of students if we abandon the traditional view that expressiveness is linked exclusively to talent. The findings indicate that pedagogical work should be directed towards finding purposeful strategies for training individual expressiveness.

  20. [Music therapy in different dental specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Katarzyna; Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Kowalkowska, Iwona; Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna; Piotrowski, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    Music is generally recognized as the best and, in parallel, the simplest medium of communication. The music therapy, applied in various spheres linked to a therapeutic process, is particularly valued in rehabilitation, medicine, humanities and social sciences. Present study aimed at determination of usefulness of selected techniques of music therapy in different dental specialties. The studies were conducted on 81 generally healthy patients aging 18 to 62 years. Various planned dental procedures were performed first time or were appraised by the patients as unpleasant ones. On the basis of pilot studies, a stable scheme of the visits was established. At the beginning of the studies, music therapy according to Kierył was conducted. Subsequently, basing on description of Schwabe, a form of regulatory individual music therapy was conducted. Depending on psychoemotional condition of the patient, music programming was based on ISO and LEVEL principles, taking into account musical preferences of the patient and his/her age. After every visit the patients filled questionnaires and appropriate results, together with results of studies performed by the dentist, were subjected to statistical analysis. 1. Results of the studies encourage application of musicotherapeutic techniques in different dental specialties. 2. Dental visit can be made attractive and patient's visits in dental office can be facilitated with no significant financial input or organizational.

  1. Instant Music & Messaging : Interconnecting music and messaging

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Mattias

    2009-01-01

    Communication is and has always been important for the human as we aredesigned by evolution to communicate as a way to survive and reproduce. Whatmany people do not think about is that music and communication are very closelyrelated due to the fact that music is a type of communication. In this thesis wehave focused on the field of music and communication to discuss the possibilityof combining these to areas to provide better information technology services.More specifically we have focused o...

  2. Towards Music Captioning: Generating Music Playlist Descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Keunwoo; Fazekas, George; McFee, Brian; Cho, Kyunghyun; Sandler, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Descriptions are often provided along with recommendations to help users' discovery. Recommending automatically generated music playlists (e.g. personalised playlists) introduces the problem of generating descriptions. In this paper, we propose a method for generating music playlist descriptions, which is called as music captioning. In the proposed method, audio content analysis and natural language processing are adopted to utilise the information of each track.

  3. Popular Music Genres, Music Producers, and Song Creation in the General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Shane

    2018-01-01

    In secondary general music classes, music educators have the opportunity to bridge the gap between the music students' experiences in school and the music they engage with outside of school. According to Williams, nontraditional music students have musical lives outside of school but choose not to participate in traditional ensembles. In this…

  4. Loud music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Nicolae

    2008-07-01

    Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. The purpose of this paper is to review published studies that detail the noise levels, the potential effects (e.g. noise-induced hearing loss), and the perceptions of those affected by music exposure in occupational and non-occupational settings. The review employed Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, and the World Wide Web to find relevant studies in the scientific literature. Considered in this review are 43 studies concerning the currently most significant occupational sources of high-intensity music: rock and pop music playing and employment at music venues, as well as the most significant sources of non-occupational high-intensity music: concerts, dicotheques (clubs), and personal music players. Although all of the activities listed above have the potential for hearing damage, the most serious threat to hearing comes from prolonged exposures to amplified live music (concerts). The review concludes that more research is needed to clarify the hearing loss risks of music exposure from personal music players and that current scientific literature clearly recognizes an unmet hearing health need for more education regarding the risks of loud music exposure and the benefits of wearing hearing protection, for more hearing protection use by those at risk, and for more regulations limiting music intensity levels at music entertainment venues.

  5. Cross-Modal Interactions in the Experience of Musical Performances: Physiological Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapados, Catherine; Levitin, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate cross-modal interactions in the emotional experience of music listeners. Previous research showed that visual information present in a musical performance is rich in expressive content, and moderates the subjective emotional experience of a participant listening and/or observing musical stimuli [Vines,…

  6. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  7. The Impact of Music on Student Achievement in the Third and Fifth Grade Math Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Ruth E.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates students who engage in music exhibit improved cognitive development. The quantitative study was conducted in a large suburban school district in Southeast Georgia. This study investigated the impact of music on student achievement when music is incorporated with the core academic subject of mathematics at the elementary level.…

  8. Echoes of an Invisible World : Marsilio Ficino and Francesco Patrizi on Cosmic Order and Music Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Music theory of almost all ages has relied on cosmology and philosophy of nature in its attempts to explain music. The understanding of what the universe is, however, is subject to cultural and historical differences. In exploring ways in which music philosophy has represented and employed the

  9. Music and language: musical alexia and agraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, J C

    1980-06-01

    Two aphasic right-handed professional musicians with left hemispheric lesions had disturbed musical function, especially musical alexia and agraphia. In Case 1 aphasia was of transcortical sensory type, with severe agraphia and decreased comprehension of written words, although she could match them with pictures. Except for reading and writing, musical ability was normal; she could sing in five languages. Musical alexia and agraphia affected pitch symbols more than rhythm. Case 2 had conduction aphasia and severe expressive amusia, especially for rhythm. Although his language alexia and agraphia were milder than Case 1's, his musical alexia and agraphia were more severe, affecting rhythm as much as pitch. In neither patient were those aspects of musical notation either closest to verbal language or most dependent upon temporal (sequential) processing maximally impaired. These cases are consistent with the literature in suggesting that the presence or absence of aphasia or of right or left hemispheric damage fails to predict the presence, type, or severity of amusia, including musical alexia and agraphia. The popular notion that receptive amusia follows lesions of the language-dominant temporal lobe, whereas expressive amusia follows non-dominant frontal lobe damage, is an over-simplification, as is the view that increasing musical sophistication causes a shift of musical processing from the right hemisphere to the left.

  10. Music as word: Film music - superlibretto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of his paper is to prove that film music can be understood as authentic narrative force: film music as word / discourse and its superlibretto status. Superlibretto is the status of music in a film which is constructing its own (aural reality and is narrating, speaking its own text which creates a wholesome film meaning. The existence of superlibretto is substantiated by fundamental theoretic concepts of film music and practically proven by analyses of examples taken from the opus of Serbian film composer Zoran Simjanović.

  11. Reverberation time influences musical enjoyment with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Michael V; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Chari, Divya A; Mancuso, Dean M; Lalwani, Anil K

    2015-02-01

    To identify factors that enhance the enjoyment of music in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Specifically, we assessed the hypothesis that variations in reverberation time (RT60) may be linked to variations in the level of musical enjoyment in CI users. Prospective analysis of music enjoyment in normal-hearing individuals. Single tertiary academic medical center. Normal-hearing adults (N = 20) were asked to rate a novel 20-second melody on three enjoyment modalities: musicality, pleasantness, and naturalness. Subjective rating of music excerpts. Participants listened to seven different instruments play the melody, each with five levels (0.2, 1.6, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0 s) of RT60, both with and without CI simulation processing. Linear regression analysis with analysis of variance was used to assess the impact of RT60 on music enjoyment. Without CI simulation, music samples with RT60 = 3.0 seconds were ranked most pleasant and most musical, whereas those with RT60 = 1.6 seconds and RT60 = 3.0 seconds were ranked equally most natural (all p < 0.05). With CI simulation, music samples with RT60 = 0.2 seconds were ranked most pleasant, most musical, and most natural (all p < 0.05). Samples without CI simulation show a preference for middle-range RT60, whereas samples with CI simulation show a negative linear relationship between RT60 and musical enjoyment, with preference for minimal reverberation. Minimization of RT60 may be a useful strategy for increasing musical enjoyment under CI conditions, both in altering existing music as well as in composition of new music.

  12. MUSIC, MODULARITY AND SYNTAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valenzuela

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available First generation cognitive science has always maintained that the mind/brain is a modular system. This has been especially apparent in linguistics, where the modularity thesis goes largely unquestioned by the linguistic mainstream. Cognitive linguists have long disputed the reality of modular architectures of grammar. Instead of conceiving syntax as a computational system of a relatively small set of formal principles and parameters, cognitive linguists take the notion of grammatical construction to be the basic unit of syntax: syntax is simply our repertoire of form-meaning pairings. On such a view, there is no a-priori reason to believe that semantics and phonology cannot affect syntax. In the present paper, we want to take things a step further and suggest, more generally, that language is not a module of cognition in any strict sense. We present preliminary results from research in progress concerning the effect of music on grammatical constructions. More specifically, our experiment compares reaction times between two grammatical constructions that differ in semantics and intonational curves but share lexical material. Our data so far suggests that subjects take less time reading the construction when the semantic bias and intonation match than in non-matching cases. This, we argue, suggests not only that semantics, phonology and syntax form an information bundle (i.e. a construction in the cognitive linguistic sense, but that perceived similarity of music can influence linguistic cognition.

  13. On the status of music and musical instruments in Arabic culture after the advent of Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoštarić Ada I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article bases its arguments mainly on data found in secondary literature about the propriety of music in Arabic culture after the advent of Islam. One of the oldest sources in Arabic on the subject is Damm al-malāhī (The Condemnation of Instruments of Diversion. In it, the author, Ibn Abī al-Dunyā (823-894 condemned listening to music and musical instruments. Subsequently, many books addressed the question of whether music is illicit (ar. harām. Western scholars defined this corpus of literature as a kind of polemic about the permissibility of music and musical instruments in Islamic culture. Since there is no verse (ar. Áya in the Qur’Án which explicitly forbids or allows music, and since, at the same time, the hadīt literature abounds with contradictory statements about the practice of the prophet Muhammad regarding listening to music and musical instruments, this question continues to resurface, either in the media or on web pages specifically devoted to the issue. This topic is also quite interesting in terms of the reflexions one can encounter in the Muslim areas of the ex-Yugoslav region. At the same time, the article touches upon the special place that the Qur’ān recitation (ar. tilāwat al-Qur’ān and Islamic call to prayer (ar. adān have in Muslim communities. We often find both of them in chapters on religious music, and can, for instance, hear Gorans from Kosovo say (colloquially that one sings the call to prayer. Nevertheless, although both the Recitation and the call to prayer employ the system of maqāms found in secular forms of music, in religious Islamic circles they have never been defined as music, nor are they understood as such in Islamic public opinion. It has been said innumerable times that it is not the (listening to music per se that is forbidden, but rather the circumstances surrounding music, sometimes associated with the consumption of alcohol or similar behaviour, which leads to transgression of

  14. Using music during childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, C A

    2000-12-01

    The application of music in pain management has become popular in the past two decades. This article describes the responses of primiparas to the use of music therapy during the births of their children. Eleven women who attended childbirth education classes in Brantford, Ontario, Canada, volunteered to participate in a music therapy exercise. During pregnancy each participant selected preferred music, listened to it daily, and received instruction about focused listening. Within 72 hours after birth they were interviewed about their use of music as a coping strategy during labor. Women selected the combination of music and labor support as a helpful coping strategy during labor. All women used the music during labor to help distract them from the pain or their current situation. The planned use of music by mothers and caregivers can be an aid to prenatal preparation and an important adjunct in pain and stress management during labor and birth.

  15. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  16. Musical Students’ Concert Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr S. Plokhotnyuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available . The article presents detailed analysis of performance training of future teachers of music at higher educational establishments and offers ways to overcome the problem of musical students’ concert practice organization.

  17. Hearing loss and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and how often you are exposed to loud music Headphone use Family history of hearing loss Jobs or activities that increase your chance of hearing loss from music are: Being a musician, sound crew member, or ...

  18. Music, art & creative movement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sommersberger, Brian

    2017-01-01

      Sommerberger talks about developing a music-infused project. Fourth-grade students at Wilson Elementary School in Sheboygan WI recently joined to create short performances using art, dance, music, and composition...

  19. Music for Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KIDS' HEALTH NUTRITION PATIENT RESOURCES Search form Search Music for your Health By R. Mack Harrell, MD, ... creation of sound for sound’s sake is called “music.” In 2008, scientists digging up a huge granite ...

  20. Music and Wellbeing in Everyday Life: An Exploratory Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) and semi-structured interviews, we examined how people experience and use music in everyday life in potentially beneficial ways to enhance subjective wellbeing. In contrast to previous research where music's self-regulatory role has been highlighted primarily in the context ...

  1. Hearing the Music in the Spectrum of Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout a general education course on sound and light aimed at music and art students, analogies between subjective perceptions of objective properties of sound and light waves are a recurring theme. Demonstrating that the pitch and loudness of musical sounds are related to the frequency and intensity of a sound wave is simple and students are…

  2. Justifying Music Instruction in American Public Schools: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    1995-01-01

    Charts the development of music education from early utilitarianism up to its current emphasis on aesthetic value. Recent attempts to pursue music education as an interdisciplinary subject have been limited due to budget cuts. Briefly discusses this financial crisis and suggests some sources of alternative funding. (MJP)

  3. Understanding and Developing Rubrics for Music Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    A primary difficulty with music performance assessment is managing its subjective nature. To help improve objectivity, rubrics can be used to develop a set of guidelines for clearly assessing student performance. Moreover, rubrics serve as documentation for student achievement that provides music teachers with a written form of accountability.…

  4. Effects of Music Notation Reinforcement on Aural Memory for Melodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation reinforcement on aural memory for melodies. Participants were 41 undergraduate and graduate music majors in a within-subjects design. Experimental trials tested melodic memory through a sequence of target melodies, distraction melodies, and matched and unmatched answer choices.…

  5. DW3 Classical Music Resources: Managing Mozart on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Yale

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the development of DW3 (Duke World Wide Web) Classical Music Resources, a vertical portal that comprises the most comprehensive collection of classical music resources on the Web with links to more than 2800 non-commercial pages/sites in over a dozen languages. Describes the hierarchical organization of subject headings and considers…

  6. Developing Musical/Rhythmic Intelligence To Improve Spelling Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botwinick, Jill

    A study examined whether listening to any music or to a particular type of music would have an effect on the spelling scores of first-grade students. Subjects were 19 first graders from the Edison, New Jersey, public school district. The study hypothesis was that no significant difference would exist between scores on spelling tests of students…

  7. Focus of Attention to Musical Elements in Haydn's Symphony #104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.; Fredrickson, William E.

    1997-01-01

    Investigates focus of attention of musical elements to ascertain which elements are perceived as the most salient in relationship to Haydn's Symphony #104. Indicates that the subjects did not focus on any particular element while listening to this piece. Asserts that the key to music listening is staying on task. (CMK)

  8. Mental imagery boosts music compositional creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sarah Shi Hui; Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2017-01-01

    We empirically investigated the effect of mental imagery on young children's music compositional creativity. Children aged 5 to 8 years participated in two music composition sessions. In the control session, participants based their composition on a motif that they had created using a sequence of letter names. In the mental imagery session, participants were given a picture of an animal and instructed to imagine the animal's sounds and movements, before incorporating what they had imagined into their composition. Six expert judges independently rated all music compositions on creativity based on subjective criteria (consensual assessment). Reliability analyses indicated that the expert judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in their ratings. The mental imagery compositions received significantly higher creativity ratings by the expert judges than did the control compositions. These results provide evidence for the effectiveness of mental imagery in enhancing young children's music compositional creativity.

  9. Mental imagery boosts music compositional creativity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Shi Hui Wong

    Full Text Available We empirically investigated the effect of mental imagery on young children's music compositional creativity. Children aged 5 to 8 years participated in two music composition sessions. In the control session, participants based their composition on a motif that they had created using a sequence of letter names. In the mental imagery session, participants were given a picture of an animal and instructed to imagine the animal's sounds and movements, before incorporating what they had imagined into their composition. Six expert judges independently rated all music compositions on creativity based on subjective criteria (consensual assessment. Reliability analyses indicated that the expert judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in their ratings. The mental imagery compositions received significantly higher creativity ratings by the expert judges than did the control compositions. These results provide evidence for the effectiveness of mental imagery in enhancing young children's music compositional creativity.

  10. Application of Digital Music Technology in Music Pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Peiwei Zhang; Xin Sui

    2017-01-01

    This paper expounds the concept and current development of digital music technology in modern times by exploration and analysis around the music technology, in order to better develop music pedagogy. In allusion to the contemporary music pedagogy, a new instruction idea is proposed by analyzing the digital music technologies such as MIDI, digital audio and other new music carriers, namely, an instruction model which integrates the digital music technology and the traditional teaching mode and...

  11. Neural basis of music imagery and the effect of musical expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2008-12-01

    Although the influence of long-term musical training on the processing of heard music has been the subject of many studies, the neural basis of music imagery and the effect of musical expertise remain insufficiently understood. By means of magnetoencephalography (MEG) we compared musicians and nonmusicians in a musical imagery task with familiar melodies. Subjects listened to the beginnings of the melodies, continued them in their imagination and then heard a tone which was either a correct or an incorrect further continuation of the melody. Only in musicians was the imagery of these melodies strong enough to elicit an early preattentive brain response to unexpected incorrect continuations of the imagined melodies; this response, the imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN), peaked approximately 175 ms after tone onset and was right-lateralized. In contrast to previous studies the iMMN was not based on a heard but on a purely imagined memory trace. Our results suggest that in trained musicians imagery and perception rely on similar neuronal correlates, and that the musicians' intense musical training has modified this network to achieve a superior ability for imagery and preattentive processing of music.

  12. Perception of tension in music: musicians versus nonmusicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, W E

    2000-01-01

    Music therapists are often highly trained musicians who deal with diverse populations, most of whom do not have formal musical training. Questions may arise regarding the issue of a therapist's ability to understand, and predict, the musical perceptions and preferences of a client when their own background is so different. The current work is a look at a series of studies using various musical stimuli and comparing responses of musicians and nonmusicians to perceived "musical tension." Subjects (N = 126) included adult musicians and nonmusicians as well as a case study of a father/daughter. All subjects listened to recordings through individual headphones and were physically isolated from other subjects to ensure individuality of responses. Subjects, whether adults or children, were given instructions telling them that they were about to hear a piece of music and that they would be using a Continuous Response Digital Interface (CRDI) dial to trace the musical tension they heard. No specific definition of musical tension was given to any of the subjects. In effect, individual subjects supplied their own definition, either knowingly or unknowingly, in the absence of a formal one. Results indicated that group perceptions of the points at which tension and its release were strongest are remarkably similar between musicians and nonmusicians (correlations ranged from r =.71 to r =.95). Within at least the western art music tradition the likelihood that perceptions of group responses to tension and release in music could be predicted is high. These data indicate that therapists, trained as musicians, might be able to predict with some accuracy the responses of their clients who are not trained musicians.

  13. Embodied Music Listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents the receptive music therapy model "Guided Imagery of Music (GIM)" as an embodied way of music listening with documented effects on a number of physiological and psychological symptoms and problems. Relaxation, guiding and (classical) music stimulates and supports the work......, underlying theories, selected research/evidence and illustrative clinical vignettes. Based on a study of cancer survivors’ GIM therapy, grounded theories of the therapeutic process and music’s role in the process are presented and discussed....

  14. Music and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Haefliger, Anna Berenika

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Music and its different forms of use seem to benefit people in a number of ways. Research has suggested that extensive musical practice and musical listening enhances mental functioning in healthy adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Yet, the findings presented have not yet examined the effects both musical training and stimuli enhancement have on episodic memory recognition. 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians took part in an episodic memory task which evaluated m...

  15. Music and the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2015-11-21

    Music can powerfully evoke and modulate emotions and moods, along with changes in heart activity, blood pressure (BP), and breathing. Although there is great heterogeneity in methods and quality among previous studies on effects of music on the heart, the following findings emerge from the literature: Heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) are higher in response to exciting music compared with tranquilizing music. During musical frissons (involving shivers and piloerection), both HR and RR increase. Moreover, HR and RR tend to increase in response to music compared with silence, and HR appears to decrease in response to unpleasant music compared with pleasant music. We found no studies that would provide evidence for entrainment of HR to musical beats. Corresponding to the increase in HR, listening to exciting music (compared with tranquilizing music) is associated with a reduction of heart rate variability (HRV), including reductions of both low-frequency and high-frequency power of the HRV. Recent findings also suggest effects of music-evoked emotions on regional activity of the heart, as reflected in electrocardiogram amplitude patterns. In patients with heart disease (similar to other patient groups), music can reduce pain and anxiety, associated with lower HR and lower BP. In general, effects of music on the heart are small, and there is great inhomogeneity among studies with regard to methods, findings, and quality. Therefore, there is urgent need for systematic high-quality research on the effects of music on the heart, and on the beneficial effects of music in clinical settings. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Computational Music Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in this intensely interdisciplinary field. A broad range of approaches are presented, employing techniques originating in disciplines such as linguistics, information theory, information retrieval, pattern recognition, machine learning, topology, algebra and signal processing. Many of the methods described draw...... music analysis, the book provides an invaluable resource for researchers, teachers and students in music theory and analysis, computer science, music information retrieval and related disciplines. It also provides a state-of-the-art reference for practitioners in the music technology industry....

  17. Psychiatry and music

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  18. Innovation In Music II

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    Innovation in Music 2015 (InMusic’15) was an international conference organised by KES International and an multi-disciplinary International Programme Committee. Hosted by Conference Chair Dr Rob Toulson, Director of the Cultures of the Digital Economy Research Institute at Anglia Ruskin University, the conference took place over the 7th to 9th June 2015 in Cambridge, UK. Innovation in Music broadly represents all aspects of innovation in the field of music, particularly encompassing music pe...

  19. Programme driven music radio

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Conor; Cunningham, Padraig; Clerkin, Patrick; Grimaldi, Marco

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the operation of and research behind a networked application for the delivery of personalised streams of music at Trinity College Dublin. Smart Radio is a web based client-server application that uses streaming audio technology and recommendation techniques to allow users build, manage and share music programmes. While it is generally acknowledged that music distribution over the web will dramatically change how the music industry operates, there are ...

  20. Impact of musical experience on the Seashore Rhythm Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzmark, P

    2001-08-01

    The Seashore Rhythm Test (SRT) is sensitive to musical talent. The possibility that this reduces its clinical sensitivity in cognitively impaired persons with musical experience was investigated. Subjects were 101 referrals to the neuropsychology service of a large medical center. The results indicate that patients with a substantial amount of musical experience tend to perform normally on the SRT, even when overall performance on a neuropsychological test battery suggests cognitive impairment. This finding suggests caution in interpreting normal SRT results in those with a musical background.

  1. Towards the Problem of the Emergence of Popular Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The text is a reaction against the prevailing ahistoricity in popular music studies and its Anglo-centrism, in which popular music is implicitly understood as Anglo-American, coexistent with the global capitalist market, self-evident, and timelessly, eternally “present”. These assumptions can nevertheless be made explicit and be subject to a historical examination of their validity, which then leads to an examination of historical conditions for the emergence of various popular music types across the non-Western world. These conditions are shown to be much more diverse and much less self-evident than usually assumed in popular music studies.

  2. A critical evaluation of assessment practices in music literacy programmes for young adults / Jacomine Pretorius

    OpenAIRE

    Pretorius, Jacomine

    2007-01-01

    The topic of assessment has attracted wide-spread attention in the discipline of music education in recent decades. However, most research centres on school-based assessment, and then mainly on the assessment of practical music subjects. Current assessment practices in music literacy programmes (such as 'paper-and-pencil' and standardized tests) counteract what is arguably the most important goal of music education, namely the development of musicianship. Therefore, in this stu...

  3. Effects of music on arousal during imagery in elite shooters: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Terry, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music e...

  4. Ethnographic Study at a Music Library Found Students Prefer Short Stopovers and Longer Solitary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objective – To identify patterns of patron behaviour in the library in order to improve space utilization. Design – Ethnographic data-gathering, including observations and a qualitative survey. Setting – Music library of a large public university. Subjects – Library patrons, primarily music students but also music faculty, other students and faculty, and regional music professionals and amateurs. Methods – In the exploratory phase, complete (i.e., incognito) participant ob...

  5. Creativity in Music Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Eila M.

    2006-01-01

    Music education is not just about learning to perform with voices and instruments; it is about guiding students toward understanding music, what it is, how it works, and what it does to and for human beings. One of the goals often expressed for music education is the nurturing of students' creativity, and opportunities for students to express…

  6. A timeless music dictionary

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    R.B. Ruthven

    Abstract: A music dictionary for the Internet fulfils the same functions as printed music dic- tionaries. An earlier music dictionary is as useful as a new one if its information is correct. But the fact that an Internet dictionary can at any time be corrected according to modern practices makes it, if not timeless, at least more up to ...

  7. Music makes a difference?!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karolien Dons

    2013-01-01

    Music and culture play a significant role in the political and societal development of a peaceful and integrative Europe. Music and its diverse expressions are extremely relevant for social cohesion, wellbeing and economic growth. What kind of an impact can music have? And how can we combine

  8. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  9. Learning Science Using Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    For thousands of years, people have used music to transfer information and narrate stories. The musical structure, consisting of words set to melodies in rhythmic patterns, made the content easier to remember. Researchers have investigated the long- and short-term effects of song on memory and found that music aided in the recall of information.…

  10. Music and Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ben A.; Davidson, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses a study of the effects of music listening upon student achievement. Reports that seventh grade students listened to music while independently studying the earth-sun relationship. Concludes that there were no significant achievement differences among students who learned while listening to rock, classical, easy listening, or no music. (SG)

  11. Music Instruction Goes Digital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demski, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Faced with meager enrollment in band, orchestra, and choir programs, schools are using digital technology to excite students about creating music on today's terms. This article discusses how music educators reinvent their profession by acknowledging and incorporating the way students interact with music today--digitally. Bill Evans, a music…

  12. Music Education for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Ryan N.

    2015-01-01

    School music programs are changing. For years the music education profession has emphasized large ensemble experiences for reasons that include quality of music making, sense of community, and individual and collective pride for many of the students involved. As a high school saxophonist, I valued that experience, but other high school…

  13. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  14. [Music therapy and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is a predominantly non-verbal psychotherapy based on music improvisation, embedded in a therapeutic relationship. This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression. We reviewed the literature on recent research into music therapy and depression, reporting on the methods used and the results achieved, and we assessed the current position of music therapy for depression in the context of evidence-based scientific research. A wide variety of research methods was used to investigate the effects of using music therapy as a psychotherapy. Most studies focused usually on the added value that music therapy brings to the standard form of psychiatric treatment, when administered with or without psychopharmacological support. Music therapy produced particularly significant and favourable results when used to treat patients with depression. Current research into music therapy and depression points to a significant and persistent reduction in patients' symptoms and to improvements in their quality of life. However, further research is needed with regard to the best methods of illustrating the effects of music therapy.

  15. Curriculum Writing in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process for creating a curriculum in music education. Offers a definition of curriculum and address issues to be considered while designing the curriculum. Discusses how to incorporate the National Standards for Music Education, describes important music concepts, and offer guidelines for writing. (CMK)

  16. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  17. Pop Music's Middle Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Surveys important music styles that preceded the emergence of rock and roll in the 1950s. Included are swing, bebop, rhythm and blues, country-western, gospel, and urban folk music. Lists of selected readings and recordings are appended. Part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  18. Music, Emotions, and Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packalen, Elina

    2008-01-01

    In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

  19. Dyslexia and Musical Notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granschow, Lenore; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Case studies are presented of musicians with dyslexia who experienced difficulties in the study of musical notation. The studies focus on their educational histories, musical weaknesses and strengths, and successful compensatory strategies. Suggestions are offered on using multisensory approaches to teach musical notation. (Author/JDD)

  20. Bayesian Music Transcription

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cemgil, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Music transcription refers to extraction of a human readable and interpretable description from a recording of a music performance. The final goal is to implement a program that can automatically infer a musical notation that lists the pitch levels of notes and corresponding score positions in any

  1. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  2. Selling digital music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...

  3. Selling digital music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...

  4. Music Education for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    This article argues that a systematic, developmental and comprehensive music education should be at the heart of every child's formal education within the state education system. The benefits of a music education are briefly explored before a presentation of recent research data that demonstrates a decline in music education as a result of poorly…

  5. AP Music Theory Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Some American high schools include Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory within their course offerings. Students who pass the AP exam can receive college credit either as a music or humanities credit. An AP class, however, offers music students more than future college credit; it ultimately improves musicianship skills and promotes deeper…

  6. South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African Society for Research in Music (SASRIM). It gives priority to the publication of research on South African music, but continues to represent the wider field of research interests in the country and in the rest of Africa. The journal invites work from any ...

  7. Constructivism in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, constructivism, as a theory of learning, has taken on an increasingly important role in music education. Efforts to shift music education toward a more constructivist practice have significant implications for policymaking at all levels of music education. In this article, I seek to recalibrate our thinking about what…

  8. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions

  9. A functional MRI study of happy and sad emotions in music with and without lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira eBrattico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area, and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics

  10. Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…

  11. Exploring Cultural Differences within a Pattern of Teaching "Musics": An International Comparative Study of Two Music Lessons on Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a praxiological perspective on classroom practice with the subject matter music, in order to understand two music lessons that were recorded on video, one in Sweden and one in Germany. It introduces a procedure and its methodological implications, in order to reconstruct and compare the characteristics of and the cultural…

  12. Is there a place for music in nuclear medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Lytras, Nikolaos; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Music, since the time of ancient Greek Asclepieia is well-known for its influence on men's behavior. Nuclear Medicine can study the effect of music in humans' brain. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown brain areas to be activated after colored hearing vs after hearing to words. Furthermore, PET studies gave evidence that visual imagery of a musical stave is used by some musically untrained subjects in a pitch discrimination task. Listening to music combines intellect and emotion by intimate anatomical and functional connexions between temporal lobe, hippocampus and limbic system. Mozart's music is considered the best for bringing favorable music effects to men. This is called "the Mozart's effect" and by some is attributed to the fact that this kind of music's sequences tend to repeat regularly every 20-30sec, which is about the same length of time as brain-wave patterns. It may be useful to suggest that a certain kind of music played in the waiting room and/or in the examining room of a Nuclear Medicine Department may support patients ' cooperation with their physicians, especially in cardiac nuclear medicine. Furthermore, patients should be calm and not afraid of radioactivity. A long DVD program to be played during working hours can be decided between a music therapist and the Nuclear Medicine physician.

  13. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. The influence of social situations on music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Mary Elizabeth; Grewe, Oliver; Egermann, Hauke; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether listening to music in a group setting influenced the emotion felt by the listeners. We hypothesized that individuals hearing music in a group would experience more intense emotions than the same individuals hearing the same music on their own. The emotional reactions to 10 musical excerpts (previously shown to contain chill-inducing psychoacoustic parameters) were measured in a within-subjects design. We found, contrary to our hypothesis, that the participants (all musicians) did not experience more chills when listening to music in a group than when listening alone. These findings may be explained by a lesser degree of concentration on the music in the group condition.

  15. Sensitivity to musical structure in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Josh H.; Norman-Haignere, Sam; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from brain-damaged patients suggests that regions in the temporal lobes, distinct from those engaged in lower-level auditory analysis, process the pitch and rhythmic structure in music. In contrast, neuroimaging studies targeting the representation of music structure have primarily implicated regions in the inferior frontal cortices. Combining individual-subject fMRI analyses with a scrambling method that manipulated musical structure, we provide evidence of brain regions sensitive to musical structure bilaterally in the temporal lobes, thus reconciling the neuroimaging and patient findings. We further show that these regions are sensitive to the scrambling of both pitch and rhythmic structure but are insensitive to high-level linguistic structure. Our results suggest the existence of brain regions with representations of musical structure that are distinct from high-level linguistic representations and lower-level acoustic representations. These regions provide targets for future research investigating possible neural specialization for music or its associated mental processes. PMID:23019005

  16. Musical stimulation in the developmentally delayed child: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, N L; Molnar, E T; Knasel, A L

    1987-08-01

    Music is a convenient way of bypassing barriers of communication and eliciting responses that may be helpful in the diagnoses and treatment of illness. The use of background music in elevators, in doctors' offices, and in stores are good examples of how music can be used to affect the subconscious mind. In this pilot study drums were used to better define the effects of particular elements of music and sound. When repetitive rhythms are presented as background music to a group of severely developmentally delayed children, three out of four subjects show a definite change in level of development in the unstructured task of free drawing. To discover more about the effects of the various elements of music and to better identify patterns in the environment that are conducive to optimal functioning, further studies are indicated.

  17. Music therapy, emotions and the heart: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Oasi, Osmano; Gianotti, Marta; Bellandi, Daniele; Manzoni, Veronica; Goulene, Karine; Imbriani, Chiara; Badiale, Marco Stramba

    2012-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the control of cardiac function. It has been suggested that sound and music may have effects on the autonomic control of the heart inducing emotions, concomitantly with the activation of specific brain areas, i.e. the limbic area, and they may exert potential beneficial effects. This study is a prerequisite and defines a methodology to assess the relation between changes in cardiac physiological parameters such as heart rate, QT interval and their variability and the psychological responses to music therapy sessions. We assessed the cardiac physiological parameters and psychological responses to a music therapy session. ECG Holter recordings were performed before, during and after a music therapy session in 8 healthy individuals. The different behaviors of the music therapist and of the subjects have been analyzed with a specific music therapy assessment (Music Therapy Checklist). After the session mean heart rate decreased (p = 0.05), high frequency of heart rate variability tended to be higher and QTc variability tended to be lower. During music therapy session "affect attunements" have been found in all subjects but one. A significant emotional activation was associated to a higher dynamicity and variations of sound-music interactions. Our results may represent the rational basis for larger studies in diferent clinical conditions.

  18. Musical Intensity in Affect Regulation: Uncovering Hope and Resilience Through Heavy Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hereld, Diana Christine

    2016-01-01

    This thesis discusses the nature of music’s impact on identity, subjectivity, and the self. To better understand music’s role in promoting hope and resilience, I pinpoint how heavy, intense, and highly emotive music applied over distinct listening practices impacts the regulation of affect and self-destructive impulses in individuals who suffer from trauma, mental illness, or self-destructive behavior. This research also investigates the characteristic of intensity often found in heavy music ...

  19. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-G?mez, Felipe N.; V?liz, Guillermo; Rojas, Marcos; Mart?nez, Cristi?n; Olmedo, Rub?n; Panussis, Felipe; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Delgado, Carolina; Delano, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss...

  20. Music as Method: Musically Enhanced Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    While artist-researchers have been productive within the domains of the literary arts, visual arts, dance and drama, there is little musical arts-based educational research reported in the literature. This article introduces a research methodology to address this deficit: musically enhanced narrative inquiry (MENI). The article describes the…

  1. On music Therapy : Music and Healing

    OpenAIRE

    栗林, 文雄

    1996-01-01

    The theory of sound as energy is based on the relationship between music and positive humanfeelings. It was discussed the music therapy is effective in the care and cure of elderly with behavioral disorderssuch as senile dementia, and in patients in palliative medicine wards with cancer and in patientswith various kinds of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. alcohol. drug addiction and so on.

  2. The change of music preferences following the onset of a mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gebhardt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A psychiatric population (n=123 was examined on changed music preferences after onset of a mental disorder. Most patients did not change their previous music preference; they considered music helpful for their mental state, showed more attractivity and enforcement as personality traits and used music more for emotion modulation. Patients who have undergone a preference shift reported that music has impaired them during the time of illness; these patients showed less ego-strength, less conficence and less enforcement and used music less for arousal modulation. A third subgroup stopped listening to music completely after the onset of the mental disorder; these patients attached less importance to music and also reported that music has impaired their mental state. They showed more ego-strength and used music less for emotion modulation. The results suggest that the use of music in everyday life can be helpful as an emotion modulation strategy. However, some patients might need instructions how to use music in a functional, and not dysfunctional, way. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists as well as music therapists should be aware of emotion modulation strategies, subjective valence of music and personality traits of their patients.

  3. [Emotional response to music by postlingually-deafened adult cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Dong, Ruijuan; Zhou, Yun; Li, Jing; Qi, Beier; Liu, Bo

    2012-10-01

    To assess the emotional response to music by postlingually-deafened adult cochlear implant users. Munich music questionnaire (MUMU) was used to match the music experience and the motivation of use of music between 12 normal-hearing and 12 cochlear implant subjects. Emotion rating test in Musical Sounds in Cochlear Implants (MuSIC) test battery was used to assess the emotion perception ability for both normal-hearing and cochlear implant subjects. A total of 15 pieces of music phases were used. Responses were given by selecting the rating scales from 1 to 10. "1" represents "very sad" feeling, and "10" represents "very happy feeling. In comparison with normal-hearing subjects, 12 cochlear implant subjects made less active use of music for emotional purpose. The emotion ratings for cochlear implant subjects were similar to normal-hearing subjects, but with large variability. Post-lingually deafened cochlear implant subjects on average performed similarly in emotion rating tasks relative to normal-hearing subjects, but their active use of music for emotional purpose was obviously less than normal-hearing subjects.

  4. Music close to one's heart: heart rate variability with music, diagnostic with e-bra and smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shantala; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Rai, Pratyush; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Music is a powerful elicitor of emotions. Emotions evoked by music, through autonomic correlates have been shown to cause significant modulation of parameters like heart rate and blood pressure. Consequently, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis can be a powerful tool to explore evidence based therapeutic functions of music and conduct empirical studies on effect of musical emotion on heart function. However, there are limitations with current studies. HRV analysis has produced variable results to different emotions evoked via music, owing to variability in the methodology and the nature of music chosen. Therefore, a pragmatic understanding of HRV correlates of musical emotion in individuals listening to specifically chosen music whilst carrying out day to day routine activities is needed. In the present study, we aim to study HRV as a single case study, using an e-bra with nano-sensors to record heart rate in real time. The e-bra developed previously, has several salient features that make it conducive for this study- fully integrated garment, dry electrodes for easy use and unrestricted mobility. The study considers two experimental conditions:- First, HRV will be recorded when there is no music in the background and second, when music chosen by the researcher and by the subject is playing in the background.

  5. Emotional and analytic music perception in cochlear implant users after optimizing the speech processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslau, Ken; Spreckelmeyer, Katja N; Saalfeld, Hilke; Westhofen, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users are able to detect harmonic differences and the emotionally exciting effect of music (arousal) even when using a speech adapted program. Raising the power of lower frequencies of speech processors in CIs for a music program further improved this ability and enhanced subjectively perceived pleasure during listening to music. This pilot study compares aspects of analytical and emotional music perception before and after optimizing the speech processor compared to results of normal-hearing subjects. Six adult post-lingually deafened CI users and six subjects with normal hearing abilities were tested on different aspects of analytical and emotional music perception. After optimizing speech processors for a music program, the CI users were tested again after a period of 1 week. The CI users were able to detect different levels of emotional arousal conveyed by music. Switching to the music program resulted in an even better distinction between different levels of musical arousal. With both the speech and music programs, CI users gave overall higher ratings for arousal and valence of the heard music when asked to estimate how listeners with normal hearing perceived the music than when asked about their own perception.

  6. Music-reading training alleviates crowding with musical notation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yetta Kwailing; Wong, Alan C-N

    2016-06-01

    Crowding refers to the disrupted recognition of an object by nearby distractors. Prior work has shown that real-world music-reading experts experience reduced crowding specifically for musical stimuli. However, it is unclear whether music-reading training reduced the magnitude of crowding or whether individuals showing less crowding are more likely to learn and excel in music reading later. To examine the first possibility, we tested whether crowding can be alleviated by music-reading training in the laboratory. Intermediate-level music readers completed 8 hr of music-reading training within 2 weeks. Their threshold duration for reading musical notes dropped by 44.1% after training to a level comparable with that of extant expert music readers. Importantly, crowding was reduced with musical stimuli but not with the nonmusical stimuli Landolt Cs. In sum, the reduced crowding for musical stimuli in expert music readers can be explained by music-reading training.

  7. Music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori

    2014-07-01

    This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Amplified music exposure carries risks to hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Valéria Gomes; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires; Tauil, Pedro Luíz; de Castro Silva, Isabella Monteiro; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the association between changes in the outer hair cells and exposure to amplified music in a group of high-school students. In this retrospective, case-control study, 86 subjects underwent audiometry, immittance audiometry, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission tests. The subjects were questioned about their listening habits and divided into 2 groups: exposed and unexposed. Most of the subjects had reduced function in their outer hair cells, mainly beginning at 8 kHz. Among 60 subjects-30 cases and 30 controls-75% were considered exposed and 25% unexposed. The exposed subjects were 9.33 times more likely to have altered outer hair cells than the unexposed subjects were. Exposure to amplified music is associated with reduced function in the hair cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Music Self-Concept of Non-Music Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Paul D.; Browne, Lisa Ann

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relationship between academic, musical, and demographic variables; music self-concept; and enrollment in lecture or performance classes. Finds that students' enjoyment from making music is the strongest predictor of self-concept scores: satisfying musical experiences likely enhance music self-confidence, which, in turn, encourages…

  10. Social Theory, and Music and Music Education as Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regelski, Thomas A.

    2004-01-01

    The idea of praxis, and thus the idea of music as praxis, is not widely known in the fields of music and music education. Nonetheless, musicians and music teachers typically take for granted as sacrosanct the noble sounding, metaphysical, even spiritual profundity of music hypothesized by mainstream aesthetic philosophies. Thus accounts of music…

  11. From the Functions of Music to Music Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To date, not much is known about how the functions of music relate to music preference. This article examines the basic hypothesis that the strength of preference for a given kind of music depends on the degree to which that kind of music serves the needs of the listener; that is, how well the respective functions of music are fulfilled. Study 1,…

  12. Popular Music and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    or the Russkii Rok-Klub v Amerike (Russian Rock Club of America).   This special edition of Popular Music and Society aims to present research on contemporary popular music (broadly defined) in the former Soviet republics and their diasporas.  A central issue will be how the musical landscape has changed since...... the collapse of the Soviet Union: What present trends can be observed?  How has the Soviet context influenced the popular music of today?  How is music performed and consumed?  How has the interrelationship between cultural industry and performers developed?  How are nationalist sensibilities affecting popular...

  13. Music Therapy for Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    SLUNEČKOVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of music therapy in the lives of seniors. The target of this thesis is to map the possibilities of using music therapy ways with seniors and to recommend a suitable music therapy resources on the basis of the research and evaluation of obtained dates. The theoretical part describes the term "the music therapy", e.g. concept, definition, types and forms, the development of music therapy, the history, methods and techniques. This age group is defined in t...

  14. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  15. Effect of music on power, pain, depression and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedliecki, Sandra L; Good, Marion

    2006-06-01

    This paper reports a study testing the effect of music on power, pain, depression and disability, and comparing the effects of researcher-provided music (standard music) with subject-preferred music (patterning music). Chronic non-malignant pain is characterized by pain that persists in spite of traditional interventions. Previous studies have found music to be effective in decreasing pain and anxiety related to postoperative, procedural and cancer pain. However, the effect of music on power, pain, depression, and disability in working age adults with chronic non-malignant pain has not been investigated. A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out with a convenience sample of 60 African American and Caucasian people aged 21-65 years with chronic non-malignant pain. They were randomly assigned to a standard music group (n = 22), patterning music group (n = 18) or control group (n = 20). Pain was measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire short form; depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression scale; disability was measured with the Pain Disability Index; and power was measured with the Power as Knowing Participation in Change Tool (version II). The music groups had more power and less pain, depression and disability than the control group, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two music interventions. The model predicting both a direct and indirect effect for music was supported. Nurses can teach patients how to use music to enhance the effects of analgesics, decrease pain, depression and disability, and promote feelings of power.

  16. Music season coming soon

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin in collaboration with Julio Rosenfeld

    2012-01-01

    On 16 June, CERN’s music season will open with Music on the Lawn. The event is the CERN Music Club’s contribution to the Fete de la Musique and will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 1 from 2 p.m. to 8 p.m. The Hardronic Festival, CERN’s long-running rock festival, will be held on the evenings of 20 and 21 July in Prévessin, on the terrace behind Restaurant 3. If you would like to help with the organisation, please contact the Music Club by e-mail: music.club@cern.ch.   The Canettes Blues Band during the 2011 Hardronic Festival. (© Christoph Balle, 2010). Summer is coming, and along with it comes the music season. CERN will be hosting its two annual rock music concerts: Music on the Lawn and the Hardronic Festival. The two events are organised by the CERN Music Club, which has been sharing the enjoyment of good music with its numerous fans for many years. “Music on the Lawn was originally created so that the members of the Mus...

  17. The association of noise sensitivity with music listening, training, and aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kliuchko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After intensive, long-term musical training, the auditory system of a musician is specifically tuned to perceive musical sounds. We wished to find out whether a musician′s auditory system also develops increased sensitivity to any sound of everyday life, experiencing them as noise. For this purpose, an online survey, including questionnaires on noise sensitivity, musical background, and listening tests for assessing musical aptitude, was administered to 197 participants in Finland and Italy. Subjective noise sensitivity (assessed with the Weinstein′s Noise Sensitivity Scale was analyzed for associations with musicianship, musical aptitude, weekly time spent listening to music, and the importance of music in each person′s life (or music importance. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their musical expertise: Nonmusicians (N = 103, amateur musicians (N = 44, and professional musicians (N = 50. The results showed that noise sensitivity did not depend on musical expertise or performance on musicality tests or the amount of active (attentive listening to music. In contrast, it was associated with daily passive listening to music, so that individuals with higher noise sensitivity spent less time in passive (background listening to music than those with lower sensitivity to noise. Furthermore, noise-sensitive respondents rated music as less important in their life than did individuals with lower sensitivity to noise. The results demonstrate that the special sensitivity of the auditory system derived from musical training does not lead to increased irritability from unwanted sounds. However, the disposition to tolerate contingent musical backgrounds in everyday life depends on the individual′s noise sensitivity.

  18. Music is Beneficial for Awake Craniotomy Patients: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadavji-Mithani, Radhika; Venkatraghavan, Lashmi; Bernstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing awake craniotomy may experience high levels of stress. Minimizing anxiety benefits patients and surgeons. Music has many therapeutic effects in altering human mood and emotion. Tonality of music as conveyed by composition in major or minor keys can have an impact on patients' emotions and thoughts. Assessing the effects of listening to major and minor key musical pieces on patients undergoing awake craniotiomy could help in the design of interventions to alleviate anxiety, stress and tension. Twenty-nine patients who were undergoing awake craniotomy were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: Group 1 subjects listened to major key music and Group 2 listened to minor key compositions. Subjects completed a demographics questionnaire, a pre- and post-operative Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and a semi-structured open-ended interview. RESULTS were analyzed using modified thematic analysis through open and axial coding. Overall, patients enjoyed the music regardless of the key distinctions and stated they benefitted from listening to the music. No adverse reactions to the music were found. Subjects remarked that the music made them feel more at ease and less anxious before, during and after their procedure. Patients preferred either major key or minor key music but not a combination of both. Those who preferred major key pieces said it was on the basis of tonality while the individuals who selected minor key pieces stated that tempo of the music was the primary factor. Overall, listening to music selections was beneficial for the patients. Future work should further investigate the effects of audio interventions in awake surgery through narrative means.

  19. Nation and Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...

  20. Music therapy in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avers, Laura; Mathur, Ambika; Kamat, Deepak

    2007-09-01

    The soothing effects of music have been well described over the centuries and across cultures. In more recent times, studies have shown the beneficial effects of music in alleviating symptoms in a wide variety of clinical and psychologic conditions. Music therapy has been primarily used as an intervention to control emotional states, in pain management, cognitive processing, and stress management. Stress is associated with increased production of the stress hormone cortisol, which is known to suppress immune responses. Several studies in the past few decades have demonstrated a positive effect of music therapy on reducing stress or increasing immune responses, or both. Music therapy should therefore be considered as a valuable addition to standard pharmacologic therapeutic modalities in enhancing the immune response and lowering stress levels in such conditions. This article reviews the role of music as a therapeutic modality and the future for music therapy, particularly in pediatrics.

  1. Listening to Musical Performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aron Edidin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the philosophy of music and in musicology, apart from ethnomusicology, there is a long tradition of focus on musical compositions as objects of inquiry. But in both disciplines, a body of recent work focuses on the place of performance in the making of music. Most of this work, however, still takes for granted that compositions, at least in Western art music, are the primary objects of aesthetic attention. In this paper I focus on aesthetic attention to the performing activity itself. I begin by roughly characterizing what is involved in attending to the performing activity of musical performers. I then argue that such attention is essential to the full appreciation of the central compositions of the Western art music canon. Finally, I argue that, often enough, recordings provide a suitable vehicle for this sort of attention; listeners to recordings can use them to listen to musical performance.

  2. Aesthetic responses to music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istok, Eva; Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    , the adjective "touching" was often listed together with "beautiful". In addition, we found music-specific vocabulary as well as adjectives related to emotions and mood states indicating that affective processes are an essential part of aesthetic responses to music. Differences between music experts and laymen......We explored the content and structure of the cognitive, knowledge-based concept underlying aesthetic responses to music. To this aim, we asked 290 Finnish students to verbally associate the aesthetic value of music and to write down a list of appropriate adjectives within a given time limit....... No music was presented during the task. In addition, information about participants' musical background was collected. A variety of analysis techniques was used to determine the key results of our study. The adjective "beautiful" proved to be the core item of the concept under question. Interestingly...

  3. Popular music from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otte, Andreas Roed

    Popular music from Greenland – Globalization, nationalism and performance of place. This thesis is based on fieldwork done within the popular music scene in Greenland from 2008 to 2014. It engages with the question of how music and conceptions of the nation (Greenland) affect each other in social...... spaces, and analyses on how popular music can be used to construct senses of place and situate individuals within these places. The thesis is centered on four articles that engage with Greenlandic popular music from different perspectives. The first article looks at the historical development in inducing...... scene. These topics are mainly discussed by use of globalization, nationalism and performance theory, while also looking towards human geography to explain how places can be experienced through music. It is concluded in this thesis, that Greenlandic popular music, to a large extent, gains social...

  4. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states...

  5. Sadness and happiness are amplified in solitary listening to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinfan; Yang, Taoxi; Bao, Yan; Li, Hui; Pöppel, Ernst; Silveira, Sarita

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that music is a powerful means to convey affective states, but it remains unclear whether and how social context shape the intensity and quality of emotions perceived in music. Using a within-subject design, we studied this question in two experimental settings, i.e. when subjects were alone versus in company of others without direct social interaction or feedback. Non-vocal musical excerpts of the emotional qualities happiness or sadness were rated on arousal and valence dimensions. We found evidence for an amplification of perceived emotion in the solitary listening condition, i.e. happy music was rated as happier and more arousing when nobody else was around and, in an analogous manner, sad music was perceived as sadder. This difference might be explained by a shift of attention in the presence of others. The observed interaction of perceived emotion and social context did not differ for stimuli of different cultural origin.

  6. African-American Sacred Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, A. Peter

    1991-01-01

    The history of African-American sacred music is traced from the time of slavery to the present interest in gospel music. The religious music of African Americans is geared toward liberation themes. It is important that this music does not dilute its power through cross-over with other music forms. (SLD)

  7. Other Directions for Music Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobialka, Nancy C.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Illustrates the diversity possible in music-related careers by describing jobs of the music business attorney, music therapist, ethnomusicologist, music librarian, and electronic music snythesist. Educational requirements, personal qualifications, and the advantages and disadvantages of each job are discussed. (AM)

  8. The Historical Justification of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Matti

    2008-01-01

    The article deals with various aspects of justifying music historically. In Matti Huttunen's opinion Western music culture has been strongly historical since the nineteenth century. The article attempts to elucidate the historical nature of music, as well as the canon of music, the selective nature of music history, and the influence of aesthetic…

  9. Musical Maps as Narrative Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Deborah V.

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the metaphorical relationship between the process of narrative inquiry and the process of "musical mapping." The creation of musical maps was used as a classroom tool for enabling students' musical understanding while listening to music. As teacher-researcher, I studied my fifth-grade music students as they interacted with…

  10. Film Music. Factfile No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    Organizations listed here with descriptive information include film music clubs and music guilds and associations. These are followed by a representative list of schools offering film music and/or film sound courses. Sources are listed for soundtrack recordings, sound effects/production music, films on film music, and oral history programs. The…

  11. Music-dependent memory in immediate and delayed word recall

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    W R Balch; K Bowman; L Mohler

    1992-01-01

    .... The subjects in Experiment 1 received, immediately or after a 48-h delay, an unexpected word-recall test in one of the following musical cue contexts: same cue (S), different cue (D), or no cue (N...

  12. From music-beat to heart-beat: a journey in the complex interactions between music, brain and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    Although the potential influence of music in eliciting organic reactions has been appreciated since the ancient Assyrian and Greek cultures, its relationship with body responses has been believed for long to belong to the field of magic. Growing experimental evidence now attests that some kind of music might indeed modulate several cardiac and neurological functions, as well as trigger biochemical measurable stress-reducing effects in certain individuals, mostly depending on their subjective musical education. On this basis, music has been increasingly used as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of different diseases in healthy and ill subjects over recent years (e.g., the so called "Mozart effect"), although the underlying scientific background is still poorly understood. The aim of this article is to review the current scientific evidences about the complex and multifaceted interactions between music and human biology. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    .... In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study's goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China...

  14. Application of Digital Music Technology in Music Pedagogy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peiwei Zhang; Xin Sui

    2017-01-01

    This paper expounds the concept and current development of digital music technology in modern times by exploration and analysis around the music technology, in order to better develop music pedagogy...

  15. Redefining Music Appreciation: Exploring the Power of Music

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pierce, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    How might we create a world empowered by music? How might we change our culture to accept music as an innate intelligence and assist others in discovering the joy, enchantment, mystery, and power of music in their daily lives...

  16. Nonlinearities and synchronization in musical acoustics and music psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Bader, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinearities are a crucial and founding principle in nearly all musical systems, may they be musical instruments, timbre or rhythm perception and production, or neural networks of music perception. This volume gives an overview about present and past research in these fields. In Musical Acoustics, on the one hand the nonlinearities in musical instruments often produce the musically interesting features. On the other, musical instruments are nonlinear by nature, and tone production is the result of synchronization and self-organization within the instruments. Furthermore, as nearly all musical instruments are driven by impulses an Impulse Pattern Formulation (IPF) is suggested, an iterative framework holding for all musical instruments. It appears that this framework is able to reproduce the complex and perceptionally most salient initial transients of musical instruments. In Music Psychology, nonlinearities are present in all areas of musical features, like pitch, timbre, or rhythm perception. In terms of r...

  17. Mentalising music in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura E; Blezat, Alice; Nicholas, Jennifer; Omar, Rohani; Golden, Hannah L; Mahoney, Colin J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable recent interest, the biological basis and clinical diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) pose unresolved problems. Mentalising (the cognitive capacity to interpret the behaviour of oneself and others in terms of mental states) is impaired as a prominent feature of bvFTD, consistent with involvement of brain regions including ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), orbitofrontal cortex and anterior temporal lobes. Here, we investigated mentalising ability in a cohort of patients with bvFTD using a novel modality: music. We constructed a novel neuropsychological battery requiring attribution of affective mental or non-mental associations to musical stimuli. Mentalising performance of patients with bvFTD (n = 20) was assessed in relation to matched healthy control subjects (n = 20); patients also had a comprehensive assessment of behaviour and general neuropsychological functions. Neuroanatomical correlates of performance on the experimental tasks were investigated using voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Compared to healthy control subjects, patients showed impaired ability to attribute mental states but not non-mental characteristics to music, and this deficit correlated with performance on a standard test of social inference and with carer ratings of patients' empathic capacity, but not with other potentially relevant measures of general neuropsychological function. Mentalising performance in the bvFTD group was associated with grey matter changes in anterior temporal lobe and ventro-medial PFC. These findings suggest that music can represent surrogate mental states and the ability to construct such mental representations is impaired in bvFTD, with potential implications for our understanding of the biology of bvFTD and human social cognition more broadly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Music for insomnia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Kira V; Koenig, Julian; Jennum, Poul; Vuust, Peter

    2015-08-13

    Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in modern society. It causes reduced quality of life and is associated with impairments in physical and mental health. Listening to music is widely used as a sleep aid, but it remains unclear if it can actually improve insomnia in adults. To assess the effects of listening to music on insomnia in adults and to assess the influence of specific variables that may moderate the effect. We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, nine other databases and two trials registers in May 2015. In addition, we handsearched specific music therapy journals, reference lists of included studies, and contacted authors of published studies to identify additional studies eligible for inclusion, including any unpublished or ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effects of listening to music with no treatment or treatment-as-usual on sleep improvement in adults with insomnia. Two authors independently screened abstracts, selected studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data from all studies eligible for inclusion. Data on pre-defined outcome measures were subjected to meta-analyses when consistently reported by at least two studies. We undertook meta-analyses using both fixed-effect and random-effects models. Heterogeneity across included studies was assessed using the I² statistic. We included six studies comprising a total of 314 participants. The studies examined the effect of listening to pre-recorded music daily, for 25 to 60 minutes, for a period of three days to five weeks.Based on the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, we judged the evidence from five studies that measured the effect of music listening on sleep quality to be of moderate quality. We judged the evidence from one study that examined other aspects of sleep (see below) to be of low quality. We downgraded the quality of the evidence mainly because of limitations in

  19. Preservice Music Teachers' Attitudes toward Popular Music in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, D. Gregory; Gooding, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine preservice music educators' attitudes toward popular music in the music classroom. On a survey instrument designed by the investigators, participants ("N" = 82) rated (a) the effectiveness of popular music in addressing the National Standards for Music Education, (b) the appropriateness of popular…

  20. Musical cognition in Alzheimer's disease: application of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Rendace, Lidia; Parisi, Francesco; D'Antonio, Fabrizia; Imbriano, Letizia; de Lena, Carlo; Trebbastoni, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess certain musical abilities in 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 30 healthy controls by using the complete version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). This battery evaluates melodic (scale, contour, and interval) and temporal (rhythm and meter) perception of music and musical memory. We found that altered musical processing is a common feature in AD. Despite that, AD subjects show partially spared abilities for temporal organization of music, though not for melodic perception and musical memory. This peculiar dysfunctional pattern could depend on the neurodegenerative involvement of some specific areas for music perception and memory in the brains of AD patients. Further studies are needed to investigate the usefulness of additional musical tests like the MBEA on larger samples to confirm our preliminary data. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.