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Sample records for subject areas carbon

  1. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  2. Foveal avascular zone area in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Xu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To measure the foveal avascular zone(FAZarea and to investigate the characteristics of the FAZ area in normal eyes, using optical coherence tomography(OCTangiography.METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study. The FAZ area was measured in 69 participants, for a total of 138 eyes, using RTVue-100 OCT. The relations between the FAZ area and the potential factors were evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Differences between the right and left eyes were calculated, and values were compared by means of a paired t test. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to assess the relationships of the FAZ area between the right and left eyes. RESULTS: The mean FAZ area was 0.30±0.11mm2 in all subjects. For the male subjects, the mean FAZ area was 0.29±0.13mm2, and for the female subjects 0.31±0.09mm2, with no significant difference(t=-1.346,P=0.180. The FAZ area did not correlate with all the potential factors. The mean FAZ area in the right eye was 0.30±0.11mm2, and in the left eye was 0.30±0.10mm2,with no significant difference(P=0.943. There was a strong correlation between the right and left eyes for the FAZ area. CONCLUSION: OCT angiography is a noninvasive method of visualizing and measuring the FAZ area in normal subjects. The FAZ area does not correlate with old age, sex and other factors. It shows significant interocular symmetry in normal subjects.

  3. Local Development of Subject Area Item Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Annie W.; Barlow, Gene

    1984-01-01

    It is feasible for school districts to develop and use subject area tests as reliable as those previously available only from commercial publishers. Three projects in local item development in a large school district are described. The first involved only Algebra 1. The second involved life science and career education at the elementary level; and…

  4. Acquisition in different and special subject areas

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Learn how acquisitions librarians successfully serve specialized users! In this book, you'll find profiles, methods, and processes for acquisitions in specialized subject areas, such as local and regional poetry, oceanography, educational information in electronic formats, popular fiction, regional and ethnic materials, and more. Seasoned acquisitions librarians share their experiences in gathering the hard-to-find materials their libraries' highly specialized clients need to access. You'll also examine issues surrounding the acquisition of new reference tools that are vital in today's emergi

  5. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.; Wiens, R.D. (St. Louis Univ. School of Medicine, MO (United States))

    1992-09-01

    The impact of low-level carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency in patients with ischemic heart disease has not been thoroughly studied. The issue is of concern because of the potential proarrhythmic effect of carbon monoxide in patients with ischemic heart disease. We studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. By using appropriate inclusion and exclusion criteria, subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study to determine the effects of carbon monoxide exposure on ventricular arrhythmia frequency at rest, during exercise, and during ambulatory activities. The carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. The carbon monoxide exposure protocol produced target levels in 60 minutes, and the levels were maintained for an additional 90 minutes to provide adequate time to assess the impact of carbon monoxide on the frequency of ventricular ectopic beats. The data on total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were analyzed for seven specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide or air exposure; (3) during a two-hour rest period; (4) during an exercise period; (5) during an exercise recovery period; (6) six hours after carbon monoxide or air exposure; and (7) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity.

  6. High surface area carbon and process for its production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Jimmy; Burress, Jacob; Pfeifer, Peter; Rash, Tyler; Shah, Parag; Suppes, Galen

    2016-12-13

    Activated carbon materials and methods of producing and using activated carbon materials are provided. In particular, biomass-derived activated carbon materials and processes of producing the activated carbon materials with prespecified surface areas and pore size distributions are provided. Activated carbon materials with preselected high specific surface areas, porosities, sub-nm (<1 nm) pore volumes, and supra-nm (1-5 nm) pore volumes may be achieved by controlling the degree of carbon consumption and metallic potassium intercalation into the carbon lattice during the activation process.

  7. Drilling in areas subject to environmental protection; A perfuracao em area de protecao ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonca, Ricardo Teixeira; Guimaraes, Antimio Santos [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Nordeste. Div. Tecnica; Santana, Manoel Messias de [PETROBRAS, XX (Brazil). Regiao de Producao do Nordeste. Setor de Seguranca Industrial

    1989-12-31

    This paper presents the practices developed for pollution control in areas subject to environmental protection. This well drilling operation was carried out in the Municipality of Marechal Deodoro, in the State of Alagoas, in locality named Massagueira. We stress the preventive methods for liquid and solid effluent generation and the use of Closed Fluid System or Anti-Dike System. (author) 3 figs.

  8. Initiatives towards Carbon Neutrality in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karna Dahal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon neutrality represents one climate strategy adopted by many cities, including the city of Helsinki and the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland. This study examines initiatives adopted by the Helsinki metropolitan area aimed at reducing energy-related carbon emissions and achieving carbon neutrality through future actions. Various sectorial energy consumption rates per year and carbon emissions from various sectors within the city of Helsinki and the metropolitan area were extracted from an online database and re-calculated (in GWh, MWh/inhabitant and MtCO2e, KtCO2e/inhabitant. We employed a backcasting scenario method to explore the various carbon reduction measures in the Helsinki metropolitan area. About 96% of the emissions produced in the Helsinki metropolitan area are energy-based. District heating represents the primary source of emissions, followed by transportation and electricity consumption, respectively. We also found that accomplishing the carbon reduction strategies of the Helsinki metropolitan area by 2050 remains challenging. Technological advancement for clean and renewable energy sources, smart policies and raising awareness resulting in behavioral changes greatly affect carbon reduction actions. Thus, strong political commitments are also required to formulate and implement stringent climate actions.

  9. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land...

  10. Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chuixiang; Wei, Suhua; Hendrey, George

    2014-07-01

    At biome-scale, terrestrial carbon uptake is controlled mainly by weather variability. Observational data from a global monitoring network indicate that the sensitivity of terrestrial carbon sequestration to mean annual temperature (T) breaks down at a threshold value of 16°C, above which terrestrial CO2 fluxes are controlled by dryness rather than temperature. Here we show that since 1948 warming climate has moved the 16°C T latitudinal belt poleward. Land surface area with T > 16°C and now subject to dryness control rather than temperature as the regulator of carbon uptake has increased by 6% and is expected to increase by at least another 8% by 2050. Most of the land area subjected to this warming is arid or semiarid with ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to drought and land degradation. In areas now dryness-controlled, net carbon uptake is ~27% lower than in areas in which both temperature and dryness (T areas may be triggering a positive feedback accelerating global warming. Continued increases in land area with T > 16°C has implications not only for positive feedback on climate change, but also for ecosystem integrity and land cover, particularly for pastoral populations in marginal lands.

  11. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land protection for mitigating GHG emissions. Results The analysis of related national-level datasets shows that during the period of 1992–2001 net forest losses in protected areas were small as compared to those in unprotected areas: -0.74% and −4.07%, respectively. If forest loss rates in protected and unprotected area had been similar, then forest losses in the protected forestlands would be larger by 870 km2/yr forests, that corresponds to release of 7 Tg C/yr (1 Tg=1012 g). Conversely, and continuing to assume no leakage effects or interactions of prices and harvest levels, about 1,200 km2/yr forests could have remained forest during the period of 1992–2001 if net area loss rate in the forestland outside protected areas was reduced by 20%. Not counting carbon in harvested wood products, this is equivalent to reducing fossil-fuel based carbon emissions by 10 Tg C/yr during this period. The South and West had much higher potentials to mitigate GHG emission from reducing loss rates in unprotected forests than that of North region. Spatially, rates of forest loss were higher across the coastal states in the southeastern US than would be expected from their population change, while interior states in the northern US experienced less forest area loss than would have been expected given their demographic characteristics. Conclusions The estimated carbon benefit from the reduced forest loss based on current protected areas is 7 Tg C/yr, equivalent to the average carbon benefit per year for a previously proposed ten-year $110 million per year tree planting program scenario in the US. If there

  12. Carbon benefits from protected areas in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daolan; Heath, Linda S; Ducey, Mark J

    2013-04-17

    Conversion of forests to other land cover or land use releases the carbon stored in the forests and reduces carbon sequestration potential of the land. The rate of forest conversion could be reduced by establishing protected areas for biological diversity and other conservation goals. The purpose of this study is to quantify the efficiency and potential of forest land protection for mitigating GHG emissions. The analysis of related national-level datasets shows that during the period of 1992-2001 net forest losses in protected areas were small as compared to those in unprotected areas: -0.74% and -4.07%, respectively. If forest loss rates in protected and unprotected area had been similar, then forest losses in the protected forestlands would be larger by 870 km2/yr forests, that corresponds to release of 7 Tg C/yr (1 Tg=1012 g). Conversely, and continuing to assume no leakage effects or interactions of prices and harvest levels, about 1,200 km2/yr forests could have remained forest during the period of 1992-2001 if net area loss rate in the forestland outside protected areas was reduced by 20%. Not counting carbon in harvested wood products, this is equivalent to reducing fossil-fuel based carbon emissions by 10 Tg C/yr during this period. The South and West had much higher potentials to mitigate GHG emission from reducing loss rates in unprotected forests than that of North region. Spatially, rates of forest loss were higher across the coastal states in the southeastern US than would be expected from their population change, while interior states in the northern US experienced less forest area loss than would have been expected given their demographic characteristics. The estimated carbon benefit from the reduced forest loss based on current protected areas is 7 Tg C/yr, equivalent to the average carbon benefit per year for a previously proposed ten-year $110 million per year tree planting program scenario in the US. If there had been a program that could have

  13. Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS). Volume 3, Subject Area reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, R.I.

    1994-01-14

    The Hanford Environmental Information System (HEIS) Subject Area manuals are designed as reference guides, that is, each chapter provides the information needed to make best use of each subject area, its tables, and reporting capabilities. Each subject area is documented in a chapter in one of the subject area manuals. Because these are reference manuals, most of the information is also available in the online help system as well. See Section 5.4.2 of the HEIS User`s Guide (DOE-RL 1994a) for a detailed description of the online help.

  14. Carbon Sequestration in Reforested Areas in China Since 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Liu, J.; Wang, S.; Sun, R.; Shi, X.; Tian, Q.; Xue, J.; Pan, J.; Kang, E.; Zhu, Q.; Zhou, Y.; Yang, L.; Liu, G.; Chen, M.; Thomas, S.; Bryan, R.; Yin, Y.; MacLaren, V.; Zhou, S.; Feng, X.; Wang, C.; Pan, J.

    2004-05-01

    Since July 2002, a 3-year Canada-China joint project was funded by the Canadian International Development Agency and the Chinese Academy of Sciences to assess the current status of China's forests and the impacts of forestry activities on carbon sequestration. From 1973 to 2001, China's total forested area increased from 122 Mha to 159 Mha, owing to large-scale reforestations for the main purpose of soil erosion control. In this project, four local forest sites in Changbaishan, Heihe, Liping and Xingguo in various regions are chosen for intensive assessments of forest and soil stocks. Ground-based measurements of leaf area index (LAI), net primary productivity (NPP), soil texture, vegetation and soil carbon stocks are used to calibrate models. High-resolution remote sensing images from ASTER and ETM are used to map LAI and NPP of these sites and for upscaling to the whole China based on MODIS and VEGETATION images. Remote sensing techniques and carbon cycle models (BEPS, InTEC) developed in Canada are being adapted to China's ecosystems. Preliminary results suggest that new reforested areas since 1970 are now actively sequester carbon, making the overall forested area as a carbon sink in the last few decades. Efforts are being made to reduce uncertainties in the estimation through incorporating new nation-wide datasets of forest age, soil texture and organic matter, nitrogen deposition, etc. At Changbaishan, Liping and Heihe, integrated assessments are being conducted to investigate the impacts of reforestation (Grain-to-Green) programs on the social and economic status of farmers as well as the ecological environment and land use options to maximize carbon sequestraton.

  15. More than Beliefs: Subject Areas and Teachers' Integration of Laptops in Secondary Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sarah K.; Chan, Amy; Caputi, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship of subject areas to teachers' technology integration. Educational technology research has often identified "culture clashes" to explain differences in technology use between subject areas. These clashes are frequently attributed to core features, values and beliefs held in the…

  16. Extent of the availability of Africana resources in subject areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extent of the availability of Africana resources in various subject areas in thirteen first and second generation federal university libraries in Nigeria with the view of suggesting ways to improve the development of the collection in the university libraries that are deficient in the subject areas of any of ...

  17. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate-Barrera, Tatiana G; Maldonado, Jorge H

    2015-01-01

    Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing) organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  18. Valuing blue carbon: carbon sequestration benefits provided by the marine protected areas in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana G Zarate-Barrera

    Full Text Available Marine protected areas are aimed to protect and conserve key ecosystems for the provision of a number of ecosystem services that are the basis for numerous economic activities. Among the several services that these areas provide, the capacity of sequestering (capturing and storing organic carbon is a regulating service, provided mainly by mangroves and seagrasses, that gains importance as alternatives for mitigating global warming become a priority in the international agenda. The objective of this study is to value the services associated with the capture and storage of oceanic carbon, known as Blue Carbon, provided by a new network of marine protected areas in Colombia. We approach the monetary value associated to these services through the simulation of a hypothetical market for oceanic carbon. To do that, we construct a benefit function that considers the capacity of mangroves and seagrasses for capturing and storing blue carbon, and simulate scenarios for the variation of key variables such as the market carbon price, the discount rate, the natural rate of loss of the ecosystems, and the expectations about the post-Kyoto negotiations. The results indicate that the expected benefits associated to carbon capture and storage provided by these ecosystems are substantial but highly dependent on the expectations in terms of the negotiations surrounding the extension of the Kyoto Protocol and the dynamics of the carbon credit's demand and supply. We also find that the natural loss rate of these ecosystems does not seem to have a significant effect on the annual value of the benefits. This approach constitutes one of the first attempts to value blue carbon as one of the services provided by conservation.

  19. Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Honeycomb Cell Area-Dependent Optical Reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udorn, Junthorn; Hatta, Akimitsu; Furuta, Hiroshi

    2016-11-07

    The relationship between the physical structure of carbon nanotube (CNT) honeycomb structures and their total, diffuse, and specular reflectance is investigated for the first time. It is found that CNT honeycomb structures with average cell areas of smaller than 30 μm² show a higher total reflectance. Particularly, a thinner, highly packed CNT (buckypaper) film, along with a larger wall height and higher ratio of wall height to cell area, markedly increase the total reflectance for cell areas smaller than 30 μm², which means that a higher total area of buckypapers in CNT walls and bottom areas increases the total reflectance, including the diffuse reflectance. It is also found that the total reflection of non-absorbed light in CNT honeycomb structures consists primarily of diffuse reflectance.

  20. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  1. Carbon monoxide exposure of subjects with documented cardiac arrhythmias. Research report, August 1987-July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaitman, B.R.; Dahms, T.E.; Byers, S.; Carroll, L.W.; Younis, L.T.

    1992-09-01

    The authors studied 30 subjects with well-documented coronary artery disease who had an average of at least 30 ventricular ectopic beats per hour over a 20-hour monitoring interval. Subjects were selected and enrolled in a randomized double-blind study; the carbon monoxide exposure was designed to result in 3% or 5% carboxyhemoglobin levels, as measured by gas chromatography. Total and repetitive ventricular arrhythmias were measured for four specific time intervals: (1) two hours before carbon monoxide exposure; (2) during the two-hour carbon monoxide exposure; (3) six hours after carbon monoxide exposure; and (4) approximately 10 hours after exposure, or the remaining recording interval on the Holter monitor. There was no increase in ventricular arrhythmia frequency after carbon monoxide exposure, regardless of the level of carboxyhemoglobin or the type of activity. During steady-state conditions at rest, the number of ventricular ectopic beats per hour was 115 + or - 153 (SD) for room air exposure (0.7% carboxyhemoglobin), 121 + or - 171 for the lower carbon monoxide exposure (3.2% carboxyhemoglobin), and 94 + or - 129 for the higher carbon monoxide exposure (5.1% carboxyhemoglobin). The frequency of complex ventricular ectopy was not altered at the levels of carbon monoxide studied. Secondary analysis of the impact of carbon monoxide on ventricular ectopic beat frequency stratified by baseline ejection fraction, baseline ventricular ectopic beat frequency, and exercise-induced ST-segment changes did not indicate an effect of carbon monoxide on ventricular arrhythmias. However, patients with symptomatic ventricular arrhythmias and symptomatic myocardial ischemia were excluded from the present study.

  2. High surface area silicon carbide-coated carbon aerogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A; Kuntz, Joshua D; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr, Joe H

    2014-01-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust. Carbon aerogels can be coated with sol-gel silica and the silica can be converted to silicone carbide, improved the thermal stability of the carbon aerogel.

  3. Ultrahigh surface area carbon from carbonated beverages: Combining self-templating process and in situ activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Jihua; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-01

    Ultrahigh surface area carbons (USACs, e.g., >2000 m2/g) are attracting tremendous attention due to their outstanding performance in energy-related applications. The state-of-art approaches to USACs involve templating or activation methods and all these techniques show certain drawbacks. In this work, a series of USACs with specific surface areas up to 3633 m2/g were prepared in two steps: hydrothermal carbonization (200 °C) of carbonated beverages (CBs) and further thermal treatment in nitrogen (600–1000 °C). The rich inner porosity is formed by a self-templated process during which acids and polyelectrolyte sodium salts in the beverage formulas make some contribution. This strategy covers various CBs such as Coca Cola®, Pepsi Cola®, Dr. Pepper®, and Fanta® and it enables an acceptable product yield (based on sugars), for example: 21 wt% for carbon (2940 m2/g) from Coca Cola®. Being potential electrode materials for supercapacitors, those carbon materials possessed a good specific capacitance (57.2–185.7 F g-1) even at a scan rate of 1000 mV s-1. Thus, a simple and efficient strategy to USACs has been presented.

  4. Mastication, EMG activity and occlusal contact area in subjects with different facial types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Simone Guimarães Farias; Custodio, William; Jufer, Juliana Silva Moura; Del Bel, Cury Altair Antoninha; Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus Rodrigues

    2010-10-01

    Dentofacial morphology may affect orofacial functions, therefore the aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of craniofacial morphology on masticatory function, occlusal contact area (OCA), and masticatory muscles activity. Seventy-eight (78) subjects were divided into three groups according to vertical facial pattern: 1. mesofacial; 2. brachyfacial; and 3. dolichofacial. Artificial material and the sieving method were used to access masticatory efficiency (ME). OCA was determined by registration of posterior teeth. Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the masseter and anterior temporal (AT) muscles was accessed bilaterally at rest and at maximal vertical clenching (MVC). ME (%) was significantly higher in brachyfacial and lower in dolichofacial subjects. Brachyfacials presented the highest OCA (mm2) followed by meso and dolichofacial subjects. The EMG of the masseter and AT at rest and at MVC showed that dolichofacial subjects presented the lowest activity values, while brachyfacial subjects presented significantly higher measurements. Craniofacial morphology affected masticatory function, OCA, and EMG activity of the masticatory muscles.

  5. Increased BDNF promoter methylation in the Wernicke area of suicide subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Simona; Sarchiapone, Marco; Zarrilli, Federica; Videtic, Alja; Ferraro, Angelo; Carli, Vladimir; Sacchetti, Silvana; Lembo, Francesca; Angiolillo, Antonella; Jovanovic, Nikolina; Pisanti, Francesco; Tomaiuolo, Rossella; Monticelli, Antonella; Balazic, Joze; Roy, Alec; Marusic, Andrej; Cocozza, Sergio; Fusco, Alfredo; Bruni, Carmelo B; Castaldo, Giuseppe; Chiariotti, Lorenzo

    2010-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of suicidal behavior and BDNF levels are decreased in the brain and plasma of suicide subjects. So far, the mechanisms leading to downregulation of BDNF expression are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that alterations of DNA methylation could be involved in the dysregulation of BDNF gene expression in the brain of suicide subjects. Three independent quantitative methylation techniques were performed on postmortem samples of brain tissue. BDNF messenger RNA levels were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Academic medical center. Forty-four suicide completers and 33 nonsuicide control subjects of white ethnicity. The DNA methylation degree at BDNF promoter IV and the genome-wide DNA methylation levels in the brain's Wernicke area. Postmortem brain samples from suicide subjects showed a statistically significant increase of DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in BDNF promoter/exon IV compared with nonsuicide control subjects (P Wernicke area of the postmortem brain of suicide subjects irrespective of genome-wide methylation levels, indicating that a gene-specific increase in DNA methylation could cause or contribute to the downregulation of BDNF expression in suicide subjects. The reported data reveal a novel link between epigenetic alteration in the brain and suicidal behavior.

  6. Hypothetical high-surface-area carbons with exceptional hydrogen storage capacities: open carbon frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Bogdan; Firlej, Lucyna; Mohammadhosseini, Ali; Boulet, Pascal; Beckner, Matthew; Romanos, Jimmy; Pfeifer, Peter

    2012-09-12

    A class of high-surface-area carbon hypothetical structures has been investigated that goes beyond the traditional model of parallel graphene sheets hosting layers of physisorbed hydrogen in slit-shaped pores of variable width. The investigation focuses on structures with locally planar units (unbounded or bounded fragments of graphene sheets), and variable ratios of in-plane to edge atoms. Adsorption of molecular hydrogen on these structures was studied by performing grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations with appropriately chosen adsorbent-adsorbate interaction potentials. The interaction models were tested by comparing simulated adsorption isotherms with experimental isotherms on a high-performance activated carbon with well-defined pore structure (approximately bimodal pore-size distribution), and remarkable agreement between computed and experimental isotherms was obtained, both for gravimetric excess adsorption and for gravimetric storage capacity. From this analysis and the simulations performed on the new structures, a rich spectrum of relationships between structural characteristics of carbons and ensuing hydrogen adsorption (structure-function relationships) emerges: (i) Storage capacities higher than in slit-shaped pores can be obtained by fragmentation/truncation of graphene sheets, which creates surface areas exceeding of 2600 m(2)/g, the maximum surface area for infinite graphene sheets, carried mainly by edge sites; we call the resulting structures open carbon frameworks (OCF). (ii) For OCFs with a ratio of in-plane to edge sites ≈1 and surface areas 3800-6500 m(2)/g, we found record maximum excess adsorption of 75-85 g of H(2)/kg of C at 77 K and record storage capacity of 100-260 g of H(2)/kg of C at 77 K and 100 bar. (iii) The adsorption in structures having large specific surface area built from small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons cannot be further increased because their energy of adsorption is low. (iv) Additional increase of hydrogen

  7. Carbon dioxide fluxes over an urban park area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordowski, Klaus; Kuttler, Wilhelm

    2010-07-01

    From September 2006 to October 2007 turbulent fluxes of carbon dioxide were measured at an urban tower station (26 m above ground level, z/z h = 1.73) in Essen, Germany, using the eddy covariance technique. The site was located at the border between a public park area (70 ha) in the south-west of the station and suburban/urban residential as well as light commercial areas in the north and east of the tower. Depending on the land-use two different sectors ( park and urban) were identified showing distinct differences in the temporal evolution of the surface-atmosphere exchange of CO 2. While urban fluxes appear to be governed by anthropogenic emissions from domestic heating and traffic (average flux 9.3 μmol m -2 s -1), the exchange of CO 2 was steered by biological processes when the park contributed to the flux footprint. The diurnal course during the vegetation period exhibited negative daytime fluxes up to -10 μmol m -2 s -1 on average in summer. Nevertheless, with a mean of 0.8 μmol m -2 s -1 park sector fluxes were slightly positive, thus no net carbon uptake by the surface occurred throughout the year. In order to sum the transport of CO 2 a gap-filling procedure was performed by means of artificial neural network generalisation. Using additional meteorological inputs the daily exchange of CO 2 was reproduced using radial basis function networks (RBF). The resulting yearly sum of 6031 g m -2 a -1 indicates the entire study site to be a considerable source of CO 2.

  8. An investigation on impacts of scheduling configurations on Mississippi biology subject area testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchette, Frances Lenora

    The purpose of this mixed modal study was to compare the results of Biology Subject Area mean scores of students on a 4 x 4 block schedule, A/B block schedule, and traditional year-long schedule for 1A to 5A size schools. This study also reviewed the data to determine if minority or gender issues might influence the test results. Interviews with administrators and teachers were conducted about the type of schedule configuration they use and the influence that the schedule has on student academic performance on the Biology Subject Area Test. Additionally, this research further explored whether schedule configurations allow sufficient time for students to construct knowledge. This study is important to schools, teachers, and administrators because it can assist them in considering the impacts that different types of class schedules have on student performance and if ethnic or gender issues are influencing testing results. This study used the causal-comparative method for the quantitative portion of the study and constant comparative method for the qualitative portion to explore the relationship of school schedules on student academic achievement on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test. The aggregate means of selected student scores indicate that the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test as a measure of student performance reveals no significant difference on student achievement for the three school schedule configurations. The data were adjusted for initial differences of gender, minority, and school size on the three schedule configurations. The results suggest that schools may employ various schedule configurations and expect student performance on the Mississippi Biology Subject Area Test to be unaffected. However, many areas of concern were identified in the interviews that might impact on school learning environments. These concerns relate to effective classroom management, the active involvement of students in learning, the adequacy of teacher education

  9. Building Virtually Free Subject Area Expertise through Social Media: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooy, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Central to the ongoing success of the liaison model is the need for liaison librarians to stay informed and up-to-date about recent developments in the subject areas of their assigned academic departments and programs. This article describes an exploratory study conducted to determine whether information obtained from the social media accounts of…

  10. Subject Area Glossary. Arabic-English Vocabulary. Curriculum Bulletin Number 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    A glossary of commonly used and subject-area English words and their Arabic equivalents with romanization was prepared for teachers and Arabic-speaking, limited-English-speaking children in the Chicago public schools. It consists of: (1) a key to Arabic pronunciation of velarized consonants, glottal consonants, and Arabic double-consonants; (2) a…

  11. Ascertaining Activities in a Subject Area Through Bibliometric Analysis; Application to "Library Literature"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracevic, Tefko; Perk, Lawrence J.

    1973-01-01

    A combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to analize the journal articles indexed in one volume of Library Literature.'' This approach, merging bibliometrics and classification, yielded results in such areas as dispersion of articles among journals, frequency of article type and types of subjects covered. (16 references)…

  12. Perceptions of Classroom Assessment Tasks: An Interplay of Gender, Subject Area, and Grade Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharusi, Hussain Ali; Al-Hosni, Salim

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates students' perceptions of classroom assessment tasks as a function of gender, subject area, and grade level. Data from 2753 students on Dorman and Knightley's (2006) Perceptions of Assessment Tasks Inventory (PATI) were analyzed in a MANOVA design. Results showed that students tended to hold positive perceptions of their…

  13. Carbon savings resulting from the cooling effect of green areas: A case study in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wenqi, E-mail: linwq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Urban-rural Ecological Planning and Green Architecture, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wu Tinghai; Zhang Chengguo [Institute of Architectural and Urban Studies, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yu Ting [Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Urban-rural Ecological Planning and Green Architecture, School of Architecture, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Green areas cool the climate of a city, reduce the energy consumption caused by the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and bring along carbon savings. However, the calculation of carbon savings due to the cooling effect of green areas is still not well understood. We have used a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Beijing, to identify the cooled areas, compute the possible energy used to maintain the temperature differences between cooled areas and their surrounding heated areas, and calculate the carbon savings owing to the avoidance of energy use. Results show that a total amount of 14315.37 tons carbon savings was achieved in the study area and the amount was related to the biomass, the size and the shape of green areas. These results demonstrate the importance of carbon savings resulting from green areas' cooling effect. - Highlights: > We provide an integral equation for the calculation of energy conservation and carbon savings. > We show that carbon savings is partly influenced by green areas' features. > A strong correlation between biomass, size and shape of green areas and carbon savings. - An integral equation for the calculation of energy conservation and carbon savings; Showing that carbon savings is partly influenced by green areas' features.

  14. A Subject-Specificity Analysis of Radio Channels in Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hao

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of subject-specific radio channels in wireless body area networks (WBANs using a simulation tool based on the parallel finite-difference time-domain (FDTD technique. This technique is well suited to model radio propagations around complex, inhomogeneous objects such as the human body. The impacts of different subjects varying in size on on-body, inter-body, and off-body radio channels are studied. The analysis demonstrates that the characteristics of on-body radio channels are subject-specific and are associated with human gender, height, and body mass index. On the other hand, when waves propagate away from the body, such as in the inter-body and off-body cases, the impacts of different subjects on the channel characteristics are found to be negligible.

  15. Subjective Evaluations of Motion Area and Velocity Characteristics of Dual Manipulator in Young and Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoda, Mitsumasa; Yoda, Asako; Shiota, Yasuhito

    In this study, we conducted a subjective evaluation experiment of a dual manipulator, which exhibits different motion characteristics. There are three motion characteristics: two of which are age-related, and the third is a robot motion characteristic and is newly added to these two motions. The motions are evaluated from motion areas and motion velocities. Subjects are elderly and young people, and the impressions of the motions are compared in two of the different age groups by the Semantic Differential (SD) method. The obtained results indicate that there are age differences in the evaluation of three manipulator motion areas. The elderly people show a higher reliability and a higher familiarity in a robot motion area than in the other two motions. The elderly people seem to be more affected by the manipulator motion than the young people. Therefore, a careful consideration is required when planning the motion of a manipulator for elderly people.

  16. Methodology proposal for estimation of carbon storage in urban green areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, C.; Mancosu, E.; Roerink, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Methodology proposal for estimation of carbon storage in urban green areas; final report. Subtitle: Final report of task Task 262-5-6 "Carbon sequestration in urban green infrastructure" Project manager Marie Cugny-Seguin. Date: 15-10-2013

  17. Laser Carbonization of PAN-Nanofiber Mats with Enhanced Surface Area and Porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Dennis; Lott, Philipp; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Thomas, Helga; Möller, Martin; Kuehne, Alexander J C

    2016-10-26

    Here we present a novel laser process to generate carbon nanofiber nonwovens from polyacrylonitrile. We produce carbon nanofabrics via electrospinning followed by infrared laser-induced carbonization, facilitating high surface area and well-controlled hierarchical porosity. The process allows precise control of the carbonization conditions and provides high nanoscale porosity. In comparison with classical thermal carbonization, the laser process produces much higher surface areas and smaller pores. Furthermore, we investigate the carbonization performance and the morphology of polyacrylonitrile nanofibers compounded with graphene nanoplatelet fillers.

  18. Carbon savings resulting from the cooling effect of green areas: a case study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenqi; Wu, Tinghai; Zhang, Chengguo; Yu, Ting

    2011-01-01

    Green areas cool the climate of a city, reduce the energy consumption caused by the urban heat island (UHI) effect, and bring along carbon savings. However, the calculation of carbon savings due to the cooling effect of green areas is still not well understood. We have used a Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image of Beijing, to identify the cooled areas, compute the possible energy used to maintain the temperature differences between cooled areas and their surrounding heated areas, and calculate the carbon savings owing to the avoidance of energy use. Results show that a total amount of 14315.37 tons carbon savings was achieved in the study area and the amount was related to the biomass, the size and the shape of green areas. These results demonstrate the importance of carbon savings resulting from green areas' cooling effect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rational design of high-surface-area carbon nanotube/microporous carbon core-shell nanocomposites for supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuanyuan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Jitong; Qiao, Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Long, Donghui

    2015-03-04

    All-carbon-based carbon nanotube (CNT)/microporous carbon core-shell nanocomposites, in which a CNT as the core and high-surface-area microporous carbon as the shell, have been prepared by in situ resorcinol-formaldehyde resin coating of CNTs, followed by carbonization and controlled KOH activation. The obtained nanocomposites have very high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas (up to 1700 m(2)/g), narrow pore size distribution (microporous carbon shell can be easily tuned from 20 to 215 nm by changing the carbon precursor/CNT mass ratio. In such a unique core-shell structure, the CNT core could mitigate the key issue related to the low electronic conductivity of microporous carbons. On the other hand, the 1D tubular structure with a short pore-pathway micropore as well as a 3D entangled network could increase the utilization degree of the overall porosity and improve the electrode kinetics. Thus, these CNT/microporous carbon core-shell nanocomposites exhibit a great potential as an electrode material for supercapacitors, which could deliver high specific capacitance of 237 F/g, excellent rate performance with 75% maintenance from 0.1 to 50 A/g, and high cyclability in H2SO4 electrolyte. Moreover, the precisely controlled microporous carbon shells may allow them to serve as excellent model systems for microporous carbons, in general, to illustrate the role of the pore length on the diffusion and kinetics inside the micropores.

  20. Subclinical carbon monoxide poisoning in our health area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, I.G.; Testa, A.F.; Sangrador, C.O.; Garcia, M.T.A.; Berrocal, J.L.S.; Pastor, N.R.; Martin, J.M.; Garcia, L.S.; Garcia, M.C.F.; Maire-Richard, E.G. [Hospital of Virgen Concha, Zamora (Spain)

    2003-08-01

    We present an observation study on the relationship between high levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHB) and subclinical poisoning by carbon monoxide (CO) in our health area. The study was carried out in February and March 2000 in 228 over 18-year-old patients of both sexes who went to the Emergency Room for various reasons. After an informed consent was conceded, a venous blood sample was obtained in order to determine the level of COHB; later, we collected the anthropometric data, the data relative to the tobacco use, and the data of the type of heating at home. The values limit of the COHB obtained were the following: in non smokers, 1.9%; in 1-10 cigarettes/day smokers, 5.2%; in 11-20 cigarettes/day smokers, 6.9%; in {gt}20 cigarettes/day smokers, 9.6%. A COHB high level was observed in 25% of the patients regardless of the smoking habits, being the coal-dust slack brazier the source of most frequent exposure to CO.

  1. Chewing side, bite force symmetry, and occlusal contact area of subjects with different facial vertical patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.

  2. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  3. Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Subsurface Defects in Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Joggles Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Song, Kyongchan

    2011-01-01

    Coating spallation events have been observed along the slip-side joggle region of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels. One potential contributor to the spallation event is a pressure build up within subsurface voids or defects due to volatiles or water vapor entrapped during fabrication, refurbishment, or normal operational use. The influence of entrapped pressure on the thermo-mechanical fracture-mechanics response of reinforced carbon-carbon with subsurface defects is studied. Plane-strain simulations with embedded subsurface defects are performed to characterize the fracture mechanics response for a given defect length when subjected to combined elevated-temperature and subsurface-defect pressure loadings to simulate the unvented defect condition. Various subsurface defect locations of a fixed-length substrate defect are examined for elevated temperature conditions. Fracture mechanics results suggest that entrapped pressure combined with local elevated temperatures have the potential to cause subsurface defect growth and possibly contribute to further material separation or even spallation. For this anomaly to occur, several unusual circumstances would be required making such an outcome unlikely but plausible.

  4. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccucci, Matteo; D'Attilio, Michele; Rodolfino, Daria; Festa, Felice; Polimeni, Antonella; Tecco, Simona

    2012-12-14

    Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. 200 Caucasian patients (15-30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon and organic carbon in mires in the Forsmark area. A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Anders [EcoAnalytica, Haegersten (Sweden)

    2011-12-15

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the large dissolved carbon pools in mires. They are both related to a number of factors such as groundwater flow, minerogenic influence and peat properties, which all are more or less related to peatland development stage. In a scenario of a release of radionuclides from an underground repository containing radioactive material, behaviour of these pools during the mire ontogeny will be of importance for the understanding of how C-14 will constitute a potential risk to humans and non-human biota. In this pilot study, DIC and DOC concentrations were investigated for three mires representing a potential sequence of peatland development in a coastal area at Forsmark in central Sweden characterized by land upheaval, a flat topography and calcareous content in the soil. The mires where chosen based on difference in height above the sea level, covering approximate 1000 years, and characteristics based on their vegetation. Water samples were collected during August from all three mires at two different depths in the anoxic layer of the mires, by extracting water from peat obtained with a peat corer. DIC concentrations where related to the age of the mires, with the lowest concentrations in the highest located mire. There was a positive correlation between pH and DIC, where the higher DIC concentrations were found in the 'richer' fens. DIC concentrations were also positively related to the conductivity within and between the mires, where conductivity would be a proxy for the dominating cation Ca{sup 2+} associated to the calcareous-influenced groundwater. DOC concentrations were highest in the oldest mire, but were similar in the younger mires. No patterns were found between DIC and DOC, and the peat bulk density. The report ends with suggestions on how a continued study could be improved.

  6. Transport of sediments, carbon and nutrients in areas of reforestation and grassland based on simulated rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Pinheiro

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the soil losses, as well as carbon and chemical samples in runoff through areas of pine (Pinus taeda, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus dunni and a consortium of pasture with oat (Avena stringosa and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium in the Fragosos river basin, in Concordia, SC. For this, rainfall simulations with mean intensities of 94 mm h-1 were conducted in September and November 2011, in plots of 1 m2 established in the three areas. Runoff, loads carried of the sediment, and carbon and chemical concentrations were quantified in the experiment. The results showed that the concentrations of sediment and organic carbon were higher in the eucalyptus area. The largest concentrations of chemicals for all areas were nitrate, calcium, magnesium and potassium. Total carbon, organic carbon, sediment and nitrate were transported in higher loads in the eucalyptus area. With the exception of nitrate and chloride, the chemical loads carried were higher in the pasture area.

  7. [Characterization of the leadership subject areas in the respiratory field in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Granda-Orive, J I; García-Río, F; Roig-Vázquez, F; Aleixandre-Benavent, R; Valderrama-Zurían, J C; Martínez-Albiach, J M; Callol-Sánchez, L

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the leading topics in respiratory system in Spain through a bibliometric analysis. For identify and characterize the performance of the different research topics in respiratory system in Spain, we compile the production using a journal that turn out representative of a broad group of researcher. In this sense the journal Archivos de Bronconeumología is the most important publication in Spanish language of this field. A total of 2198 articles published in Archivos Bronconeumología from 1970 to 2000 were analyzed. In each three decades, we did not found differences except in the productivity index in oncology in the eighty decade and in respiratory failure and sleep disturbance (RFSD) and oncology areas in the ninetieth decade and in the Price index (consumption indicators) in the diagnostic and therapeutic techniques area in seventy decade. When we compare the productivity index of each subject areas between decades, we found a significant production increase in the ninetieth decade in asthma, RFSD, tuberculosis, non tuberculosis infection, circulation, oncology, pleural disease and interstitial areas versus the same in seventy decade, and also, we found significant differences between ninetieth and eighty decades in the asthma, RFSD, non tuberculosis infection, circulation and pleural disease areas. Tuberculosis area maintains an insularity index higher than the other areas. We also found a progressive increase in the insularity index of RFSD, non tuberculosis infection, oncology and interstitial disease areas. In general all the indicators maintains stable although the more productivity topics were respiratory failure and sleep disturbances, and oncology. The productivity has increased in asthma, respiratory failure and sleep disturbances, tuberculosis, non - tuberculosis respiratory infections, oncology, pulmonary circulation, pleura and interstitial disease.

  8. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  9. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  10. 75 FR 26967 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Water by Food Manufacturers in Areas Subject to a Boil-Water Advisory.'' This guidance is intended to advise food manufacturers that once a boil-water advisory has been...

  11. Academic Majors and Subject-Area Certifications of Health Education Teachers in the United States, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardina, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify academic preparation and subject-area certifications of K-12 public school staff teaching at least one health education class during 2011-2012 academic year. In general, teachers who are well qualified to teach a subject area are more likely to positively affect student achievement. Methods: Data…

  12. Carbon balance of rewetted peatland forests in low mountain range areas, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jan Paul; Dotterweich, Markus; Kopf, Christoph; Schüler, Gebhard; Scherzer, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    Peatland soils store a great proportion of the global soil carbon pool and are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Drainage of peatlands, for agricultural or forestry usage, leads to a loss of carbon from the soil to the atmosphere and the former carbon sink becomes a carbon source. Peatland rewetting has become a well applicable management tool to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions from peatland soils. However, the impact of rewetting on the carbon balance of drained peatland forest in low mountain range is rare. The aim of this project is to quantify the carbon balance of rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. Worth protecting peatland's with forest called "Brücher" are characteristic of nature in the Hunsrück. Since the 19th century these peatlands have been drained by ditches for spruce forests. The survey of surface area of the peatlands is the first important part of the project. Furthermore, a peatland land register for the national park and adjacent areas will be developed. Based on peatland area and carbon stocks the carbon pools of different degradation stages of these peatland can be investigated. Furthermore, terrestrial laser scan data and geoelectrical measurements will be applied for estimating the carbon pool of the vegetation and the soil. This approach enables us to quantify the whole ecosystem carbon pool. A space-for-time substitution allows for a first estimation of the carbon balance of the rewetted peatlands in the Hunsrück-Hochwald National Park. The main aim of a comprehensive carbon balancing will be achieved based upon the peatland characteristics and upscaling of carbon stocks from peatlands with different restoration/degradation scenarios. Moreover, the obtained data will be used for a long-term carbon balance monitoring of the rewetted peatlands in this region.

  13. Carbonate platforms in the Reed Bank area, South China Sea: seismic characteristics, development and controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, W.

    2013-12-01

    We identify the seismic characteristics about the carbonate platform and other types of reefs in the Reed Bank area, South China Sea, based on a more than 220 km long multi-channel seismic reflection profile. From the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene Carbonate platforms were well developed featured with high-amplitude continuous reflections at the top and low-amplitude parallel reflections within. Reefal carbonate build-ups continued in structural highs almost up to the Middle Miocene, and even to present in the Reed Bank. The development of carbonate platforms and reefs were controlled by the tectonics and sea level changes in the study area synthetically. During the drifting stage of SCS the Reed Bank area was in a relatively stable condition. An everlasting shallow marine environment and low sediments input favored the formation of carbonate platforms. A sudden thermal subsidence after the cessation of SCS's opening in Early Miocene and the continue rising of sea level made the carbonate platform drown and die. Reed Bank basin is a very promising area for further exploration work. Keywords: carbonate platform, Reed Bank area, Tectonic subsidence, controlling factors, South China Sea Fig 1. Model of hydrocarbon accumulation and transfer with carbonate platform and reef reservoir in the deep water area of the Reed Bank basin. Fig 2 Tectonic subsidence in the Reed Bank Basin

  14. prediction of a delamination area during drilling of carbon composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Transactions of the ASME, Journal of Engi- neering for Industry, 112: 236–239. Mizutani, Y., N'agashima, K., Takemoto, M. and Ono, K. (2000). "Fracture mechanism characterization of cross-ply carbon-fiber composites using acoustic emission analy- sis", NDT &. E International, 33: 101–110. Ravishankar, S. R. and Murthy, ...

  15. Forest Carbon Stocks in Lowland Area of Simien Mountains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead wood, leaf litter, herb and grass (LHG) and soil organic carbon were conducted according to sampling quadrates data and laboratory result. The results shown that, there were twenty species with a density of 2334 trees and shrubs in the study sites which had DBH ≥5 cm. The mean above ground and below ground ...

  16. Carbon Nanotube Areas - Printed on Textile and Paper Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arved C. Hubler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass printing processes are the key technology to produce mass products to the point of one-disposable. Carbon nanotube (CNT based structures were prepared by flexographic printing using multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT dispersions in water. The carbon nanotubes were applied to a textile substrate made of polyester and polyamide microfilaments and to both-side coated paper to produce electrically conductive layers that can be used, for example, as heating elements. Carbon nanotube layers with sheet resistivity ranging from 0.12 to 3.00 kΩ/sq were obtained. The ratio of radiation power PS (determined according to the Stefan-Boltzmann law of the printed layers to the electrical power spent, represents the efficiency of the system. The samples on textile substrate with a surface temperature of 169°C have an efficiency of 25%, the paper samples with a surface temperature of 93°C have an efficiency of about 15%.

  17. Increased cortical area and thickness in the distal radius in subjects with SHOX-gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, A L; Hansen, S; Brixen, K; Frost, M

    2014-12-01

    Short-stature homeobox (SHOX) gene haploinsufficiency may cause skeletal dysplasia including Léri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis (LWD), a clinical entity characterised by the triad of low height, mesomelic disproportion and Madelung's deformity of the wrist. Bone microarchitecture and estimated strength in adult SHOX mutation carriers have not been examined. Twenty-two subjects with a SHOX mutation including 7 males and 15 females with a median age of 38.8 [21.1-52.2] years were recruited from five unrelated families. The control group consisted of 22 healthy subjects matched on age and sex. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone geometry, volumetric density, microarchitecture and finite element estimated (FEA) bone strength were measured using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). A full region of interest (ROI) image analysis and height-matched ROI analyses adjusting for differences in body height between the two groups were performed. Areal BMD and T-scores showed no significant differences between cases and controls. Total radius area was smaller in cases than controls (207 [176-263] vs. 273 [226-298] mm, pRadius cortical bone area (74 ± 20 vs. 58 ± 17 mm(2), p=0.01) and thickness (1.16 ± 0.30 vs. 0.84 ± 0.26 mm, pRadius trabecular bone area (119 [103-192] vs. 202 [168-247] mm(2), pradius and tibia cortical porosity or FEA failure load between groups. A segment of cortical bone defect was identified in the distal radius adjacent to ulna in five unrelated SHOX mutation carriers. Subjects with a SHOX mutation presented with a different bone geometry in radius and tibia while there were no differences in BMD or failure load compared to controls, suggesting that mutations in SHOX gene may have an impact on bone microarchitecture albeit not bone strength. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of carbon fiber surface characteristics on interfacial bonding of epoxy resin composite subjected to hygrothermal treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Liu, Hongxin; Gu, Yizhuo; Li, Yanxia; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2014-01-01

    The changes of interfacial bonding of three types of carbon fibers/epoxy resin composite as well as their corresponding desized carbon fiber composites subjecting to hygrothermal conditions were investigated by means of single fiber fragmentation test. The interfacial fracture energy was obtained to evaluate the interfacial bonding before and after boiling water aging. The surface characteristics of the studied carbon fiber were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effects of activated carbon atoms and silicon element at carbon fiber surface on the interfacial hygrothermal resistance were further discussed. The results show that the three carbon fiber composites with the same resin matrix possess different hygrothermal resistances of interface and the interfacial fracture energy after water aging can not recovery to the level of raw dry sample (irreversible changes) for the carbon fiber composites containing silicon. Furthermore, the activated carbon atoms have little impact on the interfacial hygrothermal resistance. The irreversible variations of interfacial bonding and the differences among different carbon fiber composites are attributed to the silicon element on the carbon fiber bodies, which might result in hydrolyzation in boiling water treatment and degrade interfacial hygrothermal resistance.

  19. Differences on soil organic carbon stock estimation according to sampling type in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important part of the global carbon (C) cycle. In addition, SOC is a soil property subject to changes and highly variable in space and time. Consequently, the scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems. In this line, soil organic matter configuration plays an important role in the Soil System (Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014). Internationally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. In this sense, many soil researchers have studied this parameter (SOC). However, many of these studies were carried out arbitrarily using entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons or soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness). As a result, the indiscriminate use of both methodologies implies differences with respect to SOC stock (SOCS) quantification. This scenario has been indicated and warned for different researchers (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in the Cardeña and Montoro Natural Park (Spain). This nature reserve is a forested area with 385 km2 in southern Spain. Thirty-seven sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The results obtained show an overestimation of SOCS when SCS sampling approach is used compared to ESP. This supports that methodology selection is very important to SOCS quantification. This research is an assessment for modeling SOCS at the regional level in Mediterranean natural areas. References Parras-Alcántara, L., Lozano-García, B., 2014

  20. Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signes-Soler, Isabel; Hernández-Verdejo, José Luis; Estrella Lumeras, Miguel Angel; Tomás Verduras, Elena; Piñero, David P.

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the distribution of refractive error in young subjects in a rural area of Paraguay in the context of an international cooperation campaign for the prevention of blindness. METHODS A sample of 1466 young subjects (ranging from 3 to 22 years old), with a mean age of 11.21±3.63 years old, were examined to assess their distance visual acuity (VA) and refractive error. The first screening examination performed by trained volunteers, included visual acuity testing, autokeratometry and non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Inclusion criteria for a second complete cycloplegic eye examination by an optometrist were VA <20/25 (0.10 logMAR or 0.8 decimal) and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D. RESULTS An uncorrected distance VA of 0 logMAR (1.0 decimal) was found in 89.2% of children. VA <20/25 and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D was found in 3.9% of children (n=57), with a prevalence of hyperopia of 5.2% (0.2% of the total) in this specific group. Furthermore, myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 D) was found in 37.7% of the refracted children (0.5% of the total). The prevalence of refractive astigmatism (cylinder ≤-1.50 D) was 15.8% (0.6% of the total). Visual impairment (VI) (0.05≤VA≤0.3) was found in 12/114 (0.4%) of the refracted eyes. Main causes for VI were refractive error (58%), retinal problems (17%, 2/12), albinism (17%, 2/12) and unknown (8%, 1/12). CONCLUSION A low prevalence of refractive error has been found in this rural area of Paraguay, with higher prevalence of myopia than of hyperopia. PMID:28393041

  1. Refractive error study in young subjects: results from a rural area in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Signes-Soler

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the distribution of refractive error in young subjects in a rural area of Paraguay in the context of an international cooperation campaign for the prevention of blindness. METHODS: A sample of 1466 young subjects (ranging from 3 to 22 years old, with a mean age of 11.21±3.63 years old, were examined to assess their distance visual acuity (VA and refractive error. The first screening examination performed by trained volunteers, included visual acuity testing, autokeratometry and non-cycloplegic autorefraction. Inclusion criteria for a second complete cycloplegic eye examination by an optometrist were VA <20/25 (0.10 logMAR or 0.8 decimal and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D. RESULTS: An uncorrected distance VA of 0 logMAR (1.0 decimal was found in 89.2% of children. VA <20/25 and/or corneal astigmatism ≥1.50 D was found in 3.9% of children (n=57, with a prevalence of hyperopia of 5.2% (0.2% of the total in this specific group. Furthermore, myopia (spherical equivalent ≤-0.5 D was found in 37.7% of the refracted children (0.5% of the total. The prevalence of refractive astigmatism (cylinder ≤-1.50 D was 15.8% (0.6% of the total. Visual impairment (VI (0.05≤VA≤0.3 was found in 12/114 (0.4% of the refracted eyes. Main causes for VI were refractive error (58%, retinal problems (17%, 2/12, albinism (17%, 2/12 and unknown (8%, 1/12. CONCLUSION: A low prevalence of refractive error has been found in this rural area of Paraguay, with higher prevalence of myopia than of hyperopia.

  2. [Variation of soil organic carbon under different vegetation types in Karst Mountain areas of Guizhou Province, southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong-kai; Long, Jian

    2011-09-01

    This paper studied the variation characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and different particle sizes soil particulate organic carbon (POC) in normal soil and in micro-habitats under different vegetation types in typical Karst mountain areas of southwest Guizhou. Under different vegetation types, the SOC content in normal soil and in micro-habitats was all in the order of bare land forest, with the variation range being 7.18-43.42 g x kg(-1) in normal soil and being 6.62-46.47 g x kg(-1) and 9.01-52.07 g x kg(-1) in earth surface and stone pit, respectively. The POC/MOC (mineral-associated organic carbon) ratio under different vegetation types was in the order of bare land forest stone pit was the highest, as compared to that in normal soil and in earth surface. In the process of bare land-grass-shrub-forest, the contents of different particle sizes soil POC increased, while the SOC mainly existed in the forms of sand- and silt organic carbon, indicating that in Karst region, soil carbon sequestration and SOC stability were weak, soil was easily subjected to outside interference and led to organic carbon running off, and thus, soil quality had the risk of decline or degradation.

  3. CO2 sequestration in two mediterranean dune areas subjected to a different level of anthropogenic disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Andrea; Ricotta, Carlo; Iberite, Mauro; Gratani, Loretta; Varone, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Coastal sand dunes are among the most threatened habitats, especially in the Mediterranean Basin, where the high levels of human pressure impair the presence of plant species, putting at risk the maintenance of the ecosystem services, such as CO2 sequestration provided by these habitats. The aim of this study was to analyze how disturbance-induced changes in plant species abundance patterns account for variations in annual CO2 sequestration flow (CS) of Mediterranean sand dune areas. Two sites characterized by a high (site HAD) and a lower (site LAD) anthropogenic disturbance level were selected. At both sites, plant species number, cover, height and CS based on net photosynthesis measurements were sampled. At the plant species level, our results highlighted that Ammophila arenaria and Pancratium maritimum, had a key role in CS. Moreover, the results revealed a patchy species assemblage in both sites. In particular, HAD was characterized by a higher extension of the anthropogenic aphytoic zone (64% of the total transect length) than LAD. In spite of the observed differences in plant species composition, there were not significant differences between HAD and LAD in structural and functional traits, such as plant height and net photosynthesis. As a consequence, HAD and LAD had a similar CS (443 and 421 Mg CO2 ha-1 y-1, respectively). From a monetary point of view, our estimates based on the social costs of carbon revealed that the flow of sequestered CO2 valued on an average 3181 ± 114 ha-1 year-1 (mean value for the two sites). However, considering also the value of the CO2 negative flow related to loss of vegetated area, the annual net benefit arising from CO2 sequestration amounted to 1641 and 1772 for HAD and LAD, respectively. Overall, the results highlighted the importance to maximize the efforts to preserve dune habitats by applying an effective management policy, which could allow maintaining also a regulatory ecosystem service such as CO2 sequestration.

  4. Spatial variability of soil potassium in sugarcane areas subjected to the application of vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carvalho, Laércio A; Meurer, Ismael; Da Silva Junior, Carlos A; Santos, Cristiane F B; Libardi, Paulo L

    2014-12-01

    When deposited on land the vinasse can promote improvement in fertility, however, often fertilizer application occurs in areas considered homogeneous, without taking into account the variability of the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vinasse application on potassium content in two classes of soils cultivated with sugarcane, and characterize the spatial variability of soil using geostatistical techniques. In the 2010 and 2011 crop year, soil samples were collected from an experimental grid at 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m depth in three soils cultivated with sugarcane, totaling 90 samplings in each grid, for the determination of pH, calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al) and potential acidity (H + Al). The data have been submitted to analysis of descriptive statistics and the K attribute was subjected to geostatistical analysis. The coefficient of variation indicated medium and high variability of K for the three soils. The results showed that the spatial dependence of K increased in depth to FRce and decreased to PHlv, indicating that the attribute could have followed the pattern of distribution of clay in depth. The investigation of the spatial variability of K on the surface and subsurface soils provided the definition of management zones with different levels of fertility, which can be organized into sub-areas for a more efficient management of the resources and the environment.

  5. Spatial variability of soil potassium in sugarcane areas subjected to the application of vinasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAÉRCIO A. DE CARVALHO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When deposited on land the vinasse can promote improvement in fertility, however, often fertilizer application occurs in areas considered homogeneous, without taking into account the variability of the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vinasse application on potassium content in two classes of soils cultivated with sugarcane, and characterize the spatial variability of soil using geostatistical techniques. In the 2010 and 2011 crop year, soil samples were collected from an experimental grid at 0-0.2 and 0.2-0.4 m depth in three soils cultivated with sugarcane, totaling 90 samplings in each grid, for the determination of pH, calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, potassium (K, phosphorus (P, aluminum (Al and potential acidity (H + Al. The data have been submitted to analysis of descriptive statistics and the K attribute was subjected to geostatistical analysis. The coefficient of variation indicated medium and high variability of K for the three soils. The results showed that the spatial dependence of K increased in depth to FRce and decreased to PHlv, indicating that the attribute could have followed the pattern of distribution of clay in depth. The investigation of the spatial variability of K on the surface and subsurface soils provided the definition of management zones with different levels of fertility, which can be organized into sub-areas for a more efficient management of the resources and the environment.

  6. Porous carbon with a large surface area and an ultrahigh carbon purity via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation as excellent supercapacitor electrode materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei; Gao, Jihui, E-mail: gaojh@hit.edu.cn; Liu, Xin; Pi, Xinxin; Yang, Yuqi; Wu, Shaohua

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • Simple templating carbonization method was developed to obtain porous carbons. • Surface etching by KOH activation greatly boosts surface area and carbon purity. • The as-obtained porous carbon delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g{sup −1}. • Symmetric supercapacitor can achieved high energy density and power density. - Abstract: Large surface area and good structural stability, for porous carbons, are two crucial requirements to enable the constructed supercapacitors with high capacitance and long cycling lifespan. Herein, we successfully prepare porous carbon with a large surface area (3175 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) and an ultrahigh carbon purity (carbon atom ratio of 98.25%) via templating carbonization coupling with KOH activation. As-synthesized MTC-KOH exhibits excellent performances as supercapacitor electrode materials in terms of high specific capacitance and ultrahigh cycling stability. In a three electrode system, MTC-KOH delivers a high capacitance of 275 F g{sup −1} at 0.5 A g{sup −1} and still 120 F g{sup −1} at a high rate of 30 A g{sup −1}. There is almost no capacitance decay even after 10,000 cycles, demonstrating outstanding cycling stability. In comparison, pre-activated MTC with a hierarchical pore structure shows a better rate capability than microporous MTC-KOH. Moreover, the constructed symmetric supercapacitor using MTC-KOH can achieve high energy densities of 8.68 Wh kg{sup −1} and 4.03 Wh kg{sup −1} with the corresponding power densities of 108 W kg{sup −1} and 6.49 kW kg{sup −1}, respectively. Our work provides a simple design strategy to prepare highly porous carbons with high carbon purity for supercapacitors application.

  7. Using basal area to estimate aboveground carbon stocks in forests: La Primavera Biosphere's Reserve, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balderas Torres, Arturo; Lovett, Jonathan Cranidge

    2012-01-01

    Increasing use of woody plants for greenhouse gas mitigation has led to demand for rapid, cost-effective estimation of forest carbon stocks. Bole diameter is readily measured and basal area can be correlated to biomass and carbon through application of allometric equations. We explore different

  8. Interactive effects of carbon footprint information and its accessibility on value and subjective qualities of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Kamada, Akiko; Masuda, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Masako; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Cai, Dongsheng; Oka, Takashi; Dan, Ippeita

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to explore the interactive effects of the accessibility of information and the degree of carbon footprint score on consumers' value judgments of food products. Participants (n=151, undergraduate students in Japan) rated their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for four food products varying in information accessibility (active-search or read-only conditions) and in carbon footprint values (low, middle, high, or non-display) provided. We also assessed further effects of information accessibly and carbon footprint value on other product attributes utilizing the subjective estimation of taste, quality, healthiness, and environmental friendliness. Results of the experiment demonstrated an interactive effect of information accessibility and the degree of carbon emission on consumer valuation of carbon footprint-labeled food. The carbon footprint value had a stronger impact on participants' WTP in the active-search condition than in the read-only condition. Similar to WTP, the results of the subjective ratings for product qualities also exhibited an interactive effect of the two factors on the rating of environmental friendliness for products. These results imply that the perceived environmental friendliness inferable from a carbon footprint label contributes to creating value for a food product.

  9. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  10. Synthesis of High-Surface-Area Nitrogen-Doped Porous Carbon Microflowers and Their Efficient Carbon Dioxide Capture Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Cao, Minhua

    2015-07-01

    Sustainable carbon materials have received particular attention in CO2 capture and storage owing to their abundant pore structures and controllable pore parameters. Here, we report high-surface-area hierarchically porous N-doped carbon microflowers, which were assembled from porous nanosheets by a three-step route: soft-template-assisted self-assembly, thermal decomposition, and KOH activation. The hydrazine hydrate used in our experiment serves as not only a nitrogen source, but also a structure-directing agent. The activation process was carried out under low (KOH/carbon=2), mild (KOH/carbon=4) and severe (KOH/carbon=6) activation conditions. The mild activated N-doped carbon microflowers (A-NCF-4) have a hierarchically porous structure, high specific surface area (2309 m(2)  g(-1)), desirable micropore size below 1 nm, and importantly large micropore volume (0.95 cm(3)  g(-1)). The remarkably high CO2 adsorption capacities of 6.52 and 19.32 mmol g(-1) were achieved with this sample at 0 °C (273 K) and two pressures, 1 bar and 20 bar, respectively. Furthermore, this sample also exhibits excellent stability during cyclic operations and good separation selectivity for CO2 over N2. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Properties that influence the specific surface areas of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, M Eileen; Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A; Chai, Ming; Andrews, Ronnee; Hatfield, Randal L

    2013-11-01

    Commercially available carbon nanotubes and nanofibers were analyzed to examine possible relationships between their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface areas (SSAs) and their physical and chemical properties. Properties found to influence surface area were number of walls/diameter, impurities, and surface functionalization with hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Characterization by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, thermogravimetric analysis, and elemental analysis indicates that SSA can provide insight on carbon nanomaterials properties, which can differ vastly depending on synthesis parameters and post-production treatments. In this study, how different properties may influence surface area is discussed. The materials examined have a wide range of surface areas. The measured surface areas differed from product specifications, to varying degrees, and between similar products. Findings emphasize the multiple factors that influence surface area and mark its utility in carbon nanomaterial characterization, a prerequisite to understanding their potential applications and toxicities. Implications for occupational monitoring are discussed.

  12. The effects of lithium carbonate upon subjective state changes induced by sodium pentobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, L L; Hubbard, R B; Attewell, P A

    1975-01-01

    Behavioral and mood changes were measured for 8 normal male subjects after oral administration of sodium pentobarbital (3 mg/kg body weight). This procedure was repeated on three occasions: firstly a drug-free condition; then a condition following two weeks of maintenance 0.7 to 1.2 MEQ/L lithium carbonate; and then another drug-free condition. Intial analyses indicated a lowering of the level of euphoria reached in the lithium pentobarbital condition below that achieved after pentobarbital alone. Examination of this effect showed that the reduction after pentobarbital plus lithium was mirrored by a reduction in the baseline for the same response items due to lithium alone. The lessening of euphoria appeared to result from a general lowering of affect due to lithium maintenance. More detailed analyses showed that the quantitative response to pentobarbital was in no case reduced by lithium condition. Certain reversal effects were also discovered in which lithium plus pentobarbital acted in the opposite direction from pentobarbital alone.

  13. Structure and mechanical properties of a high-carbon steel subjected to severe deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkunov, E. S.; Zadvorkin, S. M.; Goruleva, L. S.; Makarov, A. V.; Pecherkina, N. L.

    2017-10-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of a high-carbon eutectic steel subjected to the cold plastic deformation by hydrostatic extrusion in a wide range of true strain have been studied. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, it has been shown that the formation of cellular, fragmented, and submicrocrystalline structures occurs in the ferritic constituent of the pearlite structure of the steel upon extrusion. This is a consequence of the occurrence of dynamic recovery and continuous dynamic and post-dynamic recrystallization, which cause a decrease in the density of free dislocations at the true strain of more than 1.62. The partial dissolution of the carbide phase is also observed. It has been found that, at a true strain of up to 0.81, the strength properties of the investigated steel are determined mainly by subgrain, dislocation, and precipitation mechanisms of the strengthening; in the deformation range of 0.81-1.62, the role of the grainboundary strengthening increases. At strains above 1.62, grain-boundary strengthening is a prevailing mechanism in the formation of the level of strength properties of the extruded U8A steel. The ultimate tensile strength and yield stress over the entire strain range only uniquely correlate with the density of highangle boundaries; the dependences of the strength characteristics on other structural parameters are not monotonic.

  14. Enhanced specific surface area by hierarchical porous graphene aerogel/carbon foam for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Zhaopeng; Li, Weixin; Fang, Wei; He, Xuan; Zhao, Lei; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Wanqiu; Sun, Zhimin

    2017-12-01

    In this work, graphene aerogel/carbon foam is prepared by in situ inducing graphene aerogels in the pores of carbon foam. This novel hierarchical porous structure possesses a higher specific surface area as the introduction of graphene aerogels in carbon foam increases the proportion of micropores thus making it a superior candidate as electrodes for supercapacitors. The characterization and comparison of various properties of carbon foam and graphene aerogels/carbon foam have been investigated systematically. The result shows that specific surface area is up to 682.8 m2/g compared with initial carbon foam which increased about 55%, and the pore distribution curve shows more pore volume at 0.3 nm for F-CF/GA. It is demonstrated that the introduction of graphene aerogels not only increases the specific surface area, but also improves the conductivity, thus resulting in the reduction of the internal resistance and the improvement of the electrochemical performance. Consequently, graphene aerogel/carbon foam shows an excellent specific capacitance of 193.1 F/g at 1 A/g which is 72% higher than that of carbon foam acted as electrodes for supercapacitors.

  15. Net ecosystem productivity, net primary productivity and ecosystem carbon sequestration in a Pinus radiata plantation subject to soil water deficit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arneth, A.; Kelleher, F. M. [Lincoln Univ., Soil Sience Dept., Lincoln, (New Zealand); McSeveny, T. M. [Manaaki Whenua-Landcare Research, Lincoln, (New Zealand); Byers, J. N. [Almuth Arneth Landcare Research, Lincoln (New Zealand)

    1998-12-01

    Tree carbon uptake (net primary productivity excluding fine root turnover, NPP`) in pine trees growing in a region of New Zealand subject to summer soil water deficit was investigated jointly with canopy assimilation (A{sub c}) and ecosystem-atmosphere carbon exchange rate (net ecosystem productivity, NEP). Canopy assimilation and NEP were used to drive a biochemically-based and environmentally constrained model validated by seasonal eddy covariance measurements. Over a three year period with variable rainfall annual NPP` and NEP showed significant variations. At the end of the growing season, carbon was mostly allocated to wood, with nearly half to stems and about a quarter to coarse roots. On a biweekly basis NPP` lagged behind A{sub c}, suggesting the occurrence of intermediate carbon storage. On an annual basis, however the NPP`/A{sub c} ratio indicated a conservative allocation of carbon to autotrophic respiration. The combination of data from measurements with canopy and ecosystem carbon fluxes yielded an estimate of heterotrophic respiration (NPP`-NEP) of approximately 30 per cent of NPP` and 50 per cent NEP. The annual values of NEP and NPP` can also be used to derive a `best guess` estimate of the annual below-ground carbon turnover rate, assuming that the annual changes in the soil carbon content is negligible. 46 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Prediction of a delamination area during drilling of carbon composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability to non-destructively monitor and evaluate the delamination damage during a drilling operation is of interest to the scientific and the industrial community. This paper discusses the development of an empirical model that relates the feed rate to the delamination-crack area in order to enable the user determine the ...

  17. DOMAIN-DRIVEN DESIGN APPLICATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR CLIENTS QUEUING SUBJECT AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Oleynik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with domain-driven design applicability of information systems for client queuing subject areas. The following optimality criteria were put forward for the final implementation: the possibility of automation with a single system both for small institution and a whole network of institutions; advanced graphical interface with support for sensor screens; implementation of multi-users account of orders from clients; flexible application architecture with the ability of future enhancement; ability of integration with a variety of peripherals. The necessity of each criterion definition is shown. For implementability estimation, test information system was designed, automating the queuing system. Unified modeling language UML is used. Description of each class functionality is given and the association with other classes as well. Attention is paid to the design of tree (hierarchical structures and selection procedure of base classes based on the analysis of existing common attributes. For the system implementation, its own development environment SharpArchitect RAD Studio is used, offering MDA approach for implementation of systems based on standardized meta object system. A graphical view of order form developed prototype is presented, composition and structure are described, and notation developed by the author is given simplifying the prototyping process. Approaches to differentiation of access rights for different user roles are shown. Conformity of the received implementation to each selected optimality criterion is determined. Recommendations for further system development are given.

  18. Wellfield strategy and recommendations for the 200 West Area carbon tetrachloride expedited response action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-04-01

    On December 20, 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) requested the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Field Office (RL) to proceed with the detailed planning, including nonintrusive field work, required to implement an Expedited Response Action (ERA) for removing carbon tetrachloride contamination in the unsaturated soils in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The request was based on concerns that the carbon tetrachloride residing in the soils was continuing to spread to the groundwater and, if left unchecked, would significantly increase the area of groundwater contamination. The purpose of this ERA is to minimize carbon tetrachloride migration within the unsaturated zone beneath and,away from the carbon tetrachloride disposal sites in the 200 West Area.

  19. ORGANIC CARBON AND CARBON STOCK: RELATIONS WITH PHYSICAL INDICATORS AND SOIL AGGREGATION IN AREAS CULTIVATED WITH SUGAR CANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Tolentino de Lima

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon and carbon stock influence, directly or indirectly, most of soil aggregate stability indicators. The objective of this study was to quantify the production of dry biomass (DB, total organic carbon (TOC and carbon stock (CStk in soil, and to evaluate their influence on some indicators of aggregation in an Oxisol at a Cerrado biome in Uberaba-MG, Brazil. The design was completely randomized blocks, in two evaluation periods: three and six cuts, at six depths (0-0.1, 0.1-0.2, 0.2-0.3, 0.3-0.4, 0.4-0.5 and 0.5-0.6 m. It was evaluated: soil density (SD, volumetric humidity (VH, aggregate stability index (AEI, weighted mean diameter (WDA, mean diameter (GDA, index of aggregates with diameter greater than 2 mm (AI and sensitivity index (SI, replicated by 4. The best AEI of the soil and the highest TOC contents were found in the most superficial layers, 0 to 0.2 m, for both cuttings. The greater values of TOC and CStk, occurred at the sixth cut area, where there was a higher amount of DB on soil surface. The higher levels of organic matter did not provide higher AEI in the area of sixth cut, when compared to that of the third cut. The TOC and CStk levels in both areas generally had a positive influence on soil aggregation indicators for both cuts.

  20. Facile synthesis of ultrahigh-surface-area hollow carbon nanospheres for enhanced adsorption and energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Tang, Zhiwei; Huang, Siqi; Chen, Luyi; Liang, Yeru; Mai, Weicong; Zhong, Hui; Fu, Ruowen; Wu, Dingcai

    2015-01-01

    Exceptionally large surface area and well-defined nanostructure are both critical in the field of nanoporous carbons for challenging energy and environmental issues. The pursuit of ultrahigh surface area while maintaining definite nanostructure remains a formidable challenge because extensive creation of pores will undoubtedly give rise to the damage of nanostructures, especially below 100 nm. Here we report that high surface area of up to 3,022 m2 g−1 can be achieved for hollow carbon nanospheres with an outer diameter of 69 nm by a simple carbonization procedure with carefully selected carbon precursors and carbonization conditions. The tailor-made pore structure of hollow carbon nanospheres enables target-oriented applications, as exemplified by their enhanced adsorption capability towards organic vapours, and electrochemical performances as electrodes for supercapacitors and sulphur host materials for lithium–sulphur batteries. The facile approach may open the doors for preparation of highly porous carbons with desired nanostructure for numerous applications. PMID:26072734

  1. A small subset of protected areas are a highly significant source of carbon emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Murray B.; Mitchard, Edward T. A.

    2017-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) aim to protect multiple ecosystem services. However, not all are well protected. For the first time, using published carbon and forest loss maps, we estimate carbon emissions in large forest PAs in tropical countries (N = 2018). We found 36 ± 16 Pg C stored in PA trees, representing 14.5% of all tropical forest biomass carbon. However the PAs lost forest at a mean rate of 0.18% yr-1 from 2000-2012. Lower protection status areas experienced higher forest losses (e.g. 0.39% yr-1 in IUCN cat III), yet even highest status areas lost 0.13% yr-1 (IUCN Cat I). Emissions were not evenly distributed: 80% of emissions derived from 8.3% of PAs (112 ± 49.5 Tg CO2 yr-1 n = 171). Unsurprisingly the largest emissions derived from PAs that started with the greatest total forest area; accounting for starting forest area and relating that to carbon lost using a linear model (r2 = 0.41), we found 1.1% outlying PAs (residuals >2σ N = 23), representing 1.3% of the total PA forest area, yet causing 27.3% of all PA emissions. These results suggest PAs have been a successful means of protecting biomass carbon, yet a subset causing a disproportionately high share of emissions should be an urgent priority for management interventions.

  2. Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations near an industrial area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Moerman, M.; Zandveld, P.; Henzing, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations were investigated in urban areas of the city of Rotterdam (the Netherlands) situated near an industrial area. Several monitoring campaigns were conducted in the period 2011-2014 at three local locations and at a regional

  3. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  4. Challenges for Reducing Emissions of Black Carbon from the Transport Sector in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, M. A.; Molina, L. T.

    2013-05-01

    The transport sector is a large contributor of harmful gaseous and particulate emissions in many urban areas. Black carbon is a component of short-lived particulate matter emitted predominantly by freight, public transport, and heavy- duty trucks. Controlling the emissions of black carbon from the transport sector is important for mitigating its impacts on climate, ecosystems, and human health. However, reducing the emissions of black carbon from mobile sources may be a challenging task in many developing urban areas due to economic, social, and technical constrains. Several emissions control technologies offer a proven approach for reducing emissions of black carbon from diesel-powered mobile sources, but the accurate quantification of associated emissions benefits in developing urban areas is not well documented. We describe recent advances for the estimation of black carbon emissions from the transport sector in real world driving conditions and present examples of the potential benefits of implementing various emission control technologies in Mexico. The results can help in the identification of key factors that hinder the implementation of control emissions for reducing emissions of black carbon elsewhere.

  5. Intra-Rater Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging for Multifidus Muscles Thickness and Cross Section Area in Healthy Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseinifar, Mohammad; Akbari, Asghar; Ghiasi, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) must be valuable method for research and rehabilitation. So, the reliability of its measurements must be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability of RUSI for measurement of multifidus (MF) muscles cross section areas (CSAs), bladder wall diameter, and thickness of MF muscles between 2 sessions in healthy subjects. Method: Fifteen healthy subjects through simple non-probability sampling participated...

  6. Effects of alprazolam and clonidine on carbon dioxide-induced increases in anxiety rating in healthy human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, S.W.; Krystal, J.H.; Heninger, G.R.; Charney, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    In order to investigate possible neurobiologic mechanisms underlying carbon dioxide-induced anxiety, the effects of oral alprazolam 0.75 mg and intravenous clonidine 2 mcg/kg on CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ratings of subjective anxiety, pulse rate, and ventilation were measured in healthy human subjects. Pretreatment with alprazolam but not with clonidine significantly reduced the CO/sub 2/-induced increases in ratings of anxiety. Neither drug altered CO/sub 2/-induced increases in pulse rate or ventilatory responses. Clonidine did produce potent sedative and hypotensive effects. The behavioral data suggest that the mechanisms through which CO/sub 2/ induces anxiety-like effects involve neural systems regulated by benzodiazepine receptors and, secondly, that they appear not to require normal functioning of noradrenergic systems. Carbon dioxide may provide a useful model system for identification of new drugs with anxiolytic properties.

  7. Mapping soil organic carbon stock in the area of Neamtu Catchment, Northeastern Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaban, Ana-Ioana; Bobric, Elena-Diana; Breaban, Iuliana-Gabriela; Rusu, Eugen

    2017-04-01

    The quantification of soil organic carbon stocks and its spatial extent is directly influenced by the land cover. The aim of the study is to quantify both the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and stocks under different soil types and land uses in an area of 41.808,04 ha in northeastern part of Romania. It has been studied the evolution of carbon stocks over time, taking into account the change of land use between 1990-2012 under 5 classes: forests, pastures, arable land, orchard and built spaces. Common soils are Cambisols, Fluvisols, Phaezems, and Luvisols, forest being the predominant land use. The most important loss of soil organic carbon occurs as a result of changes in the supply of biomass supplying litter and therefore the process of bioaccumulation. The samples were collected from 100 representative soil profiles and analyzed with Analytik Jena multi N/C 2100 with HT 1300 solid module. Based on the soil organic carbon, C/N ratio and texture the values of those parameters varied from high values in Ao and Bv horizons to lower values in C horizon. In order to model soil organic carbon concentration were used different interpolation techniques (regression and ordinary -kriging, IDW) at different sampling densities for each depth to 100 cm, using a Gaussian approach to estimate the uncertainty. It is noticeable that soil organic carbon had a positive correlation with different types of land uses and a negative correlation with the elevation, being a decreasing trend of the carbon stocks sequestered in biomass, litter and soil. In the upper part of the profiles, the soil organic carbon stock considerably varied for forest land between 6.5-7.23 kg C/sqm) and agricultural land (3.67-4.65 kg C/sqm). The kriging regression evidenced a good variability of the calculated root mean square errors of the predicted soil organic carbon stocks.

  8. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  9. Functional diversity of the microbial community in healthy subjects and periodontitis patients based on sole carbon source utilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifei Zhang

    Full Text Available Chronic periodontitis is one of the most common forms of biofilm-induced diseases. Most of the recent studies were focus on the dental plaque microbial diversity and microbiomes. However, analyzing bacterial diversity at the taxonomic level alone limits deeper comprehension of the ecological relevance of the community. In this study, we compared the metabolic functional diversity of the microbial community in healthy subjects and periodontitis patients in a creative way--to assess the sole carbon source utilization using Biolog assay, which was first applied on oral micro-ecology assessment. Pattern analyses of 95-sole carbon sources catabolism provide a community-level phenotypic profile of the microbial community from different habitats. We found that the microbial community in the periodontitis group had greater metabolic activity compared to the microbial community in the healthy group. Differences in the metabolism of specific carbohydrates (e.g. β-methyl-D-glucoside, stachyose, maltose, D-mannose, β-methyl-D-glucoside and pyruvic acid were observed between the healthy and periodontitis groups. Subjects from the healthy and periodontitis groups could be well distinguished by cluster and principle component analyses according to the utilization of discriminate carbon sources. Our results indicate significant difference in microbial functional diversity between healthy subjects and periodontitis patients. We also found Biolog technology is effective to further our understanding of community structure as a composite of functional abilities, and it enables the identification of ecologically relevant functional differences among oral microbial communities.

  10. Buckling of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Polymer Laminated Composite Materials Subjected to Axial Compression and Shear Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, J. C.; Gates, T. S.; Frankland, S.-J. V.

    2005-01-01

    A multi-scale method to predict the stiffness and stability properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced laminates has been developed. This method is used in the prediction of the buckling behavior of laminated carbon nanotube-polyethylene composites formed by stacking layers of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer with the nanotube alignment axes of each layer oriented in different directions. Linking of intrinsic, nanoscale-material definitions to finite scale-structural properties is achieved via a hierarchical approach in which the elastic properties of the reinforced layers are predicted by an equivalent continuum modeling technique. Solutions for infinitely long symmetrically laminated nanotube-reinforced laminates with simply-supported or clamped edges subjected to axial compression and shear loadings are presented. The study focuses on the influence of nanotube volume fraction, length, orientation, and functionalization on finite-scale laminate response. Results indicate that for the selected laminate configurations considered in this study, angle-ply laminates composed of aligned, non-functionalized carbon nanotube-reinforced lamina exhibit the greatest buckling resistance with 1% nanotube volume fraction of 450 nm uniformly-distributed carbon nanotubes. In addition, hybrid laminates were considered by varying either the volume fraction or nanotube length through-the-thickness of a quasi-isotropic laminate. The ratio of buckling load-to-nanotube weight percent for the hybrid laminates considered indicate the potential for increasing the buckling efficiency of nanotube-reinforced laminates by optimizing nanotube size and proportion with respect to laminate configuration.

  11. Economics of Scholarly Publishing: Exploring the Causes of Subscription Price Variations of Scholarly Journals in Business Subject-Specific Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lewis G.

    2011-01-01

    This empirical research investigates subscription price variations of scholarly journals in five business subject-specific areas using the semilogarithmic regression model. It has two main purposes. The first is to address the unsettled debate over whether or not and to what extent commercial publishers reap monopoly profits by overcharging…

  12. Performance Gaps between Online and Face-to-Face Courses: Differences across Types of Students and Academic Subject Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Di; Jaggars, Shanna S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a dataset containing nearly 500,000 courses taken by over 40,000 community and technical college students in Washington State, this study examines the performance gap between online and face-to-face courses and how the size of that gap differs across student subgroups and academic subject areas. While all types of students in the study…

  13. Problem Solving and Creativity and Design: What Influence Do They Have on Girls' Interest in STEM Subject Areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robyn; Heaverlo, Carol

    2013-01-01

    For girls there is a distinct loss in interest, lack of confidence, and decline in positive attitudes toward STEM subject areas that begins early on in their academic experience and increases with age. According to the National Academy of Engineering, students need to begin associating the possibilities in STEM fields with the need for creativity…

  14. Functionalization and Area-Selective Deposition of Magnetic Carbon-Coated Iron Nanoparticles from Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Widenkvist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A route to area-selective deposition of carbon-coated iron nanoparticles, involving chemical modification of the surface of the particles, is described. Partial oxidative etching of the coating introduces carboxylic groups, which then are esterified. The functionalized particles can be selectively deposited on the Si areas of Si/SiO2 substrates by a simple dipping procedure. Nanoparticles and nanoassemblies have been analyzed using SEM, TEM, and XPS.

  15. High surface area carbon for bifunctional air electrodes applied in zinc-air batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, H. [on leave from NTT Laboratories (Japan); Mueller, S.; Haas, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Bifunctional air electrodes with high surface area carbon substrates showed low reduction overpotential, thus are promising for enhancing the energy efficiency and power capability of zinc-air batteries. The improved performance is attributed to lower overpotential due to diffusion of the reaction intermediate, namely the peroxide ion. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  16. Amazon forest carbon dynamics predicted by profiles of canopy leaf area and light environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. C. Stark; V. Leitold; J. L. Wu; M. O. Hunter; C. V. de Castilho; F. R. C. Costa; S. M. McMahon; G. G. Parker; M. Takako Shimabukuro; M. A. Lefsky; M. Keller; L. F. Alves; J. Schietti; Y. E. Shimabukuro; D. O. Brandao; T. K. Woodcock; N. Higuchi; P. B de Camargo; R. C. de Oliveira; S. R. Saleska

    2012-01-01

    Tropical forest structural variation across heterogeneous landscapes may control above-ground carbon dynamics. We tested the hypothesis that canopy structure (leaf area and light availability) – remotely estimated from LiDAR – control variation in above-ground coarse wood production (biomass growth). Using a statistical model, these factors predicted biomass growth...

  17. A preliminary carbon budget for two oligotrophic hardwater lakes in the Forsmark area, Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Eva [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology

    2001-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co (SKB) is responsible for management and disposal of Swedish radioactive waste. The company is planning to construct repositories that will keep radioactive waste away from humans for hundreds of thousands of years. In a safety assessment of the repositories hypothetical releases are used to evaluate the robustness of the repositories. It is important to know how the radioactive nuclides would react if they were released and by which way they could enter the living biota. SFR are responsible for the disposal of low radioactive waste and close to the nuclear plant in Forsmark there is a storage for low radioactive waste. At the moment this storage is located in the bedrock far below the sea level but due to land-rise in the area it will in the future be located above sea level. Hence, it is of importance to know how the surface ecosystems in the area are functioning. A carbon budget for the aquatic ecosystem above SFR in Oeresundsgrepen exist, but it is also important to have a carbon budget for the surface systems in the Forsmark area since SFR in the future will be situated above sea level. Carbon budgets can be used to get a picture of how an ecosystem functions. The carbon flow shows how carbon is transported through a food web from lower trophic levels, e.g. plants and bacteria to higher trophic levels such as fish. Oligotrophic hardwater lakes are the most important lakes in the Forsmark area. This report aims to give a picture of a potential flow of carbon through the ecosystem in two oligotrophic hard-water lakes, Lake Haellefjaerd and Lake Eckarfjaerden. Macrophyte, mainly Chara, were calculated to make up the largest part of the biomass and production in both lakes. Benthic bacteria and microphytobenthos (benthic photosynthesising microorganisms) were other large contributors to the production. Benthic bacteria were found responsible for a major part of respiration and, hence, consumption of carbon in the

  18. Reproducibility and repeatability of foveal avascular zone area measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropasqua, Rodolfo; Toto, Lisa; Mattei, Peter A; Di Nicola, Marta; Zecca, Isaia A L; Carpineto, Paolo; Di Antonio, Luca

    2017-05-11

    To assess the reproducibility and repeatability of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area measurements using swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (SS-OCTA) in healthy subjects. Sixty-four eyes of 64 healthy volunteers were randomly subjected to FAZ area measurements using SS-OCTA by 2 examiners in 2 different sessions. The FAZ areas measured by the first and second observer were 0.269 ± 0.092 mm2 and 0.270 ± 0.090 mm2, respectively. Within subjects, the coefficients of variations were 2.44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.95% to 2.93%) and 2.66% (95% CI 2.00% to 3.31%) for the first and second observers, respectively. The coefficient of repeatability average measurements of FAZ area were 0.021 mm2 and 0.024 mm2. The intraclass correlation coefficient values were 0.993 (95% CI 0.989 to 0.996) and 0.991 (95% CI 0.986 to 0.995). Interobserver and intraobserver concordance correlation coefficients ranged from 0.998 (95% CI 0.997 to 0.999) to 0.999 (95% CI 0.998 to 0.999) and from 0.989 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.993) to 0.987 (95% CI 0.979 to 0.992), respectively. The FAZ area measurements by means of SS-OCTA showed high reproducibility and repeatability in healthy eyes.

  19. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  20. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas A Ioannides

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1 and motor (M1 cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45 to 70 Hz activity at latencies of 20 to 50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occured in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  1. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe; Saridis, George A; Gjedde, Albert; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Cross-modal activity in visual cortex of blind subjects has been reported during performance of variety of non-visual tasks. A key unanswered question is through which pathways non-visual inputs are funneled to the visual cortex. Here we used tomographic analysis of single trial magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann areas (BA) 7 and 40, which compared to lower frequencies, were substantially more pronounced in the blind than the sighted subjects. Critically, at frequencies from α-band up to 100 Hz we found clear, strong, and widespread responses in the visual cortex of the blind subject, which increased with the intensity of the somatosensory stimuli. Time-delayed mutual information (MI) revealed that in blind subject the stimulus information is funneled from the early somatosensory to visual cortex through posterior parietal BA 7 and 40, projecting first to visual areas V5 and V3, and eventually V1. The flow of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first evidence from MEG that in blind subjects, tactile information is routed from primary somatosensory to occipital cortex via the posterior parietal cortex.

  2. Research on carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam subjected to low-velocity frontal impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefa Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight and safety performance of automobiles are two important factors for automobile designs. In this article, a research on lightweight and crashworthiness of automotive bumper has been conducted. The carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is considered to replace the traditional high-strength steel one. The low-velocity impact finite element simulations for the above two bumper beams are performed via LS-DYNA. Furthermore, the energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam are investigated and compared with the steel one. The results show that the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam is of the better energy absorption capabilities and dynamic response characteristics than those of the steel one; the weight has decreased remarkably close to 50%. Meanwhile, the effect of lay-up and wall thickness on the crashworthiness of the carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam under low-velocity impact is also studied in this article to select appropriate design schemes.

  3. Assessment of Carbon Status in Marine Protected Area of Payung Island Waters, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 is a greenhouse gas that receive more attention than the other gases because the properties of carbon easily deformed and diffuseed. Changes in the concentration of CO2 in the water will impact on changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that affect sea surface temperatures. It continuously will result in a change of marine capture fisheries. Payung Island is one of the important areas in South Sumatra that acts as the provider of the fishery. This because Payung Island is located in the mouth of Musi and Telang River covered by mangrove, has a very important ecological function. However, the condition of the carbon in the waters of the Payung Island has not explored further. This elementary study is to determine status on Payung Island waters as a sink or source of CO2. The study was conducted in June until August 2015. The research stages include surface water sampling, measurement of the CO2 in the atmosphere, the analysis of the concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC and Total Alkalinity (TA, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 calculation.  Atmospheric CO2 were measured insitu, while the DIC and TA were analyzed using titration methods. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 obtained from the calculation using the software CO2Calc using data of  DIC, TA, nutrients and atmospheric CO2. The results showed that the content of DIC and TA on the Payung Island waters has similar distribution pattern  i.e. high in areas close to the river, and getting lower in the area which were closer to the sea. The comparisons between pCO2 atmosphere and pCO2 waters showed that Payung Island waters generally act as a carbon sink in area towards the sea but however, in the territorial waters adjacent to the river as a source of carbon.   Keywords: carbon, marine protected area, Payung Island waters

  4. Cross-Modal Recruitment of Auditory and Orofacial Areas During Sign Language in a Deaf Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Juan; Velasquez, Carlos; Vázquez-Bourgon, Javier; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Gomez, Elsa

    2017-09-01

    Modern sign languages used by deaf people are fully expressive, natural human languages that are perceived visually and produced manually. The literature contains little data concerning human brain organization in conditions of deficient sensory information such as deafness. A deaf-mute patient underwent surgery of a left temporoinsular low-grade glioma. The patient underwent awake surgery with intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping, allowing direct study of the cortical and subcortical organization of sign language. We found a similar distribution of language sites to what has been reported in mapping studies of patients with oral language, including 1) speech perception areas inducing anomias and alexias close to the auditory cortex (at the posterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus); 2) speech production areas inducing speech arrest (anarthria) at the ventral premotor cortex, close to the lip motor area and away from the hand motor area; and 3) subcortical stimulation-induced semantic paraphasias at the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus at the temporal isthmus. The intraoperative setup for sign language mapping with intraoperative electrical stimulation in deaf-mute patients is similar to the setup described in patients with oral language. To elucidate the type of language errors, a sign language interpreter in close interaction with the neuropsychologist is necessary. Sign language is perceived visually and produced manually; however, this case revealed a cross-modal recruitment of auditory and orofacial motor areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating species – area relationships by modeling abundance and frequency subject to incomplete sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Yuichi; Connor, Edward F.; Royle, Andy; Itoh, Katsuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Taki, Hisatomo; Mishima, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Models and data used to describe species–area relationships confound sampling with ecological process as they fail to acknowledge that estimates of species richness arise due to sampling. This compromises our ability to make ecological inferences from and about species–area relationships. We develop and illustrate hierarchical community models of abundance and frequency to estimate species richness. The models we propose separate sampling from ecological processes by explicitly accounting for the fact that sampled patches are seldom completely covered by sampling plots and that individuals present in the sampling plots are imperfectly detected. We propose a multispecies abundance model in which community assembly is treated as the summation of an ensemble of species-level Poisson processes and estimate patch-level species richness as a derived parameter. We use sampling process models appropriate for specific survey methods. We propose a multispecies frequency model that treats the number of plots in which a species occurs as a binomial process. We illustrate these models using data collected in surveys of early-successional bird species and plants in young forest plantation patches. Results indicate that only mature forest plant species deviated from the constant density hypothesis, but the null model suggested that the deviations were too small to alter the form of species–area relationships. Nevertheless, results from simulations clearly show that the aggregate pattern of individual species density–area relationships and occurrence probability–area relationships can alter the form of species–area relationships. The plant community model estimated that only half of the species present in the regional species pool were encountered during the survey. The modeling framework we propose explicitly accounts for sampling processes so that ecological processes can be examined free of sampling artefacts. Our modeling approach is extensible and could be applied

  6. Experimental and Numerical Simulation Analysis of Typical Carbon Woven Fabric/Epoxy Laminates Subjected to Lightning Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J. J.; Chang, F.; Li, S. L.; Yao, X. L.; Sun, J. R.; Xiao, Y.

    2017-02-01

    To clarify the evolution of damage for typical carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to lightning strike, artificial lightning testing on carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates were conducted, damage was assessed using visual inspection and damage peeling approaches. Relationships between damage size and action integral were also elucidated. Results showed that damage appearance of carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminate presents circular distribution, and center of the circle located at the lightning attachment point approximately, there exist no damage projected area dislocations for different layers, visual damage territory represents maximum damage scope; visible damage can be categorized into five modes: resin ablation, fiber fracture and sublimation, delamination, ablation scallops and block-shaped ply-lift; delamination damage due to resin pyrolysis and internal pressure exist obvious distinguish; project area of total damage is linear with action integral for the same type specimens, that of resin ablation damage is linear with action integral, but no correlation with specimen type, for all specimens, damage depth is linear with logarithm of action integral. The coupled thermal-electrical model constructed is capable to simulate the ablation damage for carbon woven fabric/epoxy laminates exposed to simulated lightning current through experimental verification.

  7. Identification of areas in Brazil that optimize conservation of forest carbon, jaguars, and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barros, Alan E; MacDonald, Ewan A; Matsumoto, Marcelo H; Paula, Rogério C; Nijhawan, Sahil; Malhi, Y; MacDonald, David W

    2014-04-01

    A major question in global environmental policy is whether schemes to reduce carbon pollution through forest management, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD+), can also benefit biodiversity conservation in tropical countries. We identified municipalities in Brazil that are priorities for reducing rates of deforestation and thus preserving carbon stocks that are also conservation targets for the endangered jaguar (Panthera onca) and biodiversity in general. Preliminary statistical analysis showed that municipalities with high biodiversity were positively associated with high forest carbon stocks. We used a multicriteria decision analysis to identify municipalities that offered the best opportunities for the conservation of forest carbon stocks and biodiversity conservation under a range of scenarios with different rates of deforestation and carbon values. We further categorized these areas by their representativeness of the entire country (through measures such as percent forest cover) and an indirect measure of cost (number of municipalities). The municipalities that offered optimal co-benefits for forest carbon stocks and conservation were termed REDDspots (n = 159), and their spatial distribution was compared with the distribution of current and proposed REDD projects (n = 135). We defined REDDspots as the municipalities that offer the best opportunities for co-benefits between the conservation of forest carbon stocks, jaguars, and other wildlife. These areas coincided in 25% (n = 40) of municipalities. We identified a further 95 municipalities that may have the greatest potential to develop additional REDD+ projects while also targeting biodiversity conservation. We concluded that REDD+ strategies could be an efficient tool for biodiversity conservation in key locations, especially in Amazonian and Atlantic Forest biomes. ©2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Magneto encephalography (MEG: perspectives of speech areas functional mapping in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butorina A. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in clinical practice and academic research is how to localize speech zones in the human brain. Two speech areas (Broca and Wernicke areas that are responsible for language production and for understanding of written and spoken language have been known since the past century. Their location and even hemispheric lateralization have a substantial inter-individual variability, especially in neurosurgery patients. Wada test is one of the most frequently used invasive methodology for speech hemispheric lateralization in neurosurgery patients. However, besides relatively high-risk of Wada test for patient's health, it has its own limitation, e. g. low reliability of Wada-based evidence of verbal memory brain lateralization. Therefore, there is an urgent need for non-invasive, reliable methods of speech zones mapping.The current review summarizes the recent experimental evidence from magnitoencephalographic (MEG research suggesting that speech areas are included in the speech processing within the first 200 ms after the word onset. The electro-magnetic response to deviant word, mismatch negativity wave with latency of 100—200 ms, can be recorded from auditory cortex within the oddball-paradigm. We provide the arguments that basic features of this brain response, such as its automatic, pre-attentive nature, high signal to noise ratio, source localization at superior temporal sulcus, make it a promising vehicle for non-invasive MEG-based speech areas mapping in neurosurgery.

  9. Towards Regional, Error-Bounded Landscape Carbon Storage Estimates for Data-Deficient Areas of the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willcock, Simon; Phillips, Oliver L.; Platts, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been...

  10. Hierarchical porous carbon with ultrahigh surface area from corn leaf for high-performance supercapacitors application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Li, Chengfei; Chen, Yue

    2017-02-01

    A new class of hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) with ultrahigh surface area is successfully fabricated by carefully selecting biomass carbon precursors and activation reagent, through which corn leaf (CL) with natural well-defined macropore channels is used as the carbon precursor, and H3PO4 is used as the active agent by virtue of its pore-widening effect. The as-prepared CL-based HPC (CLHPC) with a H3PO4/semi-carbonized CL mass ratio of 2 (CLHPC-2) demonstrates the highest specific surface area of 2507 m2 g-1 donated by 28.3% of micropore and 71.6% of mesopore, while maintaining the channel-like macroporous structure derived from the well-defined natural structure in CL. The combination of the hierarchical porous structure and ultrahigh surface area enables rapid electrolyte diffusion and sufficient active sites for charge accumulation. As a result, CLHPC-2 exhibits excellent electrochemical performance, such as high specific capacitance of 230 F g-1 at the current density of 0.1 A g-1, excellent high-rate capability (retention of 91% from 0.1 to 5 A g-1), and good cycling stability (99% capacitance retention after 10 000 cycles).

  11. Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration

    OpenAIRE

    Chuixiang Yi; Suhua Wei; George Hendrey

    2014-01-01

    At biome-scale, terrestrial carbon uptake is controlled mainly by weather variability. Observational data from a global monitoring network indicate that the sensitivity of terrestrial carbon sequestration to mean annual temperature (T) breaks down at a threshold value of 16°C, above which terrestrial CO2 fluxes are controlled by dryness rather than temperature. Here we show that since 1948 warming climate has moved the 16°C T latitudinal belt poleward. Land surface area with T > 16°C and now ...

  12. Carbon dioxide reforming of methane on a cobalt catalyst subjected to plasma-chemical treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, E. A.; Bratchikova, I. G.; Yagodovskii, V. D.; Murga, Z. V.

    2017-08-01

    The effect plasma-chemical treatments of 5 wt % Co/SiO2 catalyst have on its activity in the carbonic acid conversion of methane in the interval of 700 to 900°C is studied. A plasma glow discharge in oxygen and argon was used along with high-frequency plasma in hydrogen for preliminary treatment of the catalyst. A multiple increase in CH4 and CO2 conversion and a 30-50 K drop in the temperature of the onset of the reaction are observed after plasma-chemical treatments. The strongest increase in activity is measured after the catalyst is treated with oxygen plasma. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to determine the change in the composition of the catalyst's surface after it is treated with plasma, indicating that active forms of carbon atoms can be included in new active centers.

  13. Topology Optimization of Bonnet-like Plate Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics Subjected to Different Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Sang-Won

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of fiber composites has resulted in a new paradigm of material selection for automotive industries. In specific, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics (CFRTP) has shown its advantages in the feasibility of mass production as well as its high strength to weight ratio; allowing significant weight reduction compared to conventional steel largely in dominance today. In automotive sectors where weight saving is a major factor in operation, material shift from steel to CFRTP could be...

  14. Electromagnetic Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Films Subject to an Oxidative Treatment at Elevated Temperature (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    nanotubes in the form of films or carpets can be used as flat panel displays or lighting elements (e.g., the brightness of CNT arrays is higher by a...factor of two than conventional thermionic lighting elements for giant outdoor displays). CNTs grown by arc-discharge, laser ablation and chemical...axis wafers, Cree Inc.) were used to grow carbon nanotube films. They were cleaned by the standard RCA cleaning process [21]. These clean silicon

  15. Gross changes in forest area shape the future carbon balance of tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bookkeeping models are used to estimate land-use and land-cover change (LULCC carbon fluxes (ELULCC. The uncertainty of bookkeeping models partly arises from data used to define response curves (usually from local data and their representativeness for application to large regions. Here, we compare biomass recovery curves derived from a recent synthesis of secondary forest plots in Latin America by Poorter et al. (2016 with the curves used previously in bookkeeping models from Houghton (1999 and Hansis et al. (2015. We find that the two latter models overestimate the long-term (100 years vegetation carbon density of secondary forest by about 25 %. We also use idealized LULCC scenarios combined with these three different response curves to demonstrate the importance of considering gross forest area changes instead of net forest area changes for estimating regional ELULCC. In the illustrative case of a net gain in forest area composed of a large gross loss and a large gross gain occurring during a single year, the initial gross loss has an important legacy effect on ELULCC so that the system can be a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere long after the initial forest area change. We show the existence of critical values of the ratio of gross area change over net area change (γAnetAgross, above which cumulative ELULCC is a net CO2 source rather than a sink for a given time horizon after the initial perturbation. These theoretical critical ratio values derived from simulations of a bookkeeping model are compared with observations from the 30 m resolution Landsat Thematic Mapper data of gross and net forest area change in the Amazon. This allows us to diagnose areas in which current forest gains with a large land turnover will still result in LULCC carbon emissions in 20, 50 and 100 years.

  16. Subject-specific computational modeling of DBS in the PPTg area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitella, Laura M.; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Yager, Paul; Hudson, Heather M.; Brintz, Katelynn; Duchin, Yuval; Harel, Noam; Vitek, Jerrold L.; Baker, Kenneth B.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has been proposed to alleviate medically intractable gait difficulties associated with Parkinson's disease. Clinical trials have shown somewhat variable outcomes, stemming in part from surgical targeting variability, modulating fiber pathways implicated in side effects, and a general lack of mechanistic understanding of DBS in this brain region. Subject-specific computational models of DBS are a promising tool to investigate the underlying therapy and side effects. In this study, a parkinsonian rhesus macaque was implanted unilaterally with an 8-contact DBS lead in the PPTg region. Fiber tracts adjacent to PPTg, including the oculomotor nerve, central tegmental tract, and superior cerebellar peduncle, were reconstructed from a combination of pre-implant 7T MRI, post-implant CT, and post-mortem histology. These structures were populated with axon models and coupled with a finite element model simulating the voltage distribution in the surrounding neural tissue during stimulation. This study introduces two empirical approaches to evaluate model parameters. First, incremental monopolar cathodic stimulation (20 Hz, 90 μs pulse width) was evaluated for each electrode, during which a right eyelid flutter was observed at the proximal four contacts (−1.0 to −1.4 mA). These current amplitudes followed closely with model predicted activation of the oculomotor nerve when assuming an anisotropic conduction medium. Second, PET imaging was collected OFF-DBS and twice during DBS (two different contacts), which supported the model predicted activation of the central tegmental tract and superior cerebellar peduncle. Together, subject-specific models provide a framework to more precisely predict pathways modulated by DBS. PMID:26236229

  17. Subject-specific computational modeling of DBS in the PPTg area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Zitella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg has been proposed to alleviate medically intractable gait difficulties associated with Parkinson’s disease. Clinical trials have shown somewhat variable outcomes, stemming in part from surgical targeting variability, modulating fiber pathways implicated in side effects, and a general lack of mechanistic understanding of DBS in this brain region. Subject-specific computational models of DBS are a promising tool to investigate the underlying therapy and side effects. In this study, a parkinsonian rhesus macaque was implanted unilaterally with an 8-contact DBS lead in the PPTg region. Fiber tracts adjacent to PPTg, including the oculomotor nerve, central tegmental tract, and superior cerebellar peduncle, were reconstructed from a combination of pre-implant 7T MRI, post-implant CT, and post-mortem histology. These structures were populated with axon models and coupled with a finite element model simulating the voltage distribution in the surrounding neural tissue during stimulation. This study introduces two empirical approaches to evaluate model parameters. First, incremental monopolar cathodic stimulation (20Hz, 90µs pulse width was evaluated for each electrode, during which a right eyelid flutter was observed at the proximal four contacts (-1.0 to -1.4mA. These current amplitudes followed closely with model predicted activation of the oculomotor nerve when assuming an anisotropic conduction medium. Second, PET imaging was collected OFF-DBS and twice during DBS (two different contacts, which supported the model predicted activation of the central tegmental tract and superior cerebellar peduncle. Together, subject-specific models provide a framework to more precisely predict pathways modulated by DBS.

  18. Tropical protected areas reduced deforestation carbon emissions by one third from 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebber, Daniel P; Butt, Nathalie

    2017-10-25

    Tropical deforestation is responsible for around one tenth of total anthropogenic carbon emissions, and tropical protected areas (PAs) that reduce deforestation can therefore play an important role in mitigating climate change and protecting biodiversity and ecosystem services. While the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation has been estimated, the impact on global carbon emissions remains unquantified. Here we show that tropical PAs overall reduced deforestation carbon emissions by 4.88 Pg, or around 29%, between 2000 and 2012, when compared to expected rates of deforestation controlling for spatial variation in deforestation pressure. The largest contribution was from the tropical Americas (368.8 GgC y(-1)), followed by Asia (25.0 GgC y(-1)) and Africa (12.7 GgC y(-1)). Variation in PA effectiveness is largely driven by local factors affecting individual PAs, rather than designations assigned by governments.

  19. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  20. Measurement of effective alveolar carbon dioxide tension during spontaneous breathing in normal subjects and patients with chronic airways obstruction.

    OpenAIRE

    Jordanoglou, J.; Koulouris, N; Kyroussis, D.; Rapakoulias, P.; Vassalos, P.; Madianos, J.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--The measurement of effective alveolar carbon dioxide tension (PA-CO2eff) is still a matter of debate. It has, however, become common practice to use arterial instead of alveolar CO2 tension for computing alveolar oxygen tension (PAO2) and physiological dead space, not only in normal subjects but also in patients. The purpose of this study was to estimate alveolar CO2 tension during spontaneous breathing with a new bedside technique which is simple and non-invasive, and to compare ...

  1. Modelling of E. coli distribution in coastal areas subjected to combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchis, Mauro; Freni, Gabriele; Napoli, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Rivers, lakes and the sea were the natural receivers of raw urban waste and storm waters for a long time but the low sustainability of such practice, the increase of population and a renewed environmental sensibility increased researcher interest in the analysis and mitigation of the impact of urban waters on receiving water bodies (RWB). In Europe, the integrated modelling of drainage systems and RWB has been promoted as a promising approach for implementing the Water Framework Directive. A particular interest is given to the fate of pathogens and especially of Escherichia coli, in all the cases in which an interaction between population and the RWB is foreseen. The present paper aims to propose an integrated water quality model involving the analysis of several sewer systems (SS) discharging their polluting overflows on the coast in a sensitive marine environment. From a modelling point of view, the proposed application integrated one-dimensional drainage system models with a complex three-dimensional model analysing the propagation in space and time of E. coli in the coastal marine area. The integrated approach was tested in a real case study (the Acicastello bay in Italy) where data were available both for SS model and for RWB propagation model calibration. The analysis shows a good agreement between the model and monitored data. The integrated model was demonstrated to be a valuable tool for investigating the pollutant propagation and to highlight the most impacted areas.

  2. Microbial Carbon Substrate Utilization Differences among High- and Average-Yield Soybean Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor C. Adams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Since soybean (Glycine max L. (Merr. yields greater than 6719 kg ha−1 have only recently and infrequently been achieved, little is known about the soil microbiological environment related to high-yield soybean production. Soil microbiological properties are often overlooked when assessing agronomic practices for optimal production. Therefore, a greater understanding is needed regarding how soil biological properties may differ between high- and average-yielding areas within fields. The objectives of this study were to (i evaluate the effects of region on soil microbial carbon substrate utilization differences between high- (HY and average-yield (AY areas and (ii assess the effect of yield area on selected microbiological property differences. Replicate soil samples were collected from the 0–10 cm depth from yield-contest-entered fields in close proximity that had both a HY and an AY area. Samples were collected immediately prior to or just after soybean harvest in 2014 and 2015 from each of seven geographic regions within Arkansas. Averaged across yield area, community-level carbon substrate utilization and Shannon’s and Simpson’s functional diversity and evenness were greater (p < 0.05 in Region 7 than all other regions. Averaged across regions, Shannon’s functional diversity and evenness were greater (p < 0.05 in HY than in AY areas. Principal component analysis demonstrated that a greater variety of carbon substrates were used in HY than AY areas. These results may help producers understand the soil microbiological environment in their own fields that contribute to or hinder achieving high-yielding soybeans; however, additional parameters may need to be assessed for a more comprehensive understanding of the soil environment that is associated with high-yielding soybean.

  3. Measurement of effective alveolar carbon dioxide tension during spontaneous breathing in normal subjects and patients with chronic airways obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordanoglou, J; Koulouris, N; Kyroussis, D; Rapakoulias, P; Vassalos, P; Madianos, J

    1995-03-01

    The measurement of effective alveolar carbon dioxide tension (PA-CO2eff) is still a matter of debate. It has, however, become common practice to use arterial instead of alveolar CO2 tension for computing alveolar oxygen tension (PAO2) and physiological dead space, not only in normal subjects but also in patients. The purpose of this study was to estimate alveolar CO2 tension during spontaneous breathing with a new bedside technique which is simple and non-invasive, and to compare these values with arterial CO2 tension measured in normal subjects and patients with chronic airways obstruction. The subjects breathed quietly through the equipment assembly (mouthpiece, monitoring ring, Fleisch transducer head) connected to a pneumotachograph and a fast response infrared CO2 analyser. The method is a computerised calculation of the volume weighted effective alveolar CO2 tension obtained from the simultaneously recorded expiratory flow and CO2 concentration versus time curves. An arterial blood sample was taken to measure PaCO2 for comparison during the study. The results showed a mean difference (PACO2eff-PaCO2) of -0.205 kPa in 20 normal subjects and -0.460 kPa in 46 patients. The 95% confidence interval of the bias was -0.029 to -0.379 kPa in normal subjects and -0.213 to -0.707 kPa in patients. The limits of agreement between PACO2eff and PaCO2 were 0.526 to -0.935 in normal subjects and 1.170 to -2.088 in patients. The volume weighted effective alveolar PCO2 in normal subjects and patients with chronic airways obstruction is lower than the arterial PCO2 and is recommended as a better estimate in the classical equations for estimating dead space and intrapulmonary shunt.

  4. Effects of air pollutants on the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rate of human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Wargocki, Pawel; Wyon, David

    2004-01-01

    Several laboratory studies have shown the negative effects of emissions from typical indoor pollution sources on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and the performance of office work. The subjects performed typical office tasks at their own pace while they were exposed for several hours...

  5. New Energy Efficient Housing Has Reduced Carbon Footprints in Outer but Not in Inner Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottelin, Juudit; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2015-08-18

    Avoiding urban sprawl and increasing density are often considered as effective means to mitigate climate change through urban planning. However, there have been rapid technological changes in the fields of housing energy and private driving, and the development is continuing. In this study, we analyze the carbon footprints of the residents living in new housing in different urban forms in Finland. We compare the new housing to existing housing stock. In all areas, the emissions from housing energy were significantly lower in new buildings. However, in the inner urban areas the high level of consumption, mostly due to higher affluence, reverse the gains of energy efficient new housing. The smallest carbon footprints were found in newly built outer and peri-urban areas, also when income level differences were taken into account. Rather than strengthening the juxtaposition of urban and suburban areas, we suggest that it would be smarter to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of both modes of living and develop a more systemic strategy that would result in greater sustainability in both areas. Since such strategy does not exist yet, it should be researched and practically developed. It would be beneficial to focus on area specific mitigation measures.

  6. Popcorn-Derived Porous Carbon Flakes with an Ultrahigh Specific Surface Area for Superior Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jianhua; Jiang, Kun; Wei, Rui; Tahir, Muhammad; Wu, Xiaoge; Shen, Ming; Wang, Xiaozhi; Cao, Chuanbao

    2017-09-13

    Popcorn-derived porous carbon flakes have been successfully fabricated from the biomass of maize. Utilizing the "puffing effect", the nubby maize grain turned into materials with an interconnected honeycomb-like porous structure composed of carbon flakes. The following chemical activation method enabled the as-prepared products to possess optimized porous structures for electrochemical energy-storage devices, such as multilayer flake-like structures, ultrahigh specific surface area (SBET: 3301 m2 g-1), and a high content of micropores (microporous surface area of 95%, especially the optimized sub-nanopores with the size of 0.69 nm) that can increase the specific capacitance. The as-obtained sample displayed excellent specific capacitance of 286 F g-1 at 90 A g-1 for supercapacitors. Moreover, the unique porous structure demonstrated an ideal way to improve the volumetric energy density performance. A high energy density of 103 Wh kg-1 or 53 Wh L-1 has been obtained in the case of ionic liquid electrolyte, which is the highest among reported biomass-derived carbon materials and will satisfy the urgent requirements of a primary power source for electric vehicles. This work may prove to be a fast, green, and large-scale synthesis route by using the large nubby granular materials to synthesize applicable porous carbons in energy-storage devices.

  7. Characterization of a New Fully Recycled Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite Subjected to High Strain Rate Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meftah, H.; Tamboura, S.; Fitoussi, J.; BenDaly, H.; Tcharkhtchi, A.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is the complete physicochemical characterization and strain rate effect multi-scale analysis of a new fully recycled carbon fiber reinforced composites for automotive crash application. Two composites made of 20% wt short recycled carbon fibers (CF) are obtained by injection molding. The morphology and the degree of dispersion of CF in the matrixes were examined using a new ultrasonic method and SEM. High strain tensile behavior up to 100 s-1 is investigated. In order to avoid perturbation due to inertial effect and wave propagation, the specimen geometry was optimized. The elastic properties appear to be insensitive to the strain rate. However, a high strain rate effect on the local visco-plasticity of the matrix and fiber/matrix interface visco-damageable behavior is emphasized. The predominant damage mechanisms evolve from generalized matrix local ductility at low strain rate regime to fiber/matrix interface debonding and fibers pull-out at high strain rate regime.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Emissions Due to Forest Fires in Bukit Batu Area, Bengkalis Regency, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita, Sofia; Ariful Amri, T.; Abu Hanifah, T.; Furnando, Edo; Lukas, Amos

    2017-05-01

    High concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the major cause of global warming. This study focuses on estimation of carbon emissions from forest fires in Indonesia, especially Bukit Batu area, Bengkalis Regency. Peatlands in this area are widely used as an agricultural cultivation and plantations. The aim of this study is to measure the concentration of CO2 emitted based on the relationship of physical and chemical properties of peat soil. Measurements carried out on these peatlands with different vegetation covered, i.e. bush land, palm plantations and secondary forests. Methods used in this research were Infrared Gas Analyzer and Gas Chromatography. The average of CO2 emissions obtained of bush land, palm plantations, and secondary forest were 497.4 ppm; 523. 2 ppm; and 457.2 ppm, respectively.

  9. A template-free, ultra-adsorbing, high surface area carbonate nanostructure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Forsgren

    Full Text Available We report the template-free, low-temperature synthesis of a stable, amorphous, and anhydrous magnesium carbonate nanostructure with pore sizes below 6 nm and a specific surface area of ∼ 800 m(2 g(-1, substantially surpassing the surface area of all previously described alkali earth metal carbonates. The moisture sorption of the novel nanostructure is featured by a unique set of properties including an adsorption capacity ∼50% larger than that of the hygroscopic zeolite-Y at low relative humidities and with the ability to retain more than 75% of the adsorbed water when the humidity is decreased from 95% to 5% at room temperature. These properties can be regenerated by heat treatment at temperatures below 100°C.The structure is foreseen to become useful in applications such as humidity control, as industrial adsorbents and filters, in drug delivery and catalysis.

  10. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning.

  11. The Difference in Translaminar Pressure Gradient and Neuroretinal Rim Area in Glaucoma and Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Siaudvytyte

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess differences in translaminar pressure gradient (TPG and neuroretinal rim area (NRA in patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG, high tension glaucoma (HTG, and healthy controls. Methods. 27 patients with NTG, HTG, and healthy controls were included in the prospective pilot study (each group consisted of 9 patients. Intraocular pressure (IOP, intracranial pressure (ICP, and confocal laser scanning tomography were assessed. TPG was calculated as the difference of IOP minus ICP. ICP was measured using noninvasive two-depth transcranial Doppler device. The level of significance P 0.05. The difference between TPG for healthy (5.4(7.7 mmHg and glaucomatous eyes (NTG 6.3(3.1 mmHg, HTG 15.7(7.7 mmHg was statistically significant (P < 0.001. Higher TPG was correlated with decreased NRA (r = −0.83; P = 0.01 in the NTG group. Conclusion. Translaminar pressure gradient was higher in glaucoma patients. Reduction of NRA was related to higher TPG in NTG patients. Further prospective studies are warranted to investigate the involvement of TPG in glaucoma management.

  12. Daily burned area and carbon emissions from boreal fires in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veraverbeke, S.; Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.

    2015-06-01

    Boreal fires burn into carbon-rich organic soils, thereby releasing large quantities of trace gases and aerosols that influence atmospheric composition and climate. To better understand the factors regulating boreal fire emissions, we developed a statistical model of carbon consumption by fire for Alaska with a spatial resolution of 450 m and a temporal resolution of 1 day. We used the model to estimate variability in carbon emissions between 2001 and 2012. Daily burned area was mapped using imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer combined with perimeters from the Alaska Large Fire Database. Carbon consumption was calibrated using available field measurements from black spruce forests in Alaska. We built two nonlinear multiplicative models to separately predict above- and belowground carbon consumption by fire in response to environmental variables including elevation, day of burning within the fire season, pre-fire tree cover and the differenced normalized burn ratio (dNBR). Higher belowground carbon consumption occurred later in the season and for mid-elevation forests. Topographic slope and aspect did not improve performance of the belowground carbon consumption model. Aboveground and belowground carbon consumption also increased as a function of tree cover and the dNBR, suggesting a causal link between the processes regulating these two components of carbon consumption. Between 2001 and 2012, the median carbon consumption was 2.54 kg C m-2. Burning in land-cover types other than black spruce was considerable and was associated with lower levels of carbon consumption than for pure black spruce stands. Carbon consumption originated primarily from the belowground fraction (median = 2.32 kg C m-2 for all cover types and 2.67 kg C m-2 for pure black spruce stands). Total carbon emissions varied considerably from year to year, with the highest emissions occurring during 2004 (69 Tg C), 2005 (46 Tg C), 2009 (26 Tg C), and 2002 (17 Tg C) and a

  13. Density and stability of soil organic carbon beneath impervious surfaces in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zongqiang; Wu, Shaohua; Yan, Xiao; Zhou, Shenglu

    2014-01-01

    Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C) sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC) densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0-20 cm) under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (Psoils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct = C1+C0(1-e-kt)). The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks.

  14. Density and stability of soil organic carbon beneath impervious surfaces in urban areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongqiang Wei

    Full Text Available Installation of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted increasing attention due to its potential hazard to urban ecosystems. Urban soils are suggested to have robust carbon (C sequestration capacity; however, the C stocks and dynamics in the soils covered by impervious surfaces that dominate urban areas are still not well characterized. We compared soil organic C (SOC densities and their stabilities under impervious surface, determined by a 28-d incubation experiment, with those in open areas in Yixing City, China. The SOC density (0-20 cm under impervious surfaces was, on average, 68% lower than that in open areas. Furthermore, there was a significantly (P<0.05 positive correlation between the densities of SOC and total nitrogen (N in the open soils, whereas the correlation was not apparent for the impervious-covered soils, suggesting that the artificial soil sealing in urban areas decoupled the cycle of C and N. Cumulative CO2-C evolved during the 28-d incubation was lower from the impervious-covered soils than from the open soils, and agreed well with a first-order decay model (Ct = C1+C0(1-e-kt. The model results indicated that the SOC underlying capped surfaces had weaker decomposability and lower turnover rate. Our results confirm the unique character of urban SOC, especially that beneath impervious surface, and suggest that scientific and management views on regional SOC assessment may need to consider the role of urban carbon stocks.

  15. Modeling soil organic carbon change across Australian wheat growing areas, 1960-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Huang, Yao; Wang, Enli; Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in Australian wheat-growing areas were simulated from 1960 to 2010 using Agro-C, a calibrated and validated biogeophysical model. Previously published data from field measurements were used to parameterize the Agro-C model. Model simulations show a decreasing trend in SOC over the last 50 years, mainly attributable to relatively low organic carbon (C) inputs. The rate of decrease in SOC tended to slow in the last two decades due primarily to an increase in wheat yields, which resulted in an increase in C input. Overall, we estimate that Australian wheat-growing areas, covering an area of 15.09 million hectares (Mha), lost 156 (86-222, 95% confidence interval) Tg C in the topsoil (to 30 cm depth) from 1960 to 2010. Approximately 80% of the SOC loss occurred in the period between the 1960s and the 1980s. Spatially, the SOC loss in areas with relatively high temperature and low precipitation, such as Queensland, the northern part of New South Wales and Western Australia, was more significant than that in other areas. We suggest that the loss of SOC could be halted, or even reversed, with an additional input of organic C into the soil at a minimum rate of 0.4 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1).

  16. Morphological and biochemical indicators of blood of rats poisoned by carbon tetrachloride and subject to action of liposomal preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gutyj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of the research on the influence of a developed complex liposomal preparation on the dynamics of morphological and biochemical indicators of the blood of rats subjected to modeled oxidative stress caused by intermuscular injection of 50% carbon tetrachloride at a dose of 0.25 ml per 100 g of body mass. We found that in conditions of intoxication by carbon tetrachloride, the physiological level of hematological indicators of the researched animals’ body was disrupted. This is indicated by the reduction in the amount of erythrocytes, hemoglobin content, concentration of hemoglobin per erythrocyte, increase in the amount of leucocytes, mass of hemoglobin per erythrocyte and increase of colour indicator. Also, we detected suppression of protein synthesis function of the liver. The levels of total protein and albumin fraction were below the normal physiological level. High indicators were observed in the levels of creatinine, urea and total bilirubin. In order to normalize the functional state of the liver under oxidative stress it is reasonable to use a liposomal preparation which contains butafosfan, interferon, thistle and vitamins. In order to normalize morphological and biochemical indicators of the blood of rats subject to intoxication of carbon tetrachloride it is reasonable to use a liposomal preparation that contains butafosfan, selenium, thistle, methionine and vitamins. Using the liposomal preparation Butaselmevit for rats under oxidative stress the morphological and biochemical indicators in the blood normalized. On the 14th day the indictors of the number of erythrocytes, the hemoglobin content, the white blood cell count and red blood indexes compared to control came within the physiological indicators, indicating a recovery of hematopoietic function of the bone marrow and normalized indicators of the functional state of the liver.

  17. Towards regional, error-bounded landscape carbon storage estimates for data-deficient areas of the world.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Willcock

    Full Text Available Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as 'lowland tropical forest' are often used, termed 'Tier 1 type' analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC. Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI for all five IPCC carbon pools (aboveground live carbon, litter, coarse woody debris, belowground live carbon and soil carbon for data-deficient regions, using a combination of existing inventory data and systematic literature searches, weighted to ensure the final values are regionally specific. The method meets the IPCC 'Tier 2' reporting standard. We use this method to estimate carbon storage over an area of33.9 million hectares of eastern Tanzania, reporting values for 30 land cover types. We estimate that this area stored 6.33 (5.92-6.74 Pg C in the year 2000. Carbon storage estimates for the same study area extracted from five published Africa-wide or global studies show a mean carbon storage value of ∼50% of that reported using our regional values, with four of the five studies reporting lower carbon storage values. This suggests that carbon storage may have been underestimated for this region of Africa. Our study demonstrates the importance of obtaining regionally appropriate carbon storage estimates, and shows how such values can be produced

  18. Determination of carbonic anhydrase C and. beta. /sub 2/-microglobulin by radioimmunoassay in urine of heavy-metal-exposed subjects and patients with renal tubular acidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, N. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo, Japan); Tanaka, M.; Kishihara, C.; Ohno, H.; Kondo, T.; Matsuda, I.; Fujino, T.; Harada, M.

    1979-10-01

    Carbonic anhydrase C (CA-C) was measured by the radioimmunoassay in urine specimens from normal individuals, residents in mercury-polluted area, cadmium-exposed workers, lead-exposed workers, and patients with primary or secondary renal tubular acidosis. None of the urine in the normal subjects demonstrated CA-C levels above 40 ..mu..g/g creatinine. Some of the cadmium-exposed workers, residents in mercury-polluted area, and patients with renal tubular acidosis excreted large amounts of CA-C that were 10-250 times higher than the normal. Urinary ..beta../sub 2/-microglobulin (BMG) was also determined in relation to the CA-C levels. Most of the subjects exposed to heavy metals had high levels of urine CA-C or BMG or both. Some individuals had high levels of urine CA-C although BMG levels were within normal values. These findings seem to suggest that the mechanisms of urinary excretion of these two proteins were different and the quantitative determination of urinary CA-C by radioimmunoassay appears to be also a useful and sensitive test for detecting the renal tubular disorders in environmental exposure of heavy metals or those in renal tubular acidosis.

  19. Black carbon contributes to organic matter in young soils in the Morteratsch proglacial area (Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eckmeier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Most glacier forefields of the European Alps are being progressively exposed since the glaciers reached their maximum expansion in the 1850s. Global warming and climate changes additionally promote the exposure of sediments in previously glaciated areas. In these proglacial areas, initial soils have started to develop so that they may offer a continuous chronosequence from 0 to 150-yr-old soils. The build-up of organic matter is an important factor of soil formation, and not only autochthonous but also distant sources might contribute to its accumulation in young soils and surfaces of glacier forefields. Only little is known about black carbon in soils that develop in glacier forefields, although charred organic matter could be an important component of organic carbon in Alpine soils. The aim of our study was to examine whether black carbon (BC is present in the initial soils of a proglacial area, and to estimate its relative contribution to soil organic matter. We investigated soil samples from 35 sites distributed over the whole proglacial area of Morteratsch (Upper Engadine, Switzerland, covering a chronosequence from 0 to 150 yr. BC concentrations were determined in fine earth using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA marker method. We found that charred organic matter occurred in the whole area, and that it was a main compound of soil organic matter in the youngest soils, where total Corg concentrations were very low. The absolute concentrations of BC in fine earth were generally low but increased in soils that had been exposed for more than 40 yr. Specific initial microbial communities may profit from this additional C source during the first years of soil evolution and potentially promote soil development in its early stage.

  20. Influence of Leaf Area Index Prescriptions on Simulations of Heat, Moisture, and Carbon Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kala, Jatin; Decker, Mark; Exbrayat, Jean-Francois; Pitman, Andy J.; Carouge, Claire; Evans, Jason P.; Abramowitz, Gab; Mocko, David

    2013-01-01

    Leaf-area index (LAI), the total one-sided surface area of leaf per ground surface area, is a key component of land surface models. We investigate the influence of differing, plausible LAI prescriptions on heat, moisture, and carbon fluxes simulated by the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLEv1.4b) model over the Australian continent. A 15-member ensemble monthly LAI data-set is generated using the MODIS LAI product and gridded observations of temperature and precipitation. Offline simulations lasting 29 years (1980-2008) are carried out at 25 km resolution with the composite monthly means from the MODIS LAI product (control simulation) and compared with simulations using each of the 15-member ensemble monthly-varying LAI data-sets generated. The imposed changes in LAI did not strongly influence the sensible and latent fluxes but the carbon fluxes were more strongly affected. Croplands showed the largest sensitivity in gross primary production with differences ranging from -90 to 60 %. PFTs with high absolute LAI and low inter-annual variability, such as evergreen broadleaf trees, showed the least response to the different LAI prescriptions, whilst those with lower absolute LAI and higher inter-annual variability, such as croplands, were more sensitive. We show that reliance on a single LAI prescription may not accurately reflect the uncertainty in the simulation of the terrestrial carbon fluxes, especially for PFTs with high inter-annual variability. Our study highlights that the accurate representation of LAI in land surface models is key to the simulation of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Hence this will become critical in quantifying the uncertainty in future changes in primary production.

  1. Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, K.; Wulfmeyer, V.; Berger, T.; Gebel, J.; Münch, W.

    2013-07-01

    We present a comprehensive, interdisciplinary project which demonstrates that large-scale plantations of Jatropha curcas - if established in hot, dry coastal areas around the world - could capture 17-25 t of carbon dioxide per hectare per year from the atmosphere (over a 20 yr period). Based on recent farming results it is confirmed that the Jatropha curcas plant is well adapted to harsh environments and is capable of growing alone or in combination with other tree and shrub species with minimal irrigation in hot deserts where rain occurs only sporadically. Our investigations indicate that there is sufficient unused and marginal land for the widespread cultivation of Jatropha curcas to have a significant impact on atmospheric CO2 levels at least for several decades. In a system in which desalinated seawater is used for irrigation and for delivery of mineral nutrients, the sequestration costs were estimated to range from 42-63 EUR per tonne CO2. This result makes carbon farming a technology that is competitive with carbon capture and storage (CCS). In addition, high-resolution simulations using an advanced land-surface-atmosphere model indicate that a 10 000 km2 plantation could produce a reduction in mean surface temperature and an onset or increase in rain and dew fall at a regional level. In such areas, plant growth and CO2 storage could continue until permanent woodland or forest had been established. In other areas, salinization of the soil may limit plant growth to 2-3 decades whereupon irrigation could be ceased and the captured carbon stored as woody biomass.

  2. Sonographic measurements of low-echoic synovial area in the dorsal aspect of metatarsophalangeal joints in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Masao; Ikeda, Kei; Shigeta, Koichiro; Sato, Akito; Yoshitama, Tamami; Hara, Ryota; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of synovitis in the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints with ultrasound has been shown to improve the accuracy of assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the presence of intraarticular low-echoic synovial area (LESA) in the MTP joints in healthy subjects complicates the sonographic assessment of these joints. Healthy subjects with no arthritic symptoms in their MTP joints were recruited. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent physical examination and sonographic assessment. LESAs in the dorsal aspect of all MTP joints were measured in the longitudinal view. One thousand non-arthritic MTP joints in 100 healthy subjects (female 73, mean age 41.0 years old) were evaluated. Measurable LESAs were identified in all joints assessed. Mean length of LESA in each of the 1st-5th MTP joints was 17.8, 13.9, 11.9, 10.6, and 9.2 mm, respectively, whereas mean thickness was 2.4, 2.4, 1.8, 1.2, and 0.8 mm, respectively. Multivariate linear regression models identified the difference between 1st and 5th MTP joints as the most independently influential factor on the measurement of LESA. Our data provide the normal reference values for the measurements of LESA in Japanese, which should be taken into consideration when the synovitis in MTP joints is evaluated with ultrasound.

  3. Analysis of thickness and colour changes of medium carbon steel subjected to nickel electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, Poppy; Wahono, Dwiyana, Ressa Andita; Dika, Johan Wayan

    2017-09-01

    Electroplating is a process in which substances or metal ions precipitate on cathode through electrolysis. Metal plating itself has many purposes, such as corrosion resistance, shiny appearance, and aesthetic appeal. This study aimed at investigating the performance results of a series of simple electroplating processes using nickel as the coating material and medium carbon steel as the coated material. This paper is a report on the analysis results of several simple electroplating treatments using different temperatures of 45°C, 55°C, and 65°C, with a 5-minute immersion time and a voltage of 4 volts. The electroplating at 65°C resulted in the thickest deposit (8,6 μm), whereas the one at 45°C resulted in the thinnest deposit (5.6 μm). The higher the applied temperature, the higher the colour intensity of the result. The nickel electroplating with a temperature of 65°C produced the darkest deposit.

  4. Promotion of renewable energy to mitigate impact of heavy use of carbon energy on society and climate change in Central Sub-Saharan Africa remote areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa owns important renewable energy potential and is still heavily using carbon energy. This is having a negative impact on the climate and on the environment. Given the local cost of carbon energy, the purchase power of people, the availability and the reserve of carbon energy in the area, this resource is being heavily used. This practice is harmful to the climate and is also resulting on poor effort to promote renewable energy in remote areas. The important renewable energy potential is still suffering from poor development. The purpose of this paper is among other things aiming at showing the rate of carbon energy use and its potential impact on climate and environment. We will also ensure that the renewable energy resources of Central Sub-Saharan Africa are known and are subject to be used optimally to help mitigate climate change. After showing some negative impacts of carbon energy used in the area, the work also suggests actions to promote and sustain the development of renewable energy. Based on the knowledge of the Central African energy sector, this paper will identify actions for reduce access to carbon energy and improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure and the promotion of energy efficiency. We will show all type of carbon energy used, the potential for solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development. After a swot analysis of the situation, identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. Finally, suggestions will be made to help the region develop a vision aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon case study will be examined as illustration. Analysis will be made from data collected in the field. |End Text|

  5. Comparison of optic area measurement using fundus photography and optical coherence tomography between optic nerve head drusen and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Rodríguez, Patricia; Gili, Pablo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Grifol-Clar, Eulalia

    2013-03-01

    To compare optic disc area measurement between optic nerve head drusen (ONHD) and control subjects using fundus photography, time-domain optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). We also made a comparison between each of the three techniques. We performed our study on 66 eyes (66 patients) with ONHD and 70 healthy control subjects (70 controls) with colour ocular fundus photography at 20º (Zeiss FF 450 IR plus), TD-OCT (Stratus OCT) with the Fast Optic Disc protocol and SD-OCT (Cirrus OCT) with the Optic Disc Cube 200 × 200 protocol for measurement of the optic disc area. The measurements were made by two observers and in each measurement a correction of the image magnification factor was performed. Measurement comparison using the Student's t-test/Mann-Whitney U test, the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson/Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Bland-Altman plot was performed in the statistical analysis. Mean and standard deviation (SD) of the optic disc area in ONHD and in controls was 2.38 (0.54) mm(2) and 2.54 (0.42) mm(2), respectively with fundus photography; 2.01 (0.56) mm(2) and 1.66 (0.37) mm(2), respectively with TD-OCT, and 2.03 (0.49) mm(2) and 1.75 (0.38) mm(2), respectively with SD-OCT. In ONHD and controls, repeatability of optic disc area measurement was excellent with fundus photography and optical coherence tomography (TD-OCT and SD-OCT), but with a low degree of agreement between both techniques. Optic disc area measurement is smaller in ONHD compared to healthy subjects with fundus photography, unlike time-domain and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in which the reverse is true. Both techniques offer good repeatability, but a low degree of correlation and agreement, which means that optic disc area measurement is not interchangeable or comparable between techniques. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2013 The College of Optometrists.

  6. A synthesis method for cobalt doped carbon aerogels with high surface area and their hydrogen storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, H.Y.; Buckley, C.E. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, WA (Australia); CSIRO National Hydrogen Materials Alliance, CSIRO Energy Centre, 10 Murray Dwyer Circuit, Steel River Estate, Mayfield West, NSW 2304 (Australia); Sheppard, D.A.; Paskevicius, M. [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University of Technology, GPO Box U 1987, Perth 6845, WA (Australia); Hanna, N. [CSIRO Process Science and Engineering, Waterford, WA (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Carbon aerogels doped with nanoscaled Co particles were prepared by first coating activated carbon aerogels using a wet-thin layer coating process. The resulting metal-doped carbon aerogels had a higher surface area ({proportional_to}1667 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) and larger micropore volume ({proportional_to}0.6 cm{sup 3} g{sup -1}) than metal-doped carbon aerogels synthesised using other methods suggesting their usefulness in catalytic applications. The hydrogen adsorption behaviour of cobalt doped carbon aerogel was evaluated, displaying a high {proportional_to}4.38 wt.% H{sub 2} uptake under 4.6 MPa at -196 C. The hydrogen uptake capacity with respect to unit surface area was greater than for pure carbon aerogel and resulted in {proportional_to}1.3 H{sub 2} (wt. %) per 500 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. However, the total hydrogen uptake was slightly reduced as compared to pure carbon aerogel due to a small reduction in surface area associated with cobalt doping. The improved adsorption per unit surface area suggests that there is a stronger interaction between the hydrogen molecules and the cobalt doped carbon aerogel than for pure carbon aerogel. (author)

  7. Slip behaviour of carbonate-bearing faults subjected to fluid pressure stimulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collettini, Cristiano; Scuderi, Marco; Marone, Chris

    2017-04-01

    Earthquakes caused by fluid injection within reservoir have become an important topic of political and social discussion as new drilling and improved technologies enable the extraction of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. During reservoir stimulation, the coupled interactions of frictional and fluid flow properties together with the stress state control both the onset of fault slip and fault slip behaviour. However, currently, there are no studies under controlled, laboratory conditions for which the effect of fluid pressure on fault slip behaviour can be deduced. To cover this gap, we have developed laboratory experiments where we monitor fault slip evolution at constant shear stress but with increasing fluid pressure, i.e. reducing the effective normal stress. Experiments have been conducted in the double direct shear configuration within a pressure vessel on carbonate fault gouge, characterized by a slightly velocity strengthening friction that is indicative of stable aseismic creep. In our experiments fault slip history can be divided in three main stages: 1) for high effective normal stress the fault is locked and undergoes compaction; 2) when the shear and effective normal stress reach the failure condition, accelerated creep is associated to fault dilation; 3) further pressurization leads to an exponential acceleration during fault compaction and slip localization. Our results indicate that fault weakening induced by fluid pressurization overcomes the velocity strengthening behaviour of calcite gouge, resulting in fast acceleration and earthquake slip. As applied to tectonic faults our results suggest that a larger number of crustal faults, including those slightly velocity strengthening, can experience earthquake slip due to fluid pressurization.

  8. Mobility of toxic elements in carbonate sediments from a mining area in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Alvarez, Natalia; Głaz, Lukasz; Dmowski, Krzysztof; Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The Bolesław-Bukowno mining area in Poland is highly polluted by elements such as Zn, Pb, Cd and As. The reactivity and mobility of toxic elements such as Tl are poorly known. Here, we studied by sequential extraction the mobility of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Pb, Tl and Zn in sediments from two water reservoirs near Bukowno. Results show that available As, Co, Mn, Pb and Zn are found in carbonate minerals. Available Cd, Cu and Tl are found in sulphides and organic matter. The extractability of As, Cr, Mo and Tl was rather poor. By contrast, 85 % of total Cd, Pb and Zn was mobile. We discuss Tl and Mo association in carbonate sediments from ore deposits.

  9. Tree Diversity Enhances Stand Carbon Storage but Not Leaf Area in a Subtropical Forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Castro-Izaguirre

    Full Text Available Research about biodiversity-productivity relationships has focused on herbaceous ecosystems, with results from tree field studies only recently beginning to emerge. Also, the latter are concentrated largely in the temperate zone. Tree species diversity generally is much higher in subtropical and tropical than in temperate or boreal forests, with reasons not fully understood. Niche overlap and thus complementarity in the use of resources that support productivity may be lower in forests than in herbaceous ecosystems, suggesting weaker productivity responses to diversity change in forests. We studied stand basal area, vertical structure, leaf area, and their relationship with tree species richness in a subtropical forest in south-east China. Permanent forest plots of 30 x 30 m were selected to span largely independent gradients in tree species richness and secondary successional age. Plots with higher tree species richness had a higher stand basal area. Also, stand basal area increases over a 4-year census interval were larger at high than at low diversity. These effects translated into increased carbon stocks in aboveground phytomass (estimated using allometric equations. A higher variability in tree height in more diverse plots suggested that these effects were facilitated by denser canopy packing due to architectural complementarity between species. In contrast, leaf area was not or even negatively affected by tree diversity, indicating a decoupling of carbon accumulation from leaf area. Alternatively, the same community leaf area might have assimilated more C per time interval in more than in less diverse plots because of differences in leaf turnover and productivity or because of differences in the display of leaves in vertical and horizontal space. Overall, our study suggests that in species-rich forests niche-based processes support a positive diversity-productivity relationship and that this translates into increased carbon storage in long

  10. Tree Diversity Enhances Stand Carbon Storage but Not Leaf Area in a Subtropical Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Izaguirre, Nadia; Chi, Xiulian; Baruffol, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Ma, Keping; Schmid, Bernhard; Niklaus, Pascal A

    2016-01-01

    Research about biodiversity-productivity relationships has focused on herbaceous ecosystems, with results from tree field studies only recently beginning to emerge. Also, the latter are concentrated largely in the temperate zone. Tree species diversity generally is much higher in subtropical and tropical than in temperate or boreal forests, with reasons not fully understood. Niche overlap and thus complementarity in the use of resources that support productivity may be lower in forests than in herbaceous ecosystems, suggesting weaker productivity responses to diversity change in forests. We studied stand basal area, vertical structure, leaf area, and their relationship with tree species richness in a subtropical forest in south-east China. Permanent forest plots of 30 x 30 m were selected to span largely independent gradients in tree species richness and secondary successional age. Plots with higher tree species richness had a higher stand basal area. Also, stand basal area increases over a 4-year census interval were larger at high than at low diversity. These effects translated into increased carbon stocks in aboveground phytomass (estimated using allometric equations). A higher variability in tree height in more diverse plots suggested that these effects were facilitated by denser canopy packing due to architectural complementarity between species. In contrast, leaf area was not or even negatively affected by tree diversity, indicating a decoupling of carbon accumulation from leaf area. Alternatively, the same community leaf area might have assimilated more C per time interval in more than in less diverse plots because of differences in leaf turnover and productivity or because of differences in the display of leaves in vertical and horizontal space. Overall, our study suggests that in species-rich forests niche-based processes support a positive diversity-productivity relationship and that this translates into increased carbon storage in long-lived woody

  11. Buckling behaviors of cantilevered open-tip carbon nanocones subjected to transverse loading: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ming-Liang

    2017-11-01

    This study used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate buckling behaviors of cantilevered open-tip carbon nanocones (CNCs) subjected to transverse loading. Some interesting findings were attained in the study. The critical angles of the CNCs were observed to decrease with increases in the temperature, cone length, top diameter, and apex angle of the CNCs. While the critical loads of the CNCs were found to decrease with increasing temperature and cone length, they were noted to increase with enlargement of the top diameter and apex angle. The observed temperature effects were more evident as the cone length increased. In addition, each of the studied CNCs exhibited a near-bottom-indented buckling morphology at the examined temperatures, which is quite different from a top-center-indented buckling morphology of an open-tip CNC under pure bending. Accordingly, these results may provide beneficial information to the designs of ultra-sensitive mass detectors using CNCs.

  12. Fourier power, subjective distance and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Daniel Lescroart

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA, Retrosplenial Complex (RSC, and the Occipital Place Area (OPA. It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1 2D features related to Fourier power; (2 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3 abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1,386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue.

  13. Fourier power, subjective distance, and object categories all provide plausible models of BOLD responses in scene-selective visual areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescroart, Mark D.; Stansbury, Dustin E.; Gallant, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    Perception of natural visual scenes activates several functional areas in the human brain, including the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA), Retrosplenial Complex (RSC), and the Occipital Place Area (OPA). It is currently unclear what specific scene-related features are represented in these areas. Previous studies have suggested that PPA, RSC, and/or OPA might represent at least three qualitatively different classes of features: (1) 2D features related to Fourier power; (2) 3D spatial features such as the distance to objects in a scene; or (3) abstract features such as the categories of objects in a scene. To determine which of these hypotheses best describes the visual representation in scene-selective areas, we applied voxel-wise modeling (VM) to BOLD fMRI responses elicited by a set of 1386 images of natural scenes. VM provides an efficient method for testing competing hypotheses by comparing predictions of brain activity based on encoding models that instantiate each hypothesis. Here we evaluated three different encoding models that instantiate each of the three hypotheses listed above. We used linear regression to fit each encoding model to the fMRI data recorded from each voxel, and we evaluated each fit model by estimating the amount of variance it predicted in a withheld portion of the data set. We found that voxel-wise models based on Fourier power or the subjective distance to objects in each scene predicted much of the variance predicted by a model based on object categories. Furthermore, the response variance explained by these three models is largely shared, and the individual models explain little unique variance in responses. Based on an evaluation of previous studies and the data we present here, we conclude that there is currently no good basis to favor any one of the three alternative hypotheses about visual representation in scene-selective areas. We offer suggestions for further studies that may help resolve this issue. PMID:26594164

  14. Hydrothermally fluoritized Ordovician carbonates as reservoir rocks in the Tazhong area, central Tarim Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhijun Jin; Dongya Zhu [Exploration and Production Institute, Beijing (China); Xuefeng Zhang; Wenxuan Hu; Yucai Song [Nanjing University (China). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    2006-01-15

    Reservoir rocks at the Tazhong 45 oil pool, central Tarim Basin, consist of fluoritized carbonate strata of Middle-Late Ordovician age. Petrological observations indicate that the fluorite replaces calcite. Several other hydrothermal minerals accompany the fluorite and include pyrite, quartz, sphalerite and chlorite. Two generations of fluid inclusions are present in the fluorite. Homogenization temperatures (Th) for primary inclusions are mostly between 260{sup o}C and 310{sup o}C, representing the temperature of the hydrothermal fluid responsible for fluorite precipitation. Th for secondary inclusions range from 100{sup o}C to 130{sup o}C, and they represent the hydrocarbon charging temperature as shown by the presence of hydrocarbons trapped in some secondary inclusions. The mineral assemblage and the homogenization temperatures of primary fluid inclusions indicate that the precipitation of fluorite is related to hydrothermal activity in the Tazhong area. Strontium isotope analyses imply that the hydrothermal fluids responsible for fluorite precipitation are related to late-stage magmatic activity, and felsic magmas were generated by mixing of mafic magma and crustal materials during the Permian. Theoretical calculations show that the molecular volume of a carbonate rock decreases by 33.5% when calcite is replaced by fluorite, and the volume shrinkage can greatly enhance reservoir porosity by the formation of abundant intercrystalline pores. Fluoritization has thus greatly enhanced the reservoir quality of Ordovician carbonates in the Tazhong 45 area, so that the fluorite and limestone host rocks in the area have become an efficient hydrocarbon reservoir. According to the modelled burial and thermal history of the Tazhong 45 well, and the homogenization temperatures of secondary fluid inclusions in the fluorite, hydrocarbon charging at the Tazhong 45 reservoir took place in the Tertiary. (author)

  15. Geographic overlaps between priority areas for forest carbon-storage efforts and those for delivering peacebuilding programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Augusto Carlos Castro; Mertz, Ole; Sosa, Chrystian C.

    2017-01-01

    carbon and three conflict-related variables suggest that such interactions may exist. Nonetheless, while priority areas for carbon-focused conservation are presumably those at highest risks of deforestation, our research indicates that forests with lower risk of deforestation are typically those affected...

  16. Sediment Properties as Important Predictors of Carbon Storage in Zostera marina Meadows: A Comparison of Four European Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Dahl

    Full Text Available Seagrass ecosystems are important natural carbon sinks but their efficiency varies greatly depending on species composition and environmental conditions. What causes this variation is not fully known and could have important implications for management and protection of the seagrass habitat to continue to act as a natural carbon sink. Here, we assessed sedimentary organic carbon in Zostera marina meadows (and adjacent unvegetated sediment in four distinct areas of Europe (Gullmar Fjord on the Swedish Skagerrak coast, Askö in the Baltic Sea, Sozopol in the Black Sea and Ria Formosa in southern Portugal down to ~35 cm depth. We also tested how sedimentary organic carbon in Z. marina meadows relates to different sediment characteristics, a range of seagrass-associated variables and water depth. The seagrass carbon storage varied greatly among areas, with an average organic carbon content ranging from 2.79 ± 0.50% in the Gullmar Fjord to 0.17 ± 0.02% in the area of Sozopol. We found that a high proportion of fine grain size, high porosity and low density of the sediment is strongly related to high carbon content in Z. marina sediment. We suggest that sediment properties should be included as an important factor when evaluating high priority areas in management of Z. marina generated carbon sinks.

  17. Increase of porosity by combining semi-carbonization and KOH activation of formaldehyde resins to prepare high surface area carbons for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimböckel, Ruben; Kraas, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Frank; Fröba, Michael

    2018-01-01

    A series of porous carbon samples were prepared by combining a semi-carbonization process of acidic polymerized phenol-formaldehyde resins and a following chemical activation with KOH used in different ratios to increase specific surface area, micropore content and pore sizes of the carbons which is favourable for supercapacitor applications. Samples were characterized by nitrogen physisorption, powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the amount of KOH, combined with the semi-carbonization step had a remarkable effect on the specific surface area (up to SBET: 3595 m2 g-1 and SDFT: 2551 m2 g-1), pore volume (0.60-2.62 cm3 g-1) and pore sizes (up to 3.5 nm). The carbons were tested as electrode materials for electrochemical double layer capacitors (EDLC) in a two electrode setup with tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile as electrolyte. The prepared carbon material with the largest surface area, pore volume and pore sizes exhibits a high specific capacitance of 145.1 F g-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. With a high specific energy of 31 W h kg-1 at a power density of 33028 W kg-1 and a short time relaxation constant of 0.29 s, the carbon showed high power capability as an EDLC electrode material.

  18. Large-area thin self-supporting carbon foils with MgO coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarz, A

    2002-01-01

    Large area self-supporting carbon foils in the thickness of range of 8-22 mu g/cm sup 2 , coated with approximately 4 mu g/cm sup 2 MgO have been prepared by e-gun evaporation. They were mounted on frames with apertures of 130 cm sup 2. Problems related to the parting agent preparation, floating procedure, and mounting onto frames are discussed. Special precautions necessary to avoid damage during foil drying, storage and transportation are suggested.

  19. Assessment of Carbon Status in Marine Protected Area of Payung Island Waters, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto; Fitri Agustriani

    2017-01-01

    CO2 is a greenhouse gas that receive more attention than the other gases because the properties of carbon easily deformed and diffuseed. Changes in the concentration of CO2 in the water will impact on changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that affect sea surface temperatures. It continuously will result in a change of marine capture fisheries. Payung Island is one of the important areas in South Sumatra that acts as the provider of the fishery. This because Payung Island is located i...

  20. Mobility of toxic elements in carbonate sediments from a mining area in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ospina-Alvarez, N.; et al

    2014-01-01

    The Bolesław–Bukowno mining area in Poland is highly polluted by elements such as Zn, Pb, Cd and As. The reactivity and mobility of toxic elements such as Tl are poorly known. Here, we studied by sequential extraction the mobility of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, Pb, Tl and Zn in sediments from two water reservoirs near Bukowno. Results show that available As, Co, Mn, Pb and Zn are found in carbonate minerals. Available Cd, Cu and Tl are found in sulphides and organic matter. The extractability...

  1. Intra-Rater Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging for Multifidus Muscles Thickness and Cross Section Area in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifar, Mohammad; Akbari, Asghar; Ghiasi, Fateme

    2015-07-07

    Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) must be valuable method for research and rehabilitation. So, the reliability of its measurements must be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability of RUSI for measurement of multifidus (MF) muscles cross section areas (CSAs), bladder wall diameter, and thickness of MF muscles between 2 sessions in healthy subjects. Fifteen healthy subjects through simple non-probability sampling participated in this single-group repeated-measures reliability study. MF muscles thickness at rest and during contraction, MF muscles CSAs at rest, and bladder diameters at rest and during pelvic floor muscles (PFM) contraction were measured through RUSI. Pearson's correlation coefficient test was used to determine intra-rater reliability of variables. The results showed that intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs) values with 95% confidence interval (CI) and the standard error of the measurement (SEM) were good to excellent agreement for a single investigator between measurement occasions. The intra-rater reliability for the bladder wall displacement was high (ICCs for rest and PFM contraction state: 0.96 and 0.95 respectively), for the MF muscles CSAs at the L4 level was good to high (ICCs 0.75 and 0.91 for right (Rt) and left (Lt) side respectively), and for the thickness of MF muscles at two levels, at rest and during two tasks was moderate to high (ICCs: 0.64 to 0.87). The Trans-Abdominal (TA) method of RUSI is a reliable method to quantify the PFM contraction in healthy subjects. Also, the RUSI is a reliable method to measure the MF muscles CSAs, the MF muscles thickness at rest and during functional tasks in healthy subjects.

  2. Characterization and use of high surface area activated carbons prepared from cane pith for liquid-phase adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, R.-L. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China) and Department of Safety, Health and Environmental Engineering, National United University, Miao-Li 360, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: trl@nuu.edu.tw; Tseng, S.-K. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan (China)

    2006-08-25

    Carbonaceous adsorbents with controllable surface areas were chemically activated with KOH at 780 deg. C from char that had been carbonized from cane pith at 450 deg. C. The pore properties including the BET surface area, pore volume, pore size distribution, and mean pore diameter of these activated carbons were characterized and derived using the t-plot method based on N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. The activated cane pith carbons, with KOH/char ratios of 2-6, exhibited BET surface areas ranging from 912 to 2299 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) observations revealed that the surface morphology of honeycombed holes on all activated cane pith carbons was significantly influenced by the KOH/char ratio. The adsorption kinetics and equilibrium isotherms of acid blue 74, methylene blue, basic brown 1, p-nitrophenol, p-chlorophenol, p-cresol, and phenol from water at 30 deg. C on the activated carbons were studied. The adsorption kinetics were suitably described by a simplified kinetic model, the Elovich equation. All adsorption equilibrium isotherms were in agreement with the Langmuir equation, and were used to compare the covered area (S {sub c}/S {sub p}) of the activated carbons at different KOH/char ratios. The high-surface-area activated carbons were proven to be promising adsorbents for pollution control and for other applications.

  3. Energy storage on ultrahigh surface area activated carbon fibers derived from PMIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Muñiz, Alberto; Suárez-García, Fabián; Martínez-Alonso, Amelia; Tascón, Juan M D; Kyotani, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    High-performance carbon materials for energy storage applications have been obtained by using poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide), PMIA, as a precursor through the chemical activation of the carbonized aramid fiber by using KOH. The yield of the process of activation was remarkably high (25-40 wt%), resulting in activated carbon fibers (ACFs) with ultrahigh surface areas, over 3000 m(2) g(-1) , and pore volumes exceeding 1.50 cm(3) g(-1) , keeping intact the fibrous morphology. The porous structure and the surface chemical properties could easily be controlled through the conditions of activation. The PMIA-derived ACFs were tested in two types of energy storage applications. At -196 °C and 1 bar, H2 uptake values of approximately 3 t% were obtained, which, in combination with the textural properties, rendered it a good candidate for H2 adsorption at high pressure and temperature. The performance of the ACFs as electrodes for electrochemical supercapacitors was also investigated. Specific capacitance values between 297 and 531 g(-1) at 50 mA g(-1) were obtained in aqueous electrolyte (1 H2 SO4 ), showing different behaviors depending on the surface chemical properties. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. High-surface-area carbon molecular sieves for selective CO(2) adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahby, Anass; Ramos-Fernández, José M; Martínez-Escandell, Manuel; Sepúlveda-Escribano, Antonio; Silvestre-Albero, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Reinoso, Francisco

    2010-08-23

    A series of carbon molecular sieves (CMSs) has been prepared, either as powders or monoliths, from petroleum pitch using potassium hydroxide as the activating agent. The CMS monoliths are prepared without the use of a binder based on the self-sintering ability of the mesophase pitch. Characterization results show that these CMSs combine a large apparent surface area (up to ca. 3100 m(2) g(-1)) together with a well-developed narrow microporosity (V(n) up to ca. 1.4 cm(3) g(-1)). The materials exhibit high adsorption capacities for CO(2) at 1 bar and 273 K (up to ca. 380 mg CO(2) g sorbent(-1)). To our knowledge, this is the best result obtained for CO(2) adsorption using carbon-based materials. Furthermore, although the CO(2) adsorption capacity for activated carbons has usually been considered lower than that of zeolites, the reported values exceed the total amount adsorbed on traditional 13X and 5A zeolites (ca. 230 mg and 180 mg CO(2) g sorbent(-1), respectively), under identical experimental conditions. Additionally, the narrow pore openings found in the CMS samples (ca. 0.4 nm) allows for the selective adsorption of CO(2) from molecules of similar dimensions (e.g., CH(4) and N(2)).

  5. Effects of different soil types in natural Mediterranean areas on soil organic carbon (SOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requejo Silva, Ana; Lozano García, Beatriz; Parras Alcántara, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Effects of different soil types in natural Mediterranean areas on soil organic carbon (SOC) Ana Requejo1, Beatriz Lozano-García1, Luis Parras Alcántara1 1 Department of Agricultural Chemistry and Soil Science, Faculty of Science, Agrifood Campus of International Excellence - ceiA3, University of Córdoba, Spain. The carbon content of the atmosphere can be influenced by soils, since they can store carbon or emit large quantities of CO2. C sequestration into soils is one of the most important ecosystems services because of its role in climate regulation (IPPC, 2007). Thereof, agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can contribute to C sequestration through photosynthesis and its carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras Alcántara et al., 2013). Dehesa is a multifunctional agro-sylvo-pastoral system and typical landscape of southern and central Spain and southern Portugal. It is an anthropogenic system dedicated to the combined production of black iberian pigs, a variety of foods, fuel, coal, and cork. Besides, it acts as well in the production of endangered species as wildlife habitat and as sustainable hunting areas. These dehesa areas are defined by a relationship between productivity and conservation of forest oaks, providing environmental benefits such as carbon capture and storage. The area focused in this study is the Cardeña-Montoro Nature Reserve, located within the Sierra Morena (Córdoba, South Spain). The most representative soils in Cardeña-Montoro Nature Reserve are Cambisols, Regosols, Leptosols and Fluvisols according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006). They are characterized by a low fertility, poor physical conditions and marginal capacity for agricultural use, along with low organic matter content due to climate conditions (semiarid Mediterranean climate) and soil texture (sandy). Several studies have shown that land use affects the SOC concentration (Lozano-García et al., 2016; Khaledian et al., 2016). Based on this

  6. Carbon dioxide fluxes dynamics comparison in Moscow urban forest and adjacent urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavtsev, Alexis; Meshalkina, Joulia; Mazirov, Ilya; Vasenev, Ivan

    2017-04-01

    In the beginning of the 2014 in northern district of Moscow was installed eddy covariance tower on the edge of Timiryazevskiy urban forest and Timiryazevskiy district of Moscow. Tower 34m high was constructed inside the territory of LOD (Lesnaya Opytnaya Dacha) experimental station in the south-eastern part of the forest. Main tree species of urban forest and neighboring urban areas are Acer Plantanoides, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula, Quercus robur, Pinus sylvestris. Forest itself is mixed with some small plots dominated only by deciduous or coniferous species, whether trees in urban areas was mainly deciduous. Mean canopy height is about 30m. in both forest and urban areas. The soil cover of the studied sections is represented by sod-podzolic soils with different degree of development of the humus horizon. All soils have well-developed profile of sod-podzolic soil with low power litter (only in forest area) and developed humus-accumulative horizon with high humus content (3,24%) Carbon dioxide daily fluxes from investigated area was calculated for six months of 2014 (from April till October) utilizing eddy covariance method. Most (90%) of fluxes footprints was no longer than 500m for all wind directions during the time of monitoring. Forest in 500m radius around tower is a zone of active recreation with several roads and wide path network. On the other hand closest to tower urban area characterized by a low-rise buildings (in most cases no more than 5 floors) which are mainly administration ones and have wide green areas around them very few roads and low traffic. As a result difference in calculated fluxes was not so dramatic, as it was expected. Diurnal carbon dioxide fluxes dynamics was pretty the same for all months except August, due to long period without precipitation and higher soil moisture under the forest canopy. Estimated daily fluxes values was higher in forest areas for the whole period of investigation, except August, and ranged from -2 to 8 g C CO

  7. [Simulation of water and carbon fluxes in harvard forest area based on data assimilation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Long; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Model simulation and in situ observation are the two most important means in studying the water and carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, but have their own advantages and shortcomings. To combine these two means would help to reflect the dynamic changes of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes more accurately. Data assimilation provides an effective way to integrate the model simulation and in situ observation. Based on the observation data from the Harvard Forest Environmental Monitoring Site (EMS), and by using ensemble Kalman Filter algorithm, this paper assimilated the field measured LAI and remote sensing LAI into the Biome-BGC model to simulate the water and carbon fluxes in Harvard forest area. As compared with the original model simulated without data assimilation, the improved Biome-BGC model with the assimilation of the field measured LAI in 1998, 1999, and 2006 increased the coefficient of determination R2 between model simulation and flux observation for the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration by 8.4% and 10.6%, decreased the sum of absolute error (SAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of NEE by 17.7% and 21.2%, and decreased the SAE and RMSE of the evapotranspiration by 26. 8% and 28.3%, respectively. After assimilated the MODIS LAI products of 2000-2004 into the improved Biome-BGC model, the R2 between simulated and observed results of NEE and evapotranspiration was increased by 7.8% and 4.7%, the SAE and RMSE of NEE were decreased by 21.9% and 26.3%, and the SAE and RMSE of evapotranspiration were decreased by 24.5% and 25.5%, respectively. It was suggested that the simulation accuracy of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes could be effectively improved if the field measured LAI or remote sensing LAI was integrated into the model.

  8. Topography effect on soil organic carbon pool in Mediterranean natural areas (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozan-García, Beatriz; Galán-Espejo, Arantxa

    2014-05-01

    quantify the relationships between topographical parameters and soil properties. Researchers suggested some promising indicators such as pH, organic matter, exchangeable cations, total exchangeable basis, ratio of primary to secondary minerals, free oxides, carbonates and physical properties such as, particle size distribution, moisture content, color, bulk density and depth to specific horizon. If we considered SOC and TN how indicators of soil quality it is necessary to explain the relationship between the soil properties and topographic position, furthermore, is necessary establish indicator of the soil quality. In this regard, the stratification ratio (SR) is the most used. Soil development in this region is genetically complicated by three important soil forming factors: relief, fragility of this environment and absence of good vegetation (erosion by water) and the use and management (CT). Very little literature is published on soil variability and its relationship with topographic positions within such fragile environment. There are few reports on stratification of the SOC, TN and C:N ratio as affected by topography in natural areas. In this context, the objectives of this study were; assess the SOC in the soils, its vertical distribution in the profile and analyze the accumulation and SR of SOC along a topographic gradient and their relationship to soil depth in arid Mediterranean climate in Spain.

  9. High-surface-area nanoporous boron carbon nitrides for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portehault, David; Giordano, Cristina; Antonietti, Markus [Max-Planck-Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Department of Colloid Chemistry Research, Potsdam (Germany); Gervais, Christel; Sanchez, Clement [UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7574 Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Paris, College de France, Paris (France); Senkovska, Irena; Kaskel, Stefan [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Technology, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-06-09

    Nano- and mesoporous boron carbon nitrides with very high surface areas up to 1560 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} are obtained by pyrolysis of a graphitic carbon nitride mpg-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} infiltrated with a borane complex. This reactive hard-templating approach provides easy composition and texture tuning by temperature adjustment between 800 and 1400 C. The process yields B{sub x}C{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub v}H{sub w} materials as direct copies of the initial template with controlled compositions of 0.15{<=}x{<=}0.36, 0.10{<=}y{<=}0.12, 0.14{<=}z{<=}0.32, and 0.11{<=}v{<=}0.28. The nano and mesoporosities can also be tuned in order to provide hierarchical materials with specific surface areas ranging from 610 to 1560 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. Such high values, coupled with resistance against air oxidation up to 700 C, suggest potential materials for gas storage and as catalyst supports. Indeed, it is demonstrated that these compounds exhibit high and tunable H{sub 2} uptakes from 0.55 to 1.07 wt.% at 77 K and 1 bar, thus guiding further search of materials for hydrogen storage. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Low-Surface-Area Hard Carbon Anode for Na-Ion Batteries via Graphene Oxide as a Dehydration Agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, W; Bommier, C; Jian, ZL; Li, X; Carter, R; Vail, S; Lu, YH; Lee, JJ; Ji, XL

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m(2)/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burnoff of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. The obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.

  11. Low-surface-area hard carbon anode for na-ion batteries via graphene oxide as a dehydration agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Bommier, Clement; Jian, Zelang; Li, Xin; Carter, Rich; Vail, Sean; Lu, Yuhao; Lee, Jong-Jan; Ji, Xiulei

    2015-02-04

    Na-ion batteries are emerging as one of the most promising energy storage technologies, particularly for grid-level applications. Among anode candidate materials, hard carbon is very attractive due to its high capacity and low cost. However, hard carbon anodes often suffer a low first-cycle Coulombic efficiency and fast capacity fading. In this study, we discover that doping graphene oxide into sucrose, the precursor for hard carbon, can effectively reduce the specific surface area of hard carbon to as low as 5.4 m(2)/g. We further reveal that such doping can effectively prevent foaming during caramelization of sucrose and extend the pyrolysis burnoff of sucrose caramel over a wider temperature range. The obtained low-surface-area hard carbon greatly improves the first-cycle Coulombic efficiency from 74% to 83% and delivers a very stable cyclic life with 95% of capacity retention after 200 cycles.

  12. Interval estimation for the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve when data are subject to error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanhong; Koval, John J; Donner, Allan; Zou, G Y

    2010-10-30

    The area (A) under the receiver operating characteristic curve is commonly used to quantify the ability of a biomarker to correctly classify individuals into two populations. However, many markers are subject to measurement error, which must be accounted for to prevent understating their effectiveness. In this paper, we develop a new confidence interval procedure for A which is adjusted for measurement error using either external or internal replicated measurements. Based on the observation that A is a function of normal means and variances, we develop the procedure by recovering variance estimates needed from confidence limits for normal means and variances. Simulation results show that the procedure performs better than the previous ones based on the delta-method in terms of coverage percentage, balance of tail errors and interval width. Two examples are presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A case study of full integration of the arts into core subject area instruction in one East Texas secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leysath, Maggie

    This exploratory phenomenological case study investigated the influence the full integration of the arts into core subject instruction has on classroom environment, student academic achievement, and student engagement as perceived by administrators, teachers, and students in one East Texas secondary school. Participant interviews were analyzed using Creswell's (2012) six-step method for analyzing phenomenological studies. The researcher implemented three learning activities in which ceramics learning objectives were fully integrated with chemistry learning objectives. The first activity combined clay properties and pottery wheel throwing with significant numbers. The second activity combined glaze formulation with moles. The third combined stoichiometry with the increased glaze formula for students to glaze the bowls they made. Findings suggest the full integration of art in core subject area instruction has numerous positive effects. Participants reported improved academic achievement for all students including reluctant learners. Students, teachers, and the administrator reported greater participation in the art integrated activities. Participants perceived a need for further training for teachers and administrators for greater success.

  14. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Timonen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI. The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples (particle aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm, PM1. Gravimetric mass concentration varied during the MOUDI samplings between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m−3 and the WSOC concentrations were between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m−3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6 to convert the analyzed carbon mass to organic matter mass comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1–10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1–10 aerosol mass.

    Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas. Categories were identified mainly using levoglucosan concentration level for wood combustion and air mass backward trajectories for other groups. Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely

  15. Near surface carbon dioxide within the urban area of Essen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Sascha; Kuttler, Wilhelm

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the allocation between carbon dioxide concentrations, by mobile measurements at 1.5 m a.g.l., within the urban canopy layer regarding different conditions: anticyclonic and cyclonic weather situations, on weekdays, at different times of the day and in different seasons. During winter 2002/2003 (December-February) and summer 2003 (June-August) 20 high frequency spatial and temporal mobile measurements of carbon dioxide were taken in the city of Essen (51° 28‧N, 7° 0‧E, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany). The route of the taken measurements started in the southern part of the city and ended after 63 km in the north of Essen, considering all different kinds of its land utilization. The contribution of motor vehicles to the carbon dioxide concentration was being determined by calculating the relation of carbon dioxide to other atmospheric substances, such as CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3. All atmospheric substances were captured at the same time and height with a measurement frequency of 1 Hz and a maximum travel speed of 30 km h -1 (8 m s -1). The results of each mobile measurement were condensed to average values for homogeneous route sections. This facilitated a comparison of the urban CO 2 concentration between the CO 2-data of a rural station and the results of a base line station maintained by the Federal Environmental Agency (UBA). With assistance of different statistical methods it was possible to testify that the determined CO 2-data are representative for the situation of the air quality in the city of Essen. The results of this investigation have shown that it is neither generally possible to describe the urban area as a permanent anthropogenic source for CO 2 nor to call it an urban CO 2 dome as it is often mentioned in literature (e.g. Idso et al., 1998, 2001). A comparison of the carbon dioxide mixing ratio of the city of Essen and the rural station, maintained by the Dept. of Applied Climatology and Landscape

  16. CO2-rich geothermal areas in Iceland as natural analogues for geologic carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.; Maher, K.; Bird, D. K.; Brown, G. E.; Arnorsson, S.

    2013-12-01

    Geologic CO2 sequestration into mafic rocks via silicate mineral dissolution and carbonate precipitation has been suggested as a way to mitigate industrial CO2 emissions by storing CO2 in a stable form. Experimental observations of irreversible reaction of basalt with supercritical or gaseous and aqueous CO2 have resulted in carbonate precipitation, but there are no universal trends linking the extent of mineralization and type of reaction products to the bulk rock composition, glass percentage or mineralogy of the starting material. Additionally, concern exists that CO2 leakage from injection sites and migration through the subsurface may induce mineral dissolution and desorption of trace elements, potentially contaminating groundwater. This study investigates low-temperature (≤180°C) basaltic geothermal areas in Iceland with an anomalously high input of magmatic CO2 as natural analogues of the geochemical processes associated with the injection of CO2 into mafic rocks and possible leakage. Fluids that contain >4 mmol/kg total CO2 are common along the divergent Snæfellsnes Volcanic Zone in western Iceland and within the South Iceland Seismic Zone in southwest Iceland. The meteorically derived waters contain up to 80 mmol/kg dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC). The aqueous concentration of major cations and trace elements is greater than that in Icelandic surface and groundwater and increases with DIC and decreasing pH. Concentrations of As and Ni in some samples are several times the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for safe drinking water. Thermodynamic modeling indicates that waters approach saturation with respect to calcite and/or aragonite, kaolinite and amorphous silica, and are undersaturated with respect to plagioclase feldspar, clinozoisite and Ca-zeolites. Petrographic study of drill cuttings from wells that intersect the CO2-rich areas indicates that the sites have undergone at least two stages of hydrothermal alteration: initial high

  17. Western Sicily (Italy), a key area for understanding geothermal system within carbonate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, D.; Bertini, G.; Botteghi, S.; Catalano, R.; Contino, A.; Doveri, M.; Gennaro, C.; Gianelli, G.; Gola, G.; Manzella, A.; Minissale, A.; Montegrossi, G.; Monteleone, S.; Trumpy, E.

    2012-12-01

    Oil exploration in western Sicily started in the late 1950s when several exploration wells were drilled, and continued with the acquisition of many seismic reflection profiles and the drilling of new wells in the1980s. The geological interpretation of these data mainly provided new insights for the definition of geometric relationships between tectonic units and structural reconstruction at depth. Although it has not produced completely satisfactory results for oil industry, this hydrocarbon exploration provided a great amount of data, resulting very suitable for geothermal resource assessment. From a geothermal point of view western Sicily is, indeed, a very promising area, with the manifestation at surface of several thermal springs, localized areas of high heat flux and thick carbonates units uninterruptedly developing from surface up top great depths. These available data were often collected with the modalities and purposes typical of oil exploration, not always the finest for geothermal exploration as in the case of temperature measurements. The multidisciplinary and integrated review of these data, specifically corrected for geothermal purposes, and the integration with new data acquired in particular key areas such as the Mazara Del Vallo site in the southern part of western Sicily, allowed us to better understand this medium-enthalpy geothermal system, to reconstruct the modalities and peculiarities of fluids circulation, and to evaluate the geothermal potentialities of western Sicily. We suggest that western Sicily can be taken as a reference for the understanding of geothermal systems developed at a regional scale within carbonate rocks. This study was performed within the framework of the VIGOR project (http://www.vigor-geotermia.it).

  18. Impact of vegetation types on soil organic carbon stocks SOC-S in Mediterranean natural areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Cantudo-Pérez, Marta

    2015-04-01

    Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle because they can either emit large quantities of CO2 or on the contrary they can act as a store for carbon. Agriculture and forestry are the only activities that can achieve this effect through photosynthesis and the carbon incorporation into carbohydrates (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2013). The Mediterranean evergreen oak Woodland (MEOW - dehesa) is a type of pasture with scattered evergreen and deciduous oak stands in which cereals are often grown under the tree cover. It is a system dedicated to the combined production of Iberian swine, sheep, fuel wood, coal and cork as well as to hunting. These semi-natural areas still preserve some of the primitive vegetation of the Mediterranean oak forests. The dehesa is a pasture where the herbaceous layer is comprised of either cultivated cereals such as oat, barley and wheat or native vegetation dominated by annual species, which are used as grazing resources. These Iberian open woodland rangelands (dehesas) have been studied from different points of view: hydrologically, with respect to soil organic matter content, as well as in relation to gully erosion, topographical thresholds, soil erosion and runoff production, soil degradation and management practices…etc, among others. The soil organic carbon stock capacity depends not only on abiotic factors such as the mineralogical composition and the climate, but also on soil use and management (Parras et al., 2014 and 2015). In Spanish soils, climate, use and management strongly affect the carbon variability, mainly in soils in dry Mediterranean climates characterized by low organic carbon content, weak structure and readily degradable soils. Hontoria et al. (2004) emphasized that the climate and soil use are two factors that greatly influence carbon content in the Mediterranean climate. This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability in MEOW - dehesa with cereals, olive grove and Mediterranean oak forest

  19. The response of teachers to new subject areas in a national science curriculum: The case of the earth science component

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2001-11-01

    The National Curriculum for Science (NCS) introduced to schools in England and Wales in 1989 contained an earth science component that was new to many secondary science teachers. Ten years after this introduction, a survey was undertaken to test teacher perception of the effectiveness of their teaching in this subject area that was new to them, and to identify factors that might affect this effectiveness. The information gained has been used in reviewing possible curriculum changes and in developing professional development strategies that would improve the effectiveness of NCS earth science teaching. The data collected from science teachers who are currently teaching this earth science component revealed that their background knowledge of earth science from their own education was generally poor, even though most of them considered their knowledge to be moderate. The teachers indicated that the achievement of their pupils in earth science is moderate, while reports on national testing show it is poor. They reported that their main sources of earth science knowledge and understanding were science textbooks written for 11- to 16-year-old pupils (with their small earth science content of variable quality) and science colleagues (who often have poor earth science backgrounds too). Most teachers indicated that they needed more support in this area. Overall, the data indicated that while teachers consider their teaching in this area to be moderate, other evidence suggests it is poor. If this situation is not to continue it should be addressed. In the longer term the emphasis on the earth science content of the National Science Curriculum could be changed (either enhanced or reduced) within larger scale curriculum changes. Until such curriculum change takes place, effective methods of professional development should be instituted so that teachers have a much improved basis on which to build their earth science teaching. Similar measures would be necessary in other

  20. [Spatial heterogeneity of soil organic carbon and nutrients in low mountain area of Changbai Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Hai-Yan; Dai, Wei; Yang, Xiao-Iuan; Li, Xu

    2014-09-01

    Soil samples were collected in Jincang Forest Farm, Wangqing Forestry Bureau to study spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrients. Geostatistics was used to predict their spatial distribution in the study area, and the prediction results were interpolated using regression-kriging and ordinary kriging. Multiple linear regression was used to study the relationship between SOC and spatial factors. The results showed the SOC density (SOCD) at 0-60 cm was (16.14 ± 4.58) kg · m(-2). Soil organic carbon decreased significantly with the soil depth. With the increasing soil depth, total N, total P, total K, available P and readily available K concentrations decreased. Stepwise regression analysis showed that SOC had good correlation with elevation and cosine of aspect, with the determination coefficient of 0.34 and 0.39, respectively (P model and exponential model. Compared with ordinary kriging, the prediction accuracy was improved by 18%-58% using regression-kriging. Regression-kriging interpolation was also applied to study spatial heterogeneity of soil total N.

  1. Cross-fault pressure depletion, Zechstein carbonate reservoir, Weser-Ems area, Northern German Gas Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, F.V.; Brauckmann, F.; Beckmann, H.; Gobi, A.; Grassmann, S.; Neble, J.; Roettgen, K. [ExxonMobil Production Deutschland GmbH (EMPG), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    A cross-fault pressure depletion study in Upper Permian Zechstein Ca2 carbonate reservoir was undertaken in the Weser-Ems area of the Northern German Gas Basin. The primary objectives are to develop a practical workflow to define cross-fault pressures scenarios for Zechstein Ca2 reservoir drillwells, to determine the key factors of cross-fault pressure behavior in this platform carbonate reservoir, and to translate the observed cross-fault pressure depletion to fault transmissibility for reservoir simulation models. Analysis of Zechstein Ca2 cross-fault pressures indicates that most Zechstein-cutting faults appear to act as fluid-flow baffles with some local occurrences of fault seal. Moreover, there appears to be distinct cross-fault baffling or pressure depletion trends that may be related to the extent of the separating fault or fault system, degree of reservoir flow-path tortuosity, and quality of reservoir juxtaposition. Based on the above observations, a three-part workflow was developed consisting of (1) careful interpretation and mapping of faults and fault networks, (2) analysis of reservoir juxtaposition and reservoir juxtaposition quality, and (3) application of the observed cross-fault pressure depletion trends. This approach is field-analog based, is practical, and is being used currently to provide reliable and supportable pressure prediction scenarios for subsequent Zechstein fault-bounded drill-well opportunities.

  2. The Measurement of Relevance Amount of Documents That By Using of Google cross-language retrieval About Agriculture Subject Area are Retrieved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved. For this purpose, by using Persian journals articles that have had English abstracts, Persian phrases and subject terms with their English equivalent were extracted. In three class us, thirty number of phrases and subject terms of agriculture area were extracted: First class, subject phrases that only in agriculture are used; Secondary, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too; Third class, agriculture subject terms that out of this field are considered as public term. Then by these phrases and terms, documents were searched, and relevance amount of search results are investigated. Results of study showed that google cross-language retrieval tools for two classes of phrases and terms, in cross-language retrieval of relevance document about agriculture subject area, aren`t succeed: one class, agriculture subject terms that in other fields are used too. other class, agriculture subject terms that out of agriculture field are considered as public term. Google cross-language retrieval tools about subject phrase and terms that only in agriculture field are used, are performance rather desirable than other two class of phrase and terms

  3. [Dynamics of unprotected soil organic carbon with the restoration process of Pinus massoniana plantation in red soil erosion area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Mao-Kui; Xie, Jin-Sheng; Zhou, Yan-Xiang; Zeng, Hong-Da; Jiang, Jun; Chen, Xi-Xiang; Xu, Chao; Chen, Tan; Fu, Lin-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By the method of spatiotemporal substitution and taking the bare land and secondary forest as the control, we measured light fraction and particulate organic carbon in the topsoil under the Pinus massoniana woodlands of different ages with similar management histories in a red soil erosion area, to determine their dynamics and evaluate the conversion processes from unprotected to protected organic carbon. The results showed that the content and storage of soil organic carbon increased significantly along with ages in the process of vegetation restoration (P carbon content and distribution proportion to the total soil organic carbon increased significantly (P carbon mostly accumulated in the form of unprotected soil organic carbon during the initial restoration period, and reached a stable level after long-term vegetation restoration. Positive correlations were found between restoration years and the rate constant for C transferring from the unprotected to the protected soil pool (k) in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, which demonstrated that the unprotected soil organic carbon gradually transferred to the protected soil organic carbon in the process of vegetation restoration.

  4. Comparison of sorption capacity and surface area of activated carbon prepared from Jatropha curcas fruit pericarp and seed coat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Ameen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons were prepared from fruit pericarp and seed coat of Jatropha curcas using KOH and NaCl as activating agents leading to the production of four samples of activated carbons JPS, JPP, JCS and JCP. The adsorption capacity based on adsorption of methylene blue was determined for each sample. A further study of adsorptive properties of the most efficient activated carbon (JPS was made by contacting it with standard solutions of methylene blue, acetic acid and potassium permanganate. The effects of mass of active carbon used, initial concentration of the solute and the pH of the solution on adsorption performance were investigated. Ash content and percentage fixed carbon were determined for two of the activated carbons (JPS and JCS with the highest adsorptive capacity. Equilibrium study on adsorption was carried out and the adsorption data were analyzed using the Langmuir isotherm. The results obtained indicate that activated carbons from the fruit pericarp and the seed coat of J. curcas can be used as high performance adsorbents with the fruit pericarp activated carbon showing the higher adsorption capacity. The adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir model and adsorptive area of 824–910 m2/g was obtained for the activated carbon.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bcse.v26i2.2

  5. Carbonate filler resources of the Bjelopavlići area, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božović Darko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate filler is an important mineral commodity, with rather diverse industrial applications. The Bjelopavlići area in Montenegro is rich in chemically pure limestone, which was preliminary explored in the field, and further on mineralogical, petrographic, geochemical and technological properties were studied. The obtained results have proven the high quality of limestone from the studied deposits, as it can be used for paints&varnishes, rubber&plastics, metallurgy, foundry, sugar, fertilizers and animal feed industry. Several deposits have very pure limestone, that can be also used for paper, glass, pharmacy and soil neutralisation. The potential resources of high quality limestone are around 23 million tons. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI176016

  6. Cytogenetic analysis chromosomal status of subjects from the regions in the vicinity of uranium-contaminated areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovicic, D.; Milacie, S.; Kovacevic, R.; Petrovic, I.

    2004-07-01

    The past application of nuclear technology has brought about free emission of numerous Due to the military application of the depleted uranium (DU) in our country, the problem of its radioactivity and hemo toxicity if actualized. Likewise every heavy metal, its is highly toxic and, in addition to it, also radioactive: Interaction of the water-soluble uranium forms with soil is an important effect. In this way, it penetrates into food chain and endangers human health. The study was aimed at determining possible karyotype genotoxic effects in individuals from the regions close to the contaminated areas. Biological dosimetry was performed using modified Moorthead's micromethod. Our studies included the targeted group of 29 patients from the affected regions. The subjects were averagely aged 39.5{+-}2.8 years. Average age of the control group (k), unexposed to the effects of the known genotoxic agents comprising 22 individuals was 28.3{+-}1.2 years. The presented data evidenced that increased incidence of the chromosomal aberrations was found in 6 subjects,accounting for 20.6%. Dicentric type changes were evidence, as well ring chromosomes and eccentric fragments, which are, at the same time the most frequent aberrations. The changes are considered reparable aberrations accounting for 2-3% in metaphases of the unexposed individuals. Statistical data processing evidenced significant difference (p<0.005) between structural chromosomal aberrations in the studied and control groups, as well as in the number of chromatid aberrations (p<0.05).Based on the obtained data it may be concluded that human karyotype changes were present in the studied group, resulting from interaction of ionizing irradiation and other genotoxic agents, with possibility of potent synergistic effects. It is necessary to stress the importance of further monitoring and control of the general population health, particularly due to possible late genetic effects that may affect future generations

  7. Mammals in the areas adjacent to Forsmark and Oskarshamn. Population density, ecological data and carbon budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truve, Johan; Cederlund, Goeran [Svensk Naturfoervaltning AB, Ramsberg (Sweden)

    2005-06-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co is in the process of selecting a safe and environmentally acceptable location for the deep-level repository of radioactive waste. SKB has expressed the importance of monitoring mammal species that are of interest both in biodiversity issues and for local hunting and recreational purposes. Two of the major goals are to: 1) monitor dynamics of population density over several years; 2) obtain information that is essential for modelling of energy/carbon flows in the biosphere and ultimately calculations of the risks of exposure to radionuclides. This report contributes to the major goals by presenting: Results from surveys of mammal abundance in the study sites near Forsmark and Oskarshamn, and a comparison with data from other surveys. A summary of traits associated to demography, resource selection and spatial distribution. A model framework that can be used to model the future development of populations. A plausible future scenario for mammal species. Mammal contribution to fluxes of energy and material in the ecosystem. Estimated harvest rates of mammals in the study sites. General conclusions that can be drawn from the survey are that population densities of the most common species are in the same range as many other populations. Lynx, wild boar, red deer and fallow deer are expanding in the areas. Marine mammals have not been surveyed but at least grey seals are important top consumers in the coastal ecosystem. Red listed species resident in the areas are Lynx, Otter, Whiskered bat, Natterer's bat, Nathusius' pipistrelle and Harbour seal. Annual production of the mammal species that were surveyed was 40-50 mg carbon/m2 and year. Hunters harvest nearly half of the production each year. Future developments for the populations are briefly discussed and a model framework that can be used to make better quantitative predictions is presented.

  8. The Measurement of Relevance Amount of Documents That By Using of Google cross-language retrieval About Agriculture Subject Area are Retrieved

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fatemeh Jamshidi Ghahfarokhi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the relevance amount of documents has been investigated by using google cross-language retrieval tools about a agriculture subject area in cross-language retrieval form, are retrieved...

  9. Electrochemical synthesis of elongated noble metal nanoparticles, such as nanowires and nanorods, on high-surface area carbon supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Blyznakov, Stoyan; Vukmirovic, Miomir

    2015-08-04

    Elongated noble-metal nanoparticles and methods for their manufacture are disclosed. The method involves the formation of a plurality of elongated noble-metal nanoparticles by electrochemical deposition of the noble metal on a high surface area carbon support, such as carbon nanoparticles. Prior to electrochemical deposition, the carbon support may be functionalized by oxidation, thus making the manufacturing process simple and cost-effective. The generated elongated nanoparticles are covalently bound to the carbon support and can be used directly in electrocatalysis. The process provides elongated noble-metal nanoparticles with high catalytic activities and improved durability in combination with high catalyst utilization since the nanoparticles are deposited and covalently bound to the carbon support in their final position and will not change in forming an electrode assembly.

  10. Leaf Area Index, Biomass Carbon and Growth Rate of Radiata Pine Genetic Types and Relationships with LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. McGaughey

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between discrete-return light detection and ranging (LiDAR data and radiata pine leaf area index (LAI, stem volume, above ground carbon, and carbon sequestration were developed using 10 plots with directly measured biomass and leaf area data, and 36 plots with modelled carbon data. The plots included a range of genetic types established on north- and south-facing aspects. Modelled carbon was highly correlated with directly measured crown, stem, and above ground biomass data, with r = 0.92, 0.97 and 0.98, respectively. LiDAR canopy percentile height (P30 and cover, based on all returns above 0.5 m, explained 81, 88, and 93% of the variation in directly measured crown, stem, and above ground live carbon and 75, 89 and 88% of the modelled carbon, respectively. LAI (all surfaces ranged between 8.8–19.1 in the 10 plots measured at age 9 years. The difference in canopy percentile heights (P95–P30 and cover based on first returns explained 80% of the variation in total LAI. Periodic mean annual increments in stem volume, above ground live carbon, and total carbon between ages 9 and 13 years were significantly related to (P95–P30, with regression models explaining 56, 58, and 55%, respectively, of the variation in growth rate per plot. When plot aspect and genetic type were included with (P95–P30, the R2 of the regression models for stem volume, above ground live carbon, and total carbon increment increased to 90, 88, and 88%, respectively, which indicates that LiDAR regression equations for estimating stock changes can be substantially improved by incorporating supplementary site and crop data.

  11. Estimating urban trees and carbon stock potentials for mitigating climate change in Lagos: Case of Ikeja Government Reserved Area (GRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, P. O.; Faderin, A.

    2014-12-01

    Urban trees are a component of the urban infrastructure which offers diverse services including environmental, aesthetic and economic. The accumulation of carbon in the atmosphere resulting from the indiscriminate distribution of human populations and urban activities with the unsustainable consumption of natural resources contributes to global environmental change especially in coastal cities like Lagos. Carbon stocks and sequestration by urban trees are increasingly recognized to play significant roles for mitigating climate change. This paper focuses on the estimation of carbon stock and sequestration through biomass estimation and quantification in Ikeja GRA, Lagos. Ikeja possesses a characteristic feature as a microcosm of Lagos due to the wide range of land uses. A canopy assessment of tree population was carried out using itree canopy software. A GPS survey was used to collect an inventory of all trees showing their location, spatial distribution and other attributes. The analysis of the carbon storage and sequestration potential of both actual and potential tree planting sites involved biomass estimations from tree allometry equations. Trees were identified at species level and measurements of their dendrometric values were recorded and integrated into the GIS database to estimate biomass of trees and carbon storage. The trees in the study area were estimated to have a biomass of 441.9 mg and carbon storage of 221.395 kg/tree. By considering the potential tree planting sites the estimated carbon stored increased to 11,352.73 kg. Carbon sequestration value in the study area was found to be 1.6790 tonnes for the existing trees and 40.707 tonnes for the potential tree planting sites (PTPS). The estimation of carbon storage and sequestration values of trees are important incentives for carbon accounting/footprints and monitoring of climate change mitigation which has implications for evaluation and monitoring of urban ecosystem.

  12. The Application Study in Solar Energy Technology for Highway Service Area: A Case Study of West Lushan Highway Low-Carbon Service Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Qin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of research works have been made concerning highway service area or solar technology and acquired great achievements. However, unfortunately, few works have been made combining the two topics together of highway service areas and solar energy saving to make a systemic research on solar technology application for highway service area. In this paper, taking West Lushan highway low-carbon service area in Jiangxi Province of China as the case study, the advantages, technical principles, and application methods of solar energy technology for highway service area including solar photoelectric technology and solar water heating technology were discussed based on the analysis of characteristics of highway low-carbon service area; the system types, operation mode, and installing tilt angle of the two kinds of solar systems suitable for highway service areas were confirmed. It was proved that the reduction of the cost by electricity savings of solar system was huge. Taking the investment of the solar systems into account, the payback period of solar photoelectric systems and solar water heating systems was calculated. The economic effect of the solar systems in West Lushan highway service area during the effective operation periods was also calculated and proved very considerable.

  13. [Psychosocial stressors, sense of community, and subjective wellbeing in children and adolescents in urban and rural areas in Northeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Desirée Pereira de; Viñas, Ferran; Casas, Ferran; Montserrat, Carme; González-Carrasco, Mònica; Alcantara, Stefania Carneiro de

    2016-09-19

    The study's overall objective was to investigate the relationship between psychosocial stressors, sense of community, and subjective wellbeing in urban and rural schoolchildren in Northeast Brazil, focusing on differences according to territorial context. The sample consisted of 757 participants, 495 from urban schools and 262 from rural schools, enrolled in the 6th and 7th grades (9 to 18 years of age) in 21 municipal and state public schools, of which 13 urban and 8 rural, in 7 municipalities (counties) in Ceará State, Brazil. The study instruments were inventory of stressful events, scale of life satisfaction for students, index of sense of community, and satisfaction indices by life domains (family, material goods, relations, neighborhood/zone, health, time, school, and personal). The results indicate that socioeconomically underprivileged public schoolchildren from urban areas are more exposed to daily stress and score lower on satisfaction in specific domains of life and on sense of community. This latter is an important indicator for evaluating wellbeing in this young population.

  14. Vegetation Structure and Carbon Stocks of Two Protected Areas within the South-Sudanian Savannas of Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Savannas and adjacent vegetation types like gallery forests are highly valuable ecosystems contributing to several ecosystem services including carbon budgeting. Financial mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation can provide an opportunity for developing countries to alleviate poverty through conservation of its forestry resources. However, for availing such opportunities carbon stock assessments are essential. Therefore, a research study for this purpose was conducted at two protected areas (Nazinga Game Ranch and Bontioli Nature Reserve in Burkina Faso. Similarly, analysis of various vegetation parameters was also conducted to understand the overall vegetation structure of these two protected areas. For estimating above ground biomass, existing allometric equations for dry tropical woody vegetation types were used. Compositional structure was described by applying tree species and family importance indices. The results show that both sites collectively contain a mean carbon stock of 3.41 ± 4.98 Mg·C·ha−1. Among different savanna vegetation types, gallery forests recorded the highest mean carbon stock of 9.38 ± 6.90 Mg·C·ha−1. This study was an attempt at addressing the knowledge gap particularly on carbon stocks of protected savannas—it can serve as a baseline for carbon stocks for future initiatives such as REDD+ within these areas.

  15. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Woodborne

    Full Text Available Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L. trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  16. A Regional Stable Carbon Isotope Dendro-Climatology from the South African Summer Rainfall Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodborne, Stephan; Gandiwa, Patience; Hall, Grant; Patrut, Adrian; Finch, Jemma

    2016-01-01

    Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised. Changes in intrinsic water-use efficiency indicate an active response by the trees to elevated atmospheric CO2, but this has little effect on the environmental signal. The revised Pafuri record, and the new Mapungubwe record correlate significantly with local rainfall. Both records confirm that the Medieval Warm Period was substantially wetter than present, and the Little Ice Age was the driest period in the last 1000 years. Although Mapungubwe is generally drier than Pafuri, both regions experience elevated rainfall peaking between AD 1570 and AD 1620 after which dry conditions persist in the Mapungubwe area until about AD 1840. Differences between the two records correlate with Agulhas Current sea-surface temperature variations suggesting east/west displacement of the temperate tropical trough system as an underlying mechanism. The Pafuri and Mapungubwe records are combined to provide a regional climate proxy record for the northern summer rainfall area of southern Africa.

  17. Using ANN and EPR models to predict carbon monoxide concentrations in urban area of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forecasting of air pollutants has become a popular topic of environmental research today. For this purpose, the artificial neural network (AAN technique is widely used as a reliable method for forecasting air pollutants in urban areas. On the other hand, the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR model has recently been used as a forecasting tool in some environmental issues. In this research, we compared the ability of these models to forecast carbon monoxide (CO concentrations in the urban area of Tabriz city. Methods: The dataset of CO concentrations measured at the fixed stations operated by the East Azerbaijan Environmental Office along with meteorological data obtained from the East Azerbaijan Meteorological Bureau from March 2007 to March 2013, were used as input for the ANN and EPR models. Results: Based on the results, the performance of ANN is more reliable in comparison with EPR. Using the ANN model, the correlation coefficient values at all monitoring stations were calculated above 0.85. Conversely, the R2 values for these stations were obtained <0.41 using the EPR model. Conclusion: The EPR model could not overcome the nonlinearities of input data. However, the ANN model displayed more accurate results compared to the EPR. Hence, the ANN models are robust tools for predicting air pollutant concentrations.

  18. Internal wave deposits in Jurassic Kermanshah pelagic carbonates and radiolarites (Kermanshah area, West Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Asad; Gharaie, Mohamad Hosein Mahmudy; Bádenas, Beatriz

    2014-12-01

    We report eventites generated by turbulence events triggered by breaking internal waves in Jurassic pelagic muds deposited in a graben area located between the Arabian and Bisotoun carbonate platforms, at the Kermanshah basin (West Iran). The 43 m-thick studied Pliensbachian-Aalenian succession at Kermanshah includes sponge spicule-radiolarian limestones and cherts with cm- to dm-thick intercalations of pyroclastic beds and coarse-grained deposits formed by neritic-derived grains and reworked pelagic material. Breaking of internal waves in localized areas reworked the available sediment on sea floor, including the erosion of cohesive pelagic muds and the resuspension of neritic-derived grains, which were resedimented from the Bisotoun platform most probably by storms or turbidity currents. The generated internal wave deposits include: flat- and round pebble limestone conglomerates, formed by deposition of pelagic clasts and neritic-derived grains near the breaker zone; laminated packstone-grainstones deposited by high-energy, upslope (swash) and downslope (backswash) flows; cm-thick packstone-grainstones with asymmetrical starved ripples and hummocy crossstratification, generated downdip by waning of backwash flows and internal wave oscillatory flows. These internal wave deposits predominate in the Pliensbachian-early Toarcian, and were related to internal waves developed along a thermocline linked to climate warming and excited by submarine volcanic eruptions, storms or tectonic shaking.

  19. Characterization of atmospheric black carbon and co-pollutants in urban and rural areas of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Valle, M.; Coz, E.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Močnik, G.; Pandis, S. N.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Alastuey, A.; Díaz, E.; Pérez, R. M.; Artíñano, B.

    2017-11-01

    A one-year black carbon (BC) experimental study was performed at three different locations (urban traffic, urban background, rural) in Spain with different equivalent BC (eBC) source characteristics by means of multi-wavelength Aethalometers. The Aethalometer model was used for the source apportionment study, based on the difference in absorption spectral dependence of emissions from biomass burning (bb) and fossil fuel (ff) combustion. Most studies use a single bb and ff absorption Ångström exponent (AAE) pair (AAEbb and AAEff), however in this work we use a range of AAE values associated with fossil fuel and biomass burning based on the available measurements, which represents more properly all conditions. A sensitivity analysis of the source specific AAE was carried out to determine the most appropriate AAE values, being site dependent and seasonally variable. Here we present a methodology for the determination of the ranges of AAEbb and AAEff by evaluating the correlations between the source apportionment of eBC using the Aethalometer model with four biomass burning tracers measured at the rural site. The best combination was AAEbb = [1.63-1.74] and AAEff = [0.97-1.12]. Mean eBC values (±SD) obtained during the period of study were 3.70 ± 3.73 μg m-3 at the traffic urban site, 2.33 ± 2.96 μg m-3 at the urban background location, and 2.61 ± 5.04 μg m-3 in the rural area. High contributions of eBC to the PM10 mass were found (values up to 21% in winter), but with high eBC/PM10 variability. The hourly mean eBCff and eBCbb concentrations varied from 0 to 51 μg m-3 and from 0 to 50 μg m-3 at the three sites, respectively, exhibiting distinct seasonal and daily patterns. The fossil fuel combustion was the dominant eBC source at the urban sites, while biomass burning dominated during the cold season (88% of eBCbb) in the rural area. Daily PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected using high-volume air samplers and analyzed for OC and EC. Analysis of biomass

  20. Improved performance of Pd electrocatalyst supported on ultrahigh surface area hollow carbon spheres for direct alcohol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng Ping; Wang, Zhenyou; Li, Yongliang; Li, Changming; Zhang, Xin; Shen, Pei Kang

    Ultrahigh surface area hollow carbon spheres (HCSs) with open micropores and nanochannels have been prepared by combined methods of hydrothermal and intermittent microwave heating (IMH) for the first time. It is found that the addition of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (P123) leads to a large BET surface area of 1249.3 m 2 g -1. The catalytic activity of Pd supported on HCS is over 3 times higher than that on Pd supported on commercial Vulcan XC-72 carbon at the same Pd loadings. It is proven that the higher catalytic activity is contributed from the formation of the high electrochemical active surface area (EASA) which is due to the hollow carbon structure with open micropores and nanochannels.

  1. High-Surface-Area, Emulsion-Templated Carbon Foams by Activation of polyHIPEs Derived from Pickering Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert T. Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon foams displaying hierarchical porosity and excellent surface areas of >1400 m2/g can be produced by the activation of macroporous poly(divinylbenzene. Poly(divinylbenzene was synthesized from the polymerization of the continuous, but minority, phase of a simple high internal phase Pickering emulsion. By the addition of KOH, chemical activation of the materials is induced during carbonization, producing Pickering-emulsion-templated carbon foams, or carboHIPEs, with tailorable macropore diameters and surface areas almost triple that of those previously reported. The retention of the customizable, macroporous open-cell structure of the poly(divinylbenzene precursor and the production of a large degree of microporosity during activation leads to tailorable carboHIPEs with excellent surface areas.

  2. Carbon storage potential in Pleistocene volcanic rocks of the Magnesia area (Central Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros; Koukouzas, Nikolaos; Magganas, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The Porfyrio and Mikrothives volcanoes in the Magnesia area (SE Thessaly, Central Greece) are located a few km (˜8 and 12 km respectively) south-southwest of the industrial area of Volos city and are relatively small in size (˜3 and 10 km2 respectively). They are closely associated with other scattered volcanic centers of Late-Pleistocene-Quaternary age, appearing at the western shores of Pagasitikos gulf and at the Northern Euboikos gulf (e.g. Achilleion, Lichades, Agios Ioannis). This volcanic activity is attributed to back-arc extensional volcanism and may be further associated with propagation tectonics of the North Anatolian fault [1,2,3]. Volcanic rocks from the Porfyrio and Mikrothives mostly consist of basaltic and trachyandesitic lavas and pyroclastic tuffs. Porous basaltic lavas (10-15% porosity) exhibit porphyritic textures with a holocrystalline trachytic groundmass. The groundmass consists of lath-shaped plagioclase crystals, alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene, olivine, oxide minerals (ilmenite, titanomagnetite and magnetite), along with other accessory minerals such as quartz, calcite, apatite and pyrite. Phenocrysts are mostly subhedral and anhedral clinopyroxene crystals (mostly augite and less often diopside), olivine and less often plagioclase and quartz. Cr-spinel crystals have been identified within olivine phenocrysts. Pyroclastic tuffs exhibit vesicular textures, with their porosity varying between 20 and 40%. Their groundmass is hypocrystalline vesicular being either trachytic or aphanitic, often enriched in oxide minerals. Phenocrysts are less frequent compared to the lava samples, most often being feldspars. In some samples, pores are partially filled with secondary calcite. From recent literature it is well known that CO2 can be injected, trapped and retained within the pore spaces of volcanic rocks, forming chemically stable carbonate minerals [4,5,6,7]. The Porfyrio and Mikrothives volcanics can be considered as potential sites for

  3. Carbon storage in Swedish bedrock - current status regarding potential storage areas and geophysical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, B.; Juhojuntti, N. G.

    2010-12-01

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is increasingly considered as an option to reduce the release of CO2 to the atmosphere. There is today a significant interest from Swedish heavy industry in CCS-technology. Large point sources are found within process industry related to e.g. production of paper and steel (operating under European Union regulations). There is also significant emission of CO2 from burning of biomass for energy production. However, this process is considered to be climate neutral and thus the emissions are not included in the carbon trading schemes. Based on recent work at the Geological Survey of Sweden and by other organizations we discuss the possibilities for geological storage of CO2 in Sweden, including the locations of the potential storage sites and the main CO2 emitters. In this context, we also review the relevant geophysical data available at the Geological Survey, focusing on the seismic data but also including gravity and magnetic data. Deep saline aquifers are presently considered as the most realistic storage alternative in Sweden. Sedimentary bedrock containing such layers and which could be suitable for CO2 storage is mainly found within the southern Baltic Sea and around southernmost Sweden, close to Denmark. The knowledge about the sedimentary bedrock in these areas is mainly based on seismic measurements and drilling in connection with hydrocarbon prospecting during the 70’s and the 80’s. Approximately 40.000 km’s of seismic reflection profiles were acquired, mostly in the potential CO2 storage areas mentioned above. Data from these profiles are now archived at the Geological Survey, and currently the magnetic tapes (8000-9000 reels) are being transcribed to modern storage media, a work that will likely be finished during 2011. Despite the hydrocarbon prospecting in these areas there are remaining uncertainties regarding the suitability of the sedimentary bedrock for CO2 storage, in particular related to the porosity and

  4. Direct implication of carbon monoxide in the development of heart failure in rats with cardiac hypertrophy subjected to air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Alexandre; Bonnet, Pierre; Eder, Veronique; Antier, Daniel; Obert, Philippe; Fauchier, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    Pollution is known to particularly affect patients with respiratory insufficiency and right ventricle abnormalities. We therefore hypothesized that carbon monoxide (CO) at low dose could be involved in cardiovascular disorders in patients with chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension secondary to chronic hypoxia. Ten-week-old male and female healthy Dark Agouti rats were randomly divided into two series--untrained (U) and trained (T)--of four groups of 18 animals each. Both U and T series were continuously exposed to ambient air (U(AIR), and T(AIR); n = 16) or air plus 50 ppm CO (U(AIR+CO) and T(AIR+CO); n = 18). Similarly, rats initially subjected to right ventricle hypertrophy secondary to chronic hypoxia (H) were continuously exposed to ambient air (TH(AIR), and UH(AIR); n = 18) or air plus 50 ppm CO (UH(AIR+CO), and TH(AIR+CO); n = 18). Doppler-echocardiography and hemodynamic studies performed at rest both indi-cated that CO had no significant effect on cardiac morphology or functions in control rats (U(AIR+CO) vs U(AIR)). In contrast, cardiac dilation and large decreases in left ventricular ejection fraction, mitral early diastolic rapid inflow (E) deceleration, E/atrial contraction filling (A) ratio, +dP/dt, and -dP/dt were found in TH(AIR+CO) compared with TH(AIR). After exposure, heart rate variability was unaffected in U(AIR+CO), whereas total power spectra were markedly decreased and low frequency/high frequency power ratio was increased in TH(AIR+CO) rats. CO pollution could be directly involved in cardiac disorders of patients with pre-existent hypertrophic cardiomyopathies.

  5. [Hydrochemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Stable Isotope of Shibing Dolomite Karst Area in Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Lan, Jia-cheng; Yuan, Dao-xian; Wang, Yun; Yang, Long; Ao, Xiang-hong

    2015-06-01

    Totally 49 water samples were collected in Shibing Dolomite Karst World Natural Heritage Site in Guizhou Province to analyze the characteristics and controlling factors of both the surface and underground waters, as well as the features and their origins of the dissolved inorganic carbon isotope. It was found that the pH of the study area was neutral to alkaline with low concentrations of total dissolved solids. The cations were dominated by Ca2+, Mg2 and anions by HCO3-, featured by HCO3-Ca x Mg type water. The ratios of Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-) in the allogenic water from the shale area in the northern catchment were higher than those in autogenic water from the dolomite karst area, so did the concentration of Si. The SIc and SId of the allogenic waters in the shale area were negative. After the waters entered into and flew by the dolomite karst area, both the SIc and SId increased to over 0. It could be told by the water chemistry that the hydrochemistry was little impacted by the rainfall and human activities. The Gibbs plot revealed that the chemical composition of the waters was mainly controlled by rock weathering. The δ(13)C(DIC) of the surface waters ranged from -8.27% to -11.55% per hundred, averaging -9.45% per hundredo, while that of the underground waters ranged from -10.57% per hundred to -15.59% per hundred, averaging -12.04% per hundred, which was lighter than that of surface water. For the distribution features, it was found the δ(13)C(DIC), of the upper reaches of branches of Shangmuhe River was lighter than that of the lower reach, while that of the main river Shangmuhe River was relatively complex. Based on the mass balance of stable isotopes and the δ(13)C(DIC), the ratio of the origin of DIC of the ground water was calculated. It was found that 51.2% was from soil CO2, and 48.8% was from the rock itself.

  6. Soil organic carbon and biological fertility in a Mediterranean forest area (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Benedetti, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The study was performed at Castelporziano Estate, a natural ecosystem with high environmental value, and not concerned with any direct sources of pollution. However, it is situated near the city of Rome, some industrial plants, the international airport of Fiumicino, and some highways that can represent an external source of pollutants. Castelporziano lies in Central Italy at the western outskirts of Rome, about 20 km from the city centre and in front of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Soil morphology is mainly plain (30 m mean elevation) with sandy materials of alluvial nature, and only the inner part is formed of volcanic and alluvial materials with a slight elevation above the sea level (85 m). The total area is about 6000 ha, the climate is Mediterranean, total rainfall is 700 mm, and mean temperatures range from 4 ° C in winter and 30 ° C in summer. The vegetation is typically Mediterranean, mainly oaks, mixed broadleaf groves, and Mediterranean maquis along the seacoast. Areas with reforestation of pines, as well as corkwoods, pastures, and small agricultural fields are also present. Soils were sampled at five different sites: QI, forest of Quercus ilex L.; MM, Mediterranean maquis; PP, Pinus pinea L. reforestation (60 years old); MF, mixed hygrophilous back-dune forest; AR, arable land. Five soil samples from each site were collected (0-20 cm of depth), about 2 m far from each other. Soil organic carbon (SOC), total N (Ntot), microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), basal and cumulative respiration (Cbas and Ccum), the metabolic quotient (qCO2), and the mineralisation quotient (qM) were determined. The index of biological fertility (IBF), a comprehensive indicator considering SOM, Cbas, Ccum, Cmic, qCO2 and qM was also calculated for the different land uses. Five intervals of values have been set for each parameter, and a score increasing from 1 to 5 has been assigned to each interval; the algebraic sum of the score for each parameter gives the classes of biological fertility.

  7. Brazilian environmental legislation and scenarios for carbon balance in Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) in dairy livestock regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, M. C.; Fonseca, L. D.; Andrade, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    The present study aimed at mapping some categories of Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) for natural regeneration of semideciduous forests in the regions of Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, Minas Gerais State (Figure 1), and from this to establish what impact the deployment of APP over area of pastures and subsequently milk production and carbon sequestration, considering areas of pasture as one of major factors for the dairy farming in the regions concerned. From the altimetric information from MDE, it was possible to extract morphological and morphometrical data to estimate the areas of APP. We used imagery of MODIS/Terra for extraction of the pastures areas from the vegetation index data NDVI to intersect with the estimated area of APP. In a linear or deterministic scenario of deployment of APPs over in the pasture areas considering that wich are proportionately responsible for sizing the herd, and thus for the milk production in extensive livestock, despite the existence of numerous other factors, there would be an impact 12% in the production of Campo das Vertentes region and 21.5% for the Zona da Mata. In this scenario, according to the carbon balance of forests and livestock, there would be a positive balance with the deployment of areas of permanent preservation and, subsequent promotion of natural regeneration. Considering the current grazing area of the Zona da Mata and Campo das Vertentes, 1.6 million hectares, with the carbon balance estimated at 1 ton/hectare/year, 300,000 hectares would have a balance of 5 ton/hectare/year in whole cycle of 40 years, totaling 200 tons carbon by hectare, or additional 48 million tons fixed, considering 4 tons more than pastures in the case of semideciduous forest. At the end of the cycle or forest climax, there would still be positive carbon balance, estimated as a balance of 2 ton/hectare/year. However, despite the higher carbon balance for the semideciduous forest, compared to livestock, it is important to

  8. Sulfur-doped nanoporous carbon spheres with ultrahigh specific surface area and high electrochemical activity for supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Simin; Cai, Yijin; Zhao, Xiao; Liang, Yeru; Zheng, Mingtao; Hu, Hang; Dong, Hanwu; Jiang, Sanping; Liu, Yingliang; Xiao, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Development of facile and scalable synthesis process for the fabrication of nanoporous carbon materials with large specific surface areas, well-defined nanostructure, and high electrochemical activity is critical for the high performance energy storage applications. The key issue is the dedicated balance between the ultrahigh surface area and highly porous but interconnected nanostructure. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of new sulfur doped nanoporous carbon sphere (S-NCS) with the ultrahigh surface area up to 3357 m2 g-1 via a high-temperature hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent KOH activation process. The as-prepared S-NCS which integrates the advantages of ultrahigh porous structure, well-defined nanospherical and modification of heteroatom displays excellent electrochemical performance. The best performance is obtained on S-NCS prepared by the hydrothermal carbonization of sublimed sulfur and glucose, S-NCS-4, reaching a high specific capacitance (405 F g-1 at a current density of 0.5 A g-1) and outstanding cycle stability. Moreover, the symmetric supercapacitor is assembled by S-NCS-4 displays a superior energy density of 53.5 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 74.2 W kg-1 in 1.0 M LiPF6 EC/DEC. The synthesis method is simple and scalable, providing a new route to prepare highly porous and heteroatom-doped nanoporous carbon spheres for high performance energy storage applications.

  9. Petroleum-derived carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacha, J.D.; Newman, J.W.; White, J.L. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The 25 typescript papers in this volume derive from an ACS symposium held at an undisclosed site and date. They are concerned with such subjects as coke, carbon composites, the carbonization process, surface area, etc., and are accompanied by a 12-page index.

  10. Carbon Sequestration in Protected Areas: A Case Study of an Abies religiosa (H.B.K. Schlecht. et Cham Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo I. Fragoso-López

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global climate change have highlighted forest ecosystems as a key element in reducing the amount of atmospheric carbon through photosynthesis. The objective of this study was to estimate the amount of carbon content and its percentage capture in a protected Abies religiosa forest in which the study area was zoned with satellite image analysis. Dendrometric and epidometric variables were used to determine the volume and increase of aerial biomass, and stored carbon and its capture rate using equations. The results indicate that this forest contains an average of 105.72 MgC ha−1, with an estimated sequestration rate of 1.03 MgC ha−1 yr−1. The results show that carbon capture increasing depends on the increase in volume. Therefore, in order to achieve the maximum yield in a forest, it is necessary to implement sustainable forest management that favors the sustained use of soil productivity.

  11. Carbon isotope chemostratigraphy of the Llandovery in northern peri-Gondwana: new data from the Barrandian area, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Frýda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The first complete δ13Corg record of the uppermost Hirnantian to lower Telychian strata of the Barrandian area (northern peri-Gondwana is presented based on 168 new samples. The new data from the study area reveal that the evolution of the Llandoverian organic carbon isotope reservoir was similar to that on other palaeoplates, but it differs from the development of the coeval carbonate carbon isotope reservoir in the absence of two δ13C excursions (i.e. the early Aeronian positive excursion in the upper part of the Demirastrites triangulatus graptolite Biozone and a negative excursion occurring close to the boundary between the Cystograptus vesiculosus and Coronograptus cyphus graptolite biozones.

  12. The significance of organic carbon and nutrient export from peatland-dominated landscapes subject to disturbance, a stoichiometric perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Waldron

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial-aquatic interface is a crucial environment in which to consider the fate of exported terrestrial carbon in the aquatic system. Here the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC may be controlled by nutrient availability. However, peat-dominated headwater catchments are normally of low nutrient status and thus there is little data on how DOC and nutrient export co-varies. We present nutrient and DOC data for two UK catchments dominated by peat headwaters. One, Whitelee, is undergoing development for Europe's largest windfarm. Glen Dye by comparison is relatively undisturbed. At both sites there are significant linear relationships between DOC and soluble reactive phosphorus and nitrate concentrations in the drainage waters. However, inter-catchment differences exist. Changes in the pattern of nutrient and carbon export at Whitelee reveal that landscape disturbance associated with windfarm development impacts the receiving waters, and that nutrient export does not increase in a stoichiometric manner that will promote increase in microbial biomass but rather supports aquatic respiration. In turn greater CO2 efflux may prevail. Hence disturbance of terrestrial carbon stores may impact the both the aquatic and gaseous carbon cycle. We suggest estimates of aquatic carbon export should inform the decision-making process prior to development in ecosystems and catchments with high terrestrial carbon storage.

  13. The carbon and oxygen isotope records of reef-dwelling foraminifers subjected to five varied pCO2 seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikami, M.; Ishimura, T.; Suzuki, A.; Nojiri, Y.; Kawahata, H.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) in response to rising atmospheric pCO2 is generally expected to reduce rates of calcification by reef calcifying organisms, with potentially severe implications for coral reef ecosystems. Reef dwelling foraminifera is one of the most important primary and carbonate producers in coral reef environments. Their shells are composed of high-Mg calcite and they are host to algal endosymbionts. In our previous culture experiment with two algal reef dwelling foraminifers, Amphisorus kudakajimensis and Calcarina gaudichaudii in the seawater of five different pCO2 conditions, net calcification of A. kudakajimensis was reduced under higher pCO2, whereas net calcification of C. gaudichaudii showed continued increasing trend with pCO2. These contrasting responses between the two species are possibly due to differences in calcification mechanisms and to links between calcification by the foraminifers and photosynthesis by the algal endosymbionts. But the factors affecting these calcification mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, to get a better understanding of the effect of OA on their calcification, we cultured three reef dwelling foraminifers: Amphisorus hemprichii, belong to imperforate species, Baculogypsina sphaerulata, and C. gaudichaudii belong to perforate species, in the seawater of five different pCO2 conditions and we address the response of carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate shells of foraminifers. The oxygen isotope ratio of cultured foraminiferal tests under five varied pCO2 seawater indicated no significant correlation to pCO2 values. On the other hand, the carbon isotope ratio of foraminiferal tests indicated heavy trend with rising pCO2 in all species. Alteration of carbonate chemistry result from ocean acidification may be effect strongly on carbon isotope composition relate to metabolic system (i.e. photosynthesis and respiration). In perforate species, both of oxygen and carbon isotope ratio were lighter than that

  14. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield; Robert E. Hoehn; Elizabeth. Lapoint

    2013-01-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine...

  15. Heteroatom Polymer-Derived 3D High-Surface-Area and Mesoporous Graphene Sheet-Like Carbon for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Haiyang; Wei, Min; D'Aloia, Alyssa; Wu, Gang

    2016-11-09

    Current supercapacitors suffer from low energy density mainly due to the high degree of microporosity and insufficient hydrophilicity of their carbon electrodes. Development of a supercapacitor capable of simultaneously storing as much energy as a battery, along with providing sufficient power and long cycle stability would be valued for energy storage applications and innovations. Differing from commonly studied reduced graphene oxides, in this work we identified an inexpensive heteroatom polymer (polyaniline-PANI) as a carbon/nitrogen precursor, and applied a controlled thermal treatment at elevated temperature to convert PANI into 3D high-surface-area graphene-sheet-like carbon materials. During the carbonization process, various transition metals including Fe, Co, and Ni were added, which play critical roles in both catalyzing the graphitization and serving as pore forming agents. Factors including post-treatments, heating temperatures, and types of metal were found crucial for achieving enhanced capacitance performance on resulting carbon materials. Using FeCl3 as precursor along with optimal heating temperature 1000 °C and mixed acid treatment (HCl+HNO3), the highest Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area of 1645 m(2)g(-1) was achieved on the mesopore dominant graphene-sheet-like carbon materials. The unique morphologies featured with high-surface areas, dominant mesopores, proper nitrogen doping, and 3D graphene-like structures correspond to remarkably enhanced electrochemical specific capacitance up to 478 Fg(-1) in 1.0 M KOH at a scan rate of 5 mV s(-1). Furthermore, in a real two-electrode system of a symmetric supercapacitor, a specific capacitance of 235 Fg(-1) using Nafion binder is obtained under a current density of 1 Ag(-1) by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests in 6.0 M KOH. Long-term cycle stability up to 5000 cycles by using PVDF binder in electrode was systematically evaluated as a function of types of metals and current densities.

  16. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Zoe G; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L; Leake, Jonathan R; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-12-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities are more substantial than previously assumed. However, as more vegetation carbon densities are derived, substantial variability between these estimates is becoming apparent. Here, we review procedural differences evident in the literature, which may be drivers of variation in carbon storage assessments. Additionally, we quantify the impact that some of these different approaches may have when extrapolating carbon figures derived from surveys up to a city-wide scale. To understand how/why carbon stocks vary within and between cities, researchers need to use more uniform methods to estimate stores and relate this quantitatively to standardised 'urbanisation' metrics, in order to facilitate comparisons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Paleofacies of Eocene Lower Ngimbang Source Rocks in Cepu Area, East Java Basin based on Biomarkers and Carbon-13 Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Elok A.; Rachman, Faisal; Satyana, Awang H.; Fahrudin; Setyawan, Reddy

    2018-02-01

    The Eocene Lower Ngimbang carbonaceous shales are geochemically proven hydrocarbon source rocks in the East Java Basin. Sedimentary facies of source rock is important for the source evaluation that can be examined by using biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes data. Furthermore, paleogeography of the source sedimentation can be reconstructed. The case study was conducted on rock samples of Lower Ngimbang from two exploration wells drilled in Cepu area, East Java Basin, Kujung-1 and Ngimbang-1 wells. The biomarker data include GC and GC-MS data of normal alkanes, isoprenoids, triterpanes, and steranes. Carbon-13 isotope data include saturate and aromatic fractions. Various crossplots of biomarker and carbon-13 isotope data of the Lower Ngimbang source samples from the two wells show that the source facies of Lower Ngimbang shales changed from transitional/deltaic setting at Kujung-1 well location to marginal marine setting at Ngimbang-1 well location. This reveals that the Eocene paleogeography of the Cepu area was composed of land area in the north and marine setting to the south. Biomarkers and carbon-13 isotopes are powerful data for reconstructing paleogeography and paleofacies. In the absence of fossils in some sedimentary facies, these geochemical data are good alternatives.

  18. Study on the Preparation Process and Influential Factors of Large Area Environment-friendly Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruiyun; Xu, Shisen; Cheng, Jian; Wang, Hongjian; Ren, Yongqiang

    2017-07-01

    Low-cost and high-performance matrix materials used in mass production of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) were prepared by automatic casting machine with α-LiAlO2 powder material synthesized by gel-solid method, and distilled water as solvent. The single cell was assembled for generating test, and the good performance of the matrix was verified. The paper analyzed the factors affecting aqueous tape casting matrix preparation, such as solvent content, dispersant content, milling time, blade height and casting machine running speed, providing a solid basis for the mass production of large area environment-friendly matrix used in molten carbonate fuel cell.

  19. MEG reveals a fast pathway from somatosensory cortex to occipital areas via posterior parietal cortex in a blind subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ioannides, Andreas A; Liu, Lichan; Poghosyan, Vahe

    2013-01-01

    magnetoencephalography (MEG) data recorded from one congenitally blind and two sighted subjects after stimulation of the left and right median nerves at three intensities: below sensory threshold, above sensory threshold and above motor threshold; the last sufficient to produce thumb twitching. We identified...... reproducible brain responses in the primary somatosensory (S1) and motor (M1) cortices at around 20 ms post-stimulus, which were very similar in sighted and blind subjects. Time-frequency analysis revealed strong 45-70 Hz activity at latencies of 20-50 ms in S1 and M1, and posterior parietal cortex Brodmann...... of information through this pathway occurred in stages characterized by convergence of activations into specific cortical regions. In sighted subjects, no linked activity was found that led from the somatosensory to the visual cortex through any of the studied brain regions. These results provide the first...

  20. Implications of biocrust removal on soil organic carbon losses by water erosion in a badlands area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamizo, Sonia; Raúl Román, José; Miralles, Isabel; Rodríguez-Caballero, Emilio; Cantón, Yolanda

    2015-04-01

    In arid and semiarid ecosystems, soils are characterized by having low organic carbon (OC) content and low fertility. In these systems, runoff, often generated in interplant soils, plays a crucial role in OC redistribution from source (interplant) areas to sink (vegetation) patches. Far from being bare, interplant soils in most arid and semiarid ecosystems are commonly covered by communities of cyanobacteria, algae, lichens and mosses, known as biocrusts, which may reach up to 80% of soil cover. Biocrusts fix atmospheric C and increase the soil OC pool by several folds respect bare soils. In addition, biocrusts form a film on the surface that strongly protects soils against water erosion and prevents from OC losses. However, the role of BSCs in reducing OC losses associated to runoff and erosion may depend on the type and development of biocrust. On the other hand, loss of BSCs provoked by frequent disturbances in arid and semiarid areas leads to an increase in runoff and erosion, which may have important effects on OC losses and nutrient impoverishment in interplant areas. Despite their recognized role, very few studies have explicitly evaluated OC losses from runoff and erosion in soils covered by different types of biocrusts and, more importantly, the effects of biocrust disturbance on OC losses. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of two biocrust types (cyanobacteria and lichens) as well as of biocrust removal on dissolved and sediment OC losses, in a badlands site of southeastern Spain. Runoff and erosion after rain were measured in small field plots (1 m2) during one hydrological year and water samples collected for determination of dissolved OC and OC bonded to sediments. Our results showed that total OC losses decreased with biocrust development and that biocrust removal caused a dramatic increase in OC losses. The first rain after biocrust removal contributed the most to OC losses as runoff and, more noticeable, erosion greatly increased

  1. Reproducibility of fat area measurements in young, non-obese subjects by computerized analysis of magnetic resonance images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, J.M.; Haumann, G.; Asscheman, H.; Seidell, J C; Gooren, Louis J G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess reproducibility, expressed as both inter-observer variability and intra-observer variability, of fat area measurements on images obtained by magnetic resonance (MR); to compare variability between fat area measurements, calculated from a single image per body region and from the

  2. Identifying potential sources of variability between vegetation carbon storage estimates for urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Dallimer, Martin; Edmondson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    Although urbanisation is a major cause of land-use change worldwide, towns and cities remain relatively understudied ecosystems. Research into urban ecosystem service provision is still an emerging field, yet evidence is accumulating rapidly to suggest that the biological carbon stores in cities....... Additionally, we quantify the impact that some of these different approaches may have when extrapolating carbon figures derived from surveys up to a city-wide scale. To understand how/why carbon stocks vary within and between cities, researchers need to use more uniform methods to estimate stores and relate...

  3. Soil Carbon and Carbon/Nitrogen Ratio Change under Tree Canopy, Tall Grass, and Turf Grass Areas of Urban Green Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, S J; Ossola, A; Threlfall, C G; Hahs, A K; Williams, N S G

    2016-01-01

    Soils in urban green spaces are an important carbon (C) store, but urban soils with a high carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio can also buffer N eutrophication from fertilizer use or atmospheric deposition. The influence of vegetation management practices on soil C cycling and C/N ratios in urban green spaces is largely unknown. In 2013, we collected replicate ( = 3) soil samples from tree canopy, tall grass, and short turf grass areas ( = 3) at four random plot locations ( = 4) established in 13 golf courses ( = 13). At each sample point, soil was separated into 0- to 0.1-, 0.1- to 0.2-, and 0.2- to 0.3-m depths (total = 1404). Linear mixed models investigated the relationships between soil properties, vegetation attributes, and green space age. Tree canopy soil was less compacted (1.07 g cm) than grassy areas (1.32 g cm). Similarly, tree canopy soil had mean C/N ratios of 17.2, as compared with between 14.2 and 15.3 in grassy areas. Soil properties in tree canopy areas were best explained by tree basal area and understory vegetation volume. Soil C/N increased with increasing understory vegetation, and the difference in soil C/N between tree canopy and short turf grass areas increased over time. The soil properties in tree canopy areas of urban green space mean they can increasingly buffer the localized use of N fertilizers and atmospheric N deposition. Managers of urban green spaces concerned about N pollution of groundwater and waterways could consider planting trees in suitable topographic locations and promoting understory vegetation and surface litter accumulation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Parallels between Objective Indicators and Subjective Perceptions of Quality of Life: A Study of Metropolitan and County Areas in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Pei-shan

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the consistency between objective indicators and subjective perceptions of quality of life in a ranking of survey data for cities and counties in Taiwan. Data used for analysis included the Statistical Yearbook of Hsiens and Municipalities and the Survey on Living Conditions of Citizens in Taiwan, both given for the year 2000.…

  5. Subjectivity in Education and Health: Research Notes on School Learning Area and Physical Education in Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Marilia; da Costa, Jonatas Maia

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of two studies researching the theory of subjectivity from a cultural-historical perspective. The studies are situated in the fields of education and health and are conducted using Qualitative Epistemology. The first study discusses the pathological movement problems of learning disabilities in Brazilian schools and…

  6. Epoxy composites filled with high surface area-carbon fillers: Optimization of electromagnetic shielding, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhir, P.; Paddubskaya, A.; Plyushch, A.; Volynets, N.; Maksimenko, S.; Macutkevic, J.; Kranauskaite, I.; Banys, J.; Ivanov, E.; Kotsilkova, R.; Celzard, A.; Fierro, V.; Zicans, J.; Ivanova, T.; Merijs Meri, R.; Bochkov, I.; Cataldo, A.; Micciulla, F.; Bellucci, S.; Lambin, Ph.

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive analysis of electrical, electromagnetic (EM), mechanical, and thermal properties of epoxy resin composites filled with 0.25-2.0 wt. % of carbon additives characterized by high surface area, both nano-sized, like carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon black (CBH), and micro-sized exfoliated graphite (EG), was performed. We found that the physical properties of both CNTs- and CBH-based epoxy resin composites increased all together with filler content and even more clearly for CBH than for CNTs. In the case of EG-based composites, good correlation between properties and filler amount was observed for concentrations below 1.5 wt. %. We conclude that CBH and, to a lower extent, EG could replace expensive CNTs for producing effective EM materials in microwave and low-frequency ranges, which are, in addition, mechanically and thermally stable.

  7. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  8. A superhigh discharge capacity induced by a synergetic effect between high-surface-area carbons and a carbon paper current collector in a lithium-oxygen battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guang-Sheng; Huang, Shi-Ting; Zhao, Ning; Cui, Zhong-Hui; Guo, Xiang-Xin

    2015-08-01

    This paper invesitages the synergetic effect between high-surface-area carbons, such as Ketjan Black (KB) or Super P (SP) carbon materials, and low-surface-area carbon paper (CP) current collectors and it also examines their influence on the discharge performance of nonaqueous Li-O2 cells. Ultra-large specific discharge capacities are found in the KB/CP cathodes, which are much greater than those observed in the individual KB or CP cathodes. Detailed analysis indicates that such unexpectedly large capacities result from the synergetic effect between the two components. During the initial discharges of KB or SP materials, a large number of superoxide radical species in the electrolytes and Li2O2 nuclei at the CP surfaces are formed, which activate the CP current collectors to contribute considerable capacities. These results imply that CP could be a superior material for current collectors in terms of its contribution to the overall discharge capacity. On the other hand, we should be careful to calculate the specific capacities of the oxygen cathodes when using CP as a current collector; i.e., ignoring the contribution from the CP may cause overstated discharge capacities. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KGZD-EW-202-2), the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2014CB921004), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1232111).

  9. Design of templated nanoporous carbon electrode materials with substantial high specific surface area for simultaneous determination of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shenghai; Shi, Hongyan; Feng, Xun; Xue, Kaiwen; Song, Wenbo

    2013-04-15

    Nanoporous carbon materials have attracted significant interests in the design of electrodes for electrocatalysis and biosensors. Here, three templated nanoporous carbons (TNCs) materials with substantial different specific surface area were designed and synthesized by a nanocasting method, in which mesoporous silicates and acid were used as template and catalyst, respectively. The TNCs were then used as electrode materials for simultaneous detection of dopamine (DA), ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) at physiological pH. The correlations between specific surface area, edge-plane defect sites in TNCs and their distinguishing ability towards AA, DA, and UA were investigated. For TNCs with substantial larger specific surface area and more defect sites, the oxidation peaks of AA, DA and UA were separated well and their oxidation currents increased remarkably. A highly sensitive electrochemical sensor for simultaneous detection of those biomolecules was achieved by designing TNCs1 with the largest specific surface area and the most defect sites as the electrode material. The sensitivity of AA, DA and UA at the sensor is 0.012, 4.031, 0.605 μA/μM respectively. Results suggest that TNCs1 is promising in biomolecules simultaneous detection. This work may also be valuable for scientists who search for excellent carbon materials for biosensing and electrocatalysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate and land use changes effects on soil organic carbon stocks in a Mediterranean semi-natural area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2017-02-01

    A thorough knowledge of the effects of climate and land use changes on the soil carbon pool is critical to planning effective strategies for adaptation and mitigation in future scenarios of global climate and land use change. In this study, we used CarboSOIL model to predict changes in soil organic carbon stocks in a semi-natural area of Southern Spain in three different time horizons (2040, 2070, 2100), considering two general circulation models (BCM2 and ECHAM5) and three IPCC scenarios (A1b, A2, B2). The effects of potential land use changes from natural vegetation (Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland) to agricultural land (olive grove and cereal) on soil organic carbon stocks were also evaluated. Predicted values of SOC contents correlated well those measured (R2 ranging from 0.71 at 0-25cm to 0.97 at 50-75cm) showing the efficiency of the model. Results showed substantial differences among time horizons, climate and land use scenarios and soil depth with larger decreases of soil organic carbon stocks in the long term (2100 time horizon) and particularly in olive groves. The combination of climate and land use scenarios (in particular conversion from current 'dehesa' to olive groves) resulted in yet higher losses of soil organic carbon stocks, e.g. -30, -15 and -33% in the 0-25, 25-50 and 50-75cm sections respectively. This study shows the importance of soil organic carbon stocks assessment under both climate and land use scenarios at different soil sections and point towards possible directions for appropriate land use management in Mediterranean semi natural areas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Left ventricular hypertrophy in black African subjects with artery hypertension: Results of a cross-sectional survey conducted in semi-rural area in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, A; Dodo, B; Ngaïde, A A; Sy, N F; Babaka, K; Mingou, J S; Faye, M; Niang, K; Sarr, S A; Dioum, M; Bodian, M; Ndiaye, M B; Kane, A D; Ndour-Mbaye, M; Diao, M; Diack, B; Kane, M; Diagne-Sow, D; Thiaw, I; Kane, A

    2017-09-01

    To assess the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy according to electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria among hypertensive patients living in semi-rural Senegalese area. According to the World Health Organization STEPSwise approach, we conducted, in November 2012, a cross-sectional and exhaustive study in the population aged at least 35 years old and living for at least six months in the semi-rural area of Guéoul. We researched electrocardiographic and echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive subjects. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18.0 software version. The significance level was agreed for a value of P<0.05. We examined 1411 subjects aged on average of 48.5±12.7 years. In total, 654 subjects were hypertensive and screening of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was effective in 515 of them. According to Sokolow-Lyon index, 86 subjects (16.7%) presented electrocardiographic LVH, more frequently in men (P=0.002). According to Cornell index and Cornell product, LVH was founded respectively in 66 (12.8%) and 52 subjects (10.1%), more frequently in female (P=0.0001; P=0.004). It was more common in grade 3 of hypertension however criteria. In echocardiography, prevalence of LVH was 2.2% (13 cases) according to the left ventricular mass, 9.3% (48 cases) according to the left ventricular mass indexed to body surface area and 8.2% (42 cases) according to the left ventricular mass indexed to height 2.7 . LVH was significantly correlated with the electrocardiographic LVH according to Sokolow-Lyon index (P<0.0001) and the grade 3 of hypertension (P=0.003). Although rare in hypertensive Senegalese living in semi-rural area, left ventricular hypertrophy is correlated with severity of grade of hypertension. Screening by electrocardiogram will allow better follow-up of these hypertensive subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. 1994 conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride contamination in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-08-01

    Between 1955 and 1973, a total of 363,000 to 580,000 L (577,000 to kg) of liquid carbon tetrachloride, in mixtures with other organic and aqueous, actinide-bearing fluids, were discharged to the soil column at three disposal facilities -- the 216-Z-9 Trench, the 216-Z-lA TiTe Field, and the 216-Z-18 Crib -- in the 200 West Area at the Hanford Site. In the mid-1980`s, dissolved carbon tetrachloride was found in the uppermost aquifer beneath the disposal facilities, and in late 1990, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Washington State Department of Ecology requested that the US Department of Energy proceed with planning and implementation of an expedited response action (ERA) to minimize additional carbon tetrachloride contamination of the groundwater. In February 1992, soil vapor extraction was initiated to remove carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath these disposal facilities. By May 1994, a total of 10,560 L (16,790 kg) of carbon tetrachloride had been removed, amounting to an estimated 2% of the discharged inventory. In the spring of 1991, the Volatile Organic Compounds -- Arid Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID) program selected the carbon tetrachloride-contaminated site for demonstration and deployment of new technologies for evaluation and cleanup of volatile organic compounds and associated contaminants in soils and groundwater at arid sites. Site investigations conducted in support of both the ERA and the VOC-Arid ID have been integrated because of their shared objective to refine the conceptual model of the site and to promote efficiency. Site characterization data collected in fiscal year 1993 have supported and led to refinement of the conceptual model of the carbon tetrachloride site.

  13. Carbon Papers and Aerogels Based on Graphene Layers and Chitosan: Direct Preparation from High Surface Area Graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Vincenzina; Guerra, Silvia; Brambilla, Luigi; Maggio, Mario; Serafini, Andrea; Conzatti, Lucia; Vitale, Alessandra; Galimberti, Maurizio

    2017-12-11

    In this work, carbon papers and aerogels based on graphene layers and chitosan were prepared. They were obtained by mixing chitosan (CS) and a high surface area nanosized graphite (HSAG) in water in the presence of acetic acid. HSAG/CS water dispersions were stable for months. High resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of few graphene layers in water suspensions. Casting or lyophilization of such suspensions led to the preparation of carbon paper and aerogel, respectively. In X-ray spectra of both aerogels and carbon paper, peaks due to regular stacks of graphene layers were not detected: graphene with unaltered sp 2 structure was obtained directly from graphite without the use of any chemical reaction. The composites were demonstrated to be electrically conductive thanks to the graphene. Chitosan thus makes it possible to obtain monolithic carbon aerogels and flexible and free-standing graphene papers directly from a nanosized graphite by avoiding oxidation to graphite oxide and successive reduction. Strong interaction between polycationic chitosan and the aromatic substrate appears to be at the origin of the stability of HSAG/CS adducts. Cation-π interaction is hypothesized, also on the basis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy findings. This work paves the way for the easy large-scale preparation of carbon papers through a method that has a low environmental impact and is based on a biosourced polymer, graphene, and water.

  14. [Soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Zha, Tong-Gang; Wang, Yi-Kun; Wang, Gao-min

    2013-03-01

    Based on the field survey and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the soil aggregate stability and soil organic carbon characteristics in Quercus variabilis and Pinus tabulaeformis plantations in Beijing area. In the two plantations, the contents of soil macro-aggregates decreased with soil depth. In P. tabulaeformis plantation, soil macro-aggregates (>0.25 mm) occupied the majority, accounting for 71% -77% of the total; whereas in Q. variabilis plantation, no significant difference was observed in the contents of soil macro-aggregates and micro-aggregates (soil aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation were significantly higher than those in Q. variabilis plantation, and the fractal dimension (D) of the soil water-stable aggregates in P. tabulaeformis plantation was lower than that in Q. variabilis plantation, suggesting that P. tabulaeformis plantation was more favorable for the soil aggregate stability than Q. variabilis plantation. Also in the two plantations, the organic carbon content in soil water-stable aggregates decreased with soil depth. The organic carbon content in soil macro-aggregates was significantly higher in P. tabulaeformis plantation (58% -83%) than in Q. variabilis plantation (49% -66% ). It was suggested that in Beijing area, P. tabulaeformis plantation was more beneficial to the soil organic carbon protection, as compared with Q. variabilis plantation.

  15. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    sensor for methanol determination in the gas phase. 703. Electrochemically active surface area. Platinum-carbon black-titanium dioxide nanocompo- site electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications. 655. Electrochemistry. Synthesis, spectroscopic and redox properties of the mononuclear Ni. II. , Ni. II. (BPh2)2 containing (B–C) ...

  16. Preparation, Surface and Pore Structure of High Surface Area Activated Carbon Fibers from Bamboo by Steam Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available High surface area activated carbon fibers (ACF have been prepared from bamboo by steam activation after liquefaction and curing. The influences of activation temperature on the microstructure, surface area and porosity were investigated. The results showed that ACF from bamboo at 850 °C have the maximum iodine and methylene blue adsorption values. Aside from the graphitic carbon, phenolic and carbonyl groups were the predominant functions on the surface of activated carbon fiber from bamboo. The prepared ACF from bamboo were found to be mainly type I of isotherm, but the mesoporosity presented an increasing trend after 700 °C. The surface area and micropore volume of samples, which were determined by application of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and t-plot methods, were as high as 2024 m2/g and 0.569 cm3/g, respectively. It was also found that the higher activation temperature produced the more ordered microcrystalline structure of ACF from bamboo.

  17. Comparison of Fracture Characteristics of Open-Hole-Notch Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites Subjected to Tensile and Compressive Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M.-U.; Chen, Z. F.; Chen, Z. H.; Li, B. B.

    2017-01-01

    Open-hole tension (OHT) and open-hole compression (OHC) tests were carried out on hot-pressed carbon-fiberreinforced composite samples with a singular open hole. The fracture surfaces of the OHT- and OHC-tested specimens were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM micrographs showed significant features on the surface of carbon fiber, matrix, and especially in the fiber/matrix interface. Interpretation of these micrographs revealed the possible failure mechanism of composite samples with an open hole under tensile and compressive loadings. Furthermore, a comparative study of these micrographs also pointed to certain specific differences between the fracture characteristics of open-hole composite samples failed under tension and compression. This information is useful in the post-failure analysis of a composite structure.

  18. Hybrid Carbon-Glass Fiber/Toughened Epoxy Thick Composite Joints Subject to Drop-Weight and Ballistic Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    NDT &E International 1996; 29(4): 225-36. 13. Lu X, Kim KY and Sachse W. In situ determination of elastic stiffness constants of thick composites...DP. The detection and measurement of impact damage in thick carbon fibre reinforced laminates by transient thermography. NDT &E International 1998...Composite Materials, ASTM STP 749. American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, 1981. 37. Lubin G (Ed). Handbook of Fibreglass and Advanced

  19. Hydrogen storage on high-surface-area carbon monoliths for Adsorb hydrogen Gas Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Yuchoong; Pfeifer, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Carbon briquetting can increase hydrogen volumetric storage capacity by reducing the useless void volume resulting in a better packing density. It is a robust and efficient space-filling form for an adsorbed hydrogen gas vehicle storage tank. To optimize hydrogen storage capacity, we studied three fabrication process parameters: carbon-to-binder ratio, compaction temperature, and pyrolysis atmosphere. We found that carbon-to-binder ratio and pyrolysis atmosphere have influences on gravimetric excess adsorption. Compaction temperature has large influences on gravimetric and volumetric storage capacity. We have been able to optimize these parameters for high hydrogen storage. All monolith uptakes (up to 260 bar) were measured by a custom-built, volumetric, reservoir-type instrument.

  20. Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition Synthesis of Carbon Aerogels of High-Surface Area and Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Peña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work carbon aerogels were synthesized by catalytic chemical vapor deposition method (CCVD. Ferrocene were employed as a source both of catalytic material (Fe and of carbon. Gaseous hydrogen and argon were used as reductant and carrier gas, respectively. The products of reaction were collected over alumina. The morphology and textural properties of the soot produced in the reaction chamber were investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy, High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and N2 physisorption (BET and BHJ methods. After the evaluation of the porous structure of the synthesized products, 780 ± 20 m2/g of SBET and 0.55 ± 0.02 cm3/g of VBJH were found. The presence of iron carbide and the partial oxidation of carbon nanostructures were revealed by XPS.

  1. Calculating Soil Wetness, Evapotranspiration and Carbon Cycle Processes Over Large Grid Areas Using a New Scaling Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Piers

    2012-01-01

    Soil wetness typically shows great spatial variability over the length scales of general circulation model (GCM) grid areas (approx 100 km ), and the functions relating evapotranspiration and photosynthetic rate to local-scale (approx 1 m) soil wetness are highly non-linear. Soil respiration is also highly dependent on very small-scale variations in soil wetness. We therefore expect significant inaccuracies whenever we insert a single grid area-average soil wetness value into a function to calculate any of these rates for the grid area. For the particular case of evapotranspiration., this method - use of a grid-averaged soil wetness value - can also provoke severe oscillations in the evapotranspiration rate and soil wetness under some conditions. A method is presented whereby the probability distribution timction(pdf) for soil wetness within a grid area is represented by binning. and numerical integration of the binned pdf is performed to provide a spatially-integrated wetness stress term for the whole grid area, which then permits calculation of grid area fluxes in a single operation. The method is very accurate when 10 or more bins are used, can deal realistically with spatially variable precipitation, conserves moisture exactly and allows for precise modification of the soil wetness pdf after every time step. The method could also be applied to other ecological problems where small-scale processes must be area-integrated, or upscaled, to estimate fluxes over large areas, for example in treatments of the terrestrial carbon budget or trace gas generation.

  2. How do soil organic carbon stocks change after cropland abandonment in Mediterranean humid mountain areas?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal-Romero, E.; Cammeraat, E.; Pérez-Cardiel, E.; Lasanta, T.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions. Afforestation is increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and is considered one of the most

  3. LARGE AREA FILTERED ARC DEPOSITION OF CARBON AND BORON BASED HARD COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Rabi S.

    2003-12-05

    This document is a final report covering work performed under Contract No. DE-FG02-99ER82911 from the Department of Energy under a SBIR Phase II Program. Wear resistant, hard coatings can play a vital role in many engineering applications. The primary goal of this project was to develop coatings containing boron and carbon with hardness greater than 30 GPa and evaluate these coatings for machining applications. UES has developed a number of carbon and boron containing coatings with hardness in the range of 34 to 65 GPa using a combination of filtered cathodic arc and magnetron sputtering. The boron containing coatings were based on TiB2, TiBN, and TiBCN, while the carbon containing coatings ere TiC+C and hydrogen free diamond-like-carbon. Machining tests were performed with single and multilayer coated tools. The turning and milling tests were run at TechSolve Inc., under a subcontract at Ohio State University. Significant increases in tool lives were realized in end milling of H-13 die steel (8X) and titanium alloy (80%) using the TiBN coating. A multilayer TiBN/TiN performed the best in end-milling of highly abrasive Al-Si alloys. A 40% increase in life over the TiAlN benchmark coating was found. Further evaluations of these coatings with commercialization partners are currently in progress.

  4. Dissolved organic carbon in the INDEX area of the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.; DeSousa, S.N.

    . The samples were not filtered in order to avoid any contamination. Total organic carbon (TOC) was analysed by Shimadzu TOC-5000 (precision, 5%) analyser using HTCO by platinum catalyst. The system blank and instrument blank were determined using UV oxidised...

  5. The FRUELA cruises.. A carbon flux study in productive areas of the Antarctic Peninsula (December 1995-February 1996)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anadón, Ricardo; Estrada, Marta

    The FRUELA (name of an 8th century king of Asturias) project, part of the Spanish contribution to the study of biogeochemical carbon fluxes in the Southern Ocean, was based on two consecutive cruises of the B.I.O.; Hespérides which took place in the Bransfield and Gerlache Straits and Belligshausen Sea between early December and early February of Austral summer 1995-1996. In addition to the cruises, data were obtained from an array of sediment traps deployed for one year in the Western Bransfield Strait Basin. The basic objectives of FRUELA were the quantification of carbon standing stocks and fluxes through the main components of the "biological pump" and the determination of carbon fluxes across different water column boundaries, including the transfer of CO 2 between the atmosphere and the ocean, the export of particulate carbon (PC) out of the euphotic zone, the vertical flux of PC in deep waters and the accumulation of carbon in sediments. The main hydrographical features found in the study region were the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Currrent (SbyACC) and the Bransfield Front. Three major zones, with contrasting physico-chemical and biological characteristics were considered: Bellingshausen, including the Northwest Bellingshausen Sea and comprising the SbyACC, Bransfield, including the Western Bransfield Strait and the northeastern part of the Gerlache Strait, and Gerlache, with the rest of the Gerlache Strait. This paper summarizes the distribution of different properties and rate processes in these zones and discusses the major findings of the cruise concerning carbon fluxes. Our results indicate that, during the summer period, the studied area could be considered as a sink for atmospheric carbon. The amount of PC exported out of the photic layer was a moderate fraction of primary production and a low fraction of the suspended PC; high chlorophyll a systems dominated by microphytoplankton showed higher PC export fluxes than low

  6. Using spatial reliability in the probabilistic study of concrete structures: The example of a reinforced concrete beam subjected to carbonation inducing corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defaux, G.; Pendola, M. [PHIMECA Engineering, 1 allee Alan Turing, 63170 Aubiere (France); Sudret, B. [EDF R and D, Department of Materials and Mechanics of Components, Site des Renardieres, 77818 Moret-sur-Loing Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    Several methods, simple or more sophisticated, are tested to determine useful information for reliability problems involving spatial variability. The methods are developed around a simple example of a reinforced concrete beam subjected to carbonation inducing corrosion. A point-in-space reliability analysis is conducted to estimate a first indicator on the length to be replaced. Then, random field are introduced and are taken into account in the reliability problem using simulations methods to determine the empirical cumulative density function (CDF) of the length to be repaired and its moments. Finally, analytical formulations are used to estimate the same moments but with small computational effort. (authors)

  7. Almen intensity effect on microstructure and mechanical properties of low carbon steel subjected to severe shot peening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unal, Okan, E-mail: ounal@bartin.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bartin University, 74100, Bartin (Turkey); Varol, Remzi, E-mail: remzivarol@sdu.edu.tr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Suleyman Demirel University, 32260 Isparta (Turkey)

    2014-01-30

    This paper discusses alteration of microstructure and mechanical properties of low carbon steel after severe shot peening process. An ultra fine grained surface layer was formed on AISI 1017 mild steel by means of severe shot peening process. Surface characteristics were affirmed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Nano hardness measurements were taken along the depth from shot peened surface using nanoindentation methods. The results showed that severe (unconventional) air blast shot peening process is an effective way to obtain ultra fine grained surface layer and to obtain superior mechanical properties.

  8. Soil Respiration and Belowground Carbon Stores Among Salt Marshes Subjected to Increasing Watershed Nitrogen Loadings in Southern New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal salt marshes are ecosystems located between the uplands and sea, and because of their location are subject to increasing watershed nutrient loadings and rising sea levels. Residential development along the coast is intense, and there is a significant relationship between...

  9. The perceptions of teachers and principals toward providing additional compensation to teachers in high-need subject areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, Jeffrey Lucian

    The purpose of this study was to determine possible differences in the perceptions of teachers teaching in high-need areas (i.e., math, science, special education, etc.) and teachers not teaching in high-need areas, (i.e., business education, physical education, etc.) as defined by the states of Arkansas and Louisiana, regarding higher compensation for high-need teachers. In addition, possible perception differences among principals and teachers were determined. The independent variables consisted of gender, position held, years of certified experience, and certification areas. The dependent variable was the perceptions of the participants on providing higher compensation for high-need teachers in order to attract and retain them. The data for all variables were collected using the Teacher Compensation Survey. The sample for this study was limited to teachers, grades 9 through 12, and principals of public high schools in south Arkansas and north Louisiana. Forty-four school districts in south Arkansas (Arkansas Department of Education, 2008a) and north Louisiana (Louisiana Department of Education, 2008a) met the criteria for this study. Twenty-two superintendents gave permission for their districts to participate in the research. A sample of 849 teachers and 38 principals were identified in these districts. Surveys were returned from 350 teachers, creating a 41% response rate. When the 31 principals that returned surveys were added to the total population, the response rate increased to 43% with 381 of the 887 surveyed responding. However, 42 of the teachers and two of the principals skipped some of the questions on the survey and were not included in the study. The researcher used a One-Way ANOVA and independent t-tests to determine the presence of statistical differences at the .05 level. The data showed that most math and science teachers agreed that high-need teachers should be compensated at a higher rate than teachers not teaching in high-need areas. The data

  10. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in individuals with psoriasis: associations with body surface area and subjective disease severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, P B

    2013-10-01

    Psoriasis is associated with serious comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. These comorbidities are related to low physical activity in the general population. Limited research has evaluated physical activity in psoriasis, and thus, the purpose of this investigation was to compare physical activity between individuals with and without psoriasis as well as explore the associations between measures of psoriasis severity and physical activity. Cross-sectional study using data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported psoriasis diagnosis and psoriasis severity were regressed on moderate/vigorous physical activity, as measured objectively by accelerometers. Measures of psoriasis severity included rating of psoriasis as a problem in life and body surface area involvement. A total of 4316 individuals had data on psoriasis, moderate/vigorous physical activity, and relevant covariates, with 3.6% (population weighted) of participants (N.=117) reporting a diagnosis of psoriasis. A psoriasis diagnosis was not associated with moderate/vigorous physical activity, and furthermore, body surface area involvement was not associated with moderate/vigorous physical activity among participants with psoriasis. However, every tertile increase in psoriasis as a problem in life was associated with 28% less moderate/vigorous physical activity, which remained significant after adjusting for covariates and removing outliers. While a diagnosis of psoriasis and body surface area involvement do not appear to be associated with less moderate/vigorous physical activity, individuals that rate their psoriasis to be a large problem engage in less moderate/vigorous physical activity.

  11. An application of plot-scale NDVI in predicting carbon dioxide exchange and leaf area index in heterogeneous subarctic tundra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagg, J.; Lafleur, P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the flow of carbon into and out of tundra ecosystems. It is necessary to accurately predict carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) exchange in the Tundra because of the impacts of climate change on carbon stored in permafrost. Understanding the relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation and CO{sub 2} exchange may explain how small-scale variation in vegetation community extends to remotely sensed estimates of landscape characteristics. In this study, CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured with a portable chamber in a range of Tundra vegetation communities. Biomass and leaf area were measured with destructive harvest, and NDVI was obtained using a hand-held infrared camera. There was a weak correlation between NDVI and leaf area index in some vegetation communities, but a significant correlation between NDVI and biomass, including mosses. NDVI was found to be strongly related to photosynthetic activity and net CO{sub 2} uptake in all vegetation groups. However, NDVI related to ecosystem respiration only in wet sedge. It was concluded that at plot scale, the ability of NDVI to predict ecosystem properties and CO{sub 2} exchange in heterogeneous Tundra vegetation is variable.

  12. Deployment of Low-Cost, Carbon Dioxide Sensors throughout the Washington Metropolitan Area - The Capital Climate Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Kristen M.; Bailey, D. Michelle; Houston Miller, J.

    2016-04-01

    According to the IPCC from 1995 to 2005, atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increased by 19 ppm, the highest average growth rate recorded for any decade since measurements began in the 1950s. Due to its ability to influence global climate change, it is imperative to continually monitor carbon dioxide emission levels, particularly in urban areas where some estimate in excess of 75% of total greenhouse gas emissions occur. Although high-precision sensors are commercially available, these are not cost effective for mapping a large spatial area. A goal of this research is to build out a network of sensors that are accurate and precise enough to provide a valuable data tool for accessing carbon emissions from a large, urban area. This publically available greenhouse gas dataset can be used in numerous environmental assessments and as validation for remote sensing products. It will also be a valuable teaching tool for classes at our university and will promote further engagement of K-12 students and their teachers through education and outreach activities. Each of our sensors (referred to as "PiOxides") utilizes a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) sensor for the detection of carbon dioxide along with a combination pressure/temperature/humidity sensor. The collection of pressure and temperature increases the accuracy and precision of the CO2 measurement. The sensors communicate using a serial interfaces with a Raspberry Pi microcontroller. Each PiOxide is connected to a website that leverages recent developments in open source GIS tools. In this way, data from individual sensors can be followed individually or aggregated to provide real-time, spatially-resolved data of CO2 trends across a broad area. Our goal for the network is to expand across the entire DC/Maryland/Virginia Region through partnerships with private and public schools. We are also designing GHG Bluetooth beacons that may be accessed by mobile phone users in their vicinity. In two additional

  13. Intestinal Parasites Coinfection Does Not Alter Plasma Cytokines Profile Elicited in Acute Malaria in Subjects from Endemic Area of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Camilo Sánchez-Arcila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, malaria is prevalent in the Amazon region and these regions coincide with high prevalence of intestinal parasites but few studies explore the interaction between malaria and other parasites. Therefore, the present study evaluates changes in cytokine, chemokine, C-reactive protein, and nitric oxide (NO concentrations in 264 individuals, comparing plasma from infected individuals with concurrent malaria and intestinal parasites to individuals with either malaria infection alone and uninfected. In the studied population 24% of the individuals were infected with Plasmodium and 18% coinfected with intestinal parasites. Protozoan parasites comprised the bulk of the intestinal parasites infections and subjects infected with intestinal parasites were more likely to have malaria. The use of principal component analysis and cluster analysis associated increased levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and CRP and low levels of IL-17A predominantly with individuals with malaria alone and coinfected individuals. In contrast, low levels of almost all inflammatory mediators were associated predominantly with individuals uninfected while increased levels of IL-17A were associated predominantly with individuals with intestinal parasites only. In conclusion, our data suggest that, in our population, the infection with intestinal parasites (mainly protozoan does not modify the pattern of cytokine production in individuals infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax.

  14. Optimization of sodium carbonate texturization on large-area crystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrero, N.; Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Universidad de La Laguna, Avda, Astrofisico Francisco Sanchez, 38204 La Laguna, S/C de Tenerife (Spain); Borchert, D. [Auf der Reihe 2, Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme, Fraunhofer Institut, 45884 Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2007-12-14

    This work describes a texturization method for monocrystalline silicon solar cells based on a mixture of sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate solutions. A specific solution has been found that results in an optimal etching rate, the lowest surface reflectance and a homogeneous density of pyramidal structures on the silicon surface. The subsequent phosphorus diffusion with rapid thermal processes has been modified in order to drastically reduce the process time and, simultaneously, to obtain a high homogeneity of the sheet resistance values and improved photocarriers lifetimes. 100 x 100 mm solar cells with an efficiency of 15.8% have been obtained compared to an efficiency of 14.7% for the reference cell. (author)

  15. How do soil organic carbon stocks change after cropland abandonment in Mediterranean humid mountain areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, E; Cammeraat, E; Pérez-Cardiel, E; Lasanta, T

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use changes on soil carbon stocks are a matter of concern stated in international policy agendas on the mitigation of greenhouse emissions. Afforestation is increasingly viewed as an environmental restorative land use change prescription and is considered one of the most efficient carbon sequestration strategies currently available. Given the large quantity of CO2 that soils release annually, it is important to understand disturbances in vegetation and soil resulting from land use changes. The main objective of this study is to assess the effects of land abandonment, land use change and afforestation practices on soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics. For this aim, five different land covers (bare soil, permanent pastureland, secondary succession, Pinus sylvestris (PS) and Pinus nigra (PN) afforestation), in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, were analysed. SOC dynamics have been studied in the bulk soil, and in the fractions separated according to two methodologies: (i) aggregate size distribution, and (ii) density fractionation, and rates of carbon mineralization have been determined by measuring CO2 evolution using an automated respirometer. The results showed that: (i) SOC contents were higher in the PN sites in the topsoil (10cm), (ii) when all the profiles were considered no significant differences were observed between pastureland and PN, (iii) SOC accumulation under secondary succession is a slow process, and (iv) pastureland should also be considered due to the relative importance in SOC stocks. The first step of SOC stabilization after afforestation is the formation of macro-aggregates promoted by large inputs of SOC, with a high contribution of labile organic matter. However, our respiration experiments did not show evidence of SOC stabilization. SOC mineralization was higher in the top layers and values decreased with depth. These results gain insights into which type of land management is most appropriate after land abandonment for SOC

  16. Dynamic response of RC beams strengthened with near surface mounted Carbon-FRP rods subjected to damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozucca, R.; Blasi, M. G.; Corina, V.

    2015-07-01

    Near surface mounted (NSM) technique with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) is becoming a common method in the strengthening of concrete beams. The availability of NSM FRP technique depends on many factors linked to materials and geometry - dimensions of the rods used, type of FRP material employed, rods’ surface configuration, groove size - and to adhesion between concrete and FRP rods. In this paper detection of damage is investigated measuring the natural frequency values of beam in the case of free-free ends. Damage was due both to reduction of adhesion between concrete and carbon-FRP rectangular and circular rods and cracking of concrete under static bending tests on beams. Comparison between experimental and theoretical frequency values evaluating frequency changes due to damage permits to monitor actual behaviour of RC beams strengthened by NSM CFRP rods.

  17. Fracture morphologies of carbon-black-loaded SBR (styrene-butadiene rubber) subjected to low-cycle, high-stress fatigue. [Styrene-butadiene rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, A.; Lesuer, D.R.; Patt, J.

    1988-02-01

    Experimental results, together with an analytical model, related to the loss in tensile strength of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) loaded with carbon black (CB) that had been subjected to low-cycle, high-stress fatigue tests were presented in a prior paper. The drop in tensile strength relative to that of a virgin sample was considered to be a measure of damage induced during the fatigue test. The present paper is a continuation of this study dealing with the morphological interpretations of the fractured surfaces, whereby the cyclic-tearing behavior, resulting in the damage, is related to the test and material parameters. It was found that failure is almost always initiated in the bulk of a sample at a material flaw. The size and definition of a flaw increase with an increase in carbon-black loading. Initiation flaw sites are enveloped by fan-shaped or penny-shaped regions which develop during cycling. The size and morphology of a fatigue-tear region appears to be independent of the fatigue load or the extent of the damage (strength loss). By contrast, either an increase in cycling load or an increase in damage at constant load increases the definition of the fatigue-region morphology for all formulations of carbon-black. On the finest scale, the morphology can be described in terms of tearing of individual groups of rubber strands, collapsing to form a cell-like structure. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  18. Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide concentrations in frequent and occasional cannabis smokers following smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer, Matthew N; Swortwood, Madeleine J; Abulseoud, Osama A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2017-06-01

    Although smoking is the most common cannabis administration route, vaporization and consumption of cannabis edibles are common. Few studies directly compare cannabis' subjective and physiological effects following multiple administration routes. Subjective and physiological effects, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) were evaluated in frequent and occasional cannabis users following placebo (0.001% Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]), smoked, vaporized, and oral cannabis (6.9% THC, ∼54mg). Participants' subjective ratings were significantly elevated compared to placebo after smoking and vaporization, while only occasional smokers' ratings were significantly elevated compared to placebo after oral dosing. Frequent smokers' maximum ratings were significantly different between inhaled and oral routes, while no differences in occasional smokers' maximum ratings between active routes were observed. Additionally, heart rate increases above baseline 0.5h after smoking (mean 12.2bpm) and vaporization (10.7bpm), and at 1.5h (13.0bpm) and 3h (10.2bpm) after oral dosing were significantly greater than changes after placebo, with no differences between frequent and occasional smokers. Finally, smoking produced significantly increased expired CO concentrations 0.25-6h post-dose compared to vaporization. All participants had significant elevations in subjective effects after smoking and vaporization, but only occasional smokers after oral cannabis, indicating partial tolerance to subjective effects with frequent exposure. There were no differences in occasional smokers' maximum subjective ratings across the three active administration routes. Vaporized cannabis is an attractive alternative for medicinal administrations over smoking or oral routes; effects occur quickly and doses can be titrated with minimal CO exposure. These results have strong implications for safety and abuse liability assessments. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Concentration and correlations of perfluoroalkyl substances in whole blood among subjects from three different geographical areas in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Chon Rae; Lam, Nguyen Hoang [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Byung Mann [Department of Preventive Medicine and Occupational Medicine, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, Empire State Plaza PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Cho, Hyeon Seo, E-mail: hscho@jnu.ac.kr [College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Chonnam National University, Yeosu 550-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    blood were found in Korea. • Gender was found to influence the concentrations of PFOA, PFNA, PFHxS and PFOSA. • Significant positive associations between PFAS levels and age of subjects were found. • Occupation was a determinant for PFNA and PFHxS concentrations.

  20. Active control over carbon deposition on diagnostic components and in remote areas of ITER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Litnovsky, A.; Philipps, V.; Wienhold, P.; Matveeva, M.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Sergienko, G.; Schmitz, O.; Samm, U.; Stoschus, H.; Schulz, C.; Marot, L.; Romanyuk, A.; De Temmerman, G.; Laengner, M.; Breuer, U.; Stark, A.

    2011-01-01

    In future fusion devices like ITER deposition of impurities will likely occur in areas, remote from plasma and on the sensitive components of optical diagnostics, like mirrors and windows. Deposition in remote areas may lead to the tritium retention and therefore represent a safety issue. Deposition

  1. Adsorption and correlations of selected aromatic compounds on a KOH-activated carbon with large surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kun; Zhu, Lianghong; Yang, Jingjing; Lin, Daohui

    2017-10-17

    Knowledge of adsorption mechanism and behavior of organic compounds by KOH-activated carbons (KOH-ACs) from wastewater is crucial to its environmental application in wastewater treatment as adsorbent. A superior adsorbent, KOH-activated carbon (KOH-AC), with large surface area (3143m2/g), total pore volume of 2.03cm3/g, relatively low micropore fraction of 53.2%, and having adsorption capacities of organic compounds up to >1000mg/g, was prepared. It is an adsorbent significantly different with common ACs because the molecular sieving effect, widely observed for common ACs, is insignificant for KOH-AC. This difference could be attributed to the lower micropore fraction of KOH-AC than common ACs. A negative relationship of adsorption capacity of 25 aromatic compounds (including phenols, anilines, nitrobenzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) with chemical melting point was observed, suggesting that adsorption is dependent on the packing efficiency and stacking density of molecules on KOH-AC. A linear solvation energy relationships of adsorption affinity of 25 aromatic compounds with solute solvatochromic parameters was also observed, that can be used to quantify the contributions of π-π interaction, hydrogen-bonding interaction and hydrophobic effect to adsorption on KOH-AC. Combined with the reported results of adsorption of organic compounds on carbon nanotubes and biochars, it was also observed that external surface area of adsorbents is controlling the packing efficiency and stacking density of molecules on adsorbents and thus affecting adsorption capacity of organic compounds. Moreover, micropore surface area and the fraction of micropores are the adsorbent properties mainly affecting adsorption affinity of organic compounds. The observations and the developed correlations in this study would be helpful in the application of KOH-AC as superior adsorbent by enhancing the understanding of adsorption mechanisms of organic compounds on KOH-AC and by giving a

  2. The Contributions To The Study Of Carbon Monoxide Pollution Due To Car Traffic In A Densely Populated Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorin, Borza

    2015-07-01

    Air quality monitoring is the most important environmental factor to be considered because it is the fastest way that helps pollutant transport into the environment. The development of human society has led to a negative anthropogenic and technogenic impact on air quality, resulting into a significant series of adverse effects on human health, flora, fauna and ecosystems in general. In this paper it is presentd the research work performed to monitor carbon monoxide emissions from motor vehicles in traffic, in a densely populated area in Sibiu. Also, in the paper it is described, the research findings conducted in accordance with national and European legislation. In our research we used GIS software, Geomedia Professional.

  3. Global 1-degree Maps of Forest Area, Carbon Stocks, and Biomass, 1950-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides global forest area, forest growing stock, and forest biomass data at 1-degree resolution for the period 1950-2010. The data set is based on a...

  4. LandCarbon Conterminous United States Burned Area and Severity Mosaics 2001-2050 Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The burn area and severity data were stochastically generated using a probabilistic ignition model and mechanistic fire-spread model. The ignition model consisted of...

  5. Identifying grain-size dependent errors on global forest area estimates and carbon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daolan Zheng; Linda S. Heath; Mark J. Ducey

    2008-01-01

    Satellite-derived coarse-resolution data are typically used for conducting global analyses. But the forest areas estimated from coarse-resolution maps (e.g., 1 km) inevitably differ from a corresponding fine-resolution map (such as a 30-m map) that would be closer to ground truth. A better understanding of changes in grain size on area estimation will improve our...

  6. Land use and land management effects on soil organic carbon stock in Mediterranean agricultural areas (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION Soils play a key role in the carbon geochemical cycle. Agriculture contributes to carbon sequestration through photosynthesis and the incorporation of carbon into carbohydrates. Soil management is one of the best tools for climate change mitigation. Small increases or decreases in soil carbon content due to changes in land use or management practices, may result in a significant net exchange of carbon between the soil carbon pool and the atmosphere. In the last decades arable crops (AC) have been transformed into olive grove cultivations (OG) or vineyards (V) in Mediterranean areas. A field study was conducted to determine long-term effects of land use change (LUC) (AC by OG and V) on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C:N ratio and their stratification in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr) in Mediterranean conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS An unirrigated farm in Montilla-Moriles (Córdoba, Spain) cultivated under conventional tillage (animal power with lightweight reversible plows and non-mineral fertilization or pesticides) was selected for study in 1965. In 1966, the farm was divided into three plots with three different uses (AC, OG and V). The preliminary analyses were realized in 1965 for AC (AC1), and the second analyses were realized in 2011 for AC (AC2 - winter crop rotation with annual wheat and barley, receiving mineral fertilization or pesticides), OG (annual passes with disk harrow and cultivator in the spring, followed by a tine harrow in the summer receiving mineral fertilization and weed control with residual herbicides), and V (with three or five chisel passes a year from early spring to early autumn with mineral fertilization or pesticides.). In all cases (AC1, AC2, OG and V) were collected soil entire profiles. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, bulk density, SOC, TN, C:N ratio, stocks and SRs. The statistical significance of the differences in the variables between land use practices was tested using the

  7. Effect of toe-spread-out exercise on hallux valgus angle and cross-sectional area of abductor hallucis muscle in subjects with hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Jung, Do-Young; Kwon, Oh-Yun

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether the toe-spread-out exercise affects the hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects with hallux valgus were randomly assigned to orthosis and orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise groups. The orthosis group wore the orthosis for 8 weeks, while the orthosis plus toe-spread-out group also performed the toe-spread-out exercise. The hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction were measured initially and after 8 weeks by radiography and ultrasonography. [Results] While there were no significant changes in the three parameters in the orthosis group, there were significant differences in the orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise group after 8 weeks. In addition there were significant differences in the three measures between the two groups. [Conclusion] The toe-spread-out exercise reduces the hallux valgus angle and hallux valgus angle during active abduction, and increases the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle. The toe-spread-out exercise is recommended for patients with mild to moderate hallux valgus.

  8. Soybeans Grown in the Chernobyl Area Produce Fertile Seeds that Have Increased Heavy Metal Resistance and Modified Carbon Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubicová, Katarína; Danchenko, Maksym; Skultety, Ludovit; Berezhna, Valentyna V.; Uvackova, Lubica; Rashydov, Namik M.; Hajduch, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis. PMID:23110204

  9. Soybeans grown in the Chernobyl area produce fertile seeds that have increased heavy metal resistance and modified carbon metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Klubicová

    Full Text Available Plants grow and reproduce in the radioactive Chernobyl area, however there has been no comprehensive characterization of these activities. Herein we report that life in this radioactive environment has led to alteration of the developing soybean seed proteome in a specific way that resulted in the production of fertile seeds with low levels of oil and β-conglycinin seed storage proteins. Soybean seeds were harvested at four, five, and six weeks after flowering, and at maturity from plants grown in either non-radioactive or radioactive plots in the Chernobyl area. The abundance of 211 proteins was determined. The results confirmed previous data indicating that alterations in the proteome include adaptation to heavy metal stress and mobilization of seed storage proteins. The results also suggest that there have been adjustments to carbon metabolism in the cytoplasm and plastids, increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and decreased condensation of malonyl-acyl carrier protein during fatty acid biosynthesis.

  10. [Impact of Rocky Desertification Treatment on Underground Water Chemistry and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Isotope in Karst Areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shi-zhen; Xiong, Kang-ning; Lan, Jia-cheng; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Long

    2015-05-01

    Five springs representing different land-use types and different karst rocky desertification treatment models were chosen at the Huajiang Karst Rocky Desertification Treatment Demonstration Site in Guanling-Zhenfeng Counties in Guizhou, to analyze the features of underground water chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon isotopes (δ13C(DIC)) and reveal the effect of rocky desertification treatment on karstification and water quality. It was found that, the underground water type of the research area was HCO3-Ca; the water quality of the springs which were relatively less affected by human activities including Shuijingwan Spring (SJW) , Gebei Spring (GB), and Maojiawan Spring (MJW) was better than those relatively more affected by human activities including Diaojing Spring (DJ) and Tanjiazhai Spring (TJZ) , the main ion concentrations and electrical conductivity of which were higher; pH, SIc and pCO2 were sensitive to land-use types and rocky desertification treatment, which could be shown by the higher pH and SIc and lower pCO2 in MJW than those in the other four springs; (Ca(2+) + Mg2+)/HCO(3-) of SJW, MJW and GB were nearly 1:1, dominated by carbonate rock weathering by carbon acid, while the (Ca(2+) + Mg2+) of DJ and TJZ was much higher than HCO3-, suggesting that sulfate and nitrate might also dissolve carbonate rock because of the agricultural activities; δ13C(DIC) was lighter in wet season because of the higher biological activities; the average δ13C(DIC) was in the order of DJ (-12.79 per thousand) desertification and lighter after the rocky desertification are treated and controlled.

  11. [Spatial distribution, mechanism and management strategies of carbon source and sink of urban residential area: a case in Guanzhong Region, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu-Wei; Wei, Shu-Jing; Wang, Ya-Mei; Wen, Zheng-Min

    2014-03-01

    Urban residential area is an important component of urban ecosystem. Its carbon process will have an important impact on carbon cycle and carbon balance of urban ecosystem. In this paper, the data of CO2 emission and absorption in Guanzhong area were collected by case ana-lysis, literature consulting and questionnaires and surveys to analyze its sources and the spatial distribution characteristics. The results showed that building materials production and renovation of residential area had the most CO2 emission, and building materials had much larger CO2 emission compared with everyday means of subsistence. Only 40% -52% of total carbon emission occurred within the residential area, while the rest was in the peripheral area. The spatial distance variation of carbon source, the spatial differences of carbon component and the spatial distribution by spheres and zoning were observed. As for CO2 absorption, only 9%-17% CO2 emission could be absorbed in the residential area, and the others had to be imposed to the outer space, showing hierarchical grading rules and spatial variation. Some space management techniques and intervention measures were put forward.

  12. An analysis of subject areas and country participation for all health-related projects in the EU's FP5 and FP6 programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galsworthy, Michael J; Irwin, Rachel; Charlesworth, Kate; Ernst, Kelly; Hristovski, Dimitar; Wismar, Matthias; McKee, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Previous analyses concerning health components of European Union (EU)-funded research have shown low project participation levels of the 12 newest member states (EU-12). Additionally, there has been a lack of subject-area analysis. In the Health Research for Europe project, we screened all projects of the EU's Framework Programmes for research FP5 and FP6 (1998-2006) to identify health research projects and describe participation by country and subject area. FP5 and FP6 project databases were acquired and screened by coders to identify health-related projects, which were then categorized according to the 47 divisions of the EU Health Portal (N = 2728 projects) plus an extra group of 'basic/biotech' projects (N = 1743). Country participation and coordination rates for projects were also analyzed. Approximately 20% of the 26 946 projects (value €29.2bn) were health-related (N = 4756. Value €6.04bn). Within the health categories, the largest expenditures were cancer (11.9%), 'other' (i.e. not mental health or cardiovascular) non-communicable diseases (9.5%) and food safety (9.4%). One hundred thirty-two countries participated in these projects. Of the 27 EU countries (and five partner countries), north-western and Nordic states acquired more projects per capita. The UK led coordination with > 20% of projects. EU-12 countries were generally under-represented for participation and coordination. Combining our findings with the associated literature, we comment on drivers determining distribution of participation and funds across countries and subject areas. Additionally, we discuss changes needed in the core EU projects database to provide greater transparency, data exploitation and return on investment in health research. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Facile Synthesis of Ultrahigh-Surface-Area Hollow Carbon Nanospheres and their Application in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shao-Zhong; Yao, Yuechao; Huang, Lin; Wu, Hongliang; Peng, Biaolin; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiaohua; Yu, Liang; Liu, Shiyu; Tu, Wenxuan; Lan, Tongbin; Zeng, Xierong; Zou, Jizhao

    2017-12-13

    Hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNs) with specific surface areas up to 2949 m2  g-1 and pore volume up to 2.9 cm3  g-1 were successfully synthesized from polyaniline-co-polypyrrole hollow nanospheres by carbonization and CO2 activation. The cavity diameter and wall thickness of HCNs can be easily controlled by activation time. Owing to their large inner cavity and enclosed structure, HCNs are desirable carriers for encapsulating sulfur. To better understand the effects of pore characteristics and sulfur contents on the performances of lithium-sulfur batteries, three composites of HCNs and sulfur are prepared and studied in detail. The composites of HCNs with moderate specific surface areas and suitable sulfur content present a better performance. The first discharge capacity of this composite reaches 1401 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C. Even after 200 cycles, the discharge capacity remains at 626 mAh g-1 . © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Soil organic carbon distribution in Mediterranean areas under a climate change scenario via multiple linear regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Obregón-Romero, Rafael

    2017-08-15

    Over time, the interest on soil studies has increased due to its role in carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO 2 rates. In many studies, independent variables were related to soil organic carbon (SOC) alone, however, the contribution degree of each variable with the experimentally determined SOC content were not considered. In this study, samples from 612 soil profiles were obtained in a natural protected (Red Natura 2000) of Sierra Morena (Mediterranean area, South Spain), considering only the topsoil 0-25cm, for better comparison between results. 24 independent variables were used to define it relationship with SOC content. Subsequently, using a multiple linear regression analysis, the effects of these variables on the SOC correlation was considered. Finally, the best parameters determined with the regression analysis were used in a climatic change scenario. The model indicated that SOC in a future scenario of climate change depends on average temperature of coldest quarter (41.9%), average temperature of warmest quarter (34.5%), annual precipitation (22.2%) and annual average temperature (1.3%). When the current and future situations were compared, the SOC content in the study area was reduced a 35.4%, and a trend towards migration to higher latitude and altitude was observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Parras-Alcántara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC, but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC to olive grove (OG and vineyards (V. A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years of LUC (AC by OG and V and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC, total nitrogen (TN, C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O., in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr, an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011. This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively. With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs, the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  16. Impacts of land use change in soil carbon and nitrogen in a Mediterranean agricultural area (Southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, L.; Martín-Carrillo, M.; Lozano-García, B.

    2013-05-01

    The agricultural Mediterranean areas are dedicated to arable crops (AC), but in the last decades, a significant number of AC has led to a land use change (LUC) to olive grove (OG) and vineyards (V). A field study was conducted to determine the long-term effects (46 years) of LUC (AC by OG and V) and to determine soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and their stratification across the soil entire profile, in Montilla-Moriles denomination of origin (D.O.), in Calcic-Chromic Luvisols (LVcc/cr), an area under semiarid Mediterranean conditions. The experimental design consisted of studying the LUC on one farm between 1965 and 2011. Originally, only AC was farmed in 1965, but OG and V were farmed up to now (2011). This LUC principally affected the horizon thickness, texture, bulk density, pH, organic matter, organic carbon, total nitrogen and C : N ratio. The LUC had a negative impact in the soil, affecting the SOC and TN stocks. The conversion from AC to V and OG involved the loss of the SOC stock (52.7% and 64.9% to V and OG respectively) and the loss of the TN stock (42.6% and 38.1% to V and OG respectively). With respect to the stratification ratios (SRs), the effects were opposite; 46 years after LUC increased the SRs (in V and OG) of SOC, TN and C : N ratio.

  17. Studies on removal of metribuzin, bromacil, 2,4-D and atrazine from water by adsorption on high area carbon cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayranci, Erol; Hoda, Numan

    2004-08-09

    The removal of pesticides such as metribuzin, bromacil, 2,4-d and atrazine from aqueous solutions was studied by adsorption on high area carbon cloth. The adsorption process was followed by in situ UV-spectrophotometric technique in a specially designed adsorption cell. Spectroscopic data of the pesticides were determined in separate experiments. The extent of adsorption was quantified by calculating the amount of adsorbate adsorbed per unit area of the carbon cloth and the percentage coverage at the carbon-cloth surface. The order of extent of adsorption of the pesticides studied was found as metribuzin metribuzin.

  18. Litter and Soil Carbon Stock in Cultivated and Natural Area of Intergrated Forest for Conservation Education of Wan Abdul Rachman Great Forest Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni Dellta Ellannia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intergrated Forest for Conservation Education of Wan Abdul Rachman (IFCE WAR Great Forest Park is a conservation forest zone which has natural area and cultivated area. The natural area in Wan Abdul Rachman Great Forest Park consists of secondary forest, whereas the cultivated area consists of agroforestry with cacao plants and agroforestry with coffee plants. The different land use in both areas caused the difference in carbon sink specifically in litter and soil. The research was aimed to study the difference of litter and soil carbon stock in natural and cultivated area in IFCE WAR Great Forest Park. The observation plots included in the current study was determined using purposive sampling method. The research was conducted in June until August 2015. Data was analyzed using analysis of variance and continued with honestly significant difference test. The results showed that there was no difference of litter carbon stock in cultivated area and natural area in IFCE WAR Great Forest Park, whereas the soil carbon stock in natural area was higher than that in cultivated area.

  19. Surface area dependence of calcium isotopic reequilibration in carbonates: Implications for isotopic signatures in the weathering zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, N. M.; Druhan, J. L.; Potrel, A.; Jacobson, A. D.

    2016-12-01

    The concept of dynamic equilibrium carries the implicit assumption of continued isotopic exchange between a mineral and the surrounding fluid. While this effect has received much attention in the marine paleoproxy literature, it has been relatively overlooked in application to the terrestrial environment. In weathering systems, a potential consequence is that rapid reequilibration may alter or erase isotopic signatures generated during secondary mineral formation. The extent and timescale over which isotopic signatures are reset in these hydrologic systems is unknown. Using reactive transport modeling, we show isotopic reequilibration under conditions reflecting terrestrial hydrologic settings to be significant and dependent on the reactive surface area of the solid. In particular, we suggest that the non-traditional stable isotopes commonly used in application to carbonates (e.g., Ca, Mg, Sr) are sensitive to these effects due to their rapid reaction rates. We aim to characterize the dependence of Ca isotopic reequilibration on surface area during calcite precipitation via batch experiments conducted at ambient temperature over 48-hour time periods. Calcite precipitation was performed in a closed batch reactor utilizing a controlled free-drift method. The batch reactors contained mixed supersaturated solutions of CaCl2 and NaHCO3 at an initial pH of 8.54. Precipitation was initiated by seed inoculation of calcite crystals with two distinct, pre-constrained surface areas. All experiments achieved the same final state of chemical equilibrium, but as expected, the fastest approach to equilibrium occurred for experiments employing calcite seeds with the highest surface area. This implies that differences in equilibrated Ca isotope ratios (δ44/40Ca) should reflect differences in surface area. This prediction is upheld by models of the experiments, indicating a measureable difference in δ44Ca during calcite precipitation where the higher surface area corresponds to

  20. Carbon dioxide and radon gas hazard in the Alban Hills area (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubien, S. E.; Ciotoli, G.; Lombardi, S.

    2003-04-01

    The sudden and catastrophic, or slow and continuous, release at surface of naturally occurring toxic gases like CO 2, H 2S and Rn poses a serious health risk to people living in geologically active regions. In general this problem receives little attention from local governments, although public concern is raised periodically when anomalous toxic-gas concentrations suddenly kill humans or livestock. For example, elevated CO 2 concentrations have been linked to the death of at least 10 people in the central Italian region of Lazio over the last 20 years, while it was the CO 2 asphyxiation of 30 cows in a heavily populated area near Rome in 1999 which prompted the present soil-gas study into the distribution of the local health risk. A detailed geochemical survey was carried out in an area of about 4 km 2 in the Ciampino and Marino districts, whereby a total of 274 soil-gas samples were collected and analysed for more than 10 major and trace gas species. Data were then processed using both statistical and geostatistical methods, and the resulting maps were examined in order to highlight areas of elevated risk. General trends of elevated CO 2 and Rn concentrations imply the presence of preferential pathways (i.e. faults and fractures) along which deep gases are able to migrate towards the surface. The CO 2 and Rn anomalous trends often correspond to and are usually elongated parallel to the Apennine mountain range, the controlling structural feature in central Italy. Because of this fundamental anisotropy in the factors controlling the soil-gas distribution, it was found that a geostatistical approach using variogram analysis allowed for a better interpretation of the data. With regard to the health risk to local inhabitants, it was found that although some high risk areas had been zoned as parkland, others had been heavily developed for residential purposes. For example, many new houses were found to have been built on ground which has soil-gas CO 2 concentrations of

  1. Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon and the Influencing Factors in An Oasis Farmland Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ze

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The soil organic carbon(SOC of a typical oasis farmland in middle part of Manasi county of Xinjiang was used as the research ob原 ject. Using remote sensing and lab analysis techniques, influences of soil texture, terrain, land uses, and crop types on SOC content of farmland were studied. Results showed that the SOC distribution in farmland of Manasi was mainly determined by comprehensive natural environmental factors. The SOC content decreased along with the increasing soil depth. For soil textures, the SOC content from high to low was clay loam>powder loam>silty loam. Slope direction had significantly positive correlations with SOC contents at 0~30 cm and 30~60 cm, while altitude and SOC content at 60~100 cm were significantly positive correlation. The SOC content of orchard was the highest, and the uncultivated land was the lowest under different land-use patterns. For different crop planting systems, the order of SOC content was corn field >wine grapes field>cotton field, and the difference was significant.

  2. The drawbacks and opportunities of carbon charges in metropolitan areas. A spatial general equilibrium approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tscharaktschiew, Stefan; Hirte, Georg [Faculty of Traffic Sciences, Institute of Transport and Economics, Chair of Spatial Economics and Regional Science, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Dresden (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In cities there is a variety of economic and spatial forces that may influence to what extent a travel-related CO{sub 2} emission pricing can be an effective instrument to contribute to the achievement of CO{sub 2} reduction goals. Therefore, we examine the effectiveness and impact of CO{sub 2} emission charges using a spatial general equilibrium model of an urban economy, calibrated according to an average German city. Our analyses suggest that the imposition of a Pigouvian type CO{sub 2} emission charge on urban passenger travel may be able to reduce emissions by about 1%-11%, depending on the estimated social damage cost of carbon dioxide. Such a policy increases urban welfare mainly on account of a reduction of congestion costs. However, pricing congestion directly not only provides higher urban welfare but also higher emission reductions. Pricing congestion and CO{sub 2} emissions simultaneously allows to achieve a wide range of emission reduction goals. If, however, the reduction goal is very ambitious the emission charge must be raised to higher levels. Then, distortions in the urban markets and in spatial travel decisions lower labor supply and thus urban production, income of city residents, federal tax revenue, income of landowners outside the city, all together implying losses in welfare. (author)

  3. Hydrogeochemistry and geothermometry of deep thermal water in the carbonate formation in the main urban area of Chongqing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pingheng; Cheng, Qun; Xie, Shiyou; Wang, Jianli; Chang, Longran; Yu, Qin; Zhan, Zhaojun; Chen, Feng

    2017-06-01

    Many geothermal reservoirs in Chongqing in southwestern China are located in carbonate rock aquifers and exploited through drilling. Water samples from 36 geothermal wells have been collected in the main urban area of Chongqing. Chemical types of the thermal water samples are Ca·Mg-SO4 and Ca-SO4. High contents of Ca2+ and SO42- in the thermal water samples are derived from the dissolution of evaporates. Furthermore, the HCO3- concentration is constrained by the common ion effect. Drilling depth has no effect on the physical and chemical characteristics according to the results of a t-test. The geothermal reservoir's temperature can be estimated to be 64.8-93.4 °C (average 82 °C) using quartz and improved SiO2 geothermometers. Values of δD and δ18O for the thermal water samples indicate that the thermal water resources originate from local precipitation with a recharge elevation between 838 and 1130 m and an annual air temperature between 10.4 and 13.9 °C. A conceptual model of regional scale groundwater flow for the thermal water is proposed. The thermal water mainly originates from the meteoric water recharged in the elevated areas of northeastern Tongluoshan and Huayingshan by means of percolation through exposed carbonate before becoming groundwater. The groundwater is heated at depth and moves southwest along the fault and the anticlinal core in a gravity-driven regime. The thermal water is exposed in the form of artesian hot springs in river cutting and low-elevation areas or in wells.

  4. CMP aerogels: ultrahigh-surface-area carbon-based monolithic materials with superb sorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ran; Zhang, Na; Xu, Hua; Mao, Nannan; Duan, Wenjie; Wang, Jinying; Zhao, Qiuchen; Liu, Zhongfan; Zhang, Jin

    2014-12-17

    Monolithic conjugated microporous polymer (CMP) aerogels are obtained in an extremely facile way by selection of adequate reaction conditions and a freeze-drying technique. The aerogels possess an ultrahigh specific surface area and hierarchical interconnected pores, exhibiting superb gas/oil adsorption performance compared with all microporous organic polymers to date. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Nicotine dependence, smoking-related attitude, and subjective norms across the stages of change for smoking cessation among adults smokers in a rural area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hee; Seo, Nam Sook; Kang, Hae Young

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify nicotine dependence, smoking-related attitude, and subjective norms across the stages of change for smoking cessation among adult smokers in a rural area. The subjects were 276 current smokers (male=243, female=33). There were 3 stages of change for smoking cessation: pre-contemplation, contemplation, and preparation stage. Data was collected by an interview or self-reporting from February 12th to March 5th 2004, and analyzed with frequency, percentage, chi- square-test, Fisher's exact probability test, ANOVA, and Scheffe test using the SPSS-PC program. According to the stages of change, 114(41.3%) current smokers were in pre-contemplation, 110(39.9%) in contemplation, and 52(18.8%) in the preparation stage. There was a higher percentage of males than females (chi- square=8.99, p=.011) in the preparation stage. The mean score of the smoking-related attitude (F=7.43, p=.001) and subjective norm(F=27.41, p=.001) were both lowest in the pre-contemplation stage and increased positively during the stages of change for smoking cessation. Based on these findings, the authors recommend that community-based smoking cessation programs should be developed by considering the intention or motives of current smokers and should be initiated in the preparation stage and primarily for male groups.

  6. Soil organic carbon stocks quantification in Mediterranean natural areas, a trade-off between entire soil profiles and soil control sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric. C.; Cerdá, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is extremely important in the global carbon (C) cycle; also, SOC is a soil property subject to changes, inasmuch as SOC is highly variable in space and time. The scientific community is researching the fate of the organic carbon in the ecosystems and this is why there is a blooming interest on this topic (Oliveira et al., 2014; Kukal et al., 2015). Soil organic matter play a key role in the Soil System (Fernández-Romero et al., 2014; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano García, 2014; Lozano-García and Parras-Alcántara; Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015).Globally it is known that soil C sequestration is a strategy to mitigate climate change. Over time, some researchers have analyzed entire soil profiles (ESP) by pedogenetic horizons and other researchers have analyzed soil control sections (SCS) (edaphic controls to different thickness), and in each case the benefits of the methodology established was justified. However, very few studies compare both methods (ESP versus SCS). This research sought to analyze the SOC stock (SOCS) variability using both methods (ESP and SCS) in The Despeñaperros Natural Park, a nature reserve that consists of a 76.8 km2 forested area in southern Spain. The park is in a Mediterranean environment and is a natural area (free of human disturbance). Thirty-four sampling points were selected in the study zone. Each sampling point was analyzed in two different ways, as ESP (by horizons) and as SCS with different depth increments (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm). The major goal of this research was to study the SOCS variability at regional scale. The studied soils were classified as Phaeozems, Cambisols, Regosols and Leptosols. The total SOCS in the Despeñaperros Natural Park was over 28.2% greater when SCS were used compared to ESP, ranging from 0.8144 Tg C to 0.6353 Tg C respectively (1 Tg = 10E12 g). However, when the top soil (surface horizon and superficial section control) was analyzed, this difference increased to

  7. Bacteria, colloids and organic carbon in groundwater at the Bangombe site in the Oklo area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    This report describes how microorganisms, colloids and organic matter were sampled from groundwater from six boreholes at the Bangombe site in the Oklo region and subsequently analyzed. For analysis of microorganisms, DNA was extracted from groundwater, amplified and cloned and information available in the ribosomal 16S rRNA gene was used for mapping diversity and distribution of bacteria. Each borehole was dominated by species that did not dominate in any of the other boreholes, a result that probably reflects documented differences in the geochemical environment. Analyses of sampled colloids included SEM and ICP-MS analysis of colloids on membrane and single particle analysis of samples in bottles. The colloid concentration was rather low in these Na-Mg-Ca-HCO{sub 3} type waters. Trace element results show that transition metals and some heavy metals are associated with the colloid phase. Distribution coefficients of trace elements between the water and colloid phases were estimated. For example for uranium, an average of 200 pg/ml was detected in the water, and 40 pg/ml was detected in the colloid phase. A K{sub p} value of 2* 10{sup 6} ml/g was calculated, considering (colloid) = 100 ng/ml. Groundwater samples were collected for analysis of the concentration of organic carbon (TOC), humic substances and metals associated with the humic substances. TOC varied in the range 4-14 mg/l in three boreholes, one borehole had a TOC<1.5 mg/l. The metal speciation study indicated that a large fraction, 8-67% of uranium was bound to the humic matter compared to the fractions of Ca and Fe (<0.4% and 0.02-10%, resp.). 60 refs, 8 figs, 16 tabs.

  8. Land use change and management effects on soil organic carbon stock and soil quality in Mediterranean areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2016-04-01

    INTRODUCTION Both land use and management affects to soil properties and soil quality. On the one hand, land use change from natural vegetation to agricultural land often is a key factor that influences to soil. On the other hand, under semiarid climatic conditions, intensive tillage increases soil organic matter losses, reduces soil quality, and contributes to climate change due to increased CO2 emissions. MATERIAL AND METHODS A field study was conducted to determine the land use change [Mediterranean evergreen oak woodland (MEOW-dehesa) to olive grove (OG) and cereal (C), all of them managed under conventional tillage and under conservationist practices] effects on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and the soil quality [through Stratification Ratios (SR)] in Los Pedroches valley, southern Spain. RESULTS Results for the present study indicate that in MEOW-dehesa management practices had little effect on SOC storage. The stratification ratio was >2 in both management systems, so, soils under MEOW-dehesa had high quality. Nevertheless, in OG and C conservationist practices increased SOC stocks. Therefore, conservationist practices contributed to a better soil quality and to increased carbon sequestration and, consequently, this management is an excellent alternative to conventional tillage. A change in land use from MEOW-dehesa to OG or C under conservationist practices appeared to increase the SOC. When calculated for the total soil profile these differences were equivalent to 20-25 Mg ha-1 of SOC. This is potentially very important for many agricultural soils in the Mediterranean area which are typically very poor in organic matter. These differences in the SOC stock were not apparent when the change in land use occurred under conventional tillage; even in the land use change from MEOW-dehesa to C the SOC stock was reduced. This suggests that management in addition to change in land use is an important consideration and particularly the degree of soil disturbance

  9. High surface area bio-waste based carbon as a superior electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Makhan; Bhattarai, Arjun; Ulaganathan, Mani; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe Ohnmar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon (AC) with high surface area (1901 m2 g-1) is synthesized from low cost bio-waste orange (Citrus sinensis) peel for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The composition, structure and electrochemical properties of orange peel derived AC (OP-AC) are characterized by elemental analyzer, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. CV results show that OP-AC coated bipolar plate demonstrates improved electro-catalytic activity in both positive and negative side redox couples than the pristine bipolar plate electrode and this is ascribed to the high surface area of OP-AC which provides effective electrode area and better contact between the porous electrode and bipolar plate. Consequently, the performance of VRB in a static cell shows higher energy efficiency for OP-AC electrode than the pristine electrode at all current densities tested. The results suggest the OP-AC to be a promising electrode for VRB applications and can be incorporated into making conducting plastics electrode to lower the VRB cell stack weight and cost.

  10. Construction of high-energy-density supercapacitors from pine-cone-derived high-surface-area carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Kaliyappan; Amaresh, Samuthirapandiyan; Lee, Sol Nip; Sun, Xueliang; Aravindan, Vanchiappan; Lee, Young-Gi; Lee, Yun Sung

    2014-05-01

    Very high surface area activated carbons (AC) are synthesized from pine cone petals by a chemical activation process and subsequently evaluated as an electrode material for supercapacitor applications in a nonaqueous medium. The maximum specific surface area of ∼3950 m(2)  g(-1) is noted for the material treated with a 1:5 ratio of KOH to pine cone petals (PCC5), which is much higher than that reported for carbonaceous materials derived from various other biomass precursors. A symmetric supercapacitor is fabricated with PCC5 electrodes, and the results showed enhanced supercapacitive behavior with the highest energy density of ∼61 Wh kg(-1). Furthermore, outstanding cycling ability is evidenced for such a configuration, and ∼90 % of the initial specific capacitance after 20,000 cycles under harsh conditions was observed. This result revealed that the pine-cone-derived high-surface-area AC can be used effectively as a promising electrode material to construct high-energy-density supercapacitors. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ultrahigh surface area meso/microporous carbon formed with self-template for high-voltage aqueous supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Hu, Jiangtao; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Haibiao; Pan, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A new hierarchically porous carbon has been synthesized with self-template of silica phase from a commercial silicone resin by pyrolysis and subsequent NaOH activation. The obtained carbon materials achieve an ultrahigh specific surface area (2896 m2 g-1) with abundant mesopores. The C800 sample demonstrates excellent performance in supercapacitors, with a high capacitance of 322 F g-1 at 0.5 A g-1 and outstanding rate capability (182 F g-1 at 100 A g-1) in a three-electrode system using 6.0 mol L-1 KOH electrolyte. The energy density is improved by widening the voltage window using 1.0 mol L-1 alkali metal nitrate solutions (LiNO3, NaNO3, KNO3) in which the strong solvation of alkali metal cations and nitrate anions effectively reduce the activity of water. In a symmetric supercapacitor, the maximum operating voltage is essentially restricted by the potential of positive electrode and the total capacitance is dominated by the capacitance of the anion at the positive electrode. The symmetric supercapacitors based on C800 deliver a high energy density of 22.4 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 0.23 kW kg-1 in 1.0 mol L-1 LiNO3 with a voltage of 1.8 V and long-term stability with a retention of 89.87% after 10000 cycles.

  12. Effect of substrate material on the growth and field emission characteristics of large-area carbon nanotube forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ummethala, Raghunandan; Wenger, Daniela; Tedde, Sandro F.; Täschner, Christine; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd; Eckert, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a promising replacement for tungsten filaments as electron emitters in conventional x-ray sources, owing to their higher aspect ratio, superior mechanical stability, chemical inertness, and high electrical and thermal conductivities. Conditions for realizing the best emission behavior from CNTs have been formulated over the last few years. In this paper, we report the relatively less-investigated factor, namely, the influence of the nature of substrate material on the growth as well as field emission characteristics of large-area multiwalled CNTs for their practical application in medical x-ray sources. We compare the morphology of CNTs on a variety of substrates such as stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, graphite, few-layer graphene, and carbon nanowalls grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition following a simple drop-coating of catalyst. We find that CNTs grown on stainless steel and graphite show the best combination of emission characteristics under pulsed operation mode. These studies are helpful in selecting the optimum substrate material for field emission applications. Ex situ studies on field emission degradation of CNTs are presented towards the end.

  13. Effect of substrate material on the growth and field emission characteristics of large-area carbon nanotube forests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ummethala, Raghunandan; Täschner, Christine; Leonhardt, Albrecht; Büchner, Bernd [IFW Dresden, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Wenger, Daniela; Tedde, Sandro F. [Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Technology Centre, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Eckert, Jürgen [Erich Schmid Institute of Materials Science, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Jahnstrasse 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Department Materials Physics, Montanuniversität Leoben, Jahnstraße 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2016-01-28

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a promising replacement for tungsten filaments as electron emitters in conventional x-ray sources, owing to their higher aspect ratio, superior mechanical stability, chemical inertness, and high electrical and thermal conductivities. Conditions for realizing the best emission behavior from CNTs have been formulated over the last few years. In this paper, we report the relatively less-investigated factor, namely, the influence of the nature of substrate material on the growth as well as field emission characteristics of large-area multiwalled CNTs for their practical application in medical x-ray sources. We compare the morphology of CNTs on a variety of substrates such as stainless steel, copper, molybdenum, graphite, few-layer graphene, and carbon nanowalls grown by thermal chemical vapor deposition following a simple drop-coating of catalyst. We find that CNTs grown on stainless steel and graphite show the best combination of emission characteristics under pulsed operation mode. These studies are helpful in selecting the optimum substrate material for field emission applications. Ex situ studies on field emission degradation of CNTs are presented towards the end.

  14. Simulation of low-carbon tourism in world natural and cultural heritage areas: An application to Shizhong District of Leshan City in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Jiuping, E-mail: xujiuping@scu.edu.cn [Low Carbon Technology and Economy Research Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Yao Liming; Mo Liwen [Low Carbon Technology and Economy Research Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2011-07-15

    The national goal of 40-45% mitigation of the 2005 level intensity of carbon by 2020 was announced by the Chinese government at the Copenhagen Conference. Every industry in China is preparing to realize this national reduction target. Some attempts have been made to achieve low-carbon development in a few industries, but relatively little work has linked low-carbon development to tourism. This article concentrates on how to develop low-carbon tourism using a quantitative approach. Firstly, the tourism system including some mutual influence factors is investigated and some historical data are given in support for the research of their quantitative relationship. Secondly, a differential dynamic system model with fuzzy coefficients is proposed to predict tourism revenue, energy consumption, waste emissions and the carbon intensity. Finally, an application to Shizhong District of Leshan City in China (LCSD), as a representative of a world natural and cultural heritage area, is presented to show the trend of modern tourism in a low-carbon economy and prove the effectiveness of the proposed model. - Highlights: > The system of low-carbon tourism is described. > A differential dynamic model with fuzzy coefficients is developed. > Carbon intensity in the tourism system will gradually decrease. > Some suggestions about developing low-carbon tourism are exhibited.

  15. Investigation on the Plasma-Induced Emission Properties of Large Area Carbon Nanotube Array Cathodes with Different Morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Liang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large area well-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT arrays with different morphologies were synthesized by using a chemical vapor deposition. The plasma-induced emission properties of CNT array cathodes with different morphologies were investigated. The ratio of CNT height to CNT-to-CNT distance has considerable effects on their plasma-induced emission properties. As the ratio increases, emission currents of CNT array cathodes decrease due to screening effects. Under the pulse electric field of about 6 V/μm, high-intensity electron beams of 170–180 A/cm2 were emitted from the surface plasma. The production mechanism of the high-intensity electron beams emitted from the CNT arrays was plasma-induced emission. Moreover, the distribution of the electron beams was in situ characterized by the light emission from the surface plasma.

  16. Pelagic nitrogen dynamics in the Vietnamese upwelling area according to stable nitrogen and carbon isotope data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loick, Natalie; Dippner, Joachim; Doan, Hai Nhu; Liskow, Iris; Voss, Maren

    2007-04-01

    Upwelling and nitrogen (N) fixation provide new N for primary production off southern central Vietnam. Here we evaluate the roles of both N sources for zooplankton nutrition by comparing δ15N and δ13C values in nitrate, particulate organic matter (POM), and six net-plankton size fractions from monsoon and intermonsoon seasons. The δ13C values in POM and the net-plankton size fractions differed by 2-4‰ at any time. We assume that plankton from the POM filters was dominated by nano-and picoplankton as opposed to micro- and mesoplankton in the net-samples. The implications of this are discussed in terms of size differential pathways of C and N in the planktonic food web. We used δ15N to estimate the differences in N nutrition between the actual upwelling region and the oligotrophic area further offshore. The δ15N values of the net-plankton size fractions were depleted in δ15N by ca. 2‰ outside compared to inside the upwelling area during the monsoon season. We attribute these patterns to the additional utilization of N derived from N fixation. The concomitant findings of high N fixation rates reported earlier and low subthermocline nitrate (nitrate sub) values of 2.9-3.6‰ support this conclusion. Net-plankton δ15N values increased with size, pointing to the dominance of higher trophic levels in the larger size fractions. According to a two source mixing model N fixation may have provided up to 13% of the N demand in higher trophic levels.

  17. Diurnal and seasonal variations in carbon dioxide exchange in ecosystems in the Zhangye oasis area, Northwest China.

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    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Quantifying carbon dioxide exchange and understanding the response of key environmental factors in various ecosystems are critical to understanding regional carbon budgets and ecosystem behaviors. For this study, CO2 fluxes were measured in a variety of ecosystems with an eddy covariance observation matrix between June 2012 and September 2012 in the Zhangye oasis area of Northwest China. The results show distinct diurnal variations in the CO2 fluxes in vegetable field, orchard, wetland, and maize cropland. Diurnal variations of CO2 fluxes were not obvious, and their values approached zero in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. Additionally, daily variations in the Gross Primary Production (GPP, Ecosystem Respiration (Reco and Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE were not obvious in the sandy desert, desert steppe, and Gobi ecosystems. In contrast, the distributions of the GPP, Reco, and NEE show significant daily variations, that are closely related to the development of vegetation in the maize, wetland, orchard, and vegetable field ecosystems. All of the ecosystems are characterized by their carbon absorption during the observation period. The ability to absorb CO2 differed significantly among the tested ecosystems. We also used the Michaelis-Menten equation and exponential curve fitting methods to analyze the impact of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR on the daytime CO2 flux and impact of air temperature on Reco at night. The results show that PAR is the dominant factor in controlling photosynthesis with limited solar radiation, and daytime CO2 assimilation increases rapidly with PAR. Additionally, the carbon assimilation rate was found to increase slowly with high solar radiation. The light response parameters changed with each growth stage for all of the vegetation types, and higher light response values were observed during months or stages when the plants grew quickly. Light saturation points are different for different

  18. Boric acid-mediated B,N-codoped chitosan-derived porous carbons with a high surface area and greatly improved supercapacitor performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Zheng; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Mengdi; Fan, Xiaoming; Yu, Chang; Yang, Juan; Xiao, Nan; Qiu, Jieshan

    2015-03-01

    This work reports an efficient strategy to synthesize B,N-codoped porous carbons with a high specific surface area using chitosan as the carbon precursor with the help of boric acid, featuring a high specific capacitance, large operation voltage and excellent cycle stability for supercapacitors.This work reports an efficient strategy to synthesize B,N-codoped porous carbons with a high specific surface area using chitosan as the carbon precursor with the help of boric acid, featuring a high specific capacitance, large operation voltage and excellent cycle stability for supercapacitors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, additional figures and tables see DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00081e

  19. Iodine distribution in natural waters of different chemical composition in relation to water-bearing soils and rocks and water fractions in areas subjected to radioiodine contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmykova, Liudmila; Korobova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    Iodine is an essential microelement required for normal functioning of thyroid gland. Natural deficiency of stable iodine is compensated by its active intake by thyroid and provokes its higher irradiation in case of radiation accidents and contamination of the environment by radioiodine isotopes. The bioavailability of both stable and radioactive iodine and the specificity of its uptake by living organisms largely depends on geochemical parameters of the environment related to natural conditions of water migration. The goal of the study was to investigate spatial distribution of iodine in natural water of different chemical composition in relation to typical water-bearing soils and rocks and water fractions in Bryansk areas subjected to radioiodine contamination after the Chernobyl accident and to evaluate contribution of this factor to the occurrence of endemic thyroid diseases among local population inhabiting geochemically different areas of fluvioglacial and loess-like sedimentary rocks. The highest content of iodine (Me=13.3 µg/l) was observed in surface water of landscapes with H-Ca, Ca and H-Ca-Fe classes of water migration. The lowest microelement level (Me=5.25 µg/l) was noted in groundwater of landscapes with H, H-Fe classes of water migration in areas of Paleogene water bearing rocks. Regardless of the type of source and class of water migration up to 90% of the total content of iodide is present in the fraction membrane filtration). Up to 50% of iodine pass to solution containing particles water in areas of loess-like sedimentary rocks hosts the highest levels of iodine where its associated with calcium mineral aquatic complexes and the suspended particles. The obtained data is believed to be useful in explanation of mobility and intake of iodine and its radioactive analogues by rural population living in different geochemical conditions and using local drinking waters. The data should be accounted of in planning prophylactics of endemic diseases and

  20. Educational role of art history as a school subject area in programmes of formal education in Slovenia: the aspect of vzgoja, according to general European guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjana Dolšina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Programmes of formal education establish a systematic transfer of knowledge as well as universal values from one generation to another. By that, they ensure the survival of social structures, prevent radical disruptions in their continuity, and serve as basis for general development of a society. Their content and didactic arrangements include interweaving of two basic aspects: the cognitive one and the one related to vzgoja (i.e. upbringing, moral/value education etc.. The latter aims to achieve the ideals of a tolerant, just and lifelong learning society, but seems to be facing increasing challenges, mainly emerging from neoliberal capitalist mentality. Art history as a school subject area in elementary and secondary education may provide an insight beneath the surface of historical events. Thus, it helps develop a critical view towards them and consequently towards the present real-life situations, which contributes to ascending the taxonomic scale of conative educational goals.

  1. The Pochonia chlamydosporia serine protease gene vcp1 is subject to regulation by carbon, nitrogen and pH: implications for nematode biocontrol.

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    Elaine Ward

    Full Text Available The alkaline serine protease VCP1 of the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia belongs to a family of subtilisin-like enzymes that are involved in infection of nematode and insect hosts. It is involved early in the infection process, removing the outer proteinaceous vitelline membrane of nematode eggs. Little is known about the regulation of this gene, even though an understanding of how nutrients and other factors affect its expression is critical for ensuring its efficacy as a biocontrol agent. This paper provides new information on the regulation of vcp1 expression. Sequence analysis of the upstream regulatory region of this gene in 30 isolates revealed that it was highly conserved and contained sequence motifs characteristic of genes that are subject to carbon, nitrogen and pH-regulation. Expression studies, monitoring enzyme activity and mRNA, confirmed that these factors affect VCP1 production. As expected, glucose reduced VCP1 expression and for a few hours so did ammonium chloride. Surprisingly, however, by 24 h VCP1 levels were increased in the presence of ammonium chloride for most isolates. Ambient pH also regulated VCP1 expression, with most isolates producing more VCP1 under alkaline conditions. There were some differences in the response of one isolate with a distinctive upstream sequence including a variant regulatory-motif profile. Cryo-scanning electron microscopy studies indicated that the presence of nematode eggs stimulates VCP1 production by P. chlamydosporia, but only where the two are in close contact. Overall, the results indicate that readily-metabolisable carbon sources and unfavourable pH in the rhizosphere/egg-mass environment may compromise nematode parasitism by P. chlamydosporia. However, contrary to previous indications using other nematophagous and entomopathogenic fungi, ammonium nitrate (e.g. from fertilizers may enhance biocontrol potential in some circumstances.

  2. Monitoring of carbon-dioxide production in the seismoactive area of West Bohemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Tomáš; Vlček, Josef; Woith, Heiko; Heinicke, Jens

    2017-04-01

    Geodynamically active area of West Bohemia is interesting not only due to its earthquake swarms occurrence but also due to the massive degassing of CO2 of magmatic origin occurring in dry mofettes and mineral springs. A continuous monitoring of CO2 amount has started in 2009 and a well pronounced increase of gas flow was observed in relation to the 2014 seismic sequence, which has been attributed to the fault-valve behavior. At present six monitoring stations with online data transfer are in operation, which combine various methods of gas flow monitoring in order to assure robust and reliable data series. In this paper we show the decreasing trend of gas flow since the 2014 aftershock sequences observed at different stations and compare various approached for quantification of gas flow. The reliability of chamber-type and venturi-type gas flow meters depends on ambient temperature conditions, namely during freezing periods, which makes the measurement unstable in time. Accordingly we designed alternative methods to measure CO2 amount by quantifying the fraction of gas bubbles in water column in stable temperature conditions of borehole or mofette. This is carried our by two different approaches - the first is based on measuring the density of two-phase fluid (water with bubbles) in the well by differential pressure gauge. The second measures electric conductivity of the two-phase fluid. We analyse the obtained time series in terms of their dependence on ambient conditions (namely the air pressure and temperature), mutual relations of the gas-related quantities (flow, wellhead pressure, bubble fraction in water) relations and interpret the present trend of gas production and its possible relation to seismic activity.

  3. Preparation of High Surface Area Activated Carbon from Spent Phenolic Resin by Microwave Heating and KOH Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Song; Zhang, Libo; Zhang, Shengzhou; Xia, Hongying; Peng, Jinhui

    2018-01-01

    The spent phenolic resin is as raw material for preparing high surface area activated carbon (HSAAC) by microwave-assisted KOH activation. The effects of microwave power, activation duration and impregnation ratio (IR) on the iodine adsorption capability and yield of HSAAC were investigated. The surface characteristics of HSAAC were characterized by nitrogen adsorption isotherms, FTIR, SEM and TEM. The operating variables were optimized utilizing the response surface methodology (RSM) and were identified to be microwave power of 700 W, activation duration of 15 min and IR of 4, corresponding to a yield of 51.25 % and an iodine number of 2,384 mg/g. The pore structure parameters of the HSAAC, i. e., Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, total pore volume, and average pore diameter were estimated to be 4,269 m2/g, 2.396 ml/g and 2.25 nm, respectively, under optimum conditions. The findings strongly support the feasibility of microwave-assisted KOH activation for preparation of HSAAC from spent phenolic resin.

  4. [Subjective Workload, Job Satisfaction, and Work-Life-Balance of Physicians and Nurses in a Municipal Hospital in a Rural Area Compared to an Urban University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körber, Michael; Schmid, Klaus; Drexler, Hans; Kiesel, Johannes

    2017-02-15

    Medical and nursing shortages in rural areas represent a current serious public health problem. The healthcare of the rural population is at risk. This study compares perceived workload, job satisfaction and work-life balance of physicians and nurses at a clinic in a rural area with two clinics of a University hospital. Physicians and nurses were interviewed anonymously with a standardized questionnaire (paper and pencil), including questions on job satisfaction, subjective workload and work-life balance. The response rate was almost 50% in the University hospital as well as in the municipal hospital. 32 physicians and 54 nurses from the University hospital and 18 physicians and 137 nurses from the municipal hospital participated in the survey. Nurses at the University hospital assessed the organization of the daily routine with 94.1% as better than those at the municipal hospital (82.4%, p=0.03). Physicians at the University hospital were able to better implement acquired knowledge at a University clinic with 87.5% than their counterparts at the municipal hospital (55.5%, p=0.02). In contrast to their colleagues at the municipal hospital, only 50% of the physicians at the University hospital subjectively considered their workload as just right (83.3% municipal, p=0.02). 96.9% of the physicians at the University hospital were "daily" or "several times a week" under time pressure (municipal 50%, pwork and family life (62.9% University hospital, 72.8% Municipal hospital). In contrast, only 20% of the physicians at the University Hospital but 42.9% of the physicians of the municipal hospital had sufficient opportunities to balance workload and family (p=0.13). The return rate of almost 50% can be described as good. Due to the small number of physicians, especially from the municipal hospital, it can be assumed that some interesting differences could not be detected. There were only slight differences between the nurses from the two hospitals. In contrast, subjective

  5. Carboniferous and older carbonate rocks: Lithofacies, extent, and reservoir quality: Chapter CC in The oil and gas resource potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 area, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1999-01-01

    Carboniferous and older carbonate rocks are potential hydrocarbon reservoir facies for four plays in the 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. These rocks include several units in the pre-Carboniferous basement and the Carboniferous Lisburne Group. Data from exploratory wells west of the 1002 area, outcrops south of the 1002 area, seismic lines, and well logs are synthesized herein to infer carbonate lithofacies, extent, and reservoir character beneath the northeastern Arctic coastal plain.A chiefly shallow-water basement carbonate succession of Late Proterozoic through Early Devonian age (Katakturuk Dolomite, Nanook Limestone, and Mount Copleston Limestone) is interpreted to be present beneath much of the south-central 1002 area; it reaches 3,700 m thick in outcrop and is the primary reservoir for the Deformed Franklinian Play. A more heterogeneous lithologic assemblage of uncertain age forms basement in the northwestern part of the 1002 area; well data define three subunits that contain carbonate intervals 5- 50 m thick. These strata are prospective reservoirs for the Undeformed Franklinian Play and could also be reservoirs for the Niguanak- Aurora Play. Regional lithologic correlations suggest a Cambrian-Late Proterozoic(?) age for subunits one and two, and a slightly younger, later Cambrian-Silurian age for subunit three. Seismic and well data indicate that subunit one overlies subunit two and is overlain by subunit three. The Mississippian and Pennsylvanian Lisburne Group, a predominantly carbonate platform succession as much as 1 km thick, is projected beneath the southernmost part of the 1002 area and is a potential reservoir for the Ellesmerian Thrust-belt and Niguanak-Aurora Plays.Carbonate rocks in the 1002 area probably retain little primary porosity but may have locally well developed secondary porosity. Measured reservoir parameters in basement carbonate strata are low (porosity generally ≤ 5%; permeability ≤ 0.2 md) but drill

  6. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Liu, Yaling; Le Page, Yannick

    2018-02-05

    Protected areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous United States. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous United States from 1700 to 2005. More than 3 million km2 of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere. PAs had experienced little LULCC as they were generally established in the 20th century after most of the agricultural expansion had occurred. PAs initially acted as a carbon source due to land use legacies, but their accumulated carbon budget switched to a carbon sink in the 1960s, sequestering an estimated 1,642 Tg C over 1700–2005, or 13.4% of carbon losses in non-PAs. We also find that PAs maintain larger carbon stocks and continue sequestering carbon in recent years (2001–2005), but at a lower rate due to increased heterotrophic respiration as well as lower productivity associated to aging ecosystems. It is essential to continue efforts to maintain resilient, biodiverse ecosystems and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs.

  7. The role of protected areas in land use/land cover change and the carbon cycle in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoliang; Zhou, Yuyu; Liu, Yaling; Le Page, Yannick

    2018-02-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover about 22% of the conterminous United States. Understanding their role on historical land use and land cover change (LULCC) and on the carbon cycle is essential to provide guidance for environmental policies. In this study, we compiled historical LULCC and PAs data to explore these interactions within the terrestrial ecosystem model (TEM). We found that intensive LULCC occurred in the conterminous United States from 1700 to 2005. More than 3 million km 2 of forest, grassland and shrublands were converted into agricultural lands, which caused 10,607 Tg C release from land ecosystems to atmosphere. PAs had experienced little LULCC as they were generally established in the 20th century after most of the agricultural expansion had occurred. PAs initially acted as a carbon source due to land use legacies, but their accumulated carbon budget switched to a carbon sink in the 1960s, sequestering an estimated 1,642 Tg C over 1700-2005, or 13.4% of carbon losses in non-PAs. We also find that PAs maintain larger carbon stocks and continue sequestering carbon in recent years (2001-2005), but at a lower rate due to increased heterotrophic respiration as well as lower productivity associated to aging ecosystems. It is essential to continue efforts to maintain resilient, biodiverse ecosystems and avoid large-scale disturbances that would release large amounts of carbon in PAs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Dynamics of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through stormwater basins designed for groundwater recharge in urban area: Assessment of retention efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermillod-Blondin, Florian; Simon, Laurent; Maazouzi, Chafik; Foulquier, Arnaud; Delolme, Cécile; Marmonier, Pierre

    2015-09-15

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) has been developed in many countries to limit the risk of urban flooding and compensate for reduced groundwater recharge in urban areas. The environmental performances of MAR systems like infiltration basins depend on the efficiency of soil and vadose zone to retain stormwater-derived contaminants. However, these performances need to be finely evaluated for stormwater-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can affect groundwater quality. Therefore, this study examined the performance of MAR systems to process DOM during its transfer from infiltration basins to an urban aquifer. DOM characteristics (fluorescent spectroscopic properties, biodegradable and refractory fractions of dissolved organic carbon -DOC-, consumption by micro-organisms during incubation in slow filtration sediment columns) were measured in stormwater during its transfer through three infiltration basins during a stormwater event. DOC concentrations sharply decreased from surface to the aquifer for the three MAR sites. This pattern was largely due to the retention of biodegradable DOC which was more than 75% for the three MAR sites, whereas the retention of refractory DOC was more variable and globally less important (from 18% to 61% depending on MAR site). Slow filtration column experiments also showed that DOC retention during stormwater infiltration through soil and vadose zone was mainly due to aerobic microbial consumption of the biodegradable fraction of DOC. In parallel, measurements of DOM characteristics from groundwaters influenced or not by MAR demonstrated that stormwater infiltration increased DOC quantity without affecting its quality (% of biodegradable DOC and relative aromatic carbon content -estimated by SUVA254-). The present study demonstrated that processes occurring in soil and vadose zone of MAR sites were enough efficient to limit DOC fluxes to the aquifer. Nevertheless, the enrichments of DOC concentrations measured in groundwater below

  9. Respiration of bivalves from three different deep-sea areas: Cold seeps, hydrothermal vents and organic carbon-rich sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripounoff, A.; Caprais, J. C.; Decker, C.; Le Bruchec, J.; Noel, P.; Husson, B.

    2017-08-01

    We studied bivalves (vesicomyids and mytilids) inhabiting four different areas of high sulfide and methane production: (1) in the Gulf of Guinea, two pockmarks (650 m and 3150 m depth) and one site rich in organic sediments in the deepest zone (4950 m average depth), (2) at the Azores Triple Junction on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, one hydrothermal site (Lucky Strike vent field, 1700 m depth). Two types of Calmar benthic chambers were deployed, either directly set into the sediment (standard Calmar chamber) or fitted with a tank to isolate organisms from the sediment (modified Calmar chamber), to assess gas and solute exchanges in relation to bivalve bed metabolism. Fluxes of oxygen, total carbon dioxide, ammonium and methane were measured. At the site with organic-rich sediments, oxygen consumption by clams measured in situ with the standard benthic chamber was variable (1.3-6.7 mmol m-2 h-1) as was total carbon dioxide production (1-9.6 mmol m-2 h-1). The observed gas and solute fluxes were attributed primarily to bivalve respiration (vesicomyids or mytilids), but microbial and geochemical processes in the sediment may be also responsible for some of variations in the deepest stations. The respiration rate of isolated vesicomyids (16.1-0.25.7 μmol g-1 dry weight h-1) was always lower than that of mytilids (33 μmol g-1 dry weight h-1). This difference was attributed to the presence of a commensal scaleworm in the mytilids. The respiratory coefficient (QR) ≥1 indicated high levels of anaerobic metabolism. The O:N index ranged from 5 to 25, confirming that vesicomyids and mytilids, living in symbiosis with bacteria, have a protein-based food diet.

  10. Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory D. Johnson; Chad W. LeBeau; Ryan Nielsen; Troy Rintz; Jamey Eddy; Matt Holloran

    2012-03-27

    This study was conducted to obtain baseline data on use of the proposed Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area (SRWRA) in Carbon County, Wyoming by greater sage-grouse. The first two study years were designed to determine pre-construction seasonally selected habitats and population-level vital rates (productivity and survival). The presence of an existing wind energy facility in the project area, the PacifiCorp Seven Mile Hill (SMH) project, allowed us to obtain some information on initial sage-grouse response to wind turbines the first two years following construction. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative data on sage-grouse response to an existing wind energy development. This report presents results of the first two study years (April 1, 2009 through March 30, 2011). This study was selected for continued funding by the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative Sage-Grouse Collaborative (NWCC-SGC) and has been ongoing since March 30, 2011. Future reports summarizing results of this research will be distributed through the NWCC-SGC. To investigate population trends through time, we determined the distribution and numbers of males using leks throughout the study area, which included a 4-mile radius buffer around the SRWRA. Over the 2-year study, 116 female greater sage-grouse were captured by spotlighting and use of hoop nets on roosts surrounding leks during the breeding period. Radio marked birds were located anywhere from twice a week to once a month, depending on season. All radio-locations were classified to season. We developed predictor variables used to predict success of fitness parameters and relative probability of habitat selection within the SRWRA and SMH study areas. Anthropogenic features included paved highways, overhead transmission lines, wind turbines and turbine access roads. Environmental variables included vegetation and topography features. Home ranges were estimated using a kernel density estimator. We developed resource selection

  11. Paleogene carbonate microfacies and sandstone provenance (Gamba area, South Tibet): Stratigraphic response to initial India-Asia continental collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo; An, Wei; Wang, Jiangang

    2015-05-01

    The Paleogene marine strata in the Gamba area of south Tibet comprise carbonates of the Zongpu Formation and siliciclastic rocks of the Enba and Zhaguo Formations, documenting the final stages of marine deposition in the Tethyan Himalaya. The ∼350-m-thick Zongpu Formation was dated as late Danian to Ypresian based on larger benthic foraminifers. Thirteen distinct microfacies identify three sedimentary environments. Mudstone, wackestone with Udoteacean algae, bioclastic-peloidal packstone, packstone with Rotaliids and green algae, floatstone with Alveolina and Orbitolites were deposited in restricted lagoonal environments. Bioclastic packstone and grainstone with Rotaliids were deposited in high-energy shoal environments. Floatstones with Nummulitids or Alveolinids were deposited in shallow open-marine environments. The Zongpu Formation was accumulated on a carbonate ramp. It documents two deepening-upward sequences separated by an unconformity corresponding to the Palaeocene/Eocene boundary and marked by a conglomerate with limestone clasts. The overlying Enba Formation comprises greenish grey calcareous shales intercalated with litho-quartzose sandstones in the upper part and capped by subaerial litho-quartzose red beds of the Zhaguo Formation. Petrographic analysis, detrital zircon geochronology and Hf isotopic data indicate that detritus in the Enba and Zhaguo Formations, deposited on the Indian passive margin, was derived from the Asian active margin in the north. These clastic units were thus deposited after the onset of the India-Asia continental collision in the early Himalayan foreland basin. Major lithological and paleoenvironmental changes occurred at three stratigraphic levels: the Jidula/Zongpu boundary (∼62 Ma), the Paleocene/Eocene boundary (∼56 Ma) and the Zongpu/Enba boundary (∼51 Ma). Our provenance study confirms that the India-Asia collision was already under way during the deposition of the Enba Member (i.e., by ∼51 Ma) and, along with

  12. Chemical composition of drinking water as a possible environment-specific factor modifying the thyroid risk in the areas subjected to radioiodine contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmykova, Lyudmila; Korobova, Elena; Ryzhenko, Boris

    2015-04-01

    Water is one of the main natural agents providing chemical elements' migration in the environment and food chains. In our opinion a study of spatial variation of the essential trace elements in local drinking water is worth considering as the factor that may contribute to variation of the health risk in areas contaminated by radionuclides and radioiodine in particular. Radioiodine was proved to increase the risk of thyroid cancer among children who lived in areas contaminated during the Chernobyl accident. It was also shown that low stable iodine status of the contaminated area and population also contributed to the risk of this disease in case of radionuclide contamination. The goal of the study was to investigate chemical composition of the drinking water in rural settlements of the Bryansk oblast' subjected to radioiodine contamination and to evaluate speciation of stable I and Se on the basis of their total concentration and chemical composition of the real water samples with the help of thermodynamic modelling. Water samples were collected from different aquifers discharging at different depths (dug wells, local private bore holes and water pipes) in rural settlements located in areas with contrasting soil iodine status. Thermodynamic modelling was performed using original software (HCh code of Y.Shvarov, Moscow State University, RUSSIA) incorporating the measured pH, Corg and elements' concentration values. Performed modelling showed possibility of formation of complex CaI+ ion in aqueous phase, I sorption by goethite and transfer of Se to solid phase as FeSe in the observed pH-Eh conditions. It helped to identify environmental conditions providing high I and Se mobility and their depletion from natural waters. Both the experimental data and modeling showed that I and Se migration and deficiency in natural water is closely connected to pH, Eh conditions and the concentration of typomorphic chemical elements (Ca, Mg, Fe) defining the class of water migration

  13. An Analysis of Decoupling and Influencing Factors of Carbon Emissions from the Transportation Sector in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Zhu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector is the major green-house gas emitter and most rapidly growing sector in terms of consuming energy in China. Understanding the driving forces behind carbon emission is a prerequisite for reducing carbon emissions and finding a balance between economic growth and carbon emissions. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of the factors which influence the level of carbon emissions from the transportation sector in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH area, China, using decomposition model, combined with a decoupling elasticity index. The results of our study indicate that: (1 changes in the level of carbon emissions from the transportation sector are not always synchronized with changes in economic growth. (2 The decoupling state between the carbon emissions and economic growth of Tianjin and Beijing can be roughly divided into two phases. The first phase was during the 2005 to 2009 period, when the decoupling state was pessimistic. The second phase was from 2009 to 2013, when the decoupling state became better overall and was mainly dominated by weak decoupling. Conversely, the decoupling state of Hebei was mainly weak during this period. (3 Economic growth and population size play positive roles in increasing the levels of transportation-related carbon emissions in BTH. However, the energy structure is a negative force. The effect of energy intensity always plays a negative role in Tianjin and Hebei, but positive in Beijing. The industrial structure effect shows a fluctuating trend, but the cumulative effect value is negative, and negative interaction is prominent. Finally, this paper gives some suggestions on how to develop low-carbon transport in BTH area.

  14. Network Level Carbon Dioxide Emissions From On-road Sources in the Portland OR, (USA) Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J.; Butenhoff, C. L.; Rice, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    To mitigate climate change, governments at multiple levels are developing policies to decrease anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. The City of Portland (Oregon) and Multnomah County have adopted a Climate Action Plan with a stated goal of reducing emissions to 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. The transportation sector alone accounts for about 40% of total emissions in the Portland metropolitan area. Here we show a new street-level model of on-road mobile CO2 emissions for the Portland, OR metropolitan region. The model uses hourly traffic counter recordings made by the Portland Bureau of Transportation at 9,352 sites over 21 years (1986-2006), augmented with freeway loop detector data from the Portland Regional Transportation Archive Listing (PORTAL) transportation data archive. We constructed a land use regression model to fill in traffic network gaps with traffic counts as the dependent variable using GIS data such as road class (32 categories) and population density. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model was used to estimate transportation CO2 emissions. The street-level emissions can be aggregated and gridded and used as input to atmospheric transport models for comparison with atmospheric measurements. This model also provides an independent assessment of top-down inventories that determine emissions from fuel sales, while being an important component of our ongoing effort to assess the effectiveness of emission mitigation strategies at the urban scale.

  15. Marine carbonate embayment system in an Eolian dune terrain, Permian Upper Minnelusa Formation, Rozet Area, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achauer, C.W.

    1987-05-01

    The eolian origin for Minnelusa sandstones has been stressed in numerous published articles. However, the dolomites that are interbedded with the eolian sandstones have received little attention. Isopach mapping of one of the dolomite units (Dolomite I) reflects a marine embayment system whose individual embayments range from 1/2 to 1 mi in width and trend primarily in a northwest direction. Consistently the embayment dolomites pinch out against the flanks of reworked, low relief, broad, eolian dune ridges. So far, 108 mi/sup 2/ of the Dolomite I marine embayment system have been mapped, but the overall extent of the system is undoubtedly much greater. Dolomite I is rarely cored, but cores from stratigraphically higher embayment dolomites in the upper Minnelusa show that these dolomites display the following, shoaling-upward sequence: (1) subtidal, sparingly fossiliferous dolomite; (2) intertidal, algal-laminated or brecciated or mud-cracked dolomite; and (3) very thin, supratidal, nodular anhydrite. The embayments, therefore, became the sites of marine sabkhas located between eolian dunes. Two main conclusions emerge from this study: (1) the juxtaposition of eolian sandstones and marine dolomites in a tectonically stable area suggests that eustatic sea level changes and a very arid climate were responsible for the marked environmental and lithologic changes observed in the upper Minnelusa, and (2) arid, coastal, evaporitic sabkhas bordered by eolian dunes are known from a number of modern and ancient cases, but marine carbonate embayments and associated evaporitic sabkhas that penetrate deeply into eolian sandstone terrains are rare.

  16. Evaluating of the spatial heterogeneity of soil loss tolerance and its effects on erosion risk in the carbonate areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss tolerance (T value is one of the criteria in determining the necessity of erosion control measures and ecological restoration strategy. However, the validity of this criterion in subtropical karst regions is strongly disputed. In this study, T value is calculated based on soil formation rate by using a digital distribution map of carbonate rock assemblage types. Results indicated a spatial heterogeneity and diversity in soil loss tolerance. Instead of only one criterion, a minimum of three criteria should be considered when investigating the carbonate areas of southern China because the one region, one T value concept may not be applicable to this region. T value is proportionate to the amount of argillaceous material, which determines the surface soil thickness of the formations in homogenous carbonate rock areas. Homogenous carbonate rock, carbonate rock intercalated with clastic rock areas and carbonate/clastic rock alternation areas have T values of 20, 50 and 100 t/(km2 a, and they are extremely, severely and moderately sensitive to soil erosion. Karst rocky desertification (KRD is defined as extreme soil erosion and reflects the risks of erosion. Thus, the relationship between T value and erosion risk is determined using KRD as a parameter. The existence of KRD land is unrelated to the T value, although this parameter indicates erosion sensitivity. Erosion risk is strongly dependent on the relationship between real soil loss (RL and T value rather than on either erosion intensity or the T value itself. If RL > > T, then the erosion risk is high despite of a low RL. Conversely, if T > > RL, then the soil is safe although RL is high. Overall, these findings may clarify the heterogeneity of T value and its effect on erosion risk in a karst environment.

  17. Evaluating of the spatial heterogeneity of soil loss tolerance and its effects on erosion risk in the carbonate areas of southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Bai, Xiao Yong; Jie Wang, Shi; Qin, Luo Yi; Chao Tian, Yi; Jie Luo, Guang

    2017-05-01

    Soil loss tolerance (T value) is one of the criteria in determining the necessity of erosion control measures and ecological restoration strategy. However, the validity of this criterion in subtropical karst regions is strongly disputed. In this study, T value is calculated based on soil formation rate by using a digital distribution map of carbonate rock assemblage types. Results indicated a spatial heterogeneity and diversity in soil loss tolerance. Instead of only one criterion, a minimum of three criteria should be considered when investigating the carbonate areas of southern China because the one region, one T value concept may not be applicable to this region. T value is proportionate to the amount of argillaceous material, which determines the surface soil thickness of the formations in homogenous carbonate rock areas. Homogenous carbonate rock, carbonate rock intercalated with clastic rock areas and carbonate/clastic rock alternation areas have T values of 20, 50 and 100 t/(km2 a), and they are extremely, severely and moderately sensitive to soil erosion. Karst rocky desertification (KRD) is defined as extreme soil erosion and reflects the risks of erosion. Thus, the relationship between T value and erosion risk is determined using KRD as a parameter. The existence of KRD land is unrelated to the T value, although this parameter indicates erosion sensitivity. Erosion risk is strongly dependent on the relationship between real soil loss (RL) and T value rather than on either erosion intensity or the T value itself. If RL > > T, then the erosion risk is high despite of a low RL. Conversely, if T > > RL, then the soil is safe although RL is high. Overall, these findings may clarify the heterogeneity of T value and its effect on erosion risk in a karst environment.

  18. High surface area microporous carbon materials for cryogenic hydrogen storage synthesized using new template-based and activation-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P; Hu, Qingyuan

    2009-05-20

    High surface area microporous carbon materials were synthesized using new, simple, and innovative approaches based on traditional template and chemical activation methods. The resulting surface area and porosity were characterized using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET)-type measurements and analysis, and the hydrogen storage capacity was determined using excess hydrogen adsorption measurements at 77 K and up to 40 bar hydrogen pressure. For our direct one-step aerosol-assisted template-based synthesis method of mixing the template precursor and carbon precursor solutions, a specific surface area value of up to nearly 2000 m(2) g(-1) and an excess hydrogen storage capacity of 4.2 wt% was observed. For our chemical activation-based synthesis method of homogeneously mixing the chemical activation reagent into the carbon precursor solution, a specific surface area value of nearly 3000 m(2) g(-1) and an excess hydrogen adsorption capacity of nearly 5.8 wt% were observed. The surface area and hydrogen uptake results varied systematically with the synthesis parameters, and we observed a strong correlation between the BET values of the specific surface area and the excess hydrogen adsorption capacity.

  19. Surface areas of turbostratic graphitic carbons prepared from a resin using nickel particles, 20 nm, as graphitization catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, A.; Inoue, E.; Otani, S.; Marsh, H.

    1981-11-01

    Nickel particles were used to graphitize catalytically a non-graphitizing carbon to create a turbostratic graphitic material called the T/SUB/s-component. This method was examined by X-ray diffraction. Coals on heat treatment to temperatures >1270 K form T/SUB/s-component carbons. Therefore, considerations of the properties of the T/SUB/s-component carbon may have relevance to considerations of the operational performances of blast furnace coke. (22 refs.)

  20. Effects of grazing intensity on soil labile organic carbon fractions in a desert steppe area in Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jixin; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Grazing can cause changes in soil carbon (C) level. This study aimed to elucidate the response of soil labile organic carbon (SLOC) under four different grazing intensities: non grazing (NG), 0 sheep·ha(-1); light grazing (LG), 0.91 sheep·ha(-1); moderate grazing (MG), 1.82 sheep·ha(-1), and heavy grazing (HG), 2.73 sheep·ha(-1). Results showed that there was no significant difference in total soil organic carbon (TOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) content from three soil depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm, and 30-45 cm) under different grazing intensities. However, the SLOC including particulate organic carbon (POC), light fraction organic carbon (LFOC), and readily oxidizable carbon (ROC) content at a depth of 0-15 cm decreased with the increasing grazing intensity among LG, MG and HG. The SLOC content at depths of 15-30 cm under the NG and LG were significantly higher than that under the MG and the HG. The TOC and SLOC content decreased with increasing depths of soil horizons, but SIC content increased. The variation trend of the density of different soil carbon fractions and the ratio of individual SLOC fractions to TOC were similar to that of the soil carbon content of corresponding fractions. These results indicated that MG and HG treatments caused C loss at 0-30 cm; and SLOC was more sensitive than TOC in response to different grazing intensities.

  1. Effects of grazing intensity on soil labile organic carbon fractions in a desert steppe area in Inner Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jixin; Wang, Xiaoping; Sun, Xiangyang; Zhang, Lin; Tian, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Grazing can cause changes in soil carbon (C) level. This study aimed to elucidate the response of soil labile organic carbon (SLOC) under four different grazing intensities: non grazing (NG), 0 sheep·ha-1; light grazing (LG), 0.91 sheep·ha-1; moderate grazing (MG), 1.82 sheep·ha-1, and heavy grazing (HG), 2.73 sheep·ha-1. Results showed that there was no significant difference in total soil organic carbon (TOC) and soil inorganic carbon (SIC) content from three soil depths (0-15 cm, 15-30 cm,...

  2. Spatial Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in the Coastal Area of Mid-Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Pu, Lijie; Liao, Qilin; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xue; Mao, Tianying; Xu, Chenxing

    2017-07-14

    Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO₂. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2.49 g·kg-1 and 0.21 g·kg-1, respectively) to the cropland (10.73 g·kg-1 and 1.3 g·kg-1, respectively). After long-term cultivation, SOC and TN in the old farmland (12.98 g·kg-1 and 1.49 g·kg-1, respectively) were greater than those in the young farmland (5.76 g·kg-1 and 0.86 g·kg-1, respectively). The density of SOC in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland, and old farmland were 0.68 kg·C·m-2, 1.52 kg·C·m-2, and 3.31 kg·C·m-2, respectively. The density of TN in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland and old farmland were 0.05 kg·N·m-2, 0.23 kg·N·m-2, and 0.38 kg·N·m-2, respectively. The C/N (11.17) in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat was highest comparing to that in the young and old farmland due to lower nitrogen. The C/N increased from 6.78 to 8.71 following cultivation. Reclaimed coastal tidal flats had high carbon and nitrogen sequestration potential that not only mitigated the threat of global warming, but also improved soil fertility for crop production. Coastal management of cropland should consider the spatial distribution of SOC and TN to improve ecosystem services of coastal soils.

  3. Assessment of Current Energy Consumption Practices, Carbon Emissions and Indoor Air Pollution in Samagaun, Manaslu Conservation Area, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Suwal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal is one of the lowest energy consuming countries in the world. More than 85 percent of its total energy comes from traditional biomass energy such as forests, agricultural residues and by-products from crops. Due to increasing per capita energy consumption, natural resources are being depleted with heavy emissions of GHGs in the atmosphere, which causes global warming. The main objective of the study was to investigate current energy consumption practices, to estimate particulate matter and carbon emissions from current practices and to recommend the most suitable alternative energy technologies. The fieldwork was based on primary and secondary data with a design methodology. Firewood burning was found to be the major source of energy used for cooking purposes in Samagaun. The use of this traditional fuel has negative environmental implications, such as deforestation, indoor air pollution and it ultimately affects human health. The results show that traditional cooking stoves (TCS are used more than improved cooking stoves (ICS. The total amount of firewood used per day by TCS is 2135 kg/day, and by ICS it is 349 kg/day. The average amount of firewood consumed by traditional and improved cooking stoves per day is 62.79 kg and 43.63 kg, respectively. The annual per capita firewood consumption of TCS and ICS is 4401.9 kg and 3266.7 kg, respectively. The calculation shows that per capita firewood consumption by TCS users is 1.3 times higher than that of ICS users. The annual per capita carbon emissions from TCS and ICS is 8055.47 kg CO2e and 5978.15 kg CO2e, respectively. This calculation shows that ICS emits 1.3 times less CO2 into the atmosphere than the TCS. The average mean particulate concentration at normal atmospheric conditions for a traditional cooking stove was found to be 2866 μg/Nm3 and for an improved cooking stove 1333 μg/Nm3, both of which far exceed the national standard of 230 μg/m3 TSP. Based on the study results, metallic

  4. Spatial Variation of Soil Organic Carbon and Total Nitrogen in the Coastal Area of Mid-Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Lijie; Liao, Qilin; Zhu, Ming; Yu, Xue; Mao, Tianying; Xu, Chenxing

    2017-01-01

    Soils play an important role in sequestrating atmospheric CO2. Coastal tidal flats have been intensively reclaimed for food security and living spaces worldwide. We aimed to identify the changes of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN) following coastal reclamation and their spatial variation in the coastal area of mid-Eastern China to provide information for coastal cropland management. We measured SOC and TN of 463 soil samples in the coastal plain of mid-Eastern China. The results showed that SOC and TN increased highly from the uncultivated coastal tidal flat (2.49 g·kg−1 and 0.21 g·kg−1, respectively) to the cropland (10.73 g·kg−1 and 1.3 g·kg−1, respectively). After long-term cultivation, SOC and TN in the old farmland (12.98 g·kg−1 and 1.49 g·kg−1, respectively) were greater than those in the young farmland (5.76 g·kg−1 and 0.86 g·kg−1, respectively). The density of SOC in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland, and old farmland were 0.68 kg·C·m−2, 1.52 kg·C·m−2, and 3.31 kg·C·m−2, respectively. The density of TN in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat, young farmland and old farmland were 0.05 kg·N·m−2, 0.23 kg·N·m−2, and 0.38 kg·N·m−2, respectively. The C/N (11.17) in the uncultivated coastal tidal flat was highest comparing to that in the young and old farmland due to lower nitrogen. The C/N increased from 6.78 to 8.71 following cultivation. Reclaimed coastal tidal flats had high carbon and nitrogen sequestration potential that not only mitigated the threat of global warming, but also improved soil fertility for crop production. Coastal management of cropland should consider the spatial distribution of SOC and TN to improve ecosystem services of coastal soils. PMID:28708078

  5. The contribution of vehicular emission to the atmospheric concentrations of carbon compounds in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, M.; Fornaro, A.; Miranda, R.; Ynoue, R. Y.; Freitas, E. D.; LAPAt-Laboratorio de Analise dos Processos Atmosfericos

    2013-05-01

    It is recognized that megacities have regional and global effects on climate, and that aerosols and Green House Gases (GHG) constitute the principal tracer of those effects. Such is the case in the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo (MASP), one of the largest mega-cities in the world. MASP has a population of almost 20 million inhabitants. The main source of air pollution is the transport sector. In this region, there are approximately 6.5 million passenger cars and commercial vehicles: 85% light duty, 3% heavy-duty diesel vehicles (diesel + 3% bio-diesel) and 12% motorcycles. Of the light duty vehicle, approximately 55% burn a mixture (v/v) of 78% gasoline with 22% ethanol (referred to as gasohol), 4% use hydrated ethanol (95% ethanol + 5% water), 38% flexible fuel vehicles capable of burning both gasohol as hydrated ethanol, and 2% use diesel. In average 50% of the fuel used in MASP is ethanol what brings the necessity of more studies to understand the formation of photochemical oxidants and secondary particles. According to the São Paulo State Environmental Protection Agency, 97% of carbon monoxide (CO), 85% of hydrocarbons (HC), 82% of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 36% of sulfur dioxide emitted, and 36% of all inhalable particulate matter (PM10) are emitted by the vehicular fleet. Concerning particles, 75% of the Fine Particle Concentration is related to the burning of fuel, mainly diesel. The fine particles are composed of Organic Carbon (40%), Black Carbon (30%), ions (15%) and metals. It is known that the soot is warming the climate and is important to the radiative balance. Another important driver to the radiative balance, the CO2 is mainly emitted by the transport sector, which is responsible for 57% of its emission. A comprehensive project under development has the objective of determine the role of MASP as the source of gaseous and particle compounds to the atmosphere of the region and in a mesoscale perspective. The project with funding from the São Paulo

  6. Controllable Nitrogen Doping of High-Surface-Area Microporous Carbons Synthesized from an Organic-Inorganic Sol-Gel Approach for Li-S Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huichao; Wei, Yanju; Wang, Jitong; Qiao, Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Long, Donghui

    2015-09-30

    High-surface-area microporous carbons with controllable nitrogen doping were prepared via a novel organic-inorganic sol-gel approach, using phenolic resol and hexamethoxymethyl melamine (HMMM) as carbon precursors, and partially hydrolyzed tetraethoxysilane as silica template. The pore structures of microporous carbons were completely replicated from a thin silica framework and could be tailored greatly by changing the organic/inorganic ratio. The nitrogen atoms doped into the carbon framework were issued from high-nitrogen-content HMMM precursors, and the nitrogen content could be adjusted in a wide range by changing the phenolic resol/HMMM ratio. Moreover, the porous structure and nitrogen content could be simultaneously controlled, allowing the preparation of a series of microporous carbons with almost the same microstructures (BET surface areas of ca.1900 m(2)·g(-1)and pore volumes of ca. 1.2 cm(3)·g(-1), and the same pore size distributions) but with different nitrogen contents (0-12 wt %). These results provided a general method to synthesize nitrogen-doped microporous carbons and allowed these materials to serve as a model system to illustrate the role of nitrogen content on the performance of the carbons. When used as the supports for sulfur cathodes, only an appropriate nitrogen content of ca. 6.3 wt % was found to effectively improve sulfur utilization and cycle life of the sulfur cathodes. The resulting sulfur cathodes could deliver an outstanding reversible discharge capacity of 1054 mAh·g(-1) at 0.5 C after 100 cycles.

  7. The Development and Application of a Harmonized Burned Area Data Set for North America to Assess the Effects of Fire Disturbance on the Continental Carbon Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G.; Hayes, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    Fires burn an annual average of about 40,000 km2 in Canada and the U.S., making it an important feature of North American ecosystems through renewing ecosystem conditions and vegetation dynamics. Fire disturbances substantially modify ecosystem carbon dynamics both temporally and spatially. Ecosystems generally lose carbon for several years to decades following fire disturbance, but our understanding of the duration and dynamics of post-disturbance carbon fluxes remains limited. Owing to the prevailing collection of inventory data for fire burn area, intensity, distribution, and associated carbon-related parameters in North America, we are able to more accurately estimate carbon dynamics following fire disturbances. In our study, we integrated four major fire datasets (i.e., U.S. Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity dataset, Bureau of Land Management Alaska Fire Service dataset, and Canadian National Fire Database, and GFEDv3.1 fire dataset) and other auxiliary data to generate a comprehensive and continuous burned area history dataset, which covers the 1920 to 2012 time period and is gridded at quarter-degree resolution for the North American continent. Driven by this new dataset, we used the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM6.0) to simulate the impacts of fire disturbance on carbon dynamics across North American ecosystems. The results indicate that large amount of carbon was emitted due to fire disturbances during the study period, especially for the boreal ecosystems with slow recovery. The modeling results were also evaluated with the field measurements along a fire chronosequence and compared to estimates from other approaches.

  8. Biomass-derived nitrogen-doped porous carbons with tailored hierarchical porosity and high specific surface area for high energy and power density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Junting; Niu, Jin; Liu, Mengyue; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling; Wang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Porous carbon materials with hierarchical structures attract intense interest for the development of high-performance supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate a facile and efficient strategy to synthesize nitrogen-doped hierarchically porous carbons with tailored porous structure combined with high specific surface area (SSA), which involves a pre-carbonization and a subsequent carbonization combined with KOH activation of silkworm cocoon precursors. Through adjusting the mass ratio of the activator (KOH) to pre-carbonized precursor in the activation process, the hierarchically porous carbon prepared at the mass ratio of 2 (referred to as NHPC-2) possesses a high defect density and a high SSA of 3386 m2 g-1 as well as the relatively high volumetric proportion of mesopores and macropores (45.5%). As a result, the energy density and power density of the symmetric supercapacitor based on NHPC-2 electrode are as high as 34.41 Wh kg-1 and 31.25 kW kg-1 in organic-solvent electrolyte, and are further improved to 112.1 Wh kg-1 and 23.91 kW kg-1 in ionic-liquid electrolyte.

  9. Urban soil organic carbon and its spatial heterogeneity in comparison with natural and agricultural areas in the Moscow region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, V.I.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Vasenev, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Soils hold the largest carbon stock in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is formed under a combination of bioclimatic and land-use conditions. Therefore, one would expect changes in SOC stocks with land use changes like urbanization. So far, the majority of regional studies on SOC

  10. Towards Regional, Error-Bounded Landscape Carbon Storage Estimates for Data-Deficient Areas of the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willcock, Simon; Phillips, Oliver L.; Platts, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring landscape carbon storage is critical for supporting and validating climate change mitigation policies. These may be aimed at reducing deforestation and degradation, or increasing terrestrial carbon storage at local, regional and global levels. However, due to data-deficiencies, default...... global carbon storage values for given land cover types such as ‘lowland tropical forest’ are often used, termed ‘Tier 1 type’ analyses by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Such estimates may be erroneous when used at regional scales. Furthermore uncertainty assessments...... are rarely provided leading to estimates of land cover change carbon fluxes of unknown precision which may undermine efforts to properly evaluate land cover policies aimed at altering land cover dynamics. Here, we present a repeatable method to estimate carbon storage values and associated 95% confidence...

  11. Impact of different fertilizers on carbonate weathering in a typical karst area, Southwest China: a field column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Liu, Changli; Han, Guilin; Liu, Congqiang

    2017-09-01

    Carbonate weathering, as a significant vector for the movement of carbon both between and within ecosystems, is strongly influenced by agricultural fertilization, since the addition of fertilizers tends to change the chemical characteristics of soil such as the pH. Different fertilizers may exert a different impact on carbonate weathering, but these discrepancies are as yet not well-known. In this study, a field column experiment was conducted to explore the response of carbonate weathering to the addition of different fertilizers. We compared 11 different treatments, including a control treatment, using three replicates per treatment. Carbonate weathering was assessed by measuring the weight loss of limestone and dolostone tablets buried at the bottom of soil-filled columns. The results show that the addition of urea, NH4NO3, NH4HCO3, NH4Cl and (NH4)2CO3 distinctly increased carbonate weathering, which was attributed to the nitrification of NH4+. The addition of Ca3(PO4)2, Ca-Mg-P and K2CO3 induced carbonate precipitation due to the common ion effect. The addition of (NH4)3PO4 and NaNO3 had a relatively small impact on carbonate weathering in comparison to those five NH4-based fertilizers above. The results of NaNO3 treatment raise a new question: the negligible impact of nitrate on carbonate weathering may result in an overestimation of the impact of N fertilizer on CO2 consumption by carbonate weathering on the regional/global scale if the effects of NO3 and NH4 are not distinguished.

  12. Increasing mortality from ischaemic heart disease in China from 2004 to 2010: disproportionate rise in rural areas and elderly subjects. 438 million person-years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofei; Khan, Arshad A; Haq, Ehtesham Ul; Rahim, Aadil; Hu, Dayi; Attia, John; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Ma, Xiaoyan; Ding, Rongjing; Boyle, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    We sought to ascertain the changes in mortality from ischaemic heart disease (IHD) from 2004 to 2010 in China as the sheer size of China's population makes disease patterns relevant globally. Data on IHD mortality were obtained from the Chinese Centre for Disease Control and Prevention National Disease Surveillance Point System, which includes 161 counties and a population of over 73 million-a representative sample of over 6% of the entire population of China. Both crude and World Health Organization (WHO)-standardized IHD mortality increased, in both men and women and in both urban and rural locations, during the study period, demonstrating the effect of urbanization, economic growth, and epidemiological transition on cardiovascular health. WHO-standardized IHD mortality increased for rural males by 9.2% per year (95% CI: 6.7-11.7%; P < 0.0001), and the trend was statistically significantly higher (P = 0.0001) than in urban males by 6.4% per year (95% CI: 3-10%; P = 0.02). WHO-standardized IHD mortality rate increased for rural females by 7.0% per year (95% CI: 4.6-9.4%; P < 0.0001); this was statistically significantly higher than urban females by 4.3% per year (95% CI: 1-8%; P = 0.02). The age group over 80 years showed the greatest increase in IHD mortality. Mortality from IHD is increasing in China, in contrast to decreasing in other countries. This is largely driven by increasing IHD mortality in rural areas and subjects over 80 years old. This needs urgent attention by public health workers and policymakers.

  13. The 13carbon urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in subjects with atrophic gastritis: evaluation in a primary care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korstanje, A.; van Eeden, S.; Offerhaus, G. J. A.; Sabbe, L. J. M.; den Hartog, G.; Biemond, I.; Lamers, C. B. H. W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: (13)Carbon urea breath testing is reliable to detect current infection with Helicobacter pylori but has been reported to be of limited value in selected patients with atrophic body gastritis or acid-lowering medication. AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of (13)carbon urea breath testing for

  14. Linking Carbon Fluxes with Remotely-Sensed Vegetation Indices for Leaf Area and Aboveground Biomass Through Footprint Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, C.; Clark, K.; Hollinger, D. Y.; Skowronski, N.; Schmid, H. E.

    2010-12-01

    A major challenge of bottom-up scaling is that in-situ flux observations are spatially limited. Thus, to achieve valid regional exchange rates, models are used to interpolate and extrapolate to the vegetational/spatial domain covered by these observations. To parameterize these models from flux data, efforts must be made to select data that best represents the region being modeled as well as linking the fluxes to remotely-sensed data products that can be produced from site to regional scales. Because most long-term flux stations are not in spatially extensive, homogeneous locations, this requirement is often a challenge. However, this requirement can be met by selecting observation periods whose flux footprints are statistically representative of the type of ecosystem identified in the model. The flux footprint function indicates the time-varying surface “field-of-view” (or spatial sampling window) of an eddy-flux sensor, oriented mostly in upwind direction. For each observation period, the modeled flux footprint window is overlain with a high-resolution vegetation index map to determine a footprint-weighted vegetation index for which the observation is representative. Using flux-footprint analysis to link fluxes to models using just an enhanced vegetation index (EVI) map shows a positive trend between EVI and eddy covariance measured fluxes, but the link is not strong. Leaf area is linked with carbon (C) uptake, but forests tend to maximize leaf area, as determined through remote sensing, early on with forests having similar leaf areas across a wide range of ages. Adding another remotely-sensed dataset, aboveground biomass map (AGB), helps capture the processes of lower productivity rates (as biomass increases per unit of leaf area there is a decline, due to the forest ageing) and the C losses due to respiration, both heterotrophic and autotrophic (linked to live and detrital biomass pools). Adding biomass from LIDAR and a combined EVI-biomass layer to examine

  15. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayzoun, H; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Lenoble, V; Le Poupon, C; Angeletti, B; Ouammou, A; Mounier, S

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comment on "Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation" by Becker et al. (2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, M.

    2014-01-01

    Becker et al. (2013) argue that an afforestation of 0.73 × 109 ha with Jatropha curcas plants would generate an additional terrestrial carbon sink of 4.3 PgC yr-1, enough to stabilise the atmospheric mixing ratio of carbon dioxide (CO2) at current levels. However, this is not consistent with the dynamics of the global carbon cycle. Using a well-established global carbon cycle model, the effect of adding such a hypothetical sink leads to a reduction of atmospheric CO2 levels in the year 2030 by 25 ppm compared to a reference scenario. However, the stabilisation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration requires a much larger additional sink or corresponding reduction of anthropogenic emissions.

  17. Three-dimensional cheese-like carbon nanoarchitecture with tremendous surface area and pore construction derived from corn as superior electrode materials for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopiraman, Mayakrishnan; Deng, Dian; Kim, Byoung-Suhk; Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Ick Soo

    2017-07-01

    Highly porous carbon nanoarchitectures (HPCNs) were derived from biomass materials, namely, corn fibers (CF), corn leafs (CL), and corn cobs (CC). We surprisingly found that by a very simple activation process the CF, CL, and CC materials can be transformed into exciting two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanoarchitectures with excellent physicochemical properties. FESEM and HRTEM results confirmed a three different carbon forms (such as foams-like carbon, carbon sheets with several holes and cheese-like carbon morphology) of HPCNs. Huge surface area (2394-3475 m2/g) with excellent pore properties of HPCNs was determined by BET analysis. Well condensed graphitic plans of HPCNs were confirmed by XRD, XPS and Raman analyses. As an electrode material, HPCNs demonstrated a maximum specific capacitance (Cs) of 575 F/g in 1.0 M H2SO4 with good stability over 20,000 cycles. The CC-700 °C showed a tremendous Cs of 375 F/g even at 20000th cycles. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest Cs by the biomass derived activated carbons in aqueous electrolytes. The CC-700 °C exhibited excellent charge-discharge behavior at various current densities (0.5-10 A g-1). Notably, CC-700 °C demonstrated an excellent Cs of 207 F/g at current density of 10 A g-1. An extraordinary change-discharge behavior was noticed at low current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  18. Mass-transport-controlled, large-area, uniform deposition of carbon nanofibers and their application in gas diffusion layers of fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian; Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Qizhong; Chen, Guofen; Hou, Ming; Yi, Baolian

    2015-05-07

    The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (α). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and α was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At α = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing α, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at α = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing α, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with α. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results.

  19. Test of the suitability of ECOPATH/ECOSIM modelling software as a compliment to estimate flows of carbon, C-14 and radionuclides in the Oeregrundsgrepen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandberg, Johannes [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Systems Ecology

    2004-04-01

    In this study it was evaluated whether the ECOPATH with ECOSIM software could be used as a standard platform to facilitate for radioecologists to construct and study transport and accumulation of radionuclides in aquatic food webs. The evaluation was based upon: 1) a previously published food web model of carbon/carbon-14 flow for the Oeregrundsgrepen area, Baltic Sea, 2) a generic model, 3) an ECOSIM model and 4) an ECOTRACE model. The results presented clearly shows that there is great potential for a successful development of this scientific approach in the future. The original carbon flows and assumptions was easily incorporated into the ECOPATH with ECOSIM modelling environment. The carbon flows differed only negligible between the two models, except for the benthic flows, which was more accurately described in this study. Further, by using ECOPATH it was easily discovered that the growth efficiencies used in the original model was quite high, being 47% for most of the heterotrophs, which are high from an ecological point of view. However, that is probably due to differences in how the carbon flows have been estimated in the original versus the present study. It is likely, however that the carbon demand has been underestimated in the original model. The generic model was parameterised from data available through the software as well from the diets and assumptions used in the original carbon model. The use of these parameters resulted in carbon flows, which was between 0.7 to 11 times the flows estimated by the ECOPATH model. The difference was greatest for primary producers being 3.7 to 11 times the original flows. Thus, depending on the question one is addressing it was suggested that the use of generic parameters is best for making test models of carbon and radionuclide flows in ecosystems, where the data set for validation is limited. Finally, the ECOPATH and ECOSIM model was well suited to drive a C-14 flow model, such as ECOTRACER for each of the

  20. Hydrographic Areas Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of sub delineations of the hydrographic area (HA) boundaries and polygons drawn at 1:1,000,000 scale for the Great Basin supplemented by...

  1. Organic carbon, and major and trace element dynamic and fate in a large river subjected to poorly-regulated urban and industrial pressures (Sebou River, Morocco)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayzoun, H. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); LIMOM, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Dhar El Mehraz B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fès 30000 (Morocco); Garnier, C., E-mail: cgarnier@univ-tln.fr [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); Durrieu, G.; Lenoble, V.; Le Poupon, C. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France); Angeletti, B. [Centre Européen de Recherche et d' Enseignement de Géosciences de l' Environnement UMR 6635 CNRS — Aix-Marseille Université, FR ECCOREV, Europôle Méditerranéen de l' Arbois, 13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Ouammou, A. [LIMOM, Faculté des Sciences Dhar El Mehraz, Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah, Dhar El Mehraz B.P. 1796 Atlas, Fès 30000 (Morocco); Mounier, S. [Université de Toulon, PROTEE, EA 3819, 83957 La Garde (France)

    2015-01-01

    An annual-basis study of the impacts of the anthropogenic inputs from Fez urban area on the water geochemistry of the Sebou and Fez Rivers was conducted mostly focusing on base flow conditions, in addition to the sampling of industrial wastewater characteristic of the various pressures in the studied environment. The measured trace metals dissolved/particulate partitioning was compared to the ones predicted using the WHAM-VII chemical speciation code. The Sebou River, upstream from Fez city, showed a weakly polluted status. Contrarily, high levels of major ions, organic carbon and trace metals were encountered in the Fez River and the Sebou River downstream the Fez inputs, due to the discharge of urban and industrial untreated and hugely polluted wastewaters. Trace metals were especially enriched in particles with levels even exceeding those recorded in surface sediments. The first group of elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, U and V) showed strong inter-relationships, impoverishment in Fez particles/sediments and stable partition coefficient (Kd), linked to their lithogenic origin from Sebou watershed erosion. Conversely, most of the studied trace metals/metalloids, originated from anthropogenic sources, underwent significant changes of Kd and behaved non-conservatively in the Sebou/Fez water mixing. Dissolved/particulate partitioning was correctly assessed by WHAM-VII modeling for Cu, Pb and Zn, depicting significant differences in chemical speciation in the Fez River when compared to that in the Sebou River. The results of this study demonstrated that a lack of compliance in environmental regulations certainly explained this poor status. - Highlights: • Pristine status of the Sebou River, Morrocco's main river, upstream Fez (1 M inhabitants) • The Fez River collecting Fez's urban/industrial wastewaters is heavily polluted. • The Fez discharge into the Sebou induces an increase of contaminant levels. • Change in partitioning and chemical speciation of

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS AND DISTRIBUTION OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BUCHAREST URBAN AREA CASE STUDY: 1. 07. 2006 – 31.03.2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU NICOLAE CRISTIAN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of or inside urban and industrial areas can substantially exceed environmental background levels and can be detrimental to human health and welfare. In this period of analysis (July 2006 – March 2007, the maximum allowable concentration (MAC was exceeded especially at Mihai Bravu and Cercul Militar. The accompanying diagrams showing the time evolution and charts revealing the spatial distribution of CO ambient air concentrations (based on GIS techniques can be useful instruments in identifying the potential risk areas, like the important streets in the center of Bucharest.

  3. Identification of Skills Needed for Central Areas of Green and Low-Carbon Economy, for the Needs of Labor Market, in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Holm

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU has set sustainable growth as a goal for 2020, by which a transition to a more resource efficient greener and competitive economy should be achieved. This requires new skills in business life. We have studied how vocational education and training and higher education may serve as a promoter of a green and low-carbon economy in Finland. Based on results from interviews of companies three main areas were chosen. These areas were decentralized renewable energy production, use of organic by-products and promotion of energy efficiency in properties. Education in vocational education and training and universities of applied sciences, for the selected areas, was mapped in 2014-15. The results were presented on workshops, where knowledge supply chains for a green economy on the selected areas were developed. If was found that cooperation between different fields and levels of education is important, as the new skills often emerge at the interfaces.

  4. Greenhouse Gases Emission and Potential Carbon Sequestration: A Case Study of Semi-arid Area in South India

    OpenAIRE

    K Lenin Babu; Raju, K. V.

    2009-01-01

    Global warming and climate change have made adoption measures essential, more so in semi arid regions. Kolar district is typical of semi arid regions with a low Development Index in Karnataka State. Greenhouse gases emissions from various sectors are in tune of 2717 kilotons, however, with a significant potential in the district for Carbon Emission Reduction (15,572 tCO2) and carbon Sequestration measures (3,508,010 tons CO2e) under Kyoto Protocol. If developed, revenues from these measures c...

  5. Expression of the Middle-Late Miocene "Carbonate Crash" and "Biogenic Bloom" in the Benguela Current Upwelling Area of the South Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diester-Haass, L.; Meyers, P. A.; Bauman, S. C.

    2001-05-01

    The middle-late Miocene "carbonate crash" - several episodes with significant drops in concentrations and accumulation rates of CaCO3 - occurred between 13 and 9 Ma in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans and the Carribean Sea (Lyle et al., 1995; Roth et al., 2000). This event is followed by a "biogenic bloom" - a strong increase in biogenous production that has been described in the equatorial Pacific and Indian Oceans. In order to explain these two events, the questions of whether they are confined to tropical upwelling areas, whether they also occur in coastal upwelling areas, or whether they are global phenomena must be answered. We have explored the expression of these events during the evolution of the Benguela Current upwelling system. Sediment sequences from ODP Sites 1085 and 1087 record several drops in carbonate concentrations in the middle and early late Miocene that culminate in a major depression at 9.5-9.0 Ma and that are synchronous with the "carbonate crash" in the equatorial Pacific (Lyle et al., 1995). Climatic changes in SW Africa, reflected by an increase in delivery terrigenous sediment components and by a larger proportion of kaolinite, and oceanic changes, indicated by an expansion of the oxygen minimum zone, accompany this event. Oxygen depletion starts during early carbonate depressions and has a maximum during the major CaCO3 depression. Marine biological productivity, as reconstructed from concentrations of organic carbon and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, is at a minimum in the middle-early late Miocene. However, it increases 3-6 fold at 6.5 Ma, a shift that is synchronous with the "biogenic bloom" in the equatorial Pacific Ocean (Farrell et al., 1995). We attribute this important paleoceanographic change to a strengthening of latitudinal temperature gradients and corresponding vertical mixing by zonal winds during the onset of North Atlantic Deep Water flow, which led to more vigorous deep ventilation and emergence of

  6. Evasion of CO2 and dissolved carbon in river waters of three small catchments in an area occupied by small family farms in the eastern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beatriz Silva da Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available CO2 effluxes from streams and rivers have been hypothesized to be a critical pathway of carbon flow from the biosphere back to the atmosphere. This study was conducted in three small Amazonian catchments to evaluate carbon evasion and dynamics, where land-use change has occurred on small family-farms. Monthly field campaigns were conducted from June 2006 to May 2007 in the Cumaru (CM, Pachibá (PB and São João (SJ streams. Electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen measurements were done in situ, while water samples were collected to determine dissolved organic carbon (DOC and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations, as well as carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2 and CO2 evasion fluxes. Instantaneous discharge measured by a current meter was used to calculate DOC fluxes. Considering all the sites, DOC, DIC, pCO2, and CO2 flux measurements ranged as follows, respectively: 0.27 - 12.13 mg L-1; 3.5 - 38.9 mg L-1; 2,265 - 26,974 ppm; and 3.39 - 75.35 μmol m-2 s-1. DOC annual flux estimates for CM, SJ and PB were, respectively, 281, 245, and 169 kg C ha-1. CO2 evasion fluxes had an average of 22.70 ± 1.67 μmol m-2 s-1. These CO2 evasion fluxes per unit area were similar to those measured for major Amazonian rivers, thus confirming our hypothesis that small streams can evade substantial quantities of CO2. As secondary vegetation is abundant as a result of family farming management in the region, we conclude that this vegetation can be a major driver of an abundant carbon cycle.

  7. Lateral and vertical distribution of soil organic carbon in recently deglaciated areas of Elephant Point (Livingstone island, Maritime Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Ana; Oliva, Marc; Ruiz-Fernández, Jesús; Quijano, Laura; Gaspar, Leticia; Lizaga, Iván

    2017-04-01

    In Maritime Antarctica important environmental changes are affecting ice-free environments of the South Shetland Islands and the northern Antarctica Peninsula. In the Elephant Point Peninsula (Livingstone Island) a rapid glacier retreat during the last decades has exposed already around 20% of its 1.16 km2 surface. Despite soil development is taken place in these new created lands little is known on the characteristics and properties of soils on different parent materials and landforms. One of the main soil properties is the organic carbon but the SOC pool dynamics in Antarctica environments is still poorly understood. This work aims to gain knowledge on the lateral and vertical variations of soil organic carbon (SOC) and organic carbon fractions in surface profiles that have been exposed succeeding the phases of glacier retreat. To this purpose a sampling scheme following the direction of the glacier retreat was established along a moraine extending from the western to the eastern coastlines and a sequence of Holocene marine terraces in Elephant Point. To assess the lateral and vertical variations of SOC and SOC fractions a total of 10 sites were sampled until a depth of 12 cm then sectioned at 3 cm depth intervals. According to its chemical stability and turnover times, SOC can be divided into the active carbon fraction (ACF) composed of labile aliphatic and carboxyl groups with turnover rates of days to few years and a more stable refractory aromatic carbon fraction (SCF) with turnover rates from few years to centuries, highly resistant to microbial and chemical decomposition. The SOC content (%) was measured at 550 °C by the dry combustion method using a LECO, RC-612 multiphase carbon analyser. For the characterization of the active and stable carbon fractions the temperature of the furnace was stepped at 350 °C and 550 °C, respectively. Estimates of SOC and SOC fractions inventories (kg m-2) were done to assess their stocks on the different landforms. SOC

  8. A Structural Equation Model Analyzing the Relationship of Student Achievement Motivations and Personality Factors in a Range of Academic Subject-Matter Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelaar, Dirk T.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Schim van der Loeff, Sybrand; Nijhuis, Jan F. H.

    2007-01-01

    The question of subject-specificity of achievement motivations is important, both for educational psychology, as well as for educational policy. This study contributes to the investigation of the heterogeneity in achievement motivations in the context of the expectancy-value model. Whereas existing research deals with middle and high school…

  9. Masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in a remote area in subjects with a temporomandibular disorder and neck disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Anelise; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Gadotti, Inae C; Magee, David

    2014-01-01

    To compare the masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand (remote region) between patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and healthy controls. Twenty female subjects were diagnosed with chronic TMD, and 20 were considered healthy. Subjects completed the Neck Disability Index and Limitations of Daily Functions in a TMD questionnaire. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles and pain sensitivity in the hand were measured using an algometer. Three-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated differences in muscle tenderness between groups. One-way ANOVA compared pain sensitivity in the hand between groups. Effect sizes were assessed using Cohen guidelines. Significantly increased masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand were found in subjects with TMD when compared with healthy subjects. Moderate to high effect sizes showed the clinical relevance of the findings. The results of this study have highlighted the importance of assessing TMD patients not only in the craniofacial region but also in the neck and other parts of the body. Future studies should focus on testing the effectiveness of treatments addressing the neck and the pain sensitivity in the hand in patients with TMD.

  10. Geographic overlaps between priority areas for forest carbon-storage efforts and those for delivering peacebuilding programs: implications for policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Nunez, Augusto; Mertz, Ole; Sosa, Chrystian C.

    2017-05-01

    Of the countries considering national-level policies for incentivizing reductions in forest-based greenhouse gas emissions (REDD+), some 25 are experiencing (or are emerging from) armed-conflicts. It has been hypothesized that the outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts could result in either improved or worsened forest conservation and likewise increased or decreased conflict. Hence, for this study we explore potential interactions between forest carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts, with Colombia as a case study. Spatial associations between biomass carbon and three conflict-related variables suggest that such interactions may exist. Nonetheless, while priority areas for carbon-focused conservation are presumably those at highest risks of deforestation, our research indicates that forests with lower risk of deforestation are typically those affected by armed-conflict. Our findings moreover highlight three possible roles played by Colombian forested municipalities in armed groups’ military strategies: venues for battle, hideouts, and sources of natural resources to finance war.

  11. Large-area fluidic assembly of single-walled carbon nanotubes through dip-coating and directional evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilnam; Kang, Tae June

    2017-12-01

    We present a simple and scalable fluidic-assembly approach, in which bundles of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are selectively aligned and deposited by directionally controlled dip-coating and solvent evaporation processes. The patterned surface with alternating regions of hydrophobic polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) (height 100 nm) strips and hydrophilic SiO2 substrate was withdrawn vertically at a constant speed ( 3 mm/min) from a solution bath containing SWCNTs ( 0.1 mg/ml), allowing for directional evaporation and subsequent selective deposition of nanotube bundles along the edges of horizontally aligned PDMS strips. In addition, the fluidic assembly was applied to fabricate a field effect transistor (FET) with highly oriented SWCNTs, which demonstrate significantly higher current density as well as high turn-off ratio (T/O ratio 100) as compared to that with randomly distributed carbon nanotube bundles (T/O ratio <10).

  12. Mass-transport-controlled, large-area, uniform deposition of carbon nanofibers and their application in gas diffusion layers of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xian; Xie, Zhiyong; Huang, Qizhong; Chen, Guofen; Hou, Ming; Yi, Baolian

    2015-04-01

    The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (α). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and α was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At α = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of the CNF film were uniform across the substrate surface, whereas the growth uniformity decreased with increasing α, suggesting that the large-area CNF deposition processes were mass-transport-controlled. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of the gas diffusion processes revealed the homogeneous distributions of the carbon-source-gas concentration, pressure, and velocity near the substrate surface at α = 0°, which were the important factors in achieving the mass-transport-limited uniform CNF growth. The homogeneity of the field distributions decreased with increasing α, in accordance with the variation in the growth uniformity with α. When used as a micro-porous layer, the uniform CNF film enabled higher proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance in comparison with commercial carbon black by virtue of its improved electronic and mass-transport properties confirmed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results.The effect of mass transport on the growth characteristics of large-area vapor-grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was investigated by adjusting the substrate deposition angle (α). The catalyst precursor solution was coated onto one side of a 2D porous carbon paper substrate via a decal printing method. The results showed that the CNFs were grown on only one side of the substrate and α was found to significantly affect the growth uniformity. At α = 0°, the growth thickness, the density, the microstructure and the yield of

  13. Immediate Effects of Combining Local Techniques in the Craniomandibular Area and Hamstring Muscle Stretching in Subjects with Temporomandibular Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Cocera-Morata, Francisco Miguel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Ricard, François; Almazán-Campos, Ginés; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2015-08-01

    To assess the immediate effects on vertical mouth opening, orofacial mechanosensitivity, and lumbar and suboccipital mobility after adding a myofascial induction technique to a multimodal protocol in subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A randomized and double-blind controlled trial was carried out. University-based physical therapy research clinic. Sixty subjects (35±11.22 years) with TMD, and restricted mobility of the mandibular condyles and the first cervical vertebrae, were recruited and randomized to either a control group (CG) (n=30) or an experimental group (EG) (n=30). The CG underwent a neuromuscular technique over the masseter muscles and passive hamstring muscle stretching. A suboccipital muscle inhibition technique was added to this protocol in the EG. Primary measurements were made of vertical mouth opening and pressure pain threshold of the masseter muscles. Secondary outcome measures included pressure algometry of the trigeminal nerve, suboccipital range of motion, and lumbar spine mobility, assessed with the sit-and-reach (SAR) test and lumbar forward bending. All evaluations were collected at baseline and immediately after intervention. In the intragroup comparison, the EG observed an increase in suboccipital flexion (p0.05). The inclusion of a myofascial induction maneuver in a protocol combining local (neuromuscular treatment) and distal techniques (hamstring stretching) in subjects with TMD has no impact on improving mouth opening, suboccipital and lumbar mobility, and orofacial sensitivity to mechanical pressure.

  14. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ? 831. India. Folds in multilayered rocks of Proterozoic age,. Rajasthan, India. 299. Trace element geochemistry of Amba Dongar carbonatite complex, India: Evidence for frac- tional crystallization and silicate-carbonate melt immiscibility. 519.

  15. Changes in carbon and nitrogen allocation, growth and grain yield induced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) subjected to a period of water deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Qin; Ravnskov, Sabine; Jiang, Dong

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic factor limiting agricultural crop production. One of the effective ways to increase drought resistance in plants could be to optimize the exploitation of symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Hypothesizing that alleviation of water deficits by AMF in wheat...... increased plant height in both cultivars. AMF also increased biomass and grain yield in ‘1110’ but not in ‘Vinjett’. The results showed that the improvements in growth and yield were the results of AMF-mediated increases in photosynthesis during drought stress and that the alleviating effect of AMF depended...... will help maintain photosynthetic carbon-use, we studied the role of AMF on gas-exchange, light-use efficiencies, carbon/nitrogen ratios and growth and yield parameters in the contrasting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars ‘Vinjett’ and ‘1110’ grown with/without AMF symbiosis. Water deficits applied...

  16. Evaluation through column leaching tests of metal release from contaminated estuarine sediment subject to CO₂ leakages from Carbon Capture and Storage sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, M Cruz; Galan, Berta; Coz, Alberto; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Viguri, Javier R

    2012-12-01

    The pH change and the release of organic matter and metals from sediment, due to the potential CO(2) acidified seawater leakages from a CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) site are presented. Column leaching test is used to simulate a scenario where a flow of acidified seawater is in contact with recent contaminated sediment. The behavior of pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and metals As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, with liquid to solid (L/S) ratio and pH is analyzed. A stepwise strategy using empirical expressions and a geochemical model was conducted to fit experimental release concentrations. Despite the neutralization capacity of the seawater-carbonate rich sediment system, important acidification and releases are expected at local scale at lower pH. The obtained results would be relevant as a line of evidence input of CCS risk assessment, in an International context where strategies to mitigate the climate change would be applied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Bioinformatics Approach Based Research of Profile Protein Carbonic Anhydrase II Analysis as a Potential Candidate Cause Autism for The Variation of Learning Subjects Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Eka A. F. Ningrum

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the needs of learning variations on Biotechnology courses using bioinformatics approaches. One example of applied use of bioinformatics in biotechnology course is the analysis of protein profiles carbonic anhydrase II as a potential cause of autism candidate. This research is a qualitative descriptive study consisted of two phases. The first phase of the data obtained from observations of learning, student questionnaires, and questionnaires lecturer. Results from the first phase, namely the need for variations learning in Biotechnology course using bioinformatics. Collecting data on the second stage uses three webserver to predict the target protein and scientific articles. Visualization of proteins using PyMOL software. 3 based webserver which is used, the candidate of target proteins associated with autism is carbonic anhydrase II. The survey results revealed that the protein carbonic anhydrase II as a potential candidate for the cause of autism classified metaloenzim are able to bind with heavy metals. The content of heavy metals in autistic patients high that affect metabolism. This prediction of protein candidate cause autism is applied use to solve the problem in society, so that can achieve the learning outcome in biotechnology course.

  18. Carbon Dynamics of Reclaimed Coal Mine Soil under Agricultural Use: A Chronosequence Study in the Dongtan Mining Area, Shandong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Feng Qu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic carbon (SOC plays an essential role in the early stages of pedogenisis and ecological restoration in reclaimed mine soils. Dynamic changes in the SOC content are essential for assessing the quality of reclaimed mine soils and the effect of ecological restoration. To objectively assess the carbon dynamics of reclaimed soils, we selected the surface (0–20 cm soil of farmland under agricultural use (soybean–wheat rotation from a reclamation chronosequence (R4: 4 years of reclamation, R7: 7 years of reclamation, R10: 10 years of reclamation and R13: 13 years of reclamation in the Dongtan Mining Area, Shandong Province, China. The adjacent normal, unaffected farmland was used as a control (CK. The results showed that the SOC content gradually increased with the reclamation age until it reached 7.98 g·kg−1 for R13, which accounted for 76% of that of the CK. However, the total carbon contents of the reclaimed soils did not significantly differ from and even appeared higher than that of the CK. This is mainly because the inorganic carbon contents of the reclaimed soils ranged from 2.98 to 12.61 g·kg−1, all of which were significantly higher than the 0.87 g·kg−1 obtained for the CK. The microbial biomass carbon (MBC content and the microbial quotient significantly increased with the reclamation age of the soil, and both parameters were markedly higher for R13 than for the CK. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC content and its ratio to the SOC were significantly higher for R4–R13 than for the CK and DOC/SOC gradually decreased with the reclamation age. Both the reclamation age and the temperature had positive effects on the soil basal respiration (SBR. The SBR rate constantly increased with the reclamation age and was markedly higher at 25 °C than at 15 °C. The temperature sensitivity (Q10 of the SBR showed a clearly decreasing trend for the reclamation chronosequence, but its value remained higher for R13 than for the CK (2

  19. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.P.W.; van Spronsen, P.H.; van Ginkel, F.C.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  20. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsena, P. H.; van Ginkel, F. C.; van Schijndel, R. A.; Castelijns, J. A.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  1. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.P.; van Spronsen, P.H.; van Ginkel, F.C.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  2. Ultrasound screening for asymptomatic carotid stenosis in subjects with calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Kjell

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Directed ultrasonic screening for carotid stenosis is cost-effective in populations with > 5% prevalence of the diagnosis. Occasionally, calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries are incidentally detected on odontological panoramic radiographs. We aimed to determine if directed screening for carotid stenosis with ultrasound is indicated in individuals with such calcifications. Methods This was a cross-sectional study. Carotid ultrasound examinations were performed on consecutive persons, with findings of calcifications in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiography that were otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Results Calcification in the area of the carotid arteries was seen in 176 of 1182 persons undergoing panoramic radiography. Of these, 117 fulfilled the inclusion criterion and were examined with carotid ultrasound. Eight persons (6.8%; 95% CI 2.2-11.5% had a carotid stenosis - not significant over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.232, Binomial test. However, there was a significant sex difference (p = 0.008, as all stenoses were found in men. Among men, 12.5% (95%CI 4.2-20.8% had carotid stenosis - significantly over the 5% pre-specified threshold (p = 0.014, Binomial test. Conclusions The incidental finding of calcification in the area of the carotid arteries on panoramic radiographs should be followed up with carotid screening in men that are otherwise eligible for asymptomatic carotid endarterectomy. Trial Registration The study was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00514644

  3. Teenagers' Significant Experiences in Areas of Arts: A Study of the Subjectively Felt Impact and Some Qualitative Aspects of Experiences Involving Productive Arts Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnas, Leif

    2012-01-01

    As a part of a larger project, this study focused primarily on Finland-Swedish ninth-graders' "productive" arts experiences (involving music-making, acting, writing, painting/drawing, dancing), as these had been reported when the pupils had been asked to write down descriptions of "strong" experiences in arts areas (music,…

  4. Removal of Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater via adsorption with high-specific-surface-area nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon derived from silkworm cocoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Junting; Zhang, Zhengping; Ji, Jing; Dou, Meiling, E-mail: douml@mail.buct.edu.cn; Wang, Feng, E-mail: wangf@mail.buct.edu.cn

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • The nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon was prepared from silkworm cocoon. • The NHPC possesses a unique porous structure and a high specific surface area. • The NHPC presents superior adsorption performance for Cr (VI). • The NHPC exhibits an excellent recyclability for the removal of Cr (VI). - Abstract: The development of highly efficient adsorbents is an effective way to remove Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater for environment protection. Herein, a high-specific-surface-area nitrogen-doped hierarchical porous carbon (NHPC) derived from silkworm cocoon was synthesized and applied as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater. The resultant NHPC possesses a specific surface area as high as 3134 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} and a unique hierarchical porous structure with a large number of small mesopores (2–4 nm) and micropores (0.8–2 nm) embedded in the sidewall of bowl-like macropores (200–300 nm), in which sufficient exposure of adsorption sites and high-flow transfer of Cr{sup 6+} ions can be achieved. As a result, the NHPC exhibits a remarkable adsorption performance with a larger adsorption capacity (366.3 mg g{sup −1}), a higher adsorption rate (4 × 10{sup −2} g mg{sup −1} min{sup −1}) and a superior recyclability in comparison with the commercial adsorbent (Norit CGP). Thermodynamic and kinetic analyses indicate that the adsorption process is spontaneous and endothermic, which fits well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model. This biomass-based porous carbon with well-defined hierarchical porous structure can be applied as a promising adsorbent for the removal of Cr{sup 6+} from wastewater.

  5. Saptial and Temporal in Stable Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Juvenile Winter Flounder Otoliths From Selected Nursery Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) populations have supported large commercial and recreational fisheries along the coast of New England. In recent years, however, the population of this important species has declined precipitously in some areas, especially Narragan...

  6. Distribution and Thermal Maturity of Devonian Carbonate Reservoir Solid Bitumen in Desheng Area of Guizhong Depression, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Hou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of solid bitumen in the Devonian carbonate reservoir from well Desheng 1, Guizhong Depression, was investigated by optical microscope and hydrocarbon inclusions analysis. Vb and chemical structure indexes measured by bitumen reflectance, laser Raman microprobe (LRM, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were carried out to determine the thermal maturity of solid bitumen. Based on the solid bitumen thermal maturity, the burial and thermal maturity history of Devonian carbonate reservoir were reconstructed by basin modeling. The results indicate that the fractures and fracture-related dissolution pores are the main storage space for the solid bitumen. The equivalent vitrinite reflectance of solid bitumen ranges from 3.42% to 4.43% converted by Vb (% and LRM. The infrared spectroscopy analysis suggests that there are no aliphatic chains detected in the solid bitumen which is rich in aromatics C=C chains (1431–1440 cm−1. The results of Vb (%, LRM, and FTIR analysis demonstrate that the solid bitumen has experienced high temperature and evolved to the residual carbonaceous stage. The thermal evolution of Devonian reservoirs had experienced four stages. The Devonian reservoirs reached the highest reservoir temperature 210–260°C during the second rapid burial-warming stage, which is the main period for the solid bitumen formation.

  7. A Watershed-Scale Agent-Based Model Incorporating Agent Learning and Interaction of Farmers' Decisions Subject to Carbon and Miscanthus Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T.; Eheart, J.; Cai, X.; Braden, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural watersheds are coupled human-natural systems where the land use decisions of human agents (farmers) affect surface water quality, and in turn, are affected by the weather and yields. The reliable modeling of such systems requires an approach that considers both the human and natural aspects. Agent-based modeling (ABM), representing the human aspect, coupled with hydrologic modeling, representing the natural aspect, is one such approach. ABM is a relatively new modeling paradigm that formulates the system from the perspectives of the individual agents, i.e., each agent is modeled as a discrete autonomous entity with distinct goals and actions. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate the applicability of this approach to agricultural watershed management. This is done using a semi-hypothetical case study of farmers in the Salt Creek watershed in East-Central Illinois under the influence markets for carbon and second-generation bioenergy crop (specifically, miscanthus). An agent-based model of the system is developed and linked to a hydrologic model of the watershed. The former is based on fundamental economic and mathematical programming principles, while the latter is based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Carbon and second-generation bioenergy crop markets are of interest here due to climate change and energy independence concerns. The agent-based model is applied to fifty hypothetical heterogeneous farmers. The farmers' decisions depend on their perceptions of future conditions. Those perceptions are updated, according to a pre-defined algorithm, as the farmers make new observations of prices, costs, yields and the weather with time. The perceptions are also updated as the farmers interact with each other as they share new information on initially unfamiliar activities (e.g., carbon trading, miscanthus cultivation). The updating algorithm is set differently for different farmers such that each is unique in his processing of

  8. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool to understa...

  9. Preparation of nitrogen-doped cotton stalk microporous activated carbon fiber electrodes with different surface area from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk for electrochemical degradation of methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunquan; Rong, Zhang; Li, Ye; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng

    Cotton-stalk activated carbon fibers (CSCFs) with controllable micropore area and nitrogen content were prepared as an efficient electrode from hexamethylenetetramine-modified cotton stalk by steam/ammonia activation. The influence of microporous area, nitrogen content, voltage and initial concentration on the electrical degradation efficiency of methylene blue (MB) was evaluated by using CSCFs as anode. Results showed that the CSCF electrodes exhibited excellent MB electrochemical degradation ability including decolorization and COD removal. Increasing micropore surface area and nitrogen content of CSCF anode leaded to a corresponding increase in MB removal. The prepared CSCF-800-15-N, which has highest N content but lowest microporous area, attained the best degradation effect with 97% MB decolorization ratio for 5 mg/L MB at 12 V in 4 h, implying the doped nitrogen played a prominent role in improving the electrochemical degradation ability. The electrical degradation reaction was well described by first-order kinetics model. Overall, the aforesaid findings suggested that the nitrogen-doped CSCFs were potential electrode materials, and their electrical degradation abilities could be effectively enhanced by controlling the nitrogen content and micropore surface area.

  10. Factors associated with poor nutritional status among community dwelling Lebanese elderly subjects living in rural areas: results of the AMEL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, C; Salameh, P; Barberger-Gateau, P

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the nutritional status, measured by MNA, and its association with socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics of a representative sample of community dwelling elderly subjects. Cross-sectional study. Community dwelling elderly individuals living in rural communities in Lebanon. 1200 elderly individuals aged 65 years or more. Socio-demographic indicators and health related characteristics were recorded during a standardized interview. Nutritional status was assessed through Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). The 5-item GDS score and the WHO-5-A score were used to assess mood, whereas Mini Mental Status (MMS) was applied to evaluate cognitive status. The prevalence of malnutrition and risk of malnutrition was 8.0% respective 29.1% of the study sample. Malnutrition was significantly more frequent in elderly subjects aged more than 85 years, in females, widowed and illiterate people. Moreover, participants who reported lower financial status were more often malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Regarding health status, poor nutritional status was more common among those reporting more than three chronic diseases, taking more than three drugs daily, suffering from chronic pain and those who had worse oral health status. Also, depressive disorders and cognitive dysfunction were significantly related to malnutrition. After multivariate analysis following variables remained independently associated to malnutrition: living in the governorate of Nabatieh (ORa 2.30, 95% CI 1.35 -3.93), reporting higher income (ORa 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.97), higher number of comorbidities (ORa 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.32), chronic pain (ORa 1.72, 95% CI 1.24-2.39), and depressive disorders (ORa 1.66, 95% CI 1.47-1.88). On the other hand, better cognitive functioning was strongly associated with decreased nutritional risk (ORa 0.27, 95%CI 0.17-0.43). Our results highlighted the close relationship between health status and malnutrition. The

  11. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  12. Organic carbon sources across salinity gradients in Chilean Fjords: Reloncaví Fjord ( 41°S) and Southern Patagonian ice fields area ( 48°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia, Juan; Llanos, Gustavo; Contreras, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    The organic matter preserved in marine sediments contains contributions of allochthonous and autochthonous and variable source inputs. Allochthonous sources are terrestrial erosion (including anthropogenic material) of relatively labile and refractory material, while autochthonous sources including marine phytoplankton. In order to establish the sources of the organic matter (allochthonous/autochthonous) and how organic carbon is distributed along a salinity gradient, on this study we examined of organic Carbon/Nitrogen molar ratios (C:N), isotopic composition (δ13C) and n-alkanes (n-C24 to n-C34) in surface sediments from two continuous systems: river-fjord-ocean in Northern Patagonia (41°S-43°S), and glacier-fjord-ocean in central Patagonia (47°S-50°S). The continental inner fjord areas are characterized with sediment enriched in allochthonous organic carbon and high C:N (8-12) and low δ13C values (-23‰ to -26‰). Towards the Pacific Ocean, low C:N (6-7) and high δ13C values (-20‰ to -22‰) suggest prevalent autochthonous marine sources. Estuarine waters with salinity between 2 psu and 30 psu were associated with high C:N and low δ13C values together with odd over even long-chain n-alkane predominance (n-C31, n-C29 and n-C27) in surface sediments. All geochemical proxies suggest a great contribution of terrigenous input by glacier origin rivers, mainly from terrestrial plants in both areas. Our study provides a framework to guide future researches on environmental and climate change on these systems. This study was supported by the Chilean Navy's Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service, the Chilean National Oceanographic Committee through the Grants CONA C19F1308 and C20F1404, and the Research Office at Universidad Católica de la Ssma. Concepción.

  13. Application of optimized large surface area date stone (Phoenix dactylifera ) activated carbon for rhodamin B removal from aqueous solution: Box-Behnken design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, Mohammed; Khanday, Waheed Ahmad; Hashim, Rokiah; Sulaiman, Nurul Syuhada Binti; Akhtar, Mohammad Nishat; Nizami, Maniruddin

    2017-05-01

    Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology was used to study the effect of adsorption process parameters for Rhodamine B (RhB) removal from aqueous solution through optimized large surface area date stone activated carbon. The set experiments with three input parameters such as time (10-600min), adsorbent dosage (0.5-10g/L) and temperature (25-50°C) were considered for statistical significance. The adequate relation was found between the input variables and response (removal percentage of RhB) and Fisher values (F- values) along with P-values suggesting the significance of various term coefficients. At an optimum adsorbent dose of 0.53g/L, time 593min and temperature 46.20°C, the adsorption capacity of 210mg/g was attained with maximum desirability. The negative values of Gibb's free energy (ΔG) predicted spontaneity and feasibility of adsorption; whereas, positive Enthalpy change (ΔH) confirmed endothermic adsorption of RhB onto optimized large surface area date stone activated carbons (OLSADS-AC). The adsorption data were found to be the best fit on the Langmuir model supporting monolayer type of adsorption of RhB with maximum monolayer layer adsorption capacity of 196.08mg/g. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Psychosocial working conditions, school sense of coherence and subjective health complaints. A multilevel analysis of ninth grade pupils in the Stockholm area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modin, Bitte; Ostberg, Viveca; Toivanen, Susanna; Sundell, Knut

    2011-02-01

    This study explores the psychosocial working conditions of 7930 Swedish 9th grade students, distributed over 475 classes and 130 schools, in relation to their subjective health using multilevel modeling. At the individual level, students with "strained" working conditions in school (i.e. those experiencing a high level of demands in combination with a low level of control) demonstrated significantly worse health compared to students in "low-strain" situations. "Strained" conditions in combination with a weak school-related sense of coherence were especially unfavourable for health. These findings remained significant when support from teachers, school marks, norm-breaking behaviours, family-relations and certain class- and school-contextual conditions were adjusted for. Thus, while demands are an essential part of school work, this study suggests that high levels of control and a strong school-related sense of coherence can protect against the more detrimental effects on health that high demands at school may cause. Copyright © 2010 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Export fluxes in a naturally iron-fertilized area of the Southern Ocean – Part 1: Seasonal dynamics of particulate organic carbon export from a moored sediment trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rembauville

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A sediment trap moored in the naturally iron-fertilized Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean provided an annual record of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen fluxes at 289 m. At the trap deployment depth, current speeds were typically low (~ 10 cm s−1 and primarily tidal-driven (M2 tidal component. Although advection was weak, the sediment trap may have been subject to hydrodynamical and biological (swimmer feeding on trap funnel biases. Particulate organic carbon (POC flux was generally low (−2 d−1, although two episodic export events (−2 d−1 were recorded. These increases in flux occurred with a 1-month time lag from peaks in surface chlorophyll and together accounted for approximately 40% of the annual flux budget. The annual POC flux of 98.2 ± 4.4 mmol m−2 yr−1 was low considering the shallow deployment depth but comparable to independent estimates made at similar depths (~ 300 m over the plateau, and to deep-ocean (> 2 km fluxes measured from similarly productive iron-fertilized blooms. Although undertrapping cannot be excluded in shallow moored sediment trap deployment, we hypothesize that grazing pressure, including mesozooplankton and mesopelagic fishes, may be responsible for the low POC flux beneath the base of the winter mixed layer. The importance of plankton community structure in controlling the temporal variability of export fluxes is addressed in a companion paper.

  16. Porous carbons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and poor ...

  17. Lithofacies Attributes of a Transgressive Carbonate System : The Middle Eocence Seeb Formation, Al Khoud Area, Muscat, Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Salad Hersi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Seeb Formation (Middle Eocene is an about 600 m thick transgressive carbonate succession deposited in the Batina and Muscat coastal region of Oman. The formation consists of five informal, but distinct units, and their stacking architecture suggests a deepening-upward, shallow marine depositional setting. Unit I is characterized by cross-bedded, sandy, bioclastic packstones to grainstones deposited in a high energy beach-to-intertidal environment. Unit II consists of indistinctly bedded, nodular, bioclastic (mainly larger foraminifera packstones and wackestones deposited in a logoonal lagoonal environment. Unit III is defined by medium to thickly bedded, bioclastic packestones to grainstones and subordinate, laterally confined conglomerates. Prominent sedimentary structures in Unit III include hummocky and swaly cross-stratificiation, erosional surfaces, dewatering-induced deformations and laterally amalgamating beds. This unit represents sub-tidal sand shoals deposited in a storm-dominated shelf (between the fair-weather wave-base and storm-base. Unit IV is extensively burrowed, nodular, bioclastic wackestone to rudstone which is similar to Unit II in many aspects. Unit IV was deposited on the basinward side of the Unit III sand shoals below the reach of the storm-generated waves and currents. The uppermost Unit V is characterized by poorly-cemented bioclastic (large foraminiferal rudstones with clay and silt-size quartz matrix. Bioclasts are generally intact with no apparent reworking. Deposition of Unit V is also envisaged as a low-energy, outershelf environment.

  18. Mantle helium and carbon isotopes in Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters area, Central Oregon: Evidence for renewed volcanic activity or a long term steady state system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Soest, M.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Evans, W.C.; Mariner, R.H.

    2002-04-30

    Cold bubbling springs in the Separation Creek area, the locus of current uplift at South Sister volcano show strong mantle signatures in helium and carbon isotopes and CO{sub 2}/{sup 3}He. This suggests the presence of fresh basaltic magma in the volcanic plumbing system. Currently there is no evidence to link this system directly to the uplift, which started in 1998. To the contrary, all geochemical evidence suggests that there is a long-lived geothermal system in the Separation Creek area, which has not significantly changed since the early 1990s. There was no archived helium and carbon data, so a definite conclusion regarding the strong mantle signature observed in these tracers cannot yet be drawn. There is a distinct discrepancy between the yearly magma supply required to explain the current uplift (0.006 km{sup 3}/yr) and that required to explain the discharge of CO{sub 2} from the system (0.0005 km{sup 3}/yr). This discrepancy may imply that the chemical signal associated with the increase in magma supply has not reached the surface yet. With respect to this the small changes observed at upper Mesa Creek require further attention, due to the recent volcanic vent in that area it may be the location were the chemical signal related to the uplift can most quickly reach the surface. Occurrence of such strong mantle signals in cold/diffuse geothermal systems suggests that these systems should not be ignored during volcano monitoring or geothermal evaluation studies. Although the surface-expression of these springs in terms of heat is minimal, the chemistry carries important information concerning the size and nature of the underlying high-temperature system and any changes taking place in it.

  19. Multiple biomarker responses in Prochilodus lineatus subjected to short-term in situ exposure to streams from agricultural areas in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa, Patrícia Gomes [Laboratório de Microcontaminantes Orgânicos e Ecotoxicologia — Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Lunardelli, Bruna; Fernandes de Oliveira, Luciana [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa Cabrera, Liziara da [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Risso, Wagner Ezequiel [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Primel, Ednei Gilberto [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-15

    In order to assess the quality of streams susceptible to contamination by pesticides we apply biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus submitted to in situ tests. Fish were caged, for 96 h, in two streams located in areas with intensive use of pesticides, the Apertados (AP) and the Jacutinga (JC), and in a small stream (Godoy stream — GD) found inside a forest fragment adjacent to a State Park. Biochemical parameters, such as biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), non-protein thiols (NPSH), lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonylation (PCO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in various fish organs, as well as genotoxic biomarkers (damage to DNA and occurrence of micronuclei and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities). Samples of water and sediment were collected for analysis of metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd and Zn), organochloride pesticides, and triazine and glyphosate herbicides. We observed an increase in liver GST activity in fish at AP and gill GST activity in fish at JC. An increase in liver LPO was also observed in fish exposed to AP and JC. The same animals also exhibited increased DNA damage and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) compared to the fish kept in GD. A number of compounds showed concentrations higher than the permitted levels, in particular, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachloride, diclofluanid and aldrins. These pesticides were detected at higher concentrations in water and sediment samples from AP, followed by JC and GD. The Integrated Biomarker Response Index (IBR) indicated that AP and JC (AP: 21.7 > JC: 18.5 > GD: 12.6) have the worst environmental quality. Integrated biomarker analysis revealed that the alterations observed related well with the levels of environmental contaminants

  20. Hydrogeologic monitoring of the Paraíba do Sul river floodplain area subject to sand mining in the Tremembé municipality, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and hydrobacterial aspects of the surface and groundwater in the floodplain of the Paraíba do Sul river in Tremembé municipality, the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer experimental site was monitored based on four wells and eight associated piezometers with daily measures of water levels in continuous operation since December 3, 2009. In addition, data from a modular weather station in operation since March 2010 and data from the quality of surface water and groundwater have been analyzed in the period between March 2010 and March 2011. The water balance between April 2010 and March 2011 was estimated to verify the periods of water deficiency and excess. Data loggers installed in the piezometers enabled daily groundwater levels monitoring to establish the influence of the Paraíba do Sul river in the water levels of the Quaternary sedimentary aquifer and also they allowed the determination of the water loss to the atmosphere. A hydrogeological model with simplified equations, based on hydraulics parameters obtained in the wells pump tests, was implemented to calculate the amount of daily evapotranspiration and the average distance of the water loss from the wells to the atmosphere. An evaporation rate of 83.4 m3/h from the open-pit sand mine located at 212.2 m and of 89.2 m3/h for the one at 885.0 m average distance from the monitoring wells were observed. Chemical and bacteriological analysis involving multiple parameters were performed in the period from March 2010 to March 2011 in groundwater collected in wells, in the open-pit mines and in the waters of the Paraíba do Sul river. The results allowed to observe the influences of the Paraíba do Sul river as well as the contamination from fertilizers and pesticides from the agriculture practiced in the floodplain area on the quality of the groundwater.

  1. A decision support model for waste management in support of developing low carbon, eco regions. Case studies of densely populated kampung settlements in urban areas in Jakarta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candra Dewi, Ova

    2013-06-14

    Due to the various types of waste disposal, treatment, utilization and technologies, decision support model for waste management is needed to assist planners and decision makers in finding most suitable way to manage municipal solid waste efficiently. Many planners and decision makers in the area of municipal solid waste have a lack of thorough understanding of the complex chains of waste management system. Therefore the impact for the environment quality and the public health can only be judged at the rudimentary level. However, most existing models are primarily focusing on cost or environmental analysis. Only few consider other crucial factors such as the demographic condition, the characteristics of urban form and urban infrastructure, land transformation aspects due to urban development. Consequently, such models often meet difficulties to cope with cultural requirement. Based on those reasons, a decision support model to set up alternatives of most appropriate technology for sustainable waste management towards a low carbon eco-city on a regional basis is developed in this PhD study. The Low Carbon- and Eco-Region, in particular the contribution of waste management sector, is a vision of living in low rate of carbon generation, using fewer natural resources, and encouraging energy recovery and/or waste reduction at source by improving the used material quality (up-cycling). This decision support model is constructed mainly based on the cultural requirement and local context of a region and synergize the geographic, environmental, social capital and economics aspects in order to fulfill the needs of the respective region and its society. The method employed in this model is not solely a new developed model, but also an advanced model in material flow analysis (STAN), and life cycle assessment on solid waste system (EASEWASTE) and Geographic Information System (GIS). At the same time the model also assists the stakeholders in improving the environmental quality

  2. Genetic control of water use efficiency and leaf carbon isotope discrimination in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) subjected to two drought scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Muños, Stephane; Langlade, Nicolas B; Lamaze, Thierry; Grieu, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    High water use efficiency (WUE) can be achieved by coordination of biomass accumulation and water consumption. WUE is physiologically and genetically linked to carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in leaves of plants. A population of 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower derived from a cross between XRQ and PSC8 lines was studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling WUE and CID, and to compare QTL associated with these traits in different drought scenarios. We conducted greenhouse experiments in 2011 and 2012 by using 100 balances which provided a daily measurement of water transpired, and we determined WUE, CID, biomass and cumulative water transpired by plants. Wide phenotypic variability, significant genotypic effects, and significant negative correlations between WUE and CID were observed in both experiments. A total of nine QTL controlling WUE and eight controlling CID were identified across the two experiments. A QTL for phenotypic response controlling WUE and CID was also significantly identified. The QTL for WUE were specific to the drought scenarios, whereas the QTL for CID were independent of the drought scenarios and could be found in all the experiments. Our results showed that the stable genomic regions controlling CID were located on the linkage groups 06 and 13 (LG06 and LG13). Three QTL for CID were co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. We found that CID and WUE are highly correlated and have common genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic control of these traits showed an interaction with the environment (between the two drought scenarios and control conditions). Our results open a way for breeding higher WUE by using CID and marker-assisted approaches and therefore help to maintain the stability of sunflower crop production.

  3. UAV-based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes - A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Marc; Rauneker, Philipp; Sommer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation (R² = 0.88) between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band 11 (899 nm). The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability (75-225 g C m-2) at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part. Soil effects were suppressed by the nearly optimal weather conditions for plant growth in 2014.

  4. UAV-Based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes—A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Marc; Rauneker, Philipp; Sommer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper, we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band b899. The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part. PMID:26907284

  5. In-treatment tests for the monitoring of proton and carbon-ion therapy with a large area PET system at CNAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosso, V., E-mail: valeria.rosso@pi.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Battistoni, G. [INFN Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Belcari, N.; Camarlinghi, N. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Ciocca, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Pavia (Italy); Collini, F. [Department of Physical Sciences, Earth and Environment, University of Siena and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Ferretti, S.; Kraan, A.C.; Lucenò, S. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy); Molinelli, S.; Pullia, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Pavia (Italy); Sportelli, G.; Zaccaro, E.; Del Guerra, A. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    One of the most promising new radiotherapy techniques makes use of charged particles like protons and carbon ions, rather than photons. At present, there are more than 50 particle therapy centers operating worldwide, and many new centers are being constructed. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is considered a well-established non-invasive technique to monitor range and delivered dose in patients treated with particle therapy. Nuclear interactions of the charged hadrons with the patient tissue lead to the production of β+ emitting isotopes (mainly {sup 15}O and {sup 11}C), that decay with a short lifetime producing a positron. The two 511 keV annihilation photons can be detected with a PET detector. In-beam PET is particularly interesting because it could allow monitoring the ions range also during dose delivery. A large area dual head PET prototype was built and tested. The system is based on an upgraded version of the previously developed DoPET prototype. Each head covers now 15×15 cm{sup 2} and is composed by 9 (3×3) independent modules. Each module consists of a 23×23 LYSO crystal matrix (2 mm pitch) coupled to H8500 PMT and is readout by custom front-end and a FPGA based data acquisition electronics. Data taken at the CNAO treatment facility in Pavia with proton and carbon beams impinging on heterogeneous phantoms demonstrate the DoPET capability to detect the presence of a small air cavity in the phantom.

  6. N- and S-doped high surface area carbon derived from soya chunks as scalable and efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Moumita; Arora, Gunjan; Gautam, Ujjal K.

    2015-02-01

    Highly stable, cost-effective electrocatalysts facilitating oxygen reduction are crucial for the commercialization of membrane-based fuel cell and battery technologies. Herein, we demonstrate that protein-rich soya chunks with a high content of N, S and P atoms are an excellent precursor for heteroatom-doped highly graphitized carbon materials. The materials are nanoporous, with a surface area exceeding 1000 m2 g-1, and they are tunable in doping quantities. These materials exhibit highly efficient catalytic performance toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) with an onset potential of -0.045 V and a half-wave potential of -0.211 V (versus a saturated calomel electrode) in a basic medium, which is comparable to commercial Pt catalysts and is better than other recently developed metal-free carbon-based catalysts. These exhibit complete methanol tolerance and a performance degradation of merely ˜5% as compared to ˜14% for a commercial Pt/C catalyst after continuous use for 3000 s at the highest reduction current. We found that the fraction of graphitic N increases at a higher graphitization temperature, leading to the near complete reduction of oxygen. It is believed that due to the easy availability of the precursor and the possibility of genetic engineering to homogeneously control the heteroatom distribution, the synthetic strategy is easily scalable, with further improvement in performance.

  7. UAV-Based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes--A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrhan, Marc; Rauneker, Philipp; Sommer, Michael

    2016-02-19

    The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper, we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C) export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa), the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs) was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) using near-infrared band b899. The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part.

  8. UAV-Based Estimation of Carbon Exports from Heterogeneous Soil Landscapes—A Case Study from the CarboZALF Experimental Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wehrhan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of remote sensing using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are a high spatial resolution of images, temporal flexibility and narrow-band spectral data from different wavelengths domains. This enables the detection of spatio-temporal dynamics of environmental variables, like plant-related carbon dynamics in agricultural landscapes. In this paper, we quantify spatial patterns of fresh phytomass and related carbon (C export using imagery captured by a 12-band multispectral camera mounted on the fixed wing UAV Carolo P360. The study was performed in 2014 at the experimental area CarboZALF-D in NE Germany. From radiometrically corrected and calibrated images of lucerne (Medicago sativa, the performance of four commonly used vegetation indices (VIs was tested using band combinations of six near-infrared bands. The highest correlation between ground-based measurements of fresh phytomass of lucerne and VIs was obtained for the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI using near-infrared band b899. The resulting map was transformed into dry phytomass and finally upscaled to total C export by harvest. The observed spatial variability at field- and plot-scale could be attributed to small-scale soil heterogeneity in part.

  9. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subject Index. Variation of surface electric field during geomagnetic disturbed period at Maitri, Antarctica. 1721. Geomorphology. A simple depression-filling method for raster and irregular elevation datasets. 1653. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic. Information System to target restoration actions in water-.

  10. Estimated probabilities, volumes, and inundation areas depths of potential postwildfire debris flows from Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks, near Marble, Gunnison County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Verdin, Kristine L.

    2011-01-01

    During 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Gunnison County, initiated a study to estimate the potential for postwildfire debris flows to occur in the drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble, Colorado. Currently (2010), these drainage basins are unburned but could be burned by a future wildfire. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of postwildfire debris-flow occurrence and debris-flow volumes for drainage basins occupied by Carbonate, Slate, Raspberry, and Milton Creeks near Marble. Data for the postwildfire debris-flow models included drainage basin area; area burned and burn severity; percentage of burned area; soil properties; rainfall total and intensity for the 5- and 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration-rainfall; and topographic and soil property characteristics of the drainage basins occupied by the four creeks. A quasi-two-dimensional floodplain computer model (FLO-2D) was used to estimate the spatial distribution and the maximum instantaneous depth of the postwildfire debris-flow material during debris flow on the existing debris-flow fans that issue from the outlets of the four major drainage basins. The postwildfire debris-flow probabilities at the outlet of each drainage basin range from 1 to 19 percent for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 3 to 35 percent for 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall. The largest probabilities for postwildfire debris flow are estimated for Raspberry Creek (19 and 35 percent), whereas estimated debris-flow probabilities for the three other creeks range from 1 to 6 percent. The estimated postwildfire debris-flow volumes at the outlet of each creek range from 7,500 to 101,000 cubic meters for the 5-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, and from 9,400 to 126,000 cubic meters for

  11. Simulating carbon capture by enhanced weathering with croplands: an overview of key processes highlighting areas of future model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lyla L; Beerling, David J; Quegan, Shaun; Banwart, Steven A

    2017-04-01

    Enhanced weathering (EW) aims to amplify a natural sink for CO 2 by incorporating powdered silicate rock with high reactive surface area into agricultural soils. The goal is to achieve rapid dissolution of minerals and release of alkalinity with accompanying dissolution of CO 2 into soils and drainage waters. EW could counteract phosphorus limitation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in tropical soils, and soil acidification, a common agricultural problem studied with numerical process models over several decades. Here, we review the processes leading to soil acidification in croplands and how the soil weathering CO 2 sink is represented in models. Mathematical models capturing the dominant processes and human interventions governing cropland soil chemistry and GHG emissions neglect weathering, while most weathering models neglect agricultural processes. We discuss current approaches to modelling EW and highlight several classes of model having the potential to simulate EW in croplands. Finally, we argue for further integration of process knowledge in mathematical models to capture feedbacks affecting both longer-term CO 2 consumption and crop growth and yields. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Enhancement of motor learning by focal intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of either the primary motor (M1) or somatosensory area (S1) in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Thomas; Adler-Wiebe, Marija; Roschka, Sybille; Lotze, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Motor rehabilitation after brain damage relies on motor re-learning as induced by specific training. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can alter cortical excitability and thereby has a potential to enhance subsequent training-induced learning. Knowledge about any priming effects of NIBS on motor learning in healthy subjects can help to design targeted therapeutic applications in brain-damaged subjects. To examine whether complex motor learning in healthy subjects can be enhanced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) to primary motor or sensory cortical areas. Eighteen young healthy subjects trained eight different arm motor tasks (arm ability training, AAT) once a day for 5 days using their left non-dominant arm. Except for day 1 (baseline), training was performed after applying an excitatory form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (iTBS) to either (I) right M1 or (II) S1, or (III) sham stimulation to the right M1. Subjects were randomly assigned to conditions I, II, or III. A principal component analysis of the motor behaviour data suggested eight independent motor abilities corresponding to the 8 trained tasks. AAT induced substantial motor learning across abilities with generalisation to a non-trained test of finger dexterity (Nine-Hole-Peg-Test, NHPT). Participants receiving iTBS (to either M1 or S1) showed better performance with the AAT tasks over the period of training compared to sham stimulation as well as a bigger improvement with the generalisation task (NHPT) for the trained left hand after training completion. Priming with an excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as iTBS of either M1 or S1 can enhance motor learning across different sensorimotor abilities.

  13. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blas, Maite; Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen; Navazo, Marino; Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC-MSD for a one-year period (2007-2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003-2005, 2010-2011, and 2014-2015years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120pptv) than in VNP (80-100pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Potential soil organic carbon stocks in semi arid areas under climate change scenarios: an application of CarboSOIL model in northern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Abd-Elmabod, Sameh K.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Anaya-Romero, Maria; De la Rosa, Diego

    2014-05-01

    1. INTRODUCTION Climate change is predicted to have a large impact on semi arid areas which are often degraded and vulnerable to environmental changes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2012a; 2012b; 2013). However, these areas might play a key role in mitigation of climate change effects through sequestration of carbon in soils (United Nations, 2011). At the same time, increasing organic carbon in these environments could be beneficial for soil erosion control, soil fertility and, ultimately, food production (Lal, 2004). Several approaches have been carried out to evaluate climate change impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks, but soil carbon models are amongst the most effective tools to assess C stocks, dynamics and distribution and to predict trends under climate change scenarios (Jones et al., 2005 ). CarboSOIL is an empirical model based on regression techniques and developed to predict SOC contents at standard soil depths of 0 to 25, 25 to 50 and 50-75 cm (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2013). CarboSOIL model has been designed as a GIS-integrated tool and is a new component of the agroecological decision support system for land evaluation MicroLEIS DSS (De la Rosa et al., 2004). 2. GENERAL METHODS In this research, CarboSOIL was applied in El-Fayoum depression, a semi arid region located in northern Egypt with a large potential for agriculture (Abd-Elmabod et al, 2012). The model was applied in a total of six soil-units classified according the USDA Soil Taxonomy system within the orders Entisols and Aridisols under different climate climate change scenarios. Global climate models based on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (Agrawala at al., 2004) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) were applied to predict short-, medium- and long-term trends (2030, 2050 and 2100) of SOC dynamics and sequestration at different soil depths (0-25, 25-50 and 50-75) and land use types (irrigated areas, olive groves, wheat, cotton and other annual

  15. Response of carbon dioxide exchange to grazing intensity over typical steppes in a semi-arid area of Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Huizhi; Bernhofer, Christian

    2017-05-01

    The eddy covariance technique was used to measure the CO2 flux over four differently grazed Leymus chinensis steppe ecosystems (ungrazed since 1979 (UG79), winter grazed (WG), continuously grazed (CG), and heavily grazed (HG) sites) during four growing seasons (May to September) from 2005 to 2008, to investigate the response of the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over grassland ecosystems to meteorological factors and grazing intensity. At UG79, the optimal air temperature for the half-hourly NEE occurred between 17 and 20 °C, which was relatively low for semi-arid grasslands. The saturated NEE (NEEsat) and temperature sensitivity coefficient ( Q 10) of ecosystem respiration (RE) exhibited clear seasonal and interannual variations, which increased with canopy development and the soil water content (SWC, at 5 cm). The total NEE values for the growing seasons from 2005 to 2008 were -32.0, -41.5, -66.1, and -89.8 g C m-2, respectively. Both the amounts and distribution of precipitation during the growing season affected the NEE. The effects of grazing on the CO2 flux increased with the grazing intensity. During the peak growth stage, heavy grazing and winter grazing decreased NEEsat and gross primary production (45 % for HG and 34 % for WG) due to leaf area removal. Both RE and Q 10 were clearly reduced by heavy grazing. Heavy grazing changed the ecosystem from a CO2 sink into a CO2 source, and winter grazing reduced the total CO2 uptake by 79 %. In the early growing season, there was no difference in the NEE between CG and UG79. In addition to the grazing intensity, the effects of grazing on the CO2 flux also varied with the vegetation growth stages and SWC.

  16. Correlation of end tidal carbon dioxide, amplitude spectrum area, and coronary perfusion pressure in a porcine model of cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nicolas; Metzger, Anja K; Moore, Johanna C; India, Laura; Lick, Michael C; Berger, Paul S; Tang, Wanchun; Benditt, David G; Lurie, Keith G

    2017-09-01

    Amplitude Spectrum Area (AMSA) values during ventricular fibrillation (VF) correlate with myocardial energy stores and predict defibrillation success. By contrast, end tidal CO2 (ETCO2) values provide a noninvasive assessment of coronary perfusion pressure and myocardial perfusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Given the importance of the timing of defibrillation shock delivery on clinical outcome, we tested the hypothesis that AMSA and ETCO2 correlate with each other and can be used interchangably to correlate with myocardial perfusion in an animal laboratory preclinical, randomized, prospective investigation. After 6 min of untreated VF, 12 female pigs (32 ± 1 Kg), isoflurane anesthetized pigs received sequentially 3 min periods of standard (S) CPR, S-CPR+ an impedance threshold device (ITD), and then active compression decompression (ACD) + ITD CPR Hemodynamic, AMSA, and ETCO2 measurements were made with each method of CPR The Spearman correlation and Friedman tests were used to compare hemodynamic parameters. ETCO2, AMSA, coronary perfusion pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure were lowest with STD CPR, increased with STD CPR + ITD and highest with ACD CPR + ITD Further analysis demonstrated a positive correlation between AMSA and ETCO2 (r = 0.37, P = 0.025) and between AMSA and key hemodynamic parameters (P < 0.05). This study established a moderate positive correlation between ETCO2 and AMSA These findings provide the physiological basis for developing and testing a novel noninvasive method that utilizes either ETCO2 alone or the combination of ETCO2 and AMSA to predict when defibrillation might be successful. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Heat stress in urban areas: Indoor and outdoor temperatures in different urban structure types and subjectively reported well-being during a heat wave in the city of Leipzig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Franck

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate projections for Leipzig suggest elevated minimum and maximum temperatures as well as more frequent days with high temperatures. Hence, climate change is threatening human well-being and health. People spend the majority of their time indoors. Therefore, indoor temperatures (especially during the night are of special importance with respect to well-being and health. Indoor air temperature depends on outdoor air temperatures, but is for example modified by type of urban structure, housing area, and may be also influenced by differences in the behavior of the inhabitants. Especially in cities, outdoor air temperatures depend on urban structure e.g. housing density, building arrangement, unpaved areas, types of urban structures, urban green, and other factors. Hence, the questions arise how types of urban structures are related to inner-urban temperature differences and how outdoor air temperatures influence indoor temperatures in dependence on urban housing conditions. This work is a part of a pilot study conducted during the summer 2010 which gathered data from remote sensing, mobile measurements, stationary measurements of air temperatures and relative humidity in areas with different housing structures, and of indoor as well as outdoor temperatures in occupied apartments. Household-survey data reported the subjective perception of heat stress. The study resulted in rather complex relationships between type of housing areas, indoor and outdoor temperatures, morning and evening temperatures, indoor and outdoor temperatures as well as subjective heat perception. Green spaces and types of residential areas are related to air temperatures. More green resulted in lower temperatures. Temperatures have a tendency to increase with increasing story number and are significantly higher in the top floor. An indoor heat island effect corresponding to the outdoor effect could be shown for the homes: Distance to city center is a predicting variable for

  18. Influence of soil sampling approaches in the evaluation of soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses in a Mediterranean area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francaviglia, Rosa; Doro, Luca; Ledda, Luigi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    Different approaches of soil sampling can provide significantly different estimates of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015a). Many studies have focused on SOC distribution only in the biologically active layers of topsoil, the IPCC carbon accounting method estimates the change in SOC storage for the top 30 cm of a soil profile, and indeed limited data are available for SOCs below this depth. Moreover, SOC estimates are more uncertain in areas with heterogeneous land uses and pedoclimatic conditions such as Mediterranean environments, which are more prone to land degradation due to SOC degradation and depletion and erosive processes (Muñoz-Rojas et al., 2015). Anyhow, the open question is whether soil should be sampled following the pedogenetic horizons with soil entire soil approach (ESP), or along fixed depth increments using the soil control section method (SCS) (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015b). In addition, SOCs are often not adjusted for the soil volume occupied by coarse fragments as recommended by the IPCC Good Practice Guidance for LULUCF (IPCC, 2003) accordingly to the equation: SOCs = SOC (g kg-1) × bulk density (Mg m-3) × depth (m) × (1 - coarse fragment) × 10. The work deals with the comparison of SOCs using the ESP and SCS approaches, applied to a study area of northeastern Sardinia (Italy) under typical agro-silvo-pastoral systems (Francaviglia et al., 2014). The area lies within a hilly basin where elevation is in the range 275-340 m a.s.l., and slope ranges from 2-6% to 16-30%. The local climate is warm temperate with dry and hot summers, mean annual rainfall is 623 mm (range 367-811mm) and mean annual temperature is 15.0° C (13.8-16.4° C). The area has the same soil type (Haplic Endoleptic Cambisols, Dystric) according to IUSS Working Group WRB (2006), and the following land uses with different levels of cropping intensification were compared: Tilled vineyards (Tv), No-tilled grassed vineyards (Ntgv), Hay crop

  19. Effect of elemental sulfur in precursors on the pore structure and surface chemical characteristics of high-surface area activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Analog sulfur-containing precursors (ASCPs have been prepared by adding a certain amount of elemental sulfur (ES into petroleum coke (PC for synthesis of high-surface area activated carbon (HAC. ASCPs make it feasible to control the speciation and content of sulfur in ASCPs, so as to accurately investigate the influence of ES on the pore structure and surface chemical characteristics of the resultant HAC. The results indicate that ES in ASCPs can react with activator KOH and consume a part of KOH amount, thus leading to the deficiency of actual KOH amount for PC activation, eventually making a decrease in the specific surface area and pore volume of HAC. Interestingly, some of ES in ASCPs is transformed into organic sulfur thioether (C–S–C and sulfate (C–SO4–C or sulfonate (C–SO3–C on HAC surface during the activation process. Therefore, the surface chemical characteristics of HAC are modified correspondingly.

  20. Preparation of graphitic carbon nitride with large specific surface area and outstanding N2 photofixation ability via a dissolve-regrowth process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huiqiang; Shi, Zhenyu; Li, Qiang; Li, Shuang

    2016-12-01

    Nitrogen fixation is the second most important chemical process in nature next to photosynthesis. Here, we report a convenient dissolve-regrowth method for synthesizing graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) with a large surface area and nitrogen vacancies by HCl treatment. XRD, N2adsorption, SEM, TEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, EPR, N2-TPD, Photoluminescence and Photocurrent were used to characterize the prepared catalysts. The results indicate that HCl treatment does not influence the crystal phase of g-C3N4 but change the morphology and optical property, leading to the smaller particle size, larger surface area and increased bang gap energy. It is deduced by N2-TPD, Photoluminescence, Photocurrent and DFT simulations that the nitrogen vacancies formed by the HCl treatment not only serve as active sites to adsorb and activate N2 molecules but also promote interfacial charge transfer from g-C3N4to N2 molecules. The HCl treated g-C3N4 catalyst exhibits outstanding nitrogen photofixation ability under visible light, which is 13.4-fold higher than that of bulk g-C3N4 without nitrogen vacancy. The possible reaction mechanism is proposed.

  1. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    protected areas of Rajasthan, India. 467. Geochemistry. Geochemical constraints on the evolution of mafic and felsic rocks in the Bathani volcanic and volcano- sedimentary sequence of Chotanagpur Granite Gneiss. Complex. 959. Identification and characterization of tsunami deposits off southeast coast of India from the ...

  2. Magnetism in carbon nanostructures

    CERN Document Server

    Hagelberg, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Magnetism in carbon nanostructures is a rapidly expanding field of current materials science. Its progress is driven by the wide range of applications for magnetic carbon nanosystems, including transmission elements in spintronics, building blocks of cutting-edge nanobiotechnology, and qubits in quantum computing. These systems also provide novel paradigms for basic phenomena of quantum physics, and are thus of great interest for fundamental research. This comprehensive survey emphasizes both the fundamental nature of the field, and its groundbreaking nanotechnological applications, providing a one-stop reference for both the principles and the practice of this emerging area. With equal relevance to physics, chemistry, engineering and materials science, senior undergraduate and graduate students in any of these subjects, as well as all those interested in novel nanomaterials, will gain an in-depth understanding of the field from this concise and self-contained volume.

  3. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Arkoma Basin, Kansas Basins, and Midcontinent Rift Basin study areas: Chapter F in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Craddock, William H.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, Phillip A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.

    2013-01-01

    2007 Energy Independence and Security Act (Public Law 110–140) directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and intended to be used at regional to subbasinal scales. This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of three storage assessment units (SAUs) in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Arkoma Basin study area, and two SAUs in Upper Cambrian to Mississippian sedimentary rocks within the Kansas Basins study area. The Arkoma Basin and Kansas Basins are adjacent with very similar geologic units; although the Kansas Basins area is larger, the Arkoma Basin is more structurally complex. The report focuses on the characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in the SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU, such as depth to top, gross thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps, are usually provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information herein was employed, as specified in the USGS methodology, to calculate a probabilistic distribution of potential storage resources in each SAU. The Midcontinent Rift Basin study area was not assessed, because no suitable storage formations meeting our size, depth, reservoir quality, and regional seal guidelines were found. Figures in this report show study area boundaries along with the SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through sealing units into the top of the storage formations. The cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one-square mile and are

  4. Atmospheric carbon tetrachloride in rural background and industry surrounded urban areas in Northern Iberian Peninsula: Mixing ratios, trends, and potential sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Maite de, E-mail: maite.deblas@ehu.eus [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Uria-Tellaetxe, Iratxe; Gomez, Maria Carmen [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Navazo, Marino [University College of Engineering of Vitoria-Gasteiz, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain); Alonso, Lucio; García, Jose Antonio; Durana, Nieves; Iza, Jon; Ramón, Jarol Derley [School of Engineering of Bilbao, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU (Spain)

    2016-08-15

    Latest investigations on atmospheric carbon tetrachloride (CTC) are focused on its ozone depleting potential, adverse effects on the human health, and radiative efficiency and Global Warming Potential as a greenhouse gas. CTC mixing ratios have been thoroughly studied since its restriction under the Montreal Protocol, mostly in remote areas with the aim of reporting long-term trends after its banning. The observed decrease of the CTC background mixing ratio, however, was not as strong as expected. In order to explain this behavior CTC lifetime should be adjusted by estimating the relative significance of its sinks and by identifying ongoing potential sources. Looking for possible sources, CTC was measured with high-time resolution in two sites in Northern Spain, using auto-GC systems and specifically developed acquisition and processing methodologies. The first site, Bilbao, is an urban area influenced by the surrounding industry, where measurements were performed with GC–MSD for a one-year period (2007–2008). The second site, at Valderejo Natural Park (VNP), is a rural background area where measurements were carried out with GC-FID and covering CTC data a nonsuccessive five-year period (2003–2005, 2010–2011, and 2014–2015 years). Median yearly CTC mixing ratios were slightly higher in the urban area (120 pptv) than in VNP (80–100 pptv). CTC was reported to be well mixed in the atmosphere and no sources were noticed to impact the rural site. The observed long-term trend in VNP was in agreement with the estimated global CTC emissions. In the urban site, apart from industrial and commercial CTC sources, chlorine-bleach products used as cleaning agents were reported as promotors of indoor sources. - Highlights: • A methodology was developed to measure CTC using GC-MSD and GC-FID. • CTC ongoing sources were noticed in an industry surrounded urban area. • No noticeable nearby CTC sources impacted the rural site. • Long-term CTC trend in agreement

  5. Measurement of Black Carbon, Particle Number and Mass, and Lung-Deposited Surface Area Emission Factors from in-Use Locomotive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban-Weiss, G. A.; Krasowsky, T.; Sioutas, C.; Daher, N.

    2014-12-01

    As pollutant emissions from motor vehicles have vastly decreased over the last decades, the relative contribution from non-road sources has increased. There is a serious lack of real-world emissions measurements for many non-road sources including locomotives. As such, uncertainties in emissions from these sources is high. Locomotives contribute to human exposure of diesel pollutants near ports, railyards, and rail lines. Reducing uncertainty in current estimates of locomotive emissions is needed for enhancing the accuracy of emission inventories with corresponding improvements in health risk, air pollution, and climate assessments. Particulate matter emissions from a large sample (N=88) of in-use freight locomotives were measured in the Alameda Corridor, located near the port of Los Angeles. Emission factors for black carbon (BC), particle number (PN), fine particulate mass (PM2.5), and lung-deposited surface area (LDSA) were computed based on 1 Hz measurements of the rise and fall of particulate emissions and CO2 concentrations as the locomotives passed the sampling location. Mean emission factors ± standard deviations were 0.9 ± 0.5 g kg-1 of fuel consumed for BC, (2.1 ± 1.5)x1016 # kg-1 for PN, 1.6 ± 1.3 g kg-1 for PM2.5, and (2.2 ± 1.7)x1013 μm2 kg-1 for LDSA. Emission factors for individual trains were slightly skewed, with the dirtiest 10% of locomotives responsible for 20%, 24%, 28%, and 27% of total BC, PN, PM2.5, and LDSA emissions, respectively. BC versus LDSA emissions from individual locomotives were found to be anti-correlated, suggesting that the highest emitters of black carbon may in fact result in less particle lung-deposited surface area than lower BC emitters. Using results presented here along with previous measurements, we compare for freight trains versus diesel trucks the amount of BC emissions associated with pulling an intermodal freight container over a given distance. Emission factors for locomotives presented here establish a

  6. Mapping Congo Basin vegetation types from 300 m and 1 km multi-sensor time series for carbon stocks and forest areas estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhegghen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the Congo Basin forests by delivering a detailed map of vegetation types with an improved spatial discrimination and coherence for the whole Congo Basin region. A total of 20 land cover classes were described with the standardized Land Cover Classification System (LCCS developed by the FAO. Based on a semi-automatic processing chain, the Congo Basin vegetation types map was produced by combining 19 months of observations from the Envisat MERIS full resolution products (300 m and 8 yr of daily SPOT VEGETATION (VGT reflectances (1 km. Four zones (north, south and two central were delineated and processed separately according to their seasonal and cloud cover specificities. The discrimination between different vegetation types (e.g. forest and savannas was significantly improved thanks to the MERIS sharp spatial resolution. A better discrimination was achieved in cloudy areas by taking advantage of the temporal consistency of the SPOT VGT observations. This resulted in a precise delineation of the spatial extent of the rural complex in the countries situated along the Atlantic coast. Based on this new map, more accurate estimates of the surface areas of forest types were produced for each country of the Congo Basin. Carbon stocks of the Basin were evaluated to a total of 49 360 million metric tons. The regional scale of the map was an opportunity to investigate what could be an appropriate tree cover threshold for a forest class definition in the Congo Basin countries. A 30% tree cover threshold was suggested. Furthermore, the phenology of the different vegetation types was illustrated systematically with EVI temporal profiles. This Congo Basin forest types map reached a satisfactory overall accuracy of 71.5% and even 78.9% when some classes are aggregated. The values of the Cohen's kappa coefficient, respectively 0.64 and 0.76 indicates a result significantly better than random.

  7. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-01-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging. PMID:27319783

  8. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M.; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M.

    2016-06-01

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm2. The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm2, a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging.

  9. High Area Capacity Lithium-Sulfur Full-cell Battery with Prelitiathed Silicon Nanowire-Carbon Anodes for Long Cycling Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Andreas; Dörfler, Susanne; Piwko, Markus; Wisser, Florian M; Jaumann, Tony; Ahrens, Eike; Giebeler, Lars; Althues, Holger; Schädlich, Stefan; Grothe, Julia; Jeffery, Andrea; Grube, Matthias; Brückner, Jan; Martin, Jan; Eckert, Jürgen; Kaskel, Stefan; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M

    2016-06-20

    We show full Li/S cells with the use of balanced and high capacity electrodes to address high power electro-mobile applications. The anode is made of an assembly comprising of silicon nanowires as active material densely and conformally grown on a 3D carbon mesh as a light-weight current collector, offering extremely high areal capacity for reversible Li storage of up to 9 mAh/cm(2). The dense growth is guaranteed by a versatile Au precursor developed for homogenous Au layer deposition on 3D substrates. In contrast to metallic Li, the presented system exhibits superior characteristics as an anode in Li/S batteries such as safe operation, long cycle life and easy handling. These anodes are combined with high area density S/C composite cathodes into a Li/S full-cell with an ether- and lithium triflate-based electrolyte for high ionic conductivity. The result is a highly cyclable full-cell with an areal capacity of 2.3 mAh/cm(2), a cyclability surpassing 450 cycles and capacity retention of 80% after 150 cycles (capacity loss <0.4% per cycle). A detailed physical and electrochemical investigation of the SiNW Li/S full-cell including in-operando synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements reveals that the lower degradation is due to a lower self-reduction of polysulfides after continuous charging/discharging.

  10. Carbon gains, losses, and feedbacks in shallow, eutrophic lakes of phytoplankton and macrophyte dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Brothers, Soren

    2013-01-01

    Lakes are increasingly being recognized as an important component of the global carbon cycle, yet anthropogenic activities that alter their community structure may change the way they transport and process carbon. This research focuses on the relationship between carbon cycling and community structure of primary producers in small, shallow lakes, which are the most abundant lake type in the world, and furthermore subject to intense terrestrial-aquatic coupling due to their high perimeter:area...

  11. Making Activated Carbon by Wet Pressurized Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John W.; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.; Moran, Mark

    2006-01-01

    A wet pressurized pyrolysis (wet carbonization) process has been invented as a means of producing activated carbon from a wide variety of inedible biomass consisting principally of plant wastes. The principal intended use of this activated carbon is room-temperature adsorption of pollutant gases from cooled incinerator exhaust streams. Activated carbon is highly porous and has a large surface area. The surface area depends strongly on the raw material and the production process. Coconut shells and bituminous coal are the primary raw materials that, until now, were converted into activated carbon of commercially acceptable quality by use of traditional production processes that involve activation by use of steam or carbon dioxide. In the wet pressurized pyrolysis process, the plant material is subjected to high pressure and temperature in an aqueous medium in the absence of oxygen for a specified amount of time to break carbon-oxygen bonds in the organic material and modify the structure of the material to obtain large surface area. Plant materials that have been used in demonstrations of the process include inedible parts of wheat, rice, potato, soybean, and tomato plants. The raw plant material is ground and mixed with a specified proportion of water. The mixture is placed in a stirred autoclave, wherein it is pyrolized at a temperature between 450 and 590 F (approximately between 230 and 310 C) and a pressure between 1 and 1.4 kpsi (approximately between 7 and 10 MPa) for a time between 5 minutes and 1 hour. The solid fraction remaining after wet carbonization is dried, then activated at a temperature of 500 F (260 C) in nitrogen gas. The activated carbon thus produced is comparable to commercial activated carbon. It can be used to adsorb oxides of sulfur, oxides of nitrogen, and trace amounts of hydrocarbons, any or all of which can be present in flue gas. Alternatively, the dried solid fraction can be used, even without the activation treatment, to absorb

  12. Carbon Dioxide Capture from Flue Gas Using Dry, Regenerable Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Green; Thomas O. Nelson; Brian S. Turk; Paul D. Box; Raghubir P. Gupta

    2006-03-31

    This report describes research conducted between January 1, 2006, and March 31, 2006, on the use of dry regenerable sorbents for removal of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from coal combustion flue gas. An integrated system composed of a downflow co-current contact absorber and two hollow screw conveyors (regenerator and cooler) was assembled, instrumented, debugged, and calibrated. A new batch of supported sorbent containing 15% sodium carbonate was prepared and subjected to surface area and compact bulk density determination.

  13. Development of the experimental procedure to examine the response of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites subjected to a high-intensity pulsed electric field and low-velocity impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Robert J; Zhupanska, Olesya I

    2016-01-01

    A new fully automated experimental setup has been developed to study the response of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites subjected to a high-intensity pulsed electric field and low-velocity impact. The experimental setup allows for real-time measurements of the pulsed electric current, voltage, impact load, and displacements on the CFRP composite specimens. The setup includes a new custom-built current pulse generator that utilizes a bank of capacitor modules capable of producing a 20 ms current pulse with an amplitude of up to 2500 A. The setup enabled application of the pulsed current and impact load and successfully achieved coordination between the peak of the current pulse and the peak of the impact load. A series of electrical, impact, and coordinated electrical-impact characterization tests were performed on 32-ply IM7/977-3 unidirectional CFRP composites to assess their ability to withstand application of a pulsed electric current and determine the effects of the pulsed current on the impact response. Experimental results revealed that the electrical resistance of CFRP composites decreased with an increase in the electric current magnitude. It was also found that the electrified CFRP specimens withstood higher average impact loads compared to the non-electrified specimens.

  14. Reduced uncertainty of regional scale CLM predictions of net carbon fluxes and leaf area indices with estimated plant-specific parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Hanna; Hendricks Franssen, Harrie-Jan; Han, Xujun; Baatz, Roland; Montzka, Carsten; Schmidt, Marius; Vereecken, Harry

    2016-04-01

    Reliable estimates of carbon fluxes and states at regional scales are required to reduce uncertainties in regional carbon balance estimates and to support decision making in environmental politics. In this work the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5-BGC) was applied at a high spatial resolution (1 km2) for the Rur catchment in western Germany. In order to improve the model-data consistency of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and leaf area index (LAI) for this study area, five plant functional type (PFT)-specific CLM4.5-BGC parameters were estimated with time series of half-hourly NEE data for one year in 2011/2012, using the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) approach. The parameters were estimated separately for four different plant functional types (needleleaf evergreen temperate tree, broadleaf deciduous temperate tree, C3-grass and C3-crop) at four different sites. The four sites are located inside or close to the Rur catchment. We evaluated modeled NEE for one year in 2012/2013 with NEE measured at seven eddy covariance sites in the catchment, including the four parameter estimation sites. Modeled LAI was evaluated by means of LAI derived from remotely sensed RapidEye images of about 18 days in 2011/2012. Performance indices were based on a comparison between measurements and (i) a reference run with CLM default parameters, and (ii) a 60 instance CLM ensemble with parameters sampled from the DREAM posterior probability density functions (pdfs). The difference between the observed and simulated NEE sum reduced 23% if estimated parameters instead of default parameters were used as input. The mean absolute difference between modeled and measured LAI was reduced by 59% on average. Simulated LAI was not only improved in terms of the absolute value but in some cases also in terms of the timing (beginning of vegetation onset), which was directly related to a substantial improvement of the NEE estimates in

  15. Eraser-based eco-friendly fabrication of a skin-like large-area matrix of flexible carbon nanotube strain and pressure sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahatiya, Parikshit; Badhulika, Sushmee

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports a new type of electronic, recoverable skin-like pressure and strain sensor, produced on a flexible, biodegradable pencil-eraser substrate and fabricated using a solvent-free, low-cost and energy efficient process. Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) film, the strain sensing element, was patterned on pencil eraser with a rolling pin and a pre-compaction mechanical press. This induces high interfacial bonding between the MWCNTs and the eraser substrate, which enables the sensor to achieve recoverability under ambient conditions. The eraser serves as a substrate for strain sensing, as well as acting as a dielectric for capacitive pressure sensing, thereby eliminating the dielectric deposition step, which is crucial in capacitive-based pressure sensors. The strain sensing transduction mechanism is attributed to the tunneling effect, caused by the elastic behavior of the MWCNTs and the strong mechanical interlock between MWCNTs and the eraser substrate, which restricts slippage of MWCNTs on the eraser thereby minimizing hysteresis. The gauge factor of the strain sensor was calculated to be 2.4, which is comparable to and even better than most of the strain and pressure sensors fabricated with more complex designs and architectures. The sensitivity of the capacitive pressure sensor was found to be 0.135 MPa-1.To demonstrate the applicability of the sensor as artificial electronic skin, the sensor was assembled on various parts of the human body and corresponding movements and touch sensation were monitored. The entire fabrication process is scalable and can be integrated into large areas to map spatial pressure distributions. This low-cost, easily scalable MWCNT pin-rolled eraser-based pressure and strain sensor has huge potential in applications such as artificial e-skin in flexible electronics and medical diagnostics, in particular in surgery as it provides high spatial resolution without a complex nanostructure architecture.

  16. Analyzing environmental and structural charactersitics of concrete for carbon mitigation and climate adaptation in urban areas: A case study in Rajkot, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, Andrea Valdez

    Increasing temperatures, varying rain events accompanied with flooding or droughts coupled with increasing water demands, and decreasing air quality are just some examples of stresses that urban systems face with the onset of climate change and rapid urbanization. Literature suggests that greenhouse gases are a leading cause of climate change and are of a result of anthropogenic activities such as infrastructure development. Infrastructure development is heavily dependent on the production of concrete. Yet, concrete can contribute up to 7% of total CO29 emissions globally from cement manufacturing alone. The goal of this dissertation was to evaluate current concrete technologies that could contribute to carbon mitigation and climate adaptation in cities. The objectives used to reach the goal of the study included (1) applying a material flow and life cycle analysis (MFA-LCA) to determine the environmental impacts of pervious and high volume fly ash (HVFA) concrete compared to ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete in a developing country; (2) performing a comparative assessment of pervious concrete mixture designs for structural and environmental benefits across the U.S. and India; and (3) Determining structural and durability benefits from HVFA concrete mixtures when subjected to extreme hot weather conditions (a likely element of climate change). The study revealed that cities have a choice in reducing emissions, improving stormwater issues, and developing infrastructure that can sustain higher temperatures. Pervious and HVFA concrete mixtures reduce emissions by 21% and 47%, respectively, compared to OPC mixtures. A pervious concrete demonstration in Rajkot, India showed improvements in water quality (i.e. lower levels of nitrogen by as much as 68% from initial readings), and a reduction in material costs by 25%. HVFA and OPC concrete mixtures maintained compressive strengths above a design strength of 27.6 MPa (4000 psi), achieved low to moderate permeability

  17. 1:1,000,000-scale hydrographic areas and flow systems for the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system of Nevada, Utah, and parts of adjacent states

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset was created in support of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study focusing on groundwater resources in the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer...

  18. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, California, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources. Units of carbonate rock and graphitic schist have demonstrated resources of magnesian marble and graphite. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rock are present in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area.

  19. Petrography, fluid inclusion and isotope studies in Ordovician carbonate reservoirs in the Shunnan area, Tarim basin, NW China: Implications for the nature and timing of silicification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ziye; Chen, Honghan; Qing, Hairuo; Chi, Guoxiang; Chen, Qianglu; You, Donghua; Yin, Hang; Zhang, Siyang

    2017-08-01

    The Shunnan (SN) area, located in the center of the Tarim basin, NW China, is a gas field discovered in 2013, where the gas is hosted from deeply buried Ordovician carbonate reservoirs with burial depth > 6000 m and temperature > 190 °C. The most important reservoir rocks in the SN area are silicified limestones, which are characterized by multiple generations/types of authigenic quartz (Qz1-Qz2) and coarse calcite cement (CC1-CC3), in addition to other diagenetic phases. Qz1 is a replacement quartz postdating burial stylolites in both limestone and strongly silicified limestone, and Qz2 are equant and bladed quartz cements developed in fractures or vugs in strongly silicified limestone, also postdating burial stylolite. CC1 is a coarse calcite cement found in the vugs, which postdates medium crystalline dolomite and predates saddle dolomite. CC2 (including CC2a, CC2b and CC2c) is the calcite postdating Qz1 and burial stylolites. CC2a is found in fractures in limestone or slightly silicified limestone. CC2b, CC2c and CC3 are only identified in strongly silicified limestone. CC2b fills intercrystalline pores of Qz1, and CC2c fills fractures, predating Qz2. CC3 is precipitated in remaining space left by Qz2c in fractures or vugs. Sr isotopes were analyzed in CC2a and CC2c. CC2a has 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70890-0.70917. CC2c is characterized with 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70949-0.70972. Fluid inclusions were studied in all the quartz and coarse calcite cements. Fluid inclusions in CC2a are characterized by Th values of 118-131 °C and salinities of 22.9-25.2 wt% NaCl + CaCl2. Fluid inclusions from Qz2a, Qz2b, CC2b and CC2c have Th values of 143-166 °C and salinities of 14.7-23.7 wt% NaCl + CaCl2. Fluid inclusions in Qz2c are characterized by Th values of 125-132 °C and salinities of 24.8-26.8 wt% NaCl + CaCl2, and those in CC3 by Th values of 86-101 °C and salinities of 22.9-25.2 wt% NaCl + CaCl2. The Th drop, from Qz2a, Qz2b and CC2c to Qz2c and CC3, cannot be

  20. The effect of drought stress on carbon assimilation and isoprene emission capacities of oak species in urban and rural areas of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, C.; Gramann, J. H.; White, S. L.; Schade, G. W.

    2011-12-01

    Isoprene released from vegetation affects regional and global air quality directly through chemical reactions generating ozone and secondary organic aerosol, and indirectly through as a sink for the OH radical, leading to increased methane lifetimes. The formation and emission of biogenic isoprene is controlled by the emitting species' physical growth environment, and altered by exposure to environmental stress. It has been hypothesized that a warmer and more drought-prone climate as a consequence of global warming may enhance biogenic isoprene emissions with mostly positive feedbacks to warming. However, the magnitudes of these actions and reactions in a warming climate are uncertain, as their drivers are not yet completely understood. To address these interactions, we initiated a field study in spring 2011 to characterize the sensitivity of carbon assimilation and isoprene emission capacity of dominant Texas oak species (Quercus falcata, Q. nigra and Q.stellata) to measured climatic and pollution gradients along an urban to rural transect from downtown Houston to Sam Houston National Forest. We hypothesize that the conditions in urban areas may serve as a proxy for future warmer, more polluted and drier conditions. Leaf level measurements were conducted on sun-exposed leaves under standard conditions (30 C and 1000 PAR units); temperature and CO2 response curves, and post-illumination isoprene emissions were evaluated. Our results show, that the early onset of exceptional drought (SPI of -2 to -3, leading to soil moistures of less than 10%) had a strong impact on the assimilation of all studied species, with site-specific differences in species' response. Q. falcata and Q. nigra were particularly sensitive to their local environment. Their net assimilation abruptly declined by 90% below their expected optimum rates already in May and remained low throughout the summer at the urban and suburban sites. In contrast, Q. stellata, a species native to Texas, was more

  1. Potential areas of ground-water discharge in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent potential areas of ground-water discharge for selected hydrographic areas in eastern Nevada and western Utah. The data are based on phreatophyte...

  2. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  3. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Williston Basin, Central Montana Basins, and Montana Thrust Belt study areas: Chapter J in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buursink, Marc L.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Craddock, William H.; Roberts-Ashby, Tina L.; Brennan, Sean T.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Freeman, P.A.; Cahan, Steven M.; DeVera, Christina A.; Lohr, Celeste D.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2014-01-01

    The 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act directs the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to conduct a national assessment of potential geologic storage resources for carbon dioxide (CO2). The methodology used by the USGS for the national CO2 assessment follows that of previous USGS work. This methodology is non-economic and is intended to be used at regional to sub-basinal scales.

  4. Export fluxes in a naturally fertilized area of the Southern Ocean, the Kerguelen Plateau: ecological vectors of carbon and biogenic silica to depth (Part 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembauville, M.; Blain, S.; Armand, L.; Quéguiner, B.; Salter, I.

    2014-12-01

    The chemical (particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, biogenic silica) and biological (diatoms and faecal pellets) composition of the material exported to a moored sediment trap located under the winter mixed layer of the naturally-fertilized Kerguelen Plateau in the Southern Ocean was studied over an annual cycle. Despite iron availability in spring, the annual particulate organic carbon (POC) export (98.2 mmol m-2) at 289 m was low but annual biogenic silica export was significant (114 mmol m-2). This feature was related to the abundance of empty diatom frustules and the ratio of full : empty cell exerted a first order control in BSi : POC export stoichiometry of biological pump. Chaetoceros Hyalochaete spp. and Thalassiosira antarctica resting spores were found to be responsible for more than 60% of the annual POC that occurred during two very short export events (80%). The seasonal progression of faecal pellet types revealed a clear transition from small spherical shapes (small copepods) in spring, larger cylindrical and ellipsoid shapes in summer (euphausiids and large copepods) and finally large tabular shapes (salps) in autumn and winter. We propose that in this High Biomass, Low Export (HBLE) environment, small, highly silicified, fast-sinking resting spores are able to bypass the high grazing pressure and efficient carbon transfer to higher trophic levels that are responsible for the low fluxes observed the during the remainder of the year. Our study also provides a statistical framework linking the ecological succession of diatom and zooplankton communities to the seasonality of carbon and silicon export within an iron-fertilized bloom region in the Southern Ocean.

  5. The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: III. Interrelations between Respirable Elemental Carbon and Gaseous and Particulate Components of Diesel Exhaust derived from Area Sampling in Underground Non-metal Mining Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Yereb, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H.; Blair, Aaron; Portengen, Lützen; Stewart, Patricia A.; Attfield, Michael; Silverman, Debra T.

    2010-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) has been implicated as a potential lung carcinogen. However, the exact components of DE that might be involved have not been clearly identified. In the past, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and carbon oxides (COx) were measured most frequently to estimate DE, but since the 1990s, the most commonly accepted surrogate for DE has been elemental carbon (EC). We developed quantitative estimates of historical exposure levels of respirable elemental carbon (REC) for an epidemiologic study of mortality, particularly lung cancer, among diesel-exposed miners by back-extrapolating 1998–2001 REC exposure levels using historical measurements of carbon monoxide (CO). The choice of CO was based on the availability of historical measurement data. Here, we evaluated the relationship of REC with CO and other current and historical components of DE from side-by-side area measurements taken in underground operations of seven non-metal mining facilities. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the natural log-transformed (Ln)REC measurements with the Ln(CO) measurements was 0.4. The correlation of REC with the other gaseous, organic carbon (OC), and particulate measurements ranged from 0.3 to 0.8. Factor analyses indicated that the gaseous components, including CO, together with REC, loaded most strongly on a presumed ‘Diesel exhaust’ factor, while the OC and particulate agents loaded predominantly on other factors. In addition, the relationship between Ln(REC) and Ln(CO) was approximately linear over a wide range of REC concentrations. The fact that CO correlated with REC, loaded on the same factor, and increased linearly in log–log space supported the use of CO in estimating historical exposure levels to DE. PMID:20876234

  6. Printable Nano-Field Effect Transistors Combined with Carbon Nanotube Based Printable Interconnect Wires for Large-Area Deployable Active Phased-Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flexible electronic circuits can be easily integrated with large area (>10m aperture), inflatable antennas to provide distributed control and processing...

  7. The K/T-boundary carbonate breccia succession at the Cantarell Field, Campeche Bay area: a representative example of the influence of the Chicxulub meteorite-impact event on the formation of extraordinary petroleum reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Muñeton, G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J. M.; Velasquillo-Martínez, L. G.; García-Hernández, J.

    2013-05-01

    Over the last decade, intense petroleum exploration and exploitation activities have been conducted in the Campeche Bay area. Detailed stratigraphic studies in this region based on seismic, well logs, and core data have allowed the documentation of numerous deep-water carbonate breccia deposits throughout the Cretaceous stratigraphic column. However, the uppermost carbonate breccia succession is very distinctive in terms of its sedimentological properties compared to the underlying and older calcareous breccia layers. The unique characteristics of this deposit include: its unusual thickness, stratigraphic position, distribution, and content of impact-metamorphic constituents. At the Cantarell field, this carbonate breccia sedimentary package is a representative example of how the Chuxulub meteorite-impact event influenced the formation of a remarkable carbonate reservoir. This deposit was the most important oil-producing stratigraphic horizon for long time in that field. Nevertheless, this reservoir is still important not only in that field but also in other fields in offshore Campeche. The K/T boundary carbonate breccia succession is a typical fining-upward deposit made up, from base to top, of three units. The 50 to 300-m thick, basal Unit 1 consists of a coarse-grained carbonate breccia. Unit 2 is a 10 to 20 m-thick, fine-grained carbonate breccia. The 25 to 30 m-thick, uppermost Unit 3 is a greenish interval of friable sand, silt and clay-sized constituents with abundant ejecta material. In some wells, a 10 to 20 m-thick, non-oil producing fine-grained calcareous breccia occurs interbedded within Unit 3. The K/T boundary carbonate sedimentary package is underlain and overlain by deep-water shaly calcareous facies of Upper Maastrichtian and Lower Paleocene age, respectively. Studies of cronostratigraphic-equivalent outcrop analogs of this K/T boundary carbonate reservoir carried out by the authors in the Sierra de Chiapas (El Guayal, Tabasco and Bochil, Chiapas

  8. Effects of long-term organic material applications and green manure crop cultivation on soil organic carbon in rain fed area of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Sugino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A long-term field experiment on organic material application and crop rotation with green manure crops has been conducted since 1976 at Lopburi Agricultural Research and Development Center, Department of Agriculture, Lop Buri Province, Thailand, to clarify the effect of organic materials and green manure crop on soil organic carbon changes. The stock change factors that stand for the relative change of soil organic carbon on the carbon stock in a reference condition (native vegetation that is not degraded or improved. Stock change factor for input of organic matter (FI, representing different levels of C input to soil such as organic material application, crop residue treatment and green manure crop cultivation, was computed with the present field experimental results. While the computed FI of "High input with manure" was within the range of IPCC default FI value, some of the computed FI of " High input without manure" was much higher than the IPCC default though it was varied due to the biomass production and nutrient contents of the green manure crops planted as the second crops after corn. Therefore, the FI computed by field experimental results can contribute to more accurate estimation of SOC changes in farm land especially in Southeast Asia because the default FI mostly depends on the experimental data in temperate zones. Moreover, the field experiment has focused the effect of reduced tillage practices on SOC changes and corn yield since 2011. The results of the experiment will be used to compute Stock change factor for management regime (FMG which represents the effects of tillage operations.

  9. Effects of adjacent land-use types on the distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in the montane area of central Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiou-Pin; Juang, Kai-Wei; Cheng, Chih-Hsin; Pai, Chuang-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks can be altered through reforestation and cropping. We estimated the effects of land use on SOC stocks after natural deciduous forests replaced by crops and coniferous plantations by examining the vertical distribution of SOC stocks at different depth intervals in an adjacent Oolong tea (Camellia sinensis L.) plantation, Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) forest, Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) forest, and Taiwania (Taiwania cryptomerioides) forest in central Taiwan. The main soil characteristics, soil nitrogen (N) content, and soil carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio were also determined. Different land uses resulted in significantly higher bulk density, lower cation exchange capacity, SOC, soil N, soil C/N ratio, and SOC stocks in croplands compared to forestlands. Due to the long-term application of chemical fertilizers, a significantly lower soil pH was found in the tea plantation. Croplands had a lower soil C/N ratio because of less C input into the soil and a higher mineralization rate of organic carbon during cultivation. Similar SOC stocks were found in Taiwania and Japanese cedar forests (148.5 and 151.8 Mg C ha -1 , respectively), while the tea plantation had comparable SOC stocks to the bamboo forest (101.8 and 100.5 Mg C ha -1 , respectively). Over 40% of SOC stocks was stored in croplands and over 56% was stored in forestland within the upper 10 cm of soil. Coniferous plantations can contribute to a higher SOC stock than croplands, and a significant difference can be found in the top 0-5 cm of soil.

  10. Analysis of Diurnal Variations in Energy Footprint and Its Associated Carbon Emission for Water Supply and Reuse in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobhani, Reza

    Arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world face water scarcity. Conventional water supply portfolio of these regions encompassed limited surface water, groundwater, and imported water. Current technological innovations technically and economically supplemented new water sources i.e., reclaimed water, desalted water and the groundwater sources that were not potable. The need for more efficient and alternative sources of drinking water supply necessitates studying the impediments e.g., intensive energy required, and emerging concern of the carbon emission. This dissertation discusses the challenges of energy footprint and its carbon emission among the processes involved in water supplies in the aforementioned regions. The conducted studies present time-dependent energy footprint analyses of different water reclamation and reuse processes. This study discusses the energy consumption in four main energy intensive processes inclusive of: activated sludge, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and advanced oxidation with UV/ H2O2. The results indicate how the diurnal variations of different environmental parameters (e.g. flow and pollutant concentration) amplify the energy footprint variation among these processes. Meanwhile, the results show, due to the different power sources diurnally employed to provide electrical energy, the energy-associated carbon emission has more drastic variation in diurnal period compared to the energy footprint variation. In addition, this study presents the energy footprint of a modular process for treating local brackish groundwater by employing a combination of pellet reactor for radium and hardness minimization, reverse osmosis with intermediate precipitation, and concentrated brine crystallization to achieve high recovery with zero liquid discharge. Also it compares the energy footprint of the aforementioned process with the alternative option (i.e. desalted seawater conveyance with substantial lift). Finally, in coastal regions

  11. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  12. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  13. The role of ecosystem services in climate and air quality in urban areas: Evaluating carbon sequestration and air pollution removal by street and park trees in Szeged (Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Márton

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of ecosystem services can provide essential help in incorporatating the multifunctionality of urban ecosystems in planning and management processes. Two important regulating services of urban trees, carbon sequestration and air pollution removal, are evaluated in this article for different types of tree stands (streets, parks in the city centre of Szeged (Hungary. The necessary calculations were carried out by an adaptation of the targeted model (i-Tree Eco, based on a large complete tree inventory dataset. The analyses revealed the main tendencies in differences between tree species considering the tree condition, which affects the service-providing capacity to a high degree. The effects of differences in tree management on the chosen ecosystem services were investigated by comparing two pairs of tree alleys. Based on our observations, clear cuts and complete tree alley changes are not advisable from an ecosystem service point of view.

  14. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis...

  15. Modelling fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE – Part 1: Simulating historical global burned area and fire regime

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yue, C

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modelling global burned area and fire regime C. Yue et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures J I J I Back Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version Interactive Discussion D iscussion P aper | D iscussion P aper | D... University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA 2377 GMDD 7, 2377–2427, 2014 Modelling global burned area and fire regime C. Yue et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures J I J I Back Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version...

  16. Porous carbons prepared by direct carbonization of MOFs for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xinlong; Li, Xuejin; Yan, Zifeng; Komarneni, Sridhar

    2014-07-01

    Three porous carbons were prepared by direct carbonization of HKUST-1, MOF-5 and Al-PCP without additional carbon precursors. The carbon samples obtained by carbonization at 1073 K were characterized by XRD, TEM and N2 physisorption techniques followed by testing for electrochemical performance. The BET surface areas of the three carbons were in the range of 50-1103 m2/g. As electrode materials for supercapacitor, the MOF-5 and Al-PCP derived carbons displayed the ideal capacitor behavior, whereas the HKUST-1 derived carbon showed poor capacitive behavior at various sweep rates and current densities. Among those carbon samples, Al-PCP derived carbons exhibited highest specific capacitance (232.8 F/g) in 30% KOH solution at the current density of 100 mA/g.

  17. 40 CFR 52.376 - Control strategy: Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... area, the New Haven/Meriden/Waterbury carbon monoxide nonattainment area, and the Connecticut Portion... submitted a request to redesignate the New Haven/Meriden/Waterbury carbon monoxide nonattainment area to... Connecticut carbon monoxide attainment area, the New Haven-Meriden-Waterbury Connecticut carbon monoxide...

  18. Recharge areas and hydrochemistry of carbonate springs issuing from Semmering Massif, Austria, based on long-term oxygen-18 and hydrochemical data evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehdegho, Beyene; Reichl, Peter

    2002-10-01

    Résumé. Les teneurs en oxygène-18 et l'hydrochimie des sources émergeant du massif de Semmering ont été suivies de manière intensive dans le but de caractériser les zones de recharge et l'évolution hydrochimique. L'effet d'altitude sur le δ18O a été déterminé grâce aux données isotopiques et hydrogéologiques de petites sources de référence, principalement en terrains cristallins; cet effet est d'environ -0,27 et -0,21‰ par 100 m pour les versants respectivement nord et sud du massif. En appliquant ces valeurs, l'altitude moyenne de recharge des sources a été calculée. Pour les sources à fort débit issues des carbonates, elle est comprise entre 1,100 et 1,400 m, compatible avec le cadre topographique et hydrogéologique des calcaires et des dolomies de l'Austro-alpin inférieur alimentant ces sources. La composition chimique des sources des carbonates est dominée par les ions Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3- et SO42-. Les sources sont presque toutes proches de la saturation par rapport à la calcite, mais sont sous-saturées en dolomite (sauf quelques sources proches de la saturation). Comme cela est habituel en ce qui concerne le dioxyde de carbone fourni par les sols en régions montagneuses, la pCO2 équilibrante moyenne est faible, comprise entre 10-3.0 et 10-2.5 atm (0,1 à 0,3% en volume). En ce qui concerne les variations à long terme, le pH, SIc, Sid et la pCO2 équilibrante sont soumis à des variations saisonnières, alors que les concentrations en Ca2+, Mg2+ et HCO3- ne varient pratiquement pas. En intégrant les résultats de δ18O et les données hydrochimiques, la variabilité altitudinale du chimisme des eaux souterraines des carbonates est démontrée. Reflétant les variations d'activité biologique et des conditions de recharge dans les zones d'alimentation, une covariation négative résulte de l'altitude de recharge et de la pCO2 et la concentration en HCO3- n'est pas modifiée par aucun des termes source ou puits, ce qui fait varier

  19. Metabolic Profiling with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Capillary Electrophoresis-Mass Spectrometry Reveals the Carbon-Nitrogen Status of Tobacco Leaves Across Different Planting Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jieyu; Zhao, Yanni; Hu, Chunxiu; Zhao, Chunxia; Zhang, Junjie; Li, Lili; Zeng, Jun; Peng, Xiaojun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2016-02-05

    The interaction between carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) metabolism can reflect plant growth status and environmental factors. Little is known regarding the connections between C-N metabolism and growing regions under field conditions. To comprehensively investigate the relationship in mature tobacco leaves, we established metabolomics approaches based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (CE-TOF-MS). Approximately 240 polar metabolites were determined. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the growing region greatly influenced the metabolic profiles of tobacco leaves. A metabolic correlation network and related pathway maps were used to reveal the global overview of the alteration of C-N metabolism across three typical regions. In Yunnan, sugars and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates were closely correlated with amino acid pools. Henan tobacco leaves showed positive correlation between the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) intermediates and C-rich secondary metabolism. In Guizhou, the proline and asparagine had significant links with TCA cycle intermediates and urea cycle, and antioxidant accumulation was observed in response to drought. These results demonstrate that combined analytical approaches have great potential to detect polar metabolites and provide information on C-N metabolism related to planting regional characteristics.

  20. Effects of meteorology on diurnal and nocturnal levels of priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elemental and organic carbon in PM 10 at a source and a receptor area in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Torres, Diana; Eiguren-Fernández, Arantza; Cicero-Fernández, Pablo; Maubert-Franco, Marisela; Retama-Hernández, Armando; Ramos Villegas, Rafael; Miguel, Antonio H.

    PM 10 levels of the 16 US-EPA Priority Pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured from March 17 to 31, 2003, in 8-h time bins (morning, afternoon and nighttime) at Merced, a source site dominated by vehicular traffic emissions near the center of Mexico City, and at Pedregal, a receptor area located downwind in a residential area of low traffic. Along with PAH, elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC), mass, and prevailing meteorological parameters were measured. At the source location, measured concentrations of benzo[ a]pyrene (BAP), an agent suspected of being carcinogenic to humans and of causing oxidative DNA damage, reached concentrations as high as 2.04 and 2.11 ng m -3 during the morning of a weekday and the night period of a holiday. Compared with source dominated areas in Central Los Angeles, the BAP levels found in Central Mexico City are approximately 6 times higher. Benzo[ ghi]perylene (BGP) levels were, in general, the highest among the target PAH, both at the source (7.2 ng m -3) and the receptor site (2.8 ng m -3), suggesting that, at both locations, exhaust emission by light-duty (LD) vehicles is an important contributor to the atmospheric PAH burden. Higher PAH concentrations were observed during the morning period (5:00-13:00 h) at the source and the receptor site. The concentrations of PAHs found predominantly in the particle-phase (MW > 202) correlated well ( r = 0.57-0.71) with the occurrence of surface thermal inversions and with mixing heights ( r = -0.57 to -0.72). Organic and elemental carbon ratios also indicated that Pedregal is impacted by secondary aerosols during the afternoon hours.

  1. The effects of anthropogenic organic matter inputs on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in organisms from different trophic levels in a southern Mediterranean coastal area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice [Laboratorio di Biologia e Risorse Marine, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale, Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 18 - 90123 Palermo (Italy)]. E-mail: vizzini@unipa.it; Mazzola, Antonio [Laboratorio di Biologia e Risorse Marine, Dipartimento di Biologia Animale, Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 18 - 90123 Palermo (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Stable isotope ratios were used to determine the impact of anthropogenically derived organic matter from onshore and offshore fish farming and a sewage outfall on organisms at different trophic levels (primary producers and consumers) on the south-east coast of Sicily (Italy, Mediterranean). Representative macroalgae and consumers were collected in three sampling locations: 'Impact' and two putative 'Controls' sited to the north of the impacted location. While {delta}{sup 13}C values of both organic matter sources and consumers varied little between locations, {delta}{sup 15}N spatial variability was higher and {delta}{sup 15}N was shown to be a good descriptor of organic enrichment and uptake of anthropogenically derived material within coastal food webs. Isotopic data were analysed using a multivariate approach. Organic matter sources and benthic components were more sensitive to pollution than nektobenthic species and revealed that the effects of anthropogenic activities seem to be detectable over a wide area. The study site is characterised by wide waste dispersal, which brings a reduction in impact in the area directly affected by organic matter inputs and enlarges the area of moderate impact.

  2. The fungicidal properties of the carbon materials obtained from chitin and chitosan promoted by copper salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilnicka, Anna, E-mail: annakucinska@o2.pl; Walczyk, Mariusz; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P.

    2015-07-01

    Renewable raw materials chitin and chitosan (N-deacetylated derivative of chitin) were subjected to action of different copper modifiers that were carbonized in the atmosphere of the N{sub 2} inert gas. As a result of the novel manufacturing procedure, a series of carbon materials was obtained with developed surface area and containing copper derivatives of differentiated form, size, and dispersion. The copper modifier and manufacturing procedure (concentration, carbonization temperature) influence the physical–chemical and fungicide properties of the carbons. The received carbons were chemically characterized using several methods like low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen, X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry, elemental analysis, and bioassay. Besides chemical testing, some biological tests were performed and let to select carbons with the highest fungicidal activity. Such carbons were characteristic of the specific form of copper derivatives occurring in them, i.e., nanocrystallites of Cu{sup 0} and/or Cu{sub 2}O of high dispersion on the surface of carbon. The carbons may find an application as effective contact fungistatic agents in cosmetology, medicine, food industry, etc. - Highlights: • The novel manufacturing procedure yields new functional carbon materials. • Two biopolymers chitin and chitosan can undergo copper(II) ion modification. • The Cu-modified carbon materials exhibit high fungicidal activity. • The fungicidal activity results from the presence of Cu{sup 0} and Cu{sub 2}O nano-crystallites.

  3. Black carbon concentrations in a goods-movement neighborhood of Philadelphia, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Chris Mizes; John Lee; Igor. Burstyn

    2014-01-01

    Communities along the Delaware River in Philadelphia, USA such as Port Richmond, are subject to traffic associated with goods movement to and from port facilities and local industry. Air pollution associated with this traffic poses an environmental health concern in this and other urban areas. Our study measures black carbon (BC) in Port Richmond and examines its...

  4. Externalities assessment of a coal power plant in the forest ecosystems in Valdecaballeros Area; Estimacion de las externalidades de una central termica de carbon en los ecosistemas forestales del Area de Valdecaballeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforga, P.; Planas, B.

    1995-07-01

    The book is divided in two parts. The first one analyzes the critical load and level concepts, and the methodological framework for Environmental Impact Statement (E.L.S.). In line with this, critical loads and levels represent the system vulnerability and excedances of critical values identify zones where impacts could occur. These are evaluated according to a set of criteria, talking into account present and future land use, their socio cultural interest, economic value of their natural resources and ecological quality of the whole system. In addition to Environment Impact Statement of air pollutants, the proposed formalism allows assessing the external cost of gaseous emission. The second part applies the developed ideas to a practical case: a hypothetical coal power plant on Valdecaballeros (Badajoz, Spain). Environmental impact on forestry ecosystems is studied on a 70 km radius area around the plant. The assessment of the external costs rely on yield losses associated with gaseous emission of the hypothetical plant. (Author) 100 refs.

  5. Mapping of topsoil organic carbon in agro-ecosystems of a flat terrain area (Lombardy) by means of legacy soil data, climatic data and NDVI time series predictors with machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Calogero; Saia, Sergio; Braun, Andreas; Acutis, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Topsoil organic carbon plays an important role in the agricultural yield, yield potential, and to deliver many ecosystem services, such as the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission from soil. In particular, SOC content sturdily affects soil properties, thus the precision of its estimation can support broad-scale agricultural and environmental management policy. Soils in temperate agro-ecosystem are generally highly productive and cropland occupies about 60% of their surface (Ramankutty et al 2008). In such contexts, lands is frequently subjected to SOC degrading operations, mostly ploughing, with drawbacks on soil fertility and erosion. In temperate agro-ecosystems, a strong role in SOC maintenance can be played by manure and residues inputs after husbandry and related activities and return of plant biomass to the soil (Acutis et al 2014). In this perspective, soil management can have a major role in SOC spatial distribution to maintain soil fertility and ecosystem services in a target area. Due to the considerable importance of SOC on both agronomical and ecological aspects of the agro-ecosystems, regional soil surveys over the years frequently take into account the measurement of SOC concentration and often stock. In the present study, we integrated a highly detailed legacy SOC dataset with climatic data and RS data to produce a reliable SOC maps from a farm to a district scale. In particular, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)was used after the computation of its average value in a given pixel derived from several approximately cloud-free images. The input dataset was made of about 3000 Ap horizons implemented of SOC concentration, texture, bulk density and metadata. Climatic data (Worldclim), soil type (from the pedological map 1:250000 WRB), and a time series NDVI were applied. The NDVI data were derived from a set of Landsat 5 scenes (path 193, row 28,29) whereas the path 194, (row 28 and 29) contributes for less than one fourth of

  6. Carbon Tetrachloride Increases the Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Levels in Different Brain Areas of Wistar Rats: The Protective Effect of Acai Frozen Pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Machado, Fernanda; Marinho, Jéssica Pereira; Abujamra, Ana Lúcia; Dani, Caroline; Quincozes-Santos, André; Funchal, Cláudia

    2015-09-01

    Acai offers health benefits associated with its high antioxidante capacity, phytochemical composition, nutritional and sensory value. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of acai frozen pulp on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced damage via modulation of anti- and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat brain tissue. The rats were treated via oral (gavage) daily with water or acai frozen pulp for 14 days at a dose of 7 μL/g. On the 15th day, the animals in each group received a single intraperitoneal injection of CCl4 in a dose of 3.0 mL/kg or the same volume of mineral oil. After 4 h, the animals were euthanized by decapitation and the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum were dissected and homogenated to evaluate the levels of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 18 (IL-18), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 10 (IL-10). Data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Tukey post hoc test. It was observed that CCl4 increased TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-18 levels in all brain tissues, and that acai frozen pulp was able to prevent this increase. IL-6 and IL-10 brain tissue levels remained unchanged during all treatments. CCl4 experimental model was suitable to investigate brain tissue anti and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Acai frozen pulp prevented an increase in IL-1β, IL-18 and TNF-α, while IL-6 and IL-10 levels remained unchanged. The precise pathway by which inflammation contribute to hepatic encephalopathy, as well as to how this pathway can be modulated, is still under investigation.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Carbon Dioxide Using Structure Functions in Urban Areas: Insights for Future Active Remote CO2 Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yonghoon; Yang, Melissa; Kooi, Susan A.; Browell, Edward V.; DiGangi, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    High resolution in-situ CO2 measurements were recorded onboard the NASA P-3B during the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) Field Campaigns during July 2011 over Washington DC/Baltimore, MD; January-February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley, CA; September 2013 over Houston, TX; and July-August 2014 over Denver, CO. Each of these campaigns have approximately two hundred vertical soundings of CO2 within the lower troposphere (surface to about 5 kilometers) at 6-8 different sites in each of the urban areas. In this study, we used structure function analysis, which is a useful way to quantify spatial and temporal variability, by displaying differences with average observations, to evaluate the variability of CO2 in the 0-2 kilometers range (representative of the planetary boundary layer). These results can then be used to provide guidance in the development of science requirements for the future ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission to measure near-surface CO2 variability in different urban areas. We also compare the observed in-situ CO2 variability with the variability of the CO2 column-averaged optical depths in the 0-1 kilometer and 0-3.5 kilometers altitude ranges in the four geographically different urban areas, using vertical weighting functions for potential future ASCENDS lidar CO2 sensors operating in the 1.57 and 2.05 millimeter measurement regions. In addition to determining the natural variability of CO2 near the surface and in the column, radiocarbon method using continuous CO2 and CO measurements are used to examine the variation of emission quantification between anthropogenic and biogenic sources in the DC/Maryland urban site.

  8. Oxygen isotopic composition of bulk carbonates in recent sediments from Lake Kuhai (NW China) and implications for hydroclimatic changes in headwater areas of the Yellow River on the northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangzhong; Zhou, Xin; Liu, Weiguo; Fan, Guoqing; Cheng, Peng; Xu, Liming

    2017-02-01

    The water resource issue is one of the most significant problems in the Yellow River basin, and has received much attention from the public and government because of the dramatically decreased Yellow River streamflow in the last several years. In this study, oxygen isotopic compositions of bulk carbonates from Lake Kuhai in the headwaters of the Yellow River were evaluated as an indirect proxy of past Yellow River streamflow in order to place the recent flow reduction in a long-term context. The results indicated that δ18O values of bulk carbonates from core KHC14-1 generally vary with changes in the Yellow River streamflows related to the precipitation/evaporation (temperature) ratio above the Tangnaihai hydrological station over the past 50 years. In general, the Yellow River streamflow in the headwaters area continued to decrease from the early 1980s to the late 1990s because of decreased precipitation and increased temperature. Then, the streamflow increased with enhancing precipitation over the last two decades. In addition, δ18O values of bulk carbonates in the Lake Kuhai core roughly correlate with the streamflows of the upper reaches of the Yellow River recorded by tree ring width over the past 800 years. The enriched δ18OBC values showed that the precipitation/evaporation (P/E) ratio or streamflow was very low and the climate might be very dry in the middle of the 1400s CE in the headwaters of the Yellow River over the past 800 years. Our results suggested that changes in the P/E ratio or streamflow of the upper reaches of the Yellow River were dominated by variations in Indian Summer Monsoon precipitation over a long time scale, consistent with other records from the northeastern Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Biomarker and carbon isotope constraints (δ{sup 13}C, Δ{sup 14}C) on sources and cycling of particulate organic matter discharged by large Siberian rivers draining permafrost areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterfeld, Maria

    2014-08-15

    Circumpolar permafrost soils store about half of the global soil organic carbon pool. These huge amounts of organic matter (OM) could accumulate due to low temperatures and water saturated soil conditions over the course of millennia. Currently most of this OM remains frozen and therefore does not take part in the active carbon cycle, making permafrost soils a globally important carbon sink. Over the last decades mean annual air temperatures in the Arctic increased stronger than the global mean and this trend is projected to continue. As a result the permafrost carbon pool is under climate pressure possibly creating a positive climate feedback due to the thaw-induced release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Arctic warming will lead to increased annual permafrost thaw depths and Arctic river runoff likely resulting in enhanced mobilization and export of old, previously frozen soil-derived OM. Consequently, the great arctic rivers play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles by connecting the large permafrost carbon pool of their hinterlands with the arctic shelf seas and the Arctic Ocean. The first part of this thesis deals with particulate organic matter (POM) from the Lena Delta and adjacent Buor Khaya Bay. The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial OM from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea. The permafrost soils from the Lena catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ{sup 13}C and Δ{sup 14}C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex) were analyzed. The lignin compositions of these samples are

  10. Area of Interest 1, CO2 at the Interface. Nature and Dynamics of the Reservoir/Caprock Contact and Implications for Carbon Storage Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozley, Peter [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Evans, James [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States); Dewers, Thomas [New Mexico Institute Of Mining And Technology, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2014-10-31

    Formation reservoir/caprock interface in order to extend our work to a reservoir/caprock pair this is currently being assessed for long-term carbon storage. These analyses indicate that interface features similar to those observed at the Utah sites 3 were not observed. Although not directly related to our main study topic, one byproduct of our investigation is documentation of exceptionally high degrees of heterogeneity in the pore-size distribution of the Mount Simon Sandstone. This suggests that the unit has a greater-than-normal potential for residual trapping of supercritical CO2.

  11. Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on standardization of carbon-phenolic test methods and specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on Standardization of carbon-phenolic test methods and specifications are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: ashing procedures and alkali metal content of carbon fiber and fabrics; SPIP product identification code; SPIP initiative to adopt a water-soluble rayon yarn lubricant/size for weaving; fabric oxidation mass loss test; shelf life limit for prepregs, industry standard; silicon contamination update; resin, filler, and fabric content in prepreg; carbon assay testing calibration; thiokol rayon specifications; and SPIP low conductivity PAN program.

  12. International Energy: Subject Thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raridon, M.H. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The International Energy Subject Thesaurus contains the standard vocabulary to indexing terms (descriptors) developed and structured to build and maintain energy information databases. Involved in this cooperative task are (1) the technical staff of the USDOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) in cooperation with the member countries of the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and (2) the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) staff representing the more than ninety countries and organizations recording and indexing information for the international nuclear information community. ETDE member countries are also members of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). Nuclear information indexed and recorded for INIS by these ETDE member countries is also included in the ETDE Energy Data Base, and indexing terminology is therefore cooperatively standardized for use in both information systems. This structured vocabulary reflects the scope of international energy research, development, and technological programs and encompasses terminology derived not only from the basic sciences but also from the areas of energy resources, conservation, safety, environmental impact, and regulation.

  13. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  14. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redford, J.S. (ed.)

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included. (JSR)

  15. Greening the Golden Gate National Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Golden Gate National Recreation Area was recognized a 2016 Federal Green Challenge Award for making significant strides to reduce its carbon footprint with the goal of becoming a carbon neutral park.

  16. Planning for a Low Carbon Future? Comparing Heat Pumps and Cogeneration as the Energy System Options for a New Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Heinonen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare, from an urban planning perspective, the choice between combined heat and power (CHP and a ground-source heat pump (HP as the energy systems of a new residential area in the light of the uncertainty related to the assessments. There has been a strong push globally for CHP due to its climate mitigation potential compared to separate production, and consequently it is often prioritized in planning without questioning. However, the uncertainties in assessing the emissions from CHP and alternative options in a certain planning situation make it very difficult to give robust decision guidelines. In addition, even the order of magnitude of the climate impact of a certain plan is actually difficult to assess robustly. With a case study of the new residential development of Härmälänranta in Tampere, Finland, we show how strongly the uncertainties related to (1 utilizing average or marginal electricity as the reference; (2 assigning emissions intensities for the production; and (3 allocating the emissions from CHP to heat and electricity affect the results and lead to varying decision guidelines. We also depict how a rather rarely utilized method in assigning the emissions from CHP is the most robust for planning support.

  17. What's so local about global climate change? Testing social theories of environmental degradation to quantify the demographic, economic, and governmental factors associated with energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions in U.S. metropolitan areas and counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribbia, John Luke

    This research investigates the consequence of a crucial and not yet fully explored problem: the reluctance of the United States to sign and ratify international agreements, like Kyoto, that aim to mitigate climate change and its underlying social and ecological impacts. This unwillingness has inspired local governments, mayors, metropolitan area governance consortia, state governments, and governors to take on the climate challenge without the directive of the federal government. Local areas of the U.S. are experiencing climate-change-related impacts such as receding beach lines due to sea level rise and intense storms, fresh water shortages, and extreme weather events. As a result, researchers have begun to explore the human dimensions of climate change through an inquiry in: among many other topics, the vulnerability of local areas to the impacts of climate change and the forces shaping local areas' contribution to climate change. This study addresses the latter issue using the STIRPAT framework - a reformulated version of the I=(P)(A)(T) formulation that relates environmental impacts (I) to population growth (P), affluence (A), and technology (T). I address three questions that have thus far been poorly answered in prior research: "across the U.S., do local areas differ in the extent of their contribution to climate change?", "what are the causes of variation in energy use and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions across local areas?" and "which social theories best explain the causes of variation in energy use and CO2 emissions across local areas?" To make strides in answering these questions and contribute to the understanding of local level drivers of energy consumption and emissions, this research analyzes the causes of variation in: energy use and CO2 emissions in the 100 largest U.S. metropolitan areas in chapter 4, the change in energy consumption between 2000 and 2005 for these metropolitan areas in chapter 5, and CO2 emissions in all U.S. counties in chapter 6

  18. Brain correlates of subjective freedom of choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filevich, Elisa; Vanneste, Patricia; Brass, Marcel; Fias, Wim; Haggard, Patrick; Kühn, Simone

    2013-01-01

    The subjective feeling of free choice is an important feature of human experience. Experimental tasks have typically studied free choice by contrasting free and instructed selection of response alternatives. These tasks have been criticised, and it remains unclear how they relate to the subjective feeling of freely choosing. We replicated previous findings of the fMRI correlates of free choice, defined objectively. We introduced a novel task in which participants could experience and report a graded sense of free choice. BOLD responses for conditions subjectively experienced as free identified a postcentral area distinct from the areas typically considered to be involved in free action. Thus, the brain correlates of subjective feeling of free action were not directly related to any established brain correlates of objectively-defined free action. Our results call into question traditional assumptions about the relation between subjective experience of choosing and activity in the brain’s so-called voluntary motor areas. PMID:24021855

  19. Assessment of methods for organic and inorganic carbon quantification in carbonate-containing Mediterranean soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apesteguia, Marcos; Virto, Iñigo; Plante, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Quantification of soil organic matter (SOM) stocks and fluxes continues to be an important endeavor in assessments of soil quality, and more broadly in assessments of ecosystem functioning. The quantification of SOM in alkaline, carbonate-containing soils, such as those found in Mediterranean areas, is complicated by the need to differentiate between organic carbon (OC) and inorganic carbon (IC), which continues to present methodological challenges. Acidification is frequently used to eliminate carbonates prior to soil OC quantification, but when performed in the liquid phase, can promote the dissolution and loss of a portion of the OC. Acid fumigation (AF) is increasingly preferred for carbonate removal, but its effectiveness is difficult to assess using conventional elemental and isotopic analyses. In addition, the potential effects of AF on SOM are not well characterized. The objective of the current study was to apply a multi-method approach to determine the efficacy of carbonate removal by AF and its effects on the residual SOM. We selected a set of 24 surface agricultural soils representing a large range of textures, SOM contents and presumed carbonate contents. For each soil, OC was determined using wet combustion (Walkley-Black) and IC was determined using the calcimeter method. Samples were then subjected to elemental (total C) and isotopic (δ13C) analyses by dry combustion using a Costech autoanalyzer coupled to a Thermo Finnigan Delta Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) before and after AF. IC was equated to total C determined after fumigation, and OC was estimated as the different in total C before and after AF. Samples were also subjected to ramped oxidation using a Netzsch STA109 PC Luxx thermal analyzer coupled to a LICOR 820A infrared gas analyzer (IRGA). Quantification of OC was performed using evolved gas analysis of CO2 (CO2-EGA) in the exothermic region 200-500° C associated with organic matter combustion. IC was quantified by CO2-EGA

  20. Northwest Area Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Tracy L.; van Heeswijk, Marijke; Grossman, Eric E.

    2010-01-01

    Northwest Area Facts * Population about 12 million * 43 federally recognized Tribes * Hydropower provides about two-thirds of electricity supply * 78 federally listed threatened and endangered species * 12 active or potentially active volcanoes * Columbia River system drains more than 260,000 square miles, an area about the size of Texas * More than 175 square miles covered by glaciers * More than 900 miles of Pacific Ocean coastline * More than 2,300 miles of greater Puget Sound coastline * Some forests store more carbon per unit area than any other area in the world, including the tropics * 51 percent federal lands * Significant lead, zinc, silver, and phosphate deposits

  1. [Differences and sources of CO2 concentration, carbon and oxygen stable isotope composition between inside and outside of a green space system and influencing factors in an urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shou-jia; Meng, Ping; Zhang, Jin-song; Shu, Jian-hua; Zheng, Ning

    2015-10-01

    by photosynthesis to maintain carbon and oxygen balance of urban area in the growing season, which played an important role in improving urban ecological environment.

  2. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions, and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must...

  3. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective probabilities play a central role in many economic decisions and act as an immediate confound of inferences about behavior, unless controlled for. Several procedures to recover subjective probabilities have been proposed, but in order to recover the correct latent probability one must ...

  4. Subjective meaning: an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnbergen-Huitink, Janneke; van Wijbergen-Huitink, Janneke; Meier, Cécile

    This introductory chapter traces some of the considerations on the basis of which relativistic approaches to subjective meaning became en vogue. In doing so, the chapter provides an overview of the relevant linguistic and philosophical issues when developing a treatment of subjectivity. In addition,

  5. Subjective safety in traffic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The term ‘subjective safety in traffic’ refers to people feeling unsafe in traffic or, more generally, to anxiety regarding being unsafe in traffic for oneself and/or others. Subjective safety in traffic can lead to road users limiting their mobility and social activities, which is one of the

  6. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  7. Control Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This feature class represents electric power Control Areas. Control Areas, also known as Balancing Authority Areas, are controlled by Balancing Authorities, who are...

  8. Operational Area Environmental Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey-White, Brenda Eileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagy, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wagner, Katrina Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goodman, Thomas Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kinghorn, Aubrianna Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Ellie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barthel, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casaus, Benito [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Operational Area Environmental Evaluation update provides a description of activities that have the potential to adversely affect natural and cultural resources, including soil, air, water, biological, ecological, and historical resources. The environmental sensitivity of an area is evaluated and summarized, which may facilitate informed management decisions as to where development may be prohibited, restricted, or subject to additional requirements.

  9. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  10. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dime