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Sample records for subinterval duration reflecting

  1. Optimal Subinterval Selection Approach for Power System Transient Stability Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soobae Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modal analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.

  2. Depositional model for Rival and Midale subintervals (Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, T.L.

    1988-07-01

    The Rival and Midale subintervals (Charles Formation, Upper Mississippian), north-central Burke County, North Dakota, represent two relative sea level fluctuations. Updip (northeast), the Rival subinterval contains fine to medium-bedded and chicken-wire anhydrite with interbedded algal bindstone that was deposited on supratidal flats. Basinward (southwest), the lithology changes to oncolitic, peloidal, intraclastic grainstone/packstone that was deposited in intertidal and subtidal restricted lagoonal environments. Evaporites precipitated in the sediment of the intertidal to shallow subtidal restricted lagoonal environment. Overlying the Rival subinterval is skeletal wackestone and packstone of the lower Midale subinterval. The presence of normal-marine fauna (crinoids, brachiopods, trilobites, rugose and tabulate coral) indicates a significant relative sea level transgression occurred following deposition of the Rival. The middle and upper Midale subinterval consists of intensely burrowed dolowackestone and dolomudstone that contain a less diversified faunal assemblage. Overlying the Midale carbonates is a transitional zone of calcareous shale and dolomite that grades upward into mottled (burrowed.) and finely laminated microgranular dolomite and anhydrite. The upper Midale section represents a relative sea level regression (shoreline progradation). Updip (northeast) reservoirs produce from the Midale carbonates, which are sealed laterally and vertically by calcarous shale and microgranular dolomitic anhydrite of the Midale Evaporite. Downdip (southwest), the Rival produces from porous grainstone, which is sealed laterally by intertidal/supratidal carbonates and evaporites, resulting in a stratigraphic trap. Vuggy and intergranular porosity are the major porosity types in the Rival grainstone, and moldic and intercrystalline porosity are dominant in the Midale dolowackestone.

  3. Application of subinterval area median contrast filtering method in the recognizing of geochemical anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ningbo; Fu Jin; Zhang Chuan; Liu Huan

    2012-01-01

    Traditional geochemical processing method sometimes maybe loses some weak anomalies related to mineralization, the authors can avoid the influence of geology background and can solve the problem of recognizing weak anomalies in the low-background and high-background area with the subinterval area median contrast filtering method. In an area of Jiangxi Province, several new anomalies are identified by this method and uranium mineralized prospects are found among them. (authors)

  4. Pinning Synchronization for Complex Networks with Interval Coupling Delay by Variable Subintervals Method and Finsler’s Lemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Gong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pinning synchronous problem for complex networks with interval delays is studied in this paper. First, by using an inequality which is introduced from Newton-Leibniz formula, a new synchronization criterion is derived. Second, combining Finsler’s Lemma with homogenous matrix, convergent linear matrix inequality (LMI relaxations for synchronization analysis are proposed with matrix-valued coefficients. Third, a new variable subintervals method is applied to expand the obtained results. Different from previous results, the interval delays are divided into some subdelays, which can introduce more free weighting matrices. Fourth, the results are shown as LMI, which can be easily analyzed or tested. Finally, the stability of the networks is proved via Lyapunov’s stability theorem, and the simulation of the trajectory claims the practicality of the proposed pinning control.

  5. Insular activation during reward anticipation reflects duration of illness in abstinent pathological gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke eTsurumi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathological gambling (PG is a chronic mental disorder characterized by a difficulty restraining gambling behavior despite negative consequences. Although brain abnormalities in patients with substance use disorders are caused by repetitive drug use and recover partly with drug abstinence, the relationship between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence of gambling behavior in PG patients remains unclear. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain activity of 23 PG patients recruited from a treatment facility with 27 demographically-matched healthy control subjects during reward anticipation, and examined the correlations between brain activity and duration of illness or abstinence in PG patients. During reward anticipation, PG patients showed decreased activity compared to healthy controls in a broad range of the reward system regions, including the insula cortex. In PG patients, activation in the left insula showed a significant negative correlation with illness duration. Our findings suggest that insular activation during reward anticipation may serve as a marker of progression of pathological gambling.

  6. The elimination of positive priming with increasing prime duration reflects a transition from perceptual fluency to disfluency rather than bias against primed words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Kevin W; Donkin, Chris; Huber, David E

    2018-03-01

    With immediate repetition priming of forced choice perceptual identification, short prime durations produce positive priming (i.e., priming the target leads to higher accuracy, while priming the foil leads to lower accuracy). Many theories explain positive priming following short duration primes as reflecting increased perceptual fluency for the primed target (i.e., decreased identification latency). However, most studies only examine either accuracy or response times, rather than considering the joint constraints of response times and accuracy to properly address the role of decision biases and response caution. This is a critical oversight because several theories propose that the transition to negative priming following a long duration prime reflects a decision strategy to compensate for the effect of increased perceptual fluency. In contrast, the nROUSE model of Huber and O'Reilly (2003) explains this transition as reflecting perceptual habituation, and thus a change to perceptual disfluency. We confirmed this prediction by applying a sequential sampling model (the diffusion race model) to accuracy and response time distributions from a new single item same-different version of the priming task. In this way, we measured strategic biases and perceptual fluency in each condition for each subject. The nROUSE model was only applied to accuracy from the original forced-choice version of the priming task. This application of nROUSE produced separate predictions for each subject regarding the degree of fluency and disfluency in each condition, and these predictions were confirmed by the drift rate parameters (i.e., fluency) from the response time model in contrast to the threshold parameters (i.e., bias). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Embree

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ideally, editorials are written one to two months before publication in the Journal. It was my turn to write this one. I had planned to write the first draft the evening after my clinic on Tuesday, September 11. It didn't get done that night or during the next week. Somehow, the topic that I had originally chosen just didn't seem that important anymore as I, along my friends and colleagues, reflected on the changes that the events of that day were likely to have on our lives.

  8. Duration judgements over multiple elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci eAyhan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the limits of the number of events observers can simultaneously time. For single targets occurring in one of eight positions sensitivity to duration was improved for spatially pre-cued items as compared to post-cued items indicating that exogenous driven attention can improve duration discrimination. Sensitivity to duration for pre-cued items was also marginally better for single items as compared to eight items indicating that even after the allocation of focal attention, distracter items can interfere with the encoding of duration. For an eight item array discrimination was worse for post-cued locations as compared to pre-cued locations indicating both that attention can improve duration discrimination performance and that it was not possible to access a perfect memory trace of the duration of eight elements. The interference from the distracters in the pre-cued eight item array may reflect some mandatory averaging of target and distracter events. To further explore duration averaging we asked subjects to explicitly compare average durations of multiple item arrays against a single item standard duration. Duration discrimination thresholds were significantly lower for single elements as compared to multiple elements, showing that averaging, either automatically or intentionally, impairs duration discrimination. There was no set size effect. Performance was the same for averages of two and eight items, but performance with even an average of two items was worse than for one item. This was also true for sequential presentation indicating poor performance was not due to limits on the division of attention across items. Rather performance appears to be limited by an inability to remember or aggregate duration information from two or more items. Although it is possible to manipulate perceived duration locally, there appears to be no perceptual mechanisms for aggregating local durations across space.

  9. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    associated with reflection and an exploration of alternative conceptions that view reflection within the context of settings which have a more group- and team-based orientation. Drawing on an action research project on health care supervision, the paper questions whether we should reject earlier views...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...... the current reflective paradigm I supervision and relate this to emotive, normative and formative views supervision. The paper is relevant for Nordic educational research into the supervision and guidance...

  10. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  11. Discounted Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ody, Heinrich; Fränzle, Martin; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2016-01-01

    To formally reason about the temporal quality of systems discounting was introduced to CTL and LTL. However, these logic are discrete and they cannot express duration properties. In this work we introduce discounting for a variant of Duration Calculus. We prove decidability of model checking...... for a useful fragment of discounted Duration Calculus formulas on timed automata under mild assumptions. Further, we provide an extensive example to show the usefulness of the fragment....

  12. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  13. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  14. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...

  15. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  16. duration diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... group, type of diabetes, age of onset and duration of diabetes), presence of retinopathy, markers of nephropathy and biochemical variables. ... type 2 diabetes and for each ethnic group. Results. ... time of diabetes diagnosis in blacks than Indians. In the type ... countries, minority groups and disadvantaged communities in.

  17. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  18. The Reflective Learning Continuum: Reflecting on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, James W.; Hay, Amanda; Drago, William

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research that considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This article describes the use of an instrument that can be used to measure four identified levels of a…

  19. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  20. Reflective photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Okandan, Murat; Goeke, Ronald S.

    2018-03-06

    A photovoltaic module includes colorized reflective photovoltaic cells that act as pixels. The colorized reflective photovoltaic cells are arranged so that reflections from the photovoltaic cells or pixels visually combine into an image on the photovoltaic module. The colorized photovoltaic cell or pixel is composed of a set of 100 to 256 base color sub-pixel reflective segments or sub-pixels. The color of each pixel is determined by the combination of base color sub-pixels forming the pixel. As a result, each pixel can have a wide variety of colors using a set of base colors, which are created, from sub-pixel reflective segments having standard film thicknesses.

  1. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  2. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  3. Reflection groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, PISA organised proactive meetings of reflection groups on involvement in decision making, expert culture and ethical aspects of radiation protection.All reflection group meetings address particular targeted audiences while the output publication in book form is put forward

  4. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...

  5. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    ´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark...

  6. Issue of CILRT duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Tests (CILRTs) represent large investments of time and money on the part of the utilities operating nuclear power plants. In the early days of containment testing, leak rate tests were conducted from a minimum of 24 hours to a maximum of several days. The minimum time period of 24 hours was adopted and continues to form the fundamental approach of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, there does not appear to be technical justification for the minimum test period of 24 hours. In fact, several industry sources have shown that successful CILRTs can be conducted in much less time. The NRC has recognized this fact and has approved CILRTs of less than 24 hours. But some utilities still feel constrained to use the 24 hour test due to their Technical Specifications. And although criteria for determining the duration of a CILRT have been published, no specific criteria have been agreed upon as final. Therefore, it is the purpose of this paper to highlight several of the proposed criteria and the concerns that might arise following the implementation of such criteria

  7. Reflectance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. A.; Cooper, K.; Randolph, M.

    1984-01-01

    A classical description of the one dimensional radiative transfer treatment of vegetation canopies was completed and the results were tested against measured prairie (blue grama) and agricultural canopies (soybean). Phase functions are calculated in terms of directly measurable biophysical characteristics of the canopy medium. While the phase functions tend to exhibit backscattering anisotropy, their exact behavior is somewhat more complex and wavelength dependent. A Monte Carlo model was developed that treats soil surfaces with large periodic variations in three dimensions. A photon-ray tracing technology is used. Currently, the rough soil surface is described by analytic functions and appropriate geometric calculations performed. A bidirectional reflectance distribution function is calculated and, hence, available for other atmospheric or canopy reflectance models as a lower boundary condition. This technique is used together with an adding model to calculate several cases where Lambertian leaves possessing anisotropic leaf angle distributions yield non-Lambertian reflectance; similar behavior is exhibited for simulated soil surfaces.

  8. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich

    1991-01-01

    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  9. Encoding, storage and judgment of experienced frequency and duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Betsch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines conditions that do or do not lead to accurate judgments of frequency (JOF and judgments of duration (JOD. In three experiments, duration and frequency of visually presented stimuli are varied orthogonally in a within-subjects design. Experiment 1 reveals an asymmetric judgment pattern. JOFs reflected actual presentation frequency quite accurately and were unbiased by exposure duration. Conversely, JODs were almost insensitive to actual exposure duration and were systematically biased by presentation frequency. We show, however, that a tendency towards a symmetric judgment pattern can be obtained by manipulating encoding conditions. Sustaining attention during encoding (Experiment 2 or enhancing richness of the encoded stimuli (Experiment 3 increases judgment sensitivity in JOD and yields biases in both directions (JOF biased by exposure duration, JOD biased by presentation frequency. The implications of these findings for underlying memory mechanisms are discussed.

  10. Reflective Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Bagnoli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to highlight some difficulties of Neil Sinhababu’s Humean theory of agency, which depend on his radically reductivist approach, rather than to his Humean sympathies. The argument is that Sinhababu’s theory builds upon a critique of reflective agency which is based on equivocation and misunderstandings of the Kantian approach. Ultimately, the objection is that his reductivist view is unequipped to address the rclassical problems of rational deliberation and agential authority.

  11. Synthesizing controllers from duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Duration Calculus is a logic for reasoning about requirements for real-time systems at a high level of abstraction from operational detail, which qualifies it as an interesting starting point for embedded controller design. Such a design activity is generally thought to aim at a control device...... the physical behaviours of which satisfy the requirements formula, i.e. the refinement relation between requirements and implementations is taken to be trajectory inclusion. Due to the abstractness of the vocabulary of Duration Calculus, trajectory inclusion between control requirements and controller designs...... for embedded controller design and exploit this fact for developing an automatic procedure for controller synthesis from specifications formalized in Duration Calculus. As far as we know, this is the first positive result concerning feasibility of automatic synthesis from dense-time Duration Calculus....

  12. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    produces: that the self is accessible and transcendable, that reflexivity is universal across space and time, and that the self can act as its own remedial change agent or ‘inner consultant.’ I argue that because reflexivity is understood in many different ways, attention to definition is crucial, both...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...

  13. Inspiring Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo

    2011-01-01

    A numberof Chris Freeman's colleagues were asked to reflect on what they thought describes his life and work in a few words. Some of the colleagues replied including former SPRU students that were taught or supervised by Chris Freeman. Their views on what they thought were Chris Freeman's defining...... life is not free from fluctuations, cycles, disruptions, crises and destructions both human and ecological. Innovation research ought to position itself to address environmental, financial and economic crises. The third is innovation research for development by addressing not only poverty erdaication...

  14. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    In Breve fra min Have (Letters from my Garden), the Swedish landscape architect, Sven-Ingvar Andersson, produces dialogues about his garden to a wide circle of friends, colleagues, deceased and still living acquaintances such as Karen Blixen, Gertrude Stein, C. Th. Sørensen, Albrecht Dürer, Peter...... Høeg etetera. The dialogues work as a tool of reflection in terms of providing opportunity to examine his own beliefs, to explore the possible reasons for engaging in a particular activity. On the basis of Sven-Ingvar Andersson’s book a teaching program at the Aarhus School of Architecture provides...

  15. Reflective Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The aluminized polymer film used in spacecraft as a radiation barrier to protect both astronauts and delicate instruments has led to a number of spinoff applications. Among them are aluminized shipping bags, food cart covers and medical bags. Radiant Technologies purchases component materials and assembles a barrier made of layers of aluminized foil. The packaging reflects outside heat away from the product inside the container. The company is developing new aluminized lines, express mailers, large shipping bags, gel packs and insulated panels for the building industry.

  16. Neutron reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The specular neutron reflectivity is a technique enabling the measurement of neutron scattering length density profile perpendicular to the plane of a surface or an interface, and thereby the profile of chemical composition. The characteristic sizes that are probed range from around 5 Å up 5000 Å. It is a scattering technique that averages information on the entire surface and it is therefore not possible to obtain information within the plane of the interface. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the contrast by isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons makes it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics and magnetic thin films. This course is a basic introduction to the technique and does not address the magnetic reflectivity. It is composed of three parts describing respectively its principle and its formalism, the experimental aspects of the method (spectrometers, samples and two examples related to the materials for energy.

  17. Genetic determinants of P wave duration and PR segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Niek; Mateo Leach, Irene; van den Boogaard, Malou; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Barnett, Phil; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Harst, Pim

    2014-01-01

    The PR interval on the ECG reflects atrial depolarization and atrioventricular nodal delay which can be partially differentiated by P wave duration and PR segment, respectively. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic loci for PR interval, but it remains to be determined

  18. Genetic Determinants of P Wave Duration and PR Segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Niek; Mateo Leach, Irene; van den Boogaard, Malou; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Hillege, Hans L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Barnett, Phil; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van der Harst, Pim

    Background-The PR interval on the ECG reflects atrial depolarization and atrioventricular nodal delay which can be partially differentiated by P wave duration and PR segment, respectively. Genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic loci for PR interval, but it remains to be

  19. Reflected Glory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The nebula Messier 78 takes centre stage in this image taken with the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, while the stars powering the bright display take a backseat. The brilliant starlight ricochets off dust particles in the nebula, illuminating it with scattered blue light. Igor Chekalin was the overall winner of ESO's Hidden Treasures 2010 astrophotography competition with his image of this stunning object. Messier 78 is a fine example of a reflection nebula. The ultraviolet radiation from the stars that illuminate it is not intense enough to ionise the gas to make it glow - its dust particles simply reflect the starlight that falls on them. Despite this, Messier 78 can easily be observed with a small telescope, being one of the brightest reflection nebulae in the sky. It lies about 1350 light-years away in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter) and can be found northeast of the easternmost star of Orion's belt. This new image of Messier 78 from the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory is based on data selected by Igor Chekalin in his winning entry to the Hidden Treasures competition [1]. The pale blue tint seen in the nebula in this picture is an accurate representation of its dominant colour. Blue hues are commonly seen in reflection nebulae because of the way the starlight is scattered by the tiny dust particles that they contain: the shorter wavelength of blue light is scattered more efficiently than the longer wavelength red light. This image contains many other striking features apart from the glowing nebula. A thick band of obscuring dust stretches across the image from the upper left to the lower right, blocking the light from background stars. In the bottom right corner, many curious pink structures are also visible, which are created by jets of material being ejected from stars that have recently formed and are still buried deep in dust clouds. Two bright stars, HD 38563A and

  20. Rhythmic constraints in durational control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grover, C.N.; Terken, J.M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Two potential factors in durational control are addressed. First, we investigate whether lengthening a syllable implies lengthening all of its constituent phonemes in a regular way. Analysis of a small corpus of syllables shows that this is not the case. Second, we investigate the influence of

  1. Rent control and unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...

  2. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, R.J.; Dake, S.; Oda, H.; Miyamura, O.; Fuki, M.; Jones, W.V.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Takahashi, U.; Tominaga, Y.; Wefel, J.P.; Fountain, W.; Derrickson, J.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, E.; Tabuki, T.; Watts, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs

  3. Duration on unemployment: geographic mobility and selectivity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, E P; Paul, C; Wilhite, A

    1994-01-01

    Modeling the factors affecting the duration of unemployment was found to be influenced by the inclusion of migration factors. Traditional models which did not control for migration factors were found to underestimate movers' probability of finding an acceptable job. The empirical test of the theory, based on the analysis of data on US household heads unemployed in 1982 and employed in 1982 and 1983, found that the cumulative probability of reemployment in the traditional model was .422 and in the migration selectivity model was .624 after 30 weeks of searching. In addition, controlling for selectivity eliminated the significance of the relationship between race and job search duration in the model. The relationship between search duration and the county unemployment rate in 1982 became statistically significant, and the relationship between search duration and 1980 population per square mile in the 1982 county of residence became statistically insignificant. The finding that non-Whites have a longer duration of unemployment can better be understood as non-Whites' lower geographic mobility and lack of greater job contacts. The statistical significance of a high unemployment rate in the home labor market reducing the probability of finding employment was more in keeping with expectations. The findings assumed that the duration of employment accurately reflected the length of job search. The sample was redrawn to exclude discouraged workers and the analysis was repeated. The findings were similar to the full sample, with the coefficient for migration variable being negative and statistically significant and the coefficient for alpha remaining positive and statistically significant. Race in the selectivity model remained statistically insignificant. The findings supported the Schwartz model hypothesizing that the expansion of the radius of the search would reduce the duration of unemployment. The exclusion of the migration factor misspecified the equation for

  4. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  5. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle eBouman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may modulate whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated before. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to 7 different durations, varying from 100 to 4000ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli.The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. In contrast, the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach

  6. Development and comparison of different intensity duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... Microsoft Excel software was used to develop exponential, logarithmic and power intensity-duration-frequency models for return period (T) of duration-frequency models for return period (T) of between 2 years and 100 years using rainfall intensity data for durations of 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, ...

  7. Speaker-specific variability of phoneme durations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, CJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The durations of phonemes varies for different speakers. To this end, the correlations between phonemes across different speakers are studied and a novel approach to predict unknown phoneme durations from the values of known phoneme durations for a...

  8. Partial report and other sampling procedures overestimate the duration of iconic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelman, I B

    1980-03-01

    In three experiments, subjects estimated the duration of a brief visual image (iconic memory) either directly by adjusting onset of a click to offset of the visual image, or indirectly with a Sperling partial report (sampling) procedure. The results indicated that partial report and other sampling procedures may reflect other brief phenomena along with iconic memory. First, the partial report procedure yields a greater estimate of the duration of iconic memory than the more direct click method. Second, the partial report estimate of the duration of iconic memory is affected if the subject is required to simultaneously retain a list of distractor items (memory load), while the click method estimate of the duration of iconic memory is not affected by a memory load. Finally, another sampling procedure based on visual cuing yields different estimates of the duration of iconic memory depending on how many items are cued. It was concluded that partial report and other sampling procedures overestimate the duration of iconic memory.

  9. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  10. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  11. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  12. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  13. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  14. Unemployment Duration over the Business Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael

    1996-01-01

    In this paper I study the way in which individual unemployment durations vary over the business cycle, as measured by the aggregate unemployment rate. I decompose the cyclical variations in observed unemployment durations into a composition al and a general part. The compositional part consists...

  15. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  16. On the Limitation of Warranty Duration.

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Winand

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the frequently-observed phenomenon that firms offer product warranties that are of much shorter duration than the life expectancy of these products. It is shown that competitive equilibria may entail limitation of warranty duration if firms face adverse selection problems with respect to different consumers. Copyright 1989 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within...... the framework of the IDEFICS study, the present research was conducted in 609 German resident children aged 2–9 years with information on fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and cortisol levels next to anthropometric measurements and parental questionnaires. Emphasising methodological aspects, an age......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...

  18. Developing Project Duration Models in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Bourque; Serge Oligny; Alain Abran; Bertrand Fournier

    2007-01-01

    Based on the empirical analysis of data contained in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group(ISBSG) repository, this paper presents software engineering project duration models based on project effort. Duration models are built for the entire dataset and for subsets of projects developed for personal computer, mid-range and mainframeplatforms. Duration models are also constructed for projects requiring fewer than 400 person-hours of effort and for projectsre quiring more than 400 person-hours of effort. The usefulness of adding the maximum number of assigned resources as asecond independent variable to explain duration is also analyzed. The opportunity to build duration models directly fromproject functional size in function points is investigated as well.

  19. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  20. DURATION LIMIT OF LASER PULSES EMITTED FROM A Ce-DOPED CRYSTAL SHORT CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Hoang Hai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the rate equation set for broadband cavities, the dependence of pulse duration on cavity and pumping parameters is analyzed. The cavity uses a Ce-doped crystal as a gain medium. Computation results show the variation of the pulse width with the change of cavity length, mirror reflectivity, pumping energy and pumping pulse duration. A significant influence of multiple-pulse operation in limiting pulse duration is realized and a pulse-width of the order 200 ps is found to be the limit for the direct generation of ultraviolet single picosecond pulses from a Ce:LLF short cavity.

  1. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    IntroductionSalutogenesis and posttraumatic growth represent personal growth and improved functioning as a result of experiencing major challenging events. These developments are not simply resilience (a return to a baseline level of well-being), but positive change in such characteristics as self-understanding, relations with others, personal values, and life goals. Space agencies and space psychologists, primarily concerned with deleterious effects and their countermeasures, have not paid much attention to such beneficial long-term aftereffects of spaceflight. PurposeTo document what changes veterans of the Soviet/Russian space program report as a consequence of their experiences. MethodTwenty retired male cosmonauts Mir and/or ISS cosmonauts filled out relevant self-report questionnaires. Results: Although there was little change in the relative rankings of a list of values, the scale showed an overall increase in the rated importance of all personal values, although only the increase in Self-Direction reached statistical significance. Responses to one of two post-space growth questionnaires based on the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were compared to the means of two comparison groups: 152 first-time mothers, and 926 respondents who had experienced various forms of trauma. The cosmonauts reported higher scores on the dimension of New Possibilities when compared to the new mothers and the traumatized group, and higher scores on Personal Strength and Overall PTG compared to the latter. Respondents who had spent more than a year in space, and those who flew on both Mir and ISS, were the most likely to report positive change in the domain Appreciation of Life. The other post-space career questionnaire reflected major changes in Perceptions of the Earth and of Space, and increases on a number of other dimensions, including New Possibilities and Changes in Daily Life, with positive scores that significantly exceeded the original report. DiscussionIt appears

  2. Duration of therapy – Does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Schmidt, Lotte; Bojesen, Anders Bo; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2018-01-01

    Background The recommendations in clinical guidelines for duration of therapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD) are based on consensus decisions. In reality, we do not know the optimal duration of an alcohol treatment course. Methods A systematic review and meta-regression of randomized controlled...... project in itself may influence outcome in studies of psychosocial treatment for alcohol use disorder....... across studies. Treatment outcome was defined as long-term alcohol use measured in percentage of days abstinent (PDA), percentage of heavy days drinking (PHD), and/or proportion of participants abstinent (ABS). Results 48 studies encompassing 8984 participants. Mean planned duration of therapy: 18 (8...

  3. Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuutinen, Teija; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether computer use is associated with health symptoms through sleep duration among 15-year olds in Finland, France and Denmark. METHODS: We used data from the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in Finland, France...... and Denmark in 2010, including data on 5,402 adolescents (mean age 15.61 (SD 0.37), girls 53 %). Symptoms assessed included feeling low, irritability/bad temper, nervousness, headache, stomachache, backache, and feeling dizzy. We used structural equation modeling to explore the mediating effect of sleep...... duration on the association between computer use and symptom load. RESULTS: Adolescents slept approximately 8 h a night and computer use was approximately 2 h a day. Computer use was associated with shorter sleep duration and higher symptom load. Sleep duration partly mediated the association between...

  4. Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed fiber reinforced ceramic composites for radiation shielding that can be used for external walls in long duration manned...

  5. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... without reducing reflection to an effect of the social structures and cultural norms in which it is embedded. Based on the developed theoretical framework, this article analyses how a renaissance ‘mirror for princes’ and contemporary research-based management education mediate reflection. The content...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  6. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  7. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  8. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  9. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgard, K.; Ratcliffe, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking...

  10. Reflection on the efficiency criteria for a long duration disposal with respect to temporary abandonment situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S.; Chieber, C.; Schneider, Th.

    2002-08-01

    A study carried out by Mutadis and CEPN, on request of the CEA, aimed at supplying some elements allowing to elaborate some performance criteria for a long-term management system in front of situations of temporary abandonment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The first part of the study has been the identification of case studies illustrating situations of loss of maintenance or temporary abandonment. The second phase has been the selection and analysis of 4 case studies (the ancient underground cavities in Ile-de-France, the regulation relative to new underground quarries, the abandoned mines in Loraine basin, and Unesco's approach for the protection of mankind world patrimony). These cases have been analysed with respect to various aspects: actors involved, construction management and memory preservation, liabilities in time and space, prevention means, scheduling, and resumption strategies. The concepts of abandonment, scheduling and resumption have been precised and analysed in a third part according to the case studies. Three goals - avoiding abandonment, encouraging scheduling and resumption - and eight characteristics are drawn from this analysis, which are indicators of the robustness of the system implemented to fulfill these 3 goals. These characteristics appear as strongly interdependent. (J.S.)

  11. Principles of neutron reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felcher, G.P.

    1988-08-01

    Neutron reflection is perhaps the most developed branch of slow neutrons optics, which in itself is a direct consequence of the undulatory nature of the neutron. After reviewing the basic types of interactions (nuclear and magnetic) between neutrons and matter, the formalism is introduced to calculate the reflectivity from a sample composed of stacked flat layers and, inversely, to calculate the stacking from reflectivity measurements. Finally, a brief survey of the applications of neutron reflection is given, both in technology and in fundamental research. 32 refs., 6 figs

  12. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water-reflected (i.e. surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established

  13. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saritas, Emine U., E-mail: saritas@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Goodwill, Patrick W. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Conolly, Steven M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of EECS, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  14. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  15. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...

  16. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain...

  17. Reflection: A Socratic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen-Damen, Inge C M; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S; Wopereis, Iwan G J H

    2017-12-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato's Meno . The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten's view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response.

  18. Sociosexuality, Morningness–Eveningness, and Sleep Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morningness–eveningness is the preference for different times of day for activity and sleep. Here, we addressed the effects of sleep behavior and morningness–eveningness on sociosexuality. Three hundred students (M age = 22.75 years, with 95% between 18 and 28 participated online, answering questions about morningness–eveningness (rMEQ [Reduced Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire], midpoint of sleep on free days (MSF, sleep duration, and the Sociosexuality Orientation Inventory–Revised (SOI-R. The SOI-R contains three subscales, Behavior, Attitude, and Desire. Evening orientation and short sleep duration were related to a higher total SOI-R and to the three subscales. Based on the linear models, the strongest effect on sociosexuality was produced by gender (27% explained variance while age accounted for 6% of variance. Nonadditive variance explained by sleep–wake behavior was 7% (MSF, 4% (sleep duration, and 4% (rMEQ scores; 3% rMEQ-based typology. Older age was related to less-restricted sociosexuality, and men were less restricted than women in Attitude and Desire. Sleep duration and rMEQ scores were associated with Attitude and Desire; but only MSF was significantly related to Behavior. The data show that sleep–wake variables are associated with sociosexuality, with evening orientation and shorter sleep duration being related to a less-restricted sociosexuality.

  19. Duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häll, Birgitta; Jämsä, Tapio; Soukka, Tero; Peltomäki, Timo

    2008-10-01

    To study the duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment with special reference to patients' age and the type of tooth movements, i.e. extraction vs. non-extraction and intrusion before or extrusion after surgery to level the curve of Spee. The material consisted files of 37 consecutive surgical-orthodontic patients. The files were reviewed and gender, diagnosis, type of malocclusion, age at the initiation of treatment, duration of treatment, type of tooth movements (extraction vs. non-extraction and levelling of the curve of Spee before or after operation) and type of operation were retrieved. For statistical analyses two sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman rank correlation tests were used. Mean treatment duration of the sample was 26.8 months, of which pre-surgical orthodontics took on average 17.5 months. Patients with extractions as part of the treatment had statistically and clinically significantly longer treatment duration, on average 8 months, than those without extractions. No other studied variable seemed to have an impact on the treatment time. The present small sample size prevents reliable conclusions to be made. However, the findings suggest, and patients should be informed, that extractions included in the treatment plan increase chances of longer duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment.

  20. Duration of orthognathic-surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunonen, Jaakko; Helminen, Mika; Peltomäki, Timo

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the duration of orthognathic-surgical treatment conducted with conventional pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment phases. The study material was comprised of the files of 185 consecutive patients treated in Oral and Maxillofacial Unit, Tampere University Hospital, Finland, in 2007-2014. The files were reviewed and the following data was obtained: gender and age of patients, ICD-10 diagnosis, type of malocclusion, duration of pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment and type of operation. Total treatment duration (median) from placement of separating rings for banding until fixed orthodontic appliances were removed and retention period started was 31.1 months, of which pre-surgical orthodontics took 24.4 months and postsurgical 6.4 months. Treatment duration (median) was in BSSO was 32.1, LeFort 1 30.1 and bimaxillary osteotomy 29.7 months. Orthodontic extractions were performed in 35 patients (19%). If the orthodontic treatment included tooth extraction, the duration of pre-surgical treatment was on average 10 months longer, which is a statistically highly significant difference (p pre-surgical orthodontic treatment prolong treatment time by an average of 8-9 months.

  1. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  2. Effect of introduction of electronic patient reporting on the duration of ambulance calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Markku; Väyrynen, Taneli; Hiltunen, Tuomas; Porthan, Kari; Aaltonen, Janne

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effect of the change from paper records to the electronic patient records (EPRs) on ambulance call duration. We retrieved call duration times 6 months before (group 1) and 6 months after (group 2) the introduction of EPR. Subgroup analysis of group 2 was fulfilled depending whether the calls were made during the first or last 3 months after EPR introduction. We analyzed 37 599 ambulance calls (17 950 were in group 1 and 19 649 were in group 2). The median call duration in group 1 was 48 minutes and in group 2 was 49 minutes (P = .008). In group 2, call duration was longer during the first 3 months after EPR introduction. In multiple linear regression analysis, urgency category (P introduction was noticed, reflecting adaptation process to a new way of working.

  3. Factors affecting gestation duration in the bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilts, Bruce E; Davidson, Autumn P; Hosgood, Giselle; Paccamonti, Dale L; Baker, David G

    2005-07-15

    A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the effects of age, breed, parity, and litter size on the duration of gestation in the bitch. Bitches at two locations were monitored from breeding to whelping. A total of 764 litters whelped from 308 bitches (36 large hounds, 34 Golden Retrievers, 23 German Shepherd Dogs (GSD), and 215 Labrador Retrievers). By breed, the number of whelpings was 152, 72, 58, and 482 for the hounds, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. Whelping was predicted to be 57 d from the first day of cytologic diestrus in the hounds or 65 d from the initial progesterone rise in the other breeds. The average gestation duration (calculated as 8 d prior to Day 1 of cytologic diestrus in hounds or measured from the initial progesterone rise in other breeds) by breed (days +/- S.D.) was 66.0 +/- 2.8, 64.7 +/- 1.5, 63.6 +/- 2.1, and 62.9 +/- 1.3 for the hounds, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. The relationship of age, breed, parity, and litter size with the difference in gestation duration was evaluated using log linear modeling. Age or parity had no effect on gestation duration. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the German Shepherd Dogs, Golden Retrievers and hounds were more likely to have a longer gestation duration; three, four and nearly eight times as likely, respectively. Bitches whelping four or fewer pups were significantly more likely to have a longer gestation duration than those whelping five or more pups; the prolongation averaging 1 d.

  4. Storage array reflection considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, M.J.; Jordan, W.C.; Taylor, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    The assumptions used for reflection conditions of single containers are fairly well established and consistently applied throughout the industry in nuclear criticality safety evaluations. Containers are usually considered to be either fully water reflected (i.e., surrounded by 6 to 12 in. of water) for safety calculations or reflected by 1 in. of water for nominal (structural material and air) conditions. Tables and figures are usually available for performing comparative evaluations of containers under various loading conditions. Reflection considerations used for evaluating the safety of storage arrays of fissile material are not as well established. When evaluating arrays, it has become more common for analysts to use calculations to demonstrate the safety of the array configuration. In performing these calculations, the analyst has considerable freedom concerning the assumptions made for modeling the reflection of the array. Considerations are given for the physical layout of the array with little or no discussion (or demonstration) of what conditions are bounded by the assumed reflection conditions. For example, an array may be generically evaluated by placing it in a corner of a room in which the opposing walls are far away. Typically, it is believed that complete flooding of the room is incredible, so the array is evaluated for various levels of water mist interspersed among array containers. This paper discusses some assumptions that are made regarding storage array reflection

  5. Modelling the Reduction of Project Making Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleinik Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article points out why earlier patterns of investment process were ineffective in developing the construction projects and shows sources for reducing of its total duration. It describes the procedure of statistical modeling and obtaining medium-term time parameters required for modern pattern of project-making; offers design formulas for assessment of total time required for project-making as well as for its main stages; reveals advantage of modern system of project-making against traditional one by comparing indicators of their duration.

  6. Statistical analysis of random duration times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing data obtained by observing random time durations. It gives nonparametric estimates of the cumulative distribution function, reliability function and cumulative hazard function. These results can be applied with either complete or censored data. Several models which are commonly used with time data are discussed, and methods for model checking and goodness-of-fit tests are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimates and confidence limits are given for the various models considered. Some results for situations where repeated durations such as repairable systems are also discussed

  7. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...

  8. Auditory stimulus timing influences perceived duration of co-occurring visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eRomei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in multisensory influences upon sensory-specific judgements, such as when auditory stimuli affect visual perception. Here we studied whether the duration of an auditory event can objectively affect the perceived duration of a co-occurring visual event. On each trial, participants were presented with a pair of successive flashes and had to judge whether the first or second was longer. Two beeps were presented with the flashes. The order of short and long stimuli could be the same across audition and vision (audiovisual congruent or reversed, so that the longer flash was accompanied by the shorter beep and vice versa (audiovisual incongruent; or the two beeps could have the same duration as each other. Beeps and flashes could onset synchronously or asynchronously. In a further control experiment, the beep durations were much longer (tripled than the flashes. Results showed that visual duration-discrimination sensitivity (d' was significantly higher for congruent (and significantly lower for incongruent audiovisual synchronous combinations, relative to the visual only presentation. This effect was abolished when auditory and visual stimuli were presented asynchronously, or when sound durations tripled those of flashes. We conclude that the temporal properties of co-occurring auditory stimuli influence the perceived duration of visual stimuli and that this can reflect genuine changes in visual sensitivity rather than mere response bias.

  9. Seasonal soybean crop reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.

  10. Wave reflections from breakwaters

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A new method is presented for estimating the reflection of a random, multi-directional sea from a coastal structure. The technique is applicable to an array of wave gauges of arbitrary geometry deployed seaward of the reflector. An expansion for small oblique wave incidence angles is used to derive an approximate relationship between measured array cross-spectra and a small number of parameters that describe the incident wave properties and the reflectivity of the structure. Model tests with ...

  11. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, A.; Rao, S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P= 0.032), particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P= 0.018). This association did not reach statistical significance after adjustments for age, race, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy use, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity in the entire study sample (P= 0.052), but it remained statistically significant (P= 0.049) among post-menopausal patients. We did not observe a statistically significant association between sleep duration and stage at diagnosis, ER, or HER2 receptor status. These results present a modest association between short duration of sleep and higher grade breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Further work needs to be done to validate these findings.

  12. 14 CFR 21.181 - Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.181 Section 21.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION... those alterations performed in accordance with an applicable consensus standard and authorized by the...

  13. Associated Information Increases Subjective Perception of Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Richard; Trapp, Sabrina; Bar, Moshe

    2017-08-01

    Our sense of time is prone to various biases. For instance, one factor that can dilate an event's perceived duration is the violation of predictions; when a series of repeated stimuli is interrupted by an unpredictable oddball. On the other hand, when the probability of a repetition itself is manipulated, predictable conditions can also increase estimated duration. This suggests that manipulations of expectations have different or even opposing effects on time perception. In previous studies, expectations were generated because stimuli were repeated or because the likelihood of a sequence or a repetition was varied. In the natural environment, however, expectations are often built via associative processes, for example, the context of a kitchen promotes the expectation of plates, appliances, and other associated objects. Here, we manipulated such association-based expectations by using oddballs that were either contextually associated or nonassociated with the standard items. We find that duration was more strongly overestimated for contextually associated oddballs. We reason that top-down attention is biased toward associated information, and thereby dilates subjective duration for associated oddballs. Based on this finding, we propose an interplay between top-down attention and predictive processing in the perception of time.

  14. The Cognitive Representation of Time and Duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Rolf; Rattat, Anne-Claire; Ogden, Ruth; Van Rijn, Hedderik; Bratzke, Daniel

    How do people represent the duration of an event in memory and which mechanisms except timing are involved in processing and maintaining temporal information within the cognitive system? The speakers of this symposium will address this and related questions. Anne-Claire Rattat focuses on long-term

  15. Verifying duration properties of timed transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders P.; Li, Xiaoshan

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for formal real-time systems development:Requirements and high level design decisions are time interval properties and are therefore specified in the Duration Calculus (DC), while implementations are described bytimed transition systems (TTS). A link from implementati...

  16. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  17. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  18. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  19. Predicting the duration of the Syrian insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there were several relatively short uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, the dispute between the rebels and government forces in Syria has evolved into a full-scale civil war. We try to predict the length of the Syrian insurgency with a three-stage technique. Using out-of-sample techniques, we first assess the predictive capacity of 69 explanatory variables for insurgency duration. After determining the model with the highest predictive power, we categorize Syria according to the variables in this final model. Based on in-sample approaches, we then predict the duration of the Syrian uprising for three different scenarios. The most realistic point prediction is 5.12 years from the insurgency’s start, which suggests an end date between the end of 2016 and early 2017.

  20. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Cheryl Ann

    Often students and educators view assessments as an obligation and finality for a unit. In the current climate of high-stakes testing and accountability, the balance of time, resources and emphasis on students' scores related to assessment have been slanted considerably toward the summative side. This tension between assessment for accountability and assessment to inform teaching strains instruction and educators' ability to use that information to design learning opportunities that help students develop deeper conceptual understanding. A substantive body of research indicates that formative and reflective assessment can significantly improve student learning. Biology Reflective Assessment Curriculum (BRAC) examines support provided for high school science students through assessment practices. This investigation incorporates the usage of reflective assessments as a guiding practice for differentiated instruction and student choice. Reflective assessment is a metacognitive strategy that promotes self-monitoring and evaluation. The goals of the curriculum are to promote self-efficacy and conceptual understanding in students learning biology through developing their metacognitive awareness. BRAC was implemented in a high school biology classroom. Data from assessments, metacognitive surveys, self-efficacy surveys, reflective journals, student work, a culminating task and field notes were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the curriculum. The results suggest that students who develop their metacognitive skills developed a deeper conceptual understanding and improved feelings of self-efficacy when they were engaged in a reflective assessment unit embedded with student choice. BRAC is a tool for teachers to use assessments to assist students in becoming metacognitive and to guide student choice in learning opportunities.

  1. Modeling and Forecasting Persistent Financial Durations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žikeš, F.; Baruník, Jozef; Shenai, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2017), s. 1081-1110 ISSN 0747-4938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-32263S EU Projects: European Commission 612955 - FINMAP Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : price durations * long memory * multifractal models * realized volatility * Whittle estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0434201.pdf

  2. Expectation, information processing, and subjective duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2018-01-01

    In research on psychological time, it is important to examine the subjective duration of entire stimulus sequences, such as those produced by music (Teki, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 2016). Yet research on the temporal oddball illusion (according to which oddball stimuli seem longer than standard stimuli of the same duration) has examined only the subjective duration of single events contained within sequences, not the subjective duration of sequences themselves. Does the finding that oddballs seem longer than standards translate to entire sequences, such that entire sequences that contain oddballs seem longer than those that do not? Is this potential translation influenced by the mode of information processing-whether people are engaged in direct or indirect temporal processing? Two experiments aimed to answer both questions using different manipulations of information processing. In both experiments, musical sequences either did or did not contain oddballs (auditory sliding tones). To manipulate information processing, we varied the task (Experiment 1), the sequence event structure (Experiments 1 and 2), and the sequence familiarity (Experiment 2) independently within subjects. Overall, in both experiments, the sequences that contained oddballs seemed shorter than those that did not when people were engaged in direct temporal processing, but longer when people were engaged in indirect temporal processing. These findings support the dual-process contingency model of time estimation (Zakay, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 54, 656-664, 1993). Theoretical implications for attention-based and memory-based models of time estimation, the pacemaker accumulator and coding efficiency hypotheses of time perception, and dynamic attending theory are discussed.

  3. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  4. Sleep duration is associated with sperm chromatin integrity among young men in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaogang; Chen, Qing; Zou, Peng; Liu, Taixiu; Mo, Min; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Niya; Sun, Lei; Chen, Hongqiang; Ling, Xi; Peng, Kaige; Ao, Lin; Yang, Huifang; Cao, Jia; Cui, Zhihong

    2017-10-09

    This study explores whether sleep duration is associated with sperm chromatin integrity. To do so, we conducted a three-phase panel study of 796 male volunteers from colleges in Chongqing (China) from 2013 to 2015. Sleep duration was measured using a modified Munich Chronotype Questionnaire. Sperm DNA integrity was examined via Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay and Comet assay. Setting 7-7.5 h day -1 of sleep duration as a reference, either longer or shorter sleep duration was associated negatively with high DNA stainability (HDS) (P = 0.009), which reflected the immaturity of sperm chromatin. The volunteers with > 9.0 h day -1 sleep and those with ≤ 6.5 h day -1 sleep had 40.7 and 30.3% lower HDS than did volunteers with 7-7.5 h day -1 sleep. No association was found between sleep duration and DNA fragmentation index or Comet assay parameters. This study suggests that sleep duration is associated with sperm chromatin integrity. Further studies are required to validate these findings and investigate the mechanism underlying this association. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. Dietary specialization is linked to reduced species durations in North American fossil canids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balisi, Mairin; Casey, Corinna; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2018-04-01

    How traits influence species persistence is a fundamental question in ecology, evolution and palaeontology. We test the relationship between dietary traits and both species duration and locality coverage over 40 million years in North American canids, a clade with considerable ecomorphological disparity and a dense fossil record. Because ecomorphological generalization-broad resource use-may enable species to withstand disturbance, we predicted that canids of average size and mesocarnivory would exhibit longer durations and wider distributions than specialized larger or smaller species. Second, because locality coverage might reflect dispersal ability and/or survivability in a range of habitats, we predicted that high coverage would correspond with longer durations. We find a nonlinear relationship between species duration and degree of carnivory: species at either end of the carnivory spectrum tend to have shorter durations than mesocarnivores. Locality coverage shows no relationship with size, diet or duration. To test whether generalization (medium size, mesocarnivory) corresponds to an adaptive optimum, we fit trait evolution models to previously generated canid phylogenies. Our analyses identify no single optimum in size or diet. Instead, the primary model of size evolution is a classic Cope's Rule increase over time, while dietary evolution does not conform to a single model.

  6. Correlation between hematologic profile and transaminase enzymes with hospitalization duration dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinambunan, E.; Suryani; Katu, S.; Halim, R.; Mubin, A. H.; Sahyuddin

    2018-03-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease that can be found from mild to severe andaffected the clinical spectrum of the disease. Various hematologic profiles and transaminase enzymes are thought to reflect the severity of the disease thus affecting the hospitalization duration. For determining the correlation between hematological profile and transaminase enzyme to the hospitalization duration in dengue patients, an observational design study with the cross-sectional approach on dengue subjects was from 2 hospitals in Makassar. Hemoglobin, leukocyte, thrombocyte, AST, ALT, PT, and APTT were examined for hospitalization duration. There were 65 samples (34 men, 31 women) with the length of stay dengue patients. There was no correlation between the elevated of hematocrit value (p = 0.429), thrombocytopenia (p = 1.000), elevated of AST (p = 0.456) and ALT (p = 0.285) on hospitalization duration. In conclusion, low leukocyte values and APTT prolongation correlate with hospitalization duration but did not correlate significantly with hospitalization duration for elevated hematocrit, thrombocytopenia, elevated AST, and ALT.

  7. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  8. Worship, Reflection, Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Ding Dong,

    2012-01-01

    In my youth, I was a worshipper of Mao Zedong. From the latter stage of the Mao Era to the early years of Reform and Opening, I began to reflect on Mao and the Communist Revolution he launched. In recent years I’ve devoted myself to empirical historical research on Mao, seeking the truth about Mao and China’s modern history.

  9. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...

  10. Reflections on 21 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.; Mandel, H.; Teller, E.

    1977-01-01

    Personal reflections after twenty one years of nuclear power are presented by a number of those who were international figures in the nuclear energy field during that period. Lessons learnt, achievements, prospects and predictions for the future are discussed in eleven brief surveys. (U.K.)

  11. Reflection by Porro Prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2010-04-01

    Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.

  12. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  13. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological viewp...

  14. Onward: Reflections on Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kimberley Buster

    2018-01-01

    The author has been blessed with great mentors throughout her career. When she was invited to participate in the Leadership University of Mary Washington (UMW), a mentoring program at her institution, she did not hesitate to say yes. In this article, the author shares her reflections on mentoring.

  15. Interferometric reflection moire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Combell, Olivier

    1995-06-01

    A new reflection moire technique is introduced in this paper. The basic equations that relate the measurement of slopes to the basic geometric and optical parameters of the system are derived. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed. Examples of application to the study of silicon wafers and electronic chips are given.

  16. Reflection on robotic intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartneck, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reflects on the development or robots, both their physical shape as well as their intelligence. The later strongly depends on the progress made in the artificial intelligence (AI) community which does not yet provide the models and tools necessary to create intelligent robots. It is time

  17. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  18. Reflecting on Writing Autobiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, Andy

    2011-01-01

    The following reflections relate to the reasons for and an approach to an autobiographic task, the notions that underpin it, and some thoughts about the quality and value of such a project. The focus was on the ways one views curriculum change over time; and the intention was to provide an example that others may sense as either familiar or at…

  19. Reflections on the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Reflections on the field of special education offer six ideas: (1) the value of science; (2) the continuing value of separate and special education for some students; (3) the continuing importance of prevention; (4) the importance of academic instruction; (5) the importance of social justice for the poor; and (6) a renewed emphasis on human…

  20. Reflections, 15 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, George

    2016-01-01

    George Knox reflects on his 15-year career as president of Labette Community College in Parsons, Kansas. Knox writes that, as a first-time president coming into a brand new system, he was very fortunate to have many seasoned presidents and mentors in Kansas and from the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Presidents Academy. He says…

  1. The Frequency and Duration of Uterine Contractions during Labour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-17

    Apr 17, 1974 ... n-e;.l. Fig. 12. Indian primigravidas: duration of contractions. Fig. 11. Indian multiparas: duration of contractions. Fig. 10. Black primigravidas (all ages): duration of con- tractiom. Indian multiparas: Fig. 11 shows the duration of con- tractions in labour of Indian multiparas studied. Again, the pattern is similar to ...

  2. Being a reflective teacher——reflection on group management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan; Lehui

    2015-01-01

    <正>Introduction According to Pollard and Triggs(1997),reflective teaching is a process through which the capacity to make such professional judgments can be developed and maintained.Then what is a reflective teacher?Reflective teacher is someone who reflects systematically on her practice in a constant attempt to improve

  3. Loss aversion and duration of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Morrison

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of internal migration ask who moves, why they move, and what are the consequences - to themselves, their origin, and their destination. By contrast, studies of those who stay for very long durations are less common, despite the fact that most people move relatively infrequently. Objective: We argue that staying is the dominant, preferred state and that moving is simply an adjustment toward a desired state of stability (or equilibrium. The core of our argument, already recognized in the literature, is that migration is risky. However, we extend the argument to loss aversion as developed within prospect theory. Prospect theory posits that existing possessions, including the dwelling and existing commodities, are attributed a value well beyond their purchase price and that this extends the average period of staying among the loss-averse. Methods: Applying prospect theory has several challenges, including measurement of the reference point and potential degrees of gain and loss households face in deciding to change residence, as well as their own degree of loss aversion. The growing number of large panel sets should make it possible to estimate the degree to which endowment effects are likely to extend durations of residence as predicted by prospect theory. Conclusions: Rational expectations models of mobility focus on the changes in the level of consumption of residential services. By contrast, prospect theory focuses on potential gains and losses relative to the existing dwelling - the reference point. As we confront increasing durations of residence in contemporary society, an application of prospect theory is likely to yield important advantages over existing models of mobility and staying.

  4. Ethical reflection and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Prasko, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Theories of ethics and ethical reflection may be applied to both theory and practice in psychotherapy. There is a natural affinity between ethics and psychotherapy. Psychotherapy practice is concerned with human problems, dilemmas and emotions related to both one's own and other people's values. Ethics is also concerned with dilemmas in human thinking and with how these dilemmas reflect other individuals' values. Philosophical reflection itself is not a sufficient basis for the ethics of psychotherapy but it may aid in exploring attitudes related to psychotherapy, psychiatry and health care. PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "psychotherapy", "ethics", "therapeutic relationship" and "supervision". The search was conducted by repeating the terms in various combinations without language or time restrictions. Also included were data from monographs cited in reviews. The resulting text is a review with conclusions concerning ethical aspects of psychotherapy. The ability to behave altruistically, sense for justice and reciprocity and mutual help are likely to be genetically determined as dispositions to be later developed by upbringing or to be formed or deformed by upbringing. Early experiences lead to formation of ethical attitudes which are internalized and then applied to both one's own and other people's behavior. Altruistic behavior has a strong impact on an individual's health and its acceptance may positively influence the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying numerous diseases. Ethical theory and reflection, however, may be applied to both theory and practice of psychotherapy in a conscious, targeted and thoughtful manner. In everyday practice, psychotherapists and organizations must necessarily deal with conscious conflicts between therapeutic possibilities, clients' wishes, their own as well as clients' ideas and the real world. Understanding one's own motives in therapy is one of the aims of a

  5. Absence of an increase in the duration of the circadian melatonin secretory episode in totally blind human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, E. B.; Zeitzer, J. M.; Duffy, J. F.; Khalsa, S. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    The daily rhythm of melatonin influences multiple physiological measures, including sleep tendency, circadian rhythms, and reproductive function in seasonally breeding mammals. The biological signal for photoperiodic changes in seasonally breeding mammals is a change in the duration of melatonin secretion, which in a natural environment reflects the different durations of daylight across the year, with longer nights leading to a longer duration of melatonin secretion. These seasonal changes in the duration of melatonin secretion do not simply reflect the known acute suppression of melatonin secretion by ocular light exposure, but also represent long-term changes in the endogenous nocturnal melatonin episode that persist in constant conditions. As the eyes of totally blind individuals do not transmit ocular light information, we hypothesized that the duration of the melatonin secretory episode in blind subjects would be longer than those in sighted individuals, who are exposed to light for all their waking hours in an urban environment. We assessed the melatonin secretory profile during constant posture, dim light conditions in 17 blind and 157 sighted adults, all of whom were healthy and using no prescription or nonprescription medications. The duration of melatonin secretion was not significantly different between blind and sighted individuals. Healthy blind individuals after years without ocular light exposure do not have a longer duration of melatonin secretion than healthy sighted individuals.

  6. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    We transfer the concept of robust interpretation from arithmetic first-order theories to metric-time temporal logics. The idea is that the interpretation of a formula is robust iff its truth value does not change under small variation of the constants in the formula. Exemplifying this on Duration...... Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  7. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  8. Modeling Change in Project Duration and Completion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Pirtle, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    In complex work domains and organizations, understanding scheduleing dynamics can ensure objectives are reached and delays are mitigated. In the current paper, we examine the scheduling dynamics for NASA’s Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) activities. For this examination, we specifically modeled...... simultaneous change in percent complete and estimated duration for a given project as they were included in monthly reports over time. In short, we utilized latent change score mixture modeling to extract the attractor dynamics within the scheduling data. We found three primarily patterns: an attractor at low...

  9. Competing Risks Copula Models for Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Simon M. S.; Stephan, Gesine; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The copula graphic estimator (CGE) for competing risks models has received little attention in empirical research, despite having been developed into a comprehensive research method. In this paper, we bridge the gap between theoretical developments and applied research by considering a general...... class of competing risks copula models, which nests popular models such as the Cox proportional hazards model, the semiparametric multivariate mixed proportional hazards model (MMPHM), and the CGE as special cases. Analyzing the effects of a German Hartz reform on unemployment duration, we illustrate...

  10. Price duration versus trading volume in high-frequency data for selected DAX companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mitterer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the time series of durations between consecutive trades of a particular stock have been studied by many contributors in the literature of financial econometrics. Among them are highly prominent scientists like Engle (2000 and Gourieroux and Jasiak (2001. The importance of this topic, accompanied by the growing availability of (ultra-high-frequency data, has prompted an increase of contributions in recent years. Intensive research based on high-frequency data has several financial motivations. First of all, it is linked with microstructure theory. Secondly, it contributes to the literature on stochastic time deformation. But the most important need for research on the dynamics of trade durations is the necessity to manage liquidity risk. The reason is that durations between the following trades are a widely accepted measures of market liquidity. In addition, their volatility reflects the liquidity risk.

  11. Bragg reflection program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.W.

    This user's guide to the Bragg Reflection Program (BRP) is in the nature of an informal report. The general purpose of BRP is to scan a series of Bragg reflections automatically in order to obtain profiles and integrated intensities. The program is used in conjunction with the SUPERVISOR and READ packages, and the procedures for using it are similar to those for the Triple-Axis Control program. All the general features of the system, SUPERVISOR and READ packages as described in the Spectrometer Control Systems User's Guide are preserved. The presentation assumes that the reader is familiar with these. Sections are given on the READ package, execution and use, error messages, and output. A few sample problems are shown. (1 figure) (U.S.)

  12. Reflections on Active Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    with a Software Switch for Active Networks ”. We had initially called the project “ SoftSwitch ”, but after some concerns David Farber raised that this...Reflections on Active Networking Jonathan M. Smith CIS Department, University of Pennsylvania jms@cis.upenn.edu Abstract Interactions among...telecommunications networks , computers, and other peripheral devices have been of interest since the earliest distributed computing systems. A key

  13. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  14. Superradiance or total reflection?

    CERN Document Server

    László, András

    2014-01-01

    Numerical evolution of massless scalar fields on Kerr background is studied. The initial data specifications are chosen to have compact support separated from the ergoregion and to yield nearly monochromatic incident wave packets. The initial data is also tuned to maximize the effect of superradiance. Evidences are shown indicating that instead of the anticipated energy extraction from black hole the incident radiation fail to reach the ergoregion rather it suffers a nearly perfect reflection.

  15. An investigation into the strength of the association and agreement levels between subjective and objective sleep duration in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Arora

    Full Text Available The majority of adolescent sleep research has utilized self-reported sleep duration and some have based information on a solitary question. Whilst some have claimed to have validated sleep survey data with objective actigraphy measures in adolescents, the statistical approach applied only demonstrates the strength of the association between subjective and objective sleep duration data and does not reflect if these different methods actually agree.Data were collected as part of the Midlands Adolescents Schools Sleep Education Study (MASSES. Adolescents (n=225 aged 11-13 years provided estimates for weekday, weekend and combined sleep duration based on self-reported survey data, a 7-day sleep diary, and wrist-worn actigraphy.We assessed the strength of the relationship as well as agreement levels between subjective and objectively determined sleep duration (weekday, weekend and combined. Subjective diary sleep duration was significantly correlated with actigraphy estimates for weekday and weekend sleep duration r=0.30, p ≤ 0.001 and r=0.31, p ≤ 0.001 respectively. Pitman's test demonstrated no significant difference in the variance between weekend sleep duration (r=0.09, p=0.16 and combined sleep duration (r=0.12, p=0.08 indicating acceptable agreement between actigraphy and sleep diary sleep duration only. Self-reported sleep duration estimates (weekday, weekend and combined did not agree with actigraphy determined sleep duration.Sleep diaries are a cost-effective alternative to survey/questionnaire data. Self-reported measures of sleep duration in adolescents do not agree with actigraphy measures and should be avoided where possible. Previous adolescent sleep studies that have utilized self-reported survey data may not provide a complete representation of sleep on the outcome measure of interest.

  16. Polarizer reflectivity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

    1980-01-01

    On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism

  17. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  18. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  19. Reflection Revisited: The Class Collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Through the regular use of what Donald Schon has termed reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, students can learn to improve their "reflection-in-presentation," in Kathleen Blake Yancey's term. Students are often asked to do this type of reflection-in-presentation as a capstone to first-year or basic writing courses. However, a number of…

  20. Reflection as Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how reflection can be used as self-assessment. Reflection involves not only thinking about a learning experience, but also questioning parts of the experience. Reflection is thinking about what one knows from the learning experience, what one might do differently the next time. Reflection is wondering about…

  1. Adaptation to an Illusory Duration: Nothing Like the Real Thing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hotchkiss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that adapting to a visual or auditory stimulus of a particular duration leads to a repulsive distortion of the perceived duration of a subsequently presented test stimulus. This distortion seems to be modality-specific and manifests itself as an expansion or contraction of perceived duration dependent upon whether the test stimulus is longer or shorter than the adapted duration. It has been shown (Berger et al 2003, Journal of Vision 3, 406–412 that perceived events can be as effective as actual events in inducing improvements in performance. In light of this, we investigated whether an illusory visual duration was capable of inducing a duration after-effect in a visual test stimulus that was actually no different in duration from the adaptor. Pairing a visual stimulus with a concurrent auditory stimulus of subtly longer or shorter duration expands or contracts the duration of the visual stimulus. We mapped out this effect and then chose two auditory durations (one long, one short that produced the maximum distortion in the perceived duration of the visual stimulus. After adapting to this bimodal stimulus, our participants were asked to reproduce a visual duration. Group data showed that participants, on average, reproduced the physical duration of the visual test stimulus accurately; in other words, there was no consistent effect of adaptation to an illusory duration.

  2. Estimating potential diapause duration in Calanus finmarchicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumweber, Whitley J.; Durbin, Edward G.

    2006-11-01

    Deep basins in the Gulf of Maine act as refuge for a large population of diapausing Calanus finmarchicus during the summer and fall. This population acts as the primary seed population for Georges Bank in the spring and is thought to be composed primarily of individuals that developed during the previous spring bloom. The factors affecting growth and mortality in the summer-fall population are not well understood, however, and loss terms from advection and starvation may be large. To assess the potential energetic limitation and loss of C. finmarchicus from the Gulf of Maine basins, a new nitrogen-specific respiration model has been developed for the resting stage of the species. Stage C5 C. finmarchicus were collected during July, September, and December 2003 from Wilkinson and Georges Basins. Animals were collected using both MOCNESS tows and zooplankton samplers on the Johnson Sea Link II submersible. Metabolic rates were measured using a Micro-Oxymax gas analyzer and Winkler incubation techniques both at sea and on animals kept in culture on shore. Respiration rates measured in the field were not significantly different from those measured on shore, with a mean of 130 μmol O 2 gN -1 h -1 (14.4 μmol O 2 gC -1 h -1) at 0 °C and a Q10 of 2.77 (2.58 for carbon-specific respiration). Using the nitrogen-specific rates in conjunction with visual estimates of nitrogen weight and lipid stores, we derived a discrete function for predicting potential diapause duration based on an animal's length, oil sac volume, and the in situ temperature. The maximum potential diapause duration for a C5 C. finmarchicus is predicted to range from 280 days at 0 °C to approximately 90 days at 11 °C. The maximum potential diapause duration in the Gulf of Maine is predicted to be between 3.5 and 5.5 months. These results suggest that energetic limitation may play a role in controlling the population dynamics of diapausing C. finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine. A reassessment of the

  3. Seismic reflection imaging, accounting for primary and multiple reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Thorbecke, Jan; Broggini, Filippo; Slob, Evert; Snieder, Roel

    2015-04-01

    Imaging of seismic reflection data is usually based on the assumption that the seismic response consists of primary reflections only. Multiple reflections, i.e. waves that have reflected more than once, are treated as primaries and are imaged at wrong positions. There are two classes of multiple reflections, which we will call surface-related multiples and internal multiples. Surface-related multiples are those multiples that contain at least one reflection at the earth's surface, whereas internal multiples consist of waves that have reflected only at subsurface interfaces. Surface-related multiples are the strongest, but also relatively easy to deal with because the reflecting boundary (the earth's surface) is known. Internal multiples constitute a much more difficult problem for seismic imaging, because the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces are not known. We are developing reflection imaging methodology which deals with internal multiples. Starting with the Marchenko equation for 1D inverse scattering problems, we derived 3D Marchenko-type equations, which relate reflection data at the surface to Green's functions between virtual sources anywhere in the subsurface and receivers at the surface. Based on these equations, we derived an iterative scheme by which these Green's functions can be retrieved from the reflection data at the surface. This iterative scheme requires an estimate of the direct wave of the Green's functions in a background medium. Note that this is precisely the same information that is also required by standard reflection imaging schemes. However, unlike in standard imaging, our iterative Marchenko scheme retrieves the multiple reflections of the Green's functions from the reflection data at the surface. For this, no knowledge of the positions and properties of the reflecting interfaces is required. Once the full Green's functions are retrieved, reflection imaging can be carried out by which the primaries and multiples are

  4. Implications on visual apperception: energy, duration, structure and synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bókkon, I; Vimal, Ram Lakhan Pandey

    2010-07-01

    Although primary visual cortex (V1 or striate) activity per se is not sufficient for visual apperception (normal conscious visual experiences and conscious functions such as detection, discrimination, and recognition), the same is also true for extrastriate visual areas (such as V2, V3, V4/V8/VO, V5/M5/MST, IT, and GF). In the lack of V1 area, visual signals can still reach several extrastriate parts but appear incapable of generating normal conscious visual experiences. It is scarcely emphasized in the scientific literature that conscious perceptions and representations must have also essential energetic conditions. These energetic conditions are achieved by spatiotemporal networks of dynamic mitochondrial distributions inside neurons. However, the highest density of neurons in neocortex (number of neurons per degree of visual angle) devoted to representing the visual field is found in retinotopic V1. It means that the highest mitochondrial (energetic) activity can be achieved in mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-rich V1 areas. Thus, V1 bear the highest energy allocation for visual representation. In addition, the conscious perceptions also demand structural conditions, presence of adequate duration of information representation, and synchronized neural processes and/or 'interactive hierarchical structuralism.' For visual apperception, various visual areas are involved depending on context such as stimulus characteristics such as color, form/shape, motion, and other features. Here, we focus primarily on V1 where specific mitochondrial-rich retinotopic structures are found; we will concisely discuss V2 where smaller riches of these structures are found. We also point out that residual brain states are not fully reflected in active neural patterns after visual perception. Namely, after visual perception, subliminal residual states are not being reflected in passive neural recording techniques, but require active stimulation to be revealed.

  5. A fiberoptic reflection oximeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, M L; Knop, N; Kwant, G; Mook, G A; Zijlstra, W G

    1978-03-20

    A catheter tip oximeter is described consisting of a cardiac catheter containing optical fibers, and incandescent light source, a light detection unit and a processing unit. Half of the optical fibers guide the light to the blood at the tip of the catheter, the other half the backscattered (reflected) light to the detection unit. The detection unit contains a dichroic mirror, transmitting most of the light with lambda less than 800 nm and reflecting most of the light with lambda greater than 900 nm, thus splitting the light into two beams. These pass through interference filters with nominal wavelengths of 640 and 920 nm respectively, and are focused on silicium barrier layer photocells. The photocell signals are amplified and fed into a divider giving the ratio of measuring (R640) and compensating (R920) photocell output. The relationship between log R640/R920 and oxygen saturation is represented by a slightly curved line. The relation may be linearized by subtracting a constant voltage from the divided output before taking the logarithm. The slope of the calibration line is dependent on the total haemoglobin concentration. Nonetheless an average calibration line can be used between 70 and 100% oxygen saturation. For 78 measurements of pig blood samples in this range (haemoglobin concentration between 96 and 161 g.1(-1)), the standard deviation of the difference between the fiberoptic oximeter and a Radiometer OSM1 oxygen saturation meter was 1.9% saturation, for 152 samples over the entire saturation range the standard deviation of the difference was 3.1% saturation. The influence of the flow velocity of blood on the light reflection depends on wavelength as well as on oxygen saturation. Therefore, complete compensation for the flow effect is not possible by simple means.

  6. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Duration and specificity of olfactory nonassociative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kaitlin G; Radhakrishna, Sreya; Escanilla, Olga; Linster, Christiane

    2013-05-01

    Olfactory habituation is a simple form of nonassociative memory in which responsiveness to stable but behaviorally nonsignificant stimuli is decreased. Olfactory habituation has recently become a paradigm widely used to probe the neural substrate underlying olfactory perception and memory. This simple behavioral paradigm has been used successfully used to probe many aspects of olfactory processing, and it has recently become clear that the neural processes underlying olfactory habituation can depend on the task parameters used. We here further investigate memory specificity and duration using 2 variations in task parameters: the number of habituation trials and the time delay between habituation and cross-habituation testing. We find that memory specificity increases with the number of habituation trials but decreases with time after the last habituation trial.

  8. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 (micro)m diameter pinhole in a 75 (micro)m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 (micro)m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times

  9. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  10. Prediction uncertainty in seasonal partial duration series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Funder; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain a good description of the exceedances in a partial duration series it is often necessary to divide the year into a number (2-4) of seasons. Hereby a stationary exceedance distribution can be maintained within each season. This type of seasonal models may, however, not be suitable...... for prediction purposes due to the large number of parameters required. In the particular case with exponentially distributed exceedances and Poissonian occurrence times the precision of the T year event estimator has been thoroughly examined considering both seasonal and nonseasonal models. The two......-seasonal probability density function of the T year event estimator has been deduced and used in the assessment of the precision of approximate moments. The nonseasonal approach covered both a total omission of seasonality by pooling data from different flood seasons and a discarding of nonsignificant season(s) before...

  11. [Longevity, disease, and duration of disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, S

    1996-12-01

    Disability and the resulting lowered quality of life are serious issues accompanying increased longevity. Active life expectancy #(8) can be to used to distinguish the number of years without disability from the number with disability; increases were found in both in longevity #(9, 19). With the same rate of age-related new disability in the cohorts between 1970 and 1990, the total disability increased three fold #(11). In elderly patients I showed that 1) the duration of disability of those at a specific age at death (predeath) #(1) increased with age, and it decreased in those who remained without disability, 2) the cumulative number of days of disability for patients who died at a specific age (a convolution function of predeath and mortality) #(2), approached a normal distribution, which is consistent with the central limit theorem, 3) competing risk with chronic disease in a patient greatly affects the incidence and duration of disability, 4) using the central limit theorem we can predict that preventing dementia will retard premature rectangularization of the disability-free survival curve, and will thus reduce the total disability, 5) disability is an example of how variation and selection of chronic diseases (disease Darwinism) can alter population structure. Insights into the evolution of senescence #(14-21), pleiotropy, and slower rates of molecular evolution in the core than at the border #(26, 27), reveal that the central nervous system is relatively robust and conservative for pleiotropy and may senesce relatively slowly, which support a new way of thinking #(3, 4) about old age. To minimize disability, public knowledge and education about an ideal lifestyle and the evolution of senescence is essential.

  12. Sleep duration, life satisfaction and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Although sleep is considered an essential part of individuals' lives, there are no previous studies analysing how sleep duration affects the levels of life satisfaction reported by males and females with disabilities. To analyse and compare the impact of hours of sleep on life satisfaction scores reported by people without and with disabilities (stratified by sex) in Germany. Using data taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2008-2013, we estimate life satisfaction equations for males and females (running a fixed-effects model) which include a set of variables measuring the number of sleep hours on workdays and weekends. A higher number of sleep hours on workdays increase life satisfaction for all males and females. However, the contribution of each hour of sleep on workdays is greater for males with disabilities in terms of life satisfaction, whereas for females no significant differences by disability status have been found. Although sleep hours on weekends also increase life satisfaction, the magnitude of the coefficients is relatively higher than that found for the corresponding hours of sleep on workdays, but only for the male sample (disabled or not). The participation and commitment of policymakers, governments, trade unions, employers, and health care professionals are key aspects for developing and formulating new guidelines and specific measures that promote a healthy lifestyle and increase sleep duration. Such guidelines and measures are of essence for people with disabilities who are employed (e.g. using brief sleep opportunities during prolonged work periods, which can contribute to reducing fatigue, stress and anxiety). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  14. Reflection, Interrogatory, Provocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnes, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    This invited paper advances a framing context for considering next steps in HOF and organizational culture in light of the presentations and discussions that occur during the conference. Many of the contributions during the conference will represent results of scholarly research, structured investigations, or formal organizational improvement efforts. This contribution is intended as informal reflection by a 40-year nuclear veteran on themes from other presentations considering questions such as: ''Where do we think we are?, Are we better off as an industry based on what we have done?, Where do we think we need to go?, What do we think we need to do?, and, Why do we think these things?'' Our coming together on this occasion marks 30 years since the publication of INSAG-l. As we reflect on the past, perhaps it is time to pose a series of questions. Are we sustainers of a mature technology that is in some places declining and being replaced by other energy sources? If we consider nuclear a mature technology, should we focus most on operational excellence with renewed attention to managing the unexpected? Or, is innovation still a vital part of our industry?

  15. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  16. Modulating action duration to establish non-conventional communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Schmitz, Laura; Knoblich, Günther

    2017-01-01

    communication. The current study investigated whether systematic modulations of action duration provide a sufficient basis for communication. The results of three experiments demonstrate that knowledgeable actors spontaneously and systematically adjusted the duration of their actions to communicate task...

  17. Reflection and Non-Reflection of Particle Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy; Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Exact closed-form solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are obtained, describing the propagation of wavepackets in the neighbourhood of a potential. Examples given include zero reflection, total reflection and partial reflection of the wavepacket, for the sech[superscript 2]x/a, 1/x[superscript 2] and delta(x) potentials,…

  18. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the waiting...

  19. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.; Stocks, T.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Seidell, J.C.; Renders, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of

  20. Duration of Load Effects on Different Sized Timber Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lotte; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report submitted to EC in connection with a project on duration of load. The report contains the results of the experimental work on duration of load for beams and notched beams of LVL and of glulam. The report also contains experimental results from duration of load experiments...

  1. Reflecting Contemporary Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present paper addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose......, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The paper’s underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition......; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the paper discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets...

  2. The Reflective Methodologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways. In this ......In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways...... in which the practical sense and tacit knowledge are related to questions of power and social actors’ strategies for positioning themselves within a social space. This demands a particular focus on the historical effect of the concept of ‘the reflective practitioner’ as a symbolic marker of identity...

  3. Reflections on SLAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger

    1997-01-01

    The SLAP data bases represent a major step forward in the reliability analysis of passive components. The present reflections are motivated by draft documentation for SLAP and have profited greatly from discussions with the SLAP team. We collect a number of remarks and suggestions: The use of event and failure fields to organize the data seems sensible and feasible, from a data analysis viewpoint. Influence factors, i. e. environmental influences which are affected by plant operations, are clearly important yet very difficult to accommodate in any straightforward data analysis methodology. We would welcome a serious effort to estimate the exposure in the various exposure cells. These estimates would not be based on failure records, but on knowledge of plant design and operations. Quantitative expert judgement might be a viable alternative to a massive review of all plants in the SLAP data base

  4. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  5. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  6. Reflections on Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Tinto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Feature for this issue Reflections on Student Persistence has been prepared by Professor Vincent Tinto, Distinguished University Professor Emeritus at Syracuse University, United States of America (USA and a longtime friend and supporter of STARS. Vincent explores the case for motivation to be considered as a significant aspect of the tertiary student psyche by drawing on theoretical frameworks, research and practical experiences related to the issue. He synthesises this extensive, detailed, rich but often somewhat impenetrable data into a trilogy of clear and credible key dimensions of the motivation construct student self efficacy, sense of belonging and perceived value of the curriculum. This interpretation of the literature is a personal but informed reflection and is a timely piece which highlights the breadth and profundity of the presentations at this year's conference in Adelaide, Australia where students in all their diversity are central to our focus on enhancing the student experience. In this opening article, Vincent refers directly to the STARS papers selected for this Conference issue of the Journal which also address the importance of student persistence, self-efficacy and building the sense of belonging within their own institutional communities (Fernandes, Ford, Rayner & Pretorius; Kahu, Nelson, & Picton; McFarlane, Spes-Skrbis & Taib; Naylor; Smallhorn. Echoing his position on social justice and his advocacy for underserved students, Vincent reminds us that educational equity gaps still exist, and he encourages us to see the issue of persistence through the eyes of the students to support their perseverance and completion and thereby help reduce educational disadvantage.

  7. Reflective Practices for Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulus Kuswandono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on reflective practice in teacher education are increasingly getting more attention at least in the last 2 decades. This article discusses concepts of reflection and how it is implemented in educating pre-service teachers on their early stage of professional learning. The purposes of doing the reflection for pre-service teachers are not only for illuminating their professional learning experiences, but also to critically reflect their vocation as teachers, including the values which may be dictated to them through rigid regulations. Reflection in teacher education is crucial as it connects well with learning in that learners use reflection to exercise their mind and to evaluate their learning experiences. Besides, this article also highlights some perceived difficulties to implement reflective practice, as well as ways how to promote reflection.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2012.150102

  8. Guided and Unguided Student Reflections

    OpenAIRE

    Matheson, Amanda; Wood, Laura; Franklin, Scott V.

    2017-01-01

    Self-reflection is important metacognitive skill, enabling students to build coherence into their learning and embed content in a broader context. While various pedagogical techniques exist to encourage student reflection, little research has examined the differences between formally guided, partially guided and unguided reflections. This study focuses on student responses to online Guided Reflection Forms (GRFs) from students in a first-semester non-physics class and, separately, a sophomore...

  9. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    OpenAIRE

    Alvyda Liuolienė; Regina Metiūnienė

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journ...

  10. Long duration mild temperature hyperthermia and brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, E P; Raaphorst, G P

    2004-03-01

    Combining long duration mild temperature hyperthermia (LDMH) and low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to enhance therapeutic killing of cancer cells was proposed many years ago. The cellular and tumour research that supports this hypothesis is presented in this review. Research describing LDMH interaction with pulsed brachytherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy using clinically relevant parameters are compared with LDMH/LDR brachytherapy. The mechanism by which LDMH sensitizes LDR has been established as the inhibition of sublethal damage repair. The molecular mechanisms have been shown to involve DNA repair enzymes, but the exact nature of these processes is still under investigation. The relative differences between LDMH interactions with human and rodent cells are presented to help in the understanding of possible roles of LDMH in clinical application. The role of LDMH in modifying tumour blood flow and its possible role in LDR sensitization of tumours is also presented. The positive aspects of LDMH-brachytherapy for clinical application are sixfold; (1) the thermal goals (temperature, time and volume) are achievable with currently available technology, (2) the hyperthermia by itself has no detectable toxic effects, (3) thermotolerance appears to play a minor if any role in radiation sensitization, (4) TER of around 2 can be expected, (5) hypoxic fraction may be decreased due to blood flow modification and (6) simultaneous chemotherapy may also be sensitized. Combined LDMH and brachytherapy is a cancer therapy that has established biological rationale and sufficient technical and clinical advancements to be appropriately applied. This modality is ripe for clinical testing.

  11. Duration of Untreated Cardiac Arrest and Clinical Relevance of Animal Experiments: The Relationship Between the "No-Flow" Duration and the Severity of Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, Giovanni; Grassi, Luigi; Russo, Ilaria; Novelli, Deborah; Boccardo, Antonio; Luciani, Anita; Fumagalli, Francesca; Staszewsky, Lidia; Fiordaliso, Fabio; De Maglie, Marcella; Salio, Monica; Zani, Davide D; Letizia, Teresa; Masson, Serge; Luini, Mario V; Pravettoni, Davide; Scanziani, Eugenio; Latini, Roberto; Ristagno, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    The study investigated the effect of untreated cardiac arrest (CA), that is, "no-flow" time, on postresuscitation myocardial and neurological injury, and survival in a pig model to identify an optimal duration that adequately reflects the most frequent clinical scenario. An established model of myocardial infarction followed by CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was used. Twenty-two pigs were subjected to three no-flow durations: short (8-10 min), intermediate (12-13 min), and long (14-15 min). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed together with thermodilution cardiac output (CO) and high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). Neurological impairment was evaluated by neurological scores, serum neuron specific enolase (NSE), and histopathology. More than 60% of animals survived when the duration of CA was ≤13 min, compared to only 20% for a duration ≥14 min. Neuronal degeneration and neurological scores showed a trend toward a worse recovery for longer no-flow durations. No animals achieved a good neurological recovery for a no-flow ≥14 min, in comparison to a 56% for a duration ≤13 min (P = 0.043). Serum NSE levels significantly correlated with the no-flow duration (r = 0.892). Longer durations of CA were characterized by lower LVEF and CO compared to shorter durations (P flow time, the higher was the number of defibrillations delivered (P = 0.043). The defibrillations delivered significantly correlated with LVEF and plasma hs-cTnT. Longer no-flow durations caused greater postresuscitation myocardial and neurological dysfunction and reduced survival. An untreated CA of 12-13 min may be an optimal choice for a clinically relevant model.

  12. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2016-12-06

    Breast milk is well recognised as the best food source for infants. The impact of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register on 1 March 2016, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 March 2016) and Scopus (January 1985 to 1 March 2016). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on the duration of BF. We included RCTs that only included antenatal interventions and excluded those that combined antenatal and intrapartum or postpartum BF education components. Cluster-randomised trials were included in this review. Quasi-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review update includes 24 studies (10,056 women). Twenty studies (9789 women) contribute data to analyses. Most studies took place in high-income countries such as the USA, UK, Canada and Australia. In the first five comparisons, we display the included trials according to type of intervention without pooling data. For the 'Summary of findings' we pooled data for a summary effect.Five included studies were cluster-randomised trials: all of these adjusted data and reported adjustments as odds ratios (OR). We have analysed the data using the generic inverse variance method and presented results as odds ratios, because we were

  13. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  14. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  15. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  16. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Isabell; Glauer, Madlen; Betsch, Tilmann; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a) intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures), and (b) extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm). Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  17. Mental Summation of Temporal Duration within and across Senses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    Full Text Available Perceiving, memorizing, and estimating temporal durations are key cognitive functions in everyday life. In this study, a duration summation paradigm was used to examine whether summation of temporal durations introduces an underestimation or overestimation bias, and whether this bias is common to visual and auditory modalities. Two within- or across-modality stimuli were presented sequentially for variable durations. Participants were asked to reproduce the sum of the two durations (0.6-1.1 s. We found that the sum of two durations was overestimated regardless of stimulus modalities. A subsequent control experiment indicated that the overestimation bias arose from the summation process, not perceptual or memory processes. Furthermore, we observed strong positive correlations between the overestimation bias for different sensory modalities within participants. These results suggest that the sum of two durations is overestimated, and that supra-modal processes may be responsible for this overestimation bias.

  18. Longer duration of obesity is associated with a reduction in urinary angiotensinogen in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morato, Manuela; Correia-Costa, Liane; Sousa, Teresa; Cosme, Dina; Schaefer, Franz; Areias, José Carlos; Guerra, António; Afonso, Alberto Caldas; Barros, Henrique; Azevedo, Ana; Albino-Teixeira, António

    2017-08-01

    We aimed to study the impact of obesity on urinary excretion of angiotensinogen (U-AGT) in prepubertal children, focusing on the duration of obesity and gender. Also, we aimed to evaluate whether plasma angiotensinogen (P-AGT) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) play a role in the putative association. Cross-sectional evaluation of 305 children aged 8-9 years (160 normal weight, 86 overweight, and 59 obese). Anthropometric measurements and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were performed. Angiotensinogen (AGT) was determined by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and H 2 O 2 by a microplate fluorometric assay. U-AGT and P-AGT levels were similar across body mass index (BMI) groups and between sexes. However, boys who were overweight/obese since the age of 4 years presented lower levels of U-AGT compared with those of normal weight at the same age. In children who were overweight/obese since the age of 4, urinary H 2 O 2 decreased with P-AGT. A higher duration of obesity was associated with decreased U-AGT in boys, thus reflecting decreased intrarenal activity of the renin-angiotensin system. Also, children with a longer duration of obesity showed an inverse association between urinary H 2 O 2 and P-AGT. Future studies should address whether these results reflect an early compensatory mechanism to limit obesity-triggered renal dysfunction.

  19. Excessive sleep duration and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Reynolds, Charles F; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic, and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥ 9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥ 18 years (participation rate = 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual II, International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edition). Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence interval = 8.0-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4-1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3 to 12× higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2 to 4× more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socioprofessional activities and relationships. Although between 33 and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3 to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. EQS is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  20. Teachers’ way of reflecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose of t......’ reflections on practice. Based on this model, the paper provides a proposal regarding how to work with teachers’ professional development and learning processes. Educational implications and future research directions are discussed.......This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose...... of the Danish study was to investigate and understand teachers’ classroom experiences using Fenstermacher’s approach to develop a practical argument, as these classroom experiences are regarded as a potential source of learning for teachers. A three-level scale model from the study describes the teach-ers...

  1. Characteristics of retinal reflectance changes induced by transcorneal electrical stimulation in cat eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morimoto

    Full Text Available Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES activates retinal neurons leading to visual sensations. How the retinal cells are activated by TES has not been definitively determined. Investigating the reflectance changes of the retina is an established technique and has been used to determine the mechanism of retinal activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reflectance changes elicited by TES in cat eyes. Eight eyes of Eight cats were studied under general anesthesia. Biphasic electrical pulses were delivered transcornealy. The fundus images observed with near-infrared light (800-880 nm were recorded every 25 ms for 26 s. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the images of 10 consecutive recordings were averaged. Two-dimensional topographic maps of the reflective changes were constructed by subtracting images before from those after the TES. The effects of different stimulus parameters, e.g., current intensity, pulse duration, frequency, and stimulus duration, on the reflective changes were studied. Our results showed that after TES, the reflective changes appeared on the retinal vessels and optic disc. The intensity of reflectance changes increased as the current intensity, pulse duration, and stimulation duration increased (P<0.05 for all. The maximum intensity of the reflective change was obtained when the stimulus frequency was 20 Hz. The time course of the reflectance changes was also altered by the stimulation parameters. The response started earlier and returned to the baseline later with higher current intensities, longer pulse durations, but the time of the peak of the response was not changed. These results showed that the reflective changes were due to the activation of retinal neurons by TES and might involve the vascular changes induced by an activation of the retinal neurons.

  2. Effect of reflective surfaces on a greenhouse lettuce crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warman, P.R.; Mayhew, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The Canadian greenhouse industry is an important segment of horticultural production, providing employment for thousands of people. Continuing increases in the costs of conventional fuel supplies, however, has placed the industry in some jeopardy since the cost of heating during the winter months is also escalating. In response to this problem the Brace Research Institute has developed a single roofed greenhouse designed to capture and store the sun's energy, and to increase the amount of downward solar radiation inside the greenhouse through the use of specularly-reflecting back and side walls. The research investigated the effect of a reflective surface on plant growth, development, and nutritional uptake during fall and the early months of winter. The inside walls of the greenhouse were lined with aluminized polyester to act as a reflective surface and flat black roofing felt paper to provide a non-reflecting surface. Grand Rapids Forcing lettuce was planted from seed into a peat-vermiculite bed and total solar radiation was monitored on the horizontal. Over the duration of the experiment, the reflective side of the greenhouse received more than twice as much solar radiation as the non-reflective side leading to significantly larger plant yields on the reflective side. There were no significant differences in the uptake of the plant macronutrients, N, P, K, Ca, and Mg.

  3. Duration of patients’ visits to the hospital emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaca Zeynal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Length of stay is an important indicator of quality of care in Emergency Departments (ED. This study explores the duration of patients’ visits to the ED for which they are treated and released (T&R. Methods Retrospective data analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to investigate the duration of T&R ED visits. Duration for each visit was computed by taking the difference between admission and discharge times. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD for 2008 were used in the analysis. Results The mean duration of T&R ED visit was 195.7 minutes. The average duration of ED visits increased from 8 a.m. until noon, then decreased until midnight at which we observed an approximately 70-minute spike in average duration. We found a substantial difference in mean duration of ED visits (over 90 minutes between Mondays and other weekdays during the transition time from the evening of the day before to the early morning hours. Black / African American patients had a 21.4-minute longer mean duration of visits compared to white patients. The mean duration of visits at teaching hospitals was substantially longer than at non-teaching hospitals (243.8 versus 175.6 minutes. Hospitals with large bed size were associated with longer duration of visits (222.2 minutes when compared to hospitals with small bed size (172.4 minutes or those with medium bed size (166.5 minutes. The risk-adjusted results show that mean duration of visits on Mondays are longer by about 4 and 9 percents when compared to mean duration of visits on non-Monday workdays and weekends, respectively. Conclusions The duration of T&R ED visits varied significantly by admission hour, day of the week, patient volume, patient characteristics, hospital characteristics and area characteristics.

  4. Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph

    This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning (LDB) and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) offers the service of launching high altitude balloons (120k ft) which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems. A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems. One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past. The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required

  5. Duration of inhibition of ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons encodes a level of conditioned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileykovskiy, Boris; Morales, Marisela

    2011-05-18

    It is widely accepted that midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons encode actual and expected reward values by phasic alterations in firing rate. However, how DA neurons encode negative events in the environment is still unclear because some DA neurons appear to be depressed and others excited by aversive stimuli. Here, we show that exposing fear-conditioned rats to stimuli predicting electrical shock elicited three types of biphasic responses, each of which contained an inhibitory pause, in neurochemically identified ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA neurons. The duration of the inhibitory pause in these responses of VTA DA neurons was in direct proportion to the increase in respiratory rate reflecting the level of conditioned fear. Our results suggest that the duration of inhibition of VTA DA neurons encodes negative emotional values of signals predicting aversive events in the environment.

  6. Perception of social interaction compresses subjective duration in an oxytocin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Yuan, Xiangyong; Chen, Kepu; Jiang, Yi; Zhou, Wen

    2018-05-22

    Communication through body gestures permeates our daily life. Efficient perception of the message therein reflects one's social cognitive competency. Here we report that such competency is manifested temporally as shortened subjective duration of social interactions: motion sequences showing agents acting communicatively are perceived to be significantly shorter in duration as compared with those acting noncommunicatively. The strength of this effect is negatively correlated with one's autistic-like tendency. Critically, intranasal oxytocin administration restores the temporal compression effect in socially less proficient individuals, whereas the administration of atosiban, a competitive antagonist of oxytocin, diminishes the effect in socially proficient individuals. These findings indicate that perceived time, rather than being a faithful representation of physical time, is highly idiosyncratic and ingrained with one's personality trait. Moreover, they suggest that oxytocin is involved in mediating time perception of social interaction, further supporting the role of oxytocin in human social cognition. © 2018, Liu et al.

  7. Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Hall, M D; Pressing, J

    2001-02-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined short-term memory for pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Participants were presented a target sequence consisting of 2 tones (Experiment 1) or 7 tones (Experiments 2 and 3) and then a probe tone. Participants indicated whether the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones in both pitch and duration. Error rates were relatively low if the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones or if it differed from target tones in pitch, duration, or both. Error rates were remarkably high, however, if the probe tone combined the pitch of 1 target tone with the duration of a different target tone. The results suggest that illusory conjunctions of these dimensions frequently occur. A mathematical model is presented that accounts for the relative contribution of pitch errors, duration errors, and illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration.

  8. Effect of reflective practice education on self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking among experienced nurses: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marilyn E; Fain, James A

    2013-01-01

    A mixed-method study was conducted to determine whether nurses' participation in a reflective practice continuing education program using a structured reflection model makes a difference in nurses' self-reflection, insight, and reflective thinking about clinical practice situations. Findings suggested that use of structured reflection using question cues, written narratives, and peer-facilitated reflection increased nurses' engagement in self-reflection and enhanced reflective thinking in practice. Including reflective practice education in novice orientation and preceptor training may be beneficial.

  9. Demystifying the reflective clinical journal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milinkovic, Danielle; Field, Nikki

    2005-01-01

    Student learning on clinical placement is a complex issue and cannot be defined solely by just doing things. Reflection during clinical practice is essential if the student is going to learn from the experience. Therefore it is important for educators to include as part of clinical education programs learning strategies that encourage reflection. The reflective clinical journal is an educational tool that is employed by the School of Medical Radiation Sciences at the University of Sydney to encourage reflection of undergraduate radiation therapy students whilst on clinical placement. This discussion paper explores the key concepts of reflection and the reflective clinical journal. Due to the paucity of information about this issue in radiation therapy the literature reviewed is from across all areas of the health sciences

  10. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  11. Students’ Learning through Reflective Journaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvyda Liuolienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to get acquainted with the types of journals used in education to help students to learn. The paper presents some ways of fostering student’s learning through reflective journaling. It also describes the key aspects of a new method ARRIVE cycle in connection with teachers preparation to use reflective journals in a classroom. The article also presents self-assessment in reflective journaling and students’ need to self-evaluate their learning process. Reflective journaling as central to students’ self-evaluation is described as a means of fostering metacognition.

  12. Atmosphere Resource Recovery & Environmental Monitoring for Long Duration Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Atmosphere Resource Recovery & Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) for Long Duration Exploration Project project is maturing Atmosphere Revitalization...

  13. Observed and Unobserved Heterogeneity in the Duration Dependency Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We present a duration model, which allows for non-homogenous duration dependence with respect to observed and unobserved variables. The model is examined in a simulation study, and it is estimated on unemployment spells of a sample of Danish workers. Udgivelsesdato: MAR......We present a duration model, which allows for non-homogenous duration dependence with respect to observed and unobserved variables. The model is examined in a simulation study, and it is estimated on unemployment spells of a sample of Danish workers. Udgivelsesdato: MAR...

  14. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  15. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK, the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning By Design (LBD environment, which was created to help preservice teachers develop TPACK. This paper investigated the participants’ TPACK development and examined how reflection helped them construct TPACK. Through content analysis of the participants’ reflective journals, the researcher found that the preservice teachers developed initial TPACK awareness. However, their reflection in technology knowledge and the content aspects of TPACK were limited and superficial. Interviews with the participants showed reflection helped the preservice teachers remember what they learned by describing and elaborating on their in-class experiences, pushed them to think about how to apply what they learned in their future classrooms, and helped them become more reflective and open-minded about using technology in classrooms. Finally, the researcher discussed this study’s implications for teacher educators and researchers.

  16. Reflection and Reflective Practice Discourses in Coaching: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushion, Christopher J.

    2018-01-01

    Reflection and reflective practice is seen as an established part of coaching and coach education practice. It has become a "taken-for-granted" part of coaching that is accepted enthusiastically and unquestioningly, and is assumed to be "good" for coaching and coaches. Drawing on sociological concepts, a primarily Foucauldian…

  17. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  18. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  19. Effect of nuclear track on reflectivity for insulating material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cunxiong; Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Hu Lian; Xiao Caijin; Wang Pingsheng; Zhang Guiying; Huang Donghui; Lu Peng; Yang Weitao

    2009-01-01

    Polyester and CR-39 samples were irradiated with sulphur ion from HI-13 tandem accelerator. Ultraviolet light with wavelength 360 nm was used to sensitize the polymer before chemical etching by NaOH solution with different temperatures and time duration. The latent track was then developed into nanometer to micrometer pore with certain depth. Samples were coated with thin layer of silver and magnesium fluoride using the vacuum evaporator. The reflectivity and transmission index were measured for all polymer samples, untreated and treated with above-mentioned procedure, within the wavelength of visible light. Solid state nuclear track and coating can reduce reflectivity of tested polymer materials greatly, and the reflectivity can be 1% or lower. (authors)

  20. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Winkler

    Full Text Available Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures, and (b extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm. Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  1. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Comparison between intensity- duration thresholds and cumulative rainfall thresholds for the forecasting of landslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagomarsino, Daniela; Rosi, Ascanio; Rossi, Guglielmo; Segoni, Samuele; Catani, Filippo

    2014-05-01

    This work makes a quantitative comparison between the results of landslide forecasting obtained using two different rainfall threshold models, one using intensity-duration thresholds and the other based on cumulative rainfall thresholds in an area of northern Tuscany of 116 km2. The first methodology identifies rainfall intensity-duration thresholds by means a software called MaCumBA (Massive CUMulative Brisk Analyzer) that analyzes rain-gauge records, extracts the intensities (I) and durations (D) of the rainstorms associated with the initiation of landslides, plots these values on a diagram, and identifies thresholds that define the lower bounds of the I-D values. A back analysis using data from past events can be used to identify the threshold conditions associated with the least amount of false alarms. The second method (SIGMA) is based on the hypothesis that anomalous or extreme values of rainfall are responsible for landslide triggering: the statistical distribution of the rainfall series is analyzed, and multiples of the standard deviation (σ) are used as thresholds to discriminate between ordinary and extraordinary rainfall events. The name of the model, SIGMA, reflects the central role of the standard deviations in the proposed methodology. The definition of intensity-duration rainfall thresholds requires the combined use of rainfall measurements and an inventory of dated landslides, whereas SIGMA model can be implemented using only rainfall data. These two methodologies were applied in an area of 116 km2 where a database of 1200 landslides was available for the period 2000-2012. The results obtained are compared and discussed. Although several examples of visual comparisons between different intensity-duration rainfall thresholds are reported in the international literature, a quantitative comparison between thresholds obtained in the same area using different techniques and approaches is a relatively undebated research topic.

  3. Ethical Reflections on Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives written in a culminating graduate seminar on reflective practice by 36 new secondary teachers who were asked to consider their moral beliefs, moral values and system of ethics as they reflected on their recent student teaching experiences. The findings explore how the participants depicted their constructed moral…

  4. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  5. Reflection measurements for luminescent powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroon, R. E.

    2018-04-01

    Luminescent materials are useful in applications varying from lighting and display technologies to document security features and medical research, amongst many others. Measurement of the excitation range is an important consideration, and absorption bands are often determined from a decrease in the measured diffuse reflectance of the material using a ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. Such a system may provide questionable results when used to measure the reflectance of a luminescence material, which is demonstrated for a Tb doped silica phosphor, because the system cannot differentiate between the reflected light and luminescence. It is shown that more reliable results are achieved for this phosphor by measuring the reflectance using a synchronous zero-offset scan in a fluorescence spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. This method is therefore recommended instead of traditional reflectance measurements using a UV-vis spectrophotometer for luminescent powders.

  6. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such period...

  7. How Changes in Financial Incentives Affect the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies how changes in the two key parameters of unemployment insurance - the benefit replacement rate (RR) and the potential duration of benefits (PBD) - affect the duration of unemployment.In 1989, the Austrian government made unemployment insurance more generous by changing,

  8. 14 CFR 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 1203.407... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.407 Duration of classification. (a) Information shall be... date or event for declassification shall be set by the original classification authority at the time...

  9. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  10. Surface sterilization and duration of seed storage influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of factorial combinations of four storage duration (in days after seed extraction) and surface sterilization with three dilution levels of sodium hypochlorite on seedling emergence and seedling quality of African breadfruit were studied. Storage duration significantly influenced days to seedling emergence, ...

  11. Economic impact of antidepressant treatment duration in naturalistic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, M; Crott, R; Gaudron, Y; Verdoux, H

    2013-05-01

    To assess the economic impact of the duration of antidepressant drug treatment in a real-life setting. A historical fixed cohort study included 27 917 patients aged 18 and over with a new antidepressant treatment registered in the national insurance database. The economic impact concerned healthcare expenditure in the first 3 months after treatment discontinuation. Generalized linear models were used to compare two groups of treatment duration: adjustment for care costs before and during treatment episode, gender, age, chronic diseases, welfare and prescriber specialty, total healthcare costs (in log) [-0.06 (-0.14;0.01) P = 0.11] and psychiatric care costs (in square root) [-0.08 (-0.41;0.25) P = 0.6] were similar in both groups. Non-psychiatric care costs were significantly lower in the 'long treatment duration' group compared with the 'short treatment duration' group [-11.4 (-15.8; -7.0) P costs over the antidepressant treatment episode were larger in the 'long treatment duration' group compared with the 'short treatment duration' group. With regard to healthcare costs and global health, antidepressant drug treatments of short duration appear less effective than treatment of recommended duration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as is...

  13. Breastfeeding Duration Predicts Greater Maternal Sensitivity over the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2018-01-01

    The current study represents the first longitudinal investigation of the potential effects of breastfeeding duration on maternal sensitivity over the following decade. This study also examined whether infant attachment security at 24 months would mediate longitudinal relations between breastfeeding duration and changes in maternal sensitivity over…

  14. P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B; Kühl, Jørgen T; Pietersen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results on the association between P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to obtain a detailed description of the relationship between P-wave duration and the risk of AF. METHODS: Using computerized analysis o...

  15. Instrumental variable estimation of treatment effects for duration outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we propose and implement an instrumental variable estimation procedure to obtain treatment effects on duration outcomes. The method can handle the typical complications that arise with duration data of time-varying treatment and censoring. The treatment effect we

  16. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, E.; Hoeksma, M.R.; Smeets, M.A.M.; Semin, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental

  17. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension does... drilling is continued with reasonable diligence until the well is completed to production or abandoned...

  18. Breastfeeding duration and associated factors between 1960 and 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Soares de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe a historical series on the median duration of breastfeeding in a population of mothers whose children were born from the 1960s onwards, identifying factors associated with the interruption of breastfeeding in each decade. Methods: Data were analyzed from the Pró-Saúde Study, a longitudinal epidemiological investigation started in 1999 among technical and administrative employees of a university in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Breastfeeding duration was collected in two study phases: Phase 1 (1999, and phase 4 (2011-2012. Of these, those who had at least one child and reported the duration of breastfeeding for the first child were selected (n = 1539. To analyze the duration of breastfeeding, survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the effect of covariates on the duration of breastfeeding was estimated by Cox regression model. Results: It was found that the median duration of breastfeeding was higher in the 1990s and 2000s and lower in the 1970s, compared to the 1960s. In addition, there was an association between higher income and maternal age with breastfeeding interruption, which was focused in the 1970s. Conclusion: There was shorter duration of breastfeeding in the 1970s compared to the 1960s. Increased duration and prevalence of breastfeeding from the 1970s onwards coincided with the national trend and the promotion of this practice since 1980.

  19. Syllable Durations of Preword and Early Word Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Michael P.; Saxman, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The continuity in development of syllable duration patterns was examined in seven young children as they progressed from preword to multiword periods of vocalization development. Results revealed no systematic increase or decrease in the duration of bisyllables produced by the children as a group, whereas lengthening of final syllables was…

  20. Shortened duration of untreated first episode of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; McGlashan, T H; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether duration of untreated psychosis can be shortened in patients with first episodes of DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorders and whether shorted duration alters patient appearance at treatment. METHOD: Two study groups were ascertained in the same Norwegian h...

  1. Grammatical Aspect in uences Event Duration Estimations: Evidence from Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flecken, M.E.P.; Gerwien, J.; Knauff, M.; Pauen, M.; Sebanz, N.; Wachsmuth, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of grammatical aspect marking in Dutch sentences, on speakers’ estimations of the duration of highly familiar, everyday events. We first established the ‘inherent’ or natural duration of different events (Exp. 1). This was then used for the manipulation of aspect

  2. 40 CFR 40.125-1 - Limitations on duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on duration. 40.125-1 Section 40.125-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.125-1 Limitations on duration. (a) [Reserved] (b) No...

  3. Association Between Sleep Duration and Health Outcome in Elderly Taiwanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ting Tsou

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: A U-shaped relationship was observed between the self-reported sleep duration with risk prevalence and health outcome in the elderly population, although not all results showed a significant difference. A progressively higher change was observed during short and long sleep durations in our study.

  4. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph...

  5. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee, or...

  6. 20 CFR 702.402 - Employer's duty to furnish; duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Care and Supervision § 702.402 Employer's duty to furnish; duration. It is the duty of the employer to furnish appropriate medical care (as defined in § 702.401(a)) for the employee's injury, and for such... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's duty to furnish; duration. 702.402...

  7. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions of...

  8. Type III Radio Burst Duration and SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration (>15 min), low-frequency (25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 rein) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event, consistent with the statistical study of Cliver and Ling (2009, ApJ ).

  9. Cardiometabolic factors and disease duration in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Erica; Cereda, Emanuele; Barichella, Michela; Madio, Carmen; Cancello, Raffaella; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Zini, Michela; Cilia, Roberto; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors and the duration of disease. One hundred and fifty patients with PD (56.7% men) were studied, measuring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF%) by impedance, fasting glucose, serum lipids, and transaminases. In sex- and age-adjusted correlation models, duration of PD was inversely related to BMI (r = -0.20; P HDL) levels were positively correlated with disease duration (P HDL-cholesterol ratio was also inversely associated with duration of PD (P HDL levels and total HDL-cholesterol ratio were favorably associated with duration of PD. This factor may contribute to cardiometabolic protection in PD. The mechanisms underlying this association deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary...... of this logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins...... structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.......06, 0.95; P DNA copy number within twin pairs. Thus every 1-minute decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated...

  12. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, E; Stocks, T; Visscher, T L S; HiraSing, R A; Seidell, J C; Renders, C M

    2012-10-01

    Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of sleep duration and to determine with sleep competing activities. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 among 4072 children aged 4-13 years in the city of Zwolle, The Netherlands. In these children, data were available on measured height, weight and waist circumference, and from a parental questionnaire, on socio-demographic characteristics, child's sleep duration, nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Associations were studied in 2011 using logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders. Short sleep duration was associated with overweight for 4-8-year-old boys (odds ratio (OR):3.10; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.15-8.40), 9-13-year-old boys (OR:4.96; 95% CI:1.35-18.16) and 9-13-year-old girls (OR:4.86; 95% CI:1.59-14.88). Among 4-8-year-old girls no statistically significant association was found. Determinants for short sleep duration were viewing television during a meal, permission to have candy without asking, not being active with their caregiver and a late bedtime. For all children, short sleep duration was strongly associated with more television viewing and computer use. Association between sleep duration and overweight is not explained by socio-demographic variables, drinking sugared drinks and eating snacks. Parents have a key role in stimulating optimal sleep duration. Improving parenting skills and knowledge to offer children more structure, and possibly with that, increase sleeping hours, may be promising in prevention of overweight.

  13. Effects of spectral complexity and sound duration on automatic complex-sound pitch processing in humans - a mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, M; Schröger, E; Saher, M; Näätänen, R

    2000-08-18

    The pitch of a spectrally rich sound is known to be more easily perceived than that of a sinusoidal tone. The present study compared the importance of spectral complexity and sound duration in facilitated pitch discrimination. The mismatch negativity (MMN), which reflects automatic neural discrimination, was recorded to a 2. 5% pitch change in pure tones with only one sinusoidal frequency component (500 Hz) and in spectrally rich tones with three (500-1500 Hz) and five (500-2500 Hz) harmonic partials. During the recordings, subjects concentrated on watching a silent movie. In separate blocks, stimuli were of 100 and 250 ms in duration. The MMN amplitude was enhanced with both spectrally rich sounds when compared with pure tones. The prolonged sound duration did not significantly enhance the MMN. This suggests that increased spectral rather than temporal information facilitates pitch processing of spectrally rich sounds.

  14. Calibration of hydrological models using flow-duration curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Westerberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The degree of belief we have in predictions from hydrologic models will normally depend on how well they can reproduce observations. Calibrations with traditional performance measures, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency, are challenged by problems including: (1 uncertain discharge data, (2 variable sensitivity of different performance measures to different flow magnitudes, (3 influence of unknown input/output errors and (4 inability to evaluate model performance when observation time periods for discharge and model input data do not overlap. This paper explores a calibration method using flow-duration curves (FDCs to address these problems. The method focuses on reproducing the observed discharge frequency distribution rather than the exact hydrograph. It consists of applying limits of acceptability for selected evaluation points (EPs on the observed uncertain FDC in the extended GLUE approach. Two ways of selecting the EPs were tested – based on equal intervals of discharge and of volume of water. The method was tested and compared to a calibration using the traditional model efficiency for the daily four-parameter WASMOD model in the Paso La Ceiba catchment in Honduras and for Dynamic TOPMODEL evaluated at an hourly time scale for the Brue catchment in Great Britain. The volume method of selecting EPs gave the best results in both catchments with better calibrated slow flow, recession and evaporation than the other criteria. Observed and simulated time series of uncertain discharges agreed better for this method both in calibration and prediction in both catchments. An advantage with the method is that the rejection criterion is based on an estimation of the uncertainty in discharge data and that the EPs of the FDC can be chosen to reflect the aims of the modelling application, e.g. using more/less EPs at high/low flows. While the method appears less sensitive to epistemic input/output errors than previous use of limits of

  15. Association between sleep duration and blood pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciência, Inês; Barros, Henrique; Araújo, Joana; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-08-01

    In adults, sleep has an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, in young adolescents, the effect is unclear. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sleep duration and blood pressure (BP) in subjects of 13 years of age. We evaluated 1771 adolescents as part of a population-based cohort (Epidemiological Health Investigation of Teenagers). Sleep duration was estimated based on the difference between self-reported usual bedtimes and wake-up times, and adolescents were classified into three categories: 8.5 h (reference class), >8.5 h and sleep duration, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed by fitting binary logistic regression models with adjustments for caffeine intake and depressive symptoms in females and for caffeine intake and sports activities in males. The mean (s.d.) sleep duration was 9.0 (0.80) h per day. The prevalence of high BP was 32.5%, higher in males (35.3%) than in females (30.1%, P=0.019). After adjustment, in females, a positive association was found between sleep duration and high BP (>8.5 and sleep duration and BP. Sleep duration was positively associated with BP in both sexes, although after adjustment for potential confounders, this association was significant only for female adolescents.

  16. Duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to ophthalmothology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rustamova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the comparison of the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to the different groups of eye disease in work. The difference between the duration of coming life of country population and the patient’ age were used as the gauge of life duration associated with disablement at the moment of the primary recognition by an invalid. It was determined that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement changed and shook in the groups from 11,31 to 36,37 years for men and from 17,58 to 42,37 years for women subject to the reason of disablement. It is considered that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement is integral criterion for an estimation of the medico-social burden of disease. It is differed 3 degrees of heaviness of the medico-social burden. The moderate heaviness of the medico-social burden (the middle duration of coming lif associated with disablement less than 20 years is characteristic for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and uveitis and the high degree of heaviness (the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement more than 30 years for disease of eyeball, visual nerve, eye traumas, myopia and anophthalmia.

  17. Duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to ophthalmothology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rustamova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the comparison of the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to the different groups of eye disease in work. The difference between the duration of coming life of country population and the patient’ age were used as the gauge of life duration associated with disablement at the moment of the primary recognition by an invalid. It was determined that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement changed and shook in the groups from 11,31 to 36,37 years for men and from 17,58 to 42,37 years for women subject to the reason of disablement. It is considered that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement is integral criterion for an estimation of the medico-social burden of disease. It is differed 3 degrees of heaviness of the medico-social burden. The moderate heaviness of the medico-social burden (the middle duration of coming lif associated with disablement less than 20 years is characteristic for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and uveitis and the high degree of heaviness (the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement more than 30 years for disease of eyeball, visual nerve, eye traumas, myopia and anophthalmia.

  18. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  19. Partnership duration, concurrency, and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Larry; Isaac, Alan

    2017-07-01

    A widely accepted explanation for the exceptionally high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is the practice of long-term overlapping heterosexual partnering. This article shows that long-duration concurrent partnering can be protective against HIV transmission rather than promoting it. Monogamous partnering prevents sexual transmission to anyone outside the partnership and, in an initially concordant-seronegative partnership, prevents sexual acquisition of HIV by either partner. Those protections against transmission and acquisition last as long as the partnership persists without new outside partnerships. Correspondingly, these two protective effects characterise polygynous partnerships, whether or not the polygyny is formal or informal, until a partner initiates a new partnership. Stable and exclusive unions of any size protect against HIV transmission, and more durable unions provide a longer protective effect. Survey research provides little information on partnership duration in sub-Saharan Africa and sheds no light on the interaction of duration, concurrency, and HIV. This article shows how assumptions about partnership duration in individual-based sexual-network models affect the contours of simulated HIV epidemics. Longer mean partnership duration slows the pace at which simulated epidemics grow. With plausible assumptions about partnership duration and at levels of concurrency found in the region, simulated HIV epidemics grow slowly or not at all. Those results are consistent with the hypothesis that long-duration partnering is protective against HIV and inconsistent with the hypothesis that long-term concurrency drives the HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Association between QRS duration and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shuchita; Cepeda-Valery, Beatriz; Romero-Corral, Abel; Shamsuzzaman, Abu; Somers, Virend K; Pressman, Gregg S

    2012-12-15

    Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prolonged QRS duration are associated with hypertension, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. However, possible links between QRS duration and OSA have not been explored. Cross-sectional study of 221 patients who underwent polysomnography at our center. Demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and ECG were collected to explore a relationship between OSA and QRS duration. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was positively correlated with QRS duration (r = 0.141, p = 0.03). Patients were divided into 3 groups: AHI 30 (55). The mean QRS duration prolonged significantly as OSA worsened (AHI 30, 95 ± 19.9 ms, p = 0.001). QRS ≥ 100 ms was present in 12.7% of patients with severe OSA compared with 0% in the rest of the sample (p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age, race, and cardiovascular risk factors, this association remained significant in women but not in men. QRS duration and OSA were significantly associated. Severity of OSA independently predicted prolonged QRS in women but not men. Nevertheless, prolongation of QRS duration in either sex may potentiate arrhythmic risks associated with OSA.

  1. The temporal-relevance temporal-uncertainty model of prospective duration judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakay, Dan

    2015-12-15

    A model aimed at explaining prospective duration judgments in real life settings (as well as in the laboratory) is presented. The model is based on the assumption that situational meaning is continuously being extracted by humans' perceptual and cognitive information processing systems. Time is one of the important dimensions of situational meaning. Based on the situational meaning, a value for Temporal Relevance is set. Temporal Relevance reflects the importance of temporal aspects for enabling adaptive behavior in a specific moment in time. When Temporal Relevance is above a certain threshold a prospective duration judgment process is evoked automatically. In addition, a search for relevant temporal information is taking place and its outcomes determine the level of Temporal Uncertainty which reflects the degree of knowledge one has regarding temporal aspects of the task to be performed. The levels of Temporal Relevance and Temporal Uncertainty determine the amount of attentional resources allocated for timing by the executive system. The merit of the model is in connecting timing processes with the ongoing general information processing stream. The model rests on findings in various domains which indicate that cognitive-relevance and self-relevance are powerful determinants of resource allocation policy. The feasibility of the model is demonstrated by analyzing various temporal phenomena. Suggestions for further empirical validation of the model are presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measurements of the dependence of damage thresholds on laser wavelength, pulse duration and film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer, F.; Vercimak, C.L.; Carniglia, C.K.; Milam, D.; Hart, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    Results of three experiments are described. The authors used 351-nm and 355-nm pulses with durations of 0.6, 1, 5 and 9 ns to measure thresholds for a variety of antireflectance and high reflectance coatings. The functional form t/sup m/, with t the pulse duration, was used to scale fluence thresholds measured at 0.6 ns to those measured at 9.0 ns. Values of the coefficient m ranged from 0.10 to 0.51. The average value was 0.30. In the second experiment, they measured thresholds at 1064 nm, 527 nm and 355 nm for single-frequency high reflectance ZrO/sub 2//SiO/sub 2/ coatings. Coatings for all three frequencies were deposited simultaneously by use of masks in the coating chamber. Thresholds varied from 2-4 J/cm/sup 2/ at 355 nm to 7-10 J/cm/sup 2/ at 1064 nm. The third experiment measured thresholds at 355 nm for antireflection coatings made with layer thicknesses varying from greater than one wavelength to less than a quarterwavelength. A significant variation of threshold with coating thickness was not observed, but the median thresholds increased slightly as coating thickness increased

  3. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Bamshad, Michael; Noonan, Carolyn; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Watson, Nathaniel F

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins. Academic clinical research center. 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (sleeping twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.06, 0.95; P sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  4. Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality and diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Y Q Tan

    Full Text Available Abnormal durations of sleep have been associated with risk of diabetes. However, it is not clear if sleep duration is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR.In a cross-sectional study, we included 1,231 (Malay, n = 395; Indian, n = 836 adults (mean age 64.4 ± 9.0 years, 50.4% female with diabetes from the second visit of two independent population-based cohort studies (2011-15 in Singapore. Self-reported habitual sleep duration was categorized as short (<6 h, normal (6≤ h <8, and long (≥8 h. Questionnaires were administered to detect risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia, all of which may indicate poor quality of sleep. The associations between sleep-related characteristics with moderate DR and vision-threatening DR (VTDR were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders.Prevalence of moderate DR and VTDR in the study population were 10.5% and 6.3% respectively. The mean duration of sleep was 6.4 ± 1.5 h. Compared to normal sleep duration, both short and long sleep durations were associated with moderate DR with multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 1.73 (1.03-2.89 and 2.17 (1.28-3.66 respectively. Long sleep duration (2.37 [1.16-4.89], high risk of OSA (2.24 [1.09-4.75], and excessive daytime sleepiness (3.27 [1.02-10.30] were separately associated with VTDR.Sleep duration had a U-shaped association with moderate DR; long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness and high risk of OSA were positively associated with VTDR.

  5. The periodicity of sleep duration – an infradian rhythm in spontaneous living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong SN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shi Ngar Wong, Mark Halaki, Chin Moi ChowDiscipline of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The sleep–wake cycle is a process not only dictated by homeostatic and circadian factors but also by social and environmental influences. Thus, the total sleep time partly reflects sleep need, which is integral to the dynamics of sleep loss recovery. This study explored the nature of the observed oscillations in total sleep time in healthy adults under spontaneous living conditions. Actigraph-measured sleep data for 13 healthy young male adults were collected over 14 consecutive days and analyzed for habitual sleep duration. The total sleep time periodicity was modeled using the cosinor method for each individual across the 14 days. The findings confirm the existence of periodicity in habitual sleep duration as there were clear periodic patterns in the majority of the participants. Although exclusive to each individual, the observed oscillations may be a resultant response of homeostatic sleep need, circadian timing, and/or social and environmental influences. These findings instigate further indepth studies into the periodicity of sleep duration in healthy individuals to provide a better understanding of sleep need in short versus long sleepers, in predicting work performance, and reducing sleepiness-related accidents following shift work, and how this periodicity may impact sleep treatment outcome in clinical populations.Keywords: sleep regulation, homeostasis, habitual sleep, spontaneous living, healthy males

  6. [Individual variability in the duration of the second phase of the mixed dentition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, E

    1994-02-01

    With a collection of dental casts from a longitudinal study of 175 orthodontically untreated probands (100 children without and 75 children with premature loss of deciduous molars and/or canines) serving as a base, the duration of the second period of mixed dentition was determined to be in relation to the probands the period of time between the gingival emergence of the first permanent buccal tooth and the full eruption of the set of teeth. The second period of mixed dentition in boys without premature loss of deciduous molars and canines lasts on an average 3.6 +/- 1.1 years and in girls 3.8 +/- 1.0 years. In cases of premature loss of deciduous molars and/or canines, the period of dentition is distinctly longer than under normal development conditions. The outside parameters (boys: Xmin = 0.9 years, Xmax = 6.2 years; girls: Xmin = 2.6 years, Xmax = 8.6 years), reflect a high degree of variability. The duration of the second period of mixed dentition is significantly affected by "the point in time of inception" and by the criteria "morphologically intact support zones" and "premature loss of deciduous molars and/or canines". Even given such data, however, it is not possible to make a sufficiently reliable prediction on an individual basis of the duration of the dentition.

  7. Reflection measurements of microwave absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dirk E.; van der Neut, Cornelis A.

    1988-12-01

    A swept-frequency interferometer is described for making rapid, real-time assessments of localized inhomogeneities in planar microwave absorber panels. An aperture-matched exponential horn is used to reduce residual reflections in the system to about -37 dB. This residual reflection is adequate for making comparative measurements on planar absorber panels whose reflectivities usually fall in the -15 to -25 dB range. Reflectivity measurements on a variety of planar absorber panels show that multilayer Jaumann absorbers have the greatest inhomogeneity, while honeycomb absorbers generally have excellent homogeneity within a sheet and from sheet to sheet. The test setup is also used to measure the center frequencies of resonant absorbers. With directional couplers and aperture-matched exponential horns, the technique can be easily applied in the standard 2 to 40 GHz waveguide bands.

  8. Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), Communalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Prof. Asouzu

    Glossary of Igbo Terms and Phrases ihe ahụ na anya ... other words, it is in mutual dependence that the feeling of intimacy found among kindred ..... Complementary Reflection, Communalism and Theory Formulation in African Philosophy 25.

  9. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  10. Reflective Methodology: The Beginning Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Ronald K.; Siefert, Thomas E.

    1970-01-01

    Offers a variety of specific techniques which will help the beginning teacher to implement reflective methodology and create an inquiry-centered classroom atmosphere, at the same time meeting the many more pressing demands of first-year teaching. (JES)

  11. High-resolution reflection spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducloy, Martial

    1997-01-01

    In this article some recent developments in selective reflection spectroscopy is reviewed and the various ways to extend Doppler free techniques to this spectroscopic field is discussed. Its main feature is to probe atomic gas close to the cell boundaries

  12. Duration Adaptation Occurs Across the Sub- and Supra-Second Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Shuhei; Murai, Yuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    After repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively short duration, a subsequent stimulus of long duration is perceived as being even longer, and after repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively long duration, a subsequent stimulus of short duration is perceived as being even shorter. This phenomenon is called duration adaptation, and has been reported only for sub-second durations. We examined whether duration adaptation also occurs for supra-second durations (Experiment 1) and whether duration adaptation occurs across sub- and supra-second durations (Experiment 2). Duration adaptation occurred not only for sub-second durations, but also for supra-second durations and across sub- and supra-second durations. These results suggest that duration adaptation involves an interval-independent system or two functionally related systems that are associated with both the sub- and supra-second durations.

  13. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. Citation: Watson NF, Horn E, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Vitiello MV, Turkheimer E. Sleep duration and area

  14. Analytic Reflected Lightcurves for Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Hal M.; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2018-04-01

    The disk-integrated reflected brightness of an exoplanet changes as a function of time due to orbital and rotational motion coupled with an inhomogeneous albedo map. We have previously derived analytic reflected lightcurves for spherical harmonic albedo maps in the special case of a synchronously-rotating planet on an edge-on orbit (Cowan, Fuentes & Haggard 2013). In this letter, we present analytic reflected lightcurves for the general case of a planet on an inclined orbit, with arbitrary spin period and non-zero obliquity. We do so for two different albedo basis maps: bright points (δ-maps), and spherical harmonics (Y_l^m-maps). In particular, we use Wigner D-matrices to express an harmonic lightcurve for an arbitrary viewing geometry as a non-linear combination of harmonic lightcurves for the simpler edge-on, synchronously rotating geometry. These solutions will enable future exploration of the degeneracies and information content of reflected lightcurves, as well as fast calculation of lightcurves for mapping exoplanets based on time-resolved photometry. To these ends we make available Exoplanet Analytic Reflected Lightcurves (EARL), a simple open-source code that allows rapid computation of reflected lightcurves.

  15. A Jump Diffusion Model for Volatility and Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    by the market microstructure theory. Traditional measures of volatility do not utilize durations. I adopt a jump diffusion process to model the persistence of intraday volatility and conditional duration, and their interdependence. The jump component is disentangled from the continuous part of the price......, volatility and conditional duration process. I develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference of irregularly spaced multivariate process with jumps. The algorithm provides smoothed estimates of the latent variables such as spot volatility, jump times and jump sizes. I apply this model to IBM data and I find...... meaningful relationship between volatility and conditional duration. Also, jumps play an important role in the total variation, but the jump variation is smaller than traditional measures that use returns sampled at lower frequency....

  16. The influence of population density and duration of breeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of population density and duration of breeding on broiler chickens productivity and profitability. S Mitrovic, V Dermanovi c, M Radivojevi c, Z Raji c, D Živkovi c, D Ostoji c, N Filipovi c ...

  17. Analysis of the Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Veres, P.; Balazs, L. G.; Kelemen, J.; Bagoly, Z.; Tusnady, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of gamma-ray bursts have been identified in the BATSE catalogs characterized by durations shorter and longer than about 2 seconds. There are, however, some indications for the existence of a third type of burst. Swift satellite detectors have different spectral sensitivity than pre-Swift ones for gamma-ray bursts. Therefore it is worth to reanalyze the durations and their distribution and also the classification of GRBs. Using The First BAT Catalog the maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyzed the duration distribution of GRBs. The three log-normal fit is significantly (99.54% probability) better than the two for the duration distribution. Monte-Carlo simulations also confirm this probability (99.2%).

  18. Modeling drivers' passing duration and distance in a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen Farah

    2013-07-01

    The main contribution of this paper is in the empirical models developed for passing duration and distance which highlights the factors that affect drivers' passing behavior and can be used to enhance the passing models in simulation programs.

  19. intensity, duration and frequency of rainstorms in lokoja

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shuaibu et al.

    This study analyzed the Intensity, duration and frequency (IDF) of rainstorms in Lokoja. ... INTRODUCTION. Rainfall worldwide has certain characteristics where it occurs. ..... State University of Science and Technology, Port. Harcourt, Nigeria.

  20. Sleep duration, nap habits, and mortality in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Perach, Rotem

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of nighttime sleep duration on mortality and the effect modification of daytime napping on the relationship between nighttime sleep duration and mortality in older persons. Prospective survey with 20-yr mortality follow-up. The Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study, a multidimensional assessment of a stratified random sample of the older Jewish population in Israel conducted between 1989-1992. There were 1,166 self-respondent, community-dwelling participants age 75-94 yr (mean, 83.40, standard deviation, 5.30). Nighttime sleep duration, napping, functioning (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, Orientation Memory Concentration Test), health, and mortality. Duration of nighttime sleep of more than 9 hr was significantly related to increased mortality in comparison with sleeping 7-9 hr (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31, P habits, and mortality in older persons. SLEEP 2012;35(7):1003-1009.

  1. How climate seasonality modifies drought duration and deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van A.F.; Tijdeman, E.; Wanders, N.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Drought propagation through the terrestrial hydrological cycle is associated with a change in drought characteristics (duration and deficit), moving from precipitation via soil moisture to discharge. Here we investigate climate controls on drought propagation with a modeling experiment in 1271

  2. Labor Market Size and Unemployment Duration: A Theoretical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schaeffer; Tesfa Gebremedhin

    2004-01-01

    When job prospects are uncertain, labor market size matters even when labor and jobs, respectively, are homogenous. The expected unemployment duration and its standard deviation may then differ systematically with labor market size.

  3. influence of drying temperature and storage duration on fissuring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    age duration on the cracking behaviour and head rice yield of a local rice variety - Jasmine 85. ... harvesting, processing and storage. The rice industry ... cm deep which is within the thickness consid- ered as a ..... Tracing fissure information by.

  4. Selection and scheduling of jobs with time-dependent duration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    †Department of Logistics, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, ... station must apply to occupy the test station and sometimes may even choose ... are considered where the job duration and cost are dependent on the time and sequence.

  5. Regional flow duration curves for ungauged sites in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Viola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow duration curves are simple and powerful tools to deal with many hydrological and environmental problems related to water quality assessment, water-use assessment and water allocation. Unfortunately the scarcity of streamflow data enables the use of these instruments only for gauged basins. A regional model is developed here for estimating flow duration curves at ungauged basins in Sicily, Italy. Due to the complex ephemeral behavior of the examined region, this study distinguishes dry periods, when flows are zero, from wet periods using a three parameters power law to describe the frequency distribution of flows. A large dataset of streamflows has been analyzed and the parameters of flow duration curves have been derived for about fifty basins. Regional regression equations have been developed to derive flow duration curves starting from morphological basin characteristics.

  6. Investigation into increasing short-duration rainfall intensities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... This study explores this expectation by using historical short-duration ... weather station 5-min rainfall data were combined to extend the effective ... evidence was found of trends or indications of changes in rainfall intensities.

  7. The Impact of Mission Duration on a Mars Orbital Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale; Earle, Kevin; Cirillo, Bill; Jones, Christopher; Klovstad, Jordan; Grande, Melanie; Stromgren, Chel

    2017-01-01

    Performance alone is insufficient to assess the total impact of changing mission parameters on a space mission concept, architecture, or campaign; the benefit, cost, and risk must also be understood. This paper examines the impact to benefit, cost, and risk of changing the total mission duration of a human Mars orbital mission. The changes in the sizing of the crew habitat, including consumables and spares, was assessed as a function of duration, including trades of different life support strategies; this was used to assess the impact on transportation system requirements. The impact to benefit is minimal, while the impact on cost is dominated by the increases in transportation costs to achieve shorter total durations. The risk is expected to be reduced by decreasing total mission duration; however, large uncertainty exists around the magnitude of that reduction.

  8. Factors associated with sleep duration in Brazilian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Santos, Manoella De Oliveira; Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with short sleep duration on southern Brazilian high school students. Our study was comprised of 1,132 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in public high schools in São José, Brazil. The students answered a questionnaire about working (work and workload), health perception, smoking, school schedule, sleep (duration and daytime sleepiness), and socio-demographics data. The results showed that more than two thirds of adolescent workers had short sleep duration (76.7%), and those with a higher workload (more than 20 hours) had a shorter sleep duration (7.07 hours) compared to non-workers (7.83 hours). In the analysis of factors associated with short sleep duration, adolescents who worked (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.95) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to those who did not work. In addition, older adolescents (17-19 years) and students with poor sleep quality were 40% and 55% more likely to have short sleep duration compared to younger adolescents (14-16 years) and students with good sleep quality, respectively. Adolescents with daytime sleepiness were more likely to have short sleep duration (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07) compared to those without excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition students of the morning shift (OR = 6.02, 95% CI 4.23 to 8.57) and evening shift (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.22) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to adolescents of the afternoon shift. Thereby adolescents who are workers, older, attended morning and evening classes and have excessive daytime sleepiness showed risk factors for short sleep duration. In this sense, it is pointed out the importance of raising awareness of these risk factors for short sleep duration of students from public schools from São José, located in southern Brazil.

  9. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics, and to whom he always remained close - his sister Maja. .... moved to Munich at the beginning of 1882, when Albert was barely two years old. ... This was demonstrated during a further change in the sphere of activity of .... As is well known, in Germany one uses the polite form "Sie" for adults and for people who.

  10. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-04-01

    Apr 1, 2004 ... journal Current Science, Vol 61, 1991, pp.594-600. It is an ... could be explained as mere imperfections in the fossil record. .... would almost seem that exposure to the rigours of the climate had quickened the pace ... would be interesting to know whether this telescoping effect is the outward manifesta-.

  11. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    making computer programs 'human like' by building in learning and ... discussed the problems of control and communication in the living organism and the machine. ... To be effective in warding off disastrous consequences, our understanding.

  12. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    not only in linguistics hut also in allied fields, splitting social scientists into t\\VO groups, Chomskyan and others. ... views on language, IlO\\\\"knoVv'Il as 'Standard Theory', generated a ... For the human mind, learning is a kind of reminiscence.

  13. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    future seemed secure, and there was such complete harmony of character between ... was at once so taken with the idea that he was able to persuade Hermann Einstein to .... A liberal spirit, undogmatic in matters of religion, brought by both.

  14. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Of what lasting benefit has been man's use of science and of the new instruments which his research .... future moves about the laboratory or the field, every time he looks at something worthy of ... Yet the speed of action, the intricacy of .... physician, puzzled by a patient's reactions, strikes the trail established in studying an.

  15. Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Vikkelsø, Signe

    2012-01-01

    The notion of ‘change’ has become pervasive in contemporary organizational discourse. On the one hand, change is represented as an organizational imperative that increasingly appears to trump all other concerns. On the other hand, change is addressed as an abstract, generic entity that can be the...

  16. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Newton that there was a transition to the understanding and explanation of natural .... All of this again is accessible to human understanding, and new laws of nature couched in ..... able limits to communication with other individuals.

  17. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The modem picture of the basic constituents and their interactions is described by the so called ... According to him, however great the ... Finally, it is good to remember the words of Bhabha that only science and technology can solve the.

  18. Bond portfolio's duration and investment term-structure management problem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Daobai

    2006-01-01

    In the considered bond market, there are N zero-coupon bonds transacted continuously, which will mature at equally spaced dates. A duration of bond portfolios under stochastic interest rate model is introduced, which provides a measurement for the interest rate risk. Then we consider an optimal bond investment term-structure management problem using this duration as a performance index, and with the short-term interest rate process satisfying some stochastic differential ...

  19. PSA Duration: Conquering the Prepayment Risk of Mortgage Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Boleslav Gulko

    1996-01-01

    Money managers have little control over the values of their individual holdings, but they have considerable control over the risk exposure of their portfolios. This article introduces new tools for the risk management of mortgage portfolios. We extend the traditional duration analysis to two dimensions, interest rates and mortgage prepayments, and develop independent hedging rules for the interest rate risk and the prepayment risk. In particular, we define the PSA duration as a formal measure...

  20. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Helja; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antii

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE. Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. \\ud \\ud METHODS. Contrast energy thresho...

  1. High-voltage variable-duration pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, T.E.; Akkuratov, E.V.; Gromovenko, V.M.; Nikonov, Yu.P.; Malinin, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A high-voltage generator is described that allows pulse duration tau to be varied within wide limits and has high efficiency (at least 50% for tau = 0.5 tau/sub max/) and an amplitude of up to 5 kV, a repetition frequency of up to 200 Hz,and a variable duration of 0-30 μsec. The generator is used in the controller of an electron accelerator

  2. On nuclear reaction duration at the range of overlapping resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reaction duration above the threshold of overlapping resonances is investigated and its importance to obtain a new information on a collision mechanism is evidenced. It is shown also that the duration of resonant nuclear reactions is asymptotically decreasing according to the law[E 2 n(E)] -1 when the energy E and the number of open channels n(E) are increasing [ru

  3. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons

  4. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood.......Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  5. Geostatistical interpolation of available copper in orchard soil as influenced by planting duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuancheng; Zhang, Haibo; Tu, Chen; Li, Lianzhen; Luo, Yongming

    2018-01-01

    Mapping the spatial distribution of available copper (A-Cu) in orchard soils is important in agriculture and environmental management. However, data on the distribution of A-Cu in orchard soils is usually highly variable and severely skewed due to the continuous input of fungicides. In this study, ordinary kriging combined with planting duration (OK_PD) is proposed as a method for improving the interpolation of soil A-Cu. Four normal distribution transformation methods, namely, the Box-Cox, Johnson, rank order, and normal score methods, were utilized prior to interpolation. A total of 317 soil samples were collected in the orchards of the Northeast Jiaodong Peninsula. Moreover, 1472 orchards were investigated to obtain a map of planting duration using Voronoi tessellations. The soil A-Cu content ranged from 0.09 to 106.05 with a mean of 18.10 mg kg -1 , reflecting the high availability of Cu in the soils. Soil A-Cu concentrations exhibited a moderate spatial dependency and increased significantly with increasing planting duration. All the normal transformation methods successfully decreased the skewness and kurtosis of the soil A-Cu and the associated residuals, and also computed more robust variograms. OK_PD could generate better spatial prediction accuracy than ordinary kriging (OK) for all transformation methods tested, and it also provided a more detailed map of soil A-Cu. Normal score transformation produced satisfactory accuracy and showed an advantage in ameliorating smoothing effect derived from the interpolation methods. Thus, normal score transformation prior to kriging combined with planting duration (NSOK_PD) is recommended for the interpolation of soil A-Cu in this area.

  6. Scaling in the distribution of intertrade durations of Chinese stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2008-10-01

    The distribution of intertrade durations, defined as the waiting times between two consecutive transactions, is investigated based upon the limit order book data of 23 liquid Chinese stocks listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in the whole year 2003. A scaling pattern is observed in the distributions of intertrade durations, where the empirical density functions of the normalized intertrade durations of all 23 stocks collapse onto a single curve. The scaling pattern is also observed in the intertrade duration distributions for filled and partially filled trades and in the conditional distributions. The ensemble distributions for all stocks are modeled by the Weibull and the Tsallis q-exponential distributions. Maximum likelihood estimation shows that the Weibull distribution outperforms the q-exponential for not-too-large intertrade durations which account for more than 98.5% of the data. Alternatively, nonlinear least-squares estimation selects the q-exponential as a better model, in which the optimization is conducted on the distance between empirical and theoretical values of the logarithmic probability densities. The distribution of intertrade durations is Weibull followed by a power-law tail with an asymptotic tail exponent close to 3.

  7. Modeling Spatial Dependence of Rainfall Extremes Across Multiple Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong Dong; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

    2018-03-01

    Determining the probability of a flood event in a catchment given that another flood has occurred in a nearby catchment is useful in the design of infrastructure such as road networks that have multiple river crossings. These conditional flood probabilities can be estimated by calculating conditional probabilities of extreme rainfall and then transforming rainfall to runoff through a hydrologic model. Each catchment's hydrological response times are unlikely to be the same, so in order to estimate these conditional probabilities one must consider the dependence of extreme rainfall both across space and across critical storm durations. To represent these types of dependence, this study proposes a new approach for combining extreme rainfall across different durations within a spatial extreme value model using max-stable process theory. This is achieved in a stepwise manner. The first step defines a set of common parameters for the marginal distributions across multiple durations. The parameters are then spatially interpolated to develop a spatial field. Storm-level dependence is represented through the max-stable process for rainfall extremes across different durations. The dependence model shows a reasonable fit between the observed pairwise extremal coefficients and the theoretical pairwise extremal coefficient function across all durations. The study demonstrates how the approach can be applied to develop conditional maps of the return period and return level across different durations.

  8. Background music as a quasi clock in retrospective duration judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nicole; Areni, Charles S

    2006-04-01

    The segmentation-change model of time perception proposes that individuals engaged in cognitive tasks during a given interval of time retrospectively estimate duration by recalling events that occurred during the interval and inferring each event's duration. Previous research suggests that individuals can recall the number of songs heard during an interval and infer the length of each song, exactly the conditions that foster estimates of duration based on the segmentation-change model. The results of a laboratory experiment indicated that subjects who solved word-search puzzles for 20 min. estimated the duration of the interval to be longer when 8 short songs (background, regardless of whether the musical format was Contemporary Dance or New Age. Assuming each song represented a distinct segment in memory, these results are consistent with the segmentation-change model. These results suggest that background music may not always reduce estimates of duration by drawing attention away from the passage of time. Instead, background music may actually expand the subjective length of an interval by creating accessible traces in memory, which are retrospectively used to infer duration.

  9. Associations between insomnia, sleep duration and poor work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yan; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2820 Chinese manufacturing workers were categorized as insomnia patients and individuals with normal sleeping pattern by interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Sleep duration was classified into four categories: ≥7h, 6-7h, 5-6h, and Work ability was assessed using the Chinese Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Regression analysis examined the independent and joint association of sleep duration and insomnia with poor work ability, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Insomnia and objective short sleep duration were both independently associated with poor work ability. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥7h sleep duration group, the highest risk of poor work ability was in the insomnia patients with work ability. Objective sleep duration should be taken into consideration when assessing the work ability of people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of caffeine on prospective and retrospective duration judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ronald P; Block, Richard A

    2003-07-01

    The effects of caffeine on prospective and retrospective duration judgements were evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment. After taking either 200 mg caffeine or a placebo, participants touched a 17-sided polygon for 15 s. Then they verbally estimated the number of angles and the duration. Participants in the prospective group were told in advance they would be making a duration estimate, whereas those in the retrospective group were not told. Caffeine reduced duration estimates in the prospective condition but not in the retrospective condition. The effect of caffeine on very long duration comparisons (the past year compared with a year at one-half and one-quarter of one's age) was also evaluated, but none was found. The findings do not support the hypothesis that caffeine affects duration experience by increasing the internal clock rate as a result of its dopamine D(2) agonist properties. The hypothesis that caffeine produces its effect by enhancing memory was considered and rejected. The most parsimonious explanation is that caffeine increased arousal level, which led to a narrowing of the focus of attention to the most salient task. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Duration estimates within a modality are integrated sub-optimally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Bo eCai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceived duration can be influenced by various properties of sensory stimuli. For example, visual stimuli of higher temporal frequency are perceived to last longer than those of lower temporal frequency. How does the brain form a representation of duration when each of two simultaneously presented stimuli influences perceived duration in different way? To answer this question, we investigated the perceived duration of a pair of dynamic visual stimuli of different temporal frequencies in comparison to that of a single visual stimulus of either low or high temporal frequency. We found that the duration representation of simultaneously occurring visual stimuli is best described by weighting the estimates of duration based on each individual stimulus. However, the weighting performance deviates from the prediction of statistically optimal integration. In addition, we provided a Bayesian account to explain a difference in the apparent sensitivity of the psychometric curves introduced by the order in which the two stimuli are displayed in a two-alternative forced-choice task.

  12. Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Simon John; Newby, David E; Dawson, Dana; Irving, John; Berry, Colin

    2017-04-01

    Despite a large volume of evidence supporting the use of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there remains major uncertainty regarding the optimal duration of therapy. Clinical trials have varied markedly in the duration of therapy, both across and within trials. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that shorter durations of dual antiplatelet therapy are superior because the avoidance of atherothrombotic events is counterbalanced by the greater risks of excess major bleeding with apparent increases in all-cause mortality with longer durations. These findings did not show significant heterogeneity according to whether patients had stable or unstable coronary heart disease. Moreover, the potential hazards and benefits may differ when applied to the general broad population of patients encountered in everyday clinical practice who have markedly higher bleeding and atherothrombotic event rates. Clinicians lack definitive information regarding the duration of therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome and risk scores do not appear to be sufficiently robust to address these concerns. We believe that there is a pressing need to undertake a broad inclusive safety trial of shorter durations of therapy in real world populations of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The clinical evidence would further inform future research into strategies for personalised medicine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Estimating Drilling Cost and Duration Using Copulas Dependencies Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Kindi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of drilling budget and duration is a high-level challenge for oil and gas industry. This is due to the many uncertain activities in the drilling procedure such as material prices, overhead cost, inflation, oil prices, well type, and depth of drilling. Therefore, it is essential to consider all these uncertain variables and the nature of relationships between them. This eventually leads into the minimization of the level of uncertainty and yet makes a "good" estimation points for budget and duration given the well type. In this paper, the copula probability theory is used in order to model the dependencies between cost/duration and MRI (mechanical risk index. The MRI is a mathematical computation, which relates various drilling factors such as: water depth, measured depth, true vertical depth in addition to mud weight and horizontal displacement. In general, the value of MRI is utilized as an input for the drilling cost and duration estimations. Therefore, modeling the uncertain dependencies between MRI and both cost and duration using copulas is important. The cost and duration estimates for each well were extracted from the copula dependency model where research study simulate over 10,000 scenarios. These new estimates were later compared to the actual data in order to validate the performance of the procedure. Most of the wells show moderate - weak relationship of MRI dependence, which means that the variation in these wells can be related to MRI but to the extent that it is not the primary source.

  14. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petzold, D.E.; Goward, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the mid latitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 μm, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future. (author)

  15. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  16. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  17. Resting-state connectivity of the sustained attention network correlates with disease duration in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Maneshi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, a normal electroencephalogram between generalized spike and wave (GSW discharges is believed to reflect normal brain function. However, some studies indicate that even excluding GSW-related errors, IGE patients perform poorly on sustained attention task, the deficit being worse as a function of disease duration. We hypothesized that at least in a subset of structures which are normally involved in sustained attention, resting-state functional connectivity (FC is different in IGE patients compared to controls and that some of the changes are related to disease duration. METHOD: Seeds were selected based on a sustained attention study in controls. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data was obtained from 14 IGE patients and 14 matched controls. After physiological noise removal, the mean time-series of each seed was used as a regressor in a general linear model to detect regions that showed correlation with the seed. In patients, duration factor was defined based on epilepsy duration. Between-group differences weighted by the duration factor were evaluated with mixed-effects model. Correlation was then evaluated in IGE patients between the FC, averaged over each significant cluster, and the duration factor. RESULTS: Eight of 18 seeds showed significant difference in FC across groups. However, only for seeds in the medial superior frontal and precentral gyri and in the medial prefrontal area, average FC taken over significant clusters showed high correlation with the duration factor. These 3 seeds showed changes in FC respectively with the premotor and superior frontal gyrus, the dorsal premotor, and the supplementary motor area plus precentral gyrus. CONCLUSION: Alterations of FC in IGE patients are not limited to the frontal areas. However, as indicated by specificity analysis, patients with long history of disease show changes in FC mainly within the frontal areas.

  18. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...

  19. Assessing Reflection: Understanding Skill Development through Reflective Learning Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathro, Virginia; O'Kane, Paula; Gilbertson, Deb

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to suggest ways in which business educators can interact successfully with reflective learning journals (RLJs). Specifically, the research was interested in how students used RLJs and how educators assessed these RLJs. Design/methodology/approach: In total, 31 RLJs, submitted as part of an international…

  20. Reflective Drawing as a Tool for Reflection in Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mirian

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the role of drawing as a tool for reflection. It reports on a PhD research project that aims to identify and analyse the value that co-design processes can bring to participants and their communities. The research is associated with Leapfrog, a three-year project funded by the UK Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC).…

  1. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    with both youth and the parental generation with ethnic minority background in Denmark. These reflections include implications and challenges related to researcher’s national, ethnic background and educational, professional position in encounter with   diverse ‘researched persons’ such as youth......This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...

  2. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  3. Reflecting variable opening insulating panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nungesser, W.T.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a reflecting variable opening insulating panel assembly, comprising a static panel assembly of reflecting insulation sheets forming a cavity along one side of the panel and a movable panel opening out by sliding from the cavity of the static panel, and a locking device for holding the movable panel in a position extending from the cavity of the static panel. This can apply to a nuclear reactor of which the base might require maintenance and periodical checking and for which it is desirable to have available certain processes for the partial dismantling of the insulation [fr

  4. Guide on reflectivity data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Soo; Ku, Ja Seung; Seong, Baek Seok; Lee, Chang Hee; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Choi, Byung Hoon

    2004-09-01

    This report contains reduction and fitting process of neutron reflectivity data by REFLRED and REFLFIT in NIST. Because the detail of data reduction like BKG, footprint and data normalization was described, it will be useful to the user who has no experience in this field. Also, reflectivity and BKG of d-PS thin film were measured by HANARO neutron reflectometer. From these, the structure of d-PS thin film was analyzed with REFLRED and REFLFIT. Because the structure of thin film such as thickness, roughness and SLD was attained in the work, the possibility of data analysis with REFLRED and REFLFIT was certified

  5. Magnitude and duration of stretch modulate fibroblast remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Billiar, Kristen L

    2009-05-01

    Mechanical cues modulate fibroblast tractional forces and remodeling of extracellular matrix in healthy tissue, healing wounds, and engineered matrices. The goal of the present study is to establish dose-response relationships between stretch parameters (magnitude and duration per day) and matrix remodeling metrics (compaction, strength, extensibility, collagen content, contraction, and cellularity). Cyclic equibiaxial stretch of 2-16% was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gels for either 6 h or 24 h/day for 8 days. Trends in matrix remodeling metrics as a function of stretch magnitude and duration were analyzed using regression analysis. The compaction and ultimate tensile strength of the tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing stretch magnitude, yet remained unaffected by the duration in which they were cycled (6 h/day versus 24 h/day). Collagen density increased exponentially as a function of both the magnitude and duration of stretch, with samples stretched for the reduced duration per day having the highest levels of collagen accumulation. Cell number and failure tension were also dependent on both the magnitude and duration of stretch, although stretch-induced increases in these metrics were only present in the samples loaded for 6 h/day. Our results indicate that both the magnitude and the duration per day of stretch are critical parameters in modulating fibroblast remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and that these two factors regulate different aspects of this remodeling. These findings move us one step closer to fully characterizing culture conditions for tissue equivalents, developing improved wound healing treatments and understanding tissue responses to changes in mechanical environments during growth, repair, and disease states.

  6. Fragments on teachers' reflective practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in many historical and comparative overviews of the works, in which there is an analytical discussion of the dominant pedagogical theories in the twentieth century, John Dewey (Dewey, 1933 is referred to as the founder and creator of the concept of reflection (reflective thought and knowledge in practice. Reflection as a concept is understood as the forms and the form of problem solving, as well as continuously thinking about the causes of problems in situations in situ, including active and systematically and consistently changing connecting ideas with solutions to the problems and situations that preceded them (Hatton & Smith, 1995. Reflective thinking is the most general level to tackle practical problems, allowing the ''recommended'' doubts and confusion before proposing possible solutions to the problem. Dewey wrote about a reflective action which refers to the use of solutions to the problem and to thinking through the course of the action. in later works of the authors who have dealt with this problem, an unambiguous link can be observed between the so-called ''professional'' action and the reflection on action which, in this cyclical relationship, leads to visible changes (Zeichner & Gore, 1984. Already at first glance, this implies a connection with experiential learning and adult position of observation and reflection in various models of experiential learning, which will be discussed later. it would be useful to compare this method with a cyclic action of routine as an expression of impulse, tradition and authority. Reflective action, as opposed to the routine, is a consistently and carefully thought-out action (practice reflection, which is an ''awakened'' knowledge and belief, and that is an expression of openness, accountability and commitment. We are ready for reflection, says Schon, when the ''knowledge-in-action'' - a kind of knowledge that professionals notice when it is acted spontaneously - occurs suddenly and unintentionally

  7. Rhythm-based heartbeat duration normalization for atrial fibrillation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ammour, Nassim; Alajlan, Naif; Aboalsamh, Hatim

    2016-05-01

    Screening of atrial fibrillation (AF) for high-risk patients including all patients aged 65 years and older is important for prevention of risk of stroke. Different technologies such as modified blood pressure monitor, single lead ECG-based finger-probe, and smart phone using plethysmogram signal have been emerging for this purpose. All these technologies use irregularity of heartbeat duration as a feature for AF detection. We have investigated a normalization method of heartbeat duration for improved AF detection. AF is an arrhythmia in which heartbeat duration generally becomes irregularly irregular. From a window of heartbeat duration, we estimate the possible rhythm of the majority of heartbeats and normalize duration of all heartbeats in the window based on the rhythm so that we can measure the irregularity of heartbeats for both AF and non-AF rhythms in the same scale. Irregularity is measured by the entropy of distribution of the normalized duration. Then we classify a window of heartbeats as AF or non-AF by thresholding the measured irregularity. The effect of this normalization is evaluated by comparing AF detection performances using duration with the normalization, without normalization, and with other existing normalizations. Sensitivity and specificity of AF detection using normalized heartbeat duration were tested on two landmark databases available online and compared with results of other methods (with/without normalization) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC analysis showed that the normalization was able to improve the performance of AF detection and it was consistent for a wide range of sensitivity and specificity for use of different thresholds. Detection accuracy was also computed for equal rates of sensitivity and specificity for different methods. Using normalized heartbeat duration, we obtained 96.38% accuracy which is more than 4% improvement compared to AF detection without normalization. The proposed normalization

  8. Earth-Space Links and Fade-Duration Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, fade-duration statistics have been the subject of several experimental investigations. A good knowledge of the fade-duration distribution is important for the assessment of a satellite communication system's channel dynamics: What is a typical link outage duration? How often do link outages exceeding a given duration occur? Unfortunately there is yet no model that can universally answer the above questions. The available field measurements mainly come from temperate climatic zones and only from a few sites. Furthermore, the available statistics are also limited in the choice of frequency and path elevation angle. Yet, much can be learned from the available information. For example, we now know that the fade-duration distribution is approximately lognormal. Under certain conditions, we can even determine the median and other percentiles of the distribution. This paper reviews the available data obtained by several experimenters in different parts of the world. Areas of emphasis are mobile and fixed satellite links. Fades in mobile links are due to roadside-tree shadowing, whereas fades in fixed links are due to rain attenuation.

  9. Operative Duration and Risk of Surgical Site Infection in Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelis, Kimon; Coy, Shannon; Simmons, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    The association of surgical duration with the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) has not been quantified in neurosurgery. We investigated the association of operative duration in neurosurgical procedures with the incidence of SSI. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures from 2005 to 2012 and were registered in the American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Project registry. To control for confounding, we used multivariable regression models and propensity score conditioning. During the study period there were 94,744 patients who underwent a neurosurgical procedure and met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 4.1% developed a postoperative SSI within 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression showed an association between longer operative duration with higher incidence of SSI (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.20). Compared with procedures of moderate duration (third quintile, 40th-60th percentile), patients undergoing the longest procedures (>80th percentile) had higher odds (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.86-2.31) of developing SSI. The shortest procedures (operative duration was associated with increased incidence of SSI for neurosurgical procedures. These results can be used by neurosurgeons to inform operative management and to stratify patients with regard to SSI risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep Duration and School Readiness of Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Albert Martin; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Sophia Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    To examine the average sleep duration in Chinese preschoolers and to investigate the association between sleep duration and school readiness. This is a cross-sectional study that included 553 Chinese children (mean age = 5.46 years) from 20 preschools in 2 districts of Hong Kong. Average daily sleep duration in the last week was reported by parents and school readiness as measured by the teacher-rated Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). Most Chinese preschoolers had 9-10 hours of sleep per day. Only 11% of preschoolers had the recommended 11-12 hours of sleep per day. This group was associated with more "very ready" CEDI domains. Sleep deprivation (≤7 hours per day) was associated with a lower CEDI total score, lower scores in the emotional maturity and language/cognitive domain, and prosocial behaviors subdomain but a greater score in the hyperactivity/inattention subdomain. Children with a lower family socioeconomic index, lower maternal education level, infrequent parent-child interactions, and who used electronic devices for more than 3 hours per day had shortened sleep durations. Optimal sleep duration was associated with better school readiness in preschool children, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with lower school readiness, more hyperactivity and inattention, and less prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Sandoval, L.; Leveton, L.; Arias, D.

    2011-01-01

    In 1956, on the eve of human space travel Strughold first proposed a simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to optimize the potential of the ISS as a gateway to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Initial search of formal and grey literature augmented by liaison with subject matter experts. Search strategy focused on both the use of term long duration mission and long duration spaceflight, and also broader related current and historical definitions and classification models of spaceflight. The related sea and air travel literature was also subsequently explored with a view to identifying analogous models or classification systems. There are multiple different definitions and classification systems for spaceflight including phase and type of mission, craft and payload and related risk management models. However the frequently used concepts of long duration mission and long duration spaceflight are infrequently operationally defined by authors, and no commonly referenced classical or gold standard definition or model of these terms emerged from the search. The categorization (Cat) system for sailing was found to be of potential analogous utility, with its focus on understanding the need for crew and craft autonomy at various levels of potential adversity and inability to gain outside support or return to a safe location, due to factors of time, distance and location.

  12. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  13. Creative reflection in industrial design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, J.K.; Verbrugge, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation is a reflection of the writer on his career as an industrial designer of Demand-Driven Design for a period of approximately 25 years. This period is exposed with a discussion of five designs. The projects are introduced by developments in the surrounding design landscape, such as

  14. Reflections on Ethics in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Helen R.

    2009-01-01

    Each profession has its own code of ethics. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2008) defines professional ethics as "the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group." The Code of Ethics of the American Library Association (ALA Council 2008) has served librarians for seventy years and reflects the ideals toward which all librarians…

  15. Questioning Intuition through Reflective Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of…

  16. The Hiroshima Experience: Two Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enloe, Walter; Cogan, John

    1985-01-01

    The bombing of Hiroshima changed forever the concept of conflict and warfare in the human family. Two Americans, one having grown up in Hiroshima and the other having spent one year in the city as a Fullbright research scholar, reflect on the Hiroshima experience. (RM)

  17. Five Perspectives on Reflective Journaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Carrie J.; Cook, Deborah; Lasker-Scott, Tennille; Moore, Sylvia; Shelton, Debbie

    2006-01-01

    It has long been posited in the field of adult education and elsewhere that reflection is an integral part of one's teaching practice and as well as a beneficial learning tool for students. It was with this orientation to practice that Dr. Carrie J. Boden started her first year of teaching in the Adult Education Masters Degree Program at the…

  18. Simulating complex noise barrier reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, F.J.M. van der; Lutgendorf, D.; Roo, F. de

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU FP7 QUIESST project, QUIeting the Environment for a Sustainable Surface Transport, a test method is being developed for the reflectivity of noise barriers. The method needs to account for a complex shape of barriers and the use of various types of absorbing materials. The performance

  19. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  20. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  1. Reflections on a Disco Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados

    2016-01-01

    A disco ball is a spherical object covered with small plane mirrors. When light reflects on these mirrors, it is scattered in many directions, producing a novel effect. The mirror globe is usually set to rotate, creating a profusion of moving spots (Fig. 1). In this article, we present a geometrical description of the movement of these spots and…

  2. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice.

  3. Gamma camera with reflectivity mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, K.J.

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a radiographic camera comprising: a scintillator; a plurality of photodectors positioned to face said scintillator; a plurality of masked regions formed upon a face of said scintillator opposite said photdetectors and positioned coaxially with respective ones of said photodetectors for decreasing the amount of internal reflection of optical photons generated within said scintillator. (auth)

  4. Estimating pediatric general anesthesia exposure: Quantifying duration and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Devan Darby; McCann, Mary Ellen; Davidson, Andrew J; Polaner, David M; Whitlock, Elizabeth L; Bateman, Brian T

    2018-05-02

    Understanding the duration of pediatric general anesthesia exposure in contemporary practice is important for identifying groups at risk for long general anesthesia exposures and designing trials examining associations between general anesthesia exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis to estimate pediatric general anesthesia exposure duration during 2010-2015 using the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry. A total of 1 548 021 pediatric general anesthetics were included. Median general anesthesia duration was 57 minutes (IQR: 28-86) with 90th percentile 145 minutes. Children aged 3 hours. High ASA physical status and care at a university hospital were associated with longer exposure times. While the vast majority (94%) of children undergoing general anesthesia are exposed for risk for longer exposures. These findings may help guide the design of future trials aimed at understanding neurodevelopmental impact of prolonged exposure in these high-risk groups. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pump pulse duration dependence of coherent phonon amplitudes in antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misochko, O. V., E-mail: misochko@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Coherent optical phonons of A{sub 1k} and E{sub k} symmetry in antimony have been studied using the femtosecond pump–probe technique. By varying the pump-pulse duration and keeping the probe duration constant, it was shown that the amplitude of coherent phonons of both symmetries exponentially decreases with increasing pulse width. It was found that the amplitude decay rate for the fully symmetric phonons with larger frequency is greater than that of the doubly degenerate phonons, whereas the frequency and lifetime for coherent phonons of both symmetries do not depend on the pump-pulse duration. Based on this data, the possibility of separation between dynamic and kinematic contributions to the generation mechanism of coherent phonons is discussed.

  6. Evaluation of the Planned Outage Durations in EU-APR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Byung Joon; Lee, Keun Sung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    EU-APR has been designed to comply with European Utility Requirements (EUR) and nuclear design requirements of the European countries. And it is modified and improved from its original design of APR1400. The whole duration varies depending on items for additional process. Refueling and regular maintenance outage is comprised of basic processes and Main turbine-generator outage includes dismantling inspection of main generator and high pressure turbine as a critical path in addition to basic processes. In-Service Inspection Outage includes Automatic ultrasonic inspection on the upper side/lower side of a nuclear reactor as a critical path in addition to basic processes. The planned outage durations of EU-APR are optimized according to the above results. And they are complied with EUR Requirement (EUR 2.2.7.2.2 B), respectively. In addition, outage duration can be reduced with improved operating technology and more maintenance friendly environment including betterment of filling, drain and ventilation.

  7. Genetic Associations with Gestational Duration and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, G.; Feenstra, B.; Bacelis, J.

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: We performed a genomewide association study in a discovery set of samples obtained from 43,568 women of European ancestry using gestational duration as a continuous trait and term or preterm (... of 8643 women) to test for replication of genomic loci that had significant genomewide association (Pdiscovery set. RESULTS: In the discovery and replication data sets, four loci (EBF1, EEFSEC, AGTR2, and WNT4) were...... significantly associated with gestational duration. Functional analysis showed that an implicated variant in WNT4 alters the binding of the estrogen receptor. The association between variants in ADCY5 and RAP2C and gestational duration had suggestive significance in the discovery set and significant evidence...

  8. New fat suppression RF pulse with shorter duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kojiro; Ukai, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The fat suppression radio frequency pulse currently employed for MRI, which selectively saturates the frequency of the fat, has the narrow-band frequency characteristics. Therefore, the application duration for the pulse employed tends to be prolonged. In the present study, we designed a new fat suppression radiofrequency (RF) pulse using the Laguerre function in order to shorten the duration for fat suppression RF pulse and conducted an evaluation with the clinical equipment. The length of the RF pulse that we created allowed to reduce the duration by 47.3% compared with that employed for the clinical equipment. In addition, in the MR imaging evaluation, the new pulse was confirmed to have the fat suppression effect equivalent to that employed for the clinical equipment. (author)

  9. Socioeconomic differentials in divorce risk by duration of marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Using register-based data on Finnish first marriages that were intact at the end of 1990 (about 2.1 million marriage-years and followed up for divorce in 1991-1993 (n = 21,204, this research explored the possibility that the effect of spouses' socioeconomic position on divorce risk varies according to duration of marriage. The comparatively high divorce risks for spouses with little formal education and for spouses in manual worker occupations were found to be specific to marriages of relatively short duration. In contrast, such factors as unemployment, wife's high income, and living in a rented dwelling were found to increase divorce risk at all marital durations.

  10. Dual-Priced Modal Transition Systems with Time Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Modal transition systems are a well-established specification formalism for a high-level modelling of component-based software systems. We present a novel extension of the formalism called modal transition systems with durations where time durations are modelled as controllable or uncontrollable...... intervals. We further equip the model with two kinds of quantitative aspects: each action has its own running cost per time unit, and actions may require several hardware components of different costs. We ask the question, given a fixed budget for the hardware components, what is the implementation...... with the cheapest long-run average reward. We give an algorithm for computing such optimal implementations via a reduction to a new extension of mean payoff games with time durations and analyse the complexity of the algorithm....

  11. On measuring charged particle bunch duration in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomize, L.G.; Malykh, N.I.; Khizhnyj, V.I.; Yampol'skij, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The process of measuring short bunches is simulated by means of cavity resonators in which HF fields are excited by both positive and negative ion bunches flying through them. The simulation is aimed to assess optimum operation of a linear accelerator. A set of bunches of chance form and duration is simulated. Then the simulation of the process of restoring the duration and shape of a bunch according to data obtained from a limited number of resonators is realized. The use of 3-4 resonators tuned to 3, 6, 9 and 12-th harmonics of bunch repetition rate is shown to be sufficient for determining bunch duration with an accuracy of several per cent. When data on harmonic phases is available, one can obtain information on beam asymmetry

  12. Evaluation of the Planned Outage Durations in EU-APR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Byung Joon; Lee, Keun Sung

    2016-01-01

    EU-APR has been designed to comply with European Utility Requirements (EUR) and nuclear design requirements of the European countries. And it is modified and improved from its original design of APR1400. The whole duration varies depending on items for additional process. Refueling and regular maintenance outage is comprised of basic processes and Main turbine-generator outage includes dismantling inspection of main generator and high pressure turbine as a critical path in addition to basic processes. In-Service Inspection Outage includes Automatic ultrasonic inspection on the upper side/lower side of a nuclear reactor as a critical path in addition to basic processes. The planned outage durations of EU-APR are optimized according to the above results. And they are complied with EUR Requirement (EUR 2.2.7.2.2 B), respectively. In addition, outage duration can be reduced with improved operating technology and more maintenance friendly environment including betterment of filling, drain and ventilation

  13. Compound muscle action potential duration in critical illness neuromyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Christopher L; Boon, Andrea J; Harper, C Michel; Goodman, Brent P

    2018-03-01

    We sought to determine the specificity of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) durations and amplitudes in a large critical illness neuromyopathy (CINM) cohort relative to controls with other neuromuscular conditions. Fifty-eight patients with CINM who had been seen over a 17-year period were retrospectively studied. Electrodiagnostic findings of the CINM cohort were compared with patients with axonal peripheral neuropathy and myopathy due to other causes. Mean CMAP durations were prolonged, and mean CMAP amplitudes were severely reduced both proximally and distally in all nerves studied in the CINM cohort relative to the control groups. The specificity of prolonged CMAP durations for CINM approached 100% if they were encountered in more than 1 nerve. Prolonged, low-amplitude CMAPs occur more frequently and with greater severity in CINM patients than in neuromuscular controls with myopathy and axonal neuropathy and are highly specific for the diagnosis of CINM. Muscle Nerve 57: 395-400, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Heljä; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antti

    2002-09-01

    Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. Contrast energy thresholds (E(th)) were measured for flicker at 1.25 to 20 Hz in strong, purely temporal (spatially uniform), additive, external noise. The masking power of white external noise, characterized by its spectral density at zero frequency N0, increases with the duration of the noise frame. For short noise frame durations, E(th) increased in direct proportion to N0, keeping the nominal signal-to-noise ratio [SNR = (E(th)/N0)(0.5)] constant at threshold. The masking effect thus increased with the duration of the noise frame and the noise mimicked white noise. When noise frame duration and N0 increased further, the nominal SNR at threshold started to decrease, indicating that noise no longer mimicked white noise. The minimum number of noise frames per flicker cycle needed to mimic white noise decreased with increasing flicker frequency from 8.3 at 1.25 Hz to 1.6 at 20 Hz. The critical high-frequency cutoff of detection-limiting temporal noise in terms of noise frames per signal cycle depends on the temporal frequency of the signal. This is opposite to the situation in the spatial domain and must be taken into consideration when temporal signals are masked with temporal noise.

  15. Human responses to bright light of different durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Santhi, Nayantara; St Hilaire, Melissa; Gronfier, Claude; Bradstreet, Dayna S; Duffy, Jeanne F; Lockley, Steven W; Kronauer, Richard E; Czeisler, Charles A

    2012-07-01

    Light exposure in the early night induces phase delays of the circadian rhythm in melatonin in humans. Previous studies have investigated the effect of timing, intensity, wavelength, history and pattern of light stimuli on the human circadian timing system. We present results from a study of the duration–response relationship to phase-delaying bright light. Thirty-nine young healthy participants (16 female; 22.18±3.62 years) completed a 9-day inpatient study. Following three baseline days, participants underwent an initial circadian phase assessment procedure in dim light (light pulse (∼10,000 lux) of 0.2 h, 1.0 h, 2.5 h or 4.0 h duration during a 4.5 h controlled-posture episode centred in a 16 h wake episode. After another 8 h sleep episode, participants completed a second circadian phase assessment. Phase shifts were calculated from the difference in the clock time of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) between the initial and final phase assessments. Exposure to varying durations of bright light reset the circadian pacemaker in a dose-dependent, non-linear manner. Per minute of exposure, the 0.2 h duration was over 5 times more effective at phase delaying the circadian pacemaker (1.07±0.36 h) as compared with the 4.0 h duration (2.65±0.24 h). Acute melatonin suppression and subjective sleepiness also had a dose-dependent response to light exposure duration. These results provide strong evidence for a non-linear resetting response of the human circadian pacemaker to light duration.

  16. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Restless Sleep, and Sleep Duration in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine whether secondhand smoke (SHS exposure is associated with restless sleep and/or nighttime sleep duration among adolescents. Methods. Data were analyzed from 1,592 adolescents who completed an internet-delivered survey as part of the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey cohort study. Ordinal logistic and linear regression models were used to examine associations between frequency of SHS exposure in the past month and frequency of restless sleep and nighttime sleep duration, respectively. Results. SHS exposure was significantly positively associated with restless sleep and significantly negatively associated with sleep duration. In fully adjusted models, compared with students who reported never being exposed to SHS in the past month, students who reported a low, medium, or high frequency of SHS exposure were 1.53, 1.76, and 2.51 times as likely, respectively, to report more frequent restless sleep (OR=1.53, 95% CI 1.08–2.16; OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.22–2.53; OR=2.51, 95% CI 1.59–3.98. With regard to sleep duration, as frequency of SHS exposure increased by one category, nighttime sleep duration during the week and weekend decreased by 4 minutes (B=-0.06, 95% CI=-0.01–-0.11 and 6 minutes (B=-0.09, 95% CI=-0.03–-0.14, respectively. Conclusions. This study suggests that frequency of SHS exposure has a significant dose-response relationship with restless sleep and sleep duration in adolescents.

  17. Relationships between school start time, sleep duration, and adolescent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L; Berger, Aaron T; Widome, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    The objectives were 2-fold: (1) to examine how high school start times relate to adolescent sleep duration, and (2) to test associations between sleep duration and mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors in teens. This study examines selected questions from survey data collected between 2010 and 2013 high school students. Respondents included more than 9000 students in grades 9 to 12 in 8 high schools in 5 school districts across the United States. The survey instrument is the 97-item Teen Sleep Habits Survey. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Because of clustering within schools and the use of repeated measures, generalized estimating equations were used to account for variance inflation. Greater sleep duration was associated with fewer reports of various mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors (all P values sleep reported, there was a 28% reduction in the adjusted odds of a participant reporting that he or she felt "unhappy, sad, or depressed." Later wake-up times were associated with a reduction in risk for some, but not all factors. Later start times were significantly associated with greater sleep duration. Given that later start times allow for greater sleep duration and that adequate sleep duration is associated with more favorable mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors, it is important that school districts prioritize exploring and implementing policies, such as delayed start times, that may increase the amount of sleep of adolescent students, which is needed for their optimal development. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Drought Duration Biases in Current Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Heewon; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Several droughts in the recent past are characterized by their increased duration and intensity. In particular, substantially prolonged droughts have brought major societal and economic losses in certain regions, yet climate change projections of such droughts in terms of duration is subject to large uncertainties. This study analyzes the biases of drought duration in state-of-the-art global climate model (GCM) simulations from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Drought durations are defined as negative precipitation anomalies and evaluated with three observation-based datasets in the period of 1901-2010. Large spread in biases of GCMs is commonly found in all regions, with particular strong biases in North East Brazil, Africa, Northern Australia, Central America, Central and Northern Europe, Sahel and Asia. Also in most regions, the interquartile range of bias lies below 0, meaning that the GCMs tend to underestimate drought durations. Meanwhile in some regions such as Western South America, the Amazon, Sahel, West and South Africa, and Asia, considerable inconsistency among the three observation-based datasets were found. These results indicate substantial uncertainties and errors in current GCMs for simulating drought durations as well as a large spread in observation-based datasets, both of which are found to be particularly strong in those regions that are often considered to be hot spots of projected future drying. The underlying sources of these uncertainties need to be identified in further study and will be applied to constrain GCM-based drought projections under climate change.

  19. Long-term duration of function of ovarian tissue transplants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus; Silber, Sherman J; Berghold, Stinne Holm

    2012-01-01

    These three case reports describe the long-term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts among patients in a university fertility preservation programme in Europe and in a private practice programme in the USA. One woman underwent sterilizing cancer treatment and had frozen ovarian...... or to alleviate its symptoms. These three case reports describe the long-term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts among patients in a university fertility preservation programme in Europe and in a private practice programme in the USA. One woman underwent sterilizing cancer treatment and had...

  20. Tonic immobility and factors influencing its duration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikal, K

    1991-01-01

    The author developed a method for inducing tonic immobility (paroxysmal inhibition) in rats and mice. By means of a plexiglass plate and plexiglass box the rat is immobilised, rotated at 180 degrees and subjected to constant pressure corresponding to the weight of the plexiglass plate. This way it is possible to prolong substantially tonic immobility in rats without using foregoing time consuming and interfering, so called sensitizing procedures. The duration of TI can be influenced by pharmacologic and nonpharmacological interventions. A longer duration of TI appeared to be typical for rats tending to react in other situations with anxiety, motor inhibition and submission.

  1. Effect of Load Duration on Timber Structures in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Stang, Birgitte Friis Dela; Svensson, Staffan

    2003-01-01

    . The parameters in these models are fitted by the Maximum Likelihood Method using data relevant for Danish structural timber and the statistical uncertainty is quantified. The reliability is evaluated using representative shortand long-term limit states, and the load duration factor kmod is estimated using......Load duration effects are estimated on basis of simulation of realizations of wind, snow and imposed loads in accordance with the load models in the Danish structural codes. Three damage accumulation models are considered, namely Gerhards model, Barret & Foschi's model and Foschi & Yao's model...

  2. Cognitive Assessment in Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Seaton, Kimberly; Sipes, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and use of a tool for assessing spaceflight cognitive ability in astronauts. This tool. the Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) has been used to provide ISS flight surgeons with an objective clinical tool to monitor the astronauts cognitive status during long-duration space flight and allow immediate feedback to the astronaut. Its use is medically required for all long-duration missions and it contains a battery of five cognitive assessment subtests that are scheduled monthly and compared against the individual preflight baseline.

  3. Testing the Conditional Mean Function of Autoregressive Conditional Duration Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    be subject to censoring structures. In an empirical study based on financial transaction data we present an application of the model to estimate conditional asset price change probabilities. Evaluating the forecasting properties of the model, it is shown that the proposed approach is a promising competitor......This paper proposes a dynamic proportional hazard (PH) model with non-specified baseline hazard for the modelling of autoregressive duration processes. A categorization of the durations allows us to reformulate the PH model as an ordered response model based on extreme value distributed errors...

  4. Terrestrial irradiation-sunshine duration clustering and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Zekai; Oeztopal, Ahmet

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between terrestrial irradiance and sunshine duration is not crisp and there are scatters around a general trend, which most often is expressed to occur in the form of a linear expression. This study presents a way of grouping the solar irradiation-sunshine duration data into convenient seasonal subgroups and then makes predictions within each of the groups quantitatively. In the classical Angstroem or other approaches, the seasonal variations are not considered, and therefore, rather global parameter estimations are obtained. However, the seasonal methodology of this paper provides more detailed interpretations in addition to seasonal effects and parameter estimations

  5. Duration of liquid water habitats on early Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckay, C.P.; Davis, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    The duration of ice-covered lakes after the initial freezing of the early Mars is presently estimated via a climate model whose critical parameter is the existence of peak seasonal temperatures above freezing, and in which the variability of insolation is included. Under conditions in which meltwater was supplied by an ice source, it is found that water habitats could have been maintained under relatively thin ice sheets for as many as 700 million years after the onset of below-freezing global temperatures. The duration of such habitats on the early Mars therefore exceeds the upper limit of the time envisioned for the emergence of aquatic life on earth. 45 refs

  6. Shorter duration of breastfeeding at elevated exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    . Duration of breastfeeding was assessed by questionnaire and clinical interview. In adjusted linear regression models, a doubling of maternal serum PFASs was associated with a reduction in duration of both total and exclusive breastfeeding, most pronounced for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) where...... a doubling was associated with a reduction in total breastfeeding of 1.4 (95% CI: 0.6; 2.1) months and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) where a doubling was associated with a reduction in exclusive breastfeeding of 0.5 (0.3; 0.7) months. The associations were evident among both primiparous and multiparous women......, and thus cannot be explained by confounding from previous breastfeeding....

  7. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    ; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which...... reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions......: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive...

  8. Mathematical-model study of servo system with pulse-duration control of micromovements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dement'eva, M.A.; Leonov, A.P.; Popov, V.V.; Skugarevskii, A.I.; Ustinov, E.A.; Chernyavskii, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    A number of digital servo systems with pulse-duration control have been developed at the Institute of High Energy Physics for the instruments of the scanning and measurement system and various experimental setups. They are based on stock transistor bridge stages, whose loads are high-speed servomotors with printed-circuit armature windings. Study of these servo systems by traditional methods, which are based on Laplace transforms, or by mean values with expansion of the current pulse into a Fourier transform yields approximate results and does not reflect the actual processes that take place in a pulse servo system. They attempt to develop a method and extend it to the study of high-speed servo systems in the area of micromovements and quasistationary velocity without position or velocity feedback

  9. Reflection group on 'Expert Culture'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.

    2000-01-01

    As part of SCK-CEN's social sciences and humanities programme, a reflection group on 'Expert Culture' was established. The objectives of the reflection group are: (1) to clarify the role of SCK-CEN experts; (2) to clarify the new role of expertise in the evolving context of risk society; (3) to confront external views and internal SCK-CEN experiences on expert culture; (4) to improve trust building of experts and credibility of SCK-CEN as a nuclear actor in society; (5) to develop a draft for a deontological code; (6) to integrate the approach in training on assertivity and communication; (7) to create an output for a topical day on the subject of expert culture. The programme, achievements and perspectives of the refection group are summarised

  10. AntiReflection Coating D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIKEN, DANIEL J.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical expressions used to optimize AR coatings for single junction solar cells are extended for use in monolithic, series interconnected multi-junction solar cell AR coating design. The result is an analytical expression which relates the solar cell performance (through J(sub sc)) directly to the AR coating design through the device reflectance. It is also illustrated how AR coating design be used to provide an additional degree of freedom for current matching multi-junction devices

  11. The reflection seismology measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, C.

    1987-01-01

    Even though data acquisition and data processing procedures have become more and more complex in recent decades, the end products of a reflection seismic survey have remained simple and illustrative. A seismic section resembles a geological cross-section and can be interpreted without in-depth knowledge provided that the basic principles behind the method are understood. This article attempts to convey some insight into the methodology without claiming to be scientifically exact or complete. (author)

  12. Breastfeeding duration related to practised contraception in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, J.P. van; Lanting, C.I.; Dommelen, P. van; Treffers, P.E.; Buuren, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to gain insight into contraception practised and related to breastfeeding duration. Methods: Mothers with infants up to 6 months received a questionnaire on infant feeding (breast or formula feeding) and contraception (hormonal or non-hormonal methods). Estimates of

  13. Mathematical Model of Lifetime Duration at Insulation of Electrical Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Răduca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper present a mathematical model of lifetime duration at hydro generator stator winding insulation when at hydro generator can be appear the damage regimes. The estimation to make by take of the programming and non-programming revisions, through the introduction and correlation of the new defined notions.

  14. 42 CFR 86.36 - Duration and continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 86.36 Section 86.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GRANTS FOR EDUCATION PROGRAMS IN OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeship...

  15. Association between sleep duration and diabetes mellitus: Isfahan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recent studies revealed an association between sleep disturbance and metabolic disorders, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. An aim of this study was to assess the relation between sleep duration and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: ...

  16. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color attribute and shifted their gaze to the arrow to…

  17. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  18. Discrete time duration models with group-level heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Honoré, Bo; Hu, Loujia

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic discrete choice panel data models have received a great deal of attention. In those models, the dynamics is usually handled by including the lagged outcome as an explanatory variable. In this paper we consider an alternative model in which the dynamics is handled by using the duration...

  19. Sperm storage and duration of fertility in female ostriches ( Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the duration of sperm storage and the fertile period following separation of sexes were investigated by egg break-out and by counting the sperm in the perivitelline membrane (spermOPVL) above the germinal disc (GD) region. Fertilisation ...

  20. A Jump-Diffusion Model with Stochastic Volatility and Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    jumps in two ways: as exogenous sampling intervals, and through the interaction with volatility. We adopt a bivariate Ornstein-Ulenbeck process to model intraday volatility and conditional duration. We develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference on irregularly spaced multivariate processes with jumps...

  1. Thin slice impressions : How advertising evaluation depends on exposure duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Rik; Elsen, M.; Wedel, M.

    The duration of exposures to advertising is often brief. Then, consumers can only obtain “thin slices” of information from the ads, such as which product and brand are being promoted. This research is the first to examine the influence that such thin slices of information have on ad and brand

  2. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  3. Sleep duration differences between children of migrant and native origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.W.W. Labree (L. J. W. (Wim)); H. van de Mheen (Dike); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); G. Koopmans (Gerrit); M.M.E. Foets (Marleen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim: To explore whether primary school children of migrant and native Dutch origins differ regarding their sleep duration per night, a risk for overweight and obesity, and to determine to what degree differences in parenting styles contribute to these differences. Subjects and methods: A

  4. Influence of Intensity and Duration of Yoga on Anxiety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic illness is commonly associated with anxiety and depression. Both anxiety and depression respond to yoga. However, there is no report on the association between the intensity and duration of yoga practice with the benefits seen. Aim: The present study was intended to determine whether the daily ...

  5. Neuroelectromagnetic signatures of the reproduction of supra-second durations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kononowicz, Tadeusz W.; Sander, Tillman; van Rijn, Hedderik

    When participants are asked to reproduce an earlier presented duration, EEG recordings typically show a slow potential that develops over the fronto-central regions of the brain and is assumed to be generated in the supplementary motor area (SMA). This contingent negative variation (CNV) has been

  6. Effects of stimulus duration on gustatory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotvel, Camilla Arndal; Møller, Stine; Kivisaar, Kätlin

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of tastant stimulus duration on the brain response. The brain response was measured by electroencephalography (EEG) which measures neural processes with high temporal resolution and may therefore complement sensory panel assessments...

  7. Firm Size, Ownership, Training Duration and Training Evaluation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, Muhammad Ali; Peretti, Jean Marie; Ali, Arain Ghulam; Bourgain, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role of training duration in relationship between firm characteristics and training evaluation practices. In this paper, the authors also investigated if this mediating effect differs with respect to the size of the firm. Design/methodology/approach: The authors collected data from 260…

  8. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Decline in consistent seasonal snow cover depth, duration and changing snow cover build- up pattern over the WH in recent decades indicate that WH has undergone considerable climate change and winter weather patterns are changing in the WH. 1. Introduction. Mountainous regions around the globe are storehouses.

  9. Statistical Properties of Clear and Dark Duration Lengths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brabec, Marek; Paulescu, M.; Badescu, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 153, 1 September (2017), s. 508-518 ISSN 0038-092X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : sunshine duration * clouds * solar irradiance * statistical lifetime modeling * cox regression * censored data Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 4.018, year: 2016

  10. Context-Dependent Neural Modulations in the Perception of Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that distinct brain networks are recruited in the perception of sub- and supra-second timescales, whereas psychophysical studies have suggested that there are common or continuous mechanisms for perceiving these two durations. The present study aimed to elucidate the neural implementation of such continuity by examining the neural correlates of peri-second timing. We measured neural activity during a duration reproduction task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our results replicate the findings of previous studies in showing that separate neural networks are recruited for sub-versus supra-second time perception: motor systems including the motor cortex and the supplementary motor area for sub-second perception, and the frontal, parietal, and auditory cortical areas for supra-second perception. We further found that the peri-second perception activated both the sub- and supra-second networks, and that the timing system that processed duration perception in previous trials was more involved in subsequent peri-second processing. These results indicate that the sub- and supra-second timing systems overlap at around 1 s, and cooperate to optimally encode duration based on the hysteresis of previous trials.

  11. 34 CFR 686.3 - Duration of student eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of student eligibility. 686.3 Section 686.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH...

  12. 20 CFR 655.158 - Duration of positive recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of positive recruitment. 655.158 Section 655.158 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... recruitment. Except as otherwise noted, the obligation to engage in positive recruitment described in §§ 655...

  13. Labour Migration and Duration of Breastfeeding in Lesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the differences in the duration of breastfeeding between wives of labour migrants and those of non-labour migrants. The data used in the study are obtained from the Lesotho Demographic and Health Survey carried out between September 1991 and April 1992. The survey was a national ...

  14. Different duration of Colchicine for preventing recurrence of Gouty arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karimzadeh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gout is a Common recurrent clinical syndrome characterized by increased serum uric acid and recurrent attacks of acute arthritis. Colchicine is used for Prophylaxis against recurrence of arthritis, but the duration of its administration has mentioned variable. In this study, optimal duration of prophylactic colchicine for prevention of gouty arthritis was assessed. Methods : In a clinical trial 190 patients with gouty arthritis divided randomly to group 1,2and 3 and received colchicine for 3 to 6, 7 to 9 and 10 to 12 months then colchicine discontinued and the patients followed one year for recurrence of arthritis. Result assessed by survival analysis with Kaplan –Meier method. Results: The probability of recurrence of arthritis (in order of duration of colchicine prophylaxis was 54%, 27.5% and 23%, respectively. The difference between group one and others was statistically significant, but between group 2 and 3 was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The most suitable duration of colchicine prophylaxis that accompanied with lower recurrence rate was 7-9 months, which seems more cost -effective than 10-12 months regimen. Key words: Gout, Colchicine, Arthritis, Recurrence

  15. Astronomical duration of polarity Chron C31r (lower Maastrichtian)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husson, Dorothee; Galbrun, Bruno; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph

    2012-01-01

    The duration of polarity Chron C31r is estimated with a cyclostratigraphic approach. Two sites are investigated: ODP Site 762 (Indian Ocean) and the Contessa Highway section (Gubbio, Italy). Cyclostratigraphic analysis is performed on greyscale variations (Site 762) and magnetic susceptibility va...

  16. Correlates of selected indices of physical fitness and duration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Incarceration has been associated with reduced physical activity. However, physical inactivity is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was therefore, to evaluate the incidence and relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration in of ...

  17. Effects of Learned Episodic Event Structure on Prospective Duration Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Myrthe; Gennari, Silvia P.

    2017-01-01

    The field of psychology of time has typically distinguished between prospective timing and retrospective duration estimation: in prospective timing, participants attend to and encode time, whereas in retrospective estimation, estimates are based on the memory of what happened. Prior research on prospective timing has primarily focused on…

  18. The Limited Impact of Exposure Duration on Holistic Word Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changming; Abbasi, Najam Ul Hasan; Song, Shuang; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the impact of stimuli exposure duration on holistic word processing measured by the complete composite paradigm (CPc paradigm). The participants were asked to match the cued target parts of two characters which were presented for either a long (600 ms) or a short duration (170 ms). They were also tested by two popular versions of the CPc paradigm: the "early-fixed" task where the attention cue was visible from the beginning of each trial at a fixed position, and the "delayed-random" task where the cue showed up after the study character at random locations. The holistic word effect, as indexed by the alignment × congruency interaction, was identified in both tasks and was unaffected by the stimuli duration in both tasks. Meanwhile, the "delayed-random" task did not bring about larger holistic word effect than the "early-fixed" task. These results suggest the exposure duration (from around 150 to 600 ms) has a limited impact on the holistic word effect, and have methodological implications for experiment designs in this field.

  19. The key to reducing duration of untreated first psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Auestad, Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    The TIPS early intervention program reduced the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in first-episode schizophrenia from 16 to 5 weeks in a health care sector using a combination of easy access detection teams (DTs) and a massive information campaign (IC) about the signs and symptoms of psychosis...

  20. Effect of feeding duration of Spirulina platensis on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis is a good candidate as an in-feed antibiotics substitute for broilers. However, its use seems impractical owing to its high price, especially when being administered throughout the whole rearing period. This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding duration of S. platensis on growth, haematological ...

  1. 15 CFR 4a.5 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 4a.5 Section 4a.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION..., except as provided in § 1.6(d) of E.O. 12958. Under E.O. 12958, information may be exempted from...

  2. 15 CFR 2008.6 - Duration of original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of original classification. 2008.6 Section 2008.6 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Foreign Trade Agreements OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12065; OFFICE OF THE...

  3. Estimating daily flow duration curves from monthly streamflow data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smakhtin, VU

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes two techniques by which to establish 1-day (1d) flow duration curves at an ungauged site where only a simulated or calculated monthly flow time series is available. Both methods employ the straightforward relationships between...

  4. Duration and speed of speech events: A selection of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbon Dafydd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of speech timing, i.e. the duration and speed or tempo of speech events, has increased in importance over the past twenty years, in particular in connection with increased demands for accuracy, intelligibility and naturalness in speech technology, with applications in language teaching and testing, and with the study of speech timing patterns in language typology. H owever, the methods used in such studies are very diverse, and so far there is no accessible overview of these methods. Since the field is too broad for us to provide an exhaustive account, we have made two choices: first, to provide a framework of paradigmatic (classificatory, syntagmatic (compositional and functional (discourse-oriented dimensions for duration analysis; and second, to provide worked examples of a selection of methods associated primarily with these three dimensions. Some of the methods which are covered are established state-of-the-art approaches (e.g. the paradigmatic Classification and Regression Trees, CART , analysis, others are discussed in a critical light (e.g. so-called ‘rhythm metrics’. A set of syntagmatic approaches applies to the tokenisation and tree parsing of duration hierarchies, based on speech annotations, and a functional approach describes duration distributions with sociolinguistic variables. Several of the methods are supported by a new web-based software tool for analysing annotated speech data, the Time Group Analyser.

  5. Valproic Acid and Sleep Duration in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep duration and behavior were assessed in 46 children (age range 1.7-17.4 years before and after tapering valproic acid (VPA administered for more than 6 months for epilepsy, in a study at University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

  6. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour.

  7. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-millisecond delay electric detonator. ... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be...

  8. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is... control device in the blasting circuit or by interrupting the circuit with an explosive device attached to one or both lead lines and initiated by a 25-millisecond delay electric detonator. ...

  9. Optimum development temperature and duration for nuclear plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagoshi, Chieko.

    1975-01-01

    Sakura 100 μm thick nuclear plates have been employed to determine optimum temperature and duration of the Amidol developer for low energy protons (Ep 0 C were tried for periods of 15--35 min. For Ep 0 C and for development time less than 30 min. (auth.)

  10. Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developing...

  11. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.

  12. 20 CFR 725.219 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 725.219... of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning... month in which any one of the following events first occurs: (1) The child dies; (2) The child marries...

  13. The effects of odour and body posture on perceived duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane eSchreuder

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odour and an upright body posture affect perceived duration.The experimental task was performed while participants were exposed to an odour and either sitting upright (arousing condition or lying down in a relaxing chair (relaxing condition. They were allocated to one of three experimental odour conditions: rosemary (arousing condition, peppermint (relaxing condition and no odour (control condition. The predicted effects of the odours were not borne out by the results. Self-reported arousal and pleasure states were measured before, during (after each body posture condition and post experimentally. Heart rate and skin conductance were measured before and during the experiment. As expected, odour had an effect on perceived duration. When participants were exposed to rosemary odour, they produced significantly shorter time intervals than in the no odour condition. This effect, however, could not be explained by increased arousal. There was no effect of body posture on perceived duration, even though body posture did induce arousal. The results do not support the proposed arousal mechanism of the internal clock model.

  14. Duration Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  15. Duration of gestation in pregnant dogs carrying cloned fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Geon A; Park, Eun Jung; Jo, Young Kwang; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate gestation duration and the physiologic characteristics of pregnant dogs bearing cloned fetuses, especially in the prepartum period. A retrospective study was performed to compare gestation duration in females pregnant with cloned (somatic cell nuclear transfer) fetuses (cloned group) with those bearing noncloned fetuses (control group), and effects of litter size, birth weight, and breed of somatic cell donors on gestation duration in the cloned group were evaluated. Clinical delivery onset signs associated with serum progesterone concentration and rectal temperature were also compared in both groups. The gestation duration calculated from day of ovulation was significantly longer in the cloned (62.8 ± 0.3 days) versus the control group (60.9 ± 0.5 days; P dogs bearing cloned fetuses might be because of the smaller litter size in this group. Also, the weaker drop in serum progesterone levels in the prepartum period in cloned dog pregnancies indicates that the parturition signaling process might be altered resulting in longer gestation periods. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Word Frequency and Transitional Probability on Word Reading Durations of Younger and Older Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, Cornelia; Meyer, Antje; Janse, Esther

    2017-06-01

    High-frequency units are usually processed faster than low-frequency units in language comprehension and language production. Frequency effects have been shown for words as well as word combinations. Word co-occurrence effects can be operationalized in terms of transitional probability (TP). TPs reflect how probable a word is, conditioned by its right or left neighbouring word. This corpus study investigates whether three different age groups-younger children (8-12 years), adolescents (12-18 years) and older (62-95 years) Dutch speakers-show frequency and TP context effects on spoken word durations in reading aloud, and whether age groups differ in the size of these effects. Results show consistent effects of TP on word durations for all age groups. Thus, TP seems to influence the processing of words in context, beyond the well-established effect of word frequency, across the entire age range. However, the study also indicates that age groups differ in the size of TP effects, with older adults having smaller TP effects than adolescent readers. Our results show that probabilistic reduction effects in reading aloud may at least partly stem from contextual facilitation that leads to faster reading times in skilled readers, as well as in young language learners.

  17. Relationship between coronal holes and high speed streams at L1: arrival times, durations, and intensities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, B.; Bu, X.; Liu, S.; Gong, J.

    2017-12-01

    Coronal holes are sources of high-speed steams (HSS) of solar wind. When coronal holes appear at mid/low latitudes on the Sun, consequential HSSs may impact Earth and cause recurrent geospace environment disturbances, such as geomagnetic storms, relativistic electron enhancements at the geosynchronous orbit, and thermosphere density enhancements. Thus, it is of interests for space weather forecasters to predict when (arrival times), how long (time durations), and how severe (intensities) HSSs may impact Earth when they notice coronal holes on the sun and are anticipating their geoeffectiveness. In this study, relationship between coronal holes and high speed streams will be statistically investigated. Several coronal hole parameters, including passage times of solar central meridian, coronal hole longitudinal widths, intensities reflected by mean brightness, are derived using Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) images for years 2011 to 2016. These parameters will be correlated with in-situ solar wind measurements measured at the L1 point by the ACE spacecraft, which can give some results that are useful for space weather forecaster in predicting the arrival times, durations, and intensities of coronal hole high-speed streams in about 3 days advance.

  18. Reflective array modeling for reflective and directional SAW transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, D P

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a new approximate method for analyzing reflective SAW transducers, with much of the convenience of the coupled-mode (COM) method but with better accuracy. Transduction accuracy is obtained by incorporating the accurate electrostatic solution, giving for example correct harmonics, and allowance for electrode width variation, in a simple manner. Results are shown for a single-electrode transducer, Natural SPUDT and DART SPUDT, each using theoretically derived parameters. In contrast to the COM, the RAM can give accurate results for short or withdrawal-weighted transducers and for wide analysis bandwidth.

  19. Can we predict the duration of an interglacial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Tzedakis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the duration of interglacials have long been apparent in palaeoclimate records of the Late and Middle Pleistocene. However, a systematic evaluation of such differences has been hampered by the lack of a metric that can be applied consistently through time and by difficulties in separating the local from the global component in various proxies. This, in turn, means that a theoretical framework with predictive power for interglacial duration has remained elusive. Here we propose that the interval between the terminal oscillation of the bipolar seesaw and three thousand years (kyr before its first major reactivation provides an estimate that approximates the length of the sea-level highstand, a measure of interglacial duration. We apply this concept to interglacials of the last 800 kyr by using a recently-constructed record of interhemispheric variability. The onset of interglacials occurs within 2 kyr of the boreal summer insolation maximum/precession minimum and is consistent with the canonical view of Milankovitch forcing pacing the broad timing of interglacials. Glacial inception always takes place when obliquity is decreasing and never after the obliquity minimum. The phasing of precession and obliquity appears to influence the persistence of interglacial conditions over one or two insolation peaks, leading to shorter (~ 13 kyr and longer (~ 28 kyr interglacials. Glacial inception occurs approximately 10 kyr after peak interglacial conditions in temperature and CO2, representing a characteristic timescale of interglacial decline. Second-order differences in duration may be a function of stochasticity in the climate system, or small variations in background climate state and the magnitude of feedbacks and mechanisms contributing to glacial inception, and as such, difficult to predict. On the other hand, the broad duration of an interglacial may be determined by the phasing of astronomical parameters and the history of

  20. Urbanization effect on trends in sunshine duration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate on whether the observed decadal variations in surface solar radiation, known as dimming and brightening periods, are a large-scale or solely local phenomenon. We investigated this issue using long-term sunshine duration records from China, which experienced a rapid increase in urbanization during the past decades. Over the period 1960–2013, 172 pairs of urban and nearby rural stations were analyzed. Urban and rural sunshine duration trends show similar spatial patterns during a dimming phase (1960–1989 and a subsequent period during which trends were leveling off (1990–2013. This indicates that rather than local effects, the trends in sunshine duration are on more of a national or regional scale in China. Nevertheless, in the dimming phase, the declining rate of sunshine duration in rural areas is around two-thirds of that in urban areas. The ratio of rural to urban dimming generally increases from a minimum of 0.39 to a maximum of 0.87 with increasing indices of urbanization calculated based on the year 2013. It reaches a maximum when the urbanization level exceeds 50 %, the urban population exceeds 20 million, or the population density becomes higher than 250 person km−2. After the transition into the leveling-off period, sunshine duration trends are no longer significantly affected by urbanization. Meanwhile, the number of laws and regulations related to air pollution and investment in pollution treatment have been increasing in China.

  1. Regional estimation of rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves using generalized least squares regression of partial duration series statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2002-01-01

    A general framework for regional analysis and modeling of extreme rainfall characteristics is presented. The model is based on the partial duration series (PDS) method that includes in the analysis all events above a threshold level. In the PDS model the average annual number of exceedances...

  2. Effects of Internal Clock and Memory Disorders on Duration Reproductions and Duration Productions in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perbal, S.; Deweer, B.; Pillon, B.; Vidailhet, M.; Dubois, B.; Pouthas, V.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit deficits in perceptual and motor timing as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes that are related to dysfunction of dopaminergic systems in the basal ganglia. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationships existing between impaired duration judgments and defective…

  3. An investigation of the spatial selectivity of the duration after-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarseveen, Jim; Hogendoorn, Hinze; Verstraten, Frans A J; Paffen, Chris L E

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to the duration of a visual stimulus causes the perceived duration of a subsequently presented stimulus with a slightly different duration to be skewed away from the adapted duration. This pattern of repulsion following adaptation is similar to that observed for other visual properties, such as orientation, and is considered evidence for the involvement of duration-selective mechanisms in duration encoding. Here, we investigated whether the encoding of duration - by duration-selective mechanisms - occurs early on in the visual processing hierarchy. To this end, we investigated the spatial specificity of the duration after-effect in two experiments. We measured the duration after-effect at adapter-test distances ranging between 0 and 15° of visual angle and for within- and between-hemifield presentations. We replicated the duration after-effect: the test stimulus was perceived to have a longer duration following adaptation to a shorter duration, and a shorter duration following adaptation to a longer duration. Importantly, this duration after-effect occurred at all measured distances, with no evidence for a decrease in the magnitude of the after-effect at larger distances or across hemifields. This shows that adaptation to duration does not result from adaptation occurring early on in the visual processing hierarchy. Instead, it seems likely that duration information is a high-level stimulus property that is encoded later on in the visual processing hierarchy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reflections on researching rape resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2014-03-01

    This article provides a retrospective account of my experience embarking on research about women's resistance to rape, including reflections on personal and professional experiences related to studying this topic. I discuss factors inspiring my interest, including pioneering feminist rape researchers, my experience as a woman living with the reality and fear of rape, and influential mentors who facilitated my career development as a scholar in graduate school and beyond. I weave this narrative together with my thoughts about how the study of resistance relates to other important issues in the field of sexual assault including alcohol, recovery, and prevention.

  5. Hospital management. The reflective practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, I

    Ian Campbell's paper, originally delivered at a conference on the development of 'The reflective practitioner' while he was Unit General Manager of Sunderland Royal Infirmary, describes the liaison between general and nurse managers in the hospital. Management must give a hospital organisation direction and must set the parameters of corporate and individual performance, but it must also be responsive to the feedback received from practising clinicians. The key concept is quality of service, and in this managers and practitioners can work together towards a common goal.

  6. Reflections on a digital upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadjalli, M.

    2013-07-01

    Upon receiving US NRC's approval in 2010, the first RPS/ESPS digital upgrade using TELEPERM® XS technology was successfully installed in Spring of 2011 at the first Unit of a three-unit station, followed by the 2nd Unit installation in spring of 2012. Both Units' systems have been operating flawlessly since installation. After about two years of operation, a reflection on digital upgrades and lessons learned, from a vendor perspective, provides valuable insight for the commercial nuclear power industry.

  7. Positronium reflection and positronium beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, M.; Tang, S.; Khatri, R.; Roellig, L.O.; Viescas, A.J.; Berko, S.; Canter, K.F.; Lynn, K.G.; Mills, A.P. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We have observed specular reflection of positronium, Ps, and established that there is adequate intensity at higher energies to make further study worthwhile. The scattering appears to be restricted to the outermost surface with a mean free path of (0.75 ± 0.15)Angstrom for Ps in LiF(100). With a greater intensity Ps beam one should see higher order diffraction beams as the result of the periodicity of the surface. Ps diffraction thus offers the possibility of being a novel and valuable probe to study the outermost surface and to study adsorbents on it. Two methods for producing Ps beams are described. 29 refs., 11 figs

  8. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  9. Reflections on Design Methodology Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    We shall reflect on the results of Design Methodology research and their impact on design practice. In the past 50 years the number of researchers in the field has expanded enormously – as has the number of publications. During the same period design practice and its products have changed...... and produced are also now far more complex and distributed, putting designers under ever increasing pressure. We shall address the question: Are the results of Design Methodology research appropriate and are they delivering the expected results in design practice? In our attempt to answer this question we...

  10. Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.

  11. Examining Hurricane Track Length and Stage Duration Since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandrich, K. M.; Pennington, D.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, tropical systems impact thousands of people worldwide. Current research shows a correlation between the intensity and frequency of hurricanes and the changing climate. However, little is known about other prominent hurricane features. This includes information about hurricane track length (the total distance traveled from tropical depression through a hurricane's final category assignment) and how this distance may have changed with time. Also unknown is the typical duration of a hurricane stage, such as tropical storm to category one, and if the time spent in each stage has changed in recent decades. This research aims to examine changes in hurricane stage duration and track lengths for the 319 storms in NOAA's National Ocean Service Hurricane Reanalysis dataset that reached Category 2 - 5 from 1980 - 2015. Based on evident ocean warming, it is hypothesized that a general increase in track length with time will be detected, thus modern hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than past hurricanes. It is also expected that stage durations are decreasing with time so that hurricanes mature faster than in past decades. For each storm, coordinates are acquired at 4-times daily intervals throughout its duration and track lengths are computed for each 6-hour period. Total track lengths are then computed and storms are analyzed graphically and statistically by category for temporal track length changes. The stage durations of each storm are calculated as the time difference between two consecutive stages. Results indicate that average track lengths for Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes are increasing through time. These findings show that these hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than earlier Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes. In contrast, average track lengths for Cat 4 and 5 hurricanes are decreasing through time, showing less distance traveled than earlier decades. Stage durations for all Cat 2, 4 and 5 storms decrease through the decades but Cat 3 storms show a

  12. Duration and extent of dysphagia following pediatric airway reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Claire Kane; Linck, Jessica; Willging, Jay Paul

    2009-04-01

    Patients who undergo open airway reconstruction procedures are likely to experience some degree of post-operative dysphagia. This retrospective review describes the duration of post-operative dysphagia and the use of compensatory strategies in a group of 30 pediatric patients. A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients referred for post-operative swallowing assessment following airway reconstruction during a six-month period was completed. Age, sex, surgical procedure, stent type, co-morbid factors, duration of dysphagia, and use of compensatory dietary modifications and swallowing strategies was summarized and compared. Dysphagia was generally of short duration (1-5 days) in patients undergoing single stage procedures with anterior or anterior/posterior grafts. Duration of swallowing difficulty was increased in patients undergoing posterior grafts in combination with T tubes (10-14 days). The longest duration of difficulty (>2 weeks) occurred in patients who had anterior and posterior grafting with T tubes, combined with additional procedures such as vocal fold lateralization, epiglottic petiole repositioning, and/or arytenoidectomy. There was a greater likelihood of oral feeding difficulty post-operatively in patients presenting with pre-operative feeding issues such as oral aversion or specific texture refusal, and the pre-morbid need for supplemental tube feeding to supplement oral intake. Compensatory swallowing strategies were effective in decreasing aspiration associated with swallowing in oral feeders post-operatively, and in facilitating return to baseline swallowing skills. The duration of dysphagia overall was increased in patients undergoing anterior/posterior grafts in conjunction with in-dwelling T tubes, especially when combined with additional procedures. Compensatory strategies to assist with swallowing were found to be effective in the post-operative phase and included the use of a modified supraglottic swallowing sequence to assist with

  13. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a good understanding of duration gap model used for managing interest rate risk. The article starts with a overview of interest rate risk and explain how this type of risk should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a

  14. Self-reflection of extremely short light pulses in nonlinear optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasov, Alexander E.; Kozlov, Sergei A.

    2004-07-01

    An equation describing the generation of reflected radiation during the propagation of high-intensity extremely short pulses in a nonlinear optical waveguide is derived. The phenomena taking place during the strong self-inducted changes of the temporal structure of the forward wave are studied. It is shown that the duration of the backward pulse is much greater than the duration of the forward pulse and that the main part of the energy of the backward wave is carried by lower frequencies than the central frequency of the forward wave.

  15. Sleep Quality, Sleep Duration, and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study With 60,586 Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Liu, Xudong; Deng, Han-Bing; Chan, Ta-Chien; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Feng; Vermeulen, Roel; Tam, Tony; Wong, Martin C S; Tse, L A; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    2018-01-15

    There is limited information on the relationship between risk of cardiovascular disease and the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration, especially from large, prospective, cohort studies. This study is to prospectively investigate the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration on the development of coronary heart disease. This study examined 60,586 adults aged 40 years or older. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on sleep quality and sleep duration as well as a wide range of potential confounders. Events of coronary heart disease were self-reported in subsequent medical examinations. Two types of Sleep Score (multiplicative and additive) were constructed to reflect the participants' sleep profiles, considering both sleep quality and sleep duration. The Cox regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 2,740 participants (4.5%) reported new events of coronary heart disease at follow-up. For sleep duration, participants in the group of 8 h/d) did not reach statistical significance (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.98-1.26). For sleep quality, both dreamy sleep (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.10-1.32) and difficult to fall asleep/use of sleeping pills or drugs (HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.25-1.56) were associated with an increased risk of the disease. Participants in the lowest quartile of multiplicative Sleep Score (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.16-1.47) and of additive sleep score (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.16-1.47) were associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease compared with those in the highest quartile. Both short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. The association for long sleep duration does not reach statistical significance. Lower Sleep Score (poorer sleep profile) increases the risk of coronary heart disease, suggesting the importance of considering sleep duration and sleep quality together when developing strategies to

  16. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  17. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  18. The seismic reflection inverse problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symes, W W

    2009-01-01

    The seismic reflection method seeks to extract maps of the Earth's sedimentary crust from transient near-surface recording of echoes, stimulated by explosions or other controlled sound sources positioned near the surface. Reasonably accurate models of seismic energy propagation take the form of hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations, in which the coefficients represent the spatial distribution of various mechanical characteristics of rock (density, stiffness, etc). Thus the fundamental problem of reflection seismology is an inverse problem in partial differential equations: to find the coefficients (or at least some of their properties) of a linear hyperbolic system, given the values of a family of solutions in some part of their domains. The exploration geophysics community has developed various methods for estimating the Earth's structure from seismic data and is also well aware of the inverse point of view. This article reviews mathematical developments in this subject over the last 25 years, to show how the mathematics has both illuminated innovations of practitioners and led to new directions in practice. Two themes naturally emerge: the importance of single scattering dominance and compensation for spectral incompleteness by spatial redundancy. (topical review)

  19. Habitability and Performance Issues for Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McQuilkin, Meredith L.; Woolford, Barbara J.

    1997-01-01

    Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Although the Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload and to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements as well as propose an implementation plan to address the habitability, performance and workload issues.

  20. Combined approach to reduced duration integrated leakage rate testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanti, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Even though primary reactor containment allowable leakage rates are expressed in weight percent per day of contained air, engineers have been attempting to define acceptable methods to test in < 24 h as long as these tests have been performed. The reasons to reduce testing duration are obvious, because time not generating electricity is time not generating revenue for the utilities. The latest proposed revision to 10CFR50 Appendix J, concerning integrated leakage rate testing (ILRTs), was supplemented with a draft regulatory guide proposing yet another method. This paper proposes a method that includes elements of currently accepted concepts for short duration testing with a standard statistical check for criteria acceptance. Following presentation of the method, several cases are presented showing the results of these combined criteria

  1. Earth orientation determinations by short duration VLBI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, Axel; Zhihan, Qian; Nicolson, George D.; Tomasi, Paolo

    1994-03-01

    In May 1989 and April 1990 the radio telescopes of the Wettzell Geodetic Fundamental Station in Germany and of the Shanghai Observatory near Seshan in China observed two series of daily VLBI experiments of short duration for precise determination of UT1. In 1990 a few experiments were complemented by the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory in South Africa and the Medicina telescope of the Bologna Istituto di Radioastronomia in Italy. Employing the South African station together with the east-west baseline formed by the observatories of Seshan and Medicina permitted simultaneous determinations of UT1 and polar motion. Here we report on the results of these observations. Comparing the UT1 results with those of the IRIS Intensive series gives a clear indication of the absolute accuracy of such short duration VLBI measurements which is estimated to be of the order of ±60 µs.

  2. Probabilistic representation of duration of load effects in timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    Reliability analysis of structures for the purpose of code calibration or reliability verification of specific structures requires that the relevant failure modes are represented and analyzed. For structural timber, sustaining a life load, two failure cases for each failure mode have......-based design of timber structures in terms of a modification factor View the MathML source which is multiplied on the short-term resistance of the timber material. The scenario of a beam subject to office space life loads is analyzed and the modification factor View the MathML source is calibrated by using...... to be considered. These two cases are maximum load level exceeding load-carrying capacity and damage accumulation (caused by the load and its duration) leading to failure. The effect of both load intensity and load duration on the capacity of timber has been an area of large interest over the last decades...

  3. Duration of Thyroid Dysfunction Correlates with All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laulund, Anne Sofie; Nybo, Mads; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The association between thyroid dysfunction and mortality is controversial. Moreover, the impact of duration of thyroid dysfunction is unclarified. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between biochemically assessed thyroid function as well as dysfunction duration...... and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used as comorbidity score. RESULTS: Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality with decreased (elevated (>4.0 mIU/L) levels of TSH were 2.22; 2.14-2.30; P..., gender, CCI and diagnostic setting attenuated the risk estimates (HR 1.23; 95% CI: 1.19-1.28; Pelevated values of TSH, respectively. Mortality risk increased by a factor 1...

  4. The duration of reionization constrains the ionizing sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahavir; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos

    2018-03-01

    We investigate how the nature of the galaxies that reionized the Universe affects the duration of reionization. We contrast two sets of models: one in which galaxies on the faint side of the luminosity function dominate the ionizing emissivity, and a second in which the galaxies on the bright side of the luminosity function dominate. The faint-end of the luminosity function evolves slowly, therefore the transition from mostly neutral to mostly ionized state takes a much longer time in the first set of models compared to the second. Existing observational constraints on the duration of this transition are relatively weak, but taken at face value prefer the model in which galaxies on the bright side play a major role. Measurements of the kinetic Sunyaev Zeldovich effect in the cosmic microwave background from the epoch of reionization also point in the same direction.

  5. Determining prescription durations based on the parametric waiting time distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Henrik; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    two-component mixture model for the waiting time distribution (WTD). The distribution component for prevalent users estimates the forward recurrence density (FRD), which is related to the distribution of time between subsequent prescription redemptions, the inter-arrival density (IAD), for users...... in continued treatment. We exploited this to estimate percentiles of the IAD by inversion of the estimated FRD and defined the duration of a prescription as the time within which 80% of current users will have presented themselves again. Statistical properties were examined in simulation studies......-Normal). When the IAD consisted of a mixture of two Log-Normal distributions, but was analyzed with a single Log-Normal distribution, relative bias did not exceed 9%. Using a Log-Normal FRD, we estimated prescription durations of 117, 91, 137, and 118 days for NSAIDs, warfarin, bendroflumethiazide...

  6. [Duration of breast feeding after mandatory early discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, O

    1993-08-23

    A trial arrangement for mandatory early discharge for all normal multiparae was started in 1990 and the duration of breastfeeding was investigated by a questionnaire. 89 mothers who stayed at the hospital were compared to 113 mothers who were discharged within 24 hours after delivery. The latter group was also compared to 122 early discharged mothers who delivered 14-17 months after the trial arrangement had started. The three groups were comparable in all aspects. After four weeks a large proportion of the later discharged mothers were still breastfeeding compared to the other two groups (p < 0.001). This difference disappeared later, hence when comparing the total duration of breastfeeding no differences were found between the three groups.

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE DURATION OF UNEMPLOYMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROMANESCU GEORGE OCTAVIAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of industrialization and expansion of wage labor is the difference between work and employment. The rigidity of the labor supply and its persistent surplus is explained by the very high compensation or unemployment benefits, through trade union action or error preset number of employees, which leads to greater gap between supply and demand for labor. Adjustment policies of employment in the future will be increasingly less state policy, of general application, and increasingly more political will and enterprise branch, the subject of an active social dialogue between employers and trade unions, dialogue resulted in agreements of limited duration and subject to revision depending on the economic and social situation. The duration of work and organizational modalities they will depend on this social dialogue.

  8. The duration of reionization constrains the ionizing sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mahavir; Theuns, Tom; Frenk, Carlos

    2018-06-01

    We investigate how the nature of the galaxies that reionized the Universe affects the duration of reionization. We contrast two sets of models: one in which galaxies on the faint side of the luminosity function dominate the ionizing emissivity, and a second in which the galaxies on the bright side of the luminosity function dominate. The faint end of the luminosity function evolves slowly, therefore the transition from mostly neutral to mostly ionized state takes a much longer time in the first set of models compared to the second. Existing observational constraints on the duration of this transition are relatively weak, but taken at face value prefer the model in which galaxies on the bright side play a major role. Measurements of the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect in the cosmic microwave background from the epoch of reionization also point in the same direction.

  9. Long duration performance of high temperature irradiation resistant thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.; Knudson, D.; Condie, K.; Cole, J.; Wilkins, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding, and structural materials. Data are needed to characterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, radiation conditions. However, traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1100 C degrees. To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed and evaluated the performance of a high temperature irradiation-resistant thermocouple that contains alloys of molybdenum and niobium. To verify the performance of INL's recommended thermocouple design, a series of high temperature (from 1200 to 1800 C) long duration (up to six months) tests has been initiated. This paper summarizes results from the tests that have been completed. Data are presented from 4000 hour tests conducted at 1200 and 1400 C that demonstrate the stability of this thermocouple (less than 2% drift). In addition, post test metallographic examinations are discussed which confirm the compatibility of thermocouple materials throughout these long duration, high temperature tests. (authors)

  10. Sleep Duration, Mortality, and Heredity-A Prospective Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Narusyte, Jurgita; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia

    2017-10-01

    A number of studies have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and mortality. Since sleep duration is partly genetically determined, it seems likely that its association with mortality is also genetically influenced. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence on heredity on the association between sleep duration and mortality. We used a cohort of 14267 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusted for a number of covariates, confirmed a clear U shape with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.34 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.57 for a sleep duration of ≤6.5 hours and HR = 1.18 (CI = 1.07-1.30) for sleep of ≥9.5 hours. Reference value was 7.0 hours. A co-twin analysis of 1942 twins discordant on mortality showed a HR = 2.66 (CI = 1.17-6.04) for long (≥9.5 hours) sleep in monzygotic twins and an HR = 0.66 (CI = 0.20-2.14) for short (sleep. In dizygotic twins, no association was significant. The heritability for mortality was 28% for the whole group, while it was 86% for short sleepers and 42% for long sleepers. Thus, the link with mortality for long sleep appears to be more due to environmental factors than to heredity, while heritability dominates among short sleepers. We found that both long and short sleep were associated with higher total mortality, that the difference in mortality within twin pairs is associated with long sleep, and that short sleep has a higher heritability for mortality, while long sleep is associated with more environmental influences on mortality. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Relationship Between Short Sleep Duration and Preseason Concussion Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Noah D; Berkner, Paul D; Atkins, Joseph E; Zafonte, Ross; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-05-01

    Baseline, preseason assessment of cognition, symptoms, and balance has been recommended as part of a comprehensive sport concussion management program. We examined the relationship between sleep and baseline test results. We hypothesized that adolescents who slept fewer hours the night before would report more symptoms and perform more poorly on cognitive testing than students who had a full night sleep. Cross-sectional observation study. Preseason concussion testing for high school athletes. A large sample (n = 2928) of student athletes from Maine, USA, between the ages of 13 and 18 years completed preseason testing. Participants with developmental problems, a history of treatment for neurological or psychiatric problems, recent concussion, or 3 or more prior concussions were excluded. Athletes were divided into 4 groups based on their sleep duration the night before testing. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT; ImPACT Applications, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA) cognitive composite scores and the embedded Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. Sleep was not related to any ImPACT cognitive composite score, after covarying for age and controlling for multiple comparisons. In contrast, there were sleep duration, sex, and sleep duration by sex effects on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. The effect of sleep duration on symptom reporting was more pronounced in girls. Supplementary analyses suggested that sleep insufficiency was associated with a diverse array of postconcussion-like symptoms. Poor sleep the night before baseline or postinjury testing may be an important confound when assessing postconcussion symptoms. Girls may be more vulnerable to experiencing and reporting symptoms following insufficient sleep. Clinicians should routinely ask how the athlete slept the night before preseason baseline testing and consider deferring the symptom assessment or later retesting athletes who slept poorly.

  12. Impact of birth complications on breastfeeding duration: an internet survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amy; Jordan, Sue

    2013-04-01

    To explore reasons underlying cessation of breastfeeding in mothers with uncomplicated vaginal deliveries and those experiencing complications during childbirth. Interventions during labour and childbirth can have a negative impact on breastfeeding. Explanations include adverse reactions to medication, delayed breastfeeding initiation, and disruption of the normal endocrinology of childbirth. However, reasons for breastfeeding cessation linked to birth experience have not been fully examined. Increasing breastfeeding duration and, consequently, improving infant and maternal health in the UK depend on understanding why women stop breastfeeding. An exploratory cross-sectional survey. Between January-May 2009, 284 mothers attending community groups in Swansea, Wales, and mothers participating in online parenting forums, who initiated breastfeeding but discontinued before 6 months postpartum, reported their birth experience, including complications and reasons for breastfeeding cessation in an internet survey. Mothers who experienced birth complications breastfed for a significantly shorter duration than those who did not. Specifically, caesarean deliveries, foetal distress, failure to progress, and postpartum haemorrhage were each associated with a shorter breastfeeding duration. Mothers who experienced complications were more likely to discontinue breastfeeding for reasons of pain and difficulty than mothers who did not experience complications, yet no difference was seen between groups for social reasons such as embarrassment or a lack of support. Certain complications during labour may increase risk of specific physical difficulties with breastfeeding, possibly due to their association with medications received. Maternity health professionals should be alert to this possibility to offer enhanced attention and care to overcome these issues and prolong breastfeeding duration. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Gas temperature measurements in short duration turbomachinery test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattafesta, L. N.; Epstein, A. H.

    1988-07-01

    Thermocouple rakes for use in short-duration turbomachinery test facilities have been developed using very fine thermocouples. Geometry variations were parametrically tested and showed that bare quartz junction supports (76 microns in diameter) yielded superior performance, and were rugged enough to survive considerable impact damage. Using very low cost signal conditioning electronics, temperature accuracies of 0.3 percent were realized yielding turbine efficiency measurements at the 1-percent level. Ongoing work to improve this accuracy is described.

  14. A Suborbital Spaceship for Short Duration Space and Microsat Launch

    OpenAIRE

    Bahn, Pat

    2005-01-01

    The TGV Rockets corporation is working on a small Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing Suborbital Rocketship capable of carrying 1000 kg to 100 km for low cost. This provides unique and interesting capabilities for payload test and qualification, development and short duration experimentation. Theoretical possibilities include micro-sat launch. TGV Rockets was founded in 1997 on a desire to commercialize the Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X)1,5,8. Subsequently TGV has been working towards th...

  15. The Duration of Paid Parental Leave and Children's Scholastic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Nordström Skans, Oskar

    2009-01-01

    We study how the duration of paid parental leave affects the accumulation of cognitive skills among children. We use a reform which extended parental leave benefits from 12 to 15 months for Swedish children born after August 1988 to evaluate the effects of prolonged parental leave on children's test scores and grades at age 16. We show that, on average, the reform had no effect on children's scholastic performance. However, we do find positive effects for children of well-educated mothers, a ...

  16. Approach to shortening duration of nuclear plant refueling outage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yoshiharu; Nakanishi, Tooru [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan). Kobe Shipyard and Machinery Works; Yoshihara, Seiichi; Kanbara, Masayuki; Yamanaka, Misao; Shimizu, Takeshi

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes the mission role of the MHI in-house project team for a shorter outage duration for PWR plants operating in Japan and its results. The major tasks of project team are benchmarking to develop outage performance goals, and develop recommendation packages for outage enhancement covering field procedures and tooling betterment. An optimization study for maintenance tasks was also carried out. This paper highlights the results of efforts the activities of the project team. (author)

  17. Selection and scheduling of jobs with time-dependent duration

    OpenAIRE

    DM Seegmuller; SE Visagie; HC de Kock; WJ Pienaar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper two mathematical programming models, both with multiple objective functions, are proposed to solve four related categories of job scheduling problems. All four of these categories have the property that the duration of the jobs is dependent on the time of implementation and in some cases the preceding job. Furthermore, some jobs (restricted to subsets of the total pool of jobs) can, to different extents, run in parallel. In addition, not all the jobs need necessarily be implemen...

  18. Progress toward a microsecond duration, repetitively pulsed, intense- ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.A.; Olson, J.C.; Reass, W.A.; Coates, D.M.; Hunt, J.W.; Schleinitz, H.M.; Greenly, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    A number of intense ion beams applications are emerging requiring repetitive high-average-power beams. These applications include ablative deposition of thin films, rapid melt and resolidification for surface property enhancement, advanced diagnostic neutral beams for the next generation of Tokamaks, and intense pulsed-neutron sources. We are developing a 200-250 keV, 15 kA, 1 μs duration, 1-30 Hz intense ion beam accelerator to address these applications

  19. Cultural and Gender Issues in Long-Duration Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA5 includes short reports concerning: (1) Psychological Issues During Long-Duration International Space Missions; (2) Psychosocial Issues in Crew Selection: Finding the Right Mix of the Right Stuff; (3) Culture, Gender and Mission Accomplishment: Operational Experience; (4) Interpersonal Tension in Multicultural Crews; (5) Personality and Coping in Extreme Environments; and (6) Application of Expedition and Polar Work Group Findings for Enhancing Performance in Space.

  20. Racial disparities in short sleep duration by occupation and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chandra L; Redline, Susan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, Michelle A; Hu, Frank B

    2013-11-01

    Short sleep duration, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, has been shown to vary by occupation and industry, but few studies have investigated differences between black and white populations. By using data from a nationally representative sample of US adult short sleepers (n = 41,088) in the National Health Interview Survey in 2004-2011, we estimated prevalence ratios for short sleep duration in blacks compared with whites for each of 8 industry categories by using adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance. Participants' mean age was 47 years; 50% were women and 13% were black. Blacks were more likely to report short sleep duration than whites (37% vs. 28%), and the black-white disparity was widest among those who held professional occupations. Adjusted short sleep duration was more prevalent in blacks than whites in the following industry categories: finance/information/real estate (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.59); professional/administrative/management (PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.44); educational services (PR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.54); public administration/arts/other services (PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.41); health care/social assistance (PR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.32); and manufacturing/construction (PR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.20). Short sleep generally increased with increasing professional responsibility within a given industry among blacks but decreased with increasing professional roles among whites. Our results suggest the need for further investigation of racial/ethnic differences in the work-sleep relationship.

  1. Duration of continuous positive airway pressure in premature infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamat, Nicolas; Jensen, Erik A.; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used for respiratory support in premature infants for more than 40 years and is now a cornerstone of modern neonatal care. Clinical research on CPAP has primarily focused on understanding which devices and pressure sources best implement this therapy. In contrast, less research has examined the optimal duration over which CPAP is administered. We review this aspect of CPAP therapy. PMID:26948885

  2. Duration of continuous positive airway pressure in premature infants

    OpenAIRE

    Bamat, Nicolas; Jensen, Erik A.; Kirpalani, Haresh

    2016-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been used for respiratory support in premature infants for more than 40 years and is now a cornerstone of modern neonatal care. Clinical research on CPAP has primarily focused on understanding which devices and pressure sources best implement this therapy. In contrast, less research has examined the optimal duration over which CPAP is administered. We review this aspect of CPAP therapy.

  3. Reservation Wages, Search Duration, and Accepted Wages in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Centeno, Mário; Portugal, Pedro

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses data from the European Community Household Panel, 1994-99, to investigate the arrival rate of job offers, the determinants of reservation wages, transitions out of unemployment, and accepted wages. In this exploratory treatment, we report that the arrival rate of job offers declines precipitously with jobless duration and age; that reservation wages do decline with the jobless spell (and aggregate unemployment); that transitions out of unemployment exhibit strong negative dura...

  4. Association of the Duration of Active Pushing With Obstetric Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, William A; Bailit, Jennifer; Lai, Yinglei; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Caritis, Steve N; Prasad, Mona; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the associations between the duration of active pushing during the second stage of labor and maternal and neonatal outcomes. We performed an observational study in which data were obtained by trained abstractors from maternal and neonatal charts of deliveries at 25 hospitals over a 3-year period. In this secondary analysis, women with no prior cesarean delivery who had a term, singleton, cephalic gestation and reached complete dilation were analyzed. The duration of pushing, defined as the time from initiation of pushing to either vaginal delivery or the decision to proceed with a cesarean delivery, was determined. The primary maternal outcome was cesarean delivery and the primary neonatal outcome was a composite that included: mechanical ventilation, proven sepsis, brachial plexus palsy, clavicular fracture, skull fracture, other fracture, seizures, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, or death. Nulliparous and parous women were analyzed separately in univariable and then multivariable analyses. A total of 53,285 women were analyzed. In both nulliparous and parous women, longer duration of pushing was associated with increased odds of both cesarean delivery and the neonatal adverse outcome composite. Nevertheless, even after 4 hours of pushing, approximately 78% of nulliparous women who continued with active pushing had a vaginal delivery and more than 97% did not have the composite adverse neonatal outcome. Similarly, after more than 2 hours of pushing, approximately 82% of parous women who continued active pushing delivered vaginally and more than 97% did not have the adverse neonatal outcome. A longer duration of pushing is associated with an increased relative risk, but small absolute difference in risk, of neonatal complications. Approximately 78% of nulliparous women delivered vaginally even after 4 hours of pushing.

  5. Production and utilization of high level and long duration shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrot, R.

    1978-01-01

    In order to verify the behaviour of equipments under extreme environmental conditions (propulsion, falls, impacts...), it is necessary to create 'high level and long duration shocks'. For these shocks, the velocity variation ΔV, which is equal to the area under the accelerogram γ (t), can reach several hundred meters per second. These velocity variations cannot be performed via classical free fall shock machine (ΔV [fr

  6. Duration of Nasal Packs in the Management of Epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundi, N. A.; Raza, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of nasal packs for 12 and 24 hours in the management of epistaxis. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Nowshera and Heavy Industries Taxilla Hospital, from October 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 60 patients presenting with epistaxis were selected and were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Patients in both the groups were managed by nasal packs. In group-A packs were removed after 12 hours while in group-B after 24 hours. Symptoms of headache, lacrimation and recurrence of bleeding were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis and p-value less than 0.01 was considered significant. Results: There was significant difference for headache between removal of nasal packs after 12 hours and 24 hours (p < 0.001). There was significant difference for excessive lacrimation at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for recurrence of bleed when nasal packs were removed at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.317). Conclusion: Duration in removal of nasal packs after 12 or 24 hours made a difference in the management of epistaxis. Symptoms of headache and excessive lacrimation were significantly higher when nasal packs were removed after 24 hours. It is recommended that patient could be managed with lesser duration of packs after episode of epistaxis to avoid inconvenience. (author)

  7. Duration of increased bleeding tendency after cessation of aspirin therapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, Ronan A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Aspirin has a significant effect on hemostasis, so it is often recommended that patients taking aspirin discontinue treatment before elective surgery. While off aspirin, these patients may be at risk of thrombosis. The optimum period of time that aspirin should be withheld is controversial. The aim of this study was to establish the duration of the antihemostatic effect of prolonged aspirin therapy. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective study, 51 healthy volunteers were randomly assigned into 3 groups, each receiving an identical tablet for 14 days. One group received a placebo tablet; individuals in the other two groups received either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin once a day. Template bleeding times and specific platelet function testing (using the PFA-100; Dade Behring) were carried out on subjects before therapy and again after its completion until they returned to baseline. RESULTS: Thirty-eight volunteers complied sufficiently with the protocol to provide useful results. All bleeding times normalized within 96 hours and all platelet function tests within 144 hours after stopping aspirin. There was no demonstrable hemostatic defect in any volunteer persisting by or beyond the sixth day after treatment cessation. There was no apparent difference in duration of effect between those taking either 75 mg or 300 mg of aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: This study uses sensitive measures of platelet function to demonstrate the duration of increased bleeding tendency after withdrawal of aspirin therapy. It supports discontinuation of aspirin therapy 5 days before elective surgery (with the operation being performed on the sixth day).

  8. Lactation accommodation in the workplace and duration of exclusive breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess current lactation accommodations in a workplace environment and to examine the association between the different dimensions of support and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. A survey was conducted with employees of a higher-education institution and clients of an obstetric hospital in New Jersey. Factor analysis identified dimensions of workplace support. The dimensions were correlated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding using Pearson's r correlation analysis. One hundred and thirteen working mothers participated in the study. The mean (SD) number of working hours of the participants was 34.3 (2.8) hours per week. Participants were primarily white (89.4%), older (mean age, 33.8 [6.0] years), highly educated (>82% above college graduate), and married (92%). Participants indicated that in their workplaces, breastfeeding was not common, breast pumps were not available, and on-site day care was not always an option. The analysis identified 4 dimensions of breastfeeding accommodation: break time, workplace environment, technical support, and workplace policy. Technical support (r = 0.71, P = .01) and workplace environment (r = 0.26, P = .01) were significantly associated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Employers can strengthen technical support and workplace environment to encourage breastfeeding continuation in working mothers. New federal laws should consider specific guidelines for minimum requirements for functional lactation support to achieve comprehensive breastfeeding benefits. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  9. Physiology, medicine, long-duration space flight and the NSBRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, J. C.; White, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    The hazards of long-duration space flight are real and unacceptable. In order for humans to participate effectively in long-duration orbital missions or continue the exploration of space, we must first secure the health of the astronaut and the success of such missions by assessing in detail the biomedical risks of space flight and developing countermeasures to these hazards. Acquiring the understanding necessary for building a sound foundation for countermeasure development requires an integrated approach to research in physiology and medicine and a level of cooperative action uncommon in the biomedical sciences. The research program of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) was designed to accomplish just such an integrated research goal, ameliorating or eliminating the biomedical risks of long-duration space flight and enabling safe and productive exploration of space. The fruits of these labors are not limited to the space program. We can also use the gained understanding of the effects and mechanisms of the physiological changes engendered in space and the applied preventive and rehabilitative methods developed to combat these changes to the benefit of those on Earth who are facing similar physiological and psychological difficulties. This paper will discuss the innovative approach the NSBRI has taken to integrated research management and will present some of the successes of this approach. c2003 International Astronautical Federation. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fixation distance and fixation duration to vertical road signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marco; Simone, Andrea; Vignali, Valeria; Lantieri, Claudio; Palena, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    The distance of first-fixation to vertical road signs was assessed in 22 participants while driving a route of 8.34 km. Fixations to road signs were recorded by a mobile eye-movement-tracking device synchronized to GPS and kinematic data. The route included 75 road signs. First-fixation distance and fixation duration distributions were positively skewed. Median distance of first-fixation was 51 m. Median fixation duration was 137 ms with a modal value of 66 ms. First-fixation distance was linearly related to speed and fixation duration. Road signs were gazed at a much closer distance than their visibility distance. In a second study a staircase procedure was used to test the presentation-time threshold that lead to a 75% accuracy in road sign identification. The threshold was 35 ms, showing that short fixations to a road signs could lead to a correct identification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between Breastfeeding Duration and Type of Birth Attendant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordyn T. Wallenborn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Healthcare providers play an integral role in breastfeeding education and subsequent practices; however, the education and support provided to patients may differ by type of provider. The current study aims to evaluate the association between type of birth attendant and breastfeeding duration. Methods. Data from the prospective longitudinal study, Infant Feeding Practices Survey II, was analyzed. Breastfeeding duration and exclusive breastfeeding duration were defined using the American Academy of Pediatrics’ national recommendations. Type of birth attendant was categorized into obstetricians, other physicians, and midwife or nurse midwife. If mothers received prenatal care from a different type of provider than the birth attendant, they were excluded from the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results. Compared to mothers whose births were attended by an obstetrician, mothers with a family doctor or midwife were twice as likely to breastfeed at least six months. Similarly, mothers with a midwife birth attendant were three times as likely to exclusively breastfeed less than six months and six times more likely to exclusively breastfeed at least six months compared to those who had an obstetrician birth attendant. Conclusions. Findings from the current study highlight the importance of birth attendants in breastfeeding decisions. Interventions are needed to overcome barriers physicians encounter while providing breastfeeding support and education. However, this study is limited by several confounding factors that have not been controlled for as well as by the self-selection of the population.

  12. Short sleep duration and obesity among Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Tiffany K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information on sleep duration and obesity among Australian children. The objective of the study is to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in Australian children aged 5 to 15 years. Methods Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System between January 2004 and December 2008. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI. Within each household, the person who was last to have a birthday was selected for interview. Parents reported the number of hours their children slept each day. Obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF definition based on BMI calculated from reported body weight and height. Results Overall, parents of 3495 children aged 5-15 years (mean 10.7 years, 50.3% boys were interviewed. The prevalence of obesity was 7.7% (8.9% in boys, 6.6% in girls. In multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, intake of fruit and vegetables, physical activity and inactivity, the odds ratio (OR for obesity comparing sleeping Conclusion Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity in children especially among younger age groups and boys.

  13. The Influence of Hand Immersion Duration on Manual Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Matthew; Sanli, Elizabeth; Brown, Robert; Ennis, Kerri Ann; Carnahan, Heather

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effect of hand immersion duration on manipulative ability and tactile sensitivity. Individuals in maritime settings often work with hands that have been immersed in water. Although research has shown that hand immersion duration differentially impacts skin adhesion and tactile sensitivity, the effect of hand immersion on manipulative ability has not been directly tested. Given how critical manipulative ability is for the safety and performance of those working at sea, the effect of hand immersion duration on manual performance was investigated. Tests of manipulative ability (Purdue Pegboard, Grooved Pegboard, reef knot untying) and tactile sensitivity (Touch-Test) were completed following no-exposure, short-exposure, and long-exposure hand immersions in thermoneutral water. Compared to the no immersion condition, the Purdue Pegboard performance was reduced in both immersion conditions (short exposure, -11%; long exposure, -8%). A performance decrement was only observed in the short exposure condition (+15% in time to complete task) for the reef knot untying task. There were no statistical differences in the Grooved Pegboard or Touch-Test scores between exposure conditions. Immersing the hands in water decreases manipulative ability except for when object properties reduce the slipperiness between the hand and object. Manual performance in a wet environment may be conserved by designing tools and objects with edges and textures that can offset the slipperiness of wet hands. To maintain safety, the time requirements for working with wet hands needs to be considered.

  14. Qualities of online friendships with different gender compositions and durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Grand H L; Chan, Darius K S; Tong, Po Yee

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the qualities of online friendships with different gender compositions that had been maintained for varying periods of time. A total of 167 Hong Kong Internet-users rated the qualities of their same-sex and cross-sex online friendships on measures such as intimacy, trust, self-disclosure, and relational satisfaction. A 2 (gender of respondents: male vs. female) x 2 (gender of online friends: same-sex vs. opposite-sex) x 3 (duration of friendships: less than 1 year vs. 1-2 years vs. more than 2 years) factorial design was adopted. MANOVA results reveal the three-way interaction effect on intimacy, trust, and relational satisfaction. Specifically, the qualities of male-female, female-male, and female-female online friendships were generally higher for those with a longer duration than those at the early stage of friendship development. However, the qualities of male-male friendships that had been maintained for more than 2 years were lower than those maintained for 2 years or less. These findings suggest that qualities of online friendships are subject to effects of gender composition and duration. The conceptual implications of these results are discussed.

  15. [Sleep duration and functional limitations in older adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eumann Mesas, Arthur; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2011-04-30

    To examine the association between sleep duration and functional limitation in older adults from Spain. Cross-sectional study with 3,708 individuals representative of the non-institutionalized population aged ≥ 60 years in Spain. Sleep duration was self-reported, and the functional limitations in the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were assessed. Functional limitations in IADL were identified in 1,424 (38.4%) participants. In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, the percentage of participants with limitation in IADL was higher in those who slept ≤ 5 hours (odds ratio [OR]=1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.18-2.06) or ≥ 10 hours (OR=2.08; 95%CI=1.67-2.60; p for trendlimitations held even after adjustment for comorbidity and sleep quality (OR=1.77; 95%CI=1.38-2.28) while the association between short sleep (≤ 5 hours) and functional limitation no longer held after this adjustment (OR=1.10; 95%CI=0.80-1.50). In older adults, long sleep duration is a marker of functional limitations independent of comorbidity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Monitoring the Impacts of Forest Management on Snowpack Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, T.; Tyler, S.; Gaffney, R.; Pai, H.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal snowpack constitutes a significant portion of the hydrologic budget in mountain watersheds and influences dynamic (e.g., runoff magnitude and timing, soil moisture availability) and energetic processes (e.g., surface-atmosphere energy fluxes, ground temperature). Altered forest structure can affect snow accumulation and ablation. As part of a long-term monitoring project, this work examines the impact of forest management practices on snow cover in Lassen National Forest, California. We deployed a fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) cable and multiple meteorological stations in thinned, clear-cut, and untreated areas of forest. The DTS data was collected at 1 meter spatial intervals every 4 hours from February to May 2017. To determine snow cover, daily temperature variations were examined along locations of the DTS cable associated with our areas of interest. Between the various treatments, snow duration was greater in both clear-cut and untreated forest compared to the thinned area. However, snow duration varied by only six days. We also investigated other meteorological forcings, such as average winter temperature and precipitation, which coupled with forest modifications could explain snow duration in our study.

  17. Sleep Duration and Academic Performance Among Student Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeek, Megan L; Savoie, Matthew J; Song, Matthew; Kennemur, Leanna M; Qian, Jingjing; Jungnickel, Paul W; Westrick, Salisa C

    2015-06-25

    To identify sleep patterns and frequency of daytime sleepiness and to assess the association between sleep duration and academic performance among student pharmacists. A cross-sectional design was used. An anonymous self-administered paper questionnaire was administered to first-year through third-year students at a pharmacy school. Questionnaires were completed by 364 student pharmacists (79.4% response rate and 93.8% cooperation rate). More than half of student pharmacists obtained less than 7 hours of sleep at night during a typical school week (54.7%) and a large majority on the night prior to an examination (81.7%). Almost half (47.8%) felt daytime sleepiness almost every day. Longer sleep duration the night prior to an examination was associated with higher course grades and semester grade point averages (GPAs). A majority of student pharmacists had suboptimal durations of sleep, defined as fewer than 7 hours. Adequate sleep the night prior to an examination was positively associated with student course grades and semester GPAs.

  18. Learning the language of time: Children's acquisition of duration words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Katharine A; Barner, David

    2015-05-01

    Children use time words like minute and hour early in development, but take years to acquire their precise meanings. Here we investigate whether children assign meaning to these early usages, and if so, how. To do this, we test their interpretation of seven time words: second, minute, hour, day, week, month, and year. We find that preschoolers infer the orderings of time words (e.g., hour>minute), but have little to no knowledge of the absolute durations they encode. Knowledge of absolute duration is learned much later in development - many years after children first start using time words in speech - and in many children does not emerge until they have acquired formal definitions for the words. We conclude that associating words with the perception of duration does not come naturally to children, and that early intuitive meanings of time words are instead rooted in relative orderings, which children may infer from their use in speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reflection-type hologram for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Fujio; Fujita, Jun-ichi

    2002-01-01

    A cold metastable neon atomic beam was manipulated with a reflective amplitude hologram that was encoded on a silicon surface. A black-and-white pattern of atoms was reconstructed on a microchannel plate detector. The hologram used the enhanced quantum reflection developed by authors and was made of a two-dimensional array of rectangular low and high reflective cells. The surface of the high reflective cell was composed of regularly spaced roof-shaped ridges, while the low reflective cell was simply a flat surface. The hologram was the first demonstration of reflective atom-optical elements that used universal interaction between a neutral atom and solid surface

  20. Estimating Source Duration for Moderate and Large Earthquakes in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Yen; Hwang, Ruey-Der; Ho, Chien-Yin; Lin, Tzu-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Estimating Source Duration for Moderate and Large Earthquakes in Taiwan Wen-Yen Chang1, Ruey-Der Hwang2, Chien-Yin Ho3 and Tzu-Wei Lin4 1 Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan, ROC 2Department of Geology, Chinese Culture University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC 3Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, ROC 4Seismology Center, Central Weather Bureau, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC ABSTRACT To construct a relationship between seismic moment (M0) and source duration (t) was important for seismic hazard in Taiwan, where earthquakes were quite active. In this study, we used a proposed inversion process using teleseismic P-waves to derive the M0-t relationship in the Taiwan region for the first time. Fifteen earthquakes with MW 5.5-7.1 and focal depths of less than 40 km were adopted. The inversion process could simultaneously determine source duration, focal depth, and pseudo radiation patterns of direct P-wave and two depth phases, by which M0 and fault plane solutions were estimated. Results showed that the estimated t ranging from 2.7 to 24.9 sec varied with one-third power of M0. That is, M0 is proportional to t**3, and then the relationship between both of them was M0=0.76*10**23(t)**3 , where M0 in dyne-cm and t in second. The M0-t relationship derived from this study was very close to those determined from global moderate to large earthquakes. For further understanding the validity in the derived relationship, through the constructed relationship of M0-, we inferred the source duration of the 1999 Chi-Chi (Taiwan) earthquake with M0=2-5*10**27 dyne-cm (corresponding to Mw = 7.5-7.7) to be approximately 29-40 sec, in agreement with many previous studies for source duration (28-42 sec).

  1. Association between subjective actual sleep duration, subjective sleep need, age, body mass index, and gender in a large sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalak, Nadeem; Brand, Serge; Beck, Johannes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Wollmer, M Axel

    2015-01-01

    Poor sleep is a major health concern, and there is evidence that young adults are at increased risk of suffering from poor sleep. There is also evidence that sleep duration can vary as a function of gender and body mass index (BMI). We sought to replicate these findings in a large sample of young adults, and also tested the hypothesis that a smaller gap between subjective sleep duration and subjective sleep need is associated with a greater feeling of being restored. A total of 2,929 university students (mean age 23.24±3.13 years, 69.1% female) took part in an Internet-based survey. They answered questions related to demographics and subjective sleep patterns. We found no gender differences in subjective sleep duration, subjective sleep need, BMI, age, or feeling of being restored. Nonlinear associations were observed between subjective sleep duration, BMI, and feeling of being restored. Moreover, a larger discrepancy between subjective actual sleep duration and subjective sleep need was associated with a lower feeling of being restored. The present pattern of results from a large sample of young adults suggests that males and females do not differ with respect to subjective sleep duration, BMI, or feeling of being restored. Moreover, nonlinear correlations seemed to provide a more accurate reflection of the relationship between subjective sleep and demographic variables.

  2. Estimation of global solar radiation by means of sunshine duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, Mazorra Aguiar; Felipe, Diaz Reyes [Electrical Engineering Dept., Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ. (U.L.P.G.C.), Campus Univ. Tafira (Spain); Pilar, Navarro Rivero [Canary Islands Technological Inst. (I.T.C.), Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between global solar irradiation and sunshine duration with different estimation models for the island of Gran Canaria (Spain). These parameters were taken from six measurement stations around the Island, and selected for their reliability and the long period of time they covered. All data used in this paper were handed over by the Canary Islands Technological Institute (I.T.C.). As a first approach, it was decided to study the Angstrom lineal model. In order to improve the knowledge on solar resources, a Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) was created from all daily data. TMY shows differences between southern and northern locations, where Trade Winds generate clouds during the summer months. TMY resumes a data bank much longer than a year in duration, generating the characteristics for a year series of each location, for both irradiation and sunshine duration. To create the TMY, weighted means have been used to smooth high or low values. At first, Angstrom lineal model has been used to estimate solar global irradiation from sunshine duration values, using TMY. But the lineal model didn't reproduce satisfactory results when used to obtain global solar radiation from all daily sunshine duration data. For this reason, different models based in both parameters were used. The parameters estimation of this model was achieved both from TMY daily and monthly series and from all daily data for every location. Because of the weather stability all over the year in the Island, most of the daily data are concentrated in a close range, occasioning a deviation in the lineal equations. To avoid this deviation it was proposed to consider a limit condition data, taking into account values out of the main cloud of data. Additionally, different models were proposed (quadratic, cubic, logarithmic and exponential) to make a regression from all daily data. The best results were obtained with the exponential model proposed in this paper. The

  3. Association between Screen Viewing Duration and Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yim Wah Mak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762. Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents.

  4. Entropy inequalities from reflection positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the entropy and the Renyi entropies of the vacuum state reduced to a region of space can be represented in terms of correlators in quantum field theory. In this case, the positivity relations for the correlators are mapped into inequalities for the entropies. We write them using a real-time version of reflection positivity, which can be generalized to general quantum systems. Using this generalization we can prove an infinite sequence of inequalities which are obeyed by the Renyi entropies of integer index. There is one independent inequality involving any number of different subsystems. In quantum field theory the inequalities acquire a simple geometrical form and are consistent with the integer index Renyi entropies being given by vacuum expectation values of twisting operators in the Euclidean formulation. Several possible generalizations and specific examples are analyzed

  5. Reflections in the clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Carrió, F; Hernández-Clemente, J C

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze some models of expert decision and their impact on the clinical practice. We have analyzed decision-making considering the cognitive aspects (explanatory models, perceptual skills, analysis of the variability of a phenomenon, creating habits and inertia of reasoning and declarative models based on criteria). We have added the importance of emotions in decision making within highly complex situations, such as those occurring within the clinical practice. The quality of the reflective act depends, among other factors, on the ability of metacognition (thinking about what we think). Finally, we propose an educational strategy based on having a task supervisor and rectification scenarios to improve the quality of medical decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Microdosimetry: Reflections on Harald Rossi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    This and twelve previous Symposia reflect the evolution of microdosimetry, a field of research that has determined major new developments in radiation research, radiation protection, and radiology during the past four decades. The concepts of microdosimetry and its techniques were developed almost single handedly by H.H. Rossi. This memorial lecture outlines some of the ideas and some of the work of Harald Rossi that led to microdosimetry. It describes its major impact on radiobiology and, especially, its impact on studies with fast neutrons and on risk assessment. Microdosimetry was primarily designed as a tool for the elucidation of basic mechanisms of radiation action, but it has found its most important applications in the dosimetric measurement techniques that have become indispensable in radiation protection and in the dosimetry for radiation therapy. The advances of molecular biology are now providing new possibilities for a quantitative application of microdosimetry to radiobiology along the lines that Harald Rossi defined. (author)

  7. Reflecting on Normative Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diez, Thomas; Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    -interested geographical expansion or military superiority. In the 1970s, François Duchêne called it a ‘civilian power’ (1972: 43); in the early 2000s it was argued that the label ‘normative power’ would be better suited (Manners 2000, 2002). Just as Duchêne’s civilian power reflected the Cold War milieu of the 1970s......There is a widespread belief that the European Union (EU) is a novel kind of power not only in its own institutional set-up but also in its external relations. It is said to rely on civilian rather than military means and to pursue the spread of particular norms rather than self......, the normative power approach signified a crystallisation of the EU in the post-Cold War era....

  8. Temporal reflectance changes in vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    Quality control in the food industry is often performed by measuring various chemical compounds of the food involved. We propose an imaging concept for acquiring high quality multispectral images to evaluate changes of carrots and celeriac over a period of 14 days. Properties originating...... in the surface chemistry of vegetables may be captured in an integrating sphere illumination which enables the creation of detailed surface chemistry maps with a good combination of spectral and spatial resolutions. Prior to multispectral image recording, the vegetables were prefried and frozen at -30Â......°C for four months. During the 14 days of image recording, the vegetables were kept at +5°C in refrigeration. In this period, surface changes and thereby reflectance properties were very subtle. To describe this small variation we employed advanced statistical techniques to search a large featurespace...

  9. Reflection of neutrons from a helicoidal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V.L.; Ignatovich, V.K.; Nikitenko, Yu.V.

    2006-01-01

    Analytical solution for neutron reflection and transmission of magnetic mirrors with helicoidal magnetization is found. The dependence of neutron speed of reflection and transmission curves is shown. Resonant properties of helicoidal systems are found

  10. Reflection in Medical Diagnosis: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mamede, Silvia; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Reflection in medical diagnosis has been said to prevent errors by minimizing flaws in clinical reasoning. This claim, however, has been much disputed. While some studies show reflective reasoning to improve diagnostic performance, others find it to add nothing. This paper presents a narrative review of the literature on reflection in medical diagnosis aimed at addressing two questions: (1) how reflective reasoning has been conceived in this literature; and (2) what is the effect of ...

  11. Effectuation And Reflection-In-Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Lervang, Johan-Ulrik; Maack, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Our main aim is to facilitate a reflective methodology for MSc thesis students in practical entrepreneurship that draws on the ideas of ‘reflection-in-action’ while simultaneously making use of the effectuation logics.......Our main aim is to facilitate a reflective methodology for MSc thesis students in practical entrepreneurship that draws on the ideas of ‘reflection-in-action’ while simultaneously making use of the effectuation logics....

  12. The role of emotion in design reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, D.K.; Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Mcdonagh, Deana; Hekkert, Paul; Van Erp, Jeroen; Gyi, Diane

    2003-01-01

    Reflection on design processes performed by designers is called design reflection. In our view, this kind of reflection aims at answering essential questions like “Is my design answering the stakeholder concerns?”, “Am I solving the essential problems or am I wasting time on irrelevant aspects?”,

  13. Historical Text Comprehension Reflective Tutorial Dialogue System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoriadou, Maria; Tsaganou, Grammatiki; Cavoura, Theodora

    2005-01-01

    The Reflective Tutorial Dialogue System (ReTuDiS) is a system for learner modelling historical text comprehension through reflective dialogue. The system infers learners' cognitive profiles and constructs their learner models. Based on the learner model the system plans the appropriate--personalized for learners--reflective tutorial dialogue in…

  14. Reflection during Portfolio-Based Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbaan, Anne E.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between the occurrence of reflection (and non-reflection) and thinking activities (e.g., orientating, selecting, analysing) during portfolio-based conversations. Analysis of 21 transcripts of portfolio-based conversations revealed that 20% of the segments were made up of reflection (content reflection…

  15. Reflection and Reasoning in Moral Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, Joseph M.; Ungar, Leo; Greene, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    While there is much evidence for the influence of automatic emotional responses on moral judgment, the roles of reflection and reasoning remain uncertain. In Experiment 1, we induced subjects to be more reflective by completing the Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) prior to responding to moral dilemmas. This manipulation increased utilitarian…

  16. Toy models of crossed Andreev reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, R; Jirari, H; Peysson, S

    2003-01-01

    We propose toy models of crossed Andreev reflection in multiterminal hybrid structures containing out-of-equilibrium conductors. We apply the description to two possible experiments: (i) to a device containing a large quantum dot inserted in a crossed Andreev reflection circuit, and (ii) to a device containing an Aharonov-Bohm loop inserted in a crossed Andreev reflection circuit

  17. Enabling Critical Reflection on Research Supervisory Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Margot; Kayrooz, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an instrument--The Reflective Supervisor Questionnaire (RSQ). The RSQ maps the domain of research supervisory practice as a facilitative process involving educational tasks and activities. It is designed to assist research supervisors explore, by means of self-reflection and reflection on feedback from…

  18. Reflective Journals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reflective journals has been identified as an effective tool to promote reflection in preservice teachers. This review of literature provides the reader with an understanding of the various ways journals are used and assessed in teacher education programs. The findings of this review outline the use of reflective journals on topics such…

  19. Improving Teaching through Collaborative Reflective Teaching Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Reflection and collaboration are two activities teachers can use to change and improve their practice. However, finding the time and space to do so can be challenging. The collaborative reflective teaching cycle is a structured activity teachers can use to engage in reflection and collaboration. This article describes how a seventh grade teaching…

  20. Developing Mathematical Practices through Reflection Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholz, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on reflection in learning mathematical practices. While there is a long history of research on reflection in mathematics, it has focused primarily on the development of conceptual understanding. Building on notion of learning as participation in social practices, this paper broadens the theory of reflection in mathematics…

  1. Improving Inquiry Teaching through Reflection on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Miller, Cory

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we explore middle school science teachers' learning of inquiry-based instructional strategies through reflection on practice teaching sessions during a summer enrichment program with middle level students. The reflection sessions were part of a larger year-long inquiry professional development program in which teachers learned science content and inquiry pedagogy. The program included a 2-week summer institute in which teachers participated in science content sessions, practice teaching to middle level students, and small group-facilitated reflection sessions on their teaching. For this study, data collection focused on teachers' recorded dialogue during the facilitator - run reflection sessions, the teachers' daily written reflections, a final written reflection, and a written reflection on a videotaped teaching session. We investigated the teachers' reflection levels and the themes teachers focused on during their reflection sessions. Teachers were found to reflect at various reflection levels, from simple description to a more sophisticated focus on how to improve student learning. Recurrent themes point to the importance of providing situated learning environments, such as the practice teaching with immediate reflection for teachers to have time to practice new instructional strategies and gain insight from peers and science educators on how to handle student learning issues.

  2. Superconvergent sum rules for the normal reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, K.; Zimerman, A.H.; Villani, A.

    1976-05-01

    Families of superconvergent relations for the normal reflectivity function are written. Sum rules connecting the difference of phases of the reflectivities of two materials are also considered. Finally superconvergence relations and sum rules for magneto-reflectivity in the Faraday and Voigt regimes are also studied

  3. The duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqar Jeelani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Pubertal growth peak is closely associated with a rapid increase in mandibular length and offers a wide range of therapeutic modifiability. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine and compare the mean ages of onset and duration of pubertal growth peak among three skeletal classes. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using lateral cephalograms of 230 subjects with growth potential (110 males, 120 females. Subjects were categorized into three classes (Class I = 81, Class II = 82, Class III = 67, according to the sagittal relationship established between the maxilla and the mandible. The cervical vertebral maturation stage was recorded by means of Baccetti's method. The mean ages at CS3 and CS4 and the CS3-CS4 age interval were compared between boys and girls and among three skeletal classes. Results: Pubertal growth peak occurred on average four months earlier in girls than boys (p = 0.050. The average duration of pubertal growth peak was 11 months in Class I, seven months in Class II and 17 months in Class III subjects. Interclass differences were highly significant (Cohen's d > 0.08. However, no significant difference was found in the timing of pubertal growth peak onset among three skeletal classes (p = 0.126 in boys, p = 0.262 in girls. Conclusions: Girls enter pubertal growth peak on average four months earlier than boys. Moreover, the duration of pubertal growth peak is on average four months shorter in Class II and six months longer in Class III subjects as compared to Class I subjects.

  4. The duration of effect of centrifuge concentrated intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Michael D; Valijan, Sevak

    2013-04-01

    To estimate the duration of activity for intravitreal triamcinolone injected with a new technique using centrifuge concentration (Centrifuge concentrated IntraVitreal Triamcinolone, C-IVT). All injections were performed by a single surgeon (M.D.O.) using a 30-gauge needle. A vial of Triesence (triamcinolone; Alcon Laboratories, Fort Worth, TX) was drawn into a 1-mL syringe and the plunger cut off. The contents were spun in a centrifuge, and a second plunger was placed. Records of all patients receiving C-IVT with 0.05 mL or 0.1 mL from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009, were retrospectively reviewed. Eighty-four injections from 69 eyes of 57 patients were included. Sixty-nine injections from 54 eyes of 44 patients received 0.05 mL of C-IVT, whereas 15 injections from 15 eyes of 13 patients received 0.1 mL of C-IVT. Triamcinolone acetonide was still visualized in the vitreous on an average of 5.0 ± 2.4 months (median 5 months) after 0.05 mL of C-IVT and 8.3 ± 4.0 months (median 8 months) after 0.1 mL of C-IVT during follow-up visits. The longest duration recorded was 14 months for the 0.05-mL group and 18 months for the 0.l-mL group. The C-IVT results in a long duration of effect that seems to be greater than previously published techniques. It may be considered for patients requiring chronic steroid therapy, in which the benefits of long-term intravitreal steroids are believed to outweigh their risk.

  5. Analysis models for variables associated with breastfeeding duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Theodoro dos S. Neto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with breastfeeding duration by two statistical models. METHODS A population-based cohort study was conducted with 86 mothers and newborns from two areas primary covered by the National Health System, with high rates of infant mortality in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. During 30 months, 67 (78% children and mothers were visited seven times at home by trained interviewers, who filled out survey forms. Data on food and sucking habits, socioeconomic and maternal characteristics were collected. Variables were analyzed by Cox regression models, considering duration of breastfeeding as the dependent variable, and logistic regression (dependent variables, was the presence of a breastfeeding child in different post-natal ages. RESULTS In the logistic regression model, the pacifier sucking (adjusted Odds Ratio: 3.4; 95%CI 1.2-9.55 and bottle feeding (adjusted Odds Ratio: 4.4; 95%CI 1.6-12.1 increased the chance of weaning a child before one year of age. Variables associated to breastfeeding duration in the Cox regression model were: pacifier sucking (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.3 and bottle feeding (adjusted Hazard Ratio 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.5. However, protective factors (maternal age and family income differed between both models. CONCLUSIONS Risk and protective factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding may be analyzed by different models of statistical regression. Cox Regression Models are adequate to analyze such factors in longitudinal studies.

  6. An unorthodox X-Class Long-Duration Confined Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui; Gou, Tingyu; Wang, Yuming; Liu, Kai [CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, Department of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Titov, Viacheslav S. [Predictive Science, Inc., 9990 Mesa Rim Road, Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Wang, Haimin, E-mail: rliu@ustc.edu.cn [Space Weather Research Laboratory, Center for Solar-Terrestrial Research, NJIT, Newark, NJ 07102 (United States)

    2014-07-20

    We report the observation of an X-class long-duration flare which is clearly confined. It appears as a compact-loop flare in the traditional EUV passbands (171 and 195 Å), but in the passbands sensitive to flare plasmas (94 and 131 Å), it exhibits a cusp-shaped structure above an arcade of loops like other long-duration events. Inspecting images in a running difference approach, we find that the seemingly diffuse, quasi-static cusp-shaped structure consists of multiple nested loops that repeatedly rise upward and disappear approaching the cusp edge. Over the gradual phase, we detect numerous episodes of loop rising, each lasting minutes. A differential emission measure analysis reveals that the temperature is highest at the top of the arcade and becomes cooler at higher altitudes within the cusp-shaped structure, contrary to typical long-duration flares. With a nonlinear force-free model, our analysis shows that the event mainly involves two adjacent sheared arcades separated by a T-type hyperbolic flux tube (HFT). One of the arcades harbors a magnetic flux rope, which is identified with a filament that survives the flare owing to the strong confining field. We conclude that a new emergence of magnetic flux in the other arcade triggers the flare, while the preexisting HFT and flux rope dictate the structure and dynamics of the flare loops and ribbons during the long-lasting decay phase, and that a quasi-separatrix layer high above the HFT could account for the cusp-shaped structure.

  7. Incidence of clinical symptoms during long-duration orbital spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Johnston, Smith; Pierson, Duane L; Ott, C Mark; Sams, Clarence

    2016-01-01

    The environment of spaceflight may elevate an astronaut's clinical risk for specific diseases. The purpose of this study was to derive, as accurately as currently possible, an assessment of in-flight clinical "incidence" data, based on observed clinical symptoms in astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS). Electronic medical records were examined from 46 long-duration ISS crew members, each serving approximately a 6-month mission on board the ISS, constituting 20.57 total flight years. Incidence for immunological-related adverse health events or relevant clinical symptoms was tabulated in a non-identifiable fashion. Event categories included infectious diseases, allergies, and rashes/hypersensitivities. A subsequent re-evaluation of more notable events, either of prolonged duration or unresponsive to treatment, was performed. For the disease/symptom categories used in this evaluation, the ISS incidence rate was 3.40 events per flight year. Skin rashes were the most reported event (1.12/flight year) followed by upper respiratory symptoms (0.97/flight year) and various other (non-respiratory) infectious processes. During flight, 46% of crew members reported an event deemed "notable". Among the notable events, 40% were classified as rashes/hypersensitivities. Characterization of on-orbit rashes manifested as redness with irritation, and could present on a variety of body locations. Based on reported symptoms, astronauts experience adverse medical events of varying severity during long-duration spaceflights. The data suggests caution, from both a vehicle design and biomedical countermeasures perspective, as space agencies plan for prolonged deep space exploration missions.

  8. Alterations in adaptive immunity persist during long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond P; Mehta, Satish; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2015-01-01

    Background: It is currently unknown whether immune system alterations persist during long-duration spaceflight. In this study various adaptive immune parameters were assessed in astronauts at three intervals during 6-month spaceflight on board the International Space Station (ISS). AIMS: To assess phenotypic and functional immune system alterations in astronauts participating in 6-month orbital spaceflight. Methods: Blood was collected before, during, and after flight from 23 astronauts participating in 6-month ISS expeditions. In-flight samples were returned to Earth within 48 h of collection for immediate analysis. Assays included peripheral leukocyte distribution, T-cell function, virus-specific immunity, and mitogen-stimulated cytokine production profiles. Results: Redistribution of leukocyte subsets occurred during flight, including an elevated white blood cell (WBC) count and alterations in CD8+ T-cell maturation. A reduction in general T-cell function (both CD4+ and CD8+) persisted for the duration of the 6-month spaceflights, with differential responses between mitogens suggesting an activation threshold shift. The percentage of CD4+ T cells capable of producing IL-2 was depressed after landing. Significant reductions in mitogen-stimulated production of IFNγ, IL-10, IL-5, TNFα, and IL-6 persisted during spaceflight. Following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, production of IL-10 was reduced, whereas IL-8 production was increased during flight. Conclusions: The data indicated that immune alterations persist during long-duration spaceflight. This phenomenon, in the absence of appropriate countermeasures, has the potential to increase specific clinical risks for crewmembers during exploration-class deep space missions. PMID:28725716

  9. Effects of Long-Duration Ground Motions on Liquefaction Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael W.

    Soil liquefaction during past earthquakes has caused extensive damage to buildings, bridges, dam, pipelines and other elements of infrastructure. Geotechnical engineers use empirical observations from earthquake case histories in conjunction with soil mechanics to predict the behavior of liquefiable soils. However, current empirical databases are insufficient to evaluate the behavior of soils subject to long-duration earthquakes, such as a possible Mw = 9.0 Cascadia Subduction Zone earthquake. The objective of this research is to develop insight into the triggering and effects of liquefaction due to long-duration ground motions and to provide recommendations for analysis and design. Recorded ground motions from 21 case histories with surficial evidence of liquefaction showed marked differences in soil behavior before and after liquefaction was triggered. In some cases, strong shaking continued for several minutes after the soil liquefied, and a variety of behaviors were observed including dilation pulses, continued softening due to soil fabric degradation, and soil stiffening due to pore pressure dissipation and drainage. Supplemental field and laboratory investigations were performed at three sites that liquefied during the 2011 Mw = 9.0 Tohoku earthquake. The recorded ground motions and field investigation data were used in conjunction with laboratory observations, analytical models, and numerical models to evaluate the behavior of liquefiable soils subjected to long-duration ground motions. Observations from the case histories inspired a framework to predict ground deformations based on the differences in soil behavior before and after liquefaction has triggered. This framework decouples the intensity of shaking necessary to trigger liquefaction from the intensity of shaking that drives deformation by identifying the time when liquefaction triggers. The timing-based framework promises to dramatically reduce the uncertainty in deformation estimates compared to

  10. Striatal activation reflects urgency in perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maanen, Leendert; Fontanesi, Laura; Hawkins, Guy E; Forstmann, Birte U

    2016-10-01

    Deciding between multiple courses of action often entails an increasing need to do something as time passes - a sense of urgency. This notion of urgency is not incorporated in standard theories of speeded decision making that assume information is accumulated until a critical fixed threshold is reached. Yet, it is hypothesized in novel theoretical models of decision making. In two experiments, we investigated the behavioral and neural evidence for an "urgency signal" in human perceptual decision making. Experiment 1 found that as the duration of the decision making process increased, participants made a choice based on less evidence for the selected option. Experiment 2 replicated this finding, and additionally found that variability in this effect across participants covaried with activation in the striatum. We conclude that individual differences in susceptibility to urgency are reflected by striatal activation. By dynamically updating a response threshold, the striatum is involved in signaling urgency in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychology and culture during long-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.; Sandal, G.; Boyd, J. E.; Gushin, V. I.; Manzey, D.; North, R.; Leon, G. R.; Suedfeld, P.; Bishop, S.; Fiedler, E. R.; Inoue, N.; Johannes, B.; Kealey, D. J.; Kraft, N.; Matsuzaki, I.; Musson, D.; Palinkas, L. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Sipes, W.; Stuster, J.; Wang, J.

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this paper is twofold: (a) to review the current knowledge of cultural, psychological, psychiatric, cognitive, interpersonal, and organizational issues that are relevant to the behavior and performance of astronaut crews and ground support personnel and (b) to make recommendations for future human space missions, including both transit and planetary surface operations involving the Moon or Mars. The focus will be on long-duration missions lasting at least six weeks, when important psychological and interpersonal factors begin to take their toll on crewmembers. This information is designed to provide guidelines for astronaut selection and training, in-flight monitoring and support, and post-flight recovery and re-adaptation.

  12. Selection and scheduling of jobs with time-dependent duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Seegmuller

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two mathematical programming models, both with multiple objective functions, are proposed to solve four related categories of job scheduling problems. All four of these categories have the property that the duration of the jobs is dependent on the time of implementation and in some cases the preceding job. Furthermore, some jobs (restricted to subsets of the total pool of jobs can, to different extents, run in parallel. In addition, not all the jobs need necessarily be implemented during the given time period.

  13. Fixed Duration Pursuit-Evasion Differential Game with Integral Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov G I; Kuchkarov A Sh

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a pursuit-evasion differential game of countably many pursuers and one evader. Integral constraints are imposed on control functions of the players. Duration of the game is fixed and the payoff of the game is infimum of the distances between the evader and pursuers when the game is completed. Purpose of the pursuers is to minimize the payoff and that of the evader is to maximize it. Optimal strategies of the players are constructed, and the value of the game is found. It should be noted that energy resource of any pursuer may be less than that of the evader.

  14. Influence of earthquake strong motion duration on nonlinear structural response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskouris, K.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of motion duration on nonlinear structural response of high-rise, moment resisting frames are studied by subjecting shear beam models of a 10- and a 5-story frame to a series of synthetic accelerograms, all matching the same NEWMARK/HALL design spectrum. Two different hysteretic laws are used for the story springs, and calculations are carried out for target ductility values of 2 and 4. Maximum ductilities reached and energy-based damage indicators (maximum seismically input energy, hysteretically dissipated energy) are evaluated and correlated with the motion characteristics. A reasonable extrapolative determination of structural response characteristics based on these indicators seems possible. (orig.)

  15. Short-term memory for spatial, sequential and duration information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Pertzov, Yoni; Husain, Masud

    2017-10-01

    Space and time appear to play key roles in the way that information is organized in short-term memory (STM). Some argue that they are crucial contexts within which other stored features are embedded, allowing binding of information that belongs together within STM. Here we review recent behavioral, neurophysiological and imaging studies that have sought to investigate the nature of spatial, sequential and duration representations in STM, and how these might break down in disease. Findings from these studies point to an important role of the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures in aspects of STM, challenging conventional accounts of involvement of these regions in only long-term memory.

  16. Likelihood Estimation of Gamma Ray Bursts Duration Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Istvan

    2005-01-01

    Two classes of Gamma Ray Bursts have been identified so far, characterized by T90 durations shorter and longer than approximately 2 seconds. It was shown that the BATSE 3B data allow a good fit with three Gaussian distributions in log T90. In the same Volume in ApJ. another paper suggested that the third class of GRBs is may exist. Using the full BATSE catalog here we present the maximum likelihood estimation, which gives us 0.5% probability to having only two subclasses. The MC simulation co...

  17. Gas Discharge Produced by Strong Microwaves of Nanosecond Duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikharev, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The results of the investigation of nanosecond microwave discharge are reviewed. Nanosecond microwave discharge is a new branch of gas discharge physics. The paper lists base types of microwave generators used to produce nanosecond discharge and classifies the discharges relative to their base parameters: the way the discharge gets localized in a limited space, amplitude and frequency of microwave field, gas pressure, duration of microwave pulses. The laboratory experiments performed and the new effects which appear in nanosecond microwave discharge are briefly summarized. Different applications of such a discharge are analyzed on the basis of the experimental modelling. (author)

  18. The effect of receiving supplementary UI benefits on unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomi, Kyyrä,; Pierpaolo, Parrotta,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    insurance benefit receipt. We find evidence of a negative in-treatment effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across different groups of individuals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative......We consider the consequences of working part-time and receiving supplementary benefits for part-time unemployment in the Danish labor market. Following the timing-of-events approach we estimate causal effects of part-time work with supplementary benefits on the hazard rate out of unemployment...

  19. Ultra-low reflection porous silicon nanowires for solar cell applications

    OpenAIRE

    Najar , Adel; Charrier , Joël; Pirasteh , Parastesh; Sougrat , R.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; High density vertically aligned Porous Silicon NanoWires (PSiNWs) were fabricated on silicon substrate using metal assisted chemical etching process. A linear dependency of nanowire length to the etching time was obtained and the change in the growth rate of PSiNWs by increasing etching durations was shown. A typical 2D bright-field TEM image used for volume reconstruction of the sample shows the pores size varying from 10 to 50 nm. Furthermore, reflectivity measuremen...

  20. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.