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Sample records for subject areas-dance music

  1. The Death of Narcissus: On Musical Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Currie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On the first page of the preface to Michael Steinberg’s excellent book, Listening to Reason: Culture, Subjectivity, and Nineteenth-Century Music, the author states that the book’s origin can be located specifically to “August 1990,” when he was giving “a short preconcert lecture on Brahms at the first Bard Music Festival.”

  2. Researching Subjective Meaning System of Music Consumers

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    Mohammad Taghi Iman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this qualitative study is to explain the subjective meaning system of consumers of the popular music. Participants in this study include 21 students (male and female living in dormitories of Shiraz University. Researches use qualitative approach of grounded theory. Technique of data collection has been in-depth interviews. Data have been analyzed with qualitative software called NVIVO. Analyze the data and paradigmatic model shows that the grounded condition for participants, including “spatial texture” of accommodation based on a subset of locality plus time coordination, participant’s age necessitation, collective identity. Meanwhile, global market trends and fashionism influence as interfering conditions. Participants placed in these conditions, take developed and alternative musical factor and increased mental absenteeism quotient. As a result of taking this strategy, the consequences of idio-sensuation (image of the other [alter image]self-reincarnation and psychology projection will be introduced. Idio-sensuation naturally implies that the participant initiate music consumption in such a manner as to bring in their own personal mental images as contrasted with other’s which in itself possess multifarious dimensions having been in a state of fluctuation in between two diverse pole of psychological projection and self-reincarnation.

  3. The musical brain: brain waves reveal the neurophysiological basis of musicality in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, M; Ilvonen, T; Karma, K; Alho, K; Näätänen, R

    1997-04-18

    To reveal neurophysiological prerequisites of musicality, auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from musical and non-musical subjects, musicality being here defined as the ability to temporally structure auditory information. Instructed to read a book and to ignore sounds, subjects were presented with a repetitive sound pattern with occasional changes in its temporal structure. The mismatch negativity (MMN) component of ERPs, indexing the cortical preattentive detection of change in these stimulus patterns, was larger in amplitude in musical than non-musical subjects. This amplitude enhancement, indicating more accurate sensory memory function in musical subjects, suggests that even the cognitive component of musicality, traditionally regarded as depending on attention-related brain processes, in fact, is based on neural mechanisms present already at the preattentive level.

  4. Subjective evaluation of dynamic compression in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, W.M.; Houtsma, A.J.M.; Lieshout, van R.A.J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Amplitude compression is often used to match the dynamic range of music to a particular playback situation so as to ensure continuous audibility in a noisy environment. Since amplitude compression is a nonlinear process, it is potentially very damaging to sound quality. Three physical parameters of

  5. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  6. Subjective Criteria for Choice and Aesthetic Judgment of Music: A Comparison of Psychology and Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juslin, Patrik N.; Isaksson, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted the important role of choice in listeners' responses to music, but relatively little is known about the subjective criteria on which listeners base their choices. Hence, the goal of this study was to make a first attempt to investigate the relative importance of various criteria in listeners' choice and aesthetic…

  7. Effects of background music on objective and subjective performance measures in an auditory BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have explored brain computer interface (BCI systems based on auditory stimuli, which could help patients with visual impairments. Usability and user satisfaction are important considerations in any BCI. Although background music can influence emotion and performance in other task environments, and many users may wish to listen to music while using a BCI, auditory and other BCIs are typically studied without background music. Some work has explored the possibility of using polyphonic music in auditory BCI systems. However, this approach requires users with good musical skills, and has not been explored in online experiments. Our hypothesis was that an auditory BCI with background music would be preferred by subjects over a similar BCI without background music, without any difference in BCI performance. We introduce a simple paradigm (which does not require musical skill using percussion instrument sound stimuli and background music, and evaluated it in both offline and online experiments. The result showed that subjects preferred the auditory BCI with background music. Different performance measures did not reveal any significant performance effect when comparing background music vs. no background. Since the addition of background music does not impair BCI performance but is preferred by users, auditory (and perhaps other BCIs should consider including it. Our study also indicates that auditory BCIs can be effective even if the auditory channel is simultaneously otherwise engaged.

  8. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

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    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  9. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  10. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L O; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  11. Favored subjects and psychosocial needs in music therapy in terminally ill cancer patients: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Pia; Kordovan, Sarah; Ullrich, Anneke; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Oechsle, Karin

    2016-05-12

    Research has shown positive effects of music therapy on the physical and mental well-being of terminally ill patients. This study aimed to identify favored subjects and psychosocial needs of terminally ill cancer patients during music therapy and associated factors. Forty-one Patients receiving specialized inpatient palliative care prospectively performed a music therapy intervention consisting of at least two sessions (total number of sessions: 166; per patient average: 4, range, 2-10). Applied music therapy methods and content were not pre-determined. Therapeutic subjects and psychosocial needs addressed in music therapy sessions were identified from prospective semi-structured "field notes" using qualitative content analysis. Patient- and treatment-related characteristics as well as factors related to music and music therapy were assessed by questionnaire or retrieved from medical records. Seven main categories of subjects were identified: "condition, treatment, further care", "coping with palliative situation", "emotions and feelings", "music and music therapy", "biography", "social environment", and "death, dying, and spiritual topics". Patients addressed an average of 4.7 different subjects (range, 1-7). Some subjects were associated with gender (p = .022) and prior impact of music in patients' life (p = .012). The number of subjects per session was lower when receptive music therapy methods were used (p = .040). Psychosocial needs were categorized into nine main dimensions: "relaxing and finding comfort", "communication and dialogue", "coping and activation of internal resources", "activity and vitality", "finding expression", "sense of self and reflection", "finding emotional response", "defocusing and diversion", and "structure and hold". Patients expressed an average of 4.9 psychosocial needs (range, 1-8). Needs were associated with age, parallel art therapy (p = .010), role of music in patient's life (p = .021), and the applied music

  12. Quality and loudness judgments for music subjected to compression limiting.

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    Croghan, Naomi B H; Arehart, Kathryn H; Kates, James M

    2012-08-01

    Dynamic-range compression (DRC) is used in the music industry to maximize loudness. The amount of compression applied to commercial recordings has increased over time due to a motivating perspective that louder music is always preferred. In contrast to this viewpoint, artists and consumers have argued that using large amounts of DRC negatively affects the quality of music. However, little research evidence has supported the claims of either position. The present study investigated how DRC affects the perceived loudness and sound quality of recorded music. Rock and classical music samples were peak-normalized and then processed using different amounts of DRC. Normal-hearing listeners rated the processed and unprocessed samples on overall loudness, dynamic range, pleasantness, and preference, using a scaled paired-comparison procedure in two conditions: un-equalized, in which the loudness of the music samples varied, and loudness-equalized, in which loudness differences were minimized. Results indicated that a small amount of compression was preferred in the un-equalized condition, but the highest levels of compression were generally detrimental to quality, whether loudness was equalized or varied. These findings are contrary to the "louder is better" mentality in the music industry and suggest that more conservative use of DRC may be preferred for commercial music.

  13. Interactive effects of music tempi and intensities on grip strength and subjective affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, C I; Cheek, P; Simpson, S D; Bigliassi, M

    2018-03-01

    Pretask music is widely used by athletes albeit there is scant empirical evidence to support its use. The present study extended a line of work into pretask music by examining the interactive effects of music tempo and intensity (volume) on the performance of a simple motor skill and subjective affect. A 2 × 2 within-subjects factorial design was employed with an additional no-music control, the scores from which were used as a covariate. A sample of 52 male athletes (M age  = 26.1 ± 4.8 years) was exposed to five conditions: fast/loud (126 bpm/80 dBA), fast/quiet (126 bpm/70 dBA), slow/loud (87 bpm/80 dBA), slow/quiet (87 bpm/70 dBA) music, and a no-music control. Dependent variables were grip strength, measured with a handgrip dynamometer, and subjective affect, assessed by use of the Affect Grid. The tempo and intensity components of music had interactive effects for grip strength but only main effects for subjective affect. Fast-tempo music played at a high intensity yielded the highest grip strength, while fast-tempo music played at a low-intensity resulted in much lower grip strength (M diff.  = -1.11 Force kg). For affective valence, there were main effects of tempo and intensity, with fast and loud music yielding the highest scores. For affective arousal, there was no difference between tempi although there was between intensities, with the high-intensity condition yielding higher scores. The present findings indicate the utility of fast/loud pretask music in enhancing affective valence and arousal in preparation for a simple or gross motor task. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Inter-subject synchronization of brain responses during natural music listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A.; Ryali, Srikanth; Chen, Tianwen; Chordia, Parag; Khouzam, Amirah; Levitin, Daniel J.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Music is a cultural universal and a rich part of the human experience. However, little is known about common brain systems that support the processing and integration of extended, naturalistic ‘real-world’ music stimuli. We examined this question by presenting extended excerpts of symphonic music, and two pseudomusical stimuli in which the temporal and spectral structure of the Natural Music condition were disrupted, to non-musician participants undergoing functional brain imaging and analysing synchronized spatiotemporal activity patterns between listeners. We found that music synchronizes brain responses across listeners in bilateral auditory midbrain and thalamus, primary auditory and auditory association cortex, right-lateralized structures in frontal and parietal cortex, and motor planning regions of the brain. These effects were greater for natural music compared to the pseudo-musical control conditions. Remarkably, inter-subject synchronization in the inferior colliculus and medial geniculate nucleus was also greater for the natural music condition, indicating that synchronization at these early stages of auditory processing is not simply driven by spectro-temporal features of the stimulus. Increased synchronization during music listening was also evident in a right-hemisphere fronto-parietal attention network and bilateral cortical regions involved in motor planning. While these brain structures have previously been implicated in various aspects of musical processing, our results are the first to show that these regions track structural elements of a musical stimulus over extended time periods lasting minutes. Our results show that a hierarchical distributed network is synchronized between individuals during the processing of extended musical sequences, and provide new insight into the temporal integration of complex and biologically salient auditory sequences. PMID:23578016

  15. The Effects of Music on Subjects with Alzheimer and Dementia Disease in Cache Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, Landon

    2013-01-01

    Music has been shown to trigger old memories and induce various levels of stress relief and relaxation. My research focused on the effects of music on subjects with Alzheimer and Dementia disease. Eleven patients were selected through an informed consent process which included permission from responsible family members. During the course of three or more visits to patients in their care centers, the subjects listened to a variety of songs. These included songs that family members thought woul...

  16. Risk ON/Risk OFF: Risk-Taking Varies with Subjectively Preferred and Disliked Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halko, Marja-Liisa; Kaustia, Markku

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we conduct a within-subjects experiment in which teenagers go over 256 gambles with real money gains and losses. For each risky gamble they choose whether to participate in it, or pass. Prior to this main experiment subjects identify specific songs belonging to their favorite musical genre, as well as songs representing a style they dislike. In the main experiment we vary the music playing in the background, so that each subject hears some of their favorite music, and some disliked music, alternating in blocks of 16 gambles. We find that favorite music increases risk-taking ('risk on'), and disliked music suppresses risk-taking ('risk off'), compared to a baseline of no music. Literature in psychology proposes several mechanisms by which mood affects risk-taking, but none of them fully explain the results in our setting. The results are, however, consistent with the economics notion of preference complementarity, extended to the domain of risk preference. The preference structure implied by our results is more complex than previously thought, yet realistic, and consistent with recent theoretical models. More generally, this mechanism offers a potential explanation to why risk-taking is known to change over time and across contexts.

  17. Generalizations of the subject-independent feature set for music-induced emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Chin-Teng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based emotion recognition has been an intensely growing field. Yet, how to achieve acceptable accuracy on a practical system with as fewer electrodes as possible is less concerned. This study evaluates a set of subject-independent features, based on differential power asymmetry of symmetric electrode pairs [1], with emphasis on its applicability to subject variability in music-induced emotion classification problem. Results of this study have evidently validated the feasibility of using subject-independent EEG features to classify four emotional states with acceptable accuracy in second-scale temporal resolution. These features could be generalized across subjects to detect emotion induced by music excerpts not limited to the music database that was used to derive the emotion-specific features.

  18. Preparing Empirical Methodologies to Examine Enactive Subjects Experiencing Musical Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Justin

    2016-01-01

    in listeners. Many of these theories search for universal emotional essences and cause-and-effect relationships that often result in erasing the body from these experiences. Still, after reducing these emotional responses to discrete categories or localized brain functions, these theories have not been very...... successful in finding universal emotional essence in response to music. In this paper, I argue that we need to bring the body back into this research, to allow for listener variability, and include multiple levels of focus to help find meaningful relationships of emotional responses. I also appeal...

  19. Subjective difficulties in young people related to extensive loud music listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budimčić Milenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For human ear, noise represents every undesirable and valueless sound. In disco clubs, as in some other places with loud music mostly attended by young people, the level of noise sometimes attains over 100 dB. As reported by numerous studies, a high noise level could induce subjective difficulties (ear buzzing, audition loss, vertigo and palpitations, anxiety, high blood pressure, decreased concentration, lowered memory storing. Objective. Assessment of subjective difficulties occurring in young people when staying in places with a high noise level (cafes, disco clubs, rock concerts, which can produce health problems, due to loud music, in association with demographic data, addictions and personal life style data. One of the goals is to find factors leading to subjective difficulties, which would be objectively studied in the second stage of the research and marked as early predictors of possible health problems. Methods. The study was conducted among 780 students of the Higher Healthcare School of Professional Studied in Belgrade. We used a questionnaire with 20 questions, divided into four categories: demographic data, case-history data, subjective problems and addictions of the subjects. In the statistical data processing we used the methods of descriptive and exploratory analysis, chi-square tests, correlation tests and Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio. Results. After listening loud music, 54.0% of examined subjects felt ear buzzing, and 4.6% had hearing damage. The habit of visiting places with loud music, mostly once a week in duration of 2-3 hours per visit had 80.4% of subjects. The presence of subjective complaints after listening of loud music was in association with loud music listening and disco clubs visits. The major reasons of the present subjective difficulties could be predicated by listening of loud music and club visits (r=0.918 and r=0.857. A relative risk for subjective difficulties presentation was 1.599. Conclusion

  20. [Subjective difficulties in young people related to extensive loud music listening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimcić, Milenko; Ignatović, Snezana; Zivić, Ljubica

    2010-01-01

    For human ear, noise represents every undesirable and valueless sound. In disco clubs, as in some other places with loud music mostly attended by young people, the level of noise sometimes attains over 100 dB. As reported by numerous studies, a high noise level could induce subjective difficulties (ear buzzing, audition loss, vertigo and palpitations, anxiety, high blood pressure, decreased concentration, lowered memory storing). Assessment of subjective difficulties occurring in young people when staying in places with a high noise level (cafes, disco clubs, rock concerts), which can produce health problems, due to loud music, in association with demographic data, addictions and personal life style data. One of the goals is to find factors leading to subjective difficulties, which would be objectively studied in the second stage of the research and marked as early predictors of possible health problems. The study was conducted among 780 students of the Higher Healthcare School of Professional Studied in Belgrade. We used a questionnaire with 20 questions, divided into four categories: demographic data, case-history data, subjective problems and addictions of the subjects. In the statistical data processing we used the methods of descriptive and exploratory analysis, chi-square tests, correlation tests and Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio. After listening loud music, 54.0% of examined subjects felt ear buzzing, and 4.6% had hearing damage. The habit of visiting places with loud music, mostly once a week in duration of 2-3 hours per visit had 80.4% of subjects. The presence of subjective complaints after listening of loud music was in association with loud music listening and disco clubs visits.The major reasons of the present subjective difficulties could be predicated by listening of loud music and club visits (r = 0.918 and r = 0.857). A relative risk for subjective difficulties presentation was 1.599. According to the results of our study, over half of children

  1. Emotions over time: synchronicity and development of subjective, physiological, and facial affective reactions to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewe, Oliver; Nagel, Frederik; Kopiez, Reinhard; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2007-11-01

    Most people are able to identify basic emotions expressed in music and experience affective reactions to music. But does music generally induce emotion? Does it elicit subjective feelings, physiological arousal, and motor reactions reliably in different individuals? In this interdisciplinary study, measurement of skin conductance, facial muscle activity, and self-monitoring were synchronized with musical stimuli. A group of 38 participants listened to classical, rock, and pop music and reported their feelings in a two-dimensional emotion space during listening. The first entrance of a solo voice or choir and the beginning of new sections were found to elicit interindividual changes in subjective feelings and physiological arousal. Quincy Jones' "Bossa Nova" motivated movement and laughing in more than half of the participants. Bodily reactions such as "goose bumps" and "shivers" could be stimulated by the "Tuba Mirum" from Mozart's Requiem in 7 of 38 participants. In addition, the authors repeated the experiment seven times with one participant to examine intraindividual stability of effects. This exploratory combination of approaches throws a new light on the astonishing complexity of affective music listening.

  2. Effects of listening to pleasant music on chronic unilateral neglect: a single-subject study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Pei-Luen; Chen, Mei-Ching; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Keh-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the positive emotion induced by pleasant music may improve cognitive functions. We used the single-subject design to study whether listening to preferred music may reduce unilateral neglect in two participants with post-stroke neglect. These participants were instructed to listen to their preferred music every day for 5 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of follow-up assessment. Outcome measures involved the Star Cancellation Test, the Line Bisection Test, and the visual exploration task. A combination of visual analysis and the two-standard-deviation band method was used for data analysis. Both participants showed significant intervention-related improvements on all outcome measures except the Line Bisection Test, on which one participant showed no improvement. The therapeutic effects were maintained during the follow-up phase. The findings suggest that positive emotion, evoked by preferred music, may be used to ameliorate unilateral neglect. Further research using controlled trials is warranted to validate the findings.

  3. Music Improves Subjective Feelings Leading to Cardiac Autonomic Nervous Modulation: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Satoshi; Nishimura, Yukako; Mizuno, Kei; Sakimoto, Nae; Hori, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yasuhisa; Yamato, Masanori; Mitsuhashi, Rika; Akiba, Keigo; Koizumi, Jun-Ichi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kataoka, Yosky

    2017-01-01

    It is widely accepted that listening to music improves subjective feelings and reduces fatigue sensations, and different kinds of music lead to different activations of these feelings. Recently, cardiac autonomic nervous modulation has been proposed as a useful objective indicator of fatigue. However, scientific considerations of the relation between feelings of fatigue and cardiac autonomic nervous modulation while listening to music are still lacking. In this study, we examined which subjective feelings of fatigue are related to participants' cardiac autonomic nervous function while they listen to music. We used an album of comfortable and relaxing environmental music, with blended sounds from a piano and violin as well as natural sound sources. We performed a crossover trial of environmental music and silent sessions for 20 healthy subjects, 12 females, and 8 males, after their daily work shift. We measured changes in eight types of subjective feelings, including healing, fatigue, sleepiness, relaxation, and refreshment, using the KOKORO scale, a subjective mood measurement system for self-reported feelings. Further, we obtained measures of cardiac autonomic nervous function on the basis of heart rate variability before and after the sessions. During the music session, subjective feelings significantly shifted toward healing and a secure/relaxed feeling and these changes were greater than those in the silent session. Heart rates (ΔHR) in the music session significantly decreased compared with those in the silent session. Other cardiac autonomic parameters such as high-frequency (HF) component and the ratio of low-frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF) were similar in the two sessions. In the linear regression analysis of the feelings with ΔHR and changes in LF/HF (ΔLF/HF), increases and decreases in ΔHR were correlated to the feeling axes of Fatigue-Healing and Anxiety/Tension-Security/Relaxation, whereas those in ΔLF/HF were related to the feeling axes

  4. Subject-Oriented Approach in the Professional Formation of the Future Music Teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Karkina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the possibilities of introducing a subject-oriented approach into the practice of professional education of the future music teacher. Particular attention is paid to the forms and methods used in this field, as well as to the conditions of the modern cultural environment, which allows for the free self-realization of the individual in accordance with his subject needs. Subject-oriented approach is the practice-oriented research. The study identified a number of the most significant components in the preparation of a music teacher, such as individual forms of studies and a number of special methods, which include the method of artistic associations, verbal "allegories", metaphors, the method of heuristic tasks for mastering creative activities. The openness of the musical and pedagogical system has great importance in its ability to respond to changes in the music and educational environment, which includes educational institutions and various cultural institutions: theaters, concert halls, orchestral and choir groups. All that conditions are necessary to ensure the possibility of creative self-realization and self-actualization of future music teachers.

  5. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, C. G.; Dell, S.; Hensley, B.; Hall, J. W.; Campbell, K. C. M.; Antonelli, P. J.; Green, G. E.; Miller, J. M.; Guire, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is availability of an established clinical paradigm with real world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal hearing human subjects. Design Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93–95 (n=10), 98–100 (n=11), or 100–102 (n=12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of four hours. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured prior to and after music exposure. Post-music tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and one week later. Results Changes in thresholds after the lowest level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a “notch” configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean=6.3±3.9dB; range=0–13 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hours post-exposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1-week post-exposure. Conclusions These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function following digital music player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be

  6. The cerebral functional location in normal subjects with Chinese classical national music auditory stimulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Da; Xu Wei; Zhan Hongwei; Liu Hongbiao

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To detect the cerebral functional location in normal subjects with Chinese classical national music auditory stimulus. Methods: 10 normal young students of the medical collage of Zhejiang University,22-24 years old,5 male and 5 female. The first they underwent a 99mTc-ECD brain imaging during a rest state using a dual detectors gamma camera with fan beam collimators. After 2-4 days they were asked to listen a Chinese classical national music that was played by Erhu and Guzheng for 20 minters. They were also asked to pay special attention to the name of the music, what musical instruments they played and what imagination was opened out in the music. 99mTc-ECD was administered in the first 3 minutes during thy listened the music. The brain imaging was performed in 30-60 minutes after the tracer was administered. Results: To compare the rest state, during listening the Chinese classical national music and paying special attention to the imagination of music the right midtemporal in 6 cases, left midtemporal in 2 cases, right superior temporal in 2 cases, left superior temporal in 6 cases, and right inferior temporal in 2 cases were activated. Among them, dual temporal were activated in 6 cases, right temporal in 3 cases and left temporal in 1 case. It is very interesting that the inferior frontal and/or medial frontal lobes were activated in all 10 subjects, and the activity was markedly higher in frontal than in temporal. Among them dual frontal lobes were activated in 9 subjects, and only right frontal in 1 case. The right superior frontal lobes were activated in 2 cases. The occipital lobes were activated in 4 subjects, and dual occipital in 3 cases, right occipital in 1 case. These 4 subjects stated after listening that they imagined the natural landscape and imagination that was opened out in the music follow the music. Other regions that were activated included parietal lobes (right and left in 1 respectively), pre-cingulated gyms (in 2 cases), and left

  7. Music

    OpenAIRE

    Deinert, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The musical ending [of Goethe's Novelle] recalls the fascination with "music as metaphor", "the power of music", among recent and contemporary poets from Pope and Dryden and Collins to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Kleist and, of course to Goethe himself. Music saves Faust's life on Easter morning at the end of a dreadful night, and we'll encounter a similar role of music in his Trilogie der Leidenschaft which we'll read in this context.

  8. Beyond intensity: Spectral features effectively predict music-induced subjective arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingras, Bruno; Marin, Manuela M; Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2014-01-01

    Emotions in music are conveyed by a variety of acoustic cues. Notably, the positive association between sound intensity and arousal has particular biological relevance. However, although amplitude normalization is a common procedure used to control for intensity in music psychology research, direct comparisons between emotional ratings of original and amplitude-normalized musical excerpts are lacking. In this study, 30 nonmusicians retrospectively rated the subjective arousal and pleasantness induced by 84 six-second classical music excerpts, and an additional 30 nonmusicians rated the same excerpts normalized for amplitude. Following the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models of acoustic communication, we hypothesized that arousal and pleasantness ratings would be similar for both versions of the excerpts, and that arousal could be predicted effectively by other acoustic cues besides intensity. Although the difference in mean arousal and pleasantness ratings between original and amplitude-normalized excerpts correlated significantly with the amplitude adjustment, ratings for both sets of excerpts were highly correlated and shared a similar range of values, thus validating the use of amplitude normalization in music emotion research. Two acoustic parameters, spectral flux and spectral entropy, accounted for 65% of the variance in arousal ratings for both sets, indicating that spectral features can effectively predict arousal. Additionally, we confirmed that amplitude-normalized excerpts were adequately matched for loudness. Overall, the results corroborate our hypotheses and support the cue-redundancy and Brunswik lens models.

  9. Digital music exposure reliably induces temporary threshold shift in normal-hearing human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Prell, Colleen G; Dell, Shawna; Hensley, Brittany; Hall, James W; Campbell, Kathleen C M; Antonelli, Patrick J; Green, Glenn E; Miller, James M; Guire, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    One of the challenges for evaluating new otoprotective agents for potential benefit in human populations is the availability of an established clinical paradigm with real-world relevance. These studies were explicitly designed to develop a real-world digital music exposure that reliably induces temporary threshold shift (TTS) in normal-hearing human subjects. Thirty-three subjects participated in studies that measured effects of digital music player use on hearing. Subjects selected either rock or pop music, which was then presented at 93 to 95 (n = 10), 98 to 100 (n = 11), or 100 to 102 (n = 12) dBA in-ear exposure level for a period of 4 hr. Audiograms and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) were measured before and after music exposure. Postmusic tests were initiated 15 min, 1 hr 15 min, 2 hr 15 min, and 3 hr 15 min after the exposure ended. Additional tests were conducted the following day and 1 week later. Changes in thresholds after the lowest-level exposure were difficult to distinguish from test-retest variability; however, TTS was reliably detected after higher levels of sound exposure. Changes in audiometric thresholds had a "notch" configuration, with the largest changes observed at 4 kHz (mean = 6.3 ± 3.9 dB; range = 0-14 dB). Recovery was largely complete within the first 4 hr postexposure, and all subjects showed complete recovery of both thresholds and DPOAE measures when tested 1 week postexposure. These data provide insight into the variability of TTS induced by music-player use in a healthy, normal-hearing, young adult population, with music playlist, level, and duration carefully controlled. These data confirm the likelihood of temporary changes in auditory function after digital music-player use. Such data are essential for the development of a human clinical trial protocol that provides a highly powered design for evaluating novel therapeutics in human clinical trials. Care must be taken to fully inform potential subjects in

  10. Neural Correlates of Musical Creativity: Differences between High and Low Creative Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Mirta F.; Cerquetti, Daniel; Caruso, Silvina; Schwarcz López Aranguren, Violeta; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldán; Frega, Ana Lucía; Leiguarda, Ramón C.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies of musical creativity suggest that this process involves multi-regional intra and interhemispheric interactions, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. However, the activity of the prefrontal cortex and that of the parieto-temporal regions, seems to depend on the domains of creativity that are evaluated and the task that is performed. In the field of music, only few studies have investigated the brain process of a creative task and none of them have investigated the effect of the level of creativity on the recruit networks. In this work we used magnetic resonance imaging to explore these issues by comparing the brain activities of subjects with higher creative abilities to those with lesser abilities, while the subjects improvised on different rhythmic fragments. We evaluated the products the subjects created during the fMRI scan using two musical parameters: fluidity and flexibility, and classified the subjects according to their punctuation. We examined the relation between brain activity and creativity level. Subjects with higher abilities generated their own creations based on modifications of the original rhythm with little adhesion to it. They showed activation in prefrontal regions of both hemispheres and the right insula. Subjects with lower abilities made only partial changes to the original musical patterns. In these subjects, activation was only observed in left unimodal areas. We demonstrated that the activations of prefrontal and paralimbic areas, such as the insula, are related to creativity level, which is related to a widespread integration of networks that are mainly associated with cognitive, motivational and emotional processes. PMID:24069414

  11. Relationships between Flow Experience, Life Meaningfulness and Subjective Well-being in Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sedlár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines relationships between flow experience in musical activities, life meaningfulness and subjective well – being. Life meaningfulness belongs to eudaimonic good life, subjective well–being belongs to hedonic good life and flow seems to be combination of both approaches. It is supposed that flow experience in musical activity and life meaningfulness should have positive impact on subjective well –being. The research sample consisted of 96 university music students (37 males, 59 females from the Music and Dance Faculty, Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava, Slovakia. Dispositional Flow Scale–2, which measures nine dimension of flow, was used for measuring frequency o f flow experience. Life Meaningfulness Scale, which measures three dimensions of life meaningfulness, was used for measuring meaningfulness of life. Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured affective components of subjective well–being, and Satisfaction with Life Scale measured cognitive component of subjective well–being. Categorization revealed that the most favourite performing musical activities are creative musical activities, such as reproduction and production, during which music students relatively often experience flow. The results of correlation analysis showed that total scores of flow experience, life meaningfulness and components of subjective well–being, significantly correlate each other. Aspects of flow, clear goals and autotelic experience are positively related to cognitive and motivational dimension of life meaningfulness and also to positive affectivity. Loss of self–consciousness and autotelic experience are positively related to emotional dimension of life meaningfulness. Challenge–skill balance, action–awareness merging, clear goals, concentration on task at hand, sense of control and autotelic experience are negatively related to negative affectivity. Challenge–skill balance and autotelic experience are related to

  12. SUBJECTIVITY AND HYBRIDITY IN THE AGE OF INTERACTIVE INTERNET MEDIA: THE MUSICAL PERFORMANCES OF CHARICE PEMPENGCO AND ARNEL PINEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christi-Anne Castro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines hybrid subjectivity in the performances by and in the reception of musical artists utilizing the technology of interactive Internet media. It focuses on the career trajectories of the popular Filipino music performers Charice Pempengco and Arnel Pineda, taking into account how their transnational presence and dissemination through internet media communities affect perceptions of locality, nationality and race.

  13. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...... and more from the everyday topics, music similarly lost part of its importance within the plays themselves....

  14. [The influence of musical rhythms on the perception of subjective states of adult patients on dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminha, Leandro Bechert; da Silva, Maria Júlia Paes; Leão, Eliseth Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    Being submitted to dialysis four hours a day, three times a week can mean experiencing boredom, besides discomfort. Patients often report that the time seems to take longer to go by. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of two different musical rhythms in the states of mind and perception of adult patients undergoing dialysis, since the literature on this subject is scarce. The study was performed at a private hospital with 43 patients, who participated in two sessions of musical improvisation with a keyboard. The subjective states and perception were evaluated before and after the intervention. Over 80% of the patients felt that time went by faster after the interventions in both rhythms. However, the pace was a decisive factor in the kind of emotional experience that the patients had.

  15. Children's Subject Positions in Discourses of Music in Everyday Life: Rethinking Conceptions of the Child in and for Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestad, Ingeborg Lunde

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss children's everyday uses of recorded music (such as CDs, Mp3-files) in the light of sociological notions of "children" and "childhood". The discussion provides perspectives on musical engagement and musicality that supplement perspectives within developmental psychology. The study is based on…

  16. Benefits of music therapy on behaviour disorders in subjects diagnosed with dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romero, M; Jiménez-Palomares, M; Rodríguez-Mansilla, J; Flores-Nieto, A; Garrido-Ardila, E M; González López-Arza, M V

    2017-05-01

    Dementia is characterised by cognitive deterioration and the manifestation of psychological and behavioural symptoms, especially changes in perception, thought content, mood, and conduct. In addition to drug therapy, non-pharmacological treatments are used to manage these symptoms, and one of these latter treatments is music therapy. Since this novel technique in non-verbal, it can be used to treat patients with dementia at any stage, even when cognitive deterioration is very severe. Patients' responses to music are conserved even in the most advanced stages of the disease DEVELOPMENT: A literature research was carried out using the following databases: Academic Search Complete, PubMed, Science Direct y Dialnet. The period of publication was 2003 to 2013 and the search keywords were 'Music Therapy, Dementia, Behaviour, Behaviour Disorders y Behavioural Disturbances'. Out of the 2188 studies that were identified, 11 studies met inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Music therapy is beneficial and improves behavior disorders, anxiety and agitation in subjects diagnosed with dementia. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Student’s anxiety about the Musical Language subject and strategies to reduce it.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Berrón Ruiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Students embark upon their studies at the conservatory motivated to learn how to play a musical instrument. Nevertheless, they must attend Music Language classes from the first year, a subject that they usually find it unattractive and it makes them feel with anxiety.In this article we discuss a research carried out in a Professional Conservatory of Music with students in their first two years of elementary training. The goals in this research are to identify which aspects are a source of anxiety in these students and to analyse the usefulness of our educational proposals in order to reduce it. We have applied a qualitative research methodology which combines the characteristics of case study methods and classroom-based research.This research enables us to state that the implementation of flexible, dynamic and positive pedagogy, the improvement of study habits in our students, the family involvement, the care of relationships, the recognition of mistakes, accepting them as natural feature of the whole learning process, and the performing musical exhibitions in public on a regular basis reduce anxiety.

  18. Musical emotions: predicting second-by-second subjective feelings of emotion from low-level psychoacoustic features and physiological measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Eduardo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2011-08-01

    We sustain that the structure of affect elicited by music is largely dependent on dynamic temporal patterns in low-level music structural parameters. In support of this claim, we have previously provided evidence that spatiotemporal dynamics in psychoacoustic features resonate with two psychological dimensions of affect underlying judgments of subjective feelings: arousal and valence. In this article we extend our previous investigations in two aspects. First, we focus on the emotions experienced rather than perceived while listening to music. Second, we evaluate the extent to which peripheral feedback in music can account for the predicted emotional responses, that is, the role of physiological arousal in determining the intensity and valence of musical emotions. Akin to our previous findings, we will show that a significant part of the listeners' reported emotions can be predicted from a set of six psychoacoustic features--loudness, pitch level, pitch contour, tempo, texture, and sharpness. Furthermore, the accuracy of those predictions is improved with the inclusion of physiological cues--skin conductance and heart rate. The interdisciplinary work presented here provides a new methodology to the field of music and emotion research based on the combination of computational and experimental work, which aid the analysis of the emotional responses to music, while offering a platform for the abstract representation of those complex relationships. Future developments may aid specific areas, such as, psychology and music therapy, by providing coherent descriptions of the emotional effects of specific music stimuli. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Musical Creativity and the Subjective World of the Artist: the Context of Culture Creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morshchakova Nataliia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of creating music in the light of postmodern artistic imitation of ideas is characterised by the compositional focus of attention to the expression of subjective meanings and ideas that actualizes the possibility of an intentional world of the artist, originality of creative thinking, the ability to specify and deepen semantic sphere-shaped piece. The personification of artistic meanings within subjective reality is related to the processes of objectification of artistic and aesthetic paradigms prevailing within the culture; defining the inner meaning of culture contextually, a creative person is able to understand the deep, concentrated essence of the cultural epoch or cultural form. A creator-man, who feels or is conscious of an internal impulse of culture, thinks contextually, creating new stories, images that outgrow the limits of the author’s subjective content, finding expression in interpreting the meanings of concepts.

  20. Output capabilities of personal music players and assessment of preferred listening levels of test subjects: outlining recommendations for preventing music-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinbauer, Hayo A; Anabalón, Jose L; Gutierrez, Daniela; Cárcamo, Rodrigo; Olivares, Carla; Caro, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    Our goal was to assess the impact of personal music players, earphones, and music styles on output, the subject's preferred listening levels, and outline recommendations for the prevention of music-induced hearing loss. Experimental study. Personal music players' output capabilities and volunteers' preferred output levels were assessed in different settings. Based on current noise-induced hearing loss exposure limits, recommendations were outlined. On three different devices and earphone types and 10 music styles, free field equivalent sound pressure output levels were assessed by applying a microphone probe inside the auditory canal. Forty-five hearing-healthy volunteers were asked to select preferred listening levels in different background noise scenarios. Sound pressure output reached 126 dB. No difference was found between device types, whereas earbud and supra-aural earphones showed significantly lower outputs than in-ear earphones (P music style groups were identified with as much as 14.4 dB difference between them. In silence, 17.8% of volunteers spontaneously selected a listening level above 85 dB. With 90 dB background noise, 40% selected a level above 94 dB. Earphone attenuation capability was found to correlate significantly with preferred level reductions (r = 0.585, P < .001). In-ear and especially supra-aural earphones reduced preferred listening levels the most. Safe-use recommendations were outlined, whereas selecting the lowest volume setting comfortable remained the main suggestion. High background noise attenuating earphones may help in reducing comfortable listening levels and should be preferred. A risk table was elaborated, presenting time limits before reaching a risky exposure. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Music is often discussed to be emotional because it reflects expressive movements in audible form. Thus, a valid approach to measure musical emotion could be to assess movement stimulated by music. In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9). The quality of prediction for different dimensions of GEMS varied between experiments for tenderness (R12(first experiment) = 0.50, R22(second experiment) = 0.39), nostalgia (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.30), wonder (R12 = 0.25, R22 = 0.34), sadness (R12 = 0.24, R22 = 0.35), peacefulness (R12 = 0.20, R22 = 0.35) and joy (R12 = 0.19, R22 = 0.33) and transcendence (R12 = 0.14, R22 = 0.00). For others like power (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.49) and tension (R12 = 0.28, R22 = 0.27) results could be almost reproduced. Furthermore, we extracted two principle components from GEMS ratings, one representing arousal and the other one valence of the experienced feeling. Both qualities, arousal and valence, could be predicted by acceleration data, indicating, that they provide information on the quantity and quality of experience. On the one hand, these findings show how music-evoked movement patterns relate to music-evoked feelings. On the other hand, they contribute to integrate findings from the field of embodied music cognition into music recommender systems. PMID:27415015

  2. From Motion to Emotion: Accelerometer Data Predict Subjective Experience of Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrgang, Melanie; Egermann, Hauke

    2016-01-01

    Music is often discussed to be emotional because it reflects expressive movements in audible form. Thus, a valid approach to measure musical emotion could be to assess movement stimulated by music. In two experiments we evaluated the discriminative power of mobile-device generated acceleration data produced by free movement during music listening for the prediction of ratings on the Geneva Emotion Music Scales (GEMS-9). The quality of prediction for different dimensions of GEMS varied between experiments for tenderness (R12(first experiment) = 0.50, R22(second experiment) = 0.39), nostalgia (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.30), wonder (R12 = 0.25, R22 = 0.34), sadness (R12 = 0.24, R22 = 0.35), peacefulness (R12 = 0.20, R22 = 0.35) and joy (R12 = 0.19, R22 = 0.33) and transcendence (R12 = 0.14, R22 = 0.00). For others like power (R12 = 0.42, R22 = 0.49) and tension (R12 = 0.28, R22 = 0.27) results could be almost reproduced. Furthermore, we extracted two principle components from GEMS ratings, one representing arousal and the other one valence of the experienced feeling. Both qualities, arousal and valence, could be predicted by acceleration data, indicating, that they provide information on the quantity and quality of experience. On the one hand, these findings show how music-evoked movement patterns relate to music-evoked feelings. On the other hand, they contribute to integrate findings from the field of embodied music cognition into music recommender systems.

  3. Attitude of the future teaching staff towards the subject music education in the elementary education

    OpenAIRE

    Zelenkovska Leshkova, Stefanija; Islam, Aida

    2009-01-01

    The basic doctrine for the music education in most of the countries in the world supports the fact that, starting with the youngest age, it contributes for the development of the children and better results in the other areas of the educational system. These opinions emerge from a great number of researches that stress the benefits from the music education for the development of the personality of the young population, as: IQ, cognitive abilities, spatial-visual perception, motor abilities, v...

  4. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhuys, A L; Bloem, G M; Groothuis, T G

    1995-04-04

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with respect to the emotions they express (fear, happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, rejection and invitation). It was found that a particular face could reflect various emotions. All eight emotions were reflected in the set of faces and the emotions were consensually judged. Moreover, gender differences in judgement could be established. Study 2: In a cross-over design, 24 healthy subjects judged the faces after listening to depressing or elating music. The faces were subdivided in six 'ambiguous' faces (i.e., expressing similar amounts of positive and negative emotions) and six 'clear' faces (i.e., faces showing a preponderance of positive or negative emotions). In addition, these two types of faces were distinguished with respect to the intensity of emotions they express. 11 subjects who showed substantial differences in experienced depression after listening to the music were selected for further analysis. It was found that, when feeling more depressed, the subjects perceived more rejection/sadness in ambiguous faces (displaying less intensive emotions) and less invitation/happiness in clear faces. In addition, subjects saw more fear in clear faces that express less intensive emotions. Hence, results show a depression-related negative bias in the perception of facial displays.

  5. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to sever hearing loss: subjective impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uys, Marinda; Pottas, Lidia; Vinck, Bart; van Dijk, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users' quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC) on hearing aid users' subjective impressions of listening to music. DESIGN & SAMPLE: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants' (N=40) subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users' perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users' enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  6. The influence of non-linear frequency compression on the perception of music by adults with a moderate to severe hearing loss: Subjective impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To date, the main direction in frequency-lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life has grown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on hearing aid users’ subjective impressions of listening to music. Design & sample: A survey research design was implemented to elicit participants’ (N=40 subjective impressions of musical stimuli with and without NFC. Results: The use of NFC significantly improved hearing aid users’ perception of the musical qualities of overall fidelity, tinniness and reverberance. Although participants preferred to listen to the loudness, fullness, crispness, naturalness and pleasantness of music with the use of NFC, these benefits were not significant. Conclusion: The use of NFC can increase hearing aid users’ enjoyment and appreciation of music. Given that a relatively large percentage of hearing aid users express a loss of enjoyment of music, audiologists should not ignore the possible benefits of NFC, especially if one takes into account that previous research indicates speech perception benefits with this technology.

  7. Style in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    Because music is not objectively descriptive or representational, the subjective qualities of music seem to be most important. Style is one of the most salient qualities of music, and in fact most descriptions of music refer to some aspect of musical style. Style in music can refer to historical periods, composers, performers, sonic texture, emotion, and genre. In recent years, many aspects of music style have been studied from the standpoint of automation: How can musical style be recognized and synthesized? An introduction to musical style describes ways in which style is characterized by composers and music theorists. Examples are then given where musical style is the focal point for computer models of music analysis and music generation.

  8. Music therapy in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šírová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  9. Music Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; Odgaard, Rasmus Emil; Bitsch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of breaking the barrier between deaf and hearing people when it comes to the subject of making music. Suggestions on how deaf and hearing people can collaborate in creating music together, are presented. The conducted research will focus on deaf people...... with a general interest in music as well as hearing musicians as target groups. Through reviewing different related research areas, it is found that visualization of sound along with a haptic feedback can help deaf people interpret and interact with music. With this in mind, three variations of a collaborative...

  10. Different types of asynchronous music and effects on performance of basketball foul shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, G; Leith, L M

    2001-12-01

    48 undergraduate women performed basketball foul shots with and without background music. Slow music, fast music, and music personally selected by subjects did not significantly affect shooting performance.

  11. Library Resources in Special Areas of Music: Film Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. Stephen

    Intended as an orientation for music librarians unfamiliar with the film music field, this presentation addresses the most common film music questions received from library patrons, including queries about composers, soundtrack albums, the subject of the music, and scores, and describes the basic film music reference sources to consult for…

  12. Material musical como acervo de conocimiento: sujeto, acción e interacción en procesos de improvisación musical = Musical material as stock of knowledge: subject, action and interaction within processes of musical improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueroa-Dreher, Silvana K.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta contribuição explora a potencialidade da abordagem subjetiva representada na teoria fenomenonológica de Alfred Schutz para explicar processos de improvisação musical a partir de uma perspectiva sociológica. Isto constitui um desafio para a teoria de Schutz, uma vez que sua ideia de projetos de ação tipificados podem explicar ação improvisatória e interação apenas parcialmente. Contudo, esta mesma teoria abre um novo caminho – ainda menos explorado – para explicar fenômenos de improvisação com a noção de estoque de conhecimento subjetivo e social. A principal contribuição deste artigo é conectar a noção de estoque de conhecimento com o de material musical e, com isso, vincular ação improvisatória e interação

  13. This Too Is Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upitis, Rena

    This book focuses on music as a subject relating to all other disciplines. "On the Teaching of Music," the first of 12 chapters, sets the theoretical and philosophical basis for a child-centered, subject-integrated teaching approach through autobiographical narrative. Chapter 2, "A Music Playground," advocates the presentation of materials and…

  14. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  15. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  16. Música e um pouco de silêncio: da voz ao sujeito Music and a little bit of silence: from voice to the subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Mousquer Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se de investigar os possíveis efeitos do trabalho com a música na clínica das psicoses. A partir da experiência em distintos espaços clínicos, especialmente em um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (Caps, as autoras sustentam a hipótese de que a música se mostra uma via potente na criação de intervalos entre o sujeito e o Outro, o que é desafio constante nessa clínica. Dessa análise decanta a questão do silêncio, como elemento essencial na direção do tratamento nas psicoses.Music and a little bit of silence: from voice to the subject. The article seeks to investigate the possible effects of the work with music in the clinic of the psychoses. From the experience in different clinical spaces, especially in a Caps (Psycho-social Service Center, the authors support the hypothesis of the music like a powerful road in the creation of intervals between the subject and the Other: constant challenge in this clinic. From that analysis upsurges the subject of silence, as an essential element in the direction of the psychoses treatment.

  17. The relationship of music preferences and the selected risk-taking and autodestructive behaviour among teenage girls subject to inpatient stay due to mental condition – pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Krajewska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, related to the crisis of identity, attempts to separate from the family and rebellion against the reality result in the youth to be particularly susceptible to the impact of peers. Identification with the group is most often based on common interests, one of which being music. The aim of the pilot study was to assess the relationship of autodestructive and  antisocial behaviour and  music preferences of  girls subject to  inpatient stay due to  mental problems. Material and methods: Own questionnaire was used concerning music preferences, consisting of the following genres: metal, rock, pop, jazz, hip-hop, reggae, film music, sung poetry, electronic music. The studied group comprised of 26 girls diagnosed with mood disorders, neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, eating disorders and behavioural and emotional disorders according to ICD-10. Exclusion criteria were the remaining diagnostic categories, especially active psychotic process and mental retardation as well as lack of understanding of the questionnaire questions or not being familiar with basic types of music. Among the patients aged 13–18 subject to inpatient stay at the Department of Adolescent Psychiatry in Łódź in the period 2013–2014 and consented to the study, the incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse, taking psychoactive substances and the presence of antisocial disorders were assessed. Questionnaire verification was carried out in a group of 30 people tested with a test–retest method with a two-week break; reliability was obtained: 0.89–1. Analysis was carried out with the use of Statistica 9.1 programme. Results: Among the teenage girls subject to inpatient stay, music preferences were not related in a statistically significant manner (p > 0.05 with a greater incidence of attempted suicide, inflicting self-harm, alcohol abuse and contact with psychoactive

  18. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  19. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  20. Can active music-making ameliorate neglect? An assessor-blind, within-subject, controlled clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodak, Rebeka; Mazhari-Jensen, Daniel; Evald, Lars

    -aligned instrument from the stroke survivor’s right side into their left neglected space; the control involves playing novel rhythmic patterns on a single drum at midline. We hypothesise that the stroke survivors will perform better after the intervention than after the control on clinical neglect tests......Neglect often manifests following a right hemisphere stroke, and it is a strong predictor of poor rehabilitation outcome. Although many neglect interventions exist, systematic reviews repeatedly highlight that they yield limited clinical effectiveness and that there is little to no evidence of any...... functional gains. Drawing on recent successful case study pilot work, the aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of an active music-making intervention compared with a control. Stroke survivors with a diagnosis of neglect will be invited to participate in an assessor-blind, within...

  1. The Music in Our Minds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Norman M.

    1998-01-01

    New brain research shows that music improves our brain development and even enhances skills in other subjects such as reading and math. Music enhances creativity and promotes social development, personality adjustment, and self-worth. Music making provides the most extensive exercise for brain cells and their synaptic interconnections. (12…

  2. Induction of depressed and elated mood by music influences the perception of facial emotional expressions in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Bloem, Gerda M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    1995-01-01

    The judgement of healthy subject rating the emotional expressions of a set of schematic drawn faces is validated (study 1) to examine the relationship between mood (depressed/elated) and judgement of emotional expressions of these faces (study 2). Study 1: 30 healthy subjects judged 12 faces with

  3. The musical identities of Danish music therapy students : a study based on musical autobiographies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists need both advanced musical and therapeutic skills to work as ‘health musicians’ in the vast area of ‘health musicking’ (Trondalen & Bonde, 2012), which ranges from working with groups in the community to individual sessions with mental health patients in hospital clinics. The balance between musical and therapeutic skills in this training is the subject of continuous discussion in the training program at Aalborg University, as are the ways in which the musical identity of a m...

  4. Musical agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; McBurney, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music.......The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music....

  5. Umbanda, Music and Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio José Pereira de Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations among the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of its approaches.

  6. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  7. Emoções de uma escuta musical afetam a percepção subjetiva de tempo Emotions from listening to music affect the subjective perception of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou se emoções percebidas durante uma escuta musical influenciam a percepção temporal. Músicos e não músicos foram submetidos a tarefas de escuta de trechos musicais do repertório erudito ocidental com 20 segundos de duração cada um e tarefas de associação temporal de cada trecho ouvido a durações padrões, que variavam de 16 a 24 segundos. Os trechos musicais empregados eram representativos de uma dentre as categorias emocionais Alegria, Tristeza, Serenidade ou Medo / Raiva. Uma análise de variância mostrou que, enquanto os não músicos apresentaram subestimações temporais associadas a pelo menos um trecho musical de cada uma das categorias emocionais, os músicos subestimaram todos os trechos musicais tristes, relacionados às características de baixo arousal e valência afetiva negativa.This study examined whether perceived emotions during music listening tasks influence time perception. Musicians and non-musicians were submitted to tasks of listening to musical excerpts from Western classical repertoire of 20 seconds and tasks of temporal association of each piece of music to standard durations, ranging from 16 to 24 seconds. Musical excerpts were representative from one of the following emotional categories: Happiness, Sadness, Threat and Peacefulness. An analysis of variance showed that, while non-musicians showed temporal underestimations associated with, at least, one piece of music from each emotional category, musicians underestimated all sad musical excerpts, related to low arousal and negative valence features.

  8. Music in the Life Skills Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, Eurika Jansen; van Niekerka, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Generalist educators in South Africa shy away from music in the subjects Life Skills (Dance, Drama, Music, Visual Art, Physical Education and Personal and Social Well-being) and Creative Arts (Dance, Drama, Music, Visual Art) and universities are not delivering generalist students for the subject demands. In-service educators, as well as subject…

  9. 'Rhythmic Music' in Danish Music Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Kaj

    In Danish state schools from elementary to upper secondary school music is part of curricula at all levels. It is widely accepted that both individuals and culture benefit from art subjects, creative activities etc. This type of motivation was sufficient support for maintaining music as a subject...... and to avoid what was associated with jazz, especially by its opponents. This paper aims at taking stock of the situation in Danish music education during the last decade and at specifying the situation of ‘rhythmic music’ within this context....... at all levels of the educational system from around 1960 to around 2000. This tradition dates back to the 1920s, when the first Social Democratic government in Danish history (1924-26), with Nina Bang as minister of education (probably the first female minister worldwide), in the field of music made...... genre of music, and in Denmark this interest manifested itself in attempts to integrate jazz in the musical education of the youth. A unique genre, the so-called ‘jazz oratorios’, was created by the composer Bernhard Christensen (1906-2004) and the librettist Sven Møller Kristensen (1909- 91...

  10. Mood Dependent Music Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Music is one of the most expressive media to show and manipulate emotions, but there have been few studies on how to generate music connected to emotions. Such studies have always been shunned upon by musicians affirming that a machine cannot create expressive music, as it's the composer......'s and player's experiences and emotions that get poured into the piece. At the same time another problem is that music is highly complicated (and subjective) and finding out which elements transmit certain emotions is not an easy task. This demo wants to show how the manipulation of a set of features can...... actually change the mood the music transmits, hopefully awakening an interest in this area of research....

  11. Music and Visual Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Julie Borup

    2017-01-01

    , ethnographic video observation was chosen as a way of handling complex data and analysing complex interaction. Preliminary analyses of the findings indicates the ability of music to both contain and express experiential, sensory, emotional and cognitive complexity in ways that allow for differences......The paper explores the potential of video ethnography concerning educational research on music as contributing to an inclusive learning environment in elementary school (research objective). In music education research, the use of visual data provided by video seems to be a relevant choice...... of method, because music as a school subject encompasses multiple ways for the pupils to participate and interact in the learning environment, and music itself provides a whole set of complex linguistic rules that will escape traditional observation and interview methods in ethnographic research. Therefore...

  12. The neuroaesthetics of music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brattico, Elvira

    2017-01-01

    The present chapter offers an overview on the state-of-the-art research under the agenda of the neuroaesthetics of music. This research agenda, inspired by the neuroaesthetics of visual art, represents a paradigm shift from neuroimaging studies focused exclusively on music perception, cognition...... and emotion to studies that consider aesthetic responses such as liking, preference, and aesthetic judgments. The existing models depicting information processing stages of the musical aesthetic experiences and their loci in the brain are summarized. The latest findings point at a synergy between neural...... systems, and particularly between superior temporal gyrus and limbic reward areas for issuing aesthetic responses to music. Future challenges for the field are the discovery of the neural mechanisms of inter-subject communication during musical performance leading to an efficacious aesthetic experience....

  13. Serbian musical criticism and essay writings during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century as a subject of musicology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of 2006 marked two decades since the death of Stana Djurić-Klajn, the first historian of Serbian musical literature. This is the exterior motive for presenting a summary of the state and results of up-to-date musicology research into Serbian musical criticism and essay writings during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century, alongside the many works dedicated to this branch of national musical history, recently published. In this way the reader is given a detailed background of these studies – mainly the authors' names, books, studies, articles, as well as the problems of this branch of Serbian musicology. The first research is associated with the early years of the XXth century, that is, to the work of bibliography. The pioneer of Serbian ethnomusicology, Vladimir R. Djordjević composed An Essay of the Serbian Musical Bibliography until 1914, noting selected XIXth century examples of Serbian literature on music. Bibliographic research was continued by various institutions and experts during the second half of the XXth century: in Zagreb (today Republic of Croatia; the Yugoslav Institute for Lexicography, Novi Sad (Matica srpska; and Belgrade (Institute for Literature and Art, Slobodan Turlakov, Ljubica Djordjević, Staniša Vojinović etc. In spite of the efforts of these institutions and individuals, a complete analytic bibliography of music in Serbian print of the last two centuries has unfortunately still not been made. The most important contributions to historical research, interpretation and validation of Serbian musical criticism and essay writings were given by Stana Djurić-Klajn, Dr Roksanda Pejović and Dr Slobodan Turlakov. Professor Stana Djurić-Klajn was the first Serbian musicologist to work in this field of Serbian music history. She wrote a significant number of studies and articles dedicated to Serbian musical writers and published their selected readings. Prof. Klajn is the author and editor of the

  14. Intuitive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and some improvisational pieces....

  15. Shakespeare's Philosophy of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Sulka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Shakespeare is one of the most widely read figures in literature, but his use of music is not usually touched on in literary discussions of his works. In this paper, I discuss how Shakespeare portrays music within the context of his plays, through both dialogue and songs performed within each work. In Shakespeare’s time, Boethius’s philosophy of the Music of the Spheres was still highly popular. This was the idea that the arrangement of the cosmos mirrored musical proportions. As a result, every aspect of the universe was believed to be highly ordered, and this idea is prominent throughout Shakespeare’s works, from "Hamlet" to "A Midsummer Night’s Dream." To make this clear to the reader, I discuss dialogue symmetry weaved throughout "The Merchant of Venice," clear allusions to the music of the spheres in "Pericles," and the use of music as a signifier of the strange and mysterious – from madness to love – in numerous works, always relating these topics back to the philosophy of the music of the spheres. In order to compile this information and make it clear, I researched the philosophy of music during Shakespeare’s era. I also researched how he uses music thematically to emphasize different characters’ struggles as well as plot details. After examining his plays as well as the other sources available on the subject, it is clear that Shakespeare was highly influenced by the philosophical and practical ideas regarding music of his time, specifically the theory of the music of the spheres.

  16. The effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation-scaling behavior in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucci, D; Petrosino, L; Banks, M; Zaums, K; Wilcox, C

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of preference for three different types of music on magnitude estimation scaling behavior in young adults. Three groups of college students, 10 who liked rock music, 10 who liked big band music, and 10 who liked classical music were tested. Subjects were instructed to assign numerical values to a random series of nine suprathreshold intensity levels of 10-sec, samples of rock music, big band music, and classical music. Analysis indicated that subjects who liked rock music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked big band and classical music. Subjects who liked big band music scaled that stimulus differently from those subjects who liked rock music and classical music. All subjects scaled classical music similarly regardless of their musical preferences. Results are discussed in reference to the literature concerned with personality and preference as well as spectrographic analyses of the three different types of music used in this study.

  17. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  18. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet , Martin; Kian , Arash; Berthaut , Florent; Franco , Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine , Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  19. [Music and health--what kind of music is helpful for whom? What music not?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trappe, H-J

    2009-12-01

    It is well known that music not only may improve quality of life (QoL) but also have different effects on heart rate (HR) and its variability (HRV). Music emphasis and rhythmic phrases are tracked consistently by physiological variables. Autonomic responses are synchronized with music, which might therefore convey emotions through autonomic arousal during crescendos or rhythmic phrases. A greater modulation of HR, HRV and modulations in cardiac autonomic nerve activity was revealed with a greater effect for music performance than music perception. Reactions to music are considered subjective, but studies suggested that cardiorespiratory variables are influenced under different circumstances. It has been shown that relaxing music decreases significantly the level of anxiety in a preoperative setting to a greater extent than orally administered midazolam (p effectiveness and absence of apparent adverse effects make preoperative relaxing music a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction to suggest that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open heart surgery. Music intervention should be offered as an integral part of the multimodal regime administered to the patients that have undergone cardiovascular surgery. It is a supportive source that increases relaxation. Music is also effective in under conditions and music can be utilized as an effective intervention for patients with depressive symptoms, geriatrics and in pain, intensive care or palliative medicine. However, careful selected music that incorporates a patient's own preferences may offer an effective method to reduce anxiety and to improve quality of life. The most benefit on health is visible in classic music, meditation music whereas heavy metal music or technosounds are even ineffective or dangerous and will lead to stress and/or life threatening arrhythmias. There are many composers most

  20. A randomized controlled trial of two simple mind-body programs, Kirtan Kriya meditation and music listening, for adults with subjective cognitive decline: Feasibility and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2016-06-01

    In this randomized controlled trial (RCT), we assessed the feasibility and acceptability of two simple home-based relaxation programs in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline, a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants were randomized to a beginner Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) program or a music listening (ML) program. Participants were asked to practice 12min daily for the first 12 weeks, then as often as they liked for the following 3 months. Participants underwent assessments at baseline, 12 weeks, and 6 months to evaluate changes in key outcomes. Feasibility and acceptability were evaluated by measuring recruitment and retention rates, assessment visit attendance, practice adherence, and treatment expectancy; exit questionnaires completed at 12 weeks and 6 months provided additional data regarding participant experience with the study, perceived barriers to and facilitators of practice, reasons for drop-out, and views regarding the assigned intervention. Fifty-three participants (88%) completed the 6 month study. Adherence in both groups was excellent, with participants completing 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions on average in the first 12 weeks, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3 month, practice-optional, follow-up period. At week 12, over 80% of participants indicated they were likely to continue practicing following study completion. Responses to both structured and open-ended exit questionnaire items also suggested high satisfaction with both programs. Findings of this RCT of a beginner meditation practice and a simple ML program suggest that both programs were well accepted and the practices are feasible in adults with early memory loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive......Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...

  2. Music publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Alberto; Almeida, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Current music publishing in the Internet is mainly concerned with sound publishing. We claim that music publishing is not only to make sound available but also to define relations between a set of music objects like music scores, guitar chords, lyrics and their meta-data. We want an easy way to publish music in the Internet, to make high quality paper booklets and even to create Audio CD's. In this document we present a workbench for music publishing based on open formats, using open-source t...

  3. Music teacher identity and professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik

    2017-01-01

    The present article is concerned with transformative learning and identity formation in student music teachers acting as researchers of a music education practice as part of their MA study programme. More specific, the aim is to discuss how engaging in a research perspective may serve as an eye......-opener for student music teachers and widen their perspective on subject didactics, teaching/learning issues and professional practice....

  4. Music for Social Occasions - Music for Fun, Music for Every Day, Lublaň 21.-23. června 2006

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bajgarová, Jitka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2006), s. 335-336 ISSN 0018-7003. [ Music for Social Occasions - Music for Fun, Music for Every Day. Ljubljana, 210606-230606] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Music * social occasions Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. A Rediscovered Alliance: Can New Music Performance Teaching Policy Save Music Education? A New Framework for the Music Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Music education in K-12 school programs may continue to lose ground to other subjects unless music education and performance studies are viewed as interdependent. The author argues that the reinvigoration of both music education and performance requires that the studio experience integrate a research-based pedagogy, multi-stylistic range of…

  6. Teaching Physics with Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Gordon P.

    2015-01-01

    The uniting of two seemingly disparate subjects in the classroom provides an interesting motivation for learning. Students are interested in how these subjects can possibly be integrated into related ideas. Such is the mixture of physics and music. Both are based upon mathematics, which becomes the interlocking theme. The connecting physical…

  7. Music Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    Music Information Retrieval has received increasing attention from both the industrial and the research communities in recent years. Many audio extraction techniques providing content-based music information have been developed, sparking the need for intelligent storage and retrieval facilities. ...

  8. Neural Correlates of Boredom in Music Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Fakhr Tabatabaie

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Music can elicit powerful emotional responses, the neural correlates of which have not been properly understood. An important aspect about the quality of any musical piece is its ability to elicit a sense of excitement in the listeners. In this study, we investigated the neural correlates of boredom evoked by music in human subjects. Methods: We used EEG recording in nine subjects while they were listening to total number of 10 short-length (83 sec musical pieces with various boredom indices. Subjects evaluated boringness of musical pieces while their EEG was recording. Results: Using short time Fourier analysis, we found that beta2 rhythm was (16-20 Hz significantly lower whenever the subjects rated the music as boring in comparison to nonboring. Discussion: The results demonstrate that the music modulates neural activity of various partsof the brain and can be measured using EEG.

  9. Sensorimotor adaptation is influenced by background music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar

    2010-06-01

    It is well established that listening to music can modify subjects' cognitive performance. The present study evaluates whether this so-called Mozart Effect extends beyond cognitive tasks and includes sensorimotor adaptation. Three subject groups listened to musical pieces that in the author's judgment were serene, neutral, or sad, respectively. This judgment was confirmed by the subjects' introspective reports. While listening to music, subjects engaged in a pointing task that required them to adapt to rotated visual feedback. All three groups adapted successfully, but the speed and magnitude of adaptive improvement was more pronounced with serene music than with the other two music types. In contrast, aftereffects upon restoration of normal feedback were independent of music type. These findings support the existence of a "Mozart effect" for strategic movement control, but not for adaptive recalibration. Possibly, listening to music modifies neural activity in an intertwined cognitive-emotional network.

  10. Explicit versus implicit neural processing of musical emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Bogert, Brigitte; Numminen-Kontti, Taru; Gold, Benjamin; Sams, Mikko; Numminen, Jussi; Burunat, Iballa; Lampinen, Jouko; Brattico, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music. Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the e...

  11. Measuring Music Education: Music Teacher Evaluation in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emert, Dennis; Sheehan, Scott; Deitz, O. David

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge currently facing Pennsylvania music educators (and many music educators across the country) is change to the evaluation process of teachers in Non-Tested Grades and Subjects (NTGS). The law directing this change is known as Act 82 and comes from the Pennsylvania legislature, authorized through House Bill 1901. The Pennsylvania…

  12. Visual analysis of music in function of music video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antal Silard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide-spread all over the planet, incorporating all music genres, the music video, the subject matter of this analysis, has become irreplaceable in promotions, song presentations, an artist's image, visual aesthetics of subculture; today, most of the countries in the world have a channel devoted to music only, i.e. to music video. The form started to develop rapidly in the 50s of the twentieth century, alongside television. As it developed, its purpose has changed: from a simple presentation of musicians to an independent video form.

  13. Music & Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Gemma; Camps, Laia; Herrera, Isabel Herrera; Guillamat, Roser; Vallés, Vicenç; Sanz, Maite; Martínez, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific literature suggests that music may serve as therapeutic function among populations with different illnesses or disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies that incorporate music activity or music method shown an increase activation in several brain areas, with widespread bilateral hemodynamic responses in occipital lobe, bilateral cerebellum, temporal lobe, in the right lateral prefrontal cortex as well hemodynamic responses in the left middle frontal gyrus.Music activ...

  14. Imagery, Music, Cognitive Style and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Valerie N.; Zalanowski, Annette

    Paired associate memory was tested with imagery and repetition instructions, with and without background music. Subjects were 64 students enrolled in an introductory psychology course. Music was found to have no effect with imagery instructions, but significantly improved performance with the repetition instructions. Music had different effects on…

  15. Intuitive Music and Graphic Notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    Describes subjects existing at Aalborg University since the middle eighties. "Intuitive Music" trains free improvisation through exercises including group-dynamic exercises, awareness exercises and parameter exercises. Students also create open compositions. "Graphic notation"concerns aural scores....... Students' works are quoted. The writer discusses the theoretical context and advocates for giving more attention to music as the medium in which music therapy takes place, referring to language theory and Jakobson. NB: the description of the two subjects are, at the present moment (2011) no longer up...... to date. Intuitive music stresses less making compositions and more using the main instrument intuitively. Graphic notation has been integrated into a larger subject (also taught by the present author) which also comprises other methods of description and interpretation of music....

  16. Music Teachers' Everyday Conceptions of Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstrom, Sture

    1999-01-01

    Investigates music teachers' everyday conceptions of musicality through (1) a pilot study involving music teachers in higher education and (2) interviews with teachers in music teacher education and in compulsory school. Finds in the pilot the categories of musical achievement, musical experience, and musical communication, while the interviews…

  17. Music cognition: Learning and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohrmeier, M.; Rebuschat, P.; Honing, H.; Loui, P.; Wiggins, G.; Pearce, M.T.; Müllensiefen, D.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the study of music perception and cognition has witnessed an enormous growth of interest. Music cognition is an intrinsically interdisciplinary subject which combines insights and research methods from many of the cognitive sciences. This trend is clearly reflected, for example, in

  18. Music for pain relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, M S; Carr, D B; Lau, J; Alvarez, H

    2006-04-19

    The efficacy of music for the treatment of pain has not been established. To evaluate the effect of music on acute, chronic or cancer pain intensity, pain relief, and analgesic requirements. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, LILACS and the references in retrieved manuscripts. There was no language restriction. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effect of music on any type of pain in children or adults. We excluded trials that reported results of concurrent non-pharmacological therapies. Data was extracted by two independent review authors. We calculated the mean difference in pain intensity levels, percentage of patients with at least 50% pain relief, and opioid requirements. We converted opioid consumption to morphine equivalents. To explore heterogeneity, studies that evaluated adults, children, acute, chronic, malignant, labor, procedural, or experimental pain were evaluated separately, as well as those studies in which patients chose the type of music. Fifty-one studies involving 1867 subjects exposed to music and 1796 controls met inclusion criteria. In the 31 studies evaluating mean pain intensity there was a considerable variation in the effect of music, indicating statistical heterogeneity ( I(2) = 85.3%). After grouping the studies according to the pain model, this heterogeneity remained, with the exception of the studies that evaluated acute postoperative pain. In this last group, patients exposed to music had pain intensity that was 0.5 units lower on a zero to ten scale than unexposed subjects (95% CI: -0.9 to -0.2). Studies that permitted patients to select the music did not reveal a benefit from music; the decline in pain intensity was 0.2 units, 95% CI (-0.7 to 0.2). Four studies reported the proportion of subjects with at least 50% pain relief; subjects exposed to music had a 70% higher likelihood of having pain relief than unexposed subjects (95% CI: 1.21 to 2.37). NNT = 5 (95% CI: 4 to 13). Three

  19. A perceptual study on dynamical form in music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens; Nielbo, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    The concept of dynamical form is presented as a dimen- sion of music perception. Dynamical form refers to the subjective perception of temporal events in music (explo- sive, fading out, rising etc.). In a behavioral experiment listeners were asked to categorize musical excerpts vary- ing in music...

  20. Processo de criação no fazer musical: uma objetivação da subjetividade, a partir dos trabalhos de Sartre e Vygotsky The process of creation of a musical: an objectification of the subjectivity, based on Sartre and Vygotsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maheirie

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O sujeito é compreendido neste trabalho como constituído e constituinte do contexto social, e a música como uma linguagem reflexivo-afetiva, capaz de construir sentidos coletivos e singulares. Entendemos como reflexiva toda atividade humana que objetiva predominantemente uma racionalidade; e, como afetivas as objetivações que, embora mediadas por uma racionalidade, contemplam sobremaneira emoções e sentimentos. A partir dos trabalhos de Sartre e Vygotsky, compreendemos que nos processos de criação musical os sujeitos unificam dialeticamente a aprendizagem dos conhecimentos técnicos, numa postura afetiva, a qual implica em relações entre percepção, imaginação, sentimentos e emoções. O músico, no processo criativo, transforma os sons numa objetividade subjetivada, como negação dialética do determinismo de um contexto, já que nele deixa, necessariamente, a marca da sua subjetividade. O processo de criação musical deve ser compreendido sempre como um produto histórico-social, completamente inserido no contexto no qual se dá.In this workthe subject is understood as constituted and constituent of the social context, and the music, as a reflexive-affectionate language, capable to build collective and singular sense. We understand as reflexive every human activity that, above all,aims at a rationality; and, we understand as affectionate the objectifications that, although mediated by a rationality, they contemplate emotions and feelings. Based on works of Sartre and Vygotsky, we understand that in the process of musical creation, the subjects unify dialectically the learning of the technical knowledge, in an affectionate posture, which implicates in relation among perception, imagination, feelings and emotions. The musician, in the creative process, transforms the sounds in a subjectfied objectivity, as a dialectical denial of the determinism of a context, since it he leaves, necessarily, the mark of the his subjectivity. The

  1. Music through the ages: Trends in musical engagement and preferences from adolescence through middle adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Rentfrow, Peter J; Xu, Man K; Potter, Jeff

    2013-10-01

    Are there developmental trends in how individuals experience and engage with music? Data from 2 large cross-sectional studies involving more than a quarter of a million individuals were used to investigate age differences in musical attitudes and preferences from adolescence through middle age. Study 1 investigated age trends in musical engagement. Results indicated that (a) the degree of importance attributed to music declines with age but that adults still consider music important, (b) young people listen to music significantly more often than do middle-aged adults, and (c) young people listen to music in a wide variety of contexts, whereas adults listen to music primarily in private contexts. Study 2 examined age trends in musical preferences. Results indicated that (a) musical preferences can be conceptualized in terms of a 5-dimensional age-invariant model, (b) certain music-preference dimensions decrease with age (e.g., Intense, Contemporary), whereas preferences for other music dimensions increase with age (e.g., Unpretentious, Sophisticated), and (c) age trends in musical preferences are closely associated with personality. Normative age trends in musical preferences corresponded with developmental changes in psychosocial development, personality, and auditory perception. Overall, the findings suggest that musical preferences are subject to a variety of developmental influences throughout the life span.

  2. The effects of sedative music, arousal music, and silence on electrocardiography signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dousty, Mehdy; Daneshvar, Sabalan; Haghjoo, Majid

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that music can affect heart rate, blood pressure, and skin conductance. Music can stimulate central emotions in the brain and release biochemical materials that change the physiologic state. We sought to compare changes in the electrical function of the heart in response to music. Subjects were asked to listen to 2 types of music, namely, sedative and arousal music, in conjunction with two 30-second periods of complete silence. The experiment was conducted in 4 segments: the first and third parts were silence, and the second and fourth parts were music. First, the response to each type of music was compared with that to the preceding period of silence. Next, the responses to both types of music were compared. Finally, the response to music regardless of the type was compared with that to silence. The amplitude of polarization and depolarization changed in response to different kinds of music. The electrical function of the heart in response to music, irrespective of the music type, differed from that in response to silence. The 2 types of music impacted the electrical function of the heart in different ways: the arousal music influenced T-wave maximum amplitude, whereas no such change was recorded in response to the sedative music. The bandwidth of the polarization and depolarization of the heart rate and R-wave amplitude increased in response to music by comparison with silence. In addition, the heart did not seem to try to synchronize with music. The mean R-wave amplitude in sedative music is higher than the arousal music, so our heart works differently when different types of music are heard. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mozart, music and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Ernest K J; Volterrani, Duccio; Mariani, Giuliano; Kostkiewics, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    According to the first publication in 1993 by Rauscher et al. [Nature 1993;365:611], the Mozart effect implies the enhancement of reasoning skills solving spatial problems in normal subjects after listening to Mozart's piano sonata K 448. A further evaluation of this effect has raised the question whether there is a link between music-generated emotions and a higher level of cognitive abilities by mere listening. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that listening to pleasurable music activates cortical and subcortical cerebral areas where emotions are processed. These neurobiological effects of music suggest that auditory stimulation evokes emotions linked to heightened arousal and result in temporarily enhanced performance in many cognitive domains. Music therapy applies this arousal in a clinical setting as it may offer benefits to patients by diverting their attention from unpleasant experiences and future interventions. It has been applied in the context of various important clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer pain, epilepsy, depression and dementia. Furthermore, music may modulate the immune response, among other things, evidenced by increasing the activity of natural killer cells, lymphocytes and interferon-γ, which is an interesting feature as many diseases are related to a misbalanced immune system. Many of these clinical studies, however, suffer from methodological inadequacies. Nevertheless, at present, there is moderate but not altogether convincing evidence that listening to known and liked music helps to decrease the burden of a disease and enhances the immune system by modifying stress. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  5. Saved from the Teeth of Time. Folk music on historical sound recordings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvíl, Matěj

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2007), s. 24-26 ISSN 1211-0264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : traditional music * recording * wax cylinders * Bohemian music * Moravian music Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. Gender and the performance of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond C Sergeant

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. If such propositions are substantive, gendered qualities might be imparted to the musical ‘message’ at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or superimposed in the course of listener perceptions. Four research hypotheses are identified and relevant literature of music behaviours and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the four hypotheses: i two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, ii four ‘music characteristics’ scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically trained listeners heard the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that if gendering of music is a reality, the properties are imposed subjectively by the perceiver, and the respective qualities appear to be primarily related to the tempo of the music.

  7. Cultural constraints on music perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J; Demorest, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that music, like language, is both a biological predisposition and a cultural universal. While humans naturally attend to and process many of the psychophysical cues present in musical information, there is a great - and often culture-specific - diversity of musical practices differentiated in part by form, timbre, pitch, rhythm, and other structural elements. Musical interactions situated within a given cultural context begin to influence human responses to music as early as one year of age. Despite the world's diversity of musical cultures, the majority of research in cognitive psychology and the cognitive neuroscience of music has been conducted on subjects and stimuli from Western music cultures. From the standpoint of cognitive neuroscience, identification of fundamental cognitive and neurological processes associated with music requires ascertaining that such processes are demonstrated by listeners from a broad range of cultural backgrounds and in relation to various musics across cultural traditions. This chapter will review current research regarding the role of enculturation in music perception and cognition and the degree to which cultural influences are reflected in brain function. Exploring music cognition from the standpoint of culture will lead to a better understanding of the core processes underlying perception and how those processes give rise to the world's diversity of music forms and expressions.

  8. Interdisciplinary Lessons in Musical Acoustics: The Science-Math-Music Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, George L.

    2004-01-01

    The National Standards for Arts Education encourages teachers to help students make connections between music and other disciplines. Many state curriculum guides likewise encourage educators to integrate curricula and find common ground between different subjects. Music--particularly vocal music--offers ample opportunities to find relationships…

  9. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  10. Emotional Responses to Music: Shifts in Frontal Brain Asymmetry Mark Periods of Musical Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Hussain-Abdulah; Hohagen, Jesper; Paton, Bryan; Rickard, Nikki S

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo - and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation - is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18-38 years) who listened to four stimuli-pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music), neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG) data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA) indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect) were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3-FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a change in low level acoustic

  11. Music effect on pain threshold evaluated with current perception threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Music relieves anxiety and psychotic tension. This effect of music is applied to surgical operation in the hospital and dental office. It is still unclear whether this music effect is only limited to the psychological aspect but not to the physical aspect or whether its music effect is influenced by the mood or emotion of audience. To elucidate these issues, we evaluated the music effect on pain threshold by current perception threshold (CPT) and profile of mood states (POMC) test. METHODS: Healthy 30 subjects (12 men, 18 women, 25-49 years old, mean age 34.9) were tested. (1)After POMC test, all subjects were evaluated pain threshold with CPT by Neurometer (Radionics, USA) under 6 conditions, silence, listening to the slow tempo classic music, nursery music, hard rock music, classic paino music and relaxation music with 30 seconds interval. (2)After Stroop color word test as the stresser, pain threshold was evaluated with CPT under 2 conditions, silence and listening to the slow tempo classic music. RESULTS: Under litening to the music, CPT sores increased, especially 2 000 Hz level related with compression, warm and pain sensation. Type of music, preference of music and stress also affected CPT score. CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the concentration on the music raise the pain threshold and that stress and mood influence the music effect on pain threshold.

  12. MUSICAL ARRANGEMENT OF MEDIA ADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The music-compositional principles of commercial and political advertising and also the self-promotion of electronic media (radio, television, Internet are considered in this mediatext: from the elementary beeps, symbolic functions, emblems/logos and musical brands to the sound engineering technology to underscore the product's name and the complex synthesis between music and intra movements and color-light design of frames. Simultaneously examines, how the musical arrangement of ethereal advertising is involved in creation the emotional drama or bravado which reach the level of explicit or associative counterpoint 'music with the advertised object or subject' and which extend to expression of cultural image of all the broadcast channel. The article explores the works of the next genres like infomercial, teleshopping, film-ad, and autonomous commercials that have been produced in European countries or USA.

  13. Ghost Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo.......Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo....

  14. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  15. Visualizing Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Music has always been an important aspect of teenage life, but with the portability of the newest technological devices, it is harder and harder to separate students from their musical influences. In this article, the author describes a lesson wherein she incorporated their love of song into an engaging art project. In this lesson, she had…

  16. Tuvan music and World Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of the Union, has been as if put on hold. During the Perestroika and national revival processes, traditionalism became of high demand. Symposia and festivals started off in Tuva where amateur participants took the same stage with professionals. Special honor was paid to old masters of xöömei. Scholars started engaging in  discussions about the origins and a role of xöömei and its genres. Хöömei attracted a good deal of market interest from outside Russia. In the late 1980s American scientist and producer T. Levin made first field records of xöömei to be released on a disk. Ethnographic ensemble “Tuva” was established. Later, members of “Tuva” started their own musical bands. Musical programs were compiled as an ethnographic variety show – a principle that the public has been seeking for both in Tuva and abroad. Disks were realeased and artists started active touring in foreign countries. Boosting interest in World Music was marked with hallmark attention to the phenomenon of throat-singing and overtone music, and further evolution of Tuvan music has since been tightly linked to Western musical market. The author traces the peculiarities of such bands as “Huun Huur Tu”, “Yat-Kha”, etc. and remarks that the value of Tuvan music is not only in star performers shining on the Western skies, but in the rise of a stable community of people inspired by Tuvan music and culture, and seeking new ways of aesthetic and spiritual perception of

  17. Gender and the performance of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Desmond C.; Himonides, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. Were they present in the musical “message,” gendered qualities might be imparted at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or imposed by the listener in the process of perception. The research was designed to obtain empirical evidence to enable evaluation of claims of the presence of gendering at these three stages. Three research hypotheses were identified and relevant literature of music behaviors and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the three hypotheses: (i) two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, (ii) four “music characteristics” scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically-trained listeners listened to the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that gendered properties are imposed subjectively by the listener, and these are primarily related to the tempo of the music. PMID:24795663

  18. Musical appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Maria del Consuelo

    2002-11-01

    Pre-school listening to music is the principal way that leads to the appreciation of music that later facilitates knowledge and pleasure in the history of music. At the prescholastic age it is a very important aspect of education, and reasons and suggestions will be given. The activities must be brief, the teachers of music can at the most develop the activity every five minutes, leaving time for rest or expansion. Another suitable way to bring the child to music is through stories, which please all children; let them go to an unreal and fantastic world and listen to a story or an exciting adventure. The story then, should be brief, simple, with action, with familiar characters, but with some mystery; some repetitive element; and an ending both surprising and happy. It is preferable to include small folkloric tales from the universal repertoire, with works of simple and clear structure.

  19. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  20. Hearing speech in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth-Reino Ekström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA. The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01. Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01 and SPN (P<.05. Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01, but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01. It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  1. Experimenting with musical intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presto, Michael C.

    2003-07-01

    When two tuning forks of different frequency are sounded simultaneously the result is a complex wave with a repetition frequency that is the fundamental of the harmonic series to which both frequencies belong. The ear perceives this 'musical interval' as a single musical pitch with a sound quality produced by the harmonic spectrum responsible for the waveform. This waveform can be captured and displayed with data collection hardware and software. The fundamental frequency can then be calculated and compared with what would be expected from the frequencies of the tuning forks. Also, graphing software can be used to determine equations for the waveforms and predict their shapes. This experiment could be used in an introductory physics or musical acoustics course as a practical lesson in superposition of waves, basic Fourier series and the relationship between some of the ear's subjective perceptions of sound and the physical properties of the waves that cause them.

  2. Folk Music, Song and Dance in Bohemia and Moravia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vejvoda, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2007), s. 14-23 ISSN 1211-0264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : Traditional Music * Roma Folk Music * Bagpipe * Dulcimer * Folklorism Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  3. EFFECT OF MUSIC ON ANAEROBIC EXERCISE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin Atan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For years, mostly the effects of music on cardiorespiratory exercise performance have been studied, but a few studies have examined the effect of music on anaerobic exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of listening to music and its rhythm on anaerobic exercise: on power output, heart rate and the concentration of blood lactate. 28 male subjects were required to visit the laboratory on 6 occasions, each separated by 48 hours. Firstly, each subject performed the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST under 3 conditions on separate days: while listening to “slow rhythm music”, “fast rhythm music” or “no music”. 48 hours after the subjects completed RAST under 3 conditions, Wingate Anaerobic Power (WAN tests were performed under 3 music conditions. The order of the 3 conditions (slow music, fast music and no music was selected randomly to prevent an order effect. Results showed no significant differences between 3 conditions in anaerobic power assessments, heart rate or blood lactate (p>0.05. On the basis of these results it can be said that music cannot improve anaerobic performance. The type of music had no impact on power outputs during RAST and WAN exercise. As a conclusion, listening to music and its rhythm cannot enhance anaerobic performance and cannot change the physiological response to supramaximal exercise.

  4. Pleasurable emotional response to music: a case of neurodegenerative generalized auditory agnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Brandy R; Chang, Chiung-Chih; De May, Mary; Engstrom, John; Miller, Bruce L

    2009-06-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies implicate the network of mesolimbic structures known to be active in reward processing as the neural substrate of pleasure associated with listening to music. Psychoacoustic and lesion studies suggest that there is a widely distributed cortical network involved in processing discreet musical variables. Here we present the case of a young man with auditory agnosia as the consequence of cortical neurodegeneration who continues to experience pleasure when exposed to music. In a series of musical tasks, the subject was unable to accurately identify any of the perceptual components of music beyond simple pitch discrimination, including musical variables known to impact the perception of affect. The subject subsequently misidentified the musical character of personally familiar tunes presented experimentally, but continued to report that the activity of 'listening' to specific musical genres was an emotionally rewarding experience. The implications of this case for the evolving understanding of music perception, music misperception, music memory, and music-associated emotion are discussed.

  5. Effects of music and music video interventions on sleep quality: A randomized controlled trial in adults with sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Chang, En-Ting; Hsieh, Yuan-Mei; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of music and music video interventions on objective and subjective sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. A randomized controlled trial was performed on 71 adults who were recruited from the outpatient department of a hospital with 1100 beds and randomly assigned to the control, music, and music video groups. During the 4 test days (Days 2-5), for 30min before nocturnal sleep, the music group listened to Buddhist music and the music video group watched Buddhist music videos. They were instructed to not listen/watch to the music/MV on the first night (pretest, Day 1) and the final night (Day 6). The control group received no intervention. Sleep was assessed using a one-channel electroencephalography machine in their homes and self-reported questionnaires. The music and music video interventions had no effect on any objective sleep parameters, as measured using electroencephalography. However, the music group had significantly longer subjective total sleep time than the music video group did (Wald χ 2 =6.23, p=0.04). Our study results increase knowledge regarding music interventions for sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. This study suggested that more research is required to strengthen the scientific knowledge of the effects of music intervention on sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. (ISRCTN94971645). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Music therapy on Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrte, Beltrina; Lodovici Neto, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    This study is a result of a qualitative research, in the Gerontology and Music therapy scenario. It was analyzed the importance of alternative practices like playing an instrument (piano, violin, etc.), singing, or practicing a guided musical exercise as a therapy activity for elder people with Parkinson Disease. The analysis, systematization and interpretation of the data pointed: music therapy is an excellent way to improve the life of the patient that becomes more sociable, decreasing physical and psychological symptoms ('symptomatology') and the subject change for a singular and own position in the relation with your disease and the people around.

  7. Development of Musical Creativity of Higher Class Pupils Using Musical Computer Technologies (MCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rimkutė-Jankuvienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to find out possibilities of development of musical creativity by using MCT in the music education of senior pupils.Design/methodology/approach – literature review, qualitative survey methodology (interview with music teachers.Findings – implementation of MCT, like any other innovation (as well as ICT in different spheres of education, including pre-school education, bring forth a certain positive effect. The results of the interview showed that in the praxis of music education, MCT is used for different development purposes (to make a lesson original, help pupils memorize music, expand their imagination not only by listening, but also by watching and evaluating performance of music, listen to music recordings, understand music and evaluate its quality, etc.. But for the development of musical creativity, MCT has been used very poorly.Research limitation/implications – musical creativity’s concept has not been uniquely defined so far. The aim of scientific literature review is to show that musical creativity is not meant to be separated from general creativity. Moreover, this is compounded by the search of the possibilities to the development of musical creativity. Analysis of scientific literature shows that the use of MCT can make an influence on musical creativity. However, empirical researches on this subject are still missing.Practical implications – the results of the interviews about using MCT in music lessons in order to develop musical creativity could be significant in formulating strategies of the development of musical creativity, preparing methodological instruments as well as in teacher training programs.Originality/value – the object of the survey in the chosen theme has never been explored in Lithuania, while the comparison of the obtained data with foreign scientists’ discoveries could contribute to a musical creativity’s definition.Research type: literature review, interview review.

  8. Music listening while you learn: No influence of background music on verbal learning

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz; Sandmann, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Whether listening to background music enhances verbal learning performance is still disputed. In this study we investigated the influence of listening to background music on verbal learning performance and the associated brain activations. Methods Musical excerpts were composed for this study to ensure that they were unknown to the subjects and designed to vary in tempo (fast vs. slow) and consonance (in-tune vs. out-of-tune). Noise was used as control stimulus. 75 subject...

  9. Intuitive Music and Graphic Notation:Two Musical Training Disciplines within Music Therapy Education and their theoretical Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    1999-01-01

    Describes subjects existing at Aalborg University since the middle eighties. "Intuitive Music" trains free improvisation through exercises including group-dynamic exercises, awareness exercises and parameter exercises. Students also create open compositions. "Graphic notation"concerns aural scores. Students' works are quoted. The writer discusses the theoretical context and advocates for giving more attention to music as the medium in which music therapy takes place, referring to language the...

  10. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  11. Music for count Morzin's court. Antonín Reichenauer and the first edition of his Concerto in G major

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vytlačil, Lukáš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2017), s. 24-26 ISSN 1211-0264 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Antonín Reichenauer * music history * baroque music * bohemian music * composers * critical editions * music for oboe Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)

  12. Music and communication in music psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Ian Ralph

    2014-01-01

    There is a general consensus that music is both universal and communicative, and musical dialogue is a key element in much music-therapeutic practice. However, the idea that music is a communicative medium has, to date, received little attention within the cognitive sciences, and the limited amount of research that addresses how and what music communicates has resulted in findings that appear to be of limited relevance to music therapy. This paper will draw on ethnomusicological evidence and ...

  13. Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franěk, Marek; van Noorden, Leon; Režný, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al., 1999) on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route that was 1.8 km in length through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the world pop music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of

  14. Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franěk, Marek; van Noorden, Leon; Režný, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al., 1999) on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route that was 1.8 km in length through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the world pop music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of

  15. Tempo and walking speed with music in the urban context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek eFranek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study explored the effect of music on the temporal aspects of walking behavior in a real outdoor urban setting. First, spontaneous synchronization between the beat of the music and step tempo was explored. The effect of motivational and non-motivational music (Karageorghis et al. 1999 on the walking speed was also studied. Finally, we investigated whether music can mask the effects of visual aspects of the walking route environment, which involve fluctuation of walking speed as a response to particular environmental settings. In two experiments, we asked participants to walk around an urban route through various environments in the downtown area of Hradec Králové. In Experiment 1, the participants listened to a musical track consisting of world pop music with a clear beat. In Experiment 2, participants were walking either with motivational music, which had a fast tempo and a strong rhythm, or with non-motivational music, which was slower, nice music, but with no strong implication to movement. Musical beat, as well as the sonic character of the music listened to while walking, influenced walking speed but did not lead to precise synchronization. It was found that many subjects did not spontaneously synchronize with the beat of the music at all, and some subjects synchronized only part of the time. The fast, energetic music increases the speed of the walking tempo, while slower, relaxing music makes the walking tempo slower. Further, it was found that listening to music with headphones while walking can mask the influence of the surrounding environment to some extent. Both motivational music and non-motivational music had a larger effect than the music from Experiment 1. Individual differences in responses to the music listened to while walking that were linked to extraversion and neuroticism were also observed. The findings described here could be useful in rhythmic stimulation for enhancing or recovering the features of movement

  16. Music therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes Cf; Vink, Annemiek C; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-11-16

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. 1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies.2. To compare effects of different forms of music therapy for people of any age with a diagnosis of depression. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR; from inception to 6 May 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to 17 June 2016); Thomson Reuters/Web of Science (to 21 June 2016); Ebsco/PsycInfo, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, and PubMed (to 5 July 2016); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Guideline Clearing House, and OpenGrey (to 6 September 2016); and the Digital Access to Research Theses (DART)-Europe E-theses Portal, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (to 7 September 2016). We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant systematic reviews and contacted trialists and subject experts for additional information when needed. We updated this search in August 2017 and placed potentially relevant studies in the "Awaiting classification" section; we will incorporate these into the next version of this review as appropriate. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing music therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU), psychological therapies, pharmacological therapies, other therapies, or different forms of music therapy for reducing depression. Two review

  17. Teaching Materials and Strategies for the AP Music Theory Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lively, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Each year, many students take the Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory Exam, and the majority of these students enroll in specialized AP music theory classes as part of the preparation process. For the teachers of these AP music theory classes, a number of challenges are presented by the difficulty and complexity of the exam subject material as…

  18. Music Inspired by Astronomy: A Resource Guide Organized by Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This annotated resource guide presents 133 pieces of music inspired by astronomical ideas, discoveries, or history, organized in 22 subject categories. Both classical and popular music are included, but only when a clear connection to astronomy could be established. Depending on your musical tastes, you are likely to find some pieces resonating…

  19. Music Education as a Panacea for National Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunrinade, D. O. A

    2015-01-01

    This paper appraises music as an essential part of Nigerian culture and its implication for national development. It discussed music as important aspect of culture and the rationale for the inclusion of the subject in Nigerian schools at all levels of education. It also explicates music education available in the community as well. The music…

  20. Investigation of synchronization between musical beat and heartbeat with cardio-music synchrogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Makoto; Nomura, Shusaku; Sawai, Masahiro; Imai, Jun-Ichi; Nagashima, Tomomasa

    To illuminate the synchronization phenomena between heartbeat and music, the effects of a sedative music of variable tempo on heart rates were investigated. In the experiment, nine subjects were exposed to the sedative music with having changes in its tempo. The tempo gradually increases, decreases, or stands stable in the music (hereafter these experimental condition are named as Up, Down, and Flat condition). With regard to the analysis of synchronization, we introduced our formerly developed Cardio-Music Synchrogram, which was used to extract statistically significant synchronization period between heartbeat and music. As a result, it was suggested that the sedative music in Down condition induced synchronization more frequently than Flat and Up conditions.

  1. 19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference, Faculty of Music, University of Oxford, 11.-13. 7. 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Myslivcová, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, 2-3 (2016), s. 300-301 ISSN 0018-7003. [19th Biennial International Nineteenth-Century Music Conference. Oxford, 11.07.2016-13.07.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : music ological conference * nineteenth-century music * Antonin Dvorak * opera Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  2. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  3. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  4. Recent publications in music 2015: Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kordík, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 4 (2015), s. 30-35 ISSN 0015-6191 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : bibliography * music ology Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.iaml.info/sites/default/files/pdf/2015_recent_publications_in_music.pdf

  5. Recent publications in music 2013: Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kordík, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 4 (2014), s. 15-20 ISSN 0015-6191 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : bibliography * music ology Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.iaml.info/sites/default/files/pdf/recent_publications_in_music_2013.pdf

  6. Recent publications in music 2009: Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kordík, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2009), s. 12-14 ISSN 0015-6191 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : bibliography * music ology Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.iaml.info/sites/default/files/pdf/recent_publications_in_music_2009.pdf

  7. Tarnished Gold: Classical Music in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asia, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    A few articles have appeared recently regarding the subject of the health of classical music (or more broadly, the fine arts) in America. These include "Classical Music's New Golden Age," by Heather Mac Donald, in the "City Journal" and "The Decline of the Audience," by Terry Teachout, in "Commentary." These articles appeared around the time of…

  8. Informal Music Learning, Improvisation and Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Ruth; Kanellopoulos, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores firstly the sense in which improvisation might be conceived of as an informal music education process and, secondly, the effects of a course in free improvisation on student teachers' perceptions in relation to themselves as musicians, music as a school subject and children as musicians. The results of a study conducted in two…

  9. El Sistema and American Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The brainchild of Jose Antonio Abreu, El Sistema, a music education program for aspiring orchestra musicians launched in Venezuela for students of limited means and now spreading to other parts of the world, has become a subject of interest to music teachers and teacher educators in North America. This article examines a bit of the program's…

  10. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  11. [The relations between music and medicine in history and present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Neugebauer, E A M

    2011-12-01

    Since the ancient world relations exist between music and medicine. In the prehistoric music, dance, rhythm and religious practice were important parts of shamanism and early medical procedures. Important philosophers of the classic period already began with the scientific research of musical and medical questions. During the middle age convents conserved ancient knowledge. They offered medical care and taught the ancient knowledge of medicine, arts and music. The Gregorian choral was created. Traditions of popular believe expressed the relations between music and medicine. The Renaissance became the great époque of art, music and science. Leonardo da Vinci and Andreas Vesalius presented a new style of artistic working and scientific knowledge. Also the basics of western music, like tonality was developed. With the separation of scientific subjects in natural sciences and humanities, the relationships between music and medicine fall into oblivion. During the classic and romantic era music and art were important parts of cultural live of the well educated society. With the development of neurology, psychiatry and psychoanalysis more physicians and scientists were interested in musical questions. Questions about the role of music in human behavior and the ancient method to use music in medical treatment became popular. In the early 20th century the music therapy was developed. Today the effects of music to the human brain are investigated with radionuclear methods. A lot of investigations showed the effect of music and music performance to humans. Music plays an important part in psychotherapy, therapeutic pedagogy and medical care, the importance of music and music therapy increases. In the 80ies of the 20th century the performing arts medicine was developed, which asks for the medical problems of performing musicians. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Music therapy in the age of enlightenment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorke, M A

    2001-01-01

    As music therapists continue to discover more about the therapeutic powers of music, it is interesting now and then to look to the past in order to seek the roots of our contemporary practices. In this regard, the writings of eighteenth-century physicians are pivotal in the development of music therapy, for it was these individuals who first began to depend greatly upon scientific experimentation and observation to formulate their procedures. Representative of this stage in the history of music therapy are the findings of the renowned London physician Richard Brocklesby, the only doctor to write a treatise on music therapy in eighteenth-century England. The subjects treated by Brocklesby in his Reflections on the Power of Music (1749) include his musical remedies for the excesses of various emotions-particularly fear, excessive joy, and excessive sadness. He also discusses his musical remedies for diseases of the mind recognized in the eighteenth century-delirium, frenzy, melancholia, and maniacal cases. He considers music as well an aid to the elderly and to pregnant women. In short, Brocklesby provides a lively account of the curative powers of music as viewed in the mid-eighteenth century by an excellent medical mind.

  13. Popular culture and tourism: the case of music tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Metodijeski, Dejan; Stojanoski, Hristo

    2014-01-01

    The subject of research in this paper is the popular culture and tourism analysed from the perspective of the music aspect of tourism. Although tourism and music can be characterized as a popular culture, these two terms are not analysed individually. Instead, this research is taking into consideration their mutual relation and synergy. This paper is making an attempt to define the popular culture, tourism and music tourism through numerous examples of music tourism around the globe. In ad...

  14. Influence of music on steroid hormones and the relationship between receptor polymorphisms and musical ability: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Hajime; Toyoshima, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that music confers plasticity to the brain. In a preliminary pilot study, we examined the effect of music listening on steroid hormones and the relationship between steroid hormone receptor polymorphisms and musical ability. Twenty-one subjects (10 males and 11 females) were recruited and divided into musically talented and control groups. The subjects selected (1) music they preferred (chill-inducing music) and (2) music they did not like. Before and after the experiments, saliva was collected to measure the levels of steroid hormones such as testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol. DNA was also isolated from the saliva samples to determine the androgen receptor (AR) and arginine vasopressin receptor 1A genotypes. Advanced Measures of Music Audiation (AMMA) was used to determine the musical ability of the subjects. With both types of music, the cortisol levels decreased significantly in both sexes. The testosterone (T) levels declined in males when they listened to both types of music. In females, the T levels increased in those listening to chill-inducing music but declined when they listened to music they disliked. However, these differences were not significant. The 17-beta estradiol levels increased in males with both types of music, whereas the levels increased with chill-inducing music but declined with disliked music in females. The AMMA scores were higher for the short repeat length-type AR than for the long repeat length-type. Comparisons of AR polymorphisms and T levels before the experiments showed that the T levels were within the low range in the short repeat length-type group and there was a positive relationship with the repeat length, although it was not significant. This is the first study conducted in humans to analyze the relationships between the AR gene, T levels, and musical ability.

  15. Music therapy in psychiatry/mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    This special feature is a series of papers from a symposium held on 15th April 2016 at Aalborg University, Denmark on the topic: ‘Music therapy: A profession for the future’. The two core questions listed in the title: ‘Why music? Why and when is a music therapist needed?’ were the vehicle...... wondered if common answers to the two core questions in the profession of music therapy would emerge at an international base during the day, or if multiple ideas and subjective answers to the questions would come up. As the contributions show, it is mostly multiple ideas; yet with regard to case material......, the way of carrying out music therapy in a relationship with the users of music therapy is very similar. The theoretical understanding and ideological positions are different. There still seems to be, however, a growing integration of theories and ideas by many presenters and discussion partners...

  16. Studies in musical acoustics and psychoacoustics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises twelve articles which cover a range of topics from musical instrument acoustics to issues in psychoacoustics and sound perception as well as neuromusicology. In addition to experimental methods and data acquisition, modeling (such as FEM or wave field synthesis) and numerical simulation plays a central role in studies addressing sound production in musical instruments as well as interaction of radiated sound with the environment. Some of the studies have a focus on psychoacoustic aspects in regard to virtual pitch and timbre as well as apparent source width (for techniques such as stereo or ambisonics) in music production. Since musical acoustics imply subjects playing instruments or singing in order to produce sound according to musical structures, this area is also covered including a study that presents an artifical intelligent agent capable to interact with a real ('analog') player in musical genres such as traditional and free jazz. .

  17. Pre-task music improves swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, B P; Dos Santos, R V; Da Silva Neto, L V

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-task music on swimming performance and other psychological variables. A randomized counterbalanced within-subjects (experimental and control condition) design was employed. Eighteen regional level male swimmers performed two 200-m freestyle swimming time trials. Participants were exposed to either 5 minutes of self-selected music (pre-task music condition) or 5 minutes of silence (control condition) and, after 1 minute, performed the swimming task. Swimming time was significantly shorter (-1.44%) in the pre-task music condition. Listening to pre-task music increased motivation to perform the swimming task, while arousal remained unchanged. While fatigue increased after the swimming task in both conditions, vigor, ratings of perceived exertion and affective valence were unaltered. It is concluded, for the first time, that pre-task music improves swimming performance.

  18. Music therapy: A profession for the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2017-01-01

    This special feature is a series of papers from a symposium held on 15th April 2016 at Aalborg University, Denmark on the topic: ‘Music therapy: A profession for the future’. The two core questions listed in the title: ‘Why music? Why and when is a music therapist needed?’ were the vehicle...... wondered if common answers to the two core questions in the profession of music therapy would emerge at an international base during the day, or if multiple ideas and subjective answers to the questions would come up. As the contributions show, it is mostly multiple ideas; yet with regard to case material......, the way of carrying out music therapy in a relationship with the users of music therapy is very similar. The theoretical understanding and ideological positions are different. There still seems to be, however, a growing integration of theories and ideas by many presenters and discussion partners...

  19. Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Music Club

    2011-01-01

    MUSIC ON THE LAWN 2011 As part of the Fete de la Musique 2011, the CERN MusiClub is organizing Music on the Lawn, an informal concert for Club musicians/bands. The event will take place from 14h00 to 20h00 on Saturday 25th June on the terrace of restaurant no 1. This year 8 MusiClub bands will be performing… WOT Home Cookin’ Picture Flame DANGLERZ The Nearlies RISE A Drop of Red The Groovy Gang So put the date in your diaries and spend a sunny afternoon listening to some great live music (and unlike Paleo and Montreux it’s FREE!!!!) For more information on the CERN MusiClub see http://muzipod.free.fr/  

  20. A Stereo Music Preprocessing Scheme for Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Wim; van Dijk, Bas; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Listening to music is still one of the more challenging aspects of using a cochlear implant (CI) for most users. Simple musical structures, a clear rhythm/beat, and lyrics that are easy to follow are among the top factors contributing to music appreciation for CI users. Modifying the audio mix of complex music potentially improves music enjoyment in CI users. A stereo music preprocessing scheme is described in which vocals, drums, and bass are emphasized based on the representation of the harmonic and the percussive components in the input spectrogram, combined with the spatial allocation of instruments in typical stereo recordings. The scheme is assessed with postlingually deafened CI subjects (N = 7) using pop/rock music excerpts with different complexity levels. The scheme is capable of modifying relative instrument level settings, with the aim of improving music appreciation in CI users, and allows individual preference adjustments. The assessment with CI subjects confirms the preference for more emphasis on vocals, drums, and bass as offered by the preprocessing scheme, especially for songs with higher complexity. The stereo music preprocessing scheme has the potential to improve music enjoyment in CI users by modifying the audio mix in widespread (stereo) music recordings. Since music enjoyment in CI users is generally poor, this scheme can assist the music listening experience of CI users as a training or rehabilitation tool.

  1. Personality and music preferences: the influence of personality traits on preferences regarding musical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Malgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific study was to determine how personality traits, as classified by Cattell, influence preferences regarding musical elements. The subject group consisted of 145 students, male and female, chosen at random from different Polish universities. For the purpose of determining their personality traits the participants completed the 16PF Questionnaire (Cattell, Saunders, & Stice, 1957; Russel & Karol, 1993), in its Polish adaptation by Choynowski (Nowakowska, 1970). The participants' musical preferences were determined by their completing a Questionnaire of Musical Preferences (specifically created for the purposes of this research), in which respondents indicated their favorite piece of music. Next, on the basis of the Questionnaire of Musical Preferences, a list of the works of music chosen by the participants was compiled. All pieces were collected on CDs and analyzed to separate out their basic musical elements. The statistical analysis shows that some personality traits: Liveliness (Factor F), Social Boldness (Factor H), Vigilance (Factor L), Openness to Change (Factor Q1), Extraversion (a general factor) have an influence on preferences regarding musical elements. Important in the subjects' musical preferences were found to be those musical elements having stimulative value and the ability to regulate the need for stimulation. These are: tempo, rhythm in relation to metrical basis, number of melodic themes, sound voluminosity, and meter.

  2. Music, memory and emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  3. We "Are" Musical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Graham F.

    2005-01-01

    The challenge for music education is to nurture and develop each individual's basic musicality. Assuming normal neurological functioning and development, we are all musical. Our musical development begins pre-birth, with musical behaviours in one form or another being evident across the lifespan. Nevertheless, early enculturation can both foster…

  4. Music, memory and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  5. Educating the Music User

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    To better serve students' evolving needs in music, music educators must connect classroom learning with how students use and interact with music in their daily lives. One way to accomplish this is by approaching classrooms with the music user in mind, which can open new possibilities for meaningful music making and remove students from the…

  6. The association of noise sensitivity with music listening, training, and aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliuchko, Marina; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Monacis, Lucia; Gold, Benjamin P; Heikkilä, Kauko V; Spinosa, Vittoria; Tervaniemi, Mari; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    After intensive, long-term musical training, the auditory system of a musician is specifically tuned to perceive musical sounds. We wished to find out whether a musician's auditory system also develops increased sensitivity to any sound of everyday life, experiencing them as noise. For this purpose, an online survey, including questionnaires on noise sensitivity, musical background, and listening tests for assessing musical aptitude, was administered to 197 participants in Finland and Italy. Subjective noise sensitivity (assessed with the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale) was analyzed for associations with musicianship, musical aptitude, weekly time spent listening to music, and the importance of music in each person's life (or music importance). Subjects were divided into three groups according to their musical expertise: Nonmusicians (N = 103), amateur musicians (N = 44), and professional musicians (N = 50). The results showed that noise sensitivity did not depend on musical expertise or performance on musicality tests or the amount of active (attentive) listening to music. In contrast, it was associated with daily passive listening to music, so that individuals with higher noise sensitivity spent less time in passive (background) listening to music than those with lower sensitivity to noise. Furthermore, noise-sensitive respondents rated music as less important in their life than did individuals with lower sensitivity to noise. The results demonstrate that the special sensitivity of the auditory system derived from musical training does not lead to increased irritability from unwanted sounds. However, the disposition to tolerate contingent musical backgrounds in everyday life depends on the individual's noise sensitivity.

  7. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe N. Moreno-Gómez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and deteriorated speech intelligibility. Music impairments in presbycusis subjects can be attributed to the normal aging processes and to presbycusis neuropathological changes. However, whether presbycusis further impairs music perception remains controversial. Here, we developed a computerized version of the Montreal battery of evaluation of amusia (MBEA and assessed music perception in 175 Chilean adults aged between 18 and 90 years without hearing complaints and in symptomatic presbycusis patients. We give normative data for MBEA performance in a Latin-American population, showing age and educational effects. In addition, we found that symptomatic presbycusis was the most relevant factor determining global MBEA accuracy in aged subjects. Moreover, we show that melodic impairments in presbycusis individuals were diminished by music training, while the performance in temporal tasks were affected by the educational level and music training. We conclude that music training and education are important factors as they can slow the deterioration of music perception produced by age-related hearing loss.

  8. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gómez, Felipe N; Véliz, Guillermo; Rojas, Marcos; Martínez, Cristián; Olmedo, Rubén; Panussis, Felipe; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Delgado, Carolina; Delano, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and deteriorated speech intelligibility. Music impairments in presbycusis subjects can be attributed to the normal aging processes and to presbycusis neuropathological changes. However, whether presbycusis further impairs music perception remains controversial. Here, we developed a computerized version of the Montreal battery of evaluation of amusia (MBEA) and assessed music perception in 175 Chilean adults aged between 18 and 90 years without hearing complaints and in symptomatic presbycusis patients. We give normative data for MBEA performance in a Latin-American population, showing age and educational effects. In addition, we found that symptomatic presbycusis was the most relevant factor determining global MBEA accuracy in aged subjects. Moreover, we show that melodic impairments in presbycusis individuals were diminished by music training, while the performance in temporal tasks were affected by the educational level and music training. We conclude that music training and education are important factors as they can slow the deterioration of music perception produced by age-related hearing loss.

  9. Increase in Synchronization of Autonomic Rhythms between Individuals When Listening to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; Codrons, Erwan; di Leo, Rita; Vandoni, Matteo; Cavallaro, Filippo; Vita, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    In light of theories postulating a role for music in forming emotional and social bonds, here we investigated whether endogenous rhythms synchronize between multiple individuals when listening to music. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings were taken from multiple individuals (musically trained or music-naïve) simultaneously, at rest and during a live concert comprising music excerpts with varying degrees of complexity of the acoustic envelope. Inter-individual synchronization of cardiorespiratory rhythms showed a subtle but reliable increase during passively listening to music compared to baseline. The low-level auditory features of the music were largely responsible for creating or disrupting such synchronism, explaining ~80% of its variance, over and beyond subjective musical preferences and previous musical training. Listening to simple rhythms and melodies, which largely dominate the choice of music during rituals and mass events, brings individuals together in terms of their physiological rhythms, which could explain why music is widely used to favor social bonds. PMID:29089898

  10. How musical are music video game players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that formal musical training is associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive advantages in individuals of various ages. However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types of everyday musical activities. Here, we show that people who have frequently played music video games outperform nonmusicians controls on a battery of music perception tests. These findings reveal that enhanced musical aptitude can be found among individuals who play music video games, raising the possibility that music video games could potentially enhance music perception skills in individuals across a broad spectrum of society who are otherwise unable to invest the time and/or money required to learn a musical instrument.

  11. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  12. Musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Belenkaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to justify theoretically the need for musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical supervision. Results: the main directions of musical training of coaches in aesthetic-orientated sports were reviewed. It was discovered that in these types of sports coaches must have specific musical and rhythmic motor skills involving the use of musical accompaniment as a methodological technique for training sessions. The means of music and rhythmic education, which facilitate effective musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports, were determined. Conclusions: the necessity of improving the teaching methods of the subject "music and rhythmic education" as part of the musical training of coaches in aesthetic-orientated sports, was theoretically justified.

  13. The Physics and Psychophysics of Music An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Roederer, Juan G

    2009-01-01

    This book, a classic in its field, deals with the physical systems and physiological processes that intervene in music. It analyzes what objective, physical properties of sound are associated with what subjective psychological sensations of music, and it describes how these sound patterns are actually generated in musical instruments, how they propagate through the environment, and how they are detected by the ear and interpreted in the brain. Using the precise language of science, but without complicated mathematics, the author weaves a close mesh of the physics, psychophysics and neurobiology relevant to music. A prior knowledge of physics, mathematics, neurobiology or psychology is not required to understand most of the book; it is, however, assumed that the reader is familiar with music - in particular, with musical notation, musical scales and intervals, and some of the basics of musical instruments. This new edition presents substantially updated coverage of psychoacoustics, including: • New results f...

  14. Cognitive approaches to analysis of emotions in music listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels Chr.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years research into music cognition and perception has increasingly gained territory. A fact which is not always realised by music theorists is that, from the perspective of cognitive psychology and empirical methodology, the representatives of the expanding field of cognitive music...... research frequently address questions and propose theoretical frameworks that ought to have implications for music theory of a more traditional kind. Yet, such cognitive theories and empirical findings have not had radical impact on general analytical practice and teaching of music theory. For theorists...... interested in musical meaning the emotional impact of music has always been a major concern. In this paper I will explore how multiple cognitive theories and empirical findings can be applied to account for emotional response to three subjectively chosen excerpts of strongly emotion-inducing music: Namely...

  15. Effects of music on arousal during imagery in elite shooters: A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    Full Text Available Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.

  16. Effects of music on arousal during imagery in elite shooters: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Terry, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Beneficial effects of music on several performance-related aspects of sport have been reported, but the processes involved are not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to investigate effects of relaxing and arousing classical music on physiological indicators and subjective perceptions of arousal during imagery of a sport task. First, appropriate music excerpts were selected. Then, 12 skilled shooters performed shooting imagery while listening to the three preselected music excerpts in randomized order. Participants' galvanic skin response, peripheral temperature, and electromyography were monitored during music played concurrently with imagery. Subjective music ratings and physiological measures showed, as hypothesized, that unfamiliar relaxing music was the most relaxing and unfamiliar arousing music was the most arousing. Researchers should examine the impact of unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music played during imagery on subsequent performance in diverse sports. Practitioners can apply unfamiliar relaxing and arousing music with imagery to manipulate arousal level.

  17. Symmetry in music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  18. Symmetry in music

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, O F

    2010-01-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  19. Emotional Responses to Music: Shifts in Frontal Brain Asymmetry Mark Periods of Musical Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain-Abdulah Arjmand

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo – and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation – is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18–38 years who listened to four stimuli—pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music, neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3–FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a

  20. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  1. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and...

  2. Using music as a signal for biofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, Ilias; Seinfeld, Sofia; Arroyo-Palacios, Jorge; Slater, Mel; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the potential benefits of conveying biofeedback stimulus using a musical signal have appeared in recent years with the intent of harnessing the strong effects that music listening may have on subjects. While results are encouraging, the fundamental question has yet to be addressed, of how combined music and biofeedback compares to the already established use of either of these elements separately. This experiment, involving young adults (N = 24), compared the effectiveness at modulating participants' states of physiological arousal of each of the following conditions: A) listening to pre-recorded music, B) sonification biofeedback of the heart rate, and C) an algorithmically modulated musical feedback signal conveying the subject's heart rate. Our hypothesis was that each of the conditions (A), (B) and (C) would differ from the other two in the extent to which it enables participants to increase and decrease their state of physiological arousal, with (C) being more effective than (B), and both more than (A). Several physiological measures and qualitative responses were recorded and analyzed. Results show that using musical biofeedback allowed participants to modulate their state of physiological arousal at least equally well as sonification biofeedback, and much better than just listening to music, as reflected in their heart rate measurements, controlling for respiration-rate. Our findings indicate that the known effects of music in modulating arousal can therefore be beneficially harnessed when designing a biofeedback protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. After-school music educational activities as a part of professional training of future teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lypa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of preparing students for extracurricular musical andeducational activities in secondary school and highlighted ways of combining music andperformance and outreach for individual classes of musical subjects analyzed featuresbetween teachers and students in the development plan and the educational content of themusic and creative project.Key words: musical and educational activities, educational and creative musical project,tutoring, teacher-student collaboration.

  4. Towards the improvement of the musical experiences of cochlear implant users

    OpenAIRE

    Moir, Zack

    2011-01-01

    Most previous research into cochlear implant (CI) mediated music listening deals with the mechanisms and efficacy of music perception and does not often account for the listeners real-world musical experience. Measurements of music perception ability are based on listening tasks such as pitch-discrimination, timbre-recognition and rhythmic-identification, and rarely (if ever) relate to the individual experience of the human subject. The exploration of musical experience, howeve...

  5. Music Production with Changing Tools – a Challenge to Formal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gullö, Jan-Olof

    2010-01-01

    The Millennials, today’s pupils and students, is the first generation to grow up with tools for interactive communication and media production. Many students choose to study music production in higher education establishments. Therefore music production is an emerging subject and important research topic. The aim of this thesis is to develop knowledge of music production and to identify key skills necessary for music producers and music production teachers. Three sub-studies were performed to...

  6. The Role of Psychological Needs in Ceasing Music and Music Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Paul; McPherson, Gary E.; Davidson, Jane W.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses individuals' decisions to continue or cease playing a musical instrument from a basic psychological needs perspective. Participants began learning music 10 years prior to the study and were the subject of previous longitudinal research. They completed a survey investigating the three psychological needs of competence,…

  7. Investigation of global and local network properties of music perception with culturally different styles of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Rui, Xue; Li, Shuyu; Pu, Fang

    2014-11-01

    Graph theoretical analysis has recently become a popular research tool in neuroscience, however, there have been very few studies on brain responses to music perception, especially when culturally different styles of music are involved. Electroencephalograms were recorded from ten subjects listening to Chinese traditional music, light music and western classical music. For event-related potentials, phase coherence was calculated in the alpha band and then constructed into correlation matrices. Clustering coefficients and characteristic path lengths were evaluated for global properties, while clustering coefficients and efficiency were assessed for local network properties. Perception of light music and western classical music manifested small-world network properties, especially with a relatively low proportion of weights of correlation matrices. For local analysis, efficiency was more discernible than clustering coefficient. Nevertheless, there was no significant discrimination between Chinese traditional and western classical music perception. Perception of different styles of music introduces different network properties, both globally and locally. Research into both global and local network properties has been carried out in other areas; however, this is a preliminary investigation aimed at suggesting a possible new approach to brain network properties in music perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. White Matter Correlates of Musical Anhedonia: Implications for Evolution of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psyche Loui

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical advances in the evolution of music posit that affective communication is an evolutionary function of music through which the mind and brain are transformed. A rigorous test of this view should entail examining the neuroanatomical mechanisms for affective communication of music, specifically by comparing individual differences in the general population with a special population who lacks specific affective responses to music. Here we compare white matter connectivity in BW, a case with severe musical anhedonia, with a large sample of control subjects who exhibit normal variability in reward sensitivity to music. We show for the first time that structural connectivity within the reward system can predict individual differences in musical reward in a large population, but specific patterns in connectivity between auditory and reward systems are special in an extreme case of specific musical anhedonia. Results support and extend the Mixed Origins of Music theory by identifying multiple neural pathways through which music might operate as an affective signaling system.

  9. Hearing speech in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Seth-Reino; Borg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC) testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN)]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA). The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (Ptempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (Pmusic offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  10. Communicative Musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    university, Stephen Malloch listened to tapes of mothers and their babies ‘chatting’ with each other, recorded by Trevarthen in the 70’s. One of the first tapes was the vocal interaction of Laura and her mother. “As I listened, intrigued by the fluid give and take of the communication, and the lilting speech...... of the mother as she chatted with her baby, I began to tap my foot. I am, by training, a musician, so I was very used to automatically feeling the beat as I listened to musical sounds.… I replaced the tape, and again, I could sense a distinct rhythmicity and melodious give and take to the gentle prompting...... therapy as purely protomusic. But with Malloch & Trevarthen’s focus on musicality as the innate human abilities that make music production and appreciation possible, this discussion can easily move on. These and many other essential discussions await us – thanks to this comprehensive – and demanding...

  11. Pleasurable music affects reinforcement learning according to the listener

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Benjamin P.; Frank, Michael J.; Bogert, Brigitte; Brattico, Elvira

    2013-01-01

    Mounting evidence links the enjoyment of music to brain areas implicated in emotion and the dopaminergic reward system. In particular, dopamine release in the ventral striatum seems to play a major role in the rewarding aspect of music listening. Striatal dopamine also influences reinforcement learning, such that subjects with greater dopamine efficacy learn better to approach rewards while those with lesser dopamine efficacy learn better to avoid punishments. In this study, we explored the practical implications of musical pleasure through its ability to facilitate reinforcement learning via non-pharmacological dopamine elicitation. Subjects from a wide variety of musical backgrounds chose a pleasurable and a neutral piece of music from an experimenter-compiled database, and then listened to one or both of these pieces (according to pseudo-random group assignment) as they performed a reinforcement learning task dependent on dopamine transmission. We assessed musical backgrounds as well as typical listening patterns with the new Helsinki Inventory of Music and Affective Behaviors (HIMAB), and separately investigated behavior for the training and test phases of the learning task. Subjects with more musical experience trained better with neutral music and tested better with pleasurable music, while those with less musical experience exhibited the opposite effect. HIMAB results regarding listening behaviors and subjective music ratings indicate that these effects arose from different listening styles: namely, more affective listening in non-musicians and more analytical listening in musicians. In conclusion, musical pleasure was able to influence task performance, and the shape of this effect depended on group and individual factors. These findings have implications in affective neuroscience, neuroaesthetics, learning, and music therapy. PMID:23970875

  12. Musics, Cultures and Meanings: Music as Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Cross

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This commentary explores interpretations of concepts that lie at the focus of Richard Widdess's paper—"music", and "culture"—with the aim of specifying frameworks within which issues of musical meaning can fruitfully be addressed.

  13. Music as word: Film music - superlibretto?

    OpenAIRE

    Ćirić Marija

    2013-01-01

    The aim of his paper is to prove that film music can be understood as authentic narrative force: film music as word / discourse and its superlibretto status. Superlibretto is the status of music in a film which is constructing its own (aural) reality and is narrating, speaking its own text which creates a wholesome film meaning. The existence of superlibretto is substantiated by fundamental theoretic concepts of film music and practically proven by analyses...

  14. Effect of music tempo on task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, C; Moss, S

    1989-12-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of music tempo on task performance. In Study 1, 44 undergraduate business students were asked to be "workers" in a stock market project by collecting closing stock prices and calculating the percentage of change in the price from week to week. Subjects were randomly divided into groups such that they either listened to fast-paced music while they worked, to slow-paced music, or to no music. Analyses of variance and covariance were conducted on both the quantity and quality of the subjects' work, using music listening habits as a covariate. There were no differences in either the quantity or quality of the work produced by the groups. There were some methodological concerns regarding Study 1, so a second study was conducted. The 70 undergraduate business students in Study 2 completed the same task under the same music conditions as in Study 1. Analyses of variance indicated women performed significantly better than men, performance was significantly higher in the rock condition than in the heartbeat condition, and subjects in the rock condition had a significantly higher perceived level of distraction by the music.

  15. Music Making, Transcendence, Flow, and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Rhoda

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between flow, transcendent music making experiences, transcendent religious experiences, and music education. As a teacher-researcher, I studied my graduate students' autobiographical accounts of their experiences making music. Across these narrative writings produced over the past four years, a pattern…

  16. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  17. Music preference and relaxation in Taiwanese elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hui-Ling

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify individual musical preferences, investigate the relationship between an individual's musical preferences and demographic variables, and examine the effects of the selected music on relaxation. Fifty healthy subjects (mean age 65.7; SD = 5.2) from the community participated in the study. Musical preference interviews and relaxed responses to selected music were administered to the study participants individually in the investigator's office. Participants' heart rates, respiratory rates, and finger temperature were measured before they listened to the introductory tape and again after they listened to the selected music for 20 minutes. The participants were asked to judge how much they liked the 6 types of soothing music and were asked to rate it on a scale. The results indicated that Chinese orchestral music was the preferred choice, followed by harp, piano, synthesizer, orchestral, and finally slow jazz. There were no differences among types of music on relaxation, and no significant differences between musical preference and any demographic variables. The heart rates and respiratory rates of the participants were significantly lower (t = 21.24, P music. These findings suggest that soothing music selections have beneficial effects on relaxation in community-residing elderly people.

  18. 11. Creative Interdisciplinary Math Lessons by Means of Music Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudáková Jana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to introduce the project Comenius “EMP-Maths”, entitled ‘Providing Mathematics with Music Activities’, in which seven European countries took part. The key chapter is devoted to music activities that Slovak team integrated in the school subject of Mathematics. Music activities were selected and designed in accordance with the content of school subject Mathematics. To each particular theme the project solvers designed methodologies and didactic musical games, contests, music and drama exercises. The authoresses illustrate in detail one example of this integration which was presented during the meeting of 7 European countries in Barcelona in January 2015. Their illustration refers to interconnection of cognitive, affective, and psychomotor goals of both school subjects to develop musical and mathematical abilities of 11 – 12 year old elementary school pupils.

  19. Conceptions of Musical Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, Susan; Papageorgi, Ioulia

    2016-01-01

    Music can be understood in many ways. This has important implications for music education. The research reported here explored how groups of people conceptualise musical understanding and what they believe supports its acquisition. In this study 463 participants completed two statements: "Musical understanding is" and "You learn to…

  20. Music You Can See

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Shannon Sweny

    2012-01-01

    Children of all ages love painting to music. Aside from discovering the natural correlation between music and art, the author's students learned about Mozart's life and work in music class. In this article, students discover the influence that music can have on their art. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  1. Music and Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    Thematic analysis of 13 personal narratives on the meaning of music in the life of 13 contributing authors to the book "Musical Life Stories"......Thematic analysis of 13 personal narratives on the meaning of music in the life of 13 contributing authors to the book "Musical Life Stories"...

  2. Music Listening Is Creative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratus, John

    2017-01-01

    Active music listening is a creative activity in that the listener constructs a uniquely personal musical experience. Most approaches to teaching music listening emphasize a conceptual approach in which students learn to identify various characteristics of musical sound. Unfortunately, this type of listening is rarely done outside of schools. This…

  3. Supporting Music Teacher Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffini, Erin Dineen

    2015-01-01

    While much discussion and research is focused on the importance of music teacher mentors for preservice teachers and novice in-service music educators, little discussion has been devoted to the topic of how we, as members of the music education profession, can support the role of music teacher mentors. This article explores some of the benefits…

  4. Montessori and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elise Braun

    1999-01-01

    Discusses principles of Montessori music education, examining the fundamental characteristics of childhood and the role that music plays in development. Explores the inner satisfaction that comes from experiencing movement with music through compositions and folk music. Emphasizes the Montessori practices of meeting sensorimotor needs of children…

  5. The status of music in contemporary Nigerian school programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the status of music in Nigeria's Secondary school system. Necessary data were collected, analyzed and discussed to bring out the true picture of how music stands when compared with other secondary school subjects. The findings showed that out of the forty different subjects offered in Nigerian ...

  6. Investigation of cerebral metabolism by positron CT in Japanese following musical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasugi, Naotoshi

    1994-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic responses to Japanese and Western instrumental music were examined using 11 C-glucose and positron CT. Eight right-handed subjects were studied in both Japanese and Western music-stimulated states. Biaural musical stimulation with a Japanese instrument, the 'shakuhachi', produced diffuse metabolic changes in the left temporal lobe in all subjects. Biaural musical stimulation with a Western instrument, the 'violin', produced metabolic changes in the right temporal lobe in 3 subjects, changes in the left in 4, and changes on both sides in one. It was considered previously that all musical stimulation led to hypermetabolism in the right hemisphere of human beings. However, the present results indicated that Japanese music produced activation of the left hemisphere in Japanese. On the other hand, Western music produced right hemispheric hypermetabolism in Japanese with no emotion. The laterality of the hemisphere stimulated by Western music was apparently incidentally changed according to the state of mind the Japanese subjects. (author)

  7. Persian music meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Ardalan, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    I have based my bachelor Thesis on the presentation of a completely different musical world, compared with the western musical world, which is Persian Music. As a Persian, I started to study music as a Persian Setar player; then I followed my musical experience through western classical music by playing classical guitar. As an ambition I have always thought about how to express Persian music in an understandable way for that of non-Persians. In this thesis I began with a short history of Pers...

  8. Music retrieval in ICOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finsterle, Lutz; Fischer, Stephan; Rimac, Ivica; Steinmetz, Ralf

    1999-08-01

    In this paper we describe music retrieval in ICOR, a project of Darmstadt TU. It is the goal of ICOR to find new interfaces to support applications of music video and music CDs. Although the project consists of audio and video analysis we concentrate on a description of the audio algorithms in this paper. We describe our MPEG-7 like data structure to store meta information for music pieces and explain which algorithms we use to analyze the content of music pieces automatically. We currently use an applause detection to distinguish live music from studio recordings, a genre classifier to distinguish pieces with beats form classical music, and a singer recognition.

  9. The role of music in music education research : reflections on musical experience

    OpenAIRE

    Varkøy, Øivind

    2009-01-01

    First in this article the role of theories of musicology in music education research is considered. Second, the case in point is examined where the focus of music education research is brought bo bear directly on music education, to wit music. By concentrating on music in music education research, the focus remains firmly on musical experience as a basis of reflection in music education research. The author has chosen to focus in particular on a specific kind of musical experience - more p...

  10. Konference Nineteenth-Century Programme Music, Centro Studi Opera Omnia Luigi Boccherini, Lucca 25.-27. listopadu 2016

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Myslivcová, Eva; Zapletal, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2016), s. 419-420 ISSN 0018-7003. [Nineteenth-Century Programme Music . Lucca, 25.11.2016-27.11.2016] Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : Programme Music * Nineteenth-Century Music Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Performing arts studies ( Music ology, Theater science, Dramaturgy)

  11. An abstract approach to music.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaper, H. G.; Tipei, S.

    1999-04-19

    In this article we have outlined a formal framework for an abstract approach to music and music composition. The model is formulated in terms of objects that have attributes, obey relationships, and are subject to certain well-defined operations. The motivation for this approach uses traditional terms and concepts of music theory, but the approach itself is formal and uses the language of mathematics. The universal object is an audio wave; partials, sounds, and compositions are special objects, which are placed in a hierarchical order based on time scales. The objects have both static and dynamic attributes. When we realize a composition, we assign values to each of its attributes: a (scalar) value to a static attribute, an envelope and a size to a dynamic attribute. A composition is then a trajectory in the space of aural events, and the complex audio wave is its formal representation. Sounds are fibers in the space of aural events, from which the composer weaves the trajectory of a composition. Each sound object in turn is made up of partials, which are the elementary building blocks of any music composition. The partials evolve on the fastest time scale in the hierarchy of partials, sounds, and compositions. The ideas outlined in this article are being implemented in a digital instrument for additive sound synthesis and in software for music composition. A demonstration of some preliminary results has been submitted by the authors for presentation at the conference.

  12. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  13. LSD enhances the emotional response to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelen, M; Barrett, F S; Roseman, L; Lorenz, R; Family, N; Bolstridge, M; Curran, H V; Feilding, A; Nutt, D J; Carhart-Harris, R L

    2015-10-01

    There is renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD). LSD was used extensively in the 1950s and 1960s as an adjunct in psychotherapy, reportedly enhancing emotionality. Music is an effective tool to evoke and study emotion and is considered an important element in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy; however, the hypothesis that psychedelics enhance the emotional response to music has yet to be investigated in a modern placebo-controlled study. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that music-evoked emotions are enhanced under LSD. Ten healthy volunteers listened to five different tracks of instrumental music during each of two study days, a placebo day followed by an LSD day, separated by 5-7 days. Subjective ratings were completed after each music track and included a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the nine-item Geneva Emotional Music Scale (GEMS-9). Results demonstrated that the emotional response to music is enhanced by LSD, especially the emotions "wonder", "transcendence", "power" and "tenderness". These findings reinforce the long-held assumption that psychedelics enhance music-evoked emotion, and provide tentative and indirect support for the notion that this effect can be harnessed in the context of psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. Further research is required to test this link directly.

  14. Model of music cognition and amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casares, N; Berthier Torres, M L; Froudist Walsh, S; González-Santos, P

    2013-04-01

    The study of the neural networks involved in music processing has received less attention than work researching the brain's language networks. For the last two decades there has been a growing interest in discovering the functional mechanisms of the musical brain and understanding those disorders in which brain regions linked with perception and production of music are damaged. Congenital and acquired musical deficits in their various forms (perception, execution, music-memory) are grouped together under the generic term amusia. In this selective review we present the "cutting edge" studies on the cognitive and neural processes implicated in music and the various forms of amusia. Musical processing requires a large cortico-subcortical network which is distributed throughout both cerebral hemispheres and the cerebellum. The analysis of healthy subjects using functional neuroimaging and examination of selective deficits (e.g., tone, rhythm, timbre, melodic contours) in patients will improve our knowledge of the mechanisms involved in musical processing and the latter's relationship with other cognitive processes. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Vocal Problems: Speech-Language Pathologists' Evaluation of Music and Non-Music Teacher Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackworth, Rhonda S.

    2013-01-01

    The current study, a preliminary examination of whether music teachers are more susceptible to vocal problems than teachers of other subjects, asked for expert evaluation of audio recordings from licensed speech-language pathologists. Participants (N = 41) taught music (n = 23) or another subject (n = 18) in either elementary (n = 21), middle (n =…

  16. The Italian Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Barbarito Luca; Ardizzone Antonella

    2010-01-01

    The Music Industry is a complex system in which many different actors interact. In this system there are suppliers of musical instruments, music schools, authors, singers, the phonographic industry, live events organizations and also the suppliers of those electronic devices necessary to listen to the music. This paper tries to analyze the size of those segments, their changes, and which are the key nodes in this system. Also the way we listen to music has changed a lot in this last 10 years,...

  17. Innovation In Music

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The music industry is a fast moving field with new technology and methodological advances combining to catalyse innovations all the time. 'Innovation in Music 2013' was an international conference exploring this topic, held in December 2013 in York, Uk. The event covered specific and cross-disciplinary aspects of the music industry including music creation, technology, production and business, sound engineering, mastering, post production and sound design, games music and cross-disciplinary t...

  18. The effects of Western music on postoperative pain in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, M; Chin, C C

    1998-02-01

    Music is a method nurses can use to help relieve pain, however little is known about its effectiveness across cultures. In this study, Western music was tested for its effectiveness in reducing postoperative pain in 38 Taiwanese patients, and its acceptability was explored. A pretest and post-test experimental design was used with visual analogue scales to measure sensation and distress of pain. Before surgery, subjects were randomly assigned to receive tape recorded music or the usual care. Those who were assigned to the music group chose among 5 types of sedative music. On postoperative Day 1 and Day 2, the effectiveness of the tape-recorded music was investigated during 15 minutes of rest in bed. Patients were interviewed on Day 3 to determine their liking for the music, its calming effects, and the helpfulness of the music. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed a significant interaction between time and group in the distress of pain on Day 1, but not on Day 2, and in pain sensation on Day 2, but not Day 1. Subjects from Taiwan were similar to subjects in a previous study in the United States in their liking for the music, and in reports of the helpfulness of the music for pain sensation and distress, but fewer Taiwanese found the music calming, and they had different choices: more chose harp music and fewer chose jazz than subjects in the U.S. study, and some would prefer Buddhist hymns or popular songs heard in Taiwan. Findings support the use of culturally acceptable music in addition to analgesic medication for the sensation and distress of postoperative pain.

  19. Music and the Mind: Music's Healing Powers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroilyn S. Ticker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Music makes you smarter: or at least that is what the "experts" are saying. CDs are sold of Mozart's Sonatas for babies, and parents are urged to give their children music lessons in the belief that music does something to our brains which in turn makes us more intelligent. But is this really true? Does music really affect the brain in the powerful way that scientists are suggesting, or is it hearsay? In this paper I investigate the effects of music on our brain's plasticity and cognition by looking at several different experimental studies. Specifically I will address how music affects brain plasticity, emotion, physical health and linguistic processing, and how these effects in turn make music a beneficial tool for therapy, particularly in patients with Traumatic-Brain Injury (TBI and Autism-Spectrum Disorder.

  20. Music Education and Music Therapy. Introduction to Plenary Session 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2002-01-01

    Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics......Chairman's introduction to plenary session on the relationship between music therapy and music pedagogics...

  1. The Change of Music Preferences Following the Onset of a Mental Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; von Georgi, Richard

    2015-02-24

    A psychiatric population (n=123) was examined on how music preferences had changed after the onset of a mental disorder. Most patients did not change their previous music preference; this group of patients considered music helpful for their mental state, showed more attractivity and enforcement as personality traits and used music more for emotion modulation. Patients who experienced a preference shift reported that music had impaired them during the time of illness; these patients showed less ego-strength, less confidence and less enforcement and used music less for arousal modulation. A third subgroup stopped listening to music completely after the onset of the mental disorder; these patients attribute less importance to music and also reported that music had impaired their mental state. They showed more ego-strength and used music less for emotion modulation. The results suggest that the use of music in everyday life can be helpful as an emotion modulation strategy. However, some patients might need instructions on how to use music in a functional way and not a dysfunctional one. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists as well as music therapists should be aware of emotion modulation strategies, subjective valence of music and personality traits of their patients. Due to the ubiquity of music, psychoeducative instructions on how to use music in everyday life plays an increasing role in the treatment of mental illness.

  2. The Change of Music Preferences Following the Onset of a Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Stefan; von Georgi, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A psychiatric population (n=123) was examined on how music preferences had changed after the onset of a mental disorder. Most patients did not change their previous music preference; this group of patients considered music helpful for their mental state, showed more attractivity and enforcement as personality traits and used music more for emotion modulation. Patients who experienced a preference shift reported that music had impaired them during the time of illness; these patients showed less ego-strength, less confidence and less enforcement and used music less for arousal modulation. A third subgroup stopped listening to music completely after the onset of the mental disorder; these patients attribute less importance to music and also reported that music had impaired their mental state. They showed more ego-strength and used music less for emotion modulation. The results suggest that the use of music in everyday life can be helpful as an emotion modulation strategy. However, some patients might need instructions on how to use music in a functional way and not a dysfunctional one. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists as well as music therapists should be aware of emotion modulation strategies, subjective valence of music and personality traits of their patients. Due to the ubiquity of music, psychoeducative instructions on how to use music in everyday life plays an increasing role in the treatment of mental illness. PMID:26266024

  3. The influence of music on static posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forti, Stella; Filipponi, Eliana; Di Berardino, Federica; Barozzi, Stefania; Cesarani, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that high intensity sounds modify balance by activating the saccule, which is sensitive to both vestibular and acoustic stimuli. Few studies have examined the effects of music on the postural responses in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different types of music (Mozart, Köhler, Köhler with a carrier of 12 KHz and subjects' favourite music) on twelve healthy subjects standing on a stabilometric platform. With each type of music, all subjects underwent static posturography with eyes opened and eyes closed, and with and without foam pads. We evaluated the length and the surface of body sway and the correlation between them, and we analyzed the visual, vestibular and somatosensory sub-components. Listening to different types of music did not significantly change the stabilometric variables, with the exception of listening to Mozart's Jupiter, which caused a significant reduction in the visual component with a consequent increase in both the vestibular and somatosensory inputs. Further studies are needed to determine the effect of Mozart's music in modifying the sensory strategy in the rehabilitation of patients with vestibular impairments.

  4. Complex network structure of musical compositions: Algorithmic generation of appealing music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Fan; Tse, Chi K.; Small, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we construct networks for music and attempt to compose music artificially. Networks are constructed with nodes and edges corresponding to musical notes and their co-occurring connections. We analyze classical music from Bach, Mozart, Chopin, as well as other types of music such as Chinese pop music. We observe remarkably similar properties in all networks constructed from the selected compositions. We conjecture that preserving the universal network properties is a necessary step in artificial composition of music. Power-law exponents of node degree, node strength and/or edge weight distributions, mean degrees, clustering coefficients, mean geodesic distances, etc. are reported. With the network constructed, music can be composed artificially using a controlled random walk algorithm, which begins with a randomly chosen note and selects the subsequent notes according to a simple set of rules that compares the weights of the edges, weights of the nodes, and/or the degrees of nodes. By generating a large number of compositions, we find that this algorithm generates music which has the necessary qualities to be subjectively judged as appealing.

  5. Music Training Can Improve Music and Speech Perception in Pediatric Mandarin-Speaking Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoting; Liu, Yangwenyi; Shu, Yilai; Tao, Duo-Duo; Wang, Bing; Yuan, Yasheng; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Due to limited spectral resolution, cochlear implants (CIs) do not convey pitch information very well. Pitch cues are important for perception of music and tonal language; it is possible that music training may improve performance in both listening tasks. In this study, we investigated music training outcomes in terms of perception of music, lexical tones, and sentences in 22 young (4.8 to 9.3 years old), prelingually deaf Mandarin-speaking CI users. Music perception was measured using a melodic contour identification (MCI) task. Speech perception was measured for lexical tones and sentences presented in quiet. Subjects received 8 weeks of MCI training using pitch ranges not used for testing. Music and speech perception were measured at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after training was begun; follow-up measures were made 4 weeks after training was stopped. Mean baseline performance was 33.2%, 76.9%, and 45.8% correct for MCI, lexical tone recognition, and sentence recognition, respectively. After 8 weeks of MCI training, mean performance significantly improved by 22.9, 14.4, and 14.5 percentage points for MCI, lexical tone recognition, and sentence recognition, respectively ( p music and speech performance. The results suggest that music training can significantly improve pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI users' music and speech perception.

  6. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Design and Methods: Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face–name pairs. Participants’ memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Results: Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults’ associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults’ failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. Implications: These data have important practical implications for older adults’ ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. PMID:26035876

  7. Turn Off the Music! Music Impairs Visual Associative Memory Performance in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaves, Sarah; Graham, Brittany; Grahn, Jessica; Rabannifard, Parissa; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-06-01

    Whether we are explicitly listening to it or not, music is prevalent in our environment. Surprisingly, little is known about the effect of environmental music on concurrent cognitive functioning and whether young and older adults are differentially affected by music. Here, we investigated the impact of background music on a concurrent paired associate learning task in healthy young and older adults. Young and older adults listened to music or to silence while simultaneously studying face-name pairs. Participants' memory for the pairs was then tested while listening to either the same or different music. Participants also made subjective ratings about how distracting they found each song to be. Despite the fact that all participants rated music as more distracting to their performance than silence, only older adults' associative memory performance was impaired by music. These results are most consistent with the theory that older adults' failure to inhibit processing of distracting task-irrelevant information, in this case background music, contributes to their memory impairments. These data have important practical implications for older adults' ability to perform cognitively demanding tasks even in what many consider to be an unobtrusive environment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Metaphor and music emotion: Ancient views and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannese, Alessia; Rappaz, Marc-André; Grandjean, Didier

    2016-08-01

    Music is often described in terms of emotion. This notion is supported by empirical evidence showing that engaging with music is associated with subjective feelings, and with objectively measurable responses at the behavioural, physiological, and neural level. Some accounts, however, reject the idea that music may directly induce emotions. For example, the 'paradox of negative emotion', whereby music described in negative terms is experienced as enjoyable, suggests that music might move the listener through indirect mechanisms in which the emotional experience elicited by music does not always coincide with the emotional label attributed to it. Here we discuss the role of metaphor as a potential mediator in these mechanisms. Drawing on musicological, philosophical, and neuroscientific literature, we suggest that metaphor acts at key stages along and between physical, biological, cognitive, and contextual processes, and propose a model of music experience in which metaphor mediates between language, emotion, and aesthetic response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Time flies with music whatever its emotional valence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Bigand, Emmanuel; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José Lino Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task to investigate whether music affects time estimation differently from a matched auditory neutral stimulus, and whether the emotional valence of the musical stimuli (i.e., sad vs. happy music) modulates this effect. The results showed that, compared to sine wave control music, music presented in a major (happy) or a minor (sad) key shifted the bisection function toward the right, thus increasing the bisection point value (point of subjective equality). This indicates that the duration of a melody is judged shorter than that of a non-melodic control stimulus, thus confirming that "time flies" when we listen to music. Nevertheless, sensitivity to time was similar for all the auditory stimuli. Furthermore, the temporal bisection functions did not differ as a function of musical mode. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Music and psychophysiological recovery from stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radstaak, Mirjam; Geurts, Sabine A E; Brosschot, Jos F; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2014-09-01

    This experimental study examined whether listening to self-chosen music after stress exposure improves mood, decreases subjective arousal and rumination, and facilitates cardiovascular recovery. Participants (N = 123) were exposed to a mental arithmetic task with harassment to induce stress. Afterward, participants were randomly assigned to one of four "recovery" conditions where they (1) listened to self-chosen relaxing music, (2) listened to self-chosen happy music, (3) listened to an audio book, or (4) sat in silence. After this 5-minute "recovery manipulation period," participants sat in silence for another 5 minutes. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate were continuously measured. The recovery conditions caused differences in positive affect (F(3,119) = 13.13, p music or happy music. The conditions showed no differences in subjective arousal (F(3,117) = 2.03, p = .11) and rumination (F(3,119) = 1.10, p = .35). Systolic blood pressure recovery, however, differed between the conditions (linear time trend: F(3,116) = 4.50, p = .005; quadratic time trend: F(3,115) = 5.24, p = .002). Listening to both relaxing and happy music delayed systolic blood pressure recovery when compared with both control conditions. Listening to self-selected music is an effective mood enhancer, but it delays blood pressure recovery.

  11. Chaotic Music Generation System Using Music Conductor Gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shuai; Maeda, Yoichiro; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2013-01-01

    In the research of interactive music generation, we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music, under the recognition of human music conductor's gestures.In this research, the generated music is tuned by the recognized gestures for the parameters of the network of chaotic elements in real time. The music conductor's hand motions are detected by Microsoft Kinect in this system. Music theories are embedded in the algorithm, as a result, the generated music will be ...

  12. Music Conductor Gesture Recognized Interactive Music Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Shuai; MAEDA, Yoichiro; TAKAHASHI, Yasutake

    2012-01-01

    In the research of interactive music generation, we propose a music generation method, that the computer generates the music automatically, and then the music will be arranged under the human music conductor's gestures, before it outputs to us. In this research, the generated music is processed from chaotic sound, which is generated from the network of chaotic elements in realtime. The music conductor's hand motions are detected by Microsoft Kinect in this system. Music theories are embedded ...

  13. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...

  14. MUSIC CLUB

    CERN Document Server

    MUSIC CLUB

    2010-01-01

    FESTIVAL HARDRONIC The CERN MusiClub is proud to announce that the 21st edition of the famous CERN Hardronic Festival will take place on   Friday 16th July from 17h30 and Saturday 17th July from 16h00   on the terrace beside restaurant N°3 on the CERN Prevessin site. The Festival will feature music by your favourite bands and artists from the Club. Food and drink will be on sale and there will be stuff for kids (organized by http://www.adventureart.org/) including face-painting and a bouncy castle. Entrance is free and the event is open to Club Members, CERN staff and Visitors, all those working on the CERN site, plus families and friends. For more information, either send an e-mail mailto:music.club@cern.ch or see http://musiclub.cern.ch/ The CERN MusiClub would like to thank the CERN Staff Association and the CERN Management for their continued support. Without this support this event could not take place.

  15. ['Sensus Intellectualis': Pietro de Abano's musical thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanni, Matteo

    2008-01-01

    With the discovery of the Aristotelian works on "natural philosophy" the philosophical discourse expands its subject of study to the physical and material dimension of men's nature. This philosophical tendency would also influence the reflections on musical topics. This paper shows how the physiological and physical view of the human being had influenced the theory of music. From a terminological and a conceptual perspective Pietro de Abano moves away from the Boethian authority. Comparing the musical theory of Pietro de Abano with the traditional "musica theorica" it becomes evident that there is no opposition between sensitiveness and intellect.

  16. Two Systems for Automatic Music Genre Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2012-01-01

    We re-implement and test two state-of-the-art systems for automatic music genre classification; but unlike past works in this area, we look closer than ever before at their behavior. First, we look at specific instances where each system consistently applies the same wrong label across multiple...... trials of cross-validation. Second, we test the robustness of each system to spectral equalization. Finally, we test how well human subjects recognize the genres of music excerpts composed by each system to be highly genre representative. Our results suggest that neither high-performing system has...... a capacity to recognize music genre....

  17. Listen up! Polyrhythms in brain and music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuust, Peter; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between music and language is fiercely debated in the modern literature of neuroscience and music. Here, we argue that a musicological study of online communication between jazz musicians in combination with brain imaging studies offers a unique setting for evalu- ating...... communicational aspects of music practices that rarely enter the present discourse on the subject. We employ Miles Davis’ quintet of the 1960s and its use of polyrhythmic structures as a general example of a jazz group focusing on communication. First, we consider jazz in the light of Roman Jakobson’s model...

  18. Using social media in music education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Social networks have become the most popular medium of communication and social interaction. In this paper, an emphasis is placed on the use of social networks in the process of teaching music. The aim of this study was to determine which social networks students used in teaching music together with their teachers, which activities are realized in visiting these internet platforms and to what extent they are motivated to use them when teaching musical subjects. Based on these results it can be concluded that students use social networks Facebook and YouTube in realizing educational content within subjects related to art and music and are sufficiently motivated to work within social networks.

  19. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa; Lee, Jae Hee

    2015-09-01

    Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners).

  20. Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Suzanne L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Middle school general music may be a student's last encounter with school music. A practical book with accessible pedagogical resources on middle school general music is needed for methods courses and music practitioners' use. The book "Engaging Musical Practices: A Sourcebook for Middle School General Music" presents numerous ways to engage…

  1. Trained Musical Performers' and Musically Untrained College Students' Ability to Discriminate Music Instrument Timbre as a Function of Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dennis Alan

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of trained musicians and musically untrained college students to discriminate music instrument timbre as a function of duration. Specific factors investigated were the thresholds for timbre discrimination as a function of duration, musical ensemble participation as training, and the relative discrimination abilities of vocalists and instrumentalists. The subjects (N = 126) were volunteer college students from intact classes from various disciplines separated into musically untrained college students (N = 43) who had not participated in musical ensembles and trained musicians (N = 83) who had. The musicians were further divided into instrumentalists (N = 51) and vocalists (N = 32). The Method of Constant Stimuli, using a same-different response procedure with 120 randomized, counterbalanced timbre pairs comprised of trumpet, clarinet, or violin, presented in durations of 20 to 100 milliseconds in a sequence of pitches, in two blocks was used for data collection. Complete, complex musical timbres were recorded digitally and presented in a sequence of changing pitches to more closely approximate an actual music listening experience. Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the threshold for timbre discrimination as a function of duration is at or below 20 ms. Even though trained musicians tended to discriminate timbre better than musically untrained college students, musicians cannot discriminate timbre significantly better then those subjects who have not participated in musical ensembles. Additionally, instrumentalists tended to discriminate timbre better than vocalists, but the discrimination is not significantly different. Recommendations for further research include suggestions for a timbre discrimination measurement tool that takes into consideration the multidimensionality of timbre and the relationship of timbre discrimination to timbre source, duration, pitch, and loudness.

  2. Music Listening and Stress in Daily Life-a Matter of Timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Wenzel, Mario; Grammes, Jennifer; Kubiak, Thomas; Nater, Urs M

    2018-04-01

    Despite increasing evidence suggesting that music listening in daily life has stress-reducing effects, studies mostly rely on subjective, retrospective data on music listening. Thus, the temporal dynamics underlying the stress-reducing effect of music listening remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to examine the temporal dynamics of the associations between stress and music listening by assessing subjective and objective data on music in daily life. An exploratory Ambulatory Assessment study examining a total of 60 participants (37 women), aged 18 to 34 years (M = 22.4 years, SD = 3.5) was conducted. For 1 week, participants answered questions on music listening and stress six times per day via an electronic diary device, which additionally objectively sampled the exact time point of music listening and its duration. Self-reports on mere music listening were associated with lower stress reports, whereas objectively assessed data was not. However, concerning duration of music listening, both subjective and objective data on music listening showed associations between a minimum of 20 min of music listening and lower stress reports. Concerning the latency, objective data on music listening revealed that the association between stress reports and music listening occurs in a time-delayed manner. Although the study design does not allow for causal inferences, substantial associations among subjectively and objectively assessed data on music listening were found to differentially affect the experience of stress after music listening. In particular, when focusing on the temporal dynamics, objectively assessed data allowed for a more fine-grained analysis. In consequence, subjectively and objectively reported data on music listening should be assessed jointly when investigating effects of music listening on health. Experimental research with rigorous methodological control is required in order to corroborate our findings in a laboratory setting.

  3. Reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties of music in goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozuka, Kazutaka; Ono, Haruka; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigated whether music has reinforcing and discriminative stimulus properties in goldfish. Experiment 1 examined the discriminative stimulus properties of music. The subjects were successfully trained to discriminate between two pieces of music--Toccata and Fugue in D minor (BWV 565) by J. S. Bach and The Rite of Spring by I. Stravinsky. Experiment 2 examined the reinforcing properties of sounds, including BWV 565 and The Rite of Spring. We developed an apparatus for measuring spontaneous sound preference in goldfish. Music or noise stimuli were presented depending on the subject's position in the aquarium, and the time spent in each area was measured. The results indicated that the goldfish did not show consistent preferences for music, although they showed significant avoidance of noise stimuli. These results suggest that music has discriminative but not reinforcing stimulus properties in goldfish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Brain networks that track musical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr

    2005-12-01

    As the functional neuroimaging literature grows, it becomes increasingly apparent that music and musical activities engage diverse regions of the brain. In this paper I discuss two studies to illustrate that exactly which brain areas are observed to be responsive to musical stimuli and tasks depends on the tasks and the methods used to describe the tasks and the stimuli. In one study, subjects listened to polyphonic music and were asked to either orient their attention selectively to individual instruments or in a divided or holistic manner across multiple instruments. The network of brain areas that was recruited changed subtly with changes in the task instructions. The focus of the second study was to identify brain regions that follow the pattern of movement of a continuous melody through the tonal space defined by the major and minor keys of Western tonal music. Such an area was identified in the rostral medial prefrontal cortex. This observation is discussed in the context of other neuroimaging studies that implicate this region in inwardly directed mental states involving decisions about the self, autobiographical memory, the cognitive regulation of emotion, affective responses to musical stimuli, and familiarity judgments about musical stimuli. Together with observations that these regions are among the last to atrophy in Alzheimer disease, and that these patients appear to remain responsive to autobiographically salient musical stimuli, very early evidence is emerging from the literature for the hypothesis that the rostral medial prefrontal cortex is a node that is important for binding music with memories within a broader music-responsive network.

  5. Influence of music on operation theatre staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Shyjumon; Ahmed, Shafiq; Mammen, Kim J; John, George Mathews

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the perception of influence of music among surgeons, anesthesiologist and nurses in our hospital as well as to critically evaluate whether music can be used as an aid in improving the work efficiency of medical personnel in the operation theatre (OT). A prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 100 randomly selected subjects were interviewed, which included 44 surgeons, 25 anesthesiologists and 31 nurses. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) Windows Version 16 software was used for statistical evaluation. Most of the OT medical personnel were found to be aware of the beneficial effects of music, with 87% consenting to the playing of music in the OT. It was also found that most participants agreed to have heard music on a regular basis in the OT, while 17% had heard it whenever they have been to the OT. Majority of the respondent's preferred playing music in the OT which helped them relax. It improved the cognitive function of the listeners and created a sense of well being among the people and elevated mood in them. Music helped in reducing the autonomic reactivity of theatre personnel in stressful surgeries allowing them to approach their surgeries in a more thoughtful and relaxed manner. Qualitative, objective and comprehensive effect of specific music types varied with different individuals. Music can aid in improving the work efficiency of medical personnel in the OT. The study has reinforced the beneficial effects of playing music in the OT outweighing its deleterious outcomes.

  6. Influence of music on operation theatre staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyjumon George

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the perception of influence of music among surgeons, anesthesiologist and nurses in our hospital as well as to critically evaluate whether music can be used as an aid in improving the work efficiency of medical personnel in the operation theatre (OT. Materials and Methods: A prospective, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 100 randomly selected subjects were interviewed, which included 44 surgeons, 25 anesthesiologists and 31 nurses. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS Windows Version 16 software was used for statistical evaluation. Results: Most of the OT medical personnel were found to be aware of the beneficial effects of music, with 87% consenting to the playing of music in the OT. It was also found that most participants agreed to have heard music on a regular basis in the OT, while 17% had heard it whenever they have been to the OT. Conclusions: Majority of the respondent′s preferred playing music in the OT which helped them relax. It improved the cognitive function of the listeners and created a sense of well being among the people and elevated mood in them. Music helped in reducing the autonomic reactivity of theatre personnel in stressful surgeries allowing them to approach their surgeries in a more thoughtful and relaxed manner. Qualitative, objective and comprehensive effect of specific music types varied with different individuals. Music can aid in improving the work efficiency of medical personnel in the OT. The study has reinforced the beneficial effects of playing music in the OT outweighing its deleterious outcomes.

  7. Music Education for Every Child – Idea or Reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Bačlija Susić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary pedagogical, psychological and sociological research highlight the need for music education available to every child. Starting from the fundamental point of view according to which music affects the development of the child's whole personality, this idea stands out in history since the 17th century. Various educators in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century emphasized the importance of music education for every child. With historical and theoretical overview of this idea, this paper tries to examine the possibility of its realization in contemporary educational practice. The Venezuelan music education program El Sistema, that promotes humanistic idea of changing society through classical music education stands out as a unique example of a good practice. As a form of music education which particularly promotes the idea of availability of music to every child, the conception of Functional Music Pedagogy by the Croatian music pedagogue Elly Bašić (1908-1998 was shown as well. Considering the status of music in American educational policy, it is indicated as a significant change, in which the music is recognized as an educational priority for the first time in the history of education and it became the basic academic subject in the American federal education policy plan, as well as unprecedentedly incorporated in the federal law.

  8. Research on 18th Century Music in Poland. An Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paczkowski Szymon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on 18th-century music has been one of the key areas of interest for musicologists ever since the beginnings of musicological studies in Poland. It initially developed along two distinct lines: general music history (with publications mostly in foreign languages and local history (mostly in Polish. In the last three decades the dominant tendency among Polish researchers has been, however, to relate problems of 18th-century Polish musical culture to the political history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and more generally – to the political history of Central Europe at large. The most important subjects taken up in research on 18th-century music include: the musical cultures of the royal court in 18th-century Warsaw (primarily in the works of Alina Żórawska-Witkowska as well as Polish aristocratic residences (e.g. studies by Szymon Paczkowski and Irena Bieńkowska, the ecclesiastical and monastic circles (publications by Alina Mądry, Paweł Podejko, Remigiusz Pośpiech and Tomasz Jeż; problems of musical style (texts by Szymon Paczkowski; research on sources containing music by European composers (e.g. by Johann Adolf Hasse; the musical culture of cities (of Gdańsk, first and foremost; studies concerning the transfer of music and music-related materials, the musical centres and peripheries, etc.

  9. Music therapy in the psychosocial rehabilitation of people with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramaviciute Z.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a pilot study analysing the application of music therapy in the today’s psychosocial rehabilitation of people with epilepsy. The study is based on the analysis of the up-to-date application of music therapy in psychosocial rehabilitation, outcomes of epilepsy and special needs of people with this disorder. The analysis serves as a basis for making the assumption that music therapy is an effective measure addressing psychosocial issues of patients suffering from epilepsy. To achieve the objective set, an on-line survey method was used. A questionnaire was sent to the European Confederation of Music Therapy, the International Fellowship in Music Therapy for Neuro-disability, and several members of the World Federation of Music Therapy. It is difficult to formulate final conclusions about the today’s role of music therapy in the psychosocial rehabilitation of people suffering from epilepsy on the basis of this study as the sample is not representative. The analysis of literature and the results of the survey prove the issue of the role of music therapy in the psychosocial rehabilitation of epileptic people to be complex. The service of music therapy should be integrated into health promotion programmes focused on meeting special needs of people with epilepsy and implemented by an interdisciplinary team. Music therapy is applied specifically and diversely subject to symptoms of the disorder and the therapeutic objectives set. Crystallising the specificity of the application of music therapy in this context requires further research.

  10. Nigerian Music Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Nigerian Music Review is aimed at the scholarly review of the developments in various musical practices in Nigeria. It considers well researched articles in any of the following areas: Musicology, Ethnomusicology, African Music, Music Education, Performance, Composition, Music Technology, Music ...

  11. Music interventions for mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Dileo, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    group. One study found significantly higher sedation scores in the music listening group compared to the control group.No strong evidence was found for reduction in diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure. Furthermore, inconsistent results were found for reduction in heart rate with seven studies reporting greater heart rate reductions in the music listening group and one study a slightly greater reduction in the control group. Music listening did not improve oxygen saturation levels.Four studies examined the effects of music listening on hormone levels but the results were mixed and no conclusions could be drawn.No strong evidence was found for an effect of music listening on mortality rate but this evidence rested on only two trials.Most trials were assessed to be at high risk of bias because of lack of blinding. Blinding of outcome assessors is often impossible in music therapy and music medicine studies that use subjective outcomes, unless the music intervention is compared to another treatment intervention. Because of the high risk of bias, these results need to be interpreted with caution.No studies could be found that examined the effects of music interventions on quality of life, patient satisfaction, post-discharge outcomes, or cost-effectiveness. No adverse events were identified. This updated systematic review indicates that music listening may have a beneficial effect on anxiety in mechanically ventilated patients. These findings are consistent with the findings of three other Cochrane systematic reviews on the use of music interventions for anxiety reduction in medical patients. The review furthermore suggests that music listening consistently reduces respiratory rate and systolic blood pressure. Finally, results indicate a possible beneficial impact on the consumption of sedatives and analgesics. Therefore, we conclude that music interventions may provide a viable anxiety management option to mechanically ventilated patients.

  12. Musical Markov Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenkov, Dima; Dawin, Jean René

    A system for using dice to compose music randomly is known as the musical dice game. The discrete time MIDI models of 804 pieces of classical music written by 29 composers have been encoded into the transition matrices and studied by Markov chains. Contrary to human languages, entropy dominates over redundancy, in the musical dice games based on the compositions of classical music. The maximum complexity is achieved on the blocks consisting of just a few notes (8 notes, for the musical dice games generated over Bach's compositions). First passage times to notes can be used to resolve tonality and feature a composer.

  13. 'The Music Herald' 1922: A esthetical and ideological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Music Herald was the first music magazine to appear in Belgrade after WWI. It was published monthly, for a year (January - December 1922. Its editor-in-chief was Petar Krstić, a composer. Other members of the editorial staff were Božidar Joksimović, Stevan Hristić, Kosta Manojlović (composers Vladimir R. Đorđević (an ethnomusicologist and Jovan Zorko (a violinist. Over 200 articles were published in the magazine. It dealt with different genres of music writings, such as articles, treatises, documents on the history of Serbian / Yugoslav music, music criticism, polemics, necrologies and bibliographies. Twenty-four compositions by native composers were published in the musical supplement of The Music Herald, among them the works of its editors as well as those of other Yugoslav musicians. The Music Herald dealt with three fields of interest: music historiography, ethnomusicology and the current topics of its epoch. When the magazine started, Serbian musicology was in its initial stage so the editors were trying to foster its development. They published numerous biographies of Serbian 19th century musicians, as well as documents on Serbian music culture during the reign of Prince Miloš Obrenović. Music folklore was also very often the subject of interest in the magazine. The Music Herald was interested in current topics and covered the Yugoslav music school system, opera houses, military music music associations, etc. It was especially interested in choral societies which in the course of the 19th century took up not only an artistic, but also a political and patriotic role in the liberation movement. After WWI choral societies entered a period of crisis. Their political raison d'être was lost, so they were faced with the challenge of achieving higher professional standards. This study deals with two aspects of 'The Music Herald': aesthetic and ideological aspects. In terms of ideology, the magazine was strongly in favor of the

  14. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants' self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects' selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca's area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions.

  15. Mind as Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan eLloyd

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive neuroscience typically develops hypotheses to explain phenomena that are localized in space and time. Determining functions of brain regions in spatial and temporal isolation is generally regarded as the first step toward understanding the conjoint operation of the whole brain. In other words, if the task of cognitive neuroscience is to interpret the neural code, then the first step has been semantic, searching for the meanings (functions of localized elements, prior to exploring neural syntax, the mutual constraints among elements synchronically and diachronically. Researchers generally assume that neural semantics is a precondition for determining neural syntax. Furthermore, it is often assumed that the syntax of the brain is too complex for our present technology and understanding. A corollary of this view holds that functional MRI lacks the spatial and temporal resolution needed to identify the dynamic syntax of neural computation. This paper examines these assumptions with a novel analysis of fMRI image series, resting on the conjecture that any computational code will exhibit aggregate features that can be detected even if the meaning of the code is unknown. Specifically, computational codes will be sparse or dense in different degrees. A sparse code is one that uses only a few of the many possible patterns of activity (in the brain or symbols (in a human-made code. Considering sparseness at different scales and as measured by different techniques, this approach clearly distinguishes two conventional coding systems, namely, language and music. Considering 99 subjects in three different fMRI protocols, in comparison with 194 musical examples and 700 language passages, it is observed that fMRI activity is more similar to music than it is to language, as measured over single symbols, as well as symbol combinations in pairs and triples. Tools from cognitive musicology may therefore be useful in characterizing the brain as a dynamical

  16. The effect of symmetrical and asymmetrical hearing impairment on music quality perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuexin; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Yuebo; Liang, Maojin; Chen, Ling; Yang, Haidi; Xiong, Hao; Zhang, Xueyuan; Zheng, Yiqing

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of symmetrical, asymmetrical and unilateral hearing impairment on music quality perception. Six validated music pieces in the categories of classical music, folk music and pop music were used to assess music quality in terms of its 'pleasantness', 'naturalness', 'fullness', 'roughness' and 'sharpness'. 58 participants with sensorineural hearing loss [20 with unilateral hearing loss (UHL), 20 with bilateral symmetrical hearing loss (BSHL) and 18 with bilateral asymmetrical hearing loss (BAHL)] and 29 normal hearing (NH) subjects participated in the present study. Hearing impaired (HI) participants had greater difficulty in overall music quality perception than NH participants. Participants with BSHL rated music pleasantness and naturalness to be higher than participants with BAHL. Moreover, the hearing thresholds of the better ears from BSHL and BAHL participants as well as the hearing thresholds of the worse ears from BSHL participants were negatively correlated to the pleasantness and naturalness perception. HI participants rated the familiar music pieces higher than unfamiliar music pieces in the three music categories. Music quality perception in participants with hearing impairment appeared to be affected by symmetry of hearing loss, degree of hearing loss and music familiarity when they were assessed using the music quality rating test (MQRT). This indicates that binaural symmetrical hearing is important to achieve a high level of music quality perception in HI listeners. This emphasizes the importance of provision of bilateral hearing assistive devices for people with asymmetrical hearing impairment.

  17. Popular Music Genres, Music Producers, and Song Creation in the General Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colquhoun, Shane

    2018-01-01

    In secondary general music classes, music educators have the opportunity to bridge the gap between the music students' experiences in school and the music they engage with outside of school. According to Williams, nontraditional music students have musical lives outside of school but choose not to participate in traditional ensembles. In this…

  18. Loud music listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Nicolae

    2008-07-01

    Over the past four decades, there has been increasing interest in the effects of music listening on hearing. The purpose of this paper is to review published studies that detail the noise levels, the potential effects (e.g. noise-induced hearing loss), and the perceptions of those affected by music exposure in occupational and non-occupational settings. The review employed Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO, and the World Wide Web to find relevant studies in the scientific literature. Considered in this review are 43 studies concerning the currently most significant occupational sources of high-intensity music: rock and pop music playing and employment at music venues, as well as the most significant sources of non-occupational high-intensity music: concerts, dicotheques (clubs), and personal music players. Although all of the activities listed above have the potential for hearing damage, the most serious threat to hearing comes from prolonged exposures to amplified live music (concerts). The review concludes that more research is needed to clarify the hearing loss risks of music exposure from personal music players and that current scientific literature clearly recognizes an unmet hearing health need for more education regarding the risks of loud music exposure and the benefits of wearing hearing protection, for more hearing protection use by those at risk, and for more regulations limiting music intensity levels at music entertainment venues.

  19. Self-regulated processes as predictors of students' achievement in music theory in Slovenian elementary music schools

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Smolej Fritz; Cirila Peklaj

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine the relation between processes of selfregulated learning and achievement in Music Theory (MT), a basic and obligatory subject in Slovenian music schools. A total of 457 fifth- and sixth- grade students (153 boys and 303 girls) from 10 different elementary music schools in Slovenia participated in the study. Students completed a questionnaire about affective-motivational processes and a questionnaire about (meta)cognitive processes of selfregulate...

  20. Music as word: Film music - superlibretto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirić Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of his paper is to prove that film music can be understood as authentic narrative force: film music as word / discourse and its superlibretto status. Superlibretto is the status of music in a film which is constructing its own (aural reality and is narrating, speaking its own text which creates a wholesome film meaning. The existence of superlibretto is substantiated by fundamental theoretic concepts of film music and practically proven by analyses of examples taken from the opus of Serbian film composer Zoran Simjanović.

  1. Music and language: musical alexia and agraphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, J C

    1980-06-01

    Two aphasic right-handed professional musicians with left hemispheric lesions had disturbed musical function, especially musical alexia and agraphia. In Case 1 aphasia was of transcortical sensory type, with severe agraphia and decreased comprehension of written words, although she could match them with pictures. Except for reading and writing, musical ability was normal; she could sing in five languages. Musical alexia and agraphia affected pitch symbols more than rhythm. Case 2 had conduction aphasia and severe expressive amusia, especially for rhythm. Although his language alexia and agraphia were milder than Case 1's, his musical alexia and agraphia were more severe, affecting rhythm as much as pitch. In neither patient were those aspects of musical notation either closest to verbal language or most dependent upon temporal (sequential) processing maximally impaired. These cases are consistent with the literature in suggesting that the presence or absence of aphasia or of right or left hemispheric damage fails to predict the presence, type, or severity of amusia, including musical alexia and agraphia. The popular notion that receptive amusia follows lesions of the language-dominant temporal lobe, whereas expressive amusia follows non-dominant frontal lobe damage, is an over-simplification, as is the view that increasing musical sophistication causes a shift of musical processing from the right hemisphere to the left.

  2. Expressiveness in musical performance: Pedagogic aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Natalija R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our research relates to pedagogic aspects of expressive vocal-instrumental musical performance. We intended to examine: (1 how undergraduate students see/conceptualize and evaluate expressiveness in musical performance; (2 whether and how they were trained in the skill of expressive musical performance during their musical training; (3 whether and in which way they rehearse the expressive component of musical performance and interpretation and (4 whether there are any differences regarding gender, age, instrument, department, year of study and years of instrument playing in relation to the group of dependant variables related to expressiveness, tuition and practice. The sample for the research included 82 students of instrumental and theory departments at the Faculty of Music in Belgrade. Psychological and pedagogical aspects of musical expressiveness during vocal-instrumental performance were analyzed. The results show that students highly evaluate expressiveness but its place is secondary compared to mastering technical and tonal requirements. Statistically significant differences were shown regarding gender, age and departments. It can be concluded that there is a potential for the development and enhancement of expressiveness of students if we abandon the traditional view that expressiveness is linked exclusively to talent. The findings indicate that pedagogical work should be directed towards finding purposeful strategies for training individual expressiveness.

  3. The effect of preferred music genre selection versus preferred song selection on experimentally induced anxiety levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy DeLoach

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of experimentally induced anxiety levels reached by subjects listening to no music (n = 30), subjects listening to music selected by the experimenter from the subject's preferred genre or artist listed as relaxing (n = 30), and subjects listening to a specific song they listed as relaxing (n = 30). Subjects consisted of 90 individuals, male and female, randomly assigned to one of the three groups mentioned above. Subjects in either music group filled out a questionnaire prior to participating in the study indicating their preference of music used for relaxation purposes. Subjects in Experimental Group 1 marked their preferred genres and/or artists, and Experimental Group 2 marked specific songs used for relaxation purposes. While the experimenter hypothesized subjects in Experimental Group 2 would show less anxiety than both the control group and Experimental Group 1, there were no significant differences found between the 2 music groups in anxiety levels reached. However, there was a statistically significant difference between the no music control group and both music groups in the anxiety level reached by subjects. Subjects listening to music, both songs chosen by the experimenter and subject selected songs, showed significantly less anxiety than subjects not listening to music.

  4. Reverberation time influences musical enjoyment with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certo, Michael V; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Chari, Divya A; Mancuso, Dean M; Lalwani, Anil K

    2015-02-01

    To identify factors that enhance the enjoyment of music in cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Specifically, we assessed the hypothesis that variations in reverberation time (RT60) may be linked to variations in the level of musical enjoyment in CI users. Prospective analysis of music enjoyment in normal-hearing individuals. Single tertiary academic medical center. Normal-hearing adults (N = 20) were asked to rate a novel 20-second melody on three enjoyment modalities: musicality, pleasantness, and naturalness. Subjective rating of music excerpts. Participants listened to seven different instruments play the melody, each with five levels (0.2, 1.6, 3.0, 5.0, 10.0 s) of RT60, both with and without CI simulation processing. Linear regression analysis with analysis of variance was used to assess the impact of RT60 on music enjoyment. Without CI simulation, music samples with RT60 = 3.0 seconds were ranked most pleasant and most musical, whereas those with RT60 = 1.6 seconds and RT60 = 3.0 seconds were ranked equally most natural (all p < 0.05). With CI simulation, music samples with RT60 = 0.2 seconds were ranked most pleasant, most musical, and most natural (all p < 0.05). Samples without CI simulation show a preference for middle-range RT60, whereas samples with CI simulation show a negative linear relationship between RT60 and musical enjoyment, with preference for minimal reverberation. Minimization of RT60 may be a useful strategy for increasing musical enjoyment under CI conditions, both in altering existing music as well as in composition of new music.

  5. MUSIC RADIO-JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubovtceva Ludmila I.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on years of practical experience, the author highlights the main radio genres in which music correspondent, music reviewer, music commentator, and music leading and a disc jockey work. Theoretical principles of their creative activities are analyzed in common journalistic genres, such as interview, reportage, talk show, live broadcast, radiofilm, as well as specialized genres like concert on demand and music competition. Journalist’ speech is seen as a logical element, the incoming with music in art-structural relationships. However, it does not become the predominant sound layer and aims to harmonious correlation or local penetration into music opus. In addition, important links in music journalism are defined the auxiliary "offscreen" editor's job and keeping the original sound archive. The author cites a number of own work examples on the air.

  6. Music, Meaning and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Widdess

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper situates musical meaning in culture, addressing music as social symbol and as ongoing process of meaning creation. Three examples of non- Western musical practice are used to illustrate the embedding of musical meaning in cultural context. The performance of an Australian Aboriginal song is shown to exemplify the interdependence of song style and social structure as a matrix for the emergence of cultural meanings; an example of North Indian performance is adduced to demonstrate the multi-layered nature of meaning as embodied in musical performance; and an example of collective festival performance from Nepal illustrates ways in which the structure of musical performance can mirror local cultural forms. Each of the three examples lends weight to the idea that music's meanings are often non-linguistic and reflect foundational schemas that are specific to the cultures from the musics are drawn.

  7. Musical Students’ Concert Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr S. Plokhotnyuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available . The article presents detailed analysis of performance training of future teachers of music at higher educational establishments and offers ways to overcome the problem of musical students’ concert practice organization.

  8. Music, Mathematics and Bach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Western music allows the idea of 'modulation' from one key to another. ... 'tonic' in Indian music the tonic 'sa' is played throughout by the tanpura, and ... rules and greater freedom. A fugue ..... theorem and artificial intelligence but an excellent.

  9. Listening to music during electromyography does not influence the examinee's anxiety and pain levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Alon; Drory, Vivian E

    2014-09-01

    Listening to music is a low-cost intervention that has demonstrated ability to reduce pain and anxiety levels in various medical procedures. Subjects undergoing electrophysiological examinations were randomized into a music-listening group and a control group. Visual analog scales were used to measure anxiety and pain levels during the procedure. Thirty subjects were randomized to each group. No statistically significant difference was found in anxiety or pain levels during the procedure between groups. However, most subjects in the music-listening group reported anxiety and pain reduction and would prefer to hear music in a future examination. Although listening to music during electrophysiological examinations did not reduce anxiety or pain significantly, most subjects felt a positive effect and would prefer to hear music; therefore, we suggest that music may be offered optionally in the electromyography laboratory setting. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. MUSIC, MODULARITY AND SYNTAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valenzuela

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available First generation cognitive science has always maintained that the mind/brain is a modular system. This has been especially apparent in linguistics, where the modularity thesis goes largely unquestioned by the linguistic mainstream. Cognitive linguists have long disputed the reality of modular architectures of grammar. Instead of conceiving syntax as a computational system of a relatively small set of formal principles and parameters, cognitive linguists take the notion of grammatical construction to be the basic unit of syntax: syntax is simply our repertoire of form-meaning pairings. On such a view, there is no a-priori reason to believe that semantics and phonology cannot affect syntax. In the present paper, we want to take things a step further and suggest, more generally, that language is not a module of cognition in any strict sense. We present preliminary results from research in progress concerning the effect of music on grammatical constructions. More specifically, our experiment compares reaction times between two grammatical constructions that differ in semantics and intonational curves but share lexical material. Our data so far suggests that subjects take less time reading the construction when the semantic bias and intonation match than in non-matching cases. This, we argue, suggests not only that semantics, phonology and syntax form an information bundle (i.e. a construction in the cognitive linguistic sense, but that perceived similarity of music can influence linguistic cognition.

  11. LISTENING TO MUSIC AND MUSIC PREFERENCES IN EARLY ADOLESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ercegovac, Ina Reić; Dobrota, Snježana; Surić, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Music plays an important role in the life of adolescents. Dealing with music represents a very important free-time activity during adolescence, while by listening to music or performing music adolescents can satisfy a range of needs, both personal and those of social nature. Therefore, this paper presents the results of research on musical taste and listening to music habits in early adolescence. We hypothesized that students generally like listening to music and that they mostly prefer do...

  12. On the status of music and musical instruments in Arabic culture after the advent of Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoštarić Ada I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article bases its arguments mainly on data found in secondary literature about the propriety of music in Arabic culture after the advent of Islam. One of the oldest sources in Arabic on the subject is Damm al-malāhī (The Condemnation of Instruments of Diversion. In it, the author, Ibn Abī al-Dunyā (823-894 condemned listening to music and musical instruments. Subsequently, many books addressed the question of whether music is illicit (ar. harām. Western scholars defined this corpus of literature as a kind of polemic about the permissibility of music and musical instruments in Islamic culture. Since there is no verse (ar. Áya in the Qur’Án which explicitly forbids or allows music, and since, at the same time, the hadīt literature abounds with contradictory statements about the practice of the prophet Muhammad regarding listening to music and musical instruments, this question continues to resurface, either in the media or on web pages specifically devoted to the issue. This topic is also quite interesting in terms of the reflexions one can encounter in the Muslim areas of the ex-Yugoslav region. At the same time, the article touches upon the special place that the Qur’ān recitation (ar. tilāwat al-Qur’ān and Islamic call to prayer (ar. adān have in Muslim communities. We often find both of them in chapters on religious music, and can, for instance, hear Gorans from Kosovo say (colloquially that one sings the call to prayer. Nevertheless, although both the Recitation and the call to prayer employ the system of maqāms found in secular forms of music, in religious Islamic circles they have never been defined as music, nor are they understood as such in Islamic public opinion. It has been said innumerable times that it is not the (listening to music per se that is forbidden, but rather the circumstances surrounding music, sometimes associated with the consumption of alcohol or similar behaviour, which leads to transgression of

  13. Affective Music Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ju-Chiang; Yang, Yi-Hsuan; Wang, Hsin-Min

    2015-01-01

    Much of the appeal of music lies in its power to convey emotions/moods and to evoke them in listeners. In consequence, the past decade witnessed a growing interest in modeling emotions from musical signals in the music information retrieval (MIR) community. In this article, we present a novel generative approach to music emotion modeling, with a specific focus on the valence-arousal (VA) dimension model of emotion. The presented generative model, called \\emph{acoustic emotion Gaussians} (AEG)...

  14. Music and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Haefliger, Anna Berenika

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Music and its different forms of use seem to benefit people in a number of ways. Research has suggested that extensive musical practice and musical listening enhances mental functioning in healthy adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Yet, the findings presented have not yet examined the effects both musical training and stimuli enhancement have on episodic memory recognition. 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians took part in an episodic memory task which evaluated m...

  15. Psychiatry and music

    OpenAIRE

    Nizamie, Shamsul Haque; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Vocal and/or instrumental sounds combined in such a way as to produce beauty of form, harmony and expression of emotion is music. Brain, mind and music are remarkably related to each other and music has got a strong impact on psychiatry. With the advent of music therapy, as an efficient form of alternative therapy in treating major psychiatric conditions, this impact has been further strengthened. In this review, we deliberate upon the historical aspects of the relationship between psychiatry...

  16. Embodied Music Listening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    The chapter presents the receptive music therapy model "Guided Imagery of Music (GIM)" as an embodied way of music listening with documented effects on a number of physiological and psychological symptoms and problems. Relaxation, guiding and (classical) music stimulates and supports the work......, underlying theories, selected research/evidence and illustrative clinical vignettes. Based on a study of cancer survivors’ GIM therapy, grounded theories of the therapeutic process and music’s role in the process are presented and discussed....

  17. Teaching Music in an Era of High-Stakes Testing and Budget Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Chad

    2012-01-01

    Prior research suggests that the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is having an adverse effect on school music programs, particularly in schools that have not made "adequate yearly progress." In many instances, music programs are being reduced or eliminated, music teachers are being required to assist with the teaching of other subjects,…

  18. Echoes of an Invisible World : Marsilio Ficino and Francesco Patrizi on Cosmic Order and Music Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Music theory of almost all ages has relied on cosmology and philosophy of nature in its attempts to explain music. The understanding of what the universe is, however, is subject to cultural and historical differences. In exploring ways in which music philosophy has represented and employed the

  19. Geographies of American Popular Music: Introducing Students to Basic Geographic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Popular music can be used to study many subjects and issues related to the social sciences. "Geographies of American Popular Music" was a workshop that not only examined the history and development of select genres of American music, it also introduced students to basic geographic concepts such as the culture hearth and spatial diffusion. Through…

  20. Interaction matters? : exploring interactive music as a reminder to break sedentary office time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, X.; Lu, Y.; Visser, V.J.J.; Le, P.D.Huy; van den Burg, R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a within-subject field test (n=24) with Flow platform, a smart cushion that uses interactive music to motivate office workers to break excessive sedentary time. In this study, we compared continuous music and interactive music as reminders to inform sedentary time by every

  1. Community Music in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  2. Constructivism in Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Over the past twenty years, constructivism, as a theory of learning, has taken on an increasingly important role in music education. Efforts to shift music education toward a more constructivist practice have significant implications for policymaking at all levels of music education. In this article, I seek to recalibrate our thinking about what…

  3. Pop Music's Middle Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Peter

    1979-01-01

    Surveys important music styles that preceded the emergence of rock and roll in the 1950s. Included are swing, bebop, rhythm and blues, country-western, gospel, and urban folk music. Lists of selected readings and recordings are appended. Part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  4. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  5. [Music therapy and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is a predominantly non-verbal psychotherapy based on music improvisation, embedded in a therapeutic relationship. This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression. We reviewed the literature on recent research into music therapy and depression, reporting on the methods used and the results achieved, and we assessed the current position of music therapy for depression in the context of evidence-based scientific research. A wide variety of research methods was used to investigate the effects of using music therapy as a psychotherapy. Most studies focused usually on the added value that music therapy brings to the standard form of psychiatric treatment, when administered with or without psychopharmacological support. Music therapy produced particularly significant and favourable results when used to treat patients with depression. Current research into music therapy and depression points to a significant and persistent reduction in patients' symptoms and to improvements in their quality of life. However, further research is needed with regard to the best methods of illustrating the effects of music therapy.

  6. Investigating Music Information Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberger, Lynnsey K.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation, titled "Investigating Music Information Objects," is a study of the nature, description, representations, and ideas related to music information objects (MIOs). This research study investigates how music practitioners from various traditions describe and conceptualize MIOs, using a theoretical framework to classify…

  7. Learning Science Using Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinski, Keith

    2011-01-01

    For thousands of years, people have used music to transfer information and narrate stories. The musical structure, consisting of words set to melodies in rhythmic patterns, made the content easier to remember. Researchers have investigated the long- and short-term effects of song on memory and found that music aided in the recall of information.…

  8. Saving Malta's music memory

    OpenAIRE

    Sant, Toni

    2013-01-01

    Maltese music is being lost. Along with it Malta loses its culture, way of life, and memories. Dr Toni Sant is trying to change this trend through the Malta Music Memory Project (M3P) http://www.um.edu.mt/think/saving-maltas-music-memory-2/

  9. World Music Ensemble: Kulintang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beegle, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    As instrumental world music ensembles such as steel pan, mariachi, gamelan and West African drums are becoming more the norm than the exception in North American school music programs, there are other world music ensembles just starting to gain popularity in particular parts of the United States. The kulintang ensemble, a drum and gong ensemble…

  10. Make a Little Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pica, Rae

    2009-01-01

    Music is vital to the development of language and listening skills. Both music and language arts consist of symbols and ideas; when the two content areas are used in combination, abstract concepts become more concrete. This article provides information that shows the role of music in helping children meet early learning standards, including those…

  11. Selling digital music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...

  12. Popular music from Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otte, Andreas Roed

    a sense of place in popular music. The second probes different strategies for co-branding popular music and Greenland. The third is concerned with music consumption patterns among Greenlandic youth. And the fourth article engages with an alternative form of nationalism found within the Nuuk underground...

  13. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  14. Nigerian Music Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Music Reveiw. ... Nigerian Music Review is aimed at the scholarly review of the developments in various musical practices in Nigeria. It considers well ... Performance practice and functions of local wine and beer parlor songs in rural Yoruba Communities in Ogbomoso · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  15. MUSIC OF ANTIQUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    BEAUTIFUL music is flowing out from the fingertips of a dozen old men. They hail from the remote snowcapped Yulong mountain of Lijiang, located in southwestern China’s Yunnan Province. The music that they play has a history of more than one thousand years. Performed in traditional costume with antique-looking musical instruments, the thoroughly original concert of ancient

  16. Music Education for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    This article argues that a systematic, developmental and comprehensive music education should be at the heart of every child's formal education within the state education system. The benefits of a music education are briefly explored before a presentation of recent research data that demonstrates a decline in music education as a result of poorly…

  17. AP Music Theory Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Matthew H.

    2016-01-01

    Some American high schools include Advanced Placement (AP) Music Theory within their course offerings. Students who pass the AP exam can receive college credit either as a music or humanities credit. An AP class, however, offers music students more than future college credit; it ultimately improves musicianship skills and promotes deeper…

  18. Mental imagery boosts music compositional creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sarah Shi Hui; Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2017-01-01

    We empirically investigated the effect of mental imagery on young children's music compositional creativity. Children aged 5 to 8 years participated in two music composition sessions. In the control session, participants based their composition on a motif that they had created using a sequence of letter names. In the mental imagery session, participants were given a picture of an animal and instructed to imagine the animal's sounds and movements, before incorporating what they had imagined into their composition. Six expert judges independently rated all music compositions on creativity based on subjective criteria (consensual assessment). Reliability analyses indicated that the expert judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in their ratings. The mental imagery compositions received significantly higher creativity ratings by the expert judges than did the control compositions. These results provide evidence for the effectiveness of mental imagery in enhancing young children's music compositional creativity.

  19. Mental imagery boosts music compositional creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Stephen Wee Hun

    2017-01-01

    We empirically investigated the effect of mental imagery on young children’s music compositional creativity. Children aged 5 to 8 years participated in two music composition sessions. In the control session, participants based their composition on a motif that they had created using a sequence of letter names. In the mental imagery session, participants were given a picture of an animal and instructed to imagine the animal’s sounds and movements, before incorporating what they had imagined into their composition. Six expert judges independently rated all music compositions on creativity based on subjective criteria (consensual assessment). Reliability analyses indicated that the expert judges demonstrated a high level of agreement in their ratings. The mental imagery compositions received significantly higher creativity ratings by the expert judges than did the control compositions. These results provide evidence for the effectiveness of mental imagery in enhancing young children’s music compositional creativity. PMID:28296965

  20. Temporal Feature Integration for Music Organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders

    2006-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis focuses on temporal feature integration for music organisation. Temporal feature integration is the process of combining all the feature vectors of a given time-frame into a single new feature vector in order to capture relevant information in the frame. Several existing methods...... for handling sequences of features are formulated in the temporal feature integration framework. Two datasets for music genre classification have been considered as valid test-beds for music organisation. Human evaluations of these, have been obtained to access the subjectivity on the datasets. Temporal...... ranking' approach is proposed for ranking the short-time features at larger time-scales according to their discriminative power in a music genre classification task. The multivariate AR (MAR) model has been proposed for temporal feature integration. It effectively models local dynamical structure...

  1. Music analysis and point-set compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, David

    2015-01-01

    COSIATEC, SIATECCompress and Forth’s algorithm are point-set compression algorithms developed for discovering repeated patterns in music, such as themes and motives that would be of interest to a music analyst. To investigate their effectiveness and versatility, these algorithms were evaluated...... on three analytical tasks that depend on the discovery of repeated patterns: classifying folk song melodies into tune families, discovering themes and sections in polyphonic music, and discovering subject and countersubject entries in fugues. Each algorithm computes a compressed encoding of a point......-set representation of a musical object in the form of a list of compact patterns, each pattern being given with a set of vectors indicating its occurrences. However, the algorithms adopt different strategies in their attempts to discover encodings that maximize compression.The best-performing algorithm on the folk...

  2. Neural basis of music imagery and the effect of musical expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2008-12-01

    Although the influence of long-term musical training on the processing of heard music has been the subject of many studies, the neural basis of music imagery and the effect of musical expertise remain insufficiently understood. By means of magnetoencephalography (MEG) we compared musicians and nonmusicians in a musical imagery task with familiar melodies. Subjects listened to the beginnings of the melodies, continued them in their imagination and then heard a tone which was either a correct or an incorrect further continuation of the melody. Only in musicians was the imagery of these melodies strong enough to elicit an early preattentive brain response to unexpected incorrect continuations of the imagined melodies; this response, the imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN), peaked approximately 175 ms after tone onset and was right-lateralized. In contrast to previous studies the iMMN was not based on a heard but on a purely imagined memory trace. Our results suggest that in trained musicians imagery and perception rely on similar neuronal correlates, and that the musicians' intense musical training has modified this network to achieve a superior ability for imagery and preattentive processing of music.

  3. Musical competence of preschool teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Grdešič, Irena

    2012-01-01

    My diploma deals with musical competencies of preschool teachers. Music education includes many different activities: singing various songs, playing different instruments, listening to music, being creative while listening to music and creating the music itself. It is of utmost importance that kindergarten teachers are capable of mediating music to the children and are able to incorporate it into the every day of their kindergarten activities. Music helps calm children down, it relaxes them, ...

  4. Music and Wellbeing in Everyday Life: An Exploratory Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-16

    Dec 16, 2016 ... how people experience and use music in everyday life in potentially beneficial ways to enhance subjective .... The random time schedule was divided into 15 one- .... Praying, worshipping, morning devotion, in church, .... have had higher energy levels and to have felt less bored after hearing music. Overall ...

  5. Hearing the Music in the Spectrum of Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout a general education course on sound and light aimed at music and art students, analogies between subjective perceptions of objective properties of sound and light waves are a recurring theme. Demonstrating that the pitch and loudness of musical sounds are related to the frequency and intensity of a sound wave is simple and students are…

  6. Justifying Music Instruction in American Public Schools: A Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    1995-01-01

    Charts the development of music education from early utilitarianism up to its current emphasis on aesthetic value. Recent attempts to pursue music education as an interdisciplinary subject have been limited due to budget cuts. Briefly discusses this financial crisis and suggests some sources of alternative funding. (MJP)

  7. Music Teachers' Attitudes toward Transgender Students and Supportive School Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Jason M.; Goff, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure music teachers' attitudes toward transgender individuals and toward school practices that support transgender students. Participants (N = 612) included men and women who teach a variety of music subjects in elementary, middle, and high schools, in urban, suburban, and rural areas. An online questionnaire…

  8. DW3 Classical Music Resources: Managing Mozart on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Yale

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the development of DW3 (Duke World Wide Web) Classical Music Resources, a vertical portal that comprises the most comprehensive collection of classical music resources on the Web with links to more than 2800 non-commercial pages/sites in over a dozen languages. Describes the hierarchical organization of subject headings and considers…

  9. Effects of Music Notation Reinforcement on Aural Memory for Melodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonviri, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of music notation reinforcement on aural memory for melodies. Participants were 41 undergraduate and graduate music majors in a within-subjects design. Experimental trials tested melodic memory through a sequence of target melodies, distraction melodies, and matched and unmatched answer choices.…

  10. A Functional MRI Study of Happy and Sad Emotions in Music with and without Lyrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattico, Elvira; Alluri, Vinoo; Bogert, Brigitte; Jacobsen, Thomas; Vartiainen, Nuutti; Nieminen, Sirke; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2011-01-01

    Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area), and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics for sad musical emotions

  11. A functional MRI study of happy and sad emotions in music with and without lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira eBrattico

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Musical emotions, such as happiness and sadness, have been investigated using instrumental music devoid of linguistic content. However, pop and rock, the most common musical genres, utilize lyrics for conveying emotions. Using participants’ self-selected musical excerpts, we studied their behavior and brain responses to elucidate how lyrics interact with musical emotion processing, as reflected by emotion recognition and activation of limbic areas involved in affective experience. We extracted samples from subjects’ selections of sad and happy pieces and sorted them according to the presence of lyrics. Acoustic feature analysis showed that music with lyrics differed from music without lyrics in spectral centroid, a feature related to perceptual brightness, whereas sad music with lyrics did not diverge from happy music without lyrics, indicating the role of other factors in emotion classification. Behavioral ratings revealed that happy music without lyrics induced stronger positive emotions than happy music with lyrics. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data while subjects performed affective tasks regarding the music. First, using ecological and acoustically variable stimuli, we broadened previous findings about the brain processing of musical emotions and of songs versus instrumental music. Additionally, contrasts between sad music with versus without lyrics recruited the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala, the claustrum, the putamen, the precentral gyrus, the medial and inferior frontal gyri (including Broca’s area, and the auditory cortex, while the reverse contrast produced no activations. Happy music without lyrics activated structures of the limbic system and the right pars opercularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, whereas auditory regions alone responded to happy music with lyrics. These findings point to the role of acoustic cues for the experience of happiness in music and to the importance of lyrics

  12. On music Therapy : Music and Healing

    OpenAIRE

    栗林, 文雄

    1996-01-01

    The theory of sound as energy is based on the relationship between music and positive humanfeelings. It was discussed the music therapy is effective in the care and cure of elderly with behavioral disorderssuch as senile dementia, and in patients in palliative medicine wards with cancer and in patientswith various kinds of mental disorders such as schizophrenia. alcohol. drug addiction and so on.

  13. Pleasant music as a countermeasure against visually induced motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Hecht, Heiko

    2014-05-01

    Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a well-known side-effect in virtual environments or simulators. However, effective behavioral countermeasures against VIMS are still sparse. In this study, we tested whether music can reduce the severity of VIMS. Ninety-three volunteers were immersed in an approximately 14-minute-long video taken during a bicycle ride. Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups, either including relaxing music, neutral music, stressful music, or no music. Sickness scores were collected using the Fast Motion Sickness Scale and the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire. Results showed an overall trend for relaxing music to reduce the severity of VIMS. When factoring in the subjective pleasantness of the music, a significant reduction of VIMS occurred only when the presented music was perceived as pleasant, regardless of the music type. In addition, we found a gender effect with women reporting more sickness than men. We assume that the presentation of pleasant music can be an effective, low-cost, and easy-to-administer method to reduce VIMS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yinger, Olivia Swedberg; Gooding, Lori

    2014-07-01

    This article summarizes the research on music therapy and music medicine for children and adolescents with diagnoses commonly treated by psychiatrists. Music therapy and music medicine are defined, effects of music on the brain are described, and music therapy research in psychiatric treatment is discussed. Music therapy research with specific child/adolescent populations is summarized, including disorders usually diagnosed in childhood, substance abuse, mood/anxiety disorders, and eating disorders. Clinical implications are listed, including suggestions for health care professionals seeking to use music medicine techniques. Strengths and weaknesses of music therapy treatment are discussed, as well as areas for future research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Dynamic Music and Immersion in the Action-Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnaires each time after playing a 3rd-person action-adventure in one of three conditions accounting for (1) dynamic music, (2) non-dynamic music/low arousal potential and (3) non-dynamic music/high arousal potential......Aiming to immerse players into a new realm of drama experience, a growing number of video games utilize interactive, ‘dynamic’ music that reacts adaptively to game events. Though little is known about the involved perceptual processes, the design rationale of enhanced immersive experiences is taken...... over by public discussion including scientific accounts, despite lacking empirical validation. The present paper intends to fill this gap by hypothesizing facilitatory effects of dynamic music on attention allocation in the matching of expected and incoming expressive characteristics of concurrent...

  16. Music therapy, emotions and the heart: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raglio, Alfredo; Oasi, Osmano; Gianotti, Marta; Bellandi, Daniele; Manzoni, Veronica; Goulene, Karine; Imbriani, Chiara; Badiale, Marco Stramba

    2012-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the control of cardiac function. It has been suggested that sound and music may have effects on the autonomic control of the heart inducing emotions, concomitantly with the activation of specific brain areas, i.e. the limbic area, and they may exert potential beneficial effects. This study is a prerequisite and defines a methodology to assess the relation between changes in cardiac physiological parameters such as heart rate, QT interval and their variability and the psychological responses to music therapy sessions. We assessed the cardiac physiological parameters and psychological responses to a music therapy session. ECG Holter recordings were performed before, during and after a music therapy session in 8 healthy individuals. The different behaviors of the music therapist and of the subjects have been analyzed with a specific music therapy assessment (Music Therapy Checklist). After the session mean heart rate decreased (p = 0.05), high frequency of heart rate variability tended to be higher and QTc variability tended to be lower. During music therapy session "affect attunements" have been found in all subjects but one. A significant emotional activation was associated to a higher dynamicity and variations of sound-music interactions. Our results may represent the rational basis for larger studies in diferent clinical conditions.

  17. Exploring Cultural Differences within a Pattern of Teaching "Musics": An International Comparative Study of Two Music Lessons on Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Simon

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a praxiological perspective on classroom practice with the subject matter music, in order to understand two music lessons that were recorded on video, one in Sweden and one in Germany. It introduces a procedure and its methodological implications, in order to reconstruct and compare the characteristics of and the cultural…

  18. Case Studies of Factors Affecting the Motivation of Musical High Achievers to Learn Music in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Bo Wah; McPherson, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on the personal beliefs and attitudes of highly motivated Hong Kong school-age subjects who studied music. A total of 24 participants who demonstrated high achievement and interest in learning music were interviewed. Content analysis of the interview data was performed to elucidate four topics: background information about the…

  19. The change of music preferences following the onset of a mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gebhardt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A psychiatric population (n=123 was examined on changed music preferences after onset of a mental disorder. Most patients did not change their previous music preference; they considered music helpful for their mental state, showed more attractivity and enforcement as personality traits and used music more for emotion modulation. Patients who have undergone a preference shift reported that music has impaired them during the time of illness; these patients showed less ego-strength, less conficence and less enforcement and used music less for arousal modulation. A third subgroup stopped listening to music completely after the onset of the mental disorder; these patients attached less importance to music and also reported that music has impaired their mental state. They showed more ego-strength and used music less for emotion modulation. The results suggest that the use of music in everyday life can be helpful as an emotion modulation strategy. However, some patients might need instructions how to use music in a functional, and not dysfunctional, way. Psychiatrists and psychotherapists as well as music therapists should be aware of emotion modulation strategies, subjective valence of music and personality traits of their patients.

  20. Effect of different musical tempo on post-exercise recovery in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitha, D; Mallikarjuna, Reddy N; Rao, Chythra

    2010-01-01

    The role of music in increasing the exercise performance is well recognised. There is very little information about effect of music on time taken for post exercise recovery. We examined the effect of music and different musical tempo on post exercise recovery time, following treadmill work. 30 volunteers (15 male, 15 female) subjected to isotonic exercise (submaximal treadmill work) on three consecutive days. They were allowed to rest in silence on the first day, rest by hearing slow music on second day and rest with fast music on third day. Parameters such as Pulse rate, blood pressure, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at predetermined intervals. Repeated measures ANOVA test showed that with slow music, recovery time of systolic blood pressure (SBP) (7.9 +/- 2.5), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (5.5 +/- 3.4) pulse rate recovery (PR) (8.0 +/- 2.3) and recovery from exertion (RPE) (7.7 +/- 2.5) were significantly faster when compared to both no music and fast music. The individual music preference made no significant difference in the relaxation time. The study concluded that music hastens post exercise recovery and slow music has greater relaxation effect than fast or no music, recovery time being independent of the gender and individual music preference.

  1. Assyrian Music and Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Maria Paim Pozzer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The sources about music in ancient Mesopotamia are numerous, there are hundreds of cuneiform tablets in Sumerian and Akkadian language, and also iconic representations of material culture have been rescued by archeology. The texts of varied nature show myths, staves and musical theories, displaying speci?c vocabulary about the act of musical performance, on musicians and musical instruments. In these documents, the rich iconography of war among the Assyrians is also revealing of musical practice, including in military contexts. There is evidence of foreign musicians within the Assyrian royal courts in the cuneiform tablets, in the stone

  2. Music Therapy for Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    SLUNEČKOVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of music therapy in the lives of seniors. The target of this thesis is to map the possibilities of using music therapy ways with seniors and to recommend a suitable music therapy resources on the basis of the research and evaluation of obtained dates. The theoretical part describes the term "the music therapy", e.g. concept, definition, types and forms, the development of music therapy, the history, methods and techniques. This age group is defined in t...

  3. Virtual Reality Musical Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serafin, Stefania; Erkut, Cumhur; Kojs, Juraj

    2016-01-01

    The rapid development and availability of low-cost technologies have created a wide interest in virtual reality. In the field of computer music, the term “virtual musical instruments” has been used for a long time to describe software simulations, extensions of existing musical instruments......, and ways to control them with new interfaces for musical expression. Virtual reality musical instruments (VRMIs) that include a simulated visual component delivered via a head-mounted display or other forms of immersive visualization have not yet received much attention. In this article, we present a field...

  4. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  5. Music as design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2012-01-01

    The incorporation of the sounds of the surrounding world in music is today a familiar phenomenon on the electronic music and audio art scenes, and to some extent also in contemporary music. It is rarer for a contemporary audio or visual artist to use music as the form-giving element for a semi......-realistic event or narrative. In a way the phenomenon can be compared to Puccini's operas, or to the ground-breaking dance performances for which the choreographer Pina Bauch became famous, where musicalization produced stylizations fo everyday events. Familiar, readable events were reinforced and relocated...

  6. Music Teachers and Music Therapists: Helping Children Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Allyson

    2003-01-01

    Provides background information on music therapy. Discusses how music therapy works in the public school setting and offers advice to music teachers. Explores music therapy and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, addressing the benefits of having access to music therapists. (CMK)

  7. From the Functions of Music to Music Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    To date, not much is known about how the functions of music relate to music preference. This article examines the basic hypothesis that the strength of preference for a given kind of music depends on the degree to which that kind of music serves the needs of the listener; that is, how well the respective functions of music are fulfilled. Study 1,…

  8. Music close to one's heart: heart rate variability with music, diagnostic with e-bra and smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Shantala; Kumar, Prashanth S.; Rai, Pratyush; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Music is a powerful elicitor of emotions. Emotions evoked by music, through autonomic correlates have been shown to cause significant modulation of parameters like heart rate and blood pressure. Consequently, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis can be a powerful tool to explore evidence based therapeutic functions of music and conduct empirical studies on effect of musical emotion on heart function. However, there are limitations with current studies. HRV analysis has produced variable results to different emotions evoked via music, owing to variability in the methodology and the nature of music chosen. Therefore, a pragmatic understanding of HRV correlates of musical emotion in individuals listening to specifically chosen music whilst carrying out day to day routine activities is needed. In the present study, we aim to study HRV as a single case study, using an e-bra with nano-sensors to record heart rate in real time. The e-bra developed previously, has several salient features that make it conducive for this study- fully integrated garment, dry electrodes for easy use and unrestricted mobility. The study considers two experimental conditions:- First, HRV will be recorded when there is no music in the background and second, when music chosen by the researcher and by the subject is playing in the background.

  9. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Gómez, Felipe N.; Véliz, Guillermo; Rojas, Marcos; Martínez, Cristián; Olmedo, Rubén; Panussis, Felipe; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Delgado, Carolina; Delano, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss...

  10. Musical Intensity in Affect Regulation: Uncovering Hope and Resilience Through Heavy Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hereld, Diana Christine

    2016-01-01

    This thesis discusses the nature of music’s impact on identity, subjectivity, and the self. To better understand music’s role in promoting hope and resilience, I pinpoint how heavy, intense, and highly emotive music applied over distinct listening practices impacts the regulation of affect and self-destructive impulses in individuals who suffer from trauma, mental illness, or self-destructive behavior. This research also investigates the characteristic of intensity often found in heavy music ...

  11. PECULIARITIES OF PROGRAMME MUSIC IN THE INSTRUMENTAL SUITE OF COMPOSERS FROM THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEREZOVICOVA TATIANA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the study of the instrumental suites written by native composers from the point of view of the realization of programme music. The author analyses different kinds of programme music such as genre, stylistic, pictorial (without any subject, with a generalized subject, with a concrete subject, as well as latent programme music, felt in some non-programme compositions declared and expressed through specific instrumental means.

  12. Music season coming soon

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin in collaboration with Julio Rosenfeld

    2012-01-01

    On 16 June, CERN’s music season will open with Music on the Lawn. The event is the CERN Music Club’s contribution to the Fete de la Musique and will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 1 from 2 p.m. to 8 p.m. The Hardronic Festival, CERN’s long-running rock festival, will be held on the evenings of 20 and 21 July in Prévessin, on the terrace behind Restaurant 3. If you would like to help with the organisation, please contact the Music Club by e-mail: music.club@cern.ch.   The Canettes Blues Band during the 2011 Hardronic Festival. (© Christoph Balle, 2010). Summer is coming, and along with it comes the music season. CERN will be hosting its two annual rock music concerts: Music on the Lawn and the Hardronic Festival. The two events are organised by the CERN Music Club, which has been sharing the enjoyment of good music with its numerous fans for many years. “Music on the Lawn was originally created so that the members of the Mus...

  13. Latin American Art Music in the Music History Curriculum: Taking Stock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Hess

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay surveys the teaching of Latin American art music in U.S. post-secondary education from the 1930s to the present. After a rush of enthusiasm during the Good Neighbor period (World War II, decades of indifference set in. After 2000, an increasing number of instructors began either (1 teaching the art music of Latin America in courses dedicated to all types of Latin America music or (2 incorporating the subject into existing courses on Western art music. Yet many instructors still omit Latin American art music, as do certain authors. In this essay, I question such a stance. Not only does Latin American art music offer a window into Latin American culture but it can help counteract persistent stereotypes about Latin America, a perspective that is all the more critical in light of recent demographic trends in the United States and recent political developments.

  14. The Music Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    http://www.njmt.no/bookreview_2006071.html "The music effect is not about a particular composer, musical style, geographic location, language, or performance group. It is, at once, about all of these" (p. 249). This book is written by two people with very different educational backgrounds. Dr...... into music physiology. We have already seen them working together in 2001 in Berger’s book Music Therapy, Sensory Integration and the Autistic Child published by Jessica Kingsley, and this time their collaboration results in a book that is about the attributes of scientific reality (physics) as embedded....... Schneck is a fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering and Dorita S. Berger, MA, is a Board Certified music therapist. They have in common that both play music and perform professionally, and together they integrate various theories from scientific reality and music aesthetic...

  15. Nation and Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Benedikte

    The last book Anthony D. Smith wrote before he died, and which will be published in Spring 2017, has the title Nation and Classical Music. Smith had for a long time been intrigued by the intimate relationship between the nation and classical music. At the most manifest level it involves...... them into their compositions thus challenging the romantic musical style searching for an authentic national musical expression. Against the backdrop of the extensive research carried out by Anthony Smith into the relationship between the nation and classical music, the present paper seeks to add...... cultural centers. In doing this, the paper seeks to unfold how composers channeled musical inspiration embedded in cultural environments that cut across national boundaries into national musical traditions thus catering to specific national audiences. The paper is written as a tribute to a great mentor...

  16. Selling digital music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non-exc......, the music industry should concentrate on alternative ways of creating profit such as selling access to listeners, concerts, merchandise, ringtones etc.......This paper considers the market for digital music. We claim that the combination of the MP3 format and peer-to-peer networks has made music non-excludable and this feature is essential for the understanding of the economics of the music market. We study optimal business models for selling non...

  17. Computational Music Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides an in-depth introduction and overview of current research in computational music analysis. Its seventeen chapters, written by leading researchers, collectively represent the diversity as well as the technical and philosophical sophistication of the work being done today...... on well-established theories in music theory and analysis, such as Forte's pitch-class set theory, Schenkerian analysis, the methods of semiotic analysis developed by Ruwet and Nattiez, and Lerdahl and Jackendoff's Generative Theory of Tonal Music. The book is divided into six parts, covering...... music analysis, the book provides an invaluable resource for researchers, teachers and students in music theory and analysis, computer science, music information retrieval and related disciplines. It also provides a state-of-the-art reference for practitioners in the music technology industry....

  18. Aesthetic responses to music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Istok, Eva; Brattico, Elvira; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We explored the content and structure of the cognitive, knowledge-based concept underlying aesthetic responses to music. To this aim, we asked 290 Finnish students to verbally associate the aesthetic value of music and to write down a list of appropriate adjectives within a given time limit....... No music was presented during the task. In addition, information about participants' musical background was collected. A variety of analysis techniques was used to determine the key results of our study. The adjective "beautiful" proved to be the core item of the concept under question. Interestingly......, the adjective "touching" was often listed together with "beautiful". In addition, we found music-specific vocabulary as well as adjectives related to emotions and mood states indicating that affective processes are an essential part of aesthetic responses to music. Differences between music experts and laymen...

  19. Effect of music on power, pain, depression and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedliecki, Sandra L; Good, Marion

    2006-06-01

    This paper reports a study testing the effect of music on power, pain, depression and disability, and comparing the effects of researcher-provided music (standard music) with subject-preferred music (patterning music). Chronic non-malignant pain is characterized by pain that persists in spite of traditional interventions. Previous studies have found music to be effective in decreasing pain and anxiety related to postoperative, procedural and cancer pain. However, the effect of music on power, pain, depression, and disability in working age adults with chronic non-malignant pain has not been investigated. A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out with a convenience sample of 60 African American and Caucasian people aged 21-65 years with chronic non-malignant pain. They were randomly assigned to a standard music group (n = 22), patterning music group (n = 18) or control group (n = 20). Pain was measured with the McGill Pain Questionnaire short form; depression was measured with the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression scale; disability was measured with the Pain Disability Index; and power was measured with the Power as Knowing Participation in Change Tool (version II). The music groups had more power and less pain, depression and disability than the control group, but there were no statistically significant differences between the two music interventions. The model predicting both a direct and indirect effect for music was supported. Nurses can teach patients how to use music to enhance the effects of analgesics, decrease pain, depression and disability, and promote feelings of power.

  20. Music holographic physiotherapy by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Changhuan

    1996-09-01

    Based on the relationship between music and nature, the paper compares laser and light with music sound on the principles of synergetics, describes music physically and objectively, and proposes a music holographic therapy by laser. Maybe it will have certain effects on mechanism study and clinical practice of the music therapy.

  1. Film Music. Factfile No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsas, Diana, Ed.; And Others

    Organizations listed here with descriptive information include film music clubs and music guilds and associations. These are followed by a representative list of schools offering film music and/or film sound courses. Sources are listed for soundtrack recordings, sound effects/production music, films on film music, and oral history programs. The…

  2. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  3. The association of noise sensitivity with music listening, training, and aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kliuchko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After intensive, long-term musical training, the auditory system of a musician is specifically tuned to perceive musical sounds. We wished to find out whether a musician′s auditory system also develops increased sensitivity to any sound of everyday life, experiencing them as noise. For this purpose, an online survey, including questionnaires on noise sensitivity, musical background, and listening tests for assessing musical aptitude, was administered to 197 participants in Finland and Italy. Subjective noise sensitivity (assessed with the Weinstein′s Noise Sensitivity Scale was analyzed for associations with musicianship, musical aptitude, weekly time spent listening to music, and the importance of music in each person′s life (or music importance. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their musical expertise: Nonmusicians (N = 103, amateur musicians (N = 44, and professional musicians (N = 50. The results showed that noise sensitivity did not depend on musical expertise or performance on musicality tests or the amount of active (attentive listening to music. In contrast, it was associated with daily passive listening to music, so that individuals with higher noise sensitivity spent less time in passive (background listening to music than those with lower sensitivity to noise. Furthermore, noise-sensitive respondents rated music as less important in their life than did individuals with lower sensitivity to noise. The results demonstrate that the special sensitivity of the auditory system derived from musical training does not lead to increased irritability from unwanted sounds. However, the disposition to tolerate contingent musical backgrounds in everyday life depends on the individual′s noise sensitivity.

  4. [Emotional response to music by postlingually-deafened adult cochlear implant users].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Dong, Ruijuan; Zhou, Yun; Li, Jing; Qi, Beier; Liu, Bo

    2012-10-01

    To assess the emotional response to music by postlingually-deafened adult cochlear implant users. Munich music questionnaire (MUMU) was used to match the music experience and the motivation of use of music between 12 normal-hearing and 12 cochlear implant subjects. Emotion rating test in Musical Sounds in Cochlear Implants (MuSIC) test battery was used to assess the emotion perception ability for both normal-hearing and cochlear implant subjects. A total of 15 pieces of music phases were used. Responses were given by selecting the rating scales from 1 to 10. "1" represents "very sad" feeling, and "10" represents "very happy feeling. In comparison with normal-hearing subjects, 12 cochlear implant subjects made less active use of music for emotional purpose. The emotion ratings for cochlear implant subjects were similar to normal-hearing subjects, but with large variability. Post-lingually deafened cochlear implant subjects on average performed similarly in emotion rating tasks relative to normal-hearing subjects, but their active use of music for emotional purpose was obviously less than normal-hearing subjects.

  5. Emotions induced by operatic music: psychophysiological effects of music, plot, and acting: a scientist's tribute to Maria Callas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balteş, Felicia Rodica; Avram, Julia; Miclea, Mircea; Miu, Andrei C

    2011-06-01

    Operatic music involves both singing and acting (as well as rich audiovisual background arising from the orchestra and elaborate scenery and costumes) that multiply the mechanisms by which emotions are induced in listeners. The present study investigated the effects of music, plot, and acting performance on emotions induced by opera. There were three experimental conditions: (1) participants listened to a musically complex and dramatically coherent excerpt from Tosca; (2) they read a summary of the plot and listened to the same musical excerpt again; and (3) they re-listened to music while they watched the subtitled film of this acting performance. In addition, a control condition was included, in which an independent sample of participants succesively listened three times to the same musical excerpt. We measured subjective changes using both dimensional, and specific music-induced emotion questionnaires. Cardiovascular, electrodermal, and respiratory responses were also recorded, and the participants kept track of their musical chills. Music listening alone elicited positive emotion and autonomic arousal, seen in faster heart rate, but slower respiration rate and reduced skin conductance. Knowing the (sad) plot while listening to the music a second time reduced positive emotions (peacefulness, joyful activation), and increased negative ones (sadness), while high autonomic arousal was maintained. Watching the acting performance increased emotional arousal and changed its valence again (from less positive/sad to transcendent), in the context of continued high autonomic arousal. The repeated exposure to music did not by itself induce this pattern of modifications. These results indicate that the multiple musical and dramatic means involved in operatic performance specifically contribute to the genesis of music-induced emotions and their physiological correlates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Amplified music exposure carries risks to hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Valéria Gomes; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Costa Pires; Tauil, Pedro Luíz; de Castro Silva, Isabella Monteiro; Sampaio, André Luiz Lopes

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the association between changes in the outer hair cells and exposure to amplified music in a group of high-school students. In this retrospective, case-control study, 86 subjects underwent audiometry, immittance audiometry, and distortion-product otoacoustic emission tests. The subjects were questioned about their listening habits and divided into 2 groups: exposed and unexposed. Most of the subjects had reduced function in their outer hair cells, mainly beginning at 8 kHz. Among 60 subjects-30 cases and 30 controls-75% were considered exposed and 25% unexposed. The exposed subjects were 9.33 times more likely to have altered outer hair cells than the unexposed subjects were. Exposure to amplified music is associated with reduced function in the hair cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Music is Beneficial for Awake Craniotomy Patients: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadavji-Mithani, Radhika; Venkatraghavan, Lashmi; Bernstein, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Patients undergoing awake craniotomy may experience high levels of stress. Minimizing anxiety benefits patients and surgeons. Music has many therapeutic effects in altering human mood and emotion. Tonality of music as conveyed by composition in major or minor keys can have an impact on patients' emotions and thoughts. Assessing the effects of listening to major and minor key musical pieces on patients undergoing awake craniotiomy could help in the design of interventions to alleviate anxiety, stress and tension. Twenty-nine patients who were undergoing awake craniotomy were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups: Group 1 subjects listened to major key music and Group 2 listened to minor key compositions. Subjects completed a demographics questionnaire, a pre- and post-operative Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and a semi-structured open-ended interview. RESULTS were analyzed using modified thematic analysis through open and axial coding. Overall, patients enjoyed the music regardless of the key distinctions and stated they benefitted from listening to the music. No adverse reactions to the music were found. Subjects remarked that the music made them feel more at ease and less anxious before, during and after their procedure. Patients preferred either major key or minor key music but not a combination of both. Those who preferred major key pieces said it was on the basis of tonality while the individuals who selected minor key pieces stated that tempo of the music was the primary factor. Overall, listening to music selections was beneficial for the patients. Future work should further investigate the effects of audio interventions in awake surgery through narrative means.

  8. Nonlinearities and synchronization in musical acoustics and music psychology

    CERN Document Server

    Bader, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinearities are a crucial and founding principle in nearly all musical systems, may they be musical instruments, timbre or rhythm perception and production, or neural networks of music perception. This volume gives an overview about present and past research in these fields. In Musical Acoustics, on the one hand the nonlinearities in musical instruments often produce the musically interesting features. On the other, musical instruments are nonlinear by nature, and tone production is the result of synchronization and self-organization within the instruments. Furthermore, as nearly all musical instruments are driven by impulses an Impulse Pattern Formulation (IPF) is suggested, an iterative framework holding for all musical instruments. It appears that this framework is able to reproduce the complex and perceptionally most salient initial transients of musical instruments. In Music Psychology, nonlinearities are present in all areas of musical features, like pitch, timbre, or rhythm perception. In terms of r...

  9. The Music Industry Conference Guide for Music Educators. A Supplement to the Music Educators Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This supplement is a comprehensive guide to the music industry designed for music teachers. Included are tips for contacting music businesses and suggestions on ordering music, robes, instruments, computer software, and other supplies. Includes an annotated directory of Music Industry Conference members. (JDH)

  10. Preservice Music Teachers' Attitudes toward Popular Music in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, D. Gregory; Gooding, Lori F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine preservice music educators' attitudes toward popular music in the music classroom. On a survey instrument designed by the investigators, participants ("N" = 82) rated (a) the effectiveness of popular music in addressing the National Standards for Music Education, (b) the appropriateness of popular…

  11. Musicality Development Among Primary School Pupils in Music Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vilde, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research goal. To explore the structure of musicality, to examine components that characterize musicality among primary school pupils and the pedagogic logic of its development during music lessons in primary school. As a result of the theoretical study, characterizing components and criteria of musicality among primary school pupils were researched and described and the description of musicality was broadened. The created model for music studies for facilitating the developme...

  12. Music for insomnia in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Kira V; Koenig, Julian; Jennum, Poul; Vuust, Peter

    2015-08-13

    Insomnia is a common sleep disorder in modern society. It causes reduced quality of life and is associated with impairments in physical and mental health. Listening to music is widely used as a sleep aid, but it remains unclear if it can actually improve insomnia in adults. To assess the effects of listening to music on insomnia in adults and to assess the influence of specific variables that may moderate the effect. We searched CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, nine other databases and two trials registers in May 2015. In addition, we handsearched specific music therapy journals, reference lists of included studies, and contacted authors of published studies to identify additional studies eligible for inclusion, including any unpublished or ongoing trials. Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared the effects of listening to music with no treatment or treatment-as-usual on sleep improvement in adults with insomnia. Two authors independently screened abstracts, selected studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data from all studies eligible for inclusion. Data on pre-defined outcome measures were subjected to meta-analyses when consistently reported by at least two studies. We undertook meta-analyses using both fixed-effect and random-effects models. Heterogeneity across included studies was assessed using the I² statistic. We included six studies comprising a total of 314 participants. The studies examined the effect of listening to pre-recorded music daily, for 25 to 60 minutes, for a period of three days to five weeks.Based on the Grades of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, we judged the evidence from five studies that measured the effect of music listening on sleep quality to be of moderate quality. We judged the evidence from one study that examined other aspects of sleep (see below) to be of low quality. We downgraded the quality of the evidence mainly because of limitations in

  13. Mentalising music in frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Laura E; Blezat, Alice; Nicholas, Jennifer; Omar, Rohani; Golden, Hannah L; Mahoney, Colin J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    Despite considerable recent interest, the biological basis and clinical diagnosis of behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) pose unresolved problems. Mentalising (the cognitive capacity to interpret the behaviour of oneself and others in terms of mental states) is impaired as a prominent feature of bvFTD, consistent with involvement of brain regions including ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), orbitofrontal cortex and anterior temporal lobes. Here, we investigated mentalising ability in a cohort of patients with bvFTD using a novel modality: music. We constructed a novel neuropsychological battery requiring attribution of affective mental or non-mental associations to musical stimuli. Mentalising performance of patients with bvFTD (n = 20) was assessed in relation to matched healthy control subjects (n = 20); patients also had a comprehensive assessment of behaviour and general neuropsychological functions. Neuroanatomical correlates of performance on the experimental tasks were investigated using voxel-based morphometry of patients' brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Compared to healthy control subjects, patients showed impaired ability to attribute mental states but not non-mental characteristics to music, and this deficit correlated with performance on a standard test of social inference and with carer ratings of patients' empathic capacity, but not with other potentially relevant measures of general neuropsychological function. Mentalising performance in the bvFTD group was associated with grey matter changes in anterior temporal lobe and ventro-medial PFC. These findings suggest that music can represent surrogate mental states and the ability to construct such mental representations is impaired in bvFTD, with potential implications for our understanding of the biology of bvFTD and human social cognition more broadly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. From music-beat to heart-beat: a journey in the complex interactions between music, brain and heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2011-08-01

    Although the potential influence of music in eliciting organic reactions has been appreciated since the ancient Assyrian and Greek cultures, its relationship with body responses has been believed for long to belong to the field of magic. Growing experimental evidence now attests that some kind of music might indeed modulate several cardiac and neurological functions, as well as trigger biochemical measurable stress-reducing effects in certain individuals, mostly depending on their subjective musical education. On this basis, music has been increasingly used as a therapeutic tool in the treatment of different diseases in healthy and ill subjects over recent years (e.g., the so called "Mozart effect"), although the underlying scientific background is still poorly understood. The aim of this article is to review the current scientific evidences about the complex and multifaceted interactions between music and human biology. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Is memory for music special?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Matthew D

    2009-07-01

    Although psychologists since Hermann Ebbinghaus have studied memory, research in this area has focused on visual and verbal stimuli with little attention paid to music. This bias is surprising because of the ubiquity of music in human cultures across history as well as current cultural beliefs that memory for music is "special." This paper examines the question of whether memory for music is special by addressing two related questions: First, do cultural beliefs about the mnemonic power of music stand up to empirical test? Second, can theories designed to explain memory for non-musical stimuli be applied to musical stimuli? A review of the literature suggests that music is special in some circumstances but not others and that some theories designed to explain cognitive processing of linguistic stimuli apply reasonably well to musical stimuli. Thus, although the question of whether memory for music is special remains open, the unique structure of musical stimuli strongly suggests that memory for music is indeed special.

  16. Pain, music creativity and music therapy in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, C C

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the music therapy literature yields numerous reports to support the role of music in the alleviation of pain in palliative care. Four theoretical perspectives that support why many patients report reduced pain sensation after music therapy include: the psychological relationship between music and pain; the psychophysiological theory; spinal mechanisms involved in pain modulation; and the role of endorphins. Considerations significant to the use of music in pain relief include how music, used inappropriately, can aggravate pain sensation. Case studies, which include the use of creative music therapy techniques, point to the efficacy of music therapy in alleviating the pain experiences of both palliative care patients and their significant others.

  17. Musical cognition in Alzheimer's disease: application of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Rendace, Lidia; Parisi, Francesco; D'Antonio, Fabrizia; Imbriano, Letizia; de Lena, Carlo; Trebbastoni, Alessandro

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess certain musical abilities in 30 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 30 healthy controls by using the complete version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). This battery evaluates melodic (scale, contour, and interval) and temporal (rhythm and meter) perception of music and musical memory. We found that altered musical processing is a common feature in AD. Despite that, AD subjects show partially spared abilities for temporal organization of music, though not for melodic perception and musical memory. This peculiar dysfunctional pattern could depend on the neurodegenerative involvement of some specific areas for music perception and memory in the brains of AD patients. Further studies are needed to investigate the usefulness of additional musical tests like the MBEA on larger samples to confirm our preliminary data. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Music Perception and Appraisal: Cochlear Implant Users and Simulated CI Listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rose; Uchanski, Rosalie M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The inability to hear music well may contribute to decreased quality of life for cochlear implant (CI) users. Researchers have reported recently on the generally poor ability of CI users’ to perceive music, and a few researchers have reported on the enjoyment of music by CI users. However, the relation between music perception skills and music enjoyment is much less explored. Only one study has attempted to predict CI users’ enjoyment and perception of music from the users’ demographic variables and other perceptual skills (Gfeller et al., 2008). Gfeller’s results yielded different predictive relationships for music perception and music enjoyment, and the relationships were weak, at best. Purpose The first goal of this study is to clarify the nature and relationship between music perception skills and musical enjoyment for CI users, by employing a battery of music tests. The second goal is to determine whether normal hearing (NH) subjects, listening with a CI-simulation, can be used as a model to represent actual CI users for either music enjoyment ratings or music perception tasks. Research Design A prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Original music stimuli (unprocessed) were presented to CI users, and music stimuli processed with CI-simulation software were presented to twenty NH listeners (CIsim). As a control, original music stimuli were also presented to five other NH listeners. All listeners appraised twenty-four musical excerpts, performed music perception tests, and filled out a musical background questionnaire. Music perception tests were the Appreciation of Music in Cochlear Implantees (AMICI), Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), Melodic Contour Identification (MCI), and University of Washington Clinical Assessment of Music Perception (UW-CAMP). Study Sample Twenty-five NH adults (22 – 56 years old), recruited from the local and research communities, participated in the study. Ten adult CI users (46 – 80

  19. Music perception and appraisal: cochlear implant users and simulated cochlear implant listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rose; Uchanski, Rosalie M

    2012-05-01

    The inability to hear music well may contribute to decreased quality of life for cochlear implant (CI) users. Researchers have reported recently on the generally poor ability of CI users to perceive music, and a few researchers have reported on the enjoyment of music by CI users. However, the relation between music perception skills and music enjoyment is much less explored. Only one study has attempted to predict CI users' enjoyment and perception of music from the users' demographic variables and other perceptual skills (Gfeller et al, 2008). Gfeller's results yielded different predictive relationships for music perception and music enjoyment, and the relationships were weak, at best. The first goal of this study is to clarify the nature and relationship between music perception skills and musical enjoyment for CI users, by employing a battery of music tests. The second goal is to determine whether normal hearing (NH) subjects, listening with a CI simulation, can be used as a model to represent actual CI users for either music enjoyment ratings or music perception tasks. A prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Original music stimuli (unprocessed) were presented to CI users, and music stimuli processed with CI-simulation software were presented to 20 NH listeners (CIsim). As a control, original music stimuli were also presented to five other NH listeners. All listeners appraised 24 musical excerpts, performed music perception tests, and filled out a musical background questionnaire. Music perception tests were the Appreciation of Music in Cochlear Implantees (AMICI), Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA), Melodic Contour Identification (MCI), and University of Washington Clinical Assessment of Music Perception (UW-CAMP). Twenty-five NH adults (22-56 yr old), recruited from the local and research communities, participated in the study. Ten adult CI users (46-80 yr old), recruited from the patient population of the local adult cochlear implant

  20. A categorical approach to neurodynamical modelling of musical tonality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadrava, Michal; Hlinka, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, suppl. 1 (2015), P101 ISSN 1471-2202 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23940S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : neurodynamics * music * tonality * category theory Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  1. Genome-wide copy number variation analysis in extended families and unrelated individuals characterized for musical aptitude and creativity in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa; Kanduri, Chakravarthi; Oikkonen, Jaana; Buck, Gemma; Blancher, Christine; Raijas, Pirre; Karma, Kai; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Järvelä, Irma

    2013-01-01

    Music perception and practice represent complex cognitive functions of the human brain. Recently, evidence for the molecular genetic background of music related phenotypes has been obtained. In order to further elucidate the molecular background of musical phenotypes we analyzed genome wide copy number variations (CNVs) in five extended pedigrees and in 172 unrelated subjects characterized for musical aptitude and creative functions in music. Musical aptitude was defined by combination of the scores of three music tests (COMB scores): auditory structuring ability, Seashores test for pitch and for time. Data on creativity in music (herein composing, improvising and/or arranging music) was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire.Several CNVRs containing genes that affect neurodevelopment, learning and memory were detected. A deletion at 5q31.1 covering the protocadherin-α gene cluster (Pcdha 1-9) was found co-segregating with low music test scores (COMB) in both sample sets. Pcdha is involved in neural migration, differentiation and synaptogenesis. Creativity in music was found to co-segregate with a duplication covering glucose mutarotase gene (GALM) at 2p22. GALM has influence on serotonin release and membrane trafficking of the human serotonin transporter. Interestingly, genes related to serotonergic systems have been shown to associate not only with psychiatric disorders but also with creativity and music perception. Both, Pcdha and GALM, are related to the serotonergic systems influencing cognitive and motor functions, important for music perception and practice. Finally, a 1.3 Mb duplication was identified in a subject with low COMB scores in the region previously linked with absolute pitch (AP) at 8q24. No differences in the CNV burden was detected among the high/low music test scores or creative/non-creative groups. In summary, CNVs and genes found in this study are related to cognitive functions. Our result suggests new candidate genes for music perception

  2. Genome-wide copy number variation analysis in extended families and unrelated individuals characterized for musical aptitude and creativity in music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisa Ukkola-Vuoti

    Full Text Available Music perception and practice represent complex cognitive functions of the human brain. Recently, evidence for the molecular genetic background of music related phenotypes has been obtained. In order to further elucidate the molecular background of musical phenotypes we analyzed genome wide copy number variations (CNVs in five extended pedigrees and in 172 unrelated subjects characterized for musical aptitude and creative functions in music. Musical aptitude was defined by combination of the scores of three music tests (COMB scores: auditory structuring ability, Seashores test for pitch and for time. Data on creativity in music (herein composing, improvising and/or arranging music was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire.Several CNVRs containing genes that affect neurodevelopment, learning and memory were detected. A deletion at 5q31.1 covering the protocadherin-α gene cluster (Pcdha 1-9 was found co-segregating with low music test scores (COMB in both sample sets. Pcdha is involved in neural migration, differentiation and synaptogenesis. Creativity in music was found to co-segregate with a duplication covering glucose mutarotase gene (GALM at 2p22. GALM has influence on serotonin release and membrane trafficking of the human serotonin transporter. Interestingly, genes related to serotonergic systems have been shown to associate not only with psychiatric disorders but also with creativity and music perception. Both, Pcdha and GALM, are related to the serotonergic systems influencing cognitive and motor functions, important for music perception and practice. Finally, a 1.3 Mb duplication was identified in a subject with low COMB scores in the region previously linked with absolute pitch (AP at 8q24. No differences in the CNV burden was detected among the high/low music test scores or creative/non-creative groups. In summary, CNVs and genes found in this study are related to cognitive functions. Our result suggests new candidate genes for

  3. Genome-Wide Copy Number Variation Analysis in Extended Families and Unrelated Individuals Characterized for Musical Aptitude and Creativity in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikkonen, Jaana; Buck, Gemma; Blancher, Christine; Raijas, Pirre; Karma, Kai; Lähdesmäki, Harri; Järvelä, Irma

    2013-01-01

    Music perception and practice represent complex cognitive functions of the human brain. Recently, evidence for the molecular genetic background of music related phenotypes has been obtained. In order to further elucidate the molecular background of musical phenotypes we analyzed genome wide copy number variations (CNVs) in five extended pedigrees and in 172 unrelated subjects characterized for musical aptitude and creative functions in music. Musical aptitude was defined by combination of the scores of three music tests (COMB scores): auditory structuring ability, Seashores test for pitch and for time. Data on creativity in music (herein composing, improvising and/or arranging music) was surveyed using a web-based questionnaire. Several CNVRs containing genes that affect neurodevelopment, learning and memory were detected. A deletion at 5q31.1 covering the protocadherin-α gene cluster (Pcdha 1-9) was found co-segregating with low music test scores (COMB) in both sample sets. Pcdha is involved in neural migration, differentiation and synaptogenesis. Creativity in music was found to co-segregate with a duplication covering glucose mutarotase gene (GALM) at 2p22. GALM has influence on serotonin release and membrane trafficking of the human serotonin transporter. Interestingly, genes related to serotonergic systems have been shown to associate not only with psychiatric disorders but also with creativity and music perception. Both, Pcdha and GALM, are related to the serotonergic systems influencing cognitive and motor functions, important for music perception and practice. Finally, a 1.3 Mb duplication was identified in a subject with low COMB scores in the region previously linked with absolute pitch (AP) at 8q24. No differences in the CNV burden was detected among the high/low music test scores or creative/non-creative groups. In summary, CNVs and genes found in this study are related to cognitive functions. Our result suggests new candidate genes for music

  4. Tangible music composer for children

    OpenAIRE

    Francesconi, Juan Ignacio; Larrea, Martín Leonardo; Manresa-Yee, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Music education should start from an early age. Theories of child development and learning emphasize the importance of manipulating physical objects. Music learning and teaching has traditionally been carried out mainly by visual and auditory activities. With this in mind, we combine music learning with tangible interfaces to stimulate senses toward music in children over six years old. We present a token+constraint tangible interface for children to learn musical skills such as musical notes...

  5. Listening level of music through headphones in train car noise environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2012-09-01

    Although portable music devices are useful for passing time on trains, exposure to music using headphones for long periods carries the risk of damaging hearing acuity. The aim of this study is to examine the listening level of music through headphones in the noisy environment of a train car. Eight subjects adjusted the volume to an optimum level (L(music)) in a simulated noisy train car environment. In Experiment I, the effects of noise level (L(train)) and type of train noise (rolling, squealing, impact, and resonance) were examined. Spectral and temporal characteristics were found to be different according to the train noise type. In Experiment II, the effects of L(train) and type of music (five vocal and five instrumental music) were examined. Each music type had a different pitch strength and spectral centroid, and each was evaluated by φ(1) and W(φ(0)), respectively. These were classified as factors of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the music. Results showed that L(music) increased as L(train) increased in both experiments, while the type of music greatly influenced L(music). The type of train noise, however, only slightly influenced L(music). L(music) can be estimated using L(train) and the ACF factors φ(1) and W(φ(0)).

  6. Musical Imagery Involves Wernicke's Area in Bilateral and Anti-Correlated Network Interactions in Musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yizhen; Chen, Gang; Wen, Haiguang; Lu, Kun-Han; Liu, Zhongming

    2017-12-06

    Musical imagery is the human experience of imagining music without actually hearing it. The neural basis of this mental ability is unclear, especially for musicians capable of engaging in accurate and vivid musical imagery. Here, we created a visualization of an 8-minute symphony as a silent movie and used it as real-time cue for musicians to continuously imagine the music for repeated and synchronized sessions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The activations and networks evoked by musical imagery were compared with those elicited by the subjects directly listening to the same music. Musical imagery and musical perception resulted in overlapping activations at the anterolateral belt and Wernicke's area, where the responses were correlated with the auditory features of the music. Whereas Wernicke's area interacted within the intrinsic auditory network during musical perception, it was involved in much more complex networks during musical imagery, showing positive correlations with the dorsal attention network and the motor-control network and negative correlations with the default-mode network. Our results highlight the important role of Wernicke's area in forming vivid musical imagery through bilateral and anti-correlated network interactions, challenging the conventional view of segregated and lateralized processing of music versus language.

  7. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eRosslau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions or expression (music production abilities, and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a right-sided stroke, patients with a left-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  8. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslau, Ken; Steinwede, Daniel; Schröder, C; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Dobel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions) or expression (music production abilities), and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a left-sided stroke, patients with a right-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  9. Keeping brains young with making music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogenmoser, Lars; Kernbach, Julius; Schlaug, Gottfried; Gaser, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Music-making is a widespread leisure and professional activity that has garnered interest over the years due to its effect on brain and cognitive development and its potential as a rehabilitative and restorative therapy of brain dysfunctions. We investigated whether music-making has a potential age-protecting effect on the brain. For this, we studied anatomical magnetic resonance images obtained from three matched groups of subjects who differed in their lifetime dose of music-making activities (i.e., professional musicians, amateur musicians, and non-musicians). For each subject, we calculated a so-called BrainAGE score which corresponds to the discrepancy (in years) between chronological age and the "age of the brain", with negative values reflecting an age-decelerating brain and positive values an age-accelerating brain, respectively. The index of "brain age" was estimated using a machine-learning algorithm that was trained in a large independent sample to identify anatomical correlates of brain-aging. Compared to non-musicians, musicians overall had lower BrainAGE scores, with amateur musicians having the lowest scores suggesting that music-making has an age-decelerating effect on the brain. Unlike the amateur musicians, the professional musicians showed a positive correlation between their BrainAGE scores and years of music-making, possibly indicating that engaging more intensely in just one otherwise enriching activity might not be as beneficial than if the activity is one of several that an amateur musician engages in. Intense music-making activities at a professional level could also lead to stress-related interferences and a less enriched environment than that of amateur musicians, possibly somewhat diminishing the otherwise positive effect of music-making.

  10. Materiality for Musical Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindell, Rikard; Tahiroğlu, Koray; Riis, Morten S.

    2016-01-01

    Nordic universities. Electronic music instrument makers participated in providing the course. In eleven days the students designed and built interfaces for musical expressions , composed a piece, and performed at the Norberg electronic music festival. The students explored the relationship between......We organised an elven day intense course in materiality for musical expressions to explore underlying principles of New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) in higher education. We grounded the course in different aspects of ma-teriality and gathered interdisciplinary student teams from three...... technology and possible musical expression with a strong connection to culture and place. The emphasis on performance provided closure and motivated teams to move forward in their design and artistic processes. On the basis of the course we discuss an interdisciplinary NIME course syllabus, and we infer...

  11. Music therapy in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review......, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement...... in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings...

  12. Principles of musical acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartmann, William M

    2013-01-01

    Principles of Musical Acoustics focuses on the basic principles in the science and technology of music. Musical examples and specific musical instruments demonstrate the principles. The book begins with a study of vibrations and waves, in that order. These topics constitute the basic physical properties of sound, one of two pillars supporting the science of musical acoustics. The second pillar is the human element, the physiological and psychological aspects of acoustical science. The perceptual topics include loudness, pitch, tone color, and localization of sound. With these two pillars in place, it is possible to go in a variety of directions. The book treats in turn, the topics of room acoustics, audio both analog and digital, broadcasting, and speech. It ends with chapters on the traditional musical instruments, organized by family. The mathematical level of this book assumes that the reader is familiar with elementary algebra. Trigonometric functions, logarithms and powers also appear in the book, but co...

  13. Music induces universal emotion-related psychophysiological responses: comparing Canadian listeners to Congolese Pygmies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egermann, Hauke; Fernando, Nathalie; Chuen, Lorraine; McAdams, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mebenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29–99 s in duration in random order (eight from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts). For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface), peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation). Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre) were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music. PMID:25620935

  14. Music Induces Universal Emotion-Related Psychophysiological Responses: Comparing Canadian Listeners To Congolese Pygmies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke eEgermann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective and psychophysiological emotional responses to music from two different cultures were compared within these two cultures. Two identical experiments were conducted: the first in the Congolese rainforest with an isolated population of Mbenzélé Pygmies without any exposure to Western music and culture, the second with a group of Western music listeners, with no experience with Congolese music. Forty Pygmies and 40 Canadians listened in pairs to 19 music excerpts of 29 to 99 seconds in duration in random order (8 from the Pygmy population and 11 Western instrumental excerpts. For both groups, emotion components were continuously measured: subjective feeling (using a two- dimensional valence and arousal rating interface, peripheral physiological activation, and facial expression. While Pygmy music was rated as positive and arousing by Pygmies, ratings of Western music by Westerners covered the range from arousing to calming and from positive to negative. Comparing psychophysiological responses to emotional qualities of Pygmy music across participant groups showed no similarities. However, Western stimuli, rated as high and low arousing by Canadians, created similar responses in both participant groups (with high arousal associated with increases in subjective and physiological activation. Several low-level acoustical features of the music presented (tempo, pitch, and timbre were shown to affect subjective and physiological arousal similarly in both cultures. Results suggest that while the subjective dimension of emotional valence might be mediated by cultural learning, changes in arousal might involve a more basic, universal response to low-level acoustical characteristics of music.

  15. What makes us like music?

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Thomas; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Why do we like the music we like and why do different people like different kinds of music? Existing models try to explain music preference as an interplay of musical features, the characteristics of the listener, and the listening context. Hereby, they refer to short-term preference decisions for a given piece of music rather than to the question why we listen to music at all and why we select a particular musical style. In this paper, it is hypothesized that the motivation for music listeni...

  16. Musical ensembles in Ancient Mesapotamia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.; Finkel, I.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of musical instruments from ancient Mesopotamia by comparing musical ensembles attested in Sumerian and Akkadian texts with depicted ensembles. Lexicographical contributions to the Sumerian and Akkadian lexicon.

  17. Evaluating music emotion recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem with nearly all work in music genre recognition (MGR)is that evaluation lacks validity with respect to the principal goals of MGR. This problem also occurs in the evaluation of music emotion recognition (MER). Standard approaches to evaluation, though easy to implement, do...... not reliably differentiate between recognizing genre or emotion from music, or by virtue of confounding factors in signals (e.g., equalization). We demonstrate such problems for evaluating an MER system, and conclude with recommendations....

  18. Nigerian Art Music

    OpenAIRE

    Omojola, Bode; Omibiyi-Obidike, Mosunmola

    2013-01-01

    ART MUSIC IN NIGERIA is the most comprehensive book on the works of modem Nigerian composers who have been influenced by European classical music. Relying on over 500 scores, archival materials and interviews with many Nigerian composers, the author traces the historical developments of this new idiom in Nigeria and provides a critical and detailed analysis of certain works. Written in a refreshing and lucid style and amply illustrated with music examples, the book represents a milestone in m...

  19. Music: Specialized to Integrate?

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Estêvão Andrade; Joydeep Bhattacharya

    2015-01-01

    In her paper Schaefer (2014) provides a relevant amount of behavioral and neuroimaging evidence within and outside the realm of music favoring the notion that predictive processing plays a prominent role in the coupling of perception, cognition and action, and further, that imagery and active perception are closely associated with each other. Central to this review is that research into music imagery is exceptionally suitable and informative since prediction has a prominent role in music proc...

  20. Lenguaje musical o solfeo

    OpenAIRE

    Esteve-Faubel, José-María; Espinosa Zaragoza, Juan Antonio; Molina Valero, Miguel Ángel; Botella Quirant, María Teresa

    2008-01-01

    En esta sesión se estudiará el origen del lenguaje musical y sus aportaciones a la educación musical. Objetivos del tema. Lenguaje Musical o Solfeo. Su definición. Elementos esenciales y su origen histórico. Signos musicales. Materias que comprenden la altura del sonido. La Clave. Clases de clave. Necesidad del uso de las claves.

  1. The effect of music on repetitive disruptive vocalizations of persons with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casby, J A; Holm, M B

    1994-10-01

    This study examined the effect of classical music and favorite music on the repetitive disruptive vocalizations of long-term-care facility (LTCF) residents with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Three subjects diagnosed with DAT who had a history of repetitive disruptive vocalizations were selected for the study. Three single-subject withdrawal designs (ABA, ACA, and ABCA) were used to assess subjects' repetitive disruptive vocalizations during each phase: no intervention (A); relaxing, classical music (B); and favorite music (C). Classical music and favorite music significantly decreased the number of vocalizations in two of the three subjects (p < .05). These findings support a method that was effective in decreasing the disruptive vocalization pattern common in those with DAT in the least restrictive manner, as mandated by the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1987.

  2. Is Music Effective For Pain Relief In Burn Victims?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiane Souza Lima

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe the effect of music on pain of burn victims during the dressing change. Methods: applied, descriptive, exploratory and quantitative research held in a Burn Treatment Unit from October 2015 to April 2016. The study included 16 burn victims who were divided in three groups: A: patients heard music before dressing; B: patients hear music during dressing; C: patients did not hear music. Results: the average age was 31.8 years (± 14.1 and most of the subjects were male. Lower limbs and trunk were the most affected parts of the body, especially with second-degree burns and which affected an average of 15.8% (± 11.5 of the body surface. There was a predominance of gospel music (50.0%. The music reduced the average heart rate and oxygen saturation, but did not change ventilatory rate. There was a decrease in the average of pain intensity in groups GB (p = 0.0505 and GC (p = 0.0055. During the dressing, the burning was unanimous characteristic for all subjects, in the same manner as verbal reports was the form of manifestation. Conclusion: music proved to be a simple and effective resource in controlling pain in burn victims. Keywords: Burns; Music; Pain.

  3. Cardiac autonomic responses induced by mental tasks and the influence of musical auditory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Juliana Cristina; Guida, Heraldo L; Fontes, Anne M G; Antonio, Ana M S; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Barnabé, Viviani; Marcomini, Renata S; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos M; da Silva, Meire L; Valenti, Vitor E

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the acute effects of musical auditory stimulation on cardiac autonomic responses to a mental task in 28 healthy men (18-22 years old). In the control protocol (no music), the volunteers remained at seated rest for 10 min and the test was applied for five minutes. After the end of test the subjects remained seated for five more minutes. In the music protocol, the volunteers remained at seated rest for 10 min, then were exposed to music for 10 min; the test was then applied over five minutes, and the subjects remained seated for five more minutes after the test. In the control and music protocols the time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability remained unchanged before, during and after the test. We found that musical auditory stimulation with baroque music did not influence cardiac autonomic responses to the mental task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Music and Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole; Juel, Knud; Ekholm, Ola

    2016-01-01

    Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of musi......: 57%. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate associations between musical background/activities and health-related indicators. Discussion: The study documents that a majority of informants use music to regulate physical and psychological states......Background: ‘Music and public health’ is a new field of study. Few scientific studies with small samples have documented health implications of musical participation. Research questions in this epidemiological study were: 1) Is there an association between self-rated health and active use of music...... in daily life? 2) What associations can be observed between musical background, uses and understanding of music as a health factor, and self-reported health? Method: Data came from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey 2013, based on a simple random sample of 25.000 adult Danes (16+ years). Response rate...

  5. Amusia and musical functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alossa, Nicoletta; Castelli, Lorys

    2009-01-01

    Music, as language, is a universal and specific trait to humans; it is a complex ability with characteristics that are unique compared to other cognitive abilities. Nevertheless, several issues are still open to debate, such as, for example, whether music is a faculty that is independent from the rest of the cognitive system, and whether musical skills are mediated by a single mechanism or by a combination of processes that are independent from one another. Moreover, the anatomical correlations of music have yet to be clarified. The goal of this review is to illustrate the current condition of the neuropsychology of music and to describe different approaches to the study of the musical functions. Hereby, we will describe the neuropsychological findings, suggesting that music is a special function carried out by different and dedicated processes that are probably subserved by different anatomical regions of the brain. Moreover, we will review the evidence obtained by working with brain-damaged patients suffering from music agnosia, a selective impairment in music recognition. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Feminist music therapy pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahna, Nicole; Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed 188 music therapy educators regarding their views and use of feminist pedagogy and feminist music therapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to determine how many music therapy educators used feminist pedagogy and (b) to determine if there was a relationship between......) participatory learning, (b) validation of personal experience/development of confidence, (c) political/social activism, and (d) critical thinking/ open-mindedness. The results revealed that 46% (n = 32) of participants identified as feminist music therapists and 67% (n = 46) of participants identified as using...

  7. Evaluating musical instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D. Murray

    2014-01-01

    Scientific measurements of sound generation and radiation by musical instruments are surprisingly hard to correlate with the subtle and complex judgments of instrumental quality made by expert musicians

  8. [Music and Glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plange, N

    2017-02-01

    Music may have multiple influences on the human organism. A possible therapeutic effect for patients with glaucoma has been postulated, aside from the known impact of music on the cardiovascular system, psychogenic effects and a short-term improvement in mental performance (Mozart effect). The higher level of mental stress in patients with glaucoma and type-A personality behaviour may be related to higher intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma. Relaxing music may have a positive impact in these patients, related to a reduction in intraocular pressure or its fluctuations. However, only limited data exist on the effects of music on intraocular pressure. No clinical studies have yet been performed to investigate the effect of music or music therapy on glaucoma progression. The music of Mozart may influence visual field examinations, possibly due to a positive short term effect on mental performance. This factor needs to be addressed in studies dealing with the effect of music in glaucoma. The relevance of intraocular pressure increases in professional wind instrument players is controversial. An increased level of care might be advisable in patients with advanced glaucoma. The influences of music on humans, altered personality profiles in patients with glaucoma and the studies showing some effect of stress on intraocular pressure stress the relevance of psychological support for glaucoma patients, who are confronted with a disease with a high longterm risk of blindness. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Missing Music. The Baroque Concerto in Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapsa, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 2009, č. 3 (2009), s. 30-41 ISSN 1211-0264 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS900580552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : baroque music * concerto * Bohemia Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  10. The Physics of Music and Color

    CERN Document Server

    Gunther, Leon

    2012-01-01

    The Physics of Music and Color deals with two subjects, music and color - sound and light in the physically objective sense - in a single volume. The basic underlying physical principles of the two subjects overlap greatly: both music and color are manifestations of wave phenomena, and commonalities exist as to the production, transmission, and detection of sound and light. This book aids readers in studying both subjects, which involve nearly the entire gamut of the fundamental laws of classical as well as modern physics. Where traditional introductory physics and courses are styled so that the basic principles are introduced first and are then applied wherever possible, this book is based on a motivational approach: it introduces a subject by demonstrating a set of related phenomena, challenging readers by calling for a physical basis for what is observed. The book is based upon a course on the physics of music and color that has been taught at Tufts University since 1973, when the course was introduced by ...

  11. Music and Music Intervention for Therapeutic Purposes in Patients with Ventilator Support; Gamelan Music Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhartini Suhartini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamelan music is one of folk music for Javanese people. Several research studies testing the effects of music were conducted in Western countries. The music studies for therapeutic purposes used classical music commonly. Even in Indonesia, some researchers may use that music for therapeutic purposes. This concern article explains the perspective music and music intervention as therapeutic purposes, view with Javanese classical music.Objectives: To explore the evidence of music and music intervention for therapeutic purposes and to describe the perspective of gamelan music used in nursing interventionMethods: Using five bibliography databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, Science Direct, Interscience, and Proquest were searched from 1999-2010 for original clinical reports or reviews that evaluated the use of complementary therapy for therapeutic intervention in patients with ventilator support. The term of complementary therapy, anxiety, and pain were used in a comprehensive search of electronic databases. Articles were screened and excluded based on the title and abstract information.Results: Music brings about helpful changes in the emotional and physical health of patients, and has the ability to provide an altered state of physical arousal and subsequent mood improvement by processing a progression of musical notes of varying tone, rhythm, and instrumentation for a pleasing effect.Conclusion: Music can be used for therapeutic purposes, for instance to reduce anxiety, to decrease pain sensation, and some effects of psychological impact. Include, the gamelan music can be offer for patients for Javanese people in Indonesia.Key words: Music, music intervention, therapeutic purposes

  12. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  13. Bach and Rock in the Music Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponick, F. S.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the use of popular music in music education, addressing issues such as defining popular music, approaches for using popular music in the classroom, and whether the National Standards for Music Education can be attained using popular music. Lists resources for teaching popular music. (CMK)

  14. Music or Musics? An Important Matter at Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, J. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Philosophers of music education presently find themselves suspended between modernism's universalist convictions and post-modernism's cultural relativist insights. In "Music Matters: A New Philosophy of Music Education" (1995), David Elliott challenged longstanding conceptions of "music education as aesthetic education" to…

  15. Music Links--A Music Ensemble Outreach Programme for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Professional music communities have realized that if they do not promote their art forms among the youth of today, the future of their music may be in question. Many local ethnic music groups have recognized the need to make the first move and go out to the audiences of the future and bring their brand of music to these audiences. Their task is to…

  16. Music playlist recommendation based on user heartbeat and music preference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new user heartbeat and preference aware music recommendation system. The system can not only recommend a music playlist based on the user’s music preference but also the music playlist is generated based on the user’s heartbeat. If the user’s heartbeat is higher than the

  17. Infants' Attention to Synthesised Baby Music and Original Acoustic Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkow, Carla H.; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The distinct music genre known as baby music is based on the premise that infants benefit from music "re-orchestrated for their little ears" ("Baby Einstein Takealong Tunes". (2012). Retrieved December 11, 2012, from http://www.babyeinstein.com/en/products/product_explorer/theme/music/62350/Takealong_Tunes.html). We completed a…

  18. The Music Industry Council Guide for Music Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music Educators Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The Music Industry Council serves as a liaison between the music educators of the United States and the manufacturing and publishing firms that supply the materials and equipment used in music education. Here are specific suggestions for the guidance of music educators in the business contacts essential to their teaching programs. (Editor/RK)

  19. Positive Musical Experiences in Education: Music as a Social Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabedo-Mas, Alberto; Díaz-Gómez, Maravillas

    2013-01-01

    This research explores the possibilities of music education in relation to improved interpersonal and social relationships. The paper focuses mainly on music teachers in primary and secondary schools in Spain. It aims to collect, analyse and provide arguments to defend a musical education that integrates musical diversity and facilitates the…

  20. Deploying music characteristics for an affective music player

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon; Cohn, Jeffrey; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes work toward an affective music player (AMP), which is able to direct affect to a goal state by selecting music. Repeatedly, music has been shown to modulate affect; however, precise guidelines for the use of music characteristics in an AMP have not been defined. To explore

  1. Teaching Popular Music: Investigating Music Educators' Perceptions and Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, D. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate in-service music teachers' perceptions of popular music in the classroom and to examine their own preparation to teach popular music. A sample of music teachers, drawn from two regional chapters of the American Orff-Schulwerk Association, completed a researcher-designed survey instrument. Results…

  2. Satire in Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Stefanija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article surveys the scope of satire and suggests its range. It is divided into six sections. The introductory comment (The semantics of music briefly outlines the fact that music has always been a part of communicative endeavors. The historical background of the semantic issues in music is described (Historical surmises, which is necessary to define satire in music as a specific genre combining features from different musical forms. The third section discusses six areas as the most common contexts of musical satire: 1 satirical music theater works, such as the opera Il Girello by Jacopo Melani, the famous Coff ee Cantata (Schweigt Still, plaudert nicht, BWV 211 by Johann Sebastian Bach, Der Schulmeister by Georg Philipp Telemann, The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay, and so on; 2 musical genres associated with satire, either a within vocal-instrumental music; for instance, opera buffa, Singspiel, operetta, cabaret, vaudeville, and so on, or b in instrumental pieces, such as capriccios, grotesques, scherzos, burlesques, and so on; 3 individual features or compositional parts related to satire; for example, in a vocal music, the Satiro in Orfeo by Luigi Rossi, the range of the Orlando character in eighteenth-century opera, who “may be satire, a fool or hero, but never all together” (Harris, 1986, 106, the satirical antihero Matěj Brouček in Leoš Janáček’s work, and also Lady Macbeth, and in b instrumental music, such as the sermon of St. Anthony in Gustav Mahler’s Second Symphony, his marches, and “low-brow tunes,” a number of episodes in Dmitri Shostakovich’s works, and so on; 4 works variously related to criticism, such as the work of Eric Satie, Kurt Weill, Luigi Nono, Maurizio Kagel, and Vinko Globokar, as well as Fran Milčinski (a.k.a. Ježek, Laibach, or Bob Dylan; 5 music journalism, from Johann Beer and Louis-Abel Beffroy de Reigny and his popular pieces de circonstance, to nineteenth-century music journalism, George

  3. Dynamic interactions between musical, cardiovascular, and cerebral rhythms in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Luciano; Porta, Cesare; Casucci, Gaia; Balsamo, Rossella; Bernardi, Nicolò F; Fogari, Roberto; Sleight, Peter

    2009-06-30

    Reactions to music are considered subjective, but previous studies suggested that cardiorespiratory variables increase with faster tempo independent of individual preference. We tested whether compositions characterized by variable emphasis could produce parallel instantaneous cardiovascular/respiratory responses and whether these changes mirrored music profiles. Twenty-four young healthy subjects, 12 musicians (choristers) and 12 nonmusician control subjects, listened (in random order) to music with vocal (Puccini's "Turandot") or orchestral (Beethoven's 9th Symphony adagio) progressive crescendos, more uniform emphasis (Bach cantata), 10-second period (ie, similar to Mayer waves) rhythmic phrases (Giuseppe Verdi's arias "Va pensiero" and "Libiam nei lieti calici"), or silence while heart rate, respiration, blood pressures, middle cerebral artery flow velocity, and skin vasomotion were recorded.Common responses were recognized by averaging instantaneous cardiorespiratory responses regressed against changes in music profiles and by coherence analysis during rhythmic phrases. Vocal and orchestral crescendos produced significant (P=0.05 or better) correlations between cardiovascular or respiratory signals and music profile, particularly skin vasoconstriction and blood pressures, proportional to crescendo, in contrast to uniform emphasis, which induced skin vasodilation and reduction in blood pressures. Correlations were significant both in individual and group-averaged signals. Phrases at 10-second periods by Verdi entrained the cardiovascular autonomic variables. No qualitative differences in recorded measurements were seen between musicians and nonmusicians. Music emphasis and rhythmic phrases are tracked consistently by physiological variables. Autonomic responses are synchronized with music, which might therefore convey emotions through autonomic arousal during crescendos or rhythmic phrases.

  4. The effect of background music on the perception of personality and demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastinger, Daniel L

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to discover stereotypes people may have about different music genres and if these stereotypes are projected onto an individual. Also, the study investigates if music therapy students are more or less biased than non-music majors in this regard. Subjects (N=388) were comprised of student members of the American Music Therapy Association (N=182) and students from a college in the southeastern United States who were not music majors (N=206). Subjects were asked to listen to a recording and complete a short survey. Subjects assigned to the control condition heard only a person reading a script. Subjects assigned to one of the four experimental conditions heard the same recording mixed with background music and ambient crowd noise, intended to simulate a live performance. Subjects were asked to rate the person in the recording on personality descriptors and predict demographic information in the survey. Many of the survey responses were significantly affected by the genre of music. For example, it was shown that when in the presence of rap or country music, all subjects rated the personality of the person in the recording significantly more negative than when in the presence of classical, jazz, or no music. There were no significant differences between the groups for any variable or condition when comparing survey responses between college students and AMTA student members.

  5. Tic-reducing effects of music in patients with Tourette's syndrome: Self-reported and objective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodeck, Sabine; Lappe, Claudia; Evers, Stefan

    2015-05-15

    Self-reports by musicians affected with Tourette's syndrome and other sources of anecdotal evidence suggest that tics stop when subjects are involved in musical activity. For the first time, we studied this effect systematically using a questionnaire design to investigate the subjectively assessed impact of musical activity on tic frequency (study 1) and an experimental design to confirm these results (study 2). A questionnaire was sent to 29 patients assessing whether listening to music and musical performance would lead to a tic frequency reduction or increase. Then, a within-subject repeated measures design was conducted with eight patients. Five experimental conditions were tested: baseline, musical performance, short time period after musical performance, listening to music and music imagery. Tics were counted based on videotapes. Analysis of the self-reports (study 1) yielded in a significant tic reduction both by listening to music and musical performance. In study 2, musical performance, listening to music and mental imagery of musical performance reduced tic frequency significantly. We found the largest reduction in the condition of musical performance, when tics almost completely stopped. Furthermore, we could find a short-term tic decreasing effect after musical performance. Self-report assessment revealed that active and passive participation in musical activity can significantly reduce tic frequency. Experimental testing confirmed patients' perception. Active and passive participation in musical activity reduces tic frequency including a short-term lasting tic decreasing effect. Fine motor control, focused attention and goal directed behavior are believed to be relevant factors for this observation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Social support and performance anxiety of college music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erin; Chesky, Kris

    2011-09-01

    This study characterized perceived social support and performance anxiety of college music students, compared characteristics to those of non-music majors, and explored the relationships between social support and performance anxiety. Subjects (n = 609) completed a questionnaire that included demographics, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), and visual analog scale measures of performance anxiety. Results showed that music majors perceived significantly lower levels of social support from significant others when compared to non-music majors. Perceived social support was significantly correlated with measures of performance anxiety. Students with greater perceived social support reported less frequent anxiety and lower levels of impact of anxiety on ability to perform. These findings may have practical implications for schools of music and conservatories.

  7. Topic theory and Brazilian musicality: Considerations on rhetoricity in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio T. C. Piedade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of the topic theory to the analyses of Brazilian music. It starts with a reflection on the concepts of musicality, friction of musicalities in Brazilian jazz, and the fusion of musicalities that emerges from the invention of tradition. The discussion follows with the question of the adaptability of topic theory to national musics. Then, some musical examples are used in order to present some of the universes of topics of Brazilian music. In this article I argue that the concept of rhetoricity brings good results to the study of musical signification, and that the theory of topics is useful for other contexts than classical music, being an interesting route to the investigation of sociocultural connections in musicalities.

  8. The Brain on Music

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects of music training on auditory .... dala but is distributed over a network of regions that also in- clude the ... In addition to the emotional impact of music on the brain, these ... social cognition, contact, copathy, and social cohesion in a group.

  9. Music in the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pyykönen, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Meaningful Music in Health Care (MiMiC) is een bijzonder samenwerkingsproject van een chirurgisch onderzoeksteam van het UMCG-ziekenhuis en het Lectoraat Lifelong Learning in Music van het Prins Claus Conservatorium. De Finse violiste Krista Pyykönen maakt als violiste én in het kader van haar

  10. Music Hath Charms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Dana

    1988-01-01

    The article describes a program which introduced classical music to 18 students in a residential treatment program for adolescents with a history of substance abuse. Use as background music progressed to students requesting tape copies for personal use and group attendance at a symphony rehearsal and concert. (DB)

  11. The Music Festival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johannes

    For the youth the music festivals are spaces for practical learning of the strength of networking, based on art, communication and contacting. Being part of the music gives the participants a possibility to be part of the place, the feeling and the art, with massive effects on their identity...

  12. European Music Year 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Thomas; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Articles concerning music are included in this newsletter dedicated to cultural venture to be jointly carried out by the Council of Europe and the European communities. Many events will mark Music Year 1985, including concerts, dance performances, operas, publications, recordings, festivals, exhibitions, competitions, and conferences on musical…

  13. Learning through Music Festivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Sidsel

    2009-01-01

    This article explores one particular music festival, the Festspel i Pite Alvdal, as a source of musical learning. It is grounded in the empirical data of a case study that was gathered through observation, a survey, in-depth interviews, documentation and archival records. The theoretical framework was taken from modernity theory, and the study's…

  14. Shaker Oats: Fortifying Musicality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Laurie R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how an experiment in a class she taught called Minority Musics of North America developed into a surprisingly successful and flexible teaching tool known as "Shaker Oats," created to encourage the concepts of ensemble and community. Most music educators in the United States today are familiar with…

  15. Transcribing for Greater Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Bob

    1995-01-01

    States that transcribing is notating the performance of a musical composition or improvisation as the music is grasped aurally. Maintains that transcribing is effective for high school and college students who want to understand jazz techniques. Includes eight suggestions for teaching transcribing. (CFR)

  16. Soaking in the Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhoff, Howard M.

    2009-01-01

    Scientists admit that they do not understand yet how infants acquire their abilities and love of music. What they do know, however, is that much of the brain development in the first six years of a child's life is devoted to the learning and retaining of music and language. It appears that children have an open window, which allows them to…

  17. Adolescent Culture and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Neil

    1996-01-01

    Discusses adolescent anxieties, rebelliousness, and media preferences in the 1990s, especially Hip Hop, and relates today's trends to past trends, from Sinatra to Break Dancing. Suggests classroom activities using music and music videos: analyzing fans; providing biographies, discographies, lyrics; writing reviews of albums and videos; studying…

  18. Remote Music Tuition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Duffy; D. Williams; I. Kegel; T. Stevens; A.J. Jansen (Jack); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago); P. Healey

    2012-01-01

    htmlabstractIt is common to learn to play an orchestral musical instrument through one-to-one lessons with an experienced tutor. For musicians who choose to study performance at an undergraduate level and beyond, their tutor is an important part of their professional musical development. For many

  19. Music Mixing Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Büchert, Morten; Andersen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-touch based interface for mixing music. The goal of the interface is to provide users with a more intuitive control of the music mix by implementing the so-called stage metaphor control scheme, which is especially suitable for multi-touch surfaces. Specifically, we...

  20. Music Genre as Method

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Laurie

    2014-01-01

    A review of Jennifer C. Lena, Banding Together: How Communities Create Genres in Popular Music (Princeton University Press, 2012), Michelle Phillipov, Death Metal and Music Criticism: Analysis at the Limits(Lexington Books, 2012) and Graham St John, Global Tribe: Technology, Spirituality and Psytrance (Equinox Publishing, 2012). 

  1. Classifications in popular music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Venrooij, A.; Schmutz, V.; Wright, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    The categorical system of popular music, such as genre categories, is a highly differentiated and dynamic classification system. In this article we present work that studies different aspects of these categorical systems in popular music. Following the work of Paul DiMaggio, we focus on four

  2. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  3. Music: A Shared Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Rosemary

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how sixth form girls in England provided music experiences to young children (ages 3-9) with severe learning difficulties. The weekly sessions involve individual sessions and use of various instruments. The relationship of the music therapy program to the National Curriculum is noted. (DB)

  4. Vermittlungen - musically speaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weymann, Eckhard; Metzner, Susanne; Fitzthum, Elena

    2001-01-01

    Bilingual publication - mixed content in English and German. Articles were written by participants in the First European Symposium "Improvisation Training in Music Therapy education" which took place in Hamburg, 1998.......Bilingual publication - mixed content in English and German. Articles were written by participants in the First European Symposium "Improvisation Training in Music Therapy education" which took place in Hamburg, 1998....

  5. Music, Mathematics and Bach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Long interested in music of various kinds, ... other art form, it is impossible to adequately explain the appeal of Bach's music ... composer, does exhibit a full range of emotions such as joy, ... seem to be cerebral rather than emotional. Moreover ...

  6. Music therapy for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E.; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes C.F.; Vink, Annemiek C.; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music

  7. Boganmeldelse - Music Therapy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    . Alligevel følger her en anbefaling af bogen: for musikterapeuter er det en bog, man ikke kommer uden om. Music Therapy Research, på dansk Musikterapiforskning, er en gennemrevideret, ja faktisk nyudgivelse, af bogen Music Therapy Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, som udkom i 1995. Også...

  8. The Story of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    2016-01-01

    Udvalgte musikværker gennem historien, indspillet med digitale eller analoge instrumenter og udgivet i forbindelse med bogen "Music across Times & Fences"......Udvalgte musikværker gennem historien, indspillet med digitale eller analoge instrumenter og udgivet i forbindelse med bogen "Music across Times & Fences"...

  9. Complexity measures of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, April; Mahmoodi, Korosh; West, Bruce J.

    2018-03-01

    We present a technique to search for the presence of crucial events in music, based on the analysis of the music volume. Earlier work on this issue was based on the assumption that crucial events correspond to the change of music notes, with the interesting result that the complexity index of the crucial events is mu ~ 2, which is the same inverse power-law index of the dynamics of the brain. The search technique analyzes music volume and confirms the results of the earlier work, thereby contributing to the explanation as to why the brain is sensitive to music, through the phenomenon of complexity matching. Complexity matching has recently been interpreted as the transfer of multifractality from one complex network to another. For this reason we also examine the mulifractality of music, with the observation that the multifractal spectrum of a computer performance is significantly narrower than the multifractal spectrum of a human performance of the same musical score. We conjecture that although crucial events are demonstrably important for information transmission, they alone are not suficient to define musicality, which is more adequately measured by the multifractality spectrum.

  10. Wireless networked music performance

    CERN Document Server

    Gabrielli, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in Networked Music Performance (NMP) and a historical survey of computer music networking. It introduces current technical trends in NMP and technical issues yet to be addressed. It also lists wireless communication protocols and compares these to the requirements of NMP. Practical use cases and advancements are also discussed.

  11. The stress-reducing effect of music listening varies depending on the social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemann, Alexandra; Strahler, Jana; Nater, Urs M

    2016-10-01

    Given that music listening often occurs in a social context, and given that social support can be associated with a stress-reducing effect, it was tested whether the mere presence of others while listening to music enhances the stress-reducing effect of listening to music. A total of 53 participants responded to questions on stress, presence of others, and music listening five times per day (30min after awakening, 1100h, 1400h, 1800h, 2100h) for seven consecutive days. After each assessment, participants were asked to collect a saliva sample for the later analysis of salivary cortisol (as a marker for the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) and salivary alpha-amylase (as a marker for the autonomic nervous system). Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that music listening per se was not associated with a stress-reducing effect. However, listening to music in the presence of others led to decreased subjective stress levels, attenuated secretion of salivary cortisol, and higher activity of salivary alpha-amylase. When listening to music alone, music that was listened to for the reason of relaxation predicted lower subjective stress. The stress-reducing effect of music listening in daily life varies depending on the presence of others. Music listening in the presence of others enhanced the stress-reducing effect of music listening independently of reasons for music listening. Solitary music listening was stress-reducing when relaxation was stated as the reason for music listening. Thus, in daily life, music listening can be used for stress reduction purposes, with the greatest success when it occurs in the presence of others or when it is deliberately listened to for the reason of relaxation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of music therapy on intravitreal injections: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuejing; Seth, Rajeev K; Rao, Veena S; Huang, John J; Adelman, Ron A

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the effects of music therapy on anxiety, perceived pain, and satisfaction in patients undergoing intravitreal injections in the outpatient setting. This is a randomized clinical trial. Seventy-three patients were recruited from the retina clinic at 1 institution and randomized into a music therapy (n=37) or control (n=36) group. Prior to injection, patients completed the state portion of the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S). The music therapy group listened to classical music through computer speakers while waiting for and during the injection. The control group underwent the injection in the same setting without music. Afterward, all patients completed another STAI-S and a satisfaction and pain questionnaire. The main outcome measures were objective anxiety derived from STAI-S scores and subjective pain and anxiety from the post procedure questionnaire. The music therapy group had a greater decrease in anxiety than the control group (P=0.0480). Overall, 73% of all patients requested music for future injections (P=0.0001). The music therapy group (84%) requested music in future injections more frequently than the control group (61%) (P=0.0377). Both groups reported similar levels of pain (P=0.5879). Classical music before and during intravitreal injections decreases anxiety in patients without decreasing pain. Most patients desire to have music during future injections. Music therapy is a low-cost, easy, safe intervention that reduces anxiety during intravitreal injections in the outpatient setting.

  13. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music....

  14. Music as Co-Therapist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warja, Margareta; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2014-01-01

    The articles discusses criteria for the selection of music in Guided Imagery and Music sessions and presents a txonomy with three main catgeories and nine sub-categories.......The articles discusses criteria for the selection of music in Guided Imagery and Music sessions and presents a txonomy with three main catgeories and nine sub-categories....

  15. Family Music Concerts: Bringing Families, Music Students, and Music Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan Hobson

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how conductors of the top performing groups and music education faculty at one university collaborated to create a Family Concert Series for parents and children of all ages, including infants in arms. Recognizing the conflict between "The first three years of life are the most important for educating a young child in…

  16. Music for Hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gross, B; Ketema Wassie, F; Agnholt, Hanne

    Music for hemodialysis patients Background Patients starting a new regimen of dialysis often experience anxiety and other psychological disturbances. They struggle with the unknown situation, feelings of uncertainty and on top of that, a high level of sophisticated technological equipment. Music...... is known from literature to influence and dampen anxiety and tension and has been used for millennia in the treatment of illness. Here we report a study on the influence of music on patients undergoing dialysis and whether music has a potential for lowering discomfort in patients during first-time dialysis.......   Purpose To investigate whether music can reduce feelings of anxiety, tension and restlessness in patients new to dialysis treatment and make them more relaxed during the treatment.   Method Twenty patients aged 42-84 were selected for participation in the study, which took place over two separate dialysis...

  17. Popular Music and Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    the collapse of the Soviet Union: What present trends can be observed?  How has the Soviet context influenced the popular music of today?  How is music performed and consumed?  How has the interrelationship between cultural industry and performers developed?  How are nationalist sensibilities affecting popular......Fifteen years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, popular music is thriving in the former Soviet territories and covers a broad variety of genres.  Among these are rock bands formed in the Soviet era, surviving legends of Soviet pop, and younger bands and performers of the 1990s and 2000s.......   Local and foreign musics blend as new impulses arrive from without and arise from within the region.  Thanks to the most recent wave of Russian emigrants, these popular musics have also spread to various localities around the world, as exemplified by the phenomenon of "Russendisko" in Berlin...

  18. The neurochemistry of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Mona Lisa; Levitin, Daniel J

    2013-04-01

    Music is used to regulate mood and arousal in everyday life and to promote physical and psychological health and well-being in clinical settings. However, scientific inquiry into the neurochemical effects of music is still in its infancy. In this review, we evaluate the evidence that music improves health and well-being through the engagement of neurochemical systems for (i) reward, motivation, and pleasure; (ii) stress and arousal; (iii) immunity; and (iv) social affiliation. We discuss the limitations of these studies and outline novel approaches for integration of conceptual and technological advances from the fields of music cognition and social neuroscience into studies of the neurochemistry of music. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  20. Aprendizaje musical significativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rusinek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the meaningfulness of music learning requires two complementary perspectives. On the one hand, I maintain that the declarative knowledge about music is meaningful when it is related in a non trivial manner to the musical event it denotes, and propose a way of evaluating that meaningfulness through tests that demand the use of different processes of the auditive cognition. On the other hand, given that it is the apprentice who decides to build that relation between musical concept and musical experience, I argue that we need to understand his or her motivations, and propose the use of qualitative research techniques to interpret the meanings attributed to the learning procedures lived in the classroom.

  1. Deploying music characteristics for an affective music player

    OpenAIRE

    van der Zwaag, Marjolein D.; Westerink, Joyce H.D.M.; van den Broek, Egon; Cohn, Jeffrey; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes work toward an affective music player (AMP), which is able to direct affect to a goal state by selecting music. Repeatedly, music has been shown to modulate affect; however, precise guidelines for the use of music characteristics in an AMP have not been defined. To explore these, we investigated the influence of music characteristics on 32 participants who listened to 16 songs, testing effects of tempo (slow/high), mode (minor/major), and percussiveness (low/high). Subjec...

  2. Music Aggregators and Intermediation of the Digital Music Market

    OpenAIRE

    Gałuszka, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates that, contrary to popular belief, the advent of the Internet has not made intermediaries in the music market obsolete. Individual artists and independent record labels who want to sell their music in digital music stores must deliver their records via third-party companies called music aggregators. Drawing on the concepts of new institutional economics, the article demonstrates that the emergence of music aggregators is a market response to the high level of transact...

  3. Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Avinash E; Mehrotra, Ranjeeta; Singh, Ayushi

    2017-01-01

    Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects. In this study, we tested the effect of music on sub maximal exercise performance time duration in young adults. 25 Male and 25 females were subjected to standard submaximal exercise with and without music. Resting HR and Max. HR during exercise and the exercise time duration was recorded. Total exercise duration in whole group with music (37.12 ± 16.26** min) was significantly greater than exercise duration without music (22.48 ± 10.26 min). Males (42.4 ± 15.6** min) outperformed significantly better than females (31.84 ± 15.48 min). Also, we observed statistically significant higher values of Maximal heart rate with music than without music. But there was no significant correlation between duration of exercise, music and change in Heart rate. We can conclude that Music increases duration of exercise in both sexes and hence endurance.

  4. Structural and functional plasticity specific to musical training with wind instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk-Su eChoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown structural and functional changes resulting from musical training. Among these studies, changes in primary sensory areas are mostly related to motor functions. In this study, we looked for some similar functional and structural changes in other functional modalities, such as somatosensory function, by examining the effects of musical training with wind instruments. We found significant changes in two aspects of neuroplasticity, cortical thickness and resting-state neuronal networks. A group of subjects with several years of continuous musical training and who are currently playing in university wind ensembles showed differences in cortical thickness in lip- and tongue-related brain areas versus non-music playing subjects. Cortical thickness in lip-related brain areas was significantly thicker and that in tongue-related areas was significantly thinner in the music playing group compared with that in the non-music playing group. Association analysis of lip-related areas in the music playing group showed that the increase in cortical thickness was caused by musical training. In addition, seed-based correlation analysis showed differential activation in the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor areas between the music and non-music playing groups. These results suggest that high-intensity training with specific musical instruments could induce structural changes in related anatomical areas and could also generate a new functional neuronal network in the brain.

  5. Impact of Noise Reduction Algorithm in Cochlear Implant Processing on Music Enjoyment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Mancuso, Dean M; Griffin, Brianna M; Spitzer, Jaclyn B; Lalwani, Anil K

    2016-06-01

    Noise reduction algorithm (NRA) in speech processing strategy has positive impact on speech perception among cochlear implant (CI) listeners. We sought to evaluate the effect of NRA on music enjoyment. Prospective analysis of music enjoyment. Academic medical center. Normal-hearing (NH) adults (N = 16) and CI listeners (N = 9). Subjective rating of music excerpts. NH and CI listeners evaluated country music piece on three enjoyment modalities: pleasantness, musicality, and naturalness. Participants listened to the original version and 20 modified, less complex versions created by including subsets of musical instruments from the original song. NH participants listened to the segments through CI simulation and CI listeners listened to the segments with their usual speech processing strategy, with and without NRA. Decreasing the number of instruments was significantly associated with increase in the pleasantness and naturalness in both NH and CI subjects (p  0.05): this was true for the original and the modified music segments with one to three instruments (p > 0.05). NRA does not affect music enjoyment in CI listener or NH individual with CI simulation. This suggests that strategies to enhance speech processing will not necessarily have a positive impact on music enjoyment. However, reducing the complexity of music shows promise in enhancing music enjoyment and should be further explored.

  6. Field Dependence/Independence in College Nonmusic Majors and Their Ability to Discern Form in Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Mark C.; McCoy, Clair W.

    1990-01-01

    Measures the effects of cognitive-style field dependence/field independence on students' ability to discern form in music. Applies tests to 119 nonmusic majors enrolled in an introductory music course. Finds field-independent subjects scored significantly higher than field-dependent subjects. Identifies variables affecting learning for both…

  7. Chimpanzees prefer African and Indian music over silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingle, Morgan E; Eppley, Timothy M; Campbell, Matthew W; Hall, Katie; Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 40(4) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition (see record 2014-35305-001). For the article, the below files were used to create the audio used in this study. The original West African akan and North Indian raga pieces were used in their entirety and the Japanese taiko piece was used from the 0:19 second mark through the end. The tempo of each piece was adjusted so that they maintained an identical base tempo of 90 beats per minute, then looped to create 40 minutes of continuous music. Additionally, the volume of the music was standardized at 50 dB so that the all music maintained the same average amplitude. All audio manipulations were completed using GarageBand © (Apple Inc.).] All primates have an ability to distinguish between temporal and melodic features of music, but unlike humans, in previous studies, nonhuman primates have not demonstrated a preference for music. However, previous research has not tested the wide range of acoustic parameters present in many different types of world music. The purpose of the present study is to determine the spontaneous preference of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for 3 acoustically contrasting types of world music: West African akan, North Indian raga, and Japanese taiko. Sixteen chimpanzees housed in 2 groups were exposed to 40 min of music from a speaker placed 1.5 m outside the fence of their outdoor enclosure; the proximity of each subject to the acoustic stimulus was recorded every 2 min. When compared with controls, subjects spent significantly more time in areas where the acoustic stimulus was loudest in African and Indian music conditions. This preference for African and Indian music could indicate homologies in acoustic preferences between nonhuman and human primates. .

  8. Maurice Ravel and right-hemisphere musical creativity: influence of disease on his last musical works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaducci, L; Grassi, E; Boller, F

    2002-01-01

    The problem of finding correspondence between a particular neuronal organization and a specific function of the human brain remains a central question of neuroscience. It is sometimes thought that language and music are two sides of the same intellectual coin, but research on brain-damaged patients has shown that the loss of verbal functions (aphasia) is not necessarily accompanied by a loss of musical abilities (amusia). Amusia without aphasia has also been described. This double dissociation indicates functional autonomy in these mental processes. Yet verbal and musical impairments often occur together. The global picture that emerges from studies of music and its neural substrate is by no means clear and much depends on which subjects and which aspect of musical abilities are investigated. An illustration of these concepts is provided by the case of the French composer Maurice Ravel, who suffered from a progressive cerebral disease of uncertain aetiology, with prominent involvement of the left hemisphere. As a result, Ravel experienced aphasia and apraxia and became unable to compose. The available facts favour a clinical diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), with the possibility of an overlap with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). In view of Ravel's clinical history, we propose that two of his final compositions, the Bolero and the Concerto for the Left Hand, include certain patterns characteristic of right-hemisphere musical abilities and may show the influence of disease on the creative process.

  9. Emotional response to musical repetition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Steven R; Palmer, Caroline; Schubert, Emery

    2012-06-01

    Two experiments examined the effects of repetition on listeners' emotional response to music. Listeners heard recordings of orchestral music that contained a large section repeated twice. The music had a symmetric phrase structure (same-length phrases) in Experiment 1 and an asymmetric phrase structure (different-length phrases) in Experiment 2, hypothesized to alter the predictability of sensitivity to musical repetition. Continuous measures of arousal and valence were compared across music that contained identical repetition, variation (related), or contrasting (unrelated) structure. Listeners' emotional arousal ratings differed most for contrasting music, moderately for variations, and least for repeating musical segments. A computational model for the detection of repeated musical segments was applied to the listeners' emotional responses. The model detected the locations of phrase boundaries from the emotional responses better than from performed tempo or physical intensity in both experiments. These findings indicate the importance of repetition in listeners' emotional response to music and in the perceptual segmentation of musical structure.

  10. Narratives about music and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddholm, Mats; Nilsson, Bo

    involving music therapists or music educators, such as: with clients, students, children, elder people; among nurses, deacons, social workers, preschools teachers or care assistants. The field of Music and Health is not necessarily about illness or care, but can as well be understood as an aspect of quality......Narratives about music and health Dr Bo Nilsson, Kristianstad University, Sweden Dr Mats Uddholm, University College Nordjylland, Denmark Music is used in many professional contexts that are not associated with music therapy or music education in a traditional sense. How do professionals...... in different contexts use music and how do they describe their thoughts about music in their professional work? Those are the main questions in our study focusing on narratives about music and health in professional relations. In a pilot study six strategically chosen participants from Sweden and Denmark...

  11. [Effects of Different Genres of Music on the Psycho-Physiological Responses of Undergraduates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Ping; Liu, Yu-Chen; Lin, Mei-Feng

    2016-12-01

    -physiological responses. In the present study, participants with high-state anxiety registered elevated parasympathetic activity after listening to 10 minutes of tense and sad music. Simultaneous listening effects were detected only in joyful and peaceful music, which reduced subjective anxiety and depression. The results of the present study advocate that music interveners and clinical care providers select joyful, peaceful, and tense music to help alleviate the anxiety and negative emotions of their patients. Furthermore, the psycho-physiological changes of these patients should be assessed after listening to this music.

  12. Genomic Imprinting Is Implicated in the Psychology of Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Samuel A; Kotler, Jennifer; Howard, Rhea M; Haig, David; Krasnow, Max M

    2017-10-01

    Why do people sing to babies? Human infants are relatively altricial and need their parents' attention to survive. Infant-directed song may constitute a signal of that attention. In Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a rare disorder of genomic imprinting, genes from chromosome 15q11-q13 that are typically paternally expressed are unexpressed, which results in exaggeration of traits that reduce offspring's investment demands on the mother. PWS may thus be associated with a distinctive musical phenotype. We report unusual responses to music in people with PWS. Subjects with PWS ( N = 39) moved more during music listening, exhibited greater reductions in heart rate in response to music listening, and displayed a specific deficit in pitch-discrimination ability relative to typically developing adults and children ( N = 589). Paternally expressed genes from 15q11-q13, which are unexpressed in PWS, may thus increase demands for music and enhance perceptual sensitivity to music. These results implicate genomic imprinting in the psychology of music, informing theories of music's evolutionary history.

  13. Music and emotions in the brain: familiarity matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva Pereira

    Full Text Available The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data.

  14. Music and emotions in the brain: familiarity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data.

  15. Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos Silva; Teixeira, João; Figueiredo, Patrícia; Xavier, João; Castro, São Luís; Brattico, Elvira

    2011-01-01

    The importance of music in our daily life has given rise to an increased number of studies addressing the brain regions involved in its appreciation. Some of these studies controlled only for the familiarity of the stimuli, while others relied on pleasantness ratings, and others still on musical preferences. With a listening test and a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, we wished to clarify the role of familiarity in the brain correlates of music appreciation by controlling, in the same study, for both familiarity and musical preferences. First, we conducted a listening test, in which participants rated the familiarity and liking of song excerpts from the pop/rock repertoire, allowing us to select a personalized set of stimuli per subject. Then, we used a passive listening paradigm in fMRI to study music appreciation in a naturalistic condition with increased ecological value. Brain activation data revealed that broad emotion-related limbic and paralimbic regions as well as the reward circuitry were significantly more active for familiar relative to unfamiliar music. Smaller regions in the cingulate cortex and frontal lobe, including the motor cortex and Broca's area, were found to be more active in response to liked music when compared to disliked one. Hence, familiarity seems to be a crucial factor in making the listeners emotionally engaged with music, as revealed by fMRI data. PMID:22110619

  16. Women, New Music and the Composition of Becomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Macarthur

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that ‘new’ music continues to replicate itself by being based on a set of outdated, inflexible practices which foster the centrality of the male, entrepreneurial, composing subject. Aesthetic distinctiveness has been muzzled because too many composers are competing for the same recognition and the same small ‘pot of money’, giving rise to musical mediocrity. The article notes that while the number of women composers studying music has increased in tertiary music institutions and points out that their representation by the Australian Music Centre has improved significantly over the past decade, these statistics are not reflected in the concert hall where women continue to be side-lined. It argues that the entrepreneurial performer is focused on the products created out of the already known and out of its masculinity and explores what would happen if music were composed out of its femininity and the unknown. It draws on Deleuze’s concept of ‘becoming’ to disturb the old ways of thinking, and to imagine a transformation of music practice which would make viable that music which has been traditionally silenced.

  17. Women, new music and the composition of becomings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macarthur, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that ‘new’ music continues to replicate itself by being based on a set of outdated, inflexible practices which foster the centrality of the male, entrepreneurial, composing subject. Aesthetic distinctiveness has been muzzled because too many composers are competing for the same recognition and the same small ‘pot of money’, giving rise to musical mediocrity. The article notes that while the number of women composers studying music has increased in tertiary music institutions and points out that their representation by the Australian Music Centre has improved significantly over the past decade, these statistics are not reflected in the concert hall where women continue to be side-lined. It argues that the entrepreneurial performer is focused on the products created out of the already known and out of its masculinity and explores what would happen if music were composed out of its femininity and the unknown. It draws on Deleuze’s concept of ‘becoming’ to disturb the old ways of thinking, and to imagine a transformation of music practice which would make viable that music which has been traditionally silenced.

  18. Effect of live music therapy for patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walworth, Darcy D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify the effects of live music therapy interventions compared with preferred recorded music for patients undergoing MRI scans. To date, there has not been a published study involving the use of live music therapy during MRI scans. The current study investigated the differences between teenage through adult patients receiving live music therapy intervention during outpatient MRI scans versus the standard protocol of care listening to recorded music (N = 88). Subjects ranged in age from 15 to 93 years old. Results indicated subjects who received the live music therapy protocol reported significantly better perception of the MRI procedure (p music therapy protocol had fewer scans repeated due to movement. Of the repeated images, 26% occurred in the live music group and 73% occurred in the recorded music group. Subjects receiving live music therapy also requested less breaks from the scan. Two percent of the live music subjects requested a break and 17.6% of the control patients requested breaks. When comparing the same type of scan between groups, subjects receiving the live music protocol required less time to complete the scans. For lumbar scans without contrast (N = 14, n = 7, n = 7), live music subjects spent an average of 4.63 less min per scan for a total of 32 less min for 7 subjects. For brain scans (N = 8, n = 4, n = 4), live music subjects spent an average of 5.8 less min per scan for a total of 23 less min for 4 subjects. Results of the current study supports the use of live music therapy intervention for teenage and adult patients undergoing MRI scans to reduce patient anxiety and improve patient perception of the scan experience. Additionally, live music therapy has the potential to shorten the length of time required for patients to complete MRI scans due to decreased patient movements and fewer breaks requested during the scans. The cost savings impact of reduced procedure time can positively impact the

  19. A Socratic Dialogue with Libby Larsen on Music, Musical Experience in American Culture, and Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Katherine; Larsen, Libby

    2011-01-01

    This article represents conversations with the American composer Libby Larsen in which she described her beliefs about music, music education, and the dilemmas that our current system faces as we seek to provide relevant and meaningful music education to our students. Our conversation explores such topics as cognitive psychology, music theory,…

  20. Playing Music, Playing with Music: A Proposal for Music Coding in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratè, Adriano; Ludovico, Luca Andrea; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Rosa, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    In this work we will introduce the concept of "music coding," namely a new discipline that employs basic music activities and simplified languages to teach the computational way of thinking to musically-untrained children who attend the primary school. In this context, music represents both a mean and a goal: in fact, from one side…

  1. Music Education through Popular Music Festivals: A Study of the "OM Music Festival" in Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Most people think of the teaching and learning of music as taking place in formal, institutional contexts like schools and universities. This study looks at the transmission of music teaching and learning that takes place in a more informal, musical environment, namely at a "popular music festival." In particular, it discusses the OM…

  2. On the Performance of Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana Kure

    2007-12-01

    At the level of performance, Kivy’s critique of the representative method of understanding absolute music is confirmed, because such an understanding can lead to the neglect of esthetic criteria in the interpretation of music. This article defends the viewpoint that the performance of a musical work is not something that is destructive to the understanding and preservation of a musical work, but something that is authentically musical.

  3. Systematic teaching in music education

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2011-01-01

    What is music? Is music significant in human life? What is music education? Does music education deserve a secure place in elementary education in R. Macedonia? Thе aim of this study is review on the studies on systematic teaching in music education. In this studies, we have divided six teaching function: 1. daily review, 2. presentation of new material 3. guided practise, 4. feedback and corrections, 5. independent practise, 6. weekly and mountly reviews.

  4. "When Music Speaks": Auditory Cortex Morphology as a Neuroanatomical Marker of Language Aptitude and Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turker, Sabrina; Reiterer, Susanne M; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie; Schneider, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Recent research has shown that the morphology of certain brain regions may indeed correlate with a number of cognitive skills such as musicality or language ability. The main aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which foreign language aptitude, in particular phonetic coding ability, is influenced by the morphology of Heschl's gyrus (HG; auditory cortex), working memory capacity, and musical ability. In this study, the auditory cortices of German-speaking individuals ( N = 30; 13 males/17 females; aged 20-40 years) with high and low scores in a number of language aptitude tests were compared. The subjects' language aptitude was measured by three different tests, namely a Hindi speech imitation task (phonetic coding ability), an English pronunciation assessment, and the Modern Language Aptitude Test (MLAT). Furthermore, working memory capacity and musical ability were assessed to reveal their relationship with foreign language aptitude. On the behavioral level, significant correlations were found between phonetic coding ability, English pronunciation skills, musical experience, and language aptitude as measured by the MLAT. Parts of all three tests measuring language aptitude correlated positively and significantly with each other, supporting their validity for measuring components of language aptitude. Remarkably, the number of instruments played by subjects showed significant correlations with all language aptitude measures and musicality, whereas, the number of foreign languages did not show any correlations. With regard to the neuroanatomy of auditory cortex, adults with very high scores in the Hindi testing and the musicality test (AMMA) demonstrated a clear predominance of complete posterior HG duplications in the right hemisphere. This may reignite the discussion of the importance of the right hemisphere for language processing, especially when linked or common resources are involved, such as the inter-dependency between phonetic and musical

  5. Crossmodal effects of Guqin and piano music on selective attention: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weina; Zhang, Junjun; Ding, Xiaojun; Zhou, Changle; Ma, Yuanye; Xu, Dan

    2009-11-27

    To compare the effects of music from different cultural environments (Guqin: Chinese music; piano: Western music) on crossmodal selective attention, behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data in a standard two-stimulus visual oddball task were recorded from Chinese subjects in three conditions: silence, Guqin music or piano music background. Visual task data were then compared with auditory task data collected previously. In contrast with the results of the auditory task, the early (N1) and late (P300) stages exhibited no differences between Guqin and piano backgrounds during the visual task. Taking our previous study and this study together, we can conclude that: although the cultural-familiar music influenced selective attention both in the early and late stages, these effects appeared only within a sensory modality (auditory) but not in cross-sensory modalities (visual). Thus, the musical cultural factor is more obvious in intramodal than in crossmodal selective attention.

  6. Disturbance effect of music on processing of verbal and spatial memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Makoto; Ito, Takako

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the disturbance effect of music on performances of memory tasks. Subjects performed a verbal memory task and a spatial memory task in 4 sound conditions, including the presence of vocal music, instrumental music, a natural sound (murmurings of a stream), and no music. 47 undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to perform tasks under each condition. Perceived disturbance was highest under the vocal music condition regardless of the type of task. A disturbance in performance by music was observed only with the verbal memory task under the vocal and the instrumental music conditions. These findings were discussed from the perspectives of the working memory hypothesis and the changing state model.

  7. Blame it on the bossa nova: Transfer of perceived sexiness from music to touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Brummerloh, Berit; Urquijo, Maria; Wegner, Katharina; Reimer, Enrico; Gutekunst, Sven; Schneider, Lydia; Smallwood, Jonathan; Villringer, Arno

    2017-09-01

    Emotion elicited through music transfers to subsequent processing of facial expressions. Music may accordingly function as a social technology by promoting social bonding. Here, we investigated whether music would cross-modally influence the perception of sensual touch, a behavior related to mating. A robot applied precisely controlled gentle touch to a group of healthy participants while they listened to music that varied with respect to its perceived sexiness. As the perceived sexiness of the music increased, so did the subjective sexiness of the touch stimulations. In short, the perception of sexiness transferred from music to touch. Because sensual touch is key to mating behavior and relates to procreation, this association has implications for the universality and evolutionary significance of music. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Neurophysiological Effects of Trait Empathy in Music Listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmark, Zachary; Deblieck, Choi; Iacoboni, Marco

    2018-01-01

    The social cognitive basis of music processing has long been noted, and recent research has shown that trait empathy is linked to musical preferences and listening style. Does empathy modulate neural responses to musical sounds? We designed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to address this question. In Experiment 1, subjects listened to brief isolated musical timbres while being scanned. In Experiment 2, subjects listened to excerpts of music in four conditions (familiar liked (FL)/disliked and unfamiliar liked (UL)/disliked). For both types of musical stimuli, emotional and cognitive forms of trait empathy modulated activity in sensorimotor and cognitive areas: in the first experiment, empathy was primarily correlated with activity in supplementary motor area (SMA), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and insula; in Experiment 2, empathy was mainly correlated with activity in prefrontal, temporo-parietal and reward areas. Taken together, these findings reveal the interactions between bottom-up and top-down mechanisms of empathy in response to musical sounds, in line with recent findings from other cognitive domains.

  9. Neurophysiological Effects of Trait Empathy in Music Listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Wallmark

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The social cognitive basis of music processing has long been noted, and recent research has shown that trait empathy is linked to musical preferences and listening style. Does empathy modulate neural responses to musical sounds? We designed two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiments to address this question. In Experiment 1, subjects listened to brief isolated musical timbres while being scanned. In Experiment 2, subjects listened to excerpts of music in four conditions (familiar liked (FL/disliked and unfamiliar liked (UL/disliked. For both types of musical stimuli, emotional and cognitive forms of trait empathy modulated activity in sensorimotor and cognitive areas: in the first experiment, empathy was primarily correlated with activity in supplementary motor area (SMA, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and insula; in Experiment 2, empathy was mainly correlated with activity in prefrontal, temporo-parietal and reward areas. Taken together, these findings reveal the interactions between bottom-up and top-down mechanisms of empathy in response to musical sounds, in line with recent findings from other cognitive domains.

  10. Connecting Oceanography and Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, J. L.

    2016-02-01

    Capturing and retaining the interest of non-science majors in science classes can be difficult, no matter what type of science. At Berklee College of Music, this challenge is especially significant, as all students are music majors. In my Introductory Oceanography course, I use a final project as a way for the students to link class material with their own interests. The students may choose any format to present their projects to the class; however, many students write and perform original music. The performances of ocean-themed music have become a huge draw of the Introductory Oceanography course. In an effort to expand the reach of this music, several colleagues and I organized the first Earth Day event at Berklee, `Earthapalooza 2015.' This event included performances of music originally written for the final projects, as well as other musical performances, poetry readings, guest talks, and information booths. Although the idea of an Earth Day event is not new, this event is unique in that student performances really resonate with the student audience. Additionally, since many of these students will enter professional careers in the performance and recording industries, the potential exists for them to expose large audiences to the issues of oceanography through music. In this presentation, I will play examples of original student compositions and show video of the live student performances. I will also discuss the benefits and challenges of the final projects and the Earth Day event. Finally, I will highlight the future plans to continue ocean-themed music at Berklee.

  11. Music and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Samson, Séverine

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing incidence of dementia in our aging population, and consequently an urgent need to develop treatments and activities that may alleviate the symptoms of dementia. Accumulating evidence shows that persons with dementia enjoy music, and their ability to respond to music is potentially preserved even in the late or severe stages of dementia when verbal communication may have ceased. Media interest in this topic has contributed to the public perception that music abilities are an "island of preservation" in an otherwise cognitively impaired person with dementia. In this chapter, we review the current literature on music cognition in dementia and show that there has been very scarce rigorous scientific investigation of this issue, and that various types of music memory exist and are differentially impaired in the different types of dementia. Furthermore, we discuss the recent development of music activities as a nonpharmacological treatment for dementia and highlight the methodological limitations of the current literature on this topic. While it has been reported that music activities can improve behavior, (particularly agitation), mood, and cognition in persons with dementia, recent large-scale randomized control studies have questioned the specificity of the effect of music and found that it is no more beneficial than other pleasant activities. Nevertheless, music is unique in its powerful ability to elicit both memories and emotions. This can provide an important link to individual's past and a means of nonverbal communication with carers, which make it an ideal stimulus for persons with dementia. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suse ePetersen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry (MUSCI—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N=97. The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  13. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study's goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry-including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets-was used to assess the students' musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students' perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students' sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self.

  14. The Musical Self-Concept of Chinese Music Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Suse; Camp, Marc-Antoine

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between self-concept and societal settings has been widely investigated in several Western and Asian countries, with respect to the academic self-concept in an educational environment. Although the musical self-concept is highly relevant to musical development and performance, there is a lack of research exploring how the musical self-concept evolves in different cultural settings and societies. In particular, there have been no enquiries yet in the Chinese music education environment. This study’s goal was the characterization of musical self-concept types among music students at a University in Beijing, China. The Musical Self-Concept Inquiry—including ability, emotional, physical, cognitive, and social facets—was used to assess the students’ musical self-concepts (N = 97). The data analysis led to three significantly distinct clusters and corresponding musical self-concept types. The types were especially distinct, in the students’ perception of their musical ambitions and abilities; their movement, rhythm and dancing affinity; and the spiritual and social aspects of music. The professional aims and perspectives, and the aspects of the students’ sociodemographic background also differed between the clusters. This study is one of the first research endeavors addressing musical self-concepts in China. The empirical identification of the self-concept types offers a basis for future research on the connections between education, the development of musical achievement, and the musical self-concept in societal settings with differing understandings of the self. PMID:27303337

  15. Music and the brain - design of an MEG compatible piano.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacon-Castano, Julian; Rathbone, Daniel R; Hoffman, Rachel; Heng Yang; Pantazis, Dimitrios; Yang, Jason; Hornberger, Erik; Hanumara, Nevan C

    2017-07-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) neuroimaging has been used to study subjects' responses when listening to music, but research into the effects of playing music has been limited by the lack of MEG compatible instruments that can operate in a magnetically shielded environment without creating electromagnetic interference. This paper describes the design and preliminary testing of an MEG compatible piano keyboard with 25 full size keys that employs a novel 3-state optical encoder design and electronics to provide realistic velocity-controlled volume modulation. This instrument will allow researchers to study musical performance on a finer timescale than fMRI and enable a range of MEG studies.

  16. Colombian Artists and Digital Music Platforms: Some Difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Palacio Puerta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet provides new business opportunities for the music industry, especially for both independent artists and record companies. The reason of the latter is the great proliferation and growth of digital music platforms. However, contrary to statistics, artists have not been able to benefit of such opportunities in the expected manner. The academic development on this subject is in its beginnings especially with respect to the Colombian panorama, therefore for the first time in the literature, this paper draws some of the difficulties that the Colombian artists face in the world of the digital music.

  17. Popular Music Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Frith, Simon; Cloonan, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This special issue of Popular Music has its origins in a seminar organised at the University of Stirling in 2004. This meeting, one of a series on cultural policy, brought together researchers from a number of European countries who were asked to describe state music policy in their respective countries and to reflect on what differences, if any, such policies had made to recent national music history. As the seminar’s organisers, we were interested in a couple of issues: first, how policy ap...

  18. SMUG: Scientific Music Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scirea, Marco; A B Barros, Gabriella; Togelius, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Music is based on the real world. Composers use their day-to-day lives as inspiration to create rhythm and lyrics. Procedural music generators are capable of creating good quality pieces, and while some already use the world as inspiration, there is still much to be explored in this. We describe...... a system to generate lyrics and melodies from real-world data, in particular from academic papers. Through this we want to create a playful experience and establish a novel way of generating content (textual and musical) that could be applied to other domains, in particular to games. For melody generation...

  19. Music, memory and meaning

    OpenAIRE

    Fair, Laura

    2012-01-01

    I his paper examines the music and career of Siti binti Saadi, a famous taarab musician who performed in Zanzibar during the 1920s and 1930s. Relying on four distinctive types of evidence: her recorded music, written documentation produced in East Africa, interviews with men and women who heard her perform and records of company executives I compare perspectives regarding the source of power and authority attributed to her voice as well as the meaning of her music. Siti binti Saadi was the fi...

  20. Music and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Donatella Lippi1, Paolo Roberti di Sarsina2, John Patrick D’Elios11History of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Histology, and Forensic Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy; 2Health Local Unit, Department of Mental Health, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Healing sounds have always been considered in the past an important aid in medical practice, and nowadays, medicine has confirmed the efficacy of music therapy in many diseases. The aim of this study is to assess the curative power of music, in the frame of the current clinical relationship.Keywords: history of medicine, medical humanities, healing music

  1. MUSIC AND SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Abhay Dubey

    2017-01-01

    In India, music is believed to be as eternal as God. Before the creation of the world —it existed as the all-pervading sound of "Om" —ringing through space. Brahma, the Creator, revealed the four Vedas, the last of which was the Sama Veda —dealing with music. Vedic hymns were ritualistic chants of invocation to different nature gods. It is not strange therefore to find the beginnings of Hindu music associated with Gods and Goddesses. The mythological heaven of Indra, God of Rain, was inhabite...

  2. A New Look at Teaching Music History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroff, Edith

    1992-01-01

    Contends that teaching music history has traditionally focused on five eras of Western music. Relates these periods to concepts of form, space, and understanding. Acknowledges that music education has been ethnocentric and recommends a more universal music education. (CFR)

  3. CONCEPT OF MUSIC AND LISTENED SOME GENRES OF MUSIC IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Eda Angi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the definition and development of music and music’s types from the first period to the present day is analysed briefly. According to the research, the music types which will be searched, are arabesque music, blues music/jazz music, hiphop/rap music, classical music, pop music, rock/metal music, sufi music, Turkish folk music, Turkish art music. The research is a descriptive workout due to its purpose and method used. This research is important by means of being a source for the researchers and explaining various music types.

  4. Music Technology and Musical Creativity: Making Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Douglas Earl

    2012-01-01

    This article is a preview of Scott Watson's new book, "Using Technology to Unlock Musical Creativity" (Oxford University Press, 2011). The book's main contents are summarized and one of the volume's 29 lessons is provided to assist readers in evaluating the book for their use. Particular attention is given to Watson's success in making the…

  5. Older Adults' Music Listening Preferences to Support Physical Activity Following Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2016-01-01

    Music listening during exercise is thought to increase physiological arousal and enhance subjective experience, and may support physical activity participation among older adults with cardiac disease. However, little is known about how music preferences, or perceptions of music during exercise, inform clinical practice with this population. Identify predominant musical characteristics of preferred music selected by older adults, and explore participants' music listening experiences during walking-based exercise following cardiac rehabilitation. Twenty-seven participants aged 60 years and older (21 men, 6 women; mean age = 67.3 years) selected music to support walking over a 6-month intervention period, and participated in post-intervention interviews. In this two-phase study, we first identified predominant characteristics of participant-selected music using the Structural Model of Music Analysis. Second, we used inductive thematic analysis to explore participant experiences. Predominant characteristics of participant-selected music included duple meter, consistent rhythm, major key, rounded melodic shape, legato articulation, predictable harmonies, variable volume, and episodes of tension with delayed resolution. There was no predominant tempo, with music selections ranging from slow through to medium and fast. Four themes emerged from thematic analysis of participant interviews: psycho-emotional responses, physical responses, influence on exercise behavior, and negative experiences. Findings are consistent with theory and research explaining influences from music listening on physiological arousal and subjective experience during exercise. Additionally, for older adults with cardiac disease, a holistic approach to music selection considering general well-being and adjustment issues, rather than just exercise performance, may improve long-term lifestyle changes and compliance with physical activity guidelines. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All

  6. Musical Preference and Music Education: Musical Preferences of Turkish University Students and Their Levels in Genre Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürgen, Elif Tekin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there is any relationship between musical preference, genre identification and frequency of listening to music genres, and whether musical training and gender played a role in these factors. A total of 205 college music and non-music majors recorded their preference for 13 music excerpts in popular,…

  7. Effects of music on work-rate distribution during a cycling time trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Wilson, D; Eubank, M

    2004-11-01

    Previous research work on the ergogenic effects of music has mainly involved constant power tests to exhaustion as dependent variables. Time trials are more externally valid than constant power tests, may be more reliable and allow the distribution of self-selected work-rate to be explored. We examined whether music improved starting, finishing and/or overall power during a 10-km cycling time trial, and whether heart rate and subjective responses to this time trial were altered by music. Sixteen participants performed two 10-km time trials on a Cybex cycle ergometer with, and without, the presence of a form of dance music known as "trance" (tempo = 142 beats x min (-1), volume at ear = 87 dB). Participants also completed the Brunel music rating inventory (BMRI) after each time trial in the music condition. The mean +/- SD time to complete the time trial was 1030 +/- 79 s in the music condition compared to 1052 +/- 77 s without music (95 % CI of difference = 10 to 34 s, p = 0.001). Nevertheless, ratings of perceived exertion were consistently (0.8 units) higher throughout the time trial with music (p music-induced increases in cycling speed and heart rate were observed in the first 3 km of the time trial. After completion of the BMRI, participants rated the "tempo" and "rhythm" of the music as more motivating than the "harmony" and "melody" aspects. These results suggest that music improves cycling speed mostly in the first few minutes of a 10-km time trial. In contrast to the findings of previous research, which suggested that music lowers perceived exertion at a constant work-rate, the participants in our time trials selected higher work-rates with music, whilst at the same time perceived these work-rates as being harder than without music.

  8. An Examination of a Music Appreciation Method Incorporating Tactile Sensations from Artificial Vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yoshida, Ryujyu; Ooshima, Keita

    We examined how test subject impressions of music changed when artificial vibrations were incorporated as constituent elements of a musical composition. In this study, test subjects listened to several music samples in which different types of artificial vibration had been incorporated and then subjectively evaluated any resulting changes to their impressions of the music. The following results were obtained: i) Even if rhythm vibration is added to a silent component of a musical composition, it can effectively enhance musical fitness. This could be readily accomplished when actual sounds that had been synchronized with the vibration components were provided beforehand. ii) The music could be listened to more comfortably by adding not only a natural vibration extracted from percussion instruments but also artificial vibration as tactile stimulation according to intentional timing. Furthermore, it was found that the test subjects' impression of the music was affected by a characteristic of the artificial vibration. iii) Adding vibration to high-frequency areas can offer an effective and practical way of enhancing the appeal of a musical composition. iv) The movement sensations of sound and vibration could be experienced when the strength of the sound and vibration are modified in turn. These results suggest that the intentional application of artificial vibration could result in a sensitivity amplification factor on the part of a listener.

  9. Konference Music, body and stage: The iconography of music theater and opera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vácha, Štěpán

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2008), s. 7-8 ISSN 0862-612X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : music iconography * theater * opera Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.dejinyumeni.cz/bulletin/UHS_1_2008.pdf

  10. Music Across Times and Fences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent Erik

    that extended the framework of ideas for writing music, some in a small way, some with breathtaking novelty. You can listen to the music discussed while reading, through links to or playlists provided at streaming services (that are free if you accept occasional advertising). The book is eminently suitable......This is a story of musical innovation: Milestones in advancing music from the earliest Stone Age indications of possible musical activity to contemporary art-music, jazz, rock and varieties of pop music. Not necessarily by the most famous composers, nor the ones most played, but the innovative ones...... for use in music teaching at high schools or as a reference tool in dedicated music schools....

  11. 12th Biennial International Conference on Baroque Music

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jonášová, Milada; Kapsa, Václav; Maňourová, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2007), s. 91-93 ISSN 0018-7003. [12th Biennial International Conference on Baroque Music . Varšava, 26.07.2006-30.07.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB800580502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90580513 Keywords : music * conference * baroque Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  12. Musical information processing reflecting its structure

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraga, Rumi

    1999-01-01

    In pursuit of generating expressive musical rendition with rules, the computer music project Psyche has greatly concerned musical structure. Although described implicitly, musical structure exists innately and absolutely in musical scores. This thesis demonstrates the successful introduction of musical structure to computer music systems that are related to performance synthesis. Two systems, a performance visualization system and a computer-assisted musical analysis system Daphne, are descri...

  13. Music technology in music therapy - A study of the possibilities, potential and problems around the use of music technologies in music therapy with youths and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Misje, René

    2013-01-01

    Music technology in music therapy - A study of the possibilities, potential and problems around the use of music technologies in music therapy with youths and adolescents. This qualitative study explores the usefulness of music technology in music therapeutic practice with youth and adolescents. Four music therapist`s reflections on their use of music technologies and on the possibilities, potential and problems of this use are explored through semi-structured intervi...

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF MUSIC ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Biagi Almeida Santos; Otávio Bandeira De Lamônica Freire

    2013-01-01

    This present paper shows the influence of music used in a retail environment in relation to consumer behavior. For obtaining the information, we based this research on a literature review in national and international journals, by 4 databases including: Proquest, EBSCO Host, CAPES periódicos and Mendeley, in the period of 2008 and 2012, by the keywords: music behavior, music in retail environment, background music, music consumer, environmental music, music and consumer behavior and music in ...

  15. The effect of music on robot-assisted laparoscopic surgical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Ka-Chun; Suh, Irene H; Mukherjee, Mukul; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Stergiou, Nick

    2010-12-01

    Music is often played in the operating room to increase the surgeon's concentration and to mask noise. It could have a beneficial effect on surgical performance. Ten participants with limited experience with the da Vinci robotic surgical system were recruited to perform two surgical tasks: suture tying and mesh alignment when classical, jazz, hip-hop, and Jamaican music were presented. Kinematics of the instrument tips of the surgical robot and surface electromyography of the subjects were recorded. Results revealed that a significant music effect was found for both tasks with decreased time to task completion (P = .005) and total travel distance (P = .021) as well as reduced muscle activations ( P = .016) and increased median muscle frequency (P = .034). Subjects improved their performance significantly when they listened to either hip-hop or Jamaican music. In conclusion, music with high rhythmicity has a beneficial effect on robotic surgical performance. Musical environment may benefit surgical training and make acquisition of surgical skills more efficient.

  16. Thematic Analysis of the Experience of Group Music Therapy for People with Chronic Quadriplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Felicity A.; Grocke, Denise; Berlowitz, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People living with quadriplegia are at risk for social isolation and depression. Research with other marginalized groups has indicated that music therapy can have a positive effect on mood and social interaction. Objective: To gather descriptions of participants’ experience of 2 types of group music therapy – therapeutic singing or music appreciation and relaxation – and to determine commonalities and differences between participants’ experience of these 2 methods. Methods: We interviewed 20 people with quadriplegia about their experience of participating in 12 weeks of therapeutic singing (n = 10) or music appreciation and relaxation (n = 10). These methods of group music therapy were the interventions tested in a previously reported randomized controlled trial. The interview data were subjected to an inductive thematic analysis. Results: Six main themes were generated from the interview data. Four of these were shared themes and indicated that both types of group music therapy had a positive effect on mood/mental state and physical state, encouraged social engagement, and reconnected participants with their music identity or relationship with music. In addition, the participants who participated in the singing groups found singing to be challenging and confronting, but experienced a general increase in motivation. Conclusions: Group music therapy was experienced as an enjoyable and accessible activity that reconnected participants with their own music. Participants frequently described positive shifts in mood and energy levels, and social interaction was stimulated both within and beyond the music therapy groups. PMID:25484569

  17. Music critic Gustav Michel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasić Aleksandar N.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The writers whose real vocation was not music left significant traces in the history of Serbian music critics and essayism of the late 19th century and the first half of the 20th century. Numerous authors, literary historians theoreticians and critics, jurists and theatre historians, wrote successfully on music in Serbian daily newspapers, literary and other magazines, until the Second World War. This study is devoted to Gustav Michel (1868 - 1926, one of the music amateurs who ought to be remembered in the history of Serbian music critics. Gustav Michel was a pharmacist by vocation. He ran a private pharmacy in Belgrade all his life. But he was a musician as well. He played the viola in the second (in chronological order of foundation Serbian String Quartet. The ensemble mostly consisted of amateurs, and it performed standard pieces of chamber music (W. A. Mozart L. v. Beethoven, F. Schubert, F. Mendelsohn-Bartholdy, A. Dvořžak. These musicians had performed public concerts in Belgrade since 1900 up until Michel’s death. Belgrade music critics prised the performances of this string ensemble highly. Gustav Michel was also a music critic. Until now only seven articles, published by this author between 1894 and 1903, in Order (Red, Folk Newspaper (Narodne novine and Serbian Literary Magazine (Srpski književni glasnik have been found. Michel’s preserved articles unambiguously prove that their author had a solid knowledge of music theory and history, the knowledge that exceeded amateurism. Nevertheless, Michel did not burden his first critics with expert language of musicology. Later on, in Serbian Literary Magazine, the magazine which left enough room for music, Michel penetrated more into musical terminology, thus educating slowly forming Serbian concert-going public. The analysis of Michel’s texts showed that he was not, in contrast to the majority of professional music critics, an opponent of virtuosity. Gentle and liberal, he did not

  18. Music for Your Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... great survival value for our species. Given the evolutionary pressure to develop a keen sense of hearing, ... warrior. Despite this long-standing healing history, modern medicine has been slow to adopt music as an ...

  19. South African Music Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African ... Shifty Records in Apartheid South Africa: Innovations in Independent Record ... Experiences of Belonging and Exclusion in the Production and Reception of ...

  20. Music Therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Professional development and recognition is an 'old' issue in music therapy but still a relevant, complex and crucial one. Burning questions regarding professionalisation are at the forefront of most music therapy associations’ agendas across Europe and beyond, and feed back directly to the work...... of the EMTC. Considering the wider political, socio-economic, cultural and disciplinary aspects of professionalisation, different development pathways impact directly on music therapy practice, training, ethics, professional collaboration and employment conditions. Although a number of endeavours have been...... implemented regarding music therapy’s professional development and recognition in different countries, documentation and sharing of such endeavours on international level has been limited and scattered. Drawing from the EMTC’s work since the early ‘90s, as well as from colleagues’ experiences (and struggles...