WorldWideScience

Sample records for subinterval duration reflecting

  1. Optimal Subinterval Selection Approach for Power System Transient Stability Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soobae Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modal analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.

  2. Vitrinite reflectance geothermometry and apparent heating duration in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, C.E.; Elders, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    Vitrinite reflectance measured in immersion oil (Ro) on kerogen extracted from hydrothermally altered mudstones in borehole M-84 at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field exhibit an increase in mean reflectance (Ro) from 0.12 per cent at 0.24 km depth to 4.1 per cent at 1.7 km depth. Downhole temperatures measured over this interval increase from about 60?? to 340??C. These Ro data plotted against temperature fall along an exponential curve with a coefficient of determination of about 0.8. Other boreholes sampled in the field show similar relationships. A regression curve calculated for temperature and Ro in borehole M-105 correctly predicts temperatures in other boreholes within the central portion of the geothermal system. The correlation between the reflectance values and logged temperature, together with consistent temperature estimates from fluid inclusion and oxygen isotope geothermometry, indicates that changes in Ro are an accurate and sensitive recorder of the maximum temperature attained. Therefore, vitrinite reflectance can be used in this geothermal system to predict the undisturbed temperature in a geothermal borehole during drilling before it regains thermal equilibrium. Although existing theoretical functions which relate Ro to temperature and duration of heating are inaccurate, empirical temperature-Ro curves are still useful for geothermometry. A comparison of temperature-Ro regression curves derived from nine boreholes within the Cerro Prieto system suggests that heating across the central portion of the field occurred penecontemporaneously, but varies near margins. Boreholes M-93 and M-94 appear to have cooled from their maximum temperatures, whereas M-3 and Prian-1 have only recently been heated. Comparison of the temperature-Ro data from the Salton Sea, California, geothermal system indicates that the duration of heating has been longer there than at the Cerro Prieto field. ?? 1981.

  3. Pinning Synchronization for Complex Networks with Interval Coupling Delay by Variable Subintervals Method and Finsler’s Lemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Gong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pinning synchronous problem for complex networks with interval delays is studied in this paper. First, by using an inequality which is introduced from Newton-Leibniz formula, a new synchronization criterion is derived. Second, combining Finsler’s Lemma with homogenous matrix, convergent linear matrix inequality (LMI relaxations for synchronization analysis are proposed with matrix-valued coefficients. Third, a new variable subintervals method is applied to expand the obtained results. Different from previous results, the interval delays are divided into some subdelays, which can introduce more free weighting matrices. Fourth, the results are shown as LMI, which can be easily analyzed or tested. Finally, the stability of the networks is proved via Lyapunov’s stability theorem, and the simulation of the trajectory claims the practicality of the proposed pinning control.

  4. EEG Power Density during Nap Sleep : Reflection of an Hourglass Measuring the Duration of Prior Wakefulness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Daan, Serge

    1987-01-01

    The relation between the duration of prior wakefulness and EEG power density during sleep in humans was assessed by means of a study of naps. The duration of prior wakefulness was varied from 2 to 20 hr by scheduling naps at 1000 hr, 1200 hr, 1400 hr, 1600 hr, 1800 hr, 2000 hr, and 0400 hr. In

  5. Pulse wave reflection is associated with diabetes duration, albuminuria and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Simone; Lajer, Maria; Hansen, Tine Willum

    2014-01-01

    , and smoking. RESULTS: AP and AI75 measurements were available in 636 (94.1 %) patients and were 9.9 ± 7.6 mmHg and 16.9 ± 12.0, respectively. After adjustment, AP and AI75 were independently associated with diabetes duration and albuminuria (p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, higher AP and AI75 were associated...... with diabetes duration, albuminuria, and CVD, independently of conventional risk factors. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01171248....

  6. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgard, K.; Ratcliffe, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach...... to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking...... stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially...

  7. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    REFLECTIONS. A freer life and independent work made of the quiet, dreamy boy a happy, outgoing, universally liked young man. He also began to familiarize himself with classical German literature. Though at first he was acquainted only with Milan and Pavia, Italy made a great impression on him even with this limitation.

  8. Interglacial Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangili, Clara; McManus, Jerry F.; Raynaud, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future global warming induced by human activities, it is essential to assess the role of natural climatic variations. Precise knowledge of the duration of past interglacial periods is fundamental to the understanding of the potential future evolution of the Holocene. Past ice age cycles provide a natural laboratory for exploring the progression and duration of interglacial climate. Palaeorecords from ice, land and oceans extend over the last 800 ka, revealing eight glacial-interglacial cycles, with a range of insolation and greenhouse gas influences. The interglacials display a correspondingly large variety of intensity and duration, thus providing an opportunity for major insights into the mechanisms involved in the behaviour of interglacial climates. A comparison of the duration of these interglacials, however, is often difficult, as the definition of an interglacial depends on the archive that is considered. Therefore, to compare interglacial length and climate conditions from different archives, a consistent definition of interglacial conditions is required, ideally one that is not bound to the method nor to the archive under consideration. Here we present a method to identify interglacials and to calculate their length by mean of a simple statistical approach. We based our method on ~ 400 ka windows of time to determine mean climatic conditions while allowing for the possibility of long term evolution of the climatic baseline. For our study of interglacials of the past 800 ka, we used two windows that largely align with the pre- (800-430 ka ago) and post- (430-0 ka ago) mid-Brunhes event (MBE), although the resulting conclusions are not sensitive to this particular division. We applied this method to the last 800 ka of a few palaeoclimate records: the deuterium ice core (EDC) record as a climatic proxy, the benthic δ18O stack (LR04) as a proxy for sea level/ice volume, ice core (Vostok, EDC) atmospheric CO2 and additional records. Although

  9. Duration judgements over multiple elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci eAyhan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the limits of the number of events observers can simultaneously time. For single targets occurring in one of eight positions sensitivity to duration was improved for spatially pre-cued items as compared to post-cued items indicating that exogenous driven attention can improve duration discrimination. Sensitivity to duration for pre-cued items was also marginally better for single items as compared to eight items indicating that even after the allocation of focal attention, distracter items can interfere with the encoding of duration. For an eight item array discrimination was worse for post-cued locations as compared to pre-cued locations indicating both that attention can improve duration discrimination performance and that it was not possible to access a perfect memory trace of the duration of eight elements. The interference from the distracters in the pre-cued eight item array may reflect some mandatory averaging of target and distracter events. To further explore duration averaging we asked subjects to explicitly compare average durations of multiple item arrays against a single item standard duration. Duration discrimination thresholds were significantly lower for single elements as compared to multiple elements, showing that averaging, either automatically or intentionally, impairs duration discrimination. There was no set size effect. Performance was the same for averages of two and eight items, but performance with even an average of two items was worse than for one item. This was also true for sequential presentation indicating poor performance was not due to limits on the division of attention across items. Rather performance appears to be limited by an inability to remember or aggregate duration information from two or more items. Although it is possible to manipulate perceived duration locally, there appears to be no perceptual mechanisms for aggregating local durations across space.

  10. Reflecting reflection in supervision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    Reflection has moved from the margins to the mainstream in supervision. Notions of reflection have become well established since the late 1980s. These notions have provided useful framing devices to help conceptualize some important processes in guidance and counseling. However, some applications...... of reflection, rehabilitate them in order to capture broader connotations or move to new ways of regarding reflection that are more in keeping with not only reflective but also emotive, normative and formative views on supervision. The paper presents a critical perspective on supervision that challenge...

  11. A long-duration active region: Evolution and quadrature observations of ejective events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, H.; Mandrini, C. H.; Fuentes, M. C. López; Merenda, L.; Cabello, I.; López, F. M.; Poisson, M.

    2017-10-01

    Unknown aspects of the initiation, evolution, and associated phenomena of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), together with their capability of perturbing the fragile technological equilibrium on which nowadays society depends, turn them a compelling subject of study. While space weather forecasts are thus far not able to predict when and where in the Sun will the next CME take place, various CME triggering mechanisms have been proposed, without reaching consensus on which is the predominant one. To improve our knowledge in these respects, we investigate a long-duration active region throughout its life, from birth until decay along five solar rotations, in connection with its production of ejective events. We benefit from the wealth of solar remote-sensing data with improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution provided by the ground-breaking space missions STEREO, SDO, and SOHO. During the investigated time interval, which covers the months July - November 2010, the STEREO spacecraft were nearly 180 degrees apart, allowing for the uninterrupted tracking of the active region and its ensuing CMEs. The ejective aspect is examined from multi-viewpoint coronagraphic images, while the dynamics of the active region photospheric magnetic field are inspected by means of SDO/HMI data for specific subintervals of interest. The ultimate goal of this work in progress is to identify common patterns in the ejective aspect that can be connected with the active region characteristics.

  12. The reflective learning continuum: reflecting on reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier, J; Hay, A.; Drago, W

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reflection to marketing educators is increasingly recognized. However, there is a lack of empirical research which considers reflection within the context of both the marketing and general business education literature. This paper describes the use of an instrument which can be used to measure four identified levels of a reflection hierarchy: habitual action, understanding, reflection and intensive reflection and two conditions for reflection: instructor to student interacti...

  13. Discounted Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ody, Heinrich; Fränzle, Martin; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2016-01-01

    To formally reason about the temporal quality of systems discounting was introduced to CTL and LTL. However, these logic are discrete and they cannot express duration properties. In this work we introduce discounting for a variant of Duration Calculus. We prove decidability of model checking...... for a useful fragment of discounted Duration Calculus formulas on timed automata under mild assumptions. Further, we provide an extensive example to show the usefulness of the fragment....

  14. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  15. Reflective Writing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel Jørgensen, Andriette

    2016-01-01

    a contribution to the discussions about the role of reflection in design work and in learning situations at large. By engaging with the dialogic reflection, which is one of the four essential types of reflection, (the three others being descriptive writing, descriptive reflection and critical reflection...

  16. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Sleep duration and metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viot-Blanc, V

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration has gradually diminished during the last decade while obesity and type 2 diabetes have become epidemics. Experimental sleep curtailment leads to increased appetite, hormonal disturbances and, especially, insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies have therefore examined whether habitual short sleep is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A large majority of cross-sectional studies have confirmed an association between short, and also long sleep duration and obesity in adults more than in the elderly. Short sleep is strongly associated to obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective studies, including studies in children, are not conclusive with regard to the effect of short sleep on the incidence of obesity. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with diabetes, but only short sleep duration seems predictive of future diabetes. Insomnia seems to be a strong contributor to short sleep duration but the association of insomnia with obesity is not clear. Insomnia is associated with type 2 diabetes and also predictive of a higher incidence. Other studies have shown that short sleep duration and insomnia are associated with, and sometime predictive of, other components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension and the risk of coronary disease. The treatment of short sleep duration and insomnia with regard to their effects on the metabolic syndrome merits further study. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Duration of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the relationship between the durations of symptoms before the start of radiotherapy and treatment outcome in Stage I-III glottic cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1965 to 1997, 611 glottic cancer patients from the Southern Region of Denmark were treated with primary radiotherapy....... A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42...

  19. duration diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diabetes, age of onset and duration of diabetes), presence of retinopathy, markers of nephropathy ... In a recent reportlJ of an audit of primary health care servi es in Cape Town, a high prevalence of ..... Diabet Med 1995; R 546-550. 9. Hanssen ICE Determinants of microvascular complications in diabetes: an overne\\v. In:.

  20. Terrorism and cabinet duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gassebner, M.; Jong-A-Pin, R.; Mierau, J.O.

    2011-01-01

    Terrorism can strengthen or weaken electoral support for ruling governments. We show in a simple model of coalition formation that, regardless of the direction of a public opinion shock, the impact of terrorism on cabinet duration is ambiguous. However, in an analysis of a data set including 2,400

  1. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  2. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  3. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  4. Selection and scheduling of jobs with time-dependent duration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    job scheduling where the duration of the jobs is time dependent [1, 6]. A vast number ..... The description of the variables required in modelling the case where the job duration depends on the start times is given .... (8), (18) and (19), that should also be taken into account and that are not reflected in. Table 1. All four of the ...

  5. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...... case studies and it has been extended in several directions. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough presentation of the logic.......The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...

  6. Quantifying Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcock, Gordon Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This paper documents 1st semester student reflections on “learning to learn” in a team-based PBL environment with quantitative and qualitative student reflective feedback on the learning gains of 60 Architectural Technology and Construction Management students at VIA University College, Denmark....... It contrasts the students’ self-assessment in a range of ‘product’ skills such as Revit, Structural Design, Mathematics of construction, Technical Installations; as well as ‘process’ competencies such as ‘Working in a team’, Sharing knowledge, Maintaining a portfolio and Reflecting ON learning and FOR learning......´ These are all based on Blooms taxonomy and levels of competence and form a major part of individual student and group learning portfolios. Key Words :Project-Based learning, Reflective Portfolios, Self assessment, Defining learning gains, Developing learning strategies , Reflections on and for learning...

  7. Reflection ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boura, Christina; Canteaut, Anne; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde

    2017-01-01

    study the necessary properties for this coupling permutation. Special care has to be taken of some related-key distinguishers since, in the context of reflection ciphers, they may provide attacks in the single-key setting.We then derive some criteria for constructing secure reflection ciphers...... and analyze the security properties of different families of coupling permutations. Finally, we concentrate on the case of reflection block ciphers and, as an illustration, we provide concrete examples of key schedules corresponding to several coupling permutations, which lead to new variants of the block...

  8. Long duration flights management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with

  9. Reflective Learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    students who used learning log and those who did not especially for the course Pschopharmacology, but the mean scores did not show a significant difference for the course Psychology of Gender. The reflective reports of the students also roughly indicated that the students developed positive attitudes towards using ...

  10. PERSONAL REFLECTIONS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Resonance journal of science education. April 2015 Volume 20 Number 4. GENERALARTICLES ... Development of. Probability Theory. K B Athreya. Classroom. Tutorial on Phyloge- netic Inference –1. Felix Bast. 360. 346. 286. PERSONAL REFLECTIONS. 368 The Road to IISc. M L Munjal (Transcribed by Maneesh Kunte).

  11. Rainfall intensity-duration equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, David C.

    1988-01-01

    A method for rapidly developing a rainfall intensity-duration equation for durations less than one hour and recurrence intervals between 2 and 100 years for any location in the conterminous United States is presented. Optimal parameters of a general rainfall-intensity duration equation are determined using precipitation depths for durations of 5, 10, 15, 30 and 60 minutes obtained from commonly available isopluvial maps. A single set of parameters applies to the entire western U.S. For the central and eastern U.S, a graphical means of determining the parameters is provided.

  12. Duration dependence and heterogeneity in French youth unemployment durations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ours, van Jan C.; Berg, van den G.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper investigates the degree in which the individual exit rate out of unemployment for young job seekers changes as a function of the elapsed unemployment duration. We use a nonparametric estimation method that is designed to be applicable to population data on outflows from different duration

  13. On Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Maribel

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how the concept of reflexivity is used in intercultural education. Reflexivity is often presented as a key learning goal in acquiring intercultural competence (ICC). Yet, reflexivity can be defined in different ways, and take different forms across time and space, depending...... on the concepts of selfhood that prevail and how notions of difference are constructed. First, I discuss how the dominant usages of reflexivity in intercultural education reflect and reproduce a Cartesian view of the self that shapes how ICC is conceptualized and taught. I discuss three assumptions that this view...... in designing learning objectives in intercultural education and in devising ways to attain them. Greater attention is also needed in intercultural education to the ways in which selfhood, and hence also reflexivity and constructions of difference, differ across space and time....

  14. Control of locomotor cycle durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovenko, S; McCrea, D A; Stecina, K; Prochazka, A

    2005-08-01

    In intact animals and humans, increases in locomotor speed are usually associated with decreases in step cycle duration. Most data indicate that the locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) shortens cycle duration mainly by shortening the durations of extensor rather than flexor phases of the step cycle. Here we report that in fictive locomotion elicited by electrical stimulation of the midbrain locomotor region (MLR) in the cat, spontaneous variations in cycle duration were due more to changes in flexor rather than extensor phase durations in 22 of 31 experiments. The locomotor CPG is therefore not inherently extensor- or flexor-biased. We coined the term "dominant" to designate the phase (flexion or extension) showing the larger variation. In a simple half-center oscillator model, experimental phase duration plots were fitted well by adjusting two parameters that corresponded to background drive ("bias") and sensitivity ("gain") of the oscillator's timing elements. By analogy we argue that variations in background drive to the neural timing elements of the CPG could produce larger variations in phase duration in the half-center receiving the lower background drive, i.e., background drive may determine which half-center is dominant. The fact that data from normal cats were also fitted well by the model indicates that sensory input and central drive combine to determine locomotor phase durations. We conclude that there is a considerable flexibility in the control of phase durations in MLR-induced fictive locomotion. We posit that this may be explained by changes in background excitation of neural timing elements in the locomotor CPG.

  15. Synthesizing controllers from duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Duration Calculus is a logic for reasoning about requirements for real-time systems at a high level of abstraction from operational detail, which qualifies it as an interesting starting point for embedded controller design. Such a design activity is generally thought to aim at a control device...... the physical behaviours of which satisfy the requirements formula, i.e. the refinement relation between requirements and implementations is taken to be trajectory inclusion. Due to the abstractness of the vocabulary of Duration Calculus, trajectory inclusion between control requirements and controller designs...... for embedded controller design and exploit this fact for developing an automatic procedure for controller synthesis from specifications formalized in Duration Calculus. As far as we know, this is the first positive result concerning feasibility of automatic synthesis from dense-time Duration Calculus....

  16. TDR Using Autocorrelation and Varying-Duration Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Angel; Mullinex, Pam; Huang, PoTien; Santiago, Josephine; Mata, Carlos; Zavala, Carlos; Lane, John

    2008-01-01

    In an alternative to a prior technique of time-domain-reflectometry (TDR) in which very short excitation pulses are used, the pulses have very short rise and fall times and the pulse duration is varied continuously between a minimum and a maximum value. In both the present and prior techniques, the basic idea is to (1) measure the times between the generation of excitation pulses and the reception of reflections of the pulses as indications of the locations of one or more defects along a cable and (2) measure the amplitudes of the reflections as indication of the magnitudes of the defects. In general, an excitation pulse has a duration T. Each leading and trailing edge of an excitation pulse generates a reflection from a defect, so that a unique pair of reflections is associated with each defect. In the present alternative technique, the processing of the measured reflection signal includes computation of the autocorrelation function R(tau) identical with fx(t)x(t-tau)dt where t is time, x(t) is the measured reflection signal at time t, and taus is the correlation interval. The integration is performed over a measurement time interval short enough to enable identification and location of a defect within the corresponding spatial interval along the cable. Typically, where there is a defect, R(tau) exhibits a negative peak having maximum magnitude for tau in the vicinity of T. This peak can be used as a means of identifying a leading-edge/trailing-edge reflection pair. For a given spatial interval, measurements are made and R(tau) computed, as described above, for pulse durations T ranging from the minimum to the maximum value. The advantage of doing this is that the effective signal-to-noise ratio may be significantly increased over that attainable by use of a fixed pulse duration T.

  17. A Reflective Look at Reflecting Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pender, Rebecca L.; Stinchfield, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    This article reviewed existing literature and research on the reflecting team process. There is a dearth of empirical research that explores the reflecting team process and the outcome of counseling that uses reflecting teams. Implications of using reflecting teams for counselors, counselor educators, and clients will be discussed. A call for…

  18. Rent Control and Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jacob R.; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...

  19. Duration of an Elastic Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…

  20. Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.

  1. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Pool, S. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program addresses a need for more time to perform experiments and other tasks during Space Shuttle missions. As a part of this program, the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) has been instituted to obtain information about physiologic effects of extending mission duration and the effectiveness of countermeasures against factors that might compromise crew health, safety, or performance on extended-duration missions. Only those investigations that address and characterize operational problems, develop countermeasures, or evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures will be pursued. The EDOMP investigations will include flight-associated Detailed Supplementary Objectives as well as ground-based studies simulating the influence of microgravity. Investigator teams have been formed in the following areas: biomedical physiology, cardiovascular and fluid/electrolyte physiology, environmental health, muscle and exercise physiology, and neurophysiology. Major operational questions must be answered in each of these areas, and investigations have been designed to answer them. The EDO program will proceed only after countermeasures have been shown to be effective in preventing or mitigating the adverse changes they have been designed to attenuate. The program is underway and will continue on each Shuttle flight as the manifest builds toward a 16-day orbital flight.

  2. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  3. Sleep duration, asthma and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Mihaela; Polomis, David A; Gangnon, Ronald E; Consens, Flavia B; Chervin, Ronald D; Teodorescu, Mihai C

    2013-11-01

    Obesity is more prevalent in asthmatics. Sleep duration is a novel risk factor for obesity in general populations. We tested the association of sleep duration and asthma characteristics with obesity. Adults at tertiary clinics were surveyed on asthma symptoms and habitual sleep duration. Medical records were used to assess asthma severity step (1-4), extract height and weight, current medications and diagnosed comorbid conditions. BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) defined obesity. Habitual sleep was categorized as 8 to ≤9 h (long) and >9 h (very long). Inhaled corticosteroid doses were categorized as low, moderate and high. Among 611 participants (mean BMI 30 ± 8), 249 (41%) were obese. After adjustment for covariates, obesity was associated with short and very long sleep: as compared to normal sleepers, the odds of being obese were on an average 66% higher ([95% CI: 1.07-2.57], p = 0.02) among short and 124% higher ([1.08-1.65], p = 0.03) among very long sleepers, and the association with very short sleep approached significance (1.74 [0.96-3.14], p = 0.06). Obesity was also significantly related to highest asthma step (1.87 [1.09-3.21], p = 0.02) and psychopathology (1.64 [1.08-2.48], p = 0.02), and a trend was seen with high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (1.82 [0.93-3.56], p = 0.08). Obesity in asthmatics is associated with shorter and very long sleep duration, worse asthma severity, psychopathology and high-dose inhaled corticosteroids. Although this cross-sectional study cannot prove causality, we speculate that further investigation of sleep may provide new opportunities to reduce the rising prevalence of obesity among asthmatics.

  4. Challenging Narcissus, or Reflecting on Reflecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.

    The concept of reflective practice and teaching people to be reflective practitioners is examined. The document begins with a look at professional knowledge according to three prominent professionals in the educational administration field: Schon, Schein, and Achilles. "Reflective" strategies that could be incorporated into courses and…

  5. Unemployment Duration and Sport Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Cabane, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    URL des Documents de travail : http://centredeconomiesorbonne.univ-paris1.fr/documents-de-travail/; Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 2011.49R - ISSN : 1955-611X - Version révisée : Novembre 2013; In this study we use the German Socio-Economic Panel to evaluate the impact of leisure sport participation on the unemployment duration. The empirical literature on sport participation has focused on labour market outcomes and job quality while the impact of this activity on j...

  6. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle eBouman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may modulate whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated before. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to 7 different durations, varying from 100 to 4000ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli.The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. In contrast, the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach

  7. Complexity and Multifractal of Volatility Duration for Agent-Based Financial Dynamics and Real Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ge; Wang, Jun

    2016-11-01

    A random agent-based financial model is developed and investigated by the finite-range multitype contact dynamic system, in an attempt to reproduce and study the dynamics of financial markets. And an analysis method of detecting duration and intensity relationship in volatility series is introduced, called the volatility duration analysis. Then the auto-correlation analysis suggests that there exists evident volatility clustering feature in absolute volatility durations for the simulation data and the real data. Besides, the Lempel-Ziv complexity analysis is applied to study the complexity of the returns, the corresponding absolute returns and the volatility duration returns, which can reflect the fluctuation behaviors, the volatility behaviors and the volatility duration behaviors. At last, the multifractal phenomena of volatility durations of returns are comparatively studied for Shanghai Composite Index and the proposed model by multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis.

  8. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    -specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association......Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within...

  9. Temperature-reflection I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGady, David A.

    2017-01-01

    -temperature path integrals for quantum field theories (QFTs) should be T-reflection invariant. Because multi-particle partition functions are equal to Euclidean path integrals for QFTs, we expect them to be T-reflection invariant. Single-particle partition functions though are often not invariant under T......In this paper, we revisit the claim that many partition functions are invariant under reflecting temperatures to negative values (T-reflection). The goal of this paper is to demarcate which partition functions should be invariant under T-reflection, and why. Our main claim is that finite...... that T-reflection is unrelated to time-reversal. Finally, we study the interplay between T-reflection and perturbation theory in the anharmonic harmonic oscillator in quantum mechanics and in Yang-Mills in four-dimensions. This is the first in a series of papers on temperature-reflections....

  10. Sleep duration and adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Rodriguez, Daniel; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2013-05-01

    Short sleep has been associated with adolescent obesity. Most studies used a cross-sectional design and modeled BMI categories. We sought to determine if sleep duration was associated with BMI distribution changes from age 14 to 18. Adolescents were recruited from suburban high schools in Philadelphia when entering ninth grade (n = 1390) and were followed-up every 6 months through 12th grade. Height and weight were self-reported, and BMIs were calculated (kg/m(2)). Hours of sleep were self-reported. Quantile regression was used to model the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th BMI percentiles as dependent variables; study wave and sleep were the main predictors. BMI increased from age 14 to 18, with the largest increase observed at the 90th BMI percentile. Each additional hour of sleep was associated with decreases in BMI at the 10th (-0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.11, 0.03), 25th (-0.12; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.04), 50th (-0.15; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.06), 75th (-0.25; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.12), and 90th (-0.27; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.09) BMI percentiles. The strength of the association was stronger at the upper tail of the BMI distribution. Increasing sleep from 7.5 to 10.0 hours per day at age 18 predicted a reduction in the proportion of adolescents >25 kg/m(2) by 4%. More sleep was associated with nonuniform changes in BMI distribution from age 14 to 18. Increasing sleep among adolescents, especially those in the upper half of the BMI distribution, may help prevent overweight and obesity.

  11. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  12. Imaging Seismic Reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op 't Root, T.J.P.M.; Op 't Root, Timotheus Johannes Petrus Maria

    2011-01-01

    The goal of reflection seismic imaging is making images of the Earth subsurface using surface measurements of reflected seismic waves. Besides the position and orientation of subsurface reflecting interfaces it is a challenge to recover the size or amplitude of the discontinuities. We investigate

  13. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  14. Factors Influencing Learner Permit Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnathon P. Ehsani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of countries are requiring an extended learner permit prior to independent driving. The question of when drivers begin the learner permit period, and how long they hold the permit before advancing to independent licensure has received little research attention. Licensure timing is likely to be related to “push” and “pull” factors which may encourage or inhibit the process. To examine this question, we recruited a sample of 90 novice drivers (49 females and 41 males, average age of 15.6 years soon after they obtained a learner permit and instrumented their vehicles to collect a range of driving data. Participants completed a series of surveys at recruitment related to factors that may influence licensure timing. Two distinct findings emerged from the time-to-event analysis that tested these push and pull factors in relation to licensure timing. The first can be conceptualized as teens’ motivation to drive (push, reflected in a younger age when obtaining a learner permit and extensive pre-permit driving experience. The second finding was teens’ perceptions of their parents’ knowledge of their activities (pull; a proxy for a parents’ attentiveness to their teens’ lives. Teens who reported higher levels of their parents’ knowledge of their activities took longer to advance to independent driving. These findings suggest time-to-licensure may be related to teens’ internal motivation to drive, and the ability of parents to facilitate or impede early licensure.

  15. Reflections on reducing insulin to lose weigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Val

    Diabulimia is not a recognised medical condition, although it is thought to affect one-third of women with type 1 diabetes. Diabulimia involves deliberately omitting or reducing insulin dosages to lose weight. This article reports the reflections of women with long-duration type 1 diabetes who said that they had manipulated their insulin in the past to lose weight. Many were now dealing with serious heart and neuropathic complications, which they felt were a result of their diabulimia.

  16. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Reflective monitoring of research practices is essential. However, we often lack formal training in the practices of doing action research, and descriptions of actual inquiry practice are seldom included in publications. Our aim is to provide a glimpse of self-reflective practices based on our...... gradually evolved into second-person inquiry. We argue that enacting second-person reflective conversations renders alternative strategies for handling uncertainties through articulation of the tacit assumptions within particular empirical situations. Finally, we argue that reflective conversations should...... a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...

  17. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  18. Media for Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article develops the concept media for reflection in the interest of conceptualizing the interpretative frames that enable and limit reflection in management and leadership education. The concept ‘media for reflection’ allows us to conceptualize the social and cultural mediation of reflection...... of the mediations is analysed as well as the societal and organizational background. Furthermore, the means by which the two media enable and limit reflection in different ways is compared. Finally, the article discusses possible implications of the analysis in terms of management and leadership education....

  19. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  20. Development and comparison of different intensity duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is aimed at developing and comparing different intensity duration frequency models. Twenty three years peak rainstorm intensity data with their corresponding durations was collected from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency, Calabar, Nigeria. Microsoft Excel software was used to develop exponential, ...

  1. Unemployment Duration over the Business Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael

    1996-01-01

    In this paper I study the way in which individual unemployment durations vary over the business cycle, as measured by the aggregate unemployment rate. I decompose the cyclical variations in observed unemployment durations into a composition al and a general part. The compositional part consists o...... unemployment rate) rathan than by changes in the composition of those becoming unemployed.......In this paper I study the way in which individual unemployment durations vary over the business cycle, as measured by the aggregate unemployment rate. I decompose the cyclical variations in observed unemployment durations into a composition al and a general part. The compositional part consists...... of variations in observed as well as unobserved average individual-specific heterogeneity amongst those flowing into unemployment. The main finding is that the major part (but not all) of the variations in unemployment durations is caused by variations in macroeconomic conditions (i.e. in the aggregate...

  2. X-ray induced optical reflectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Durbin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity. Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4, a semiconductor (gallium arsenide, GaAs, and a metal (gold, Au, obtained with ∼100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

  3. Reflective Lifeworld Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-01

    May 1, 2009 ... Reflective Lifeworld Research is a suitable title for a text that argues for, and gives convincing philosophical credence to, a qualitative sensibility in the human sciences. The key concept is 'reflective'. This is a rightful scientific attitude, the implications of which become the main theme of an academic.

  4. Earth's Reflection: Albedo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon; Hamilton, Cheri

    2011-01-01

    When viewing objects of different colors, you might notice that some appear brighter than others. This is because light is reflected differently from various surfaces, depending on their physical properties. The word "albedo" is used to describe how reflective a surface is. The Earth-atmosphere has a combined albedo of about 30%, a number that is…

  5. Reflective Learning in Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockbank, Anne, Ed.; McGill, Ian, Ed.; Beech, Nic, Ed.

    This book contains 22 papers on reflective learning in practice. The following papers are included: "Our Purpose" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "The Nature and Context of Learning" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech); "Reflective Learning and Organizations" (Ann Brockbank, Ian McGill, Nic Beech);…

  6. Reflection: A Socratic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Seggelen – Damen, Inge C. M.; Van Hezewijk, René; Helsdingen, Anne S.; Wopereis, Iwan G. J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Reflection is a fuzzy concept. In this article we reveal the paradoxes involved in studying the nature of reflection. Whereas some scholars emphasize its discursive nature, we go further and underline its resemblance to the self-biased dialogue Socrates had with the slave in Plato’s Meno. The individual and internal nature of the reflection process creates difficulty for studying it validly and reliably. We focus on methodological issues and use Hans Linschoten’s view of coupled systems to identify, analyze, and interpret empirical research on reflection. We argue that researchers and research participants can take on roles in several possible system couplings. Depending on who controls the manipulation of the stimulus, who controls the measuring instrument, who interprets the measurement and the response, different types of research questions can be answered. We conclude that reflection may be validly studied by combining different couplings of experimenter, manipulation, stimulus, participant, measurement, and response. PMID:29249867

  7. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    and physical bodies are constantly broken with technology. Perception and reflection are in synergy. Reflection means etymologically to bend back, to mirror, and to think. My presentation will take its point of departure in this etymology and make perspectives to modern use of refection in digital media. I...... will take a look at the establishing of the modern self and possibilities of self-reflection, too. My examples will be from the so-called dark-selfies and from a new selfie form, which merge the present with the previous progressing into the future. I will discuss the media reflections as loos and/or gain....... As another but short viewpoint telepresence, Skype, will be discussed, where new screen types, presence and reflections are established. In a perspective, I debate my term sore-society in relation to my topic and especially the dark selfies....

  8. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    IntroductionSalutogenesis and posttraumatic growth represent personal growth and improved functioning as a result of experiencing major challenging events. These developments are not simply resilience (a return to a baseline level of well-being), but positive change in such characteristics as self-understanding, relations with others, personal values, and life goals. Space agencies and space psychologists, primarily concerned with deleterious effects and their countermeasures, have not paid much attention to such beneficial long-term aftereffects of spaceflight. PurposeTo document what changes veterans of the Soviet/Russian space program report as a consequence of their experiences. MethodTwenty retired male cosmonauts Mir and/or ISS cosmonauts filled out relevant self-report questionnaires. Results: Although there was little change in the relative rankings of a list of values, the scale showed an overall increase in the rated importance of all personal values, although only the increase in Self-Direction reached statistical significance. Responses to one of two post-space growth questionnaires based on the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were compared to the means of two comparison groups: 152 first-time mothers, and 926 respondents who had experienced various forms of trauma. The cosmonauts reported higher scores on the dimension of New Possibilities when compared to the new mothers and the traumatized group, and higher scores on Personal Strength and Overall PTG compared to the latter. Respondents who had spent more than a year in space, and those who flew on both Mir and ISS, were the most likely to report positive change in the domain Appreciation of Life. The other post-space career questionnaire reflected major changes in Perceptions of the Earth and of Space, and increases on a number of other dimensions, including New Possibilities and Changes in Daily Life, with positive scores that significantly exceeded the original report. DiscussionIt appears

  9. Reflectivity in Research Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigina Mortari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article grounds on the assumption that researchers, in order to be not mere technicians but competent practitioners of research, should be able to reflect in a deep way. That means they should reflect not only on the practical acts of research but also on the mental experience which constructs the meaning about practice. Reflection is a very important mental activity, both in private and professional life. Learning the practice of reflection is fundamental because it allows people to engage into a thoughtful relationship with the world-life and thus gain an awake stance about one’s lived experience. Reflection is a crucial cognitive practice in the research field. Reflexivity is largely practiced in qualitative research, where it is used to legitimate and validate research procedures. This study introduces different perspectives of analysis by focusing the discourse on the main philosophical approaches to reflection: pragmatistic, critical, hermeneutic, and finally phenomenological. The thesis of this study is that the phenomenological theory makes possible to analyze in depth the reflective activity and just by that to support an adequate process of training of the researcher.

  10. Morning Circadian Misalignment during Short Sleep Duration Impacts Insulin Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Robert H; Depner, Christopher M; Perreault, Leigh; Markwald, Rachel R; Smith, Mark R; McHill, Andrew W; Higgins, Janine; Melanson, Edward L; Wright, Kenneth P

    2015-11-16

    Short sleep duration and circadian misalignment are hypothesized to causally contribute to health problems including obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, heart disease, mood disorders, cognitive impairment, and accidents. Here, we investigated the influence of morning circadian misalignment induced by an imposed short nighttime sleep schedule on impaired insulin sensitivity, a precursor to diabetes. Imposed short sleep duration resulted in morning wakefulness occurring during the biological night (i.e., circadian misalignment)-a time when endogenous melatonin levels were still high indicating the internal circadian clock was still promoting sleep and related functions. We show the longer melatonin levels remained high after wake time, insulin sensitivity worsened. Overall, we find a simulated 5-day work week of 5-hr-per-night sleep opportunities and ad libitum food intake resulted in ∼20% reduced oral and intravenous insulin sensitivity in otherwise healthy men and women. Reduced insulin sensitivity was compensated by an increased insulin response to glucose, which may reflect an initial physiological adaptation to maintain normal blood sugar levels during sleep loss. Furthermore, we find that transitioning from the imposed short sleep schedule to 9-hr sleep opportunities for 3 days restored oral insulin sensitivity to baseline, but 5 days with 9-hr sleep opportunities was insufficient to restore intravenous insulin sensitivity to baseline. These findings indicate morning wakefulness and eating during the biological night is a novel mechanism by which short sleep duration contributes to metabolic dysregulation and suggests food intake during the biological night may contribute to other health problems associated with short sleep duration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A progressive-duration schedule of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulotta, Kara B; Byrne, Tom

    2015-12-01

    We describe a schedule of reinforcement involving systematic, within-session increases in response-duration requirements. Rats received access to appetitive reinforcers for depressing and holding down a response lever. Duration requirements increased after each reinforcer delivery. Sessions ended when reinforcement criteria were unmet for a period of ten minutes. Breaking points, defined as the terminal duration requirement in effect prior to the end of the session, stabilized when environmental conditions were held constant. Breaking points were sensitive to manipulations of both food deprivation and reinforcer quality. Analogous to progressive-ratio schedules, progressive-duration schedules may provide an assay for measuring the amount of behavior an organism will emit for a given reinforcer under current motivational conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed fiber reinforced ceramic composites for radiation shielding that can be used for external walls in long duration manned...

  13. Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuutinen, Teija; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether computer use is associated with health symptoms through sleep duration among 15-year olds in Finland, France and Denmark. METHODS: We used data from the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in Finland, France...... and Denmark in 2010, including data on 5,402 adolescents (mean age 15.61 (SD 0.37), girls 53 %). Symptoms assessed included feeling low, irritability/bad temper, nervousness, headache, stomachache, backache, and feeling dizzy. We used structural equation modeling to explore the mediating effect of sleep...... duration on the association between computer use and symptom load. RESULTS: Adolescents slept approximately 8 h a night and computer use was approximately 2 h a day. Computer use was associated with shorter sleep duration and higher symptom load. Sleep duration partly mediated the association between...

  14. Model-Checking Discrete Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    1994-01-01

    Duration calculus was introduced by Chaochen Zhou et al. (1991) as a logic to specify and reason about requirements for real-time systems. It is an extension of interval temporal logic where one can reason about integrated constraints over time-dependent and Boolean valued states without explicit...... mention of absolute time. Several major case studies have shown that duration calculus provides a high level of abstraction for both expressing and reasoning about specifications. Using timed automata one can express how real-time systems can be constructed at a level of detail which is close to an actual...... implementation. We consider in the paper the correctness of timed automata with respect to duration calculus formulae. For a subset of duration calculus, we show that one can automatically verify whether a timed automaton ℳ is correct with respect to a formula 𝒟, abbreviated ℳ|=𝒟, i.e. one...

  15. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590...

  16. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590 spectrophotometer

  17. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  18. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A. [EQE International, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Kennedy, R.P. [RPK Structural Mechanics Consulting, Yorba Linda, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  19. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been some acknowledgement in the published literature that reflection is a crucial element of the evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP model we have adopted (Booth 2004, 2006; Grant 2007; Helliwell 2007. As we work through a problem and try to incorporate the best available evidence into our decision making, reflection is required at several stages, including the very identification of the problem through to our assessment of the process itself and what we have learned in order to inform future practice. However, reflection and reflective writing have not fully been integrated into the process we espouse, and very little has been done to look more closely at this element of the model and how it can be integrated into professional learning.In a recently published research article, Sen (2010 confirms the relationship between reflection and several aspects of professional practice. These include critical review and decision making, two aspects that are tied closely to the evidence based process. Sen notes: Students were more likely to show evidence of learning, self‐development, the ability to review issues crucially, awareness of their own mental functions, ability to make decision [sic] and being empowered when they had mastered the art of reflective practice and the more deeply analytical reflective writing. (p.84 EBLIP (the journal tries to incorporate elements of reflection within the articles we publish. While we clearly believe in the need for our profession to do quality research and publish that research so that it can be accessible to practitioners, we also know that research cannot be looked at in isolation. Our evidence summaries are one way of reflecting critically on previously published research, and in the same vein, our classics bring older research studies back to the foreground. This work needs to continue to be discussed and looked at for its impact on our profession.More directly, the Using

  20. Creation, Identity and Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Beatrice Cheşcă

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper “Creation, Identity and Reflection” approaches the identification in the “mirror” of reality with creation, in other words seeking the authors’ identity in the reflected images. Reflection means attempting to find oneself, the mirror being the main principle of creation. Many characters become interesting only when they step into the world beyond the mirror, when their faces are doubled by the other self or when their selves are returned by other characters. The narcissistic concept of the mirror, i.e. the reflection in the mirror and the representation of the mirror itself, is a recurrent one in literature, but the reflection of the self which is not the self (as it is a reflection does not necessarily appear in a mirror or in a photograph or portrait. Sometimes, the not-self is returned to the self by another person or character. As far as Oscar Wilde’s theories are concerned, the main idea is that people are interesting for their masks, not for their inner nature. What Wilde calls “inner nature” is the characters’ un-reflected self and the mask is the reflection, the self in the mirror. Some characters’ relationships develop within a fiction that they dramatically try to preserve and protect with the risk of suffering. They refuse to take off the masks which define them in the others’ minds and hearts; the narcissistic individuals (both artists and characters seek and love their own image which they project upon facts, thus creating a fictive realm.

  1. Sociosexuality, Morningness–Eveningness, and Sleep Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morningness–eveningness is the preference for different times of day for activity and sleep. Here, we addressed the effects of sleep behavior and morningness–eveningness on sociosexuality. Three hundred students (M age = 22.75 years, with 95% between 18 and 28 participated online, answering questions about morningness–eveningness (rMEQ [Reduced Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire], midpoint of sleep on free days (MSF, sleep duration, and the Sociosexuality Orientation Inventory–Revised (SOI-R. The SOI-R contains three subscales, Behavior, Attitude, and Desire. Evening orientation and short sleep duration were related to a higher total SOI-R and to the three subscales. Based on the linear models, the strongest effect on sociosexuality was produced by gender (27% explained variance while age accounted for 6% of variance. Nonadditive variance explained by sleep–wake behavior was 7% (MSF, 4% (sleep duration, and 4% (rMEQ scores; 3% rMEQ-based typology. Older age was related to less-restricted sociosexuality, and men were less restricted than women in Attitude and Desire. Sleep duration and rMEQ scores were associated with Attitude and Desire; but only MSF was significantly related to Behavior. The data show that sleep–wake variables are associated with sociosexuality, with evening orientation and shorter sleep duration being related to a less-restricted sociosexuality.

  2. The Reflective Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Jørgensen, Ida

    Private foundations and cultural philanthropy by élites is viewed with increasing skepticism in recent years, begging the question of the extent to which foundations reflect on their role vis a vis wider societal norms. Through the prism of the New Carlsberg Foundation, financed by the brewery...... Carlsberg A/S, the paper seeks to elucidate the way in which one culturally significant foundation from Denmark has reflected on - and legitimated - its work and investments at critical moments in the past decades. The paper indicates a foundation with a high degree of reflection on the wider societal...... pressures, and position as a mediator between culture and capital. The paper draws inspiration from the institutional logics perspective and Boltanski and Thévenot’s convention theoretical work, to analyse the legitimations pursued by the foundation....

  3. Auditory stimulus timing influences perceived duration of co-occurring visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eRomei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in multisensory influences upon sensory-specific judgements, such as when auditory stimuli affect visual perception. Here we studied whether the duration of an auditory event can objectively affect the perceived duration of a co-occurring visual event. On each trial, participants were presented with a pair of successive flashes and had to judge whether the first or second was longer. Two beeps were presented with the flashes. The order of short and long stimuli could be the same across audition and vision (audiovisual congruent or reversed, so that the longer flash was accompanied by the shorter beep and vice versa (audiovisual incongruent; or the two beeps could have the same duration as each other. Beeps and flashes could onset synchronously or asynchronously. In a further control experiment, the beep durations were much longer (tripled than the flashes. Results showed that visual duration-discrimination sensitivity (d' was significantly higher for congruent (and significantly lower for incongruent audiovisual synchronous combinations, relative to the visual only presentation. This effect was abolished when auditory and visual stimuli were presented asynchronously, or when sound durations tripled those of flashes. We conclude that the temporal properties of co-occurring auditory stimuli influence the perceived duration of visual stimuli and that this can reflect genuine changes in visual sensitivity rather than mere response bias.

  4. Latent profile approach to duration of stalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Katja; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl; Tolvanen, Asko

    2010-07-01

    Stalking behavior and victim-stalker relationship are often the principal known factors in a stalking case. Thus, they are of great importance when trying to identify factors contributing to stalking duration. The present study aims to identify distinct subgroups of stalking victims based on measures of behavioral stalking dimensions. These victim subgroups, stalking dimensions, and victim-stalker relationship are examined in relation to stalking duration. Using a sample of 137 university students, latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed five distinct victim subgroups based on stalker behavior dimensions: surveillance, low-profile, social lurker, wide scope, and baseline stalkers. The subgroups were significantly related to stalking duration and explained a considerable amount of the variance along with the stalking dimensions and victim-stalker relationship. Connections to stalking literature and utility of person-orientated methods in stalking research are discussed.

  5. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide......Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology...

  6. Reflections on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Reflections on Leadership ROBERT GATES Last year I read Partners in Command, a book by Mark Perry. It is an ac-count of the unique relationship...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Reflections on Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Long War, but the Long War is interested in us. How America’s military and civilian leadership grapples with these transcendent issues and dilemmas will

  7. Invisibility via reflecting coating

    OpenAIRE

    Burdzy, Krzysztof; Kulczycki, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    We construct a subset $A$ of the unit disc with the following properties. (i) The set $A$ is the finite union of disjoint line segments. (ii) The shadow of $A$ is arbitrarily close to the shadow of the unit disc in "most" directions. (iii) If the line segments are considered to be mirrors reflecting light according to the classical law of specular reflection then most light rays hitting the set emerge on the other side of the disc moving along a parallel line and shifted by an arbitrarily sma...

  8. Postscript: Delving into Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Noffke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Although, the authors presented an earlier version of the paper, "The Dimensions of Reflection: A Conceptual and Contextual Analysis", at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, April, 1988, they did not have a chance to publish the paper till today. This postscript is about why the paper stayed as an “unpublished” conference paper for so long. Editors believe that the authors’ reflection on their academic journey with the paper in the postscript could be seen as an outstanding practical exemplar, a moral-political narrative of how to shape and create well-formed academic lives and identities.

  9. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  10. Inverse relationship between sleep duration and myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Donghyun; Morgan, Ian G; Kim, Eun Chul

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the association between sleep duration and myopia. This population-based, cross-sectional study using a nationwide, systemic, stratified, multistage, clustered sampling method included a total of 3625 subjects aged 12-19 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012. All participants underwent ophthalmic examination and a standardized interview including average sleep duration (hr/day), education, physical activity and economic status (annual household income). Refractive error was measured by autorefraction without cycloplegia. Myopia and high myopia were defined as ≤-0.50 dioptres (D) and ≤-6.0 D, respectively. Sleep durations were classified into 5 categories: 9 hr. The overall prevalence of myopia and high myopia were 77.8% and 9.4%, respectively, and the overall sleep duration was 7.1 hr/day. The refractive error increased by 0.10 D per 1 hr increase in sleep after adjusting for potential confounders including sex, age, height, education level, economic status and physical activity. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for refractive error was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-0.97) per 1 hr increase in sleep. The adjusted OR for myopia was decreased in those with >9 hr of sleep (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.38-0.93; p for trend = 0.006) than in those with myopia was not associated with sleep duration. This study provides the population-based, epidemiologic evidence for an inverse relationship between sleep duration and myopia in a representative population of Korean adolescents. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Word-initial letters influence fixation durations during fluent reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Hand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined how word-initial letters influence lexical access during reading. Eye movements were monitored as participants read sentences containing target words. Three factors were independently manipulated. First, target words had either high or low constraining word-initial letter sequences (e.g., dwarf or clown, respectively. Second, targets were either high or low in frequency of occurrence (e.g., train or stain, respectively. Third, targets were embedded in either biasing or neutral contexts (i.e., targets were high or low in their predictability. This 2 (constraint × 2 (frequency × 2 (context design allowed us to examine the conditions under which a word’s initial letter sequence could facilitate processing. Analyses of fixation duration data revealed significant main effects of constraint, frequency, and context. Moreover, in measures taken to reflect early lexical processing (i.e., first and single fixation duration, there was a significant interaction between constraint and context. The overall pattern of findings suggests lexical access is facilitated by highly constraining word-initial letters. Results are discussed in comparison to recent studies of lexical features involved in word recognition during reading.

  12. Self-Reflection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting has a double meaning, mirroring and thinking. The seminar will investigate how these two meanings intervene in each other. As we perceive we are already in pre-refectory state, and thinking involves a lot of not only thoughts, but also of senses and sensing, wherefrom our thoughts star...

  13. Value reflected health education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Nordentoft, Helle Merete

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a value-reflected approach in health education by demonstrating the nature of professional competence development connected to this approach. It is based on findings from two three-year health educational development projects carried out by school health nurses...... develop pedagogical competences in health education improving school childrens’ health....

  14. Reflection on Political Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    This article compares how Members of Parliament in the United Kingdom and Ireland reflect on constituency service as an aspect of political representation. It differs from existing research on the constituency role of MPs in two regards. First, it approaches the question from a sociological...

  15. Reflections on Software Research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 8. Reflections on Software Research. Dennis M Ritchie. Classics Volume 17 Issue 8 August 2012 pp 810-816. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/08/0810-0816. Author Affiliations.

  16. Reflections on "La Esperanza"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The author was recently asked to reflect on her "educational journey." As far as she can remember she has been hungry to learn. A friend once described her as having "hambres atrasadas," which he described as a kind of "hunger nipping at her heels." It goes back, of course, to her parents: Her father's and her early…

  17. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...... wave overtopping was studied as well....

  18. Teaching as Reflective Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Rosa L.; Wyrick, Amy M.

    This paper describes a method of reflective practice called "critical incident" which was used to examine teacher trainees' educational assumptions. A qualitative case study of one fifth-year teaching intern (Amy) at the University of Tennessee represents the experience of seven other master's level students already practicing within the…

  19. Reflectance Hashing for Material Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hang; Dana, Kristin; Nishino, Ko

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for using reflectance to identify materials. Reflectance offers a unique signature of the material but is challenging to measure and use for recognizing materials due to its high-dimensionality. In this work, one-shot reflectance is captured using a unique optical camera measuring {\\it reflectance disks} where the pixel coordinates correspond to surface viewing angles. The reflectance has class-specific stucture and angular gradients computed in this reflectance sp...

  20. Perception of duration in the parvocellular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Marco eCicchini

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Both theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that duration perception is mediated preferentially by the colour-blind but high temporally sensitive luminance pathway. In this experiment we tested whether colour modulated stimuli and high spatial frequency luminance modulated stimuli, which are known to be relayed mostly by the slow parvocellular system, are able to elicit reliable sense of duration. We show that ramped colour modulated stimuli seem to last less than luminance modulated stimuli matched for visibility. The effect is large, about 200 ms and is constant at all durations tested (range 500 - 1100 ms. However high spatial frequency luminance stimuli obtain duration matches similar to those of low spatial frequency luminance modulated stimuli. The results at various levels of contrast and temporal smoothing indicate that equiluminant stimuli have higher contrast thresholds to activate the mechanisms which time visual stimuli. Overall the results imply that both the magnocellular and the parvocellular systems access reliably the timing mechanisms with a difference only in the way these are engaged.

  1. Duration of therapy – Does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Schmidt, Lotte; Bojesen, Anders Bo; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2018-01-01

    across studies. Treatment outcome was defined as long-term alcohol use measured in percentage of days abstinent (PDA), percentage of heavy days drinking (PHD), and/or proportion of participants abstinent (ABS). Results 48 studies encompassing 8984 participants. Mean planned duration of therapy: 18 (8...

  2. Modeling Change in Project Duration and Completion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Pirtle, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    simultaneous change in percent complete and estimated duration for a given project as they were included in monthly reports over time. In short, we utilized latent change score mixture modeling to extract the attractor dynamics within the scheduling data. We found three primarily patterns: an attractor at low...

  3. Preventive maintenance at opportunities of restricted duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dekker (Rommert); E. Smeitink

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThis article deals with the problem of setting priorities for the execution of maintenance packages at randomly occurring opportunities. These opportunities are of restricted duration, implying that only a limited number of packages can be executed. The main idea proposed is to set up a

  4. Mortality associated with sleep duration and insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripke, Daniel F; Garfinkel, Lawrence; Wingard, Deborah L; Klauber, Melville R; Marler, Matthew R

    2002-02-01

    Patients often complain about insufficient sleep or chronic insomnia in the belief that they need 8 hours of sleep. Treatment strategies may be guided by what sleep durations predict optimal survival and whether insomnia might signal mortality risks. In 1982, the Cancer Prevention Study II of the American Cancer Society asked participants about their sleep duration and frequency of insomnia. Cox proportional hazards survival models were computed to determine whether sleep duration or frequency of insomnia was associated with excess mortality up to 1988, controlling simultaneously for demographics, habits, health factors, and use of various medications. Participants were more than 1.1 million men and women from 30 to 102 years of age. The best survival was found among those who slept 7 hours per night. Participants who reported sleeping 8 hours or more experienced significantly increased mortality hazard, as did those who slept 6 hours or less. The increased risk exceeded 15% for those reporting more than 8.5 hours sleep or less than 3.5 or 4.5 hours. In contrast, reports of "insomnia" were not associated with excess mortality hazard. As previously described, prescription sleeping pill use was associated with significantly increased mortality after control for reported sleep durations and insomnia. Patients can be reassured that short sleep and insomnia seem associated with little risk distinct from comorbidities. Slight risks associated with 8 or more hours of sleep and sleeping pill use need further study. Causality is unproven.

  5. Relationship between Duration of Diagnosis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between Duration of Diagnosis and Neuromusculoskeletal Complications of Middle-Aged Type 2 Diabetes Patients. ... of skin of the feet and higher level of foot pain. Immediate therapeutic exercises against these complications soon after diagnosis of diabetes may help to decelerate their progression.

  6. Extracting infrared absolute reflectance from relative reflectance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berets, Susan L; Milosevic, Milan

    2012-06-01

    Absolute reflectance measurements are valuable to the optics industry for development of new materials and optical coatings. Yet, absolute reflectance measurements are notoriously difficult to make. In this paper, we investigate the feasibility of extracting the absolute reflectance from a relative reflectance measurement using a reference material with known refractive index.

  7. Reflecting differently. New dimensions: reflection-before-action and reflection-beyond-action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Edwards

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: This article attempts to move reflection forward from a process currently identified as two-dimensional (reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action to a four-dimensional process by adding reflection-before-action and reflection-beyond-action. In nursing clinical practice reflection-in-action is the required skill, but reflection-on-action is often advocated in nurse education through the application of reflective models in assignments. Nurse education draws on practice but generally, when using reflective practice, applies some sort of method or guide to direct student learning. This approach does not fully recognise that much learning arises from individual students’ own clinical practice experiences. The notion that undertaking reflection-on-action assignments develops the reflection-in-action skills needed for clinical practice is not demonstrated in the literature. Yet it is reflection-in-action that can aid professional practice and enhance learning. This is why it is important to explore a broader approach to reflection. Aims: To show more value can be gained from engaging with two additional dimensions of reflection – those of reflection-before-action and reflection-beyond-action, and to demonstrate how these can be linked to the better known concepts reflection-in-action and reflection-on-action, and to the author’s doctoral research, practice experience and practice development activities. Findings: Nursing reflection-on-action is widely used for a range of purposes, but restricting reflection in nurse education to this neglects the full potential of a broader application of reflection. A lifelong application of reflection can demonstrate its value for a more holistic and practical development approach. Conclusions: This article expands reflection and provides two additional dimensions. Instead of identifying reflection as two-dimensional, this article proposes that reflection can better serve learning from practice

  8. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  9. Landsat surface reflectance data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    Landsat satellite data have been produced, archived, and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey since 1972. Users rely on these data for historical study of land surface change and require consistent radiometric data processed to the highest science standards. In support of the guidelines established through the Global Climate Observing System, the U.S. Geological Survey has embarked on production of higher-level Landsat data products to support land surface change studies. One such product is Landsat surface reflectance.

  10. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  11. Effects of Rainfall Intensity and Duration on the First Flush from Parking Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C. Schiff

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban stormwater with large impervious (paved areas often produces runoff with a variety of contaminants. Although southern California is among the most urbanized coastal areas in the United States, the effect of rainfall variations on washoff efficiency of contaminants from pervious and impervious surfaces is largely unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of varying rainfall intensities and duration on runoff composition from highly impervious parking lots. In order to control the tremendous natural variability in precipitation of the arid climate in southern California, rainfall simulators were used to generate and quantify pollutant washoff at changing intensities and durations. Washoff of suspended solids, total and dissolved trace metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was strongly inversely correlated with rainfall duration. Rainfall intensity only affected washoff at the smallest measured duration; higher intensities produced decreased concentrations. The effect of rainfall duration was a reflection of the first flush observed in pollutographs for every duration and intensity sampled. Peak concentrations, up to an order of magnitude higher than concentrations later in the event, occurred during the first 10 min after the onset of rainfall. Longer simulated storms effectively diluted the first flush.

  12. Predicting the duration of the Syrian insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there were several relatively short uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, the dispute between the rebels and government forces in Syria has evolved into a full-scale civil war. We try to predict the length of the Syrian insurgency with a three-stage technique. Using out-of-sample techniques, we first assess the predictive capacity of 69 explanatory variables for insurgency duration. After determining the model with the highest predictive power, we categorize Syria according to the variables in this final model. Based on in-sample approaches, we then predict the duration of the Syrian uprising for three different scenarios. The most realistic point prediction is 5.12 years from the insurgency’s start, which suggests an end date between the end of 2016 and early 2017.

  13. Expectation, information processing, and subjective duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2018-01-01

    In research on psychological time, it is important to examine the subjective duration of entire stimulus sequences, such as those produced by music (Teki, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 2016). Yet research on the temporal oddball illusion (according to which oddball stimuli seem longer than standard stimuli of the same duration) has examined only the subjective duration of single events contained within sequences, not the subjective duration of sequences themselves. Does the finding that oddballs seem longer than standards translate to entire sequences, such that entire sequences that contain oddballs seem longer than those that do not? Is this potential translation influenced by the mode of information processing-whether people are engaged in direct or indirect temporal processing? Two experiments aimed to answer both questions using different manipulations of information processing. In both experiments, musical sequences either did or did not contain oddballs (auditory sliding tones). To manipulate information processing, we varied the task (Experiment 1), the sequence event structure (Experiments 1 and 2), and the sequence familiarity (Experiment 2) independently within subjects. Overall, in both experiments, the sequences that contained oddballs seemed shorter than those that did not when people were engaged in direct temporal processing, but longer when people were engaged in indirect temporal processing. These findings support the dual-process contingency model of time estimation (Zakay, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 54, 656-664, 1993). Theoretical implications for attention-based and memory-based models of time estimation, the pacemaker accumulator and coding efficiency hypotheses of time perception, and dynamic attending theory are discussed.

  14. Power Systems Design for Long Duration Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilwell, Bryan; Chuzel, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility has been designing and building high-altitude balloon power systems for over 26 years. With that experience, we have found certain types of PV panels, batteries, and charge controllers that are reliable in stratospheric environments. The ultimate goal is to ensure that power systems will provide power reliably throughout the duration of an LDB flight. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines and best practices for power system design.

  15. Preventive maintenance at opportunities of restricted duration

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, R.; Smeitink, E.

    1991-01-01

    textabstractThis article deals with the problem of setting priorities for the execution of maintenance packages at randomly occurring opportunities. These opportunities are of restricted duration, implying that only a limited number of packages can be executed. The main idea proposed is to set up a model for determining the optimal execution time for the individual maintenance packages and to develop cost criteria for deviations from the optimal time. In this article we use the block replacem...

  16. Unemployment Insurance and Job Duration in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Christofides, Louis N; McKenna, C J

    1996-01-01

    The authors use data from the Canadian two-year longitudinal Labour Market Activity Survey of 1986-87 to estimate the effect of the Unemployment Insurance (UI) system on job duration. Particular attention is focused on the 'entrance requirements' of the UI system, which relate eligibility for UI benefits to an individual's recent employment history. The article makes operational the UI entrance requirement provisions which take into account variations in the regional unemployment rate. Contro...

  17. Modeling and forecasting persistent financial durations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žikeš, F.; Baruník, Jozef; Shenai, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2017), s. 1081-1110 ISSN 0747-4938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-32263S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Long memory * multifractal models * price durations * realized volatility * whittle estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/barunik-0478483.pdf

  18. Modeling and Forecasting Persistent Financial Durations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žikeš, F.; Baruník, Jozef; Shenai, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2017), s. 1081-1110 ISSN 0747-4938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-32263S EU Projects: European Commission 612955 - FINMAP Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : price durations * long memory * multifractal models * realized volatility * Whittle estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0434201.pdf

  19. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration.

  20. An unexpected increase in restraint duration alters the expression of stress response habituation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Rachael R.; Spencer, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    -fos mRNA expression in key stress responsive brain regions and the behavioral and endocrine response to increased stressor duration. This dissociation may have been due to a greater lag time for c-fos mRNA responses to reflect the impact of a dishabituation response. In conclusion, habituation of the endocrine and behavioral stress response occurred when the duration of the stressor matches previous experience, while dishabituation of the stress response was triggered (with remarkable temporal precision) by an unexpected increase in stress duration. PMID:23566924

  1. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  2. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2012-09-12

    Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (2 December 2011), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 November 2011) and Scopus (January 1985 to 30 November 2011). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We included 19 studies with 8506 women in the review and 16 studies involving 8262 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not carry out any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison.Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation.Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF.Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not significantly better than a single intervention in initiating or increasing BF duration. However, in one trial a combined BF education significantly reduced nipple pain and trauma.One study compared different combinations of interventions. There was a marginally

  3. Global South: Anthropological Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna; Kalb, Don

    2015-01-01

    The global south is a complex and dynamic concept that straddles multiple social science and humanist disciplines. Emerging around 2000, it reflects the agenda of two ascending forces in those years: the antiglobalist (alterglobalist/global justice) movement and the World Social Forum, on the one...... hand, and an alliance of Southern states within the World Trade Organization on the other. Generally seen as an inheritor of the emancipatory thought behind the notion of the ‘third world,’ in the social sciences the idea of the ‘global south’ is also entangled with more classical academic themes...

  4. Price duration versus trading volume in high-frequency data for selected DAX companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Mitterer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The properties of the time series of durations between consecutive trades of a particular stock have been studied by many contributors in the literature of financial econometrics. Among them are highly prominent scientists like Engle (2000 and Gourieroux and Jasiak (2001. The importance of this topic, accompanied by the growing availability of (ultra-high-frequency data, has prompted an increase of contributions in recent years. Intensive research based on high-frequency data has several financial motivations. First of all, it is linked with microstructure theory. Secondly, it contributes to the literature on stochastic time deformation. But the most important need for research on the dynamics of trade durations is the necessity to manage liquidity risk. The reason is that durations between the following trades are a widely accepted measures of market liquidity. In addition, their volatility reflects the liquidity risk.

  5. Matter reflects Antimatter

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A.; Cristiano, A.; Leali, M.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Venturelli, L.; Zurlo, N.

    2008-01-01

    It is common belief that the interaction between antimatter and ordinary solid matter is dominated by annihilation. However, non-destructive processes may play a relevant role too. One century ago E. Rutherford wrote about the "diffuse reflection" of alpha and beta particles by thin layers of different metals: "The observations ... of Geiger and Marsden on the scattering of alpha rays indicate that some of the alpha particles must suffer a deflexion of more than a right angle at a single encounter.... It will be shown that the main deductions from the theory are independent of whether the central charge is supposed to be positive or negative". Although the theory of electromagnetic scattering is in first approximation independent of the relative sign of the colliding particles, in the case where projectile antiprotons are shot against a wall of solid matter the Rutherford diffuse reflection mechanism competes with the annihilation process. So it is not obvious at all that a relevant part of an antiproton beam...

  6. Reflection on photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Gabrielle; McMurray, Anne

    2009-11-01

    Nursing students' exposure to clinical placements with older adults is instrumental in helping them adopt positive attitudes toward care of that population. This qualitative pilot study analyzed perceptions and expectations of a group of first-year students prior to a clinical placement with older adults. A photo-elicitation technique, involving viewing of realistic photographs of older adults being cared for, was used to help students clarify expectations. This was followed by thematic analysis of their perceptions and expectations. Analysis revealed five main themes: Dissecting What It Means to Be a Nurse, Revisioning Therapeutic Relationships in Terms of Dignity, Youthful Reflection on the Differences Between Young and Old, Feeling Challenged and Confronted, and Experiencing Sensitivity and Awkwardness Toward Older Adults' Nakedness. Engagement with images of older adults encouraged students to anticipate their clinical placement in an aged care setting in a more meaningful, reflective way than they may have done without prior exposure, suggesting a need for realistic pre-practice education. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Fostering and evaluating reflective capacity in medical education: developing the REFLECT rubric for assessing reflective writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Hedy S; Borkan, Jeffrey M; Taylor, Julie Scott; Anthony, David; Reis, Shmuel P

    2012-01-01

    Reflective writing (RW) curriculum initiatives to promote reflective capacity are proliferating within medical education. The authors developed a new evaluative tool that can be effectively applied to assess students' reflective levels and assist with the process of providing individualized written feedback to guide reflective capacity promotion. Following a comprehensive search and analysis of the literature, the authors developed an analytic rubric through repeated iterative cycles of development, including empiric testing and determination of interrater reliability, reevaluation and refinement, and redesign. Rubric iterations were applied in successive development phases to Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University students' 2009 and 2010 RW narratives with determination of intraclass correlations (ICCs). The final rubric, the Reflection Evaluation for Learners' Enhanced Competencies Tool (REFLECT), consisted of four reflective capacity levels ranging from habitual action to critical reflection, with focused criteria for each level. The rubric also evaluated RW for transformative reflection and learning and confirmatory learning. ICC ranged from 0.376 to 0.748 for datasets and rater combinations and was 0.632 for the final REFLECT iteration analysis. The REFLECT is a rigorously developed, theory-informed analytic rubric, demonstrating adequate interrater reliability, face validity, feasibility, and acceptability. The REFLECT rubric is a reflective analysis innovation supporting development of a reflective clinician via formative assessment and enhanced crafting of faculty feedback to reflective narratives.

  8. An investigation into the strength of the association and agreement levels between subjective and objective sleep duration in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Arora

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVES: The majority of adolescent sleep research has utilized self-reported sleep duration and some have based information on a solitary question. Whilst some have claimed to have validated sleep survey data with objective actigraphy measures in adolescents, the statistical approach applied only demonstrates the strength of the association between subjective and objective sleep duration data and does not reflect if these different methods actually agree. METHODS: Data were collected as part of the Midlands Adolescents Schools Sleep Education Study (MASSES. Adolescents (n=225 aged 11-13 years provided estimates for weekday, weekend and combined sleep duration based on self-reported survey data, a 7-day sleep diary, and wrist-worn actigraphy. RESULTS: We assessed the strength of the relationship as well as agreement levels between subjective and objectively determined sleep duration (weekday, weekend and combined. Subjective diary sleep duration was significantly correlated with actigraphy estimates for weekday and weekend sleep duration r=0.30, p ≤ 0.001 and r=0.31, p ≤ 0.001 respectively. Pitman's test demonstrated no significant difference in the variance between weekend sleep duration (r=0.09, p=0.16 and combined sleep duration (r=0.12, p=0.08 indicating acceptable agreement between actigraphy and sleep diary sleep duration only. Self-reported sleep duration estimates (weekday, weekend and combined did not agree with actigraphy determined sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep diaries are a cost-effective alternative to survey/questionnaire data. Self-reported measures of sleep duration in adolescents do not agree with actigraphy measures and should be avoided where possible. Previous adolescent sleep studies that have utilized self-reported survey data may not provide a complete representation of sleep on the outcome measure of interest.

  9. Analysis of Silverized Teflon Thermal Control Material Flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pippin, H. Gary

    1995-01-01

    Silver backed teflon (Ag/FEP) material used for thermal control on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has been examined in detail. Optical, mechanical, and chemical properties were characterized for specimens exposed to a variety of space environmental conditions. Recession rates were determined for this material. Samples were obtained from virtually every LDEF location except the Earth-end. Atomic oxygen exposed regions changed from specular to diffusely reflective.

  10. Effects of duration of Organic farming practice on vegetation in Danish field boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, S.; Axelsen, J.A.; Tybirk, K.; Aude, E.; Vestergaard, P.

    2006-01-01

    Enrichment of biological diversity is assumed to reflect good ecosystem integrity. The aim of the study presented here was primarily to observe, whether organic dairy farming increases the biological diversity of field boundary vegetation when compared to conventional dairy farming. Secondly, the aim was to consider if increasing duration of the organic farming period also increases diversity. Thirdly, ecological interpretations of the data were given by comparing organic and conventional fie...

  11. Loss aversion and duration of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Morrison

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of internal migration ask who moves, why they move, and what are the consequences - to themselves, their origin, and their destination. By contrast, studies of those who stay for very long durations are less common, despite the fact that most people move relatively infrequently. Objective: We argue that staying is the dominant, preferred state and that moving is simply an adjustment toward a desired state of stability (or equilibrium. The core of our argument, already recognized in the literature, is that migration is risky. However, we extend the argument to loss aversion as developed within prospect theory. Prospect theory posits that existing possessions, including the dwelling and existing commodities, are attributed a value well beyond their purchase price and that this extends the average period of staying among the loss-averse. Methods: Applying prospect theory has several challenges, including measurement of the reference point and potential degrees of gain and loss households face in deciding to change residence, as well as their own degree of loss aversion. The growing number of large panel sets should make it possible to estimate the degree to which endowment effects are likely to extend durations of residence as predicted by prospect theory. Conclusions: Rational expectations models of mobility focus on the changes in the level of consumption of residential services. By contrast, prospect theory focuses on potential gains and losses relative to the existing dwelling - the reference point. As we confront increasing durations of residence in contemporary society, an application of prospect theory is likely to yield important advantages over existing models of mobility and staying.

  12. Sleep quality, duration, and breast cancer aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucise, Allison; Vaughn, Caila; Thompson, Cheryl L; Millen, Amy E; Freudenheim, Jo L; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Phipps, Amanda I; Hale, Lauren; Qi, Lihong; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M

    2017-07-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that short sleep duration and poor sleep quality may increase breast cancer risk. However, whether sleep is associated with breast tumor aggressiveness characteristics has largely been unexplored. The study included 4171 non-Hispanic whites (NHW) and 235 African Americans (AA) diagnosed with incident, primary, invasive breast cancer in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (1994-2013). We used logistic regression to examine the association of baseline sleep (sleep duration, sleep quality, WHI Insomnia Rating Scale) with tumor grade, stage, hormone receptor status, HER2 status. In NHW, women who reported 6 h of sleep/night were more likely to have tumors classified as regional/distant stage at diagnosis compared to women who slept 7-8 h/night (adjusted odds ratio (OR): 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.48). AA women who reported their typical night's sleep as 'average quality' or 'restless or very restless sleep' were more likely to be diagnosed with triple-negative tumors than those who reported 'sound or restful' sleep (adjusted ORs: 2.91 (1.11, 7.63) and 3.74 (1.10, 12.77), respectively). Our findings provide indications that aspects of sleep (sleep duration and quality), partially modifiable health behaviors, may be associated with development of aggressive tumor characteristics in postmenopausal women. The role of these sleep attributes may differ for NHW and AA women; however, further study in robust, racial diverse samples is needed. This study provides evidence that facets of sleep behavior are associated with the development of aggressive tumor features and these associations differ by race.

  13. Speaker-specific variability of phoneme durations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, CJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available . The hypothesis that was to be tested was that phonemes tend to vary in classes. There were five phoneme classes: stops, fricatives & affricates, nasals, semivowels & glides and vowels. 4.3. Experiment 3 Experiment 2 was repeated, but instead of using phoneme... certain phonemes. 4.4. Experiment 4 For every speaker 50 duration estimates were done. Every es- timation entailed three vowels and three consonants to be esti- mated simultaneously, with the rest of the observed phonemes given as data to the ML...

  14. Competing Risks Copula Models for Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Simon M. S.; Stephan, Gesine; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The copula graphic estimator (CGE) for competing risks models has received little attention in empirical research, despite having been developed into a comprehensive research method. In this paper, we bridge the gap between theoretical developments and applied research by considering a general...... class of competing risks copula models, which nests popular models such as the Cox proportional hazards model, the semiparametric multivariate mixed proportional hazards model (MMPHM), and the CGE as special cases. Analyzing the effects of a German Hartz reform on unemployment duration, we illustrate...

  15. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  16. Teachers’ way of reflecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lea

    2016-01-01

    of the Danish study was to investigate and understand teachers’ classroom experiences using Fenstermacher’s approach to develop a practical argument, as these classroom experiences are regarded as a potential source of learning for teachers. A three-level scale model from the study describes the teach-ers......’ reflections on practice. Based on this model, the paper provides a proposal regarding how to work with teachers’ professional development and learning processes. Educational implications and future research directions are discussed.......This paper contributes to insights on teachers’ thinking and practice by building partly on the large amount of prior research in the field of continuing professional development (in line with ISATT), and partly on examples from an empirical small-scale study executed in Denmark. The purpose...

  17. Reflections on conformal spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungrok; Kravchuk, Petr [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Caltech,Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Ooguri, Hirosi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Caltech,Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-04-29

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ{sub 0} of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ{sub 0} as well as for large Δ{sub 0}. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function.

  18. Reflecting Contemporary Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm, Ida

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present paper addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose......, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The paper’s underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition......; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the paper discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets...

  19. Reflections on Conformal Spectra

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We use modular invariance and crossing symmetry of conformal field theory to reveal approximate reflection symmetries in the spectral decompositions of the partition function in two dimensions in the limit of large central charge and of the four-point function in any dimension in the limit of large scaling dimensions Δ0 of external operators. We use these symmetries to motivate universal upper bounds on the spectrum and the operator product expansion coefficients, which we then derive by independent techniques. Some of the bounds for four-point functions are valid for finite Δ0 as well as for large Δ0. We discuss a similar symmetry in a large spacetime dimension limit. Finally, we comment on the analogue of the Cardy formula and sparse light spectrum condition for the four-point function. (based on 1510.08772 with Kim & Ooguri). This seminar will be given via videolink

  20. Reflections on academic video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thommy Eriksson

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As academics we study, research and teach audiovisual media, yet rarely disseminate and mediate through it. Today, developments in production technologies have enabled academic researchers to create videos and mediate audiovisually. In academia it is taken for granted that everyone can write a text. Is it now time to assume that everyone can make a video essay? Using the online journal of academic videos Audiovisual Thinking and the videos published in it as a case study, this article seeks to reflect on the emergence and legacy of academic audiovisual dissemination. Anchoring academic video and audiovisual dissemination of knowledge in two critical traditions, documentary theory and semiotics, we will argue that academic video is in fact already present in a variety of academic disciplines, and that academic audiovisual essays are bringing trends and developments that have long been part of academic discourse to their logical conclusion.

  1. Quantitative Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted A.G. Steemers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperspectral imaging is a non-destructive optical analysis technique that can for instance be used to obtain information from cultural heritage objects unavailable with conventional colour or multi-spectral photography. This technique can be used to distinguish and recognize materials, to enhance the visibility of faint or obscured features, to detect signs of degradation and study the effect of environmental conditions on the object. We describe the basic concept, working principles, construction and performance of a laboratory instrument specifically developed for the analysis of historical documents. The instrument measures calibrated spectral reflectance images at 70 wavelengths ranging from 365 to 1100 nm (near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared. By using a wavelength tunable narrow-bandwidth light-source, the light energy used to illuminate the measured object is minimal, so that any light-induced degradation can be excluded. Basic analysis of the hyperspectral data includes a qualitative comparison of the spectral images and the extraction of quantitative data such as mean spectral reflectance curves and statistical information from user-defined regions-of-interest. More sophisticated mathematical feature extraction and classification techniques can be used to map areas on the document, where different types of ink had been applied or where one ink shows various degrees of degradation. The developed quantitative hyperspectral imager is currently in use by the Nationaal Archief (National Archives of The Netherlands to study degradation effects of artificial samples and original documents, exposed in their permanent exhibition area or stored in their deposit rooms.

  2. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  3. Parietaria pollination duration: myth or fact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariano, R; Cecchi, L; Voltolini, S; Quercia, O; Scopano, E; Ciprandi, G

    2017-01-01

    Background. Even though the Parietaria pollen season may be rather long, it is commonly thought that Parietaria pollen is a perennial allergen present along the whole year. Objective. This study aimed at investigating the duration of Parietaria pollen season during a 10-year period in Italy, analysing also the annual pollen quantity and the differences among geographical areas. Methods. Pollen count was assessed daily for 10 years. Globally, ten Italian centers measured Parietaria pollen count. Start date, peak date, end date, duration (days), peak value, and seasonal pollen index were evaluated in each center. Results. Ten-year Parietaria pollen count demonstrates that the pollen season usually lasted for 6-7 months in Italy. There are important differences among centres, mainly attributable to geoclimatic factors. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that Parietaria pollen season lasts about 6-7 months with two peaks (mainly in spring and lower in autumn) in Italy with important geographical variations. This information may have clinical relevance in managing patients allergic to Parietaria.

  4. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5 ± 69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Bidirectional reflectance of zinc oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to determine original and useful information about the bidirection reflectance of zinc oxide. The bidirectional reflectance will be studied for the spectra between .25-2.5 microns and the hemisphere above the specimen. The following factors will be considered: (1) surface conditions; (2) specimen preparation; (3) specimen substrate, (4) polarization; (5) depolarization; (6) wavelength; and (7) angles of incident and reflection. The bidirectional reflectance will be checked by experimentally determined angular hemispherical measurements or hemispherical measurements will be used to obtain absolute bidirectional reflectance.

  6. Estimating potential diapause duration in Calanus finmarchicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumweber, Whitley J.; Durbin, Edward G.

    2006-11-01

    Deep basins in the Gulf of Maine act as refuge for a large population of diapausing Calanus finmarchicus during the summer and fall. This population acts as the primary seed population for Georges Bank in the spring and is thought to be composed primarily of individuals that developed during the previous spring bloom. The factors affecting growth and mortality in the summer-fall population are not well understood, however, and loss terms from advection and starvation may be large. To assess the potential energetic limitation and loss of C. finmarchicus from the Gulf of Maine basins, a new nitrogen-specific respiration model has been developed for the resting stage of the species. Stage C5 C. finmarchicus were collected during July, September, and December 2003 from Wilkinson and Georges Basins. Animals were collected using both MOCNESS tows and zooplankton samplers on the Johnson Sea Link II submersible. Metabolic rates were measured using a Micro-Oxymax gas analyzer and Winkler incubation techniques both at sea and on animals kept in culture on shore. Respiration rates measured in the field were not significantly different from those measured on shore, with a mean of 130 μmol O 2 gN -1 h -1 (14.4 μmol O 2 gC -1 h -1) at 0 °C and a Q10 of 2.77 (2.58 for carbon-specific respiration). Using the nitrogen-specific rates in conjunction with visual estimates of nitrogen weight and lipid stores, we derived a discrete function for predicting potential diapause duration based on an animal's length, oil sac volume, and the in situ temperature. The maximum potential diapause duration for a C5 C. finmarchicus is predicted to range from 280 days at 0 °C to approximately 90 days at 11 °C. The maximum potential diapause duration in the Gulf of Maine is predicted to be between 3.5 and 5.5 months. These results suggest that energetic limitation may play a role in controlling the population dynamics of diapausing C. finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine. A reassessment of the

  7. Holographic reflector for reflective LCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Atsushi; Murillo-Mora, Luis M.; Iwata, Fujio

    1997-05-01

    We describe a new holographic optical element to improve the image's quality of a reflective liquid crystal displays (LCDs). This new holographic reflector consists basically of 2 layers: a volume type transmission hologram layer and a metallic reflection layer. Compared with conventional reflectors for reflective LCDs, a high optical efficiency can be obtained because the hologram is able to concentrate the reflected light to the observer's eyes. Also, it avoids the problems of glare in the LCDs by deviating the reflected incident light (used for display) away from the direction of the direct reflection light. The transmission hologram's low wavelength selectivity permits us to obtain a near white color reflector for reflective LCDs which for multiple applications is the preferable color for the background.

  8. The Reflective Methodologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Bjørg

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways. In this ......In recent years, a focus on inclusion and vulnerable children has reignited discussions about the quality of pedagogical work. It has also initiated processes of change that have challenged the Danish kindergarten tradition and the identity of the pedagogue in a number of different ways...... in which the practical sense and tacit knowledge are related to questions of power and social actors’ strategies for positioning themselves within a social space. This demands a particular focus on the historical effect of the concept of ‘the reflective practitioner’ as a symbolic marker of identity...... in the cultural logic of the pedagogical field. I also address the way in which this logic considers practice to be the exponent of all that is good, meaningful and correct. My use of Schön’s concept also serves to illuminate that it has been a theoretical source of inspiration, which has undergone so many...

  9. Characteristics of retinal reflectance changes induced by transcorneal electrical stimulation in cat eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morimoto

    Full Text Available Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES activates retinal neurons leading to visual sensations. How the retinal cells are activated by TES has not been definitively determined. Investigating the reflectance changes of the retina is an established technique and has been used to determine the mechanism of retinal activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reflectance changes elicited by TES in cat eyes. Eight eyes of Eight cats were studied under general anesthesia. Biphasic electrical pulses were delivered transcornealy. The fundus images observed with near-infrared light (800-880 nm were recorded every 25 ms for 26 s. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the images of 10 consecutive recordings were averaged. Two-dimensional topographic maps of the reflective changes were constructed by subtracting images before from those after the TES. The effects of different stimulus parameters, e.g., current intensity, pulse duration, frequency, and stimulus duration, on the reflective changes were studied. Our results showed that after TES, the reflective changes appeared on the retinal vessels and optic disc. The intensity of reflectance changes increased as the current intensity, pulse duration, and stimulation duration increased (P<0.05 for all. The maximum intensity of the reflective change was obtained when the stimulus frequency was 20 Hz. The time course of the reflectance changes was also altered by the stimulation parameters. The response started earlier and returned to the baseline later with higher current intensities, longer pulse durations, but the time of the peak of the response was not changed. These results showed that the reflective changes were due to the activation of retinal neurons by TES and might involve the vascular changes induced by an activation of the retinal neurons.

  10. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Chen, Long-Hwa

    is concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate...... logistic discrete hazard models with a rich set of job and firm characteristics as explanatory variables. The results show that vacancies associated with higher wage offers take, ceteris paribus, longer to be filled. The impact of firms' wage offers and credential requirements does not vary over...... the business cycle. However, firms vary their skills requirements over the business cycle: our empirical analysis shows that, for a given wage offer, requirements are stricter in recessions and downturns. Separating between reasons for posting vacancies turned out important in explaining differences in vacancy...

  11. Duration and specificity of olfactory nonassociative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kaitlin G; Radhakrishna, Sreya; Escanilla, Olga; Linster, Christiane

    2013-05-01

    Olfactory habituation is a simple form of nonassociative memory in which responsiveness to stable but behaviorally nonsignificant stimuli is decreased. Olfactory habituation has recently become a paradigm widely used to probe the neural substrate underlying olfactory perception and memory. This simple behavioral paradigm has been used successfully used to probe many aspects of olfactory processing, and it has recently become clear that the neural processes underlying olfactory habituation can depend on the task parameters used. We here further investigate memory specificity and duration using 2 variations in task parameters: the number of habituation trials and the time delay between habituation and cross-habituation testing. We find that memory specificity increases with the number of habituation trials but decreases with time after the last habituation trial.

  12. Sleep duration, life satisfaction and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Although sleep is considered an essential part of individuals' lives, there are no previous studies analysing how sleep duration affects the levels of life satisfaction reported by males and females with disabilities. To analyse and compare the impact of hours of sleep on life satisfaction scores reported by people without and with disabilities (stratified by sex) in Germany. Using data taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2008-2013, we estimate life satisfaction equations for males and females (running a fixed-effects model) which include a set of variables measuring the number of sleep hours on workdays and weekends. A higher number of sleep hours on workdays increase life satisfaction for all males and females. However, the contribution of each hour of sleep on workdays is greater for males with disabilities in terms of life satisfaction, whereas for females no significant differences by disability status have been found. Although sleep hours on weekends also increase life satisfaction, the magnitude of the coefficients is relatively higher than that found for the corresponding hours of sleep on workdays, but only for the male sample (disabled or not). The participation and commitment of policymakers, governments, trade unions, employers, and health care professionals are key aspects for developing and formulating new guidelines and specific measures that promote a healthy lifestyle and increase sleep duration. Such guidelines and measures are of essence for people with disabilities who are employed (e.g. using brief sleep opportunities during prolonged work periods, which can contribute to reducing fatigue, stress and anxiety). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  14. Acceleration from short-duration blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzel, D. V.; Van Albert, S.; Sajja, V.; Long, J.

    2017-10-01

    The blast-induced motion of spheres has been studied experimentally where the shock wave is rapidly decaying during the period that quasi-steady acceleration would be developed in the case of a step-function shock wave as considered in most shock-tube studies. The motion of sphere models ranging from 39 to 251 mm in diameter and having a range of densities was assessed using the "free-flight" method in a simulator specially designed to replicate the decaying shock wave profile of spherical blast including negative phase and positive entropy gradient. A standardized blast-wave simulation of 125 kPa and 6-ms positive-phase duration was applied for all experiments. In all cases, there are three phases to the motion: a relatively low "kickoff" velocity from the shock diffraction, acceleration or deceleration during the positive duration, then deceleration through the negative phase and subsequent quiescent air. The unexpected deceleration of larger spheres after their kickoff velocity during the decaying yet high-speed flow of the blast wave seems associated with the persistence of a ring vortex on the downstream side of the sphere. The flow is entirely unsteady with initial forces dominated by the shock diffraction; therefore, the early motion of spheres under such conditions is not governed by quasi-steady drag as in classical aerodynamics. The work will help establish scaling rules for model studies of blast-induced motion relevant to improvised explosive devices, and preliminary results are shown for motion imparted to a human skull surrogate.

  15. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  16. Breastfeeding duration and associated factors between 1960 and 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Soares de Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: There was shorter duration of breastfeeding in the 1970s compared to the 1960s. Increased duration and prevalence of breastfeeding from the 1970s onwards coincided with the national trend and the promotion of this practice since 1980.

  17. Duration of Thyroid Dysfunction Correlates with All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laulund, Anne Sofie; Nybo, Mads; Brix, Thomas Heiberg

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND AIM: The association between thyroid dysfunction and mortality is controversial. Moreover, the impact of duration of thyroid dysfunction is unclarified. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between biochemically assessed thyroid function as well as dysfunction duration...

  18. Arabic Handwritten Word Recognition Using HMMs with Explicit State Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Sellami, M.; Ennaji, A.; A. Benouareth

    2008-01-01

    We describe an offline unconstrained Arabic handwritten word recognition system based on segmentation-free approach and discrete hidden Markov models (HMMs) with explicit state duration. Character durations play a significant part in the recognition of cursive handwriting. The duration information is still mostly disregarded in HMM-based automatic cursive handwriting recognizers due to the fact that HMMs are deficient in modeling character durations properly. We will show experimentally that ...

  19. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the waiting...

  20. 20 CFR 336.3 - Duration of normal sickness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal sickness benefits. 336.3 Section 336.3 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.3 Duration of normal sickness...

  1. The determinants of shopping duration on workdays in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwanen, T.

    2004-01-01

    While many studies of the duration of shopping episodes have considered the impact of sociodemographic variables, such as gender or income, few if any have considered spatial variation in the duration of shopping activities. This paper reports a study seeking to establish how the duration of

  2. Duration of Load Effects on Different Sized Timber Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lotte; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report submitted to EC in connection with a project on duration of load. The report contains the results of the experimental work on duration of load for beams and notched beams of LVL and of glulam. The report also contains experimental results from duration of load experiments...

  3. Estimating the effect of training on individual durations of search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Anders

    1996-01-01

    In this paper a statistical model combining duration of search for an apprentice vacancy and choice of entering a training programme aiming at helping students finding an vacancy is presented. Using conventional duration models yields a negative effect on durations of search from the programme.

  4. Choosing the Optimum Mix of Duration and Effort in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbeek, Hessel

    1995-01-01

    Employs a simple economic model to analyze determinants of Dutch college students' expected study duration and weekly effort. Findings show that the duration/effort ratio is determined by the relative prices of these inputs into the learning process. A higher socioeconomic status increases the duration/effort ratio. Higher ability levels decrease…

  5. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.; Stocks, T.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Seidell, J.C.; Renders, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of

  6. Analysis of rainfall intensity - duration - frequency (IDF) models for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) models for duration of 0.50 to 24 h for different design periods were analysed using least squares regression. The first group of models related rainfall intensities to durations, and produced four equations with regression coefficient (R2) ranging from 0.800 to 0.950. The second set ...

  7. Enabling honest reflection: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostelow, Naomi; Gishen, Faye

    2017-12-01

    Reflective practice provides a backbone to professionalism, a commitment to lifelong learning and competency-based education in the form of reflective portfolios. Changes in health care culture have promoted a move towards openness and reflection on challenging clinical encounters. Engagement with reflection has historically proved challenging to clinical educators. This Faculty Development Review examines this using a case study from the UK in which a postgraduate trainee was asked to disclose their reflective portfolio by a patient's legal representation. Critics have consequently questioned whether the educational benefit of reflection warrants these potential legal implications. In the context of pressure from accrediting bodies to demonstrate evidence of reflection, how can learners face this potential conflict of professional versus legal repercussions? We combine professional guidance from the UK and educational rationale from international settings to produce a guide for good practice. We offer guidance on facilitating reflection for learners in an open and honest way without diluting educationally effective critical reflection. Themes of anonymity, taking a balanced approach, seeking senior advice, focusing on learning outcomes and role-modelling are discussed. How can learners face this potential conflict of professional versus legal repercussions? Integrating reflection within the curriculum improves engagement and is key to experiential learning. Clinical educators should be aware of legal and professional guidance applicable to their own context. Both educators and learners should be aware that written reflection is an educational not a clinical tool, and so requires little or no patient-identifiable data, thereby ensuring safer reflective practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  8. Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henckel, D.; Arnold, G.; Kappel, D.; Moroz, L. V.; Markus, K.

    2017-09-01

    The Berlin Reflectance Spectral Library (BRSL) provides a collection of reflectance spectra between 0.3 and 17 µm. It was originally dedicated to support space missions to small solar system bodies. Meanwhile the library includes selections of biconical reflectance spectra for spectral data analysis of other planetary bodies as well. The library provides reference spectra of well-characterized terrestrial analogue materials and meteorites for interpretation of remote sensing reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We introduce the BRSL, summarize the data available, and access to use them for further relevant applications.

  9. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyue Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK, the complex and dynamic knowledge necessary for effective technology integration into instruction. In this study, reflective activities were integrated into a Learning By Design (LBD environment, which was created to help preservice teachers develop TPACK. This paper investigated the participants’ TPACK development and examined how reflection helped them construct TPACK. Through content analysis of the participants’ reflective journals, the researcher found that the preservice teachers developed initial TPACK awareness. However, their reflection in technology knowledge and the content aspects of TPACK were limited and superficial. Interviews with the participants showed reflection helped the preservice teachers remember what they learned by describing and elaborating on their in-class experiences, pushed them to think about how to apply what they learned in their future classrooms, and helped them become more reflective and open-minded about using technology in classrooms. Finally, the researcher discussed this study’s implications for teacher educators and researchers.

  10. Cultivating Reflective Practitioners in Technology Preparation: Constructing TPACK through Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liangyue

    2014-01-01

    Teaching is a complex profession, which is further complicated by the integration of technology into classrooms. Reflection can help teachers unpack the complexity in their practice. Reflection can be an effective instructional strategy in helping preservice teachers develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), the complex and…

  11. Reflecting on the History, Ethics, and Application of Teacher Reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankes, Judith Elaine

    Three social factors are related to the evolution of the discourse on teacher reflection: the role of educational researchers and teacher educators; the social and economic crisis and its impact on education; and the shift from behaviorism to cognitivism. By relating the discourse of teacher change through reflection to these social factors, it…

  12. Postgraduate Education to Support Organisation Change: A Reflection on Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jim; Keegan, Anne; Stevens, Pam

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore how teaching and assessing reflective learning skills can support postgraduate practitioners studying organisational change and explores the challenges for tutors in assessing these journals. Design/methodology/approach: Assessment criteria were developed from the literature on reflective practice and…

  13. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  14. Characteristics of Retinal Reflectance Changes Induced by Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation in Cat Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Takeshi; Kanda, Hiroyuki; Miyoshi, Tomomitsu; Hirohara, Yoko; Mihashi, Toshifumi; Kitaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Nishida, Kohji; Fujikado, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES) activates retinal neurons leading to visual sensations. How the retinal cells are activated by TES has not been definitively determined. Investigating the reflectance changes of the retina is an established technique and has been used to determine the mechanism of retinal activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reflectance changes elicited by TES in cat eyes. Eight eyes of Eight cats were studied under general anesthesia. Biphasic electrical pulses were delivered transcornealy. The fundus images observed with near-infrared light (800–880 nm) were recorded every 25 ms for 26 s. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the images of 10 consecutive recordings were averaged. Two-dimensional topographic maps of the reflective changes were constructed by subtracting images before from those after the TES. The effects of different stimulus parameters, e.g., current intensity, pulse duration, frequency, and stimulus duration, on the reflective changes were studied. Our results showed that after TES, the reflective changes appeared on the retinal vessels and optic disc. The intensity of reflectance changes increased as the current intensity, pulse duration, and stimulation duration increased (Preflective change was obtained when the stimulus frequency was 20 Hz. The time course of the reflectance changes was also altered by the stimulation parameters. The response started earlier and returned to the baseline later with higher current intensities, longer pulse durations, but the time of the peak of the response was not changed. These results showed that the reflective changes were due to the activation of retinal neurons by TES and might involve the vascular changes induced by an activation of the retinal neurons. PMID:24651530

  15. The timing and duration of adolescent growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taranger, J; Hägg, U

    1980-01-01

    The adolescent growth of 212 randomly selected Swedish urban children has been investigated by using a graphical analysis of unsmoothed increments of height. The adolescent growth period has been divided into the pubertal spurt and the postpubertal period. On average, the pubertal spurt began at 10.0 years in girls, and 12.1 years in boys and ended at 14.8 years and 17.1 years, respectively. In both sexes peak height velocity occurred two years after the onset of the spurt (12.0 years and 14.1 years). Growth terminated at 17.5 years in girls and 19.2 years in boys. The standard deviation of the age at the occurrence of the various growth events is about one year in both sexes. The duration of the spurt did not differ between the sexes but the postpubertal period was significantly longer in girls. To include the total range of adolescent growth variability, the age range 6 -- 20 years in girls and 9 -- 23 years in boys must be considered in a Swedish population.

  16. Audible reflection density for different late reflection criteria in rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Donata; Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    For reasonably accurate but practical auralizations, some simplifications and approximations are needed. The main issue in the present investigation is that the reflection density of a room impulse response, in theory, increases so fast as a quadratic function of the elapsed time, even assuming...... only specular reflections. Therefore in this study, the upper threshold for audible reflection density is investigated for four different transition times of 25, 50, 75, and 100 ms through a headphone listening test. Binaural impulse responses and speech signals simulated in three rooms with different...... characteristics (an empty office, a lecture room, and an auditorium) are used as stimuli. Subjects are asked to increase/decrease the reflection density of a stimulus until they cannot distinguish it from the stimulus that follows the theoretical reflection density for the different transition times in the three...

  17. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2016-12-06

    Breast milk is well recognised as the best food source for infants. The impact of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register on 1 March 2016, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 March 2016) and Scopus (January 1985 to 1 March 2016). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on the duration of BF. We included RCTs that only included antenatal interventions and excluded those that combined antenatal and intrapartum or postpartum BF education components. Cluster-randomised trials were included in this review. Quasi-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review update includes 24 studies (10,056 women). Twenty studies (9789 women) contribute data to analyses. Most studies took place in high-income countries such as the USA, UK, Canada and Australia. In the first five comparisons, we display the included trials according to type of intervention without pooling data. For the 'Summary of findings' we pooled data for a summary effect.Five included studies were cluster-randomised trials: all of these adjusted data and reported adjustments as odds ratios (OR). We have analysed the data using the generic inverse variance method and presented results as odds ratios, because we were

  18. Ubuntu feminism: Tentative reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drucilla Cornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point for the article is to provide a brief background on the Ubuntu Project that Prof. Drucilla Cornell convened in 2003; most notably the interviews conducted in Khayamandi, the support of a sewing collective, and the continued search to launch an Ubuntu Women�s Centre. The article will reflect on some of the philosophical underpinnings of ubuntu, whereafter debates in Western feminism will be revisited. Ubuntu feminism is suggested as a possible response to these types of feminisms. The authors support an understanding of ubuntu as critique and ubuntu feminism accordingly as a critical intervention that recalls a politics of refusal. The article ends by raising the importance of thinking about spatiality through ubuntu, and vice versa. It may seem strange to title an article Ubuntu feminism when feminism itself has often been identified as a European or Western idea. But, this article will argue that ubuntu offers conceptions of transindividuality and ways of social belonging that could respond in a meaningful way to some of European feminism�s own dilemmas and contradictions. Famously, one of the most intense debates in feminism was between those who defended an ethic of care in a relational view of the self, on one side, and those feminists who held on to more traditional conceptions of justice, placing an emphasis on individuality and autonomy, on the other side. The authors will suggest that ubuntu could address this tension in feminism. Thus, in this article the focus will not simply be on ubuntu, in order to recognise that there are other intellectual heritages worthy of consideration, other than those in Europe and the United States. It will also take a next step in arguing that ubuntu may be a better standpoint entirely from which to continue thinking about what it means to be a human being, as well as how to conceive of the integral interconnection human beings all have with one another. This connection through

  19. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  20. [Impact of sleep duration on cognitive functions among preschoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-jiao; Wang, Li-gang; Li, Ye; Gao, Wen-bin; Sun, Xin-ying

    2013-12-18

    To explore the effect of sleep duration including napping, night sleep and total sleep duration on cognitive functions among preschoolers. The samples consisted of 94 preschoolers, aged from 2.58 to 6.75 years, from Hangzhou and Beijing. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), Picture Deletion Task for Preschoolers (PDTP) and Spatial Working Memory Test were applied to assess the cognitive functions of these preschoolers. Basic demographic information and sleep information were collected with self-made questionnaires. The results of the present study indicated that among all the participants, there were significant grade differences in napping duration and total sleep duration (F0.05(3, 90)=6.346, P=0.001; F0.05(3, 90)=2.925, P=0.038). The total sleep duration was decreased with age. However, the night sleep duration was not changed significantly with age. The correlations between the night sleep and total sleep duration and the scores of attention and working memory were significantly positive (r=0.202-0.282). No significant correlations were noted between the napping and all the scores of cognitive tests. The regression analysis showed that the total sleep duration especially the night sleep duration could well explain the variance of attention and working memory. Total sleep duration, especially night sleep duration may have great impact on preschoolers' cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory. Enough sound night sleep may help to promote the cognitive functions of the target population.

  1. A Jump-Diffusion Model with Stochastic Volatility and Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    Market microstructure theories suggest that the durations between transactions carry information about volatility. This paper puts forward a model featuring stochastic volatility, stochastic conditional duration, and jumps to analyze high frequency returns and durations. Durations affect price...... jumps in two ways: as exogenous sampling intervals, and through the interaction with volatility. We adopt a bivariate Ornstein-Ulenbeck process to model intraday volatility and conditional duration. We develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference on irregularly spaced multivariate processes with jumps....... The algorithm provides smoothed estimates of the latent variables such as spot volatility, conditional duration, jump times, and jump sizes. We apply this model to IBM data and find that volatility and conditional duration are interdependent. We also find that jumps play an important role in return variation...

  2. Mental Summation of Temporal Duration within and across Senses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    Full Text Available Perceiving, memorizing, and estimating temporal durations are key cognitive functions in everyday life. In this study, a duration summation paradigm was used to examine whether summation of temporal durations introduces an underestimation or overestimation bias, and whether this bias is common to visual and auditory modalities. Two within- or across-modality stimuli were presented sequentially for variable durations. Participants were asked to reproduce the sum of the two durations (0.6-1.1 s. We found that the sum of two durations was overestimated regardless of stimulus modalities. A subsequent control experiment indicated that the overestimation bias arose from the summation process, not perceptual or memory processes. Furthermore, we observed strong positive correlations between the overestimation bias for different sensory modalities within participants. These results suggest that the sum of two durations is overestimated, and that supra-modal processes may be responsible for this overestimation bias.

  3. First Optical Observations of Interhemispheric Electron Reflections Within Pulsating Aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Khazanov, G. V.

    2017-01-01

    A case study of a pulsating auroral event imaged optically at high time resolution presents direct observational evidence in agreement with the interhemispheric electron bouncing predicted by the Super Thermal Electron Transport model. Pulsation-on times are identified and subsequent equally spaced fainter pulsations are also noted and can be explained by a portion/percentage of the primary precipitating electrons reflecting upward from the ionosphere, traveling to the opposite hemisphere and reflecting upward again. The high time resolution of these data, combined with the short duration of the pulsation-on time (approx. 1 s) and the relatively long spacing between pulsations (approx. 6 to 9 s) made it possible to observe the faint optical pulses caused by the reflected electrons coming from the opposite hemisphere.

  4. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  5. Ethical Reflections on Becoming Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Pamela Bolotin

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes narratives written in a culminating graduate seminar on reflective practice by 36 new secondary teachers who were asked to consider their moral beliefs, moral values and system of ethics as they reflected on their recent student teaching experiences. The findings explore how the participants depicted their constructed moral…

  6. Demonstration of light reflection from the relativistic mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirozhkov, A S; Esirkepov, T Z; Kando, M; Fukuda, Y; Ma, J; Chen, L-M; Daito, I; Ogura, K; Homma, T; Hayashi, Y; Kotaki, H; Sagisaka, A; Mori, M; Koga, J K; Kawachi, T; Daido, H; Bulanov, S V; Kimura, T; Kato, Y; Tajima, T [Advanced Photon Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)], E-mail: pirozhkov.alexander@jaea.go.jp

    2008-05-01

    Electromagnetic wave frequency upshifting upon reflection from a relativistic mirror (the double Doppler effect) can be used for the generation of coherent high-frequency radiation. The reflected high-frequency pulse inherits the coherence, polarization, and temporal shape from the original laser pulse. A partly reflecting relativistic mirror (flying mirror) can be formed by a breaking wake wave created by a strong laser pulse propagating in underdense plasma [Bulanov S V et al. 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 085001]. We present the results of the proof-of-principle experiment for frequency upshifting of the laser pulse reflected from the flying mirror. In the experiment, the breaking wake wave is created by a Ti:S laser pulse (2 TW, 76 fs) in helium plasma with the electron density of {approx}5x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. The incidence angle of the second laser pulse on the flying mirror is 45 deg. The reflected signal is observed in 24 shots, with the wavelength from 7 to 14 nm, which corresponds to the frequency upshifting factors from 55 to 114 and the relativistic gamma-factors from 4 to 6. The reflected signal contains at least 3x10{sup 7} photons/sr. The new source promises the generation of coherent ultrashort XUV and x-ray pulses with tunable wavelength and duration, with the possibility of focusing to record intensities.

  7. Establishing Duration-Specific Running Intensities From Match-Play Analysis in Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Scott, Tannath J; Thornton, Heidi R; Bennett, Kyle J; Gay, David; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2015-09-01

    Rugby league coaches often prescribe training to replicate the demands of competition. The intensities of running drills are often monitored in comparison with absolute match-play measures. Such measures may not be sensitive enough to detect fluctuations in intensity across a match or to differentiate between positions. To determine the position- and duration-specific running intensities of rugby league competition, using a moving-average method, for the prescription and monitoring of training. Data from a 15-Hz global positioning system (GPS) were collected from 32 professional rugby league players across a season. The velocity-time curve was analyzed using a rolling-average method, where maximum values were calculated for 10 different durations, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 min, for each player across each match. There were large differences between the 1- and 2-min rolling averages and all other rolling-average durations. Smaller differences were observed for rolling averages of greater duration. Fullbacks maintained a greater velocity than outside backs and middle and edge forwards over the 1- and 2-min rolling averages (ES 0.8-1.2, P rugby league fluctuate vastly across a match. Fullbacks were the only position to exhibit a greater running intensity than any other position, and therefore training prescription should reflect this.

  8. Contractual Duration and Investment Incentives: Evidence from Large Scale Production Units in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Feng, Shuyi; D'Haese, Marijke; Lu, Hualiang; Qu, Futian

    2017-04-01

    Large Scale Production Units have become important forces in the supply of agricultural commodities and agricultural modernization in China. Contractual duration in farmland transfer to Large Scale Production Units can be considered to reflect land tenure security. Theoretically, long-term tenancy contracts can encourage Large Scale Production Units to increase long-term investments by ensuring land rights stability or favoring access to credit. Using a unique Large Scale Production Units- and plot-level field survey dataset from Jiangsu and Jiangxi Province, this study aims to examine the effect of contractual duration on Large Scale Production Units' soil conservation behaviours. IV method is applied to take into account the endogeneity of contractual duration and unobserved household heterogeneity. Results indicate that farmland transfer contract duration significantly and positively affects land-improving investments. Policies aimed at improving transaction platforms and intermediary organizations in farmland transfer to facilitate Large Scale Production Units to access farmland with long-term tenancy contracts may therefore play an important role in improving soil quality and land productivity.

  9. The ATIC Long Duration Balloon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, T.

    Long Duration Balloon (LDB) scientific experiments, launched to circumnavigate the south pole over Antarctica, have particular advantages compared to Shuttle or other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions in terms of cost, weight, scientific "duty factor" and work force development. The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) cosmic ray astrophysics experiment is a good example of a university-based project that takes full advantage of current LDB capability and could effectively use future expansion in launch weight and flight duration. The ATIC experiment is currently being shipped to Antarctica in preparation for its first LDB science flight that will investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays over the energy range from about 101 0 to 10 1 4 eV. The instrument is built around a fully active, Bismuth Germanate (BGO) ionization calorimeter to measure the energy deposited by the cascades formed by particles interacting in a thick carbon target. A highly segmented silicon matrix, located above the target, provides good incident charge resolution plus rejection of the "backscattered" particles from the interaction. Trajectory reconstruction is based on the cascade profile in the BGO calorimeter, plus information from the three scintillator hodoscope layers in the target section above it. The hodoscope planes also provide the primary event trigger to initiate the detector readout, another measure of the incident particle charge and an indicator of the interaction point in the carbon material. The scientific payload weighs ~1,540 kg and consumes ~300 Watts of power supplied by a ~580 Watt solar array system. A full evaluation of the experiment was performed during a test flight occurring between 28 December 2000 and 13 January 2001 where ATIC was carried3 to an altitude of ~37 km above Antarctica by a ~850,000 m helium filled balloon for one circumnavigation of the continent. All systems behaved well, the detectors performed as expected

  10. Excessive sleep duration and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Reynolds, Charles F; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic, and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥ 9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥ 18 years (participation rate = 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual II, International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edition). Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence interval = 8.0-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4-1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3 to 12× higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2 to 4× more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socioprofessional activities and relationships. Although between 33 and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3 to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. EQS is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  11. Storytelling: A Guided Reflection Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Pamela L; Butell, Sue S; Epeneter, Beverly Jean; Langford, Cheryl Anne; Taylor, Jana Doughty

    2016-03-01

    Reflective practice is a mode of inquiry in the authors' baccalaureate nursing program. To increase students' ability to "think like a nurse," the Reflective Practice Storytelling Guide was developed to facilitate discussion during weekly clinical seminars in the students' final clinical course. To evaluate the effectiveness of this guided activity, students were asked to provide feedback to specific questions following each seminar when the reflective presence activity was utilized. Common themes emerged from the storytellers and the members of the group. Themes identified in the responses of the storytellers included role development and formation and the value of team support. Learning themes that emerged from the participants included communication, teamwork, clinical judgment, patient-centered care, use of resources, ethical and legal parameters in practice, and patient safety. Utilizing a guided reflection activity resulted in the students experiencing a broader, deeper understanding of reflective professional practice. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. [Concept analysis of reflective thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vuuren, M; Botes, A

    1999-09-01

    The nursing practice is described as a scientific practice, but also as a practice where caring is important. The purpose of nursing education is to provide competent nursing practitioners. This implies that future practitioners must have both critical analytical thinking abilities, as well as empathy and moral values. Reflective thinking could probably accommodate these thinking skills. It seems that the facilitation of reflective thinking skills is essential in nursing education. The research question that is relevant in this context is: "What is reflective thinking?" The purpose of this article is to report on the concept analysis of reflective thinking and in particular on the connotative meaning (critical attributes) thereof. The method used to perform the concept analysis is based on the original method of Wilson (1987) as described by Walker & Avant (1995). As part of the concept analysis the connotations (critical attributes) are identified, reduced and organized into three categories, namely pre-requisites, processes and outcomes. A model case is described which confirms the essential critical attributes of reflective thinking. Finally a theoretical definition of reflective thinking is derived and reads as follows: Reflective thinking is a cyclic, hierarchical and interactive construction process. It is initiated, extended and continued because of personal cognitive-affective interaction (individual dimension) as well as interaction with the social environment (social dimension). to realize reflective thinking, a level of internalization on the cognitive and affective domain is required. The result of reflective thinking is a integrated framework of knowledge (meaningful learning) and a internalized value system providing a new perspective on and better understanding of a problem. Reflective thinking further leads to more effective decision making- and problem solving skills.

  13. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Pack, Allan I; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-02-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations.

  14. [A study of ventricular repolarization duration variability and dependence of RTm/RR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, J; Zhu, Y; Pan, C; Zhou, L

    2000-03-01

    As an important electrophysiological parameter that reflects cardiac depolarization and repolarization process, ventricular repolarization duration has been drawing growing attention. It is influenced by several physiological and pathological factors and associated with several cardiac diseases. We studied repolarization duration variability (RDV) and dependence of RTm/RR among normal subjects of different age-groups, as well as between normal subjects and subjects with cardiac diseases. It was found that RDV and dependence of RTm/RR are related to age. There are significant differences in the slope of RTm/RR, coherence, CV ratio and RDV between normal subjects and subjects with cardiac diseases. The RDV and dependence of RTm/RR can be employed in providing a more useful evaluation of cardiac disease and function in clinical care.

  15. Variability in Cumulative Habitual Sleep Duration Predicts Waking Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sakh; Mayhew, Stephen D; Przezdzik, Izabela; Wilson, Rebecca; Hale, Joanne; Goldstone, Aimee; Bagary, Manny; Bagshaw, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether interindividual differences in habitual sleep patterns, quantified as the cumulative habitual total sleep time (cTST) over a 2-w period, were reflected in waking measurements of intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity (FC) between major nodes of three intrinsically connected networks (ICNs): default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central executive network (CEN). Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study using seed-based FC analysis combined with 14-d wrist actigraphy, sleep diaries, and subjective questionnaires (N = 33 healthy adults, mean age 34.3, standard deviation ± 11.6 y). Data were statistically analyzed using multiple linear regression. Fourteen consecutive days of wrist actigraphy in participant's home environment and fMRI scanning on day 14 at the Birmingham University Imaging Centre. Seed-based FC analysis on ICNs from resting-state fMRI data and multiple linear regression analysis performed for each ICN seed and target. cTST was used to predict FC (controlling for age). cTST was specific predictor of intranetwork FC when the mesial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) region of the DMN was used as a seed for FC, with a positive correlation between FC and cTST observed. No significant relationship between FC and cTST was seen for any pair of nodes not including the MPFC. Internetwork FC between the DMN (MPFC) and SN (right anterior insula) was also predicted by cTST, with a negative correlation observed between FC and cTST. This study improves understanding of the relationship between intranetwork and internetwork functional connectivity of intrinsically connected networks (ICNs) in relation to habitual sleep quality and duration. The cumulative amount of sleep that participants achieved over a 14-d period was significantly predictive of intranetwork and inter-network functional connectivity of ICNs, an observation that may underlie the link between sleep status and cognitive performance.

  16. Habitual and Recent Sleep Durations: Graded and Interactive Risk for Impaired Glycemic Control in a Biracial Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliwise, Donald L; Greer, Sophia A; Scullin, Michael K; Phillips, Lawrence S

    2017-05-01

    We examined how habitual sleep duration interacts with recent sleep (2 nights) to predict morning oral glucose tolerance test results. We hypothesized that short habitual and recent sleep durations would be additive for poor glucose control. A biracial population of adults (n = 1559) without known diabetes and recruited from the workforce of 2 urban universities was assessed for glycated hemoglobin and underwent oral glucose tolerance testing. We used plasma 2-hour postloading (75 g) measurements. Participants answered sleep questions using 30-minute forced-choice formats. We employed multivariable logistic regression to derive odds ratios. Shorter habitual sleep duration was associated with greater odds ratios of glycated hemoglobin ≥6.0% increasing by 30-minute intervals beginning at sleep (n = 636), abnormal glucose tolerance (2-hour oral glucose tolerance test ≥140 mg/dL) was significantly associated with a total sleep duration of ≤11 hours the 2 nights preceding oral glucose tolerance testing, but was not associated with longer sleep durations. Results were independent of age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, or use of antihypertensive or cholesterol-lowering medication. Additional analyses implied that longer-than-usual recent sleep durations were protective for abnormal oral glucose tolerance testing. Short habitual and recent sleep durations interact in predicting abnormal glucose on oral glucose tolerance testing. Self-reported data are sufficiently sensitive to reflect 30-minute differences in sleep between individuals. Future studies examining other aspects of sleep, such as perceived sleep quality and objectively measured sleep duration and architecture, would be necessary to confirm these findings. Short sleep duration for 2 nights prior to morning oral glucose tolerance testing may elevate glucose levels, this effect being detected among individuals habitually obtaining sleep and obtaining ≤11 hours of

  17. Synergies in Critical Reflective Practice and Science: Science as Reflection and Reflection as Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The conceptions of reflective practice in education have their roots at least partly in the work of Dewey, who describes reflection as "the active, persistent, and careful consideration of any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the grounds that support it and the further conclusions to which it tends" (Dewey 1933, p.9).…

  18. Observed and Unobserved Heterogeneity in the Duration Dependency Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We present a duration model, which allows for non-homogenous duration dependence with respect to observed and unobserved variables. The model is examined in a simulation study, and it is estimated on unemployment spells of a sample of Danish workers. Udgivelsesdato: MAR......We present a duration model, which allows for non-homogenous duration dependence with respect to observed and unobserved variables. The model is examined in a simulation study, and it is estimated on unemployment spells of a sample of Danish workers. Udgivelsesdato: MAR...

  19. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jong, de, E; Stocks, T; Visscher, T.L.S; Hira Sing, R.A; Seidell, J.C; Renders, C.M

    2012-01-01

    .... In these children, data were available on measured height, weight and waist circumference, and from a parental questionnaire, on socio-demographic characteristics, child's sleep duration, nutrition...

  20. Genetic Associations with Gestational Duration and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ge; Feenstra, Bjarke; Bacelis, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that genetic factors contribute to the duration of gestation and the risk of preterm birth, robust associations with genetic variants have not been identified. We used large data sets that included the gestational duration to determine possible genetic associations...... significantly associated with gestational duration. Functional analysis showed that an implicated variant in WNT4 alters the binding of the estrogen receptor. The association between variants in ADCY5 and RAP2C and gestational duration had suggestive significance in the discovery set and significant evidence...

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    . SETTING: Academic clinical research center. PARTICIPANTS: 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). DESIGN: Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (... with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mtDNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress....

  2. Dream recall and sleep duration: state or trait factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany

    2005-10-01

    Previous research regarding the relationship between habitual sleep duration and frequency of dream recall yielded conflicting results, whereas experimental manipulation of sleep duration showed a significant effect on dream recall. In this study analyzing both effects simultaneously, the findings from diaries kept by the 196 participants over 28 to 111 days indicated that intra-individual fluctuations in sleep duration were significantly related to dream recall whereas interindividual differences in dream recall were not associated with differences in sleep duration. Sleep inertia might be an explanation for this finding.

  3. Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), Communalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Prof. Asouzu

    Complementary Reflection, Communalism and Theory Formulation in African Philosophy 9. Ibuanyidanda (Complementary ...... Metaphysics,. Phenomenology and African Philosophy. Lagos: FADEC Publishers, pp.337-355. Van Steenberghen, Fernand. 1952. Ontology. Flynn, Martin J. trans. London: Joseph F. Wagner.

  4. Worldwide Marine Seismic Reflection Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC maintains a large volume of both Analog and Digital seismic reflection data. Currently only a limited number of lines are available online. Digital data include...

  5. Correlates of Duration of Intimate Partner Violence Among Women Seeking Services at a Domestic Violence Support Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, Dinara; Wang, Chong; North, Carol S

    2016-05-04

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) duration may reflect factors preventing women from leaving abusive relationships. Although many studies have analyzed factors associated with IPV occurrence, few studies have evaluated factors associated with IPV duration. This exploratory study examined intake forms completed by 230 women seeking services at an IPV support center over a 2.5-year period, beginning in 2006. These women spent an average of 11 years in abusive relationships during their lives, which was more than twice the lifetime duration of their non-abusive relationships. In a multivariate analysis model, longer lifetime IPV duration was significantly associated with greater age, having children, non-minority racial/ethnic membership, and having no parental IPV history. The current study found that many factors associated with IPV duration were different from factors previously found to be associated with IPV occurrence. Therefore, efforts aimed at preventing IPV occurrence may also need to differ from efforts to limit IPV duration. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Winkler

    Full Text Available Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures, and (b extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm. Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  8. 14 CFR 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 1203.407... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.407 Duration of classification. (a) Information shall be... date or event for declassification shall be set by the original classification authority at the time...

  9. Association Between Sleep Duration and Health Outcome in Elderly Taiwanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ting Tsou

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: A U-shaped relationship was observed between the self-reported sleep duration with risk prevalence and health outcome in the elderly population, although not all results showed a significant difference. A progressively higher change was observed during short and long sleep durations in our study.

  10. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the...

  11. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  12. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the...

  13. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities conferred...

  14. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by...

  15. 7 CFR 916.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 916.67 Section 916.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 916.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  16. 7 CFR 955.82 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 955.82 Section 955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 955.82 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred...

  17. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  18. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the...

  19. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended subpart...

  20. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by...

  1. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  2. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon its...

  3. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of this...

  4. 7 CFR 984.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 984.87 Section 984.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination hereof except...

  5. 7 CFR 929.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 929.72 Section 929.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of...

  6. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred...

  7. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof, except...

  8. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of this...

  9. 7 CFR 924.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 924.67 Section 924.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 924.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by...

  10. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall...

  11. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  12. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the...

  13. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by...

  14. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except with...

  15. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of this...

  16. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its termination...

  17. Joint modeling of annual maximum precipitation across different duration levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräler, Benedikt; Fischer, Svenja; Schumann, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The statistical modeling of rainfall maxima in terms of their intensity for different durations, often known as IDF-curves (intensity-duration-frequency curves), is widely used for flood design. Typically, the single duration levels are modelled separately and combined under the assumption of independence. Nevertheless, the dependence among them has to be taken into account. For this, an approach is proposed where a set of generalized extreme value distributions and a D-vine copula are flexibly parameterized by the set of duration levels of interest. A priori, it is not necessary to fix the duration levels nor the number of duration levels. This joint model produces increasing values for both, longer duration levels and larger return periods. It is flexible enough to capture variations across the duration levels while reproducing the correlation structure of the data. An application is given by estimating the conditional distribution of a nested sub-basin with different areas, urban and rural. The different reaction times of the areas are taken into account by modelling the dependence structure whereas this is not the case for an independent model. We consider the annual maximum rainfall events as well as nested events.

  18. Development and Application of Flow Duration Curves for Stream Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    vegetation inundation duration, effective discharge calculation, urban impact and remediation, and habitat assessment) are presented in greater...processes • Assessment of changes in stream metabolism using temperature duration curves • Evaluation of pollutant or contaminant transport using...matter transport, algal growth, flood transport of macroinvertebrates, nutrient transport and retention, and physical habitat availability. Urban

  19. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... or a human intelligence source or key design concepts of weapons of mass destruction, an original... of a confidential human source or a human intelligence source, the duration shall be up to 75 years... classification duration of such information for a period not to exceed 25 years from the date of origin of the...

  20. Ideal engine durations for gamma-ray-burst-jet launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidani, Hamid; Takahashi, Koh; Umeda, Hideyuki; Okita, Shinpei

    2017-08-01

    Aiming to study gamma-ray-burst (GRB) engine duration, we present numerical simulations to investigate collapsar jets. We consider typical explosion energy (1052 erg) but different engine durations, in the widest domain to date from 0.1 to 100 s. We employ an adaptive mesh refinement 2D hydrodynamical code. Our results show that engine duration strongly influences jet nature. We show that the efficiency of launching and collimating relativistic outflow increases with engine duration, until the intermediate engine range where it is the highest, past this point to long engine range, the trend is slightly reversed; we call this point where acceleration and collimation are the highest 'sweet spot' (∼10-30 s). Moreover, jet energy flux shows that variability is also high in this duration domain. We argue that not all engine durations can produce the collimated, relativistic and variable long GRB jets. Considering a typical progenitor and engine energy, we conclude that the ideal engine duration to reproduce a long GRB is ∼10-30 s, where the launch of relativistic, collimated and variable jets is favoured. We note that this duration domain makes a good link with a previous study suggesting that the bulk of Burst and Transient Source Experiment's long GRBs is powered by ∼10-20 s collapsar engines.

  1. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  2. Testing the Conditional Mean Function of Autoregressive Conditional Duration Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    This paper proposes a dynamic proportional hazard (PH) model with non-specified baseline hazard for the modelling of autoregressive duration processes. A categorization of the durations allows us to reformulate the PH model as an ordered response model based on extreme value distributed errors. I...

  3. How Changes in Benefits Entitlement Affect the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Vodopivec, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the disincentive effects of the potential duration of unemployment insurance (UI) benefits.The disincentive effects are identified by exploiting changes in the UI system in Slovenia, which involved substantial reductions in the potential benefit duration and had

  4. The Effect of Student Aid on the Duration of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glocker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…

  5. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions of...

  6. Breastfeeding duration and associated factors between 1960 and 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Soares de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe a historical series on the median duration of breastfeeding in a population of mothers whose children were born from the 1960s onwards, identifying factors associated with the interruption of breastfeeding in each decade. Methods: Data were analyzed from the Pró-Saúde Study, a longitudinal epidemiological investigation started in 1999 among technical and administrative employees of a university in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Breastfeeding duration was collected in two study phases: Phase 1 (1999, and phase 4 (2011-2012. Of these, those who had at least one child and reported the duration of breastfeeding for the first child were selected (n = 1539. To analyze the duration of breastfeeding, survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the effect of covariates on the duration of breastfeeding was estimated by Cox regression model. Results: It was found that the median duration of breastfeeding was higher in the 1990s and 2000s and lower in the 1970s, compared to the 1960s. In addition, there was an association between higher income and maternal age with breastfeeding interruption, which was focused in the 1970s. Conclusion: There was shorter duration of breastfeeding in the 1970s compared to the 1960s. Increased duration and prevalence of breastfeeding from the 1970s onwards coincided with the national trend and the promotion of this practice since 1980.

  7. Comparative analysis of case screening with varying cough duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... Research Question: Can we minimize cough duration and number of sputum samples in chest symptomatic patients for screening of TB? Objective: To evaluate cough of 3 weeks versus 2 weeks duration using two sputum samples versus three samples in chest symptomatic patients attending the OPD.

  8. Dual-Priced Modal Transition Systems with Time Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Modal transition systems are a well-established specification formalism for a high-level modelling of component-based software systems. We present a novel extension of the formalism called modal transition systems with durations where time durations are modelled as controllable or uncontrollable ...

  9. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension does... committed shall be considered as if it occurs on the leasehold itself. If there is a conflict between the...

  10. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is included. (c) For satisfying the child-born-of-the-marriage requirement of paragraph (a)(2) of... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an...

  11. Investigation into increasing short-duration rainfall intensities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... short-duration record, no evidence was found of trends or indications of changes in rainfall intensities. Keywords: climate change, short duration rainfall, extreme value theory, non-stationary. INTRODUCTION. Developments in climate sciences over the past 20 years are attributing the increasing occurrence ...

  12. Surface sterilization and duration of seed storage influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of factorial combinations of four storage duration (in days after seed extraction) and surface sterilization with three dilution levels of sodium hypochlorite on seedling emergence and seedling quality of African breadfruit were studied. Storage duration significantly influenced days to seedling emergence, ...

  13. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, Eliane; Hoeksma, Marco R.; Smeets, Monique A M; Semin, Gün R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental

  14. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than 3...

  15. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    human being - creativity and freedom - presupposing the existence of a human mind. His views, in turn, originate from his thinking about the nature of language which has been exercising his mind from the late. f0I1ies. Chomsky'S prominence as a socio-political thinker has completely overshadowed his professional status ...

  16. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    looking back, such a burst of creativity from a single mind in a single year is probably unparalled in our times. The 1905 volume of Annalen de, Physik stands to tell us that all this really happened. Ra;a,am Nityananda. Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India. Why does this magnificent applied science, which ...

  17. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Almost single handedly, he tackled all the administrative, infrastructural, and other daily nitty gritty problems of the whole department. From the very beginning, I devoted all my time to whatever work Prof Mitra assigned to me and my dedication came from a sense of gratitude to this great man for giving me an opportunity to ...

  18. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004-04-01

    Apr 1, 2004 ... climates, for example, those of Greenland, Iceland and the Faroe Islands on the one side and, on the other, the flora of the hot and arid African Sahara near Timbuctoo: regions where the struggle for existence is keenest and 'natural selection' of the hardiest forms takes place. Empetrum hermaphroditum, a ...

  19. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    senses - the tactile when we touch keys, the oral when we speak or listen, the visual when we read. Is it not possible that some day the path may be established more directly? We know that when the eye sees, all the consequent information is transmitted to the brain by means of electrical vibrations in the channel of the ...

  20. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The following article by Norbert Wiener makes two points - the first explains the possibility of making computer programs 'human like' by building in learning and adaptfvity in them; the second cautions us on the danger that may arise due to the large difference in time constant between human thinking and action and ...

  1. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (i) strong interactions (ii) electromagnetic interactions (iii) weak interactions (iv) gravitational interaction. As for the basic constituents, ... Further, the electromagnetic and the weak interactions are unified into a single force called the electroweak force. This is reminiscent ... immense problems facing India. It may be noted here ...

  2. REFLECTIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convention, humanitarian law, human rights and codes of conduct with emphasis on humanitarian assistance. Food aid as a development tool is questioned, and what will happen when food aid is drying out. The books provide a comprehensive analysis and are highly recommended. Key words: Food aia'; human security;.

  3. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    communication. However, the machine techniques of the present day have invaded the latter fields as well, so that the actual machine oftoday is very different from the image that. Butler held, and we cannot .... losing conflict to which his assumption of the best possible strategy on the part of his enemy would have doomed ...

  4. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but tookno active part and made no speeches. I usually voted for a strike, and considered ..... L S Jacobsen, came to me from the Motor Division, and told me that in the engines of a certain type designed by his department the main ..... California with its warm climate and southern vegetation. We left Ann Arbor without regret.

  5. Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Vikkelsø, Signe

    2012-01-01

    The notion of ‘change’ has become pervasive in contemporary organizational discourse. On the one hand, change is represented as an organizational imperative that increasingly appears to trump all other concerns. On the other hand, change is addressed as an abstract, generic entity that can be the...

  6. Reflections

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jim Walsh

    2008-01-01

    ....) I imagine that valet parking will become very fashionable at upper end drinking establishments, and at blue collar shot-and-beer joints all across the rust belt, cars will be left idling in parking...

  7. Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This symposium was very special. It was topical: Some of the most outstanding problems in Nuclear Physics were discussed: Superheavy elements; extremely neutron rich elements, as well as nuclei with strangeness and their possible creation in the cosmos and on earth; the nuclear equation of state has to be identified within strongly compressed and hot nuclear matter as it appears in nucleus-nucleus encounters; giant nuclear systems which are short lived (˜ 10-19 - 10-20 seconds) and extremely important for identifying the vacuum decay in overcritical electric fields (this is a very fundamental process - the most fundamental one in Quantum Electrodynamics!); astrophysical centers of extreme high density around which magnificent sun-like objects are Kepler-orbiting are discovered in our Galaxy by R. Genzel and colleagues (these centers are no black holes those don't exist at all because repulsive gravitational forces may play an important role - the pseudocomplex general relativity eliminates the Schwarzschild singularity); network physics for distributing energy (nuclear, wind, sun, tides,...) all over Europe (and over the world) is basic for energy consumption now and even more so in future. We heard wonderful talks and I am grateful to all the friends and speakers (from Russia, America, Europe and India) for coming to Goa. It was a great symposium! Particular thanks go to Professor Bikash Sinha and especially to Professor Debades Bandyopadhyay from Calcutta who had the idea for and organized this Goa-symposium....

  8. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The great Immanuel Kant, the philosopher of the. Enlightenment, set oot to explain why Galilean-Newtonian physics was so successful. At that time there were two contrasting philosophies concerning our knowledge of nature - the rationalist which believed that nature was subordinate to and had to obey reason; and.

  9. Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the environment. A very large part of the evolutionary progress, both biologically and culturally, has come from adversity. Life faces environments which are more often niggardly .... by teaching and learning, instead of by genes. The ability ... not even insure the survival of the population or the species when the environment.

  10. Exercise duration and intensity in a weight-loss program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, Heather O

    2005-03-01

    To examine the effect of duration and frequency of exercise on weight loss and cardiorespiratory fitness in previously sedentary, overweight, women. Randomized, controlled, 4-arm trial of 12-months duration. A university-based behavioral weight loss program during the years 2000 and 2001. Eligibility criteria were: women, 21 to 45 years of age, body mass index (BMI) 27 to 40, reporting exercise exercise or that would affect metabolism or weight loss, being treated for psychologic conditions, pregnant, recently pregnant, or planning pregnancy, having a medical condition that could affect metabolism or body weight (eg, diabetes) or that would limit exercise participation. All 201 participants were assigned to a standard behavioral weight loss program, which included regular group meetings and telephone calls, and caloric and dietary fat restrictions. Participants were given meal plans and kept weekly food diaries. The women were assigned to 1 of 4 exercise groups based on energy expenditure of 1000 kcal/wk or 2000 kcal/wk and exercise intensity (moderate versus vigorous). Exercise intensity was prescribed according to percentage of age-predicted maximal heart rate and rating of perceived exertion. Energy expenditure was converted to minutes of exercise per week. The groups were vigorous intensity/high duration, moderate intensity/high duration, moderate intensity/moderate duration, and vigorous intensity/moderate duration. All 4 groups started the program at moderate intensity and moderate duration (100 min/week of walking) and increased the vigor and duration of exercise to set targets of 200, 300, 200, and 150 min/week, for the groups respectively. Treadmills were provided to the participants, and feedback on their weekly exercise logs was given. At 6 and 12 months, changes in body weight and BMI were measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by a graded exercise treadmill test and expressed as percent change in oxygen consumption from baseline. Excluding 5

  11. Sleep duration in Chinese adolescents: biological, environmental, and behavioral predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Wu, Zengqiang; Shen, Zhifei; Zhang, Jun; Shen, Xiaoming; Li, Shenghui

    2014-11-01

    To examine sleep duration-related risk factors from multidimensional domains among Chinese adolescents. A random sample of 4801 adolescents aged 11-20 years participated in a cross-sectional survey. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect information about the adolescents' sleep behaviors and possible related factors from eight domains. In all, 51.0% and 9.8% of adolescents did not achieve optimal sleep duration (defined as sleep duration sleep duration of father. Biological and psychosocial conditions, sleep environments, school schedules, daily activity and behaviors, and parents' sleep habits significantly may affect adolescents' sleep duration, indicating that the existing chronic sleep loss in adolescents could be, at least partly, intervened by improving adolescents' physical and psychosocial conditions, controlling visual screen exposure, regulating school schedules, improving sleep hygiene and daytime behaviors, and changing parents' sleep habits. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary...... of this logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  13. Sleep Duration and Obesity in Adults: What Are the Connections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Lindberg, Eva

    2016-09-01

    Collectively, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on self-reported sleep duration and obesity do not show a clear pattern of association with some showing a negative linear relationship, some showing a U-shaped relationship, and some showing no relationship. Associations between sleep duration and obesity seem stronger in younger adults. Cross-sectional studies using objectively measured sleep duration (actigraphy or polysomnography (PSG)) also show this mixed pattern whereas all longitudinal studies to date using actigraphy or PSG have failed to show a relationship with obesity/weight gain. It is still too early and a too easy solution to suggest that changing the sleep duration will cure the obesity epidemic. Given novel results on emotional stress and poor sleep as mediating factors in the relationship between sleep duration and obesity, detection and management of these should become the target of future clinical efforts as well as future research.

  14. [Dynamics of duration and frequency characteristics the vowels over the first seven years of life of children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liakso, E E; Grigor'ev, A S

    2013-09-01

    On Russian material we traced dynamics of the acoustic characteristics of vowels and vowel sounds of the words 115 children aged 3 months to 7 years. There was a significant reduction in the duration and frequency values of the pitch vowels to 7 years of age children. We are the first to show that to 7 years relevant forms for Russian language sign the stressed vowel--long duration of the stressed vowel compared to unstressed vowel. Articulation of vowels is not fully formed. Data presented in this paper on the dynamics of the duration and frequency characteristics of vowels, on the one hand confirm the general laws of formation acoustic aspects of speech in ontogenesis. On the other--are original, as they reflect the assimilation of child articulations implemented in the Russian language.

  15. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  16. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, E; Stocks, T; Visscher, T L S; HiraSing, R A; Seidell, J C; Renders, C M

    2012-10-01

    Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of sleep duration and to determine with sleep competing activities. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 among 4072 children aged 4-13 years in the city of Zwolle, The Netherlands. In these children, data were available on measured height, weight and waist circumference, and from a parental questionnaire, on socio-demographic characteristics, child's sleep duration, nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Associations were studied in 2011 using logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders. Short sleep duration was associated with overweight for 4-8-year-old boys (odds ratio (OR):3.10; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.15-8.40), 9-13-year-old boys (OR:4.96; 95% CI:1.35-18.16) and 9-13-year-old girls (OR:4.86; 95% CI:1.59-14.88). Among 4-8-year-old girls no statistically significant association was found. Determinants for short sleep duration were viewing television during a meal, permission to have candy without asking, not being active with their caregiver and a late bedtime. For all children, short sleep duration was strongly associated with more television viewing and computer use. Association between sleep duration and overweight is not explained by socio-demographic variables, drinking sugared drinks and eating snacks. Parents have a key role in stimulating optimal sleep duration. Improving parenting skills and knowledge to offer children more structure, and possibly with that, increase sleeping hours, may be promising in prevention of overweight.

  17. Intrasubject variability in power reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abur, Defne; Horton, Nicholas J; Voss, Susan E

    2014-05-01

    Power reflectance measurements are an active area of research related to the development of noninvasive middle-ear assessment methods. There are limited data related to test-retest measures of power reflectance. This study investigates test-retest features of power reflectance, including comparisons of intrasubject versus intersubject variability and how ear-canal measurement location affects measurements. Repeated measurements of power reflectance were made at about weekly intervals. The subjects returned for four to eight sessions. Measurements were made at three ear-canal locations: a deep insertion depth (with a foam plug flush at the entrance to the ear canal) and both 3 and 6 mm more lateral to this deep insertion. Repeated measurements on seven subjects are reported. All subjects were female, between 19 and 22 yr old, and enrolled at an undergraduate women's college. Measurements on both the right and left ears were made at three ear-canal locations during each of four to eight measurement sessions. Random-effects regression models were used for the analysis to account for repeated measures within subjects. The mean power reflectance for each position over all sessions was calculated for each subject. The comparison of power reflectance from the left and right ears of an individual subject varied greatly over the seven subjects; the difference between the power reflectance measured on the left and that measured on the right was compared at 248 frequencies, and depending on the subject, the percentage of tested frequencies for which the left and right ears differed significantly ranged from 10% to 93% (some with left values greater than right values and others with the opposite pattern). Although the individual subjects showed left-right differences, the overall population generally did not show significant differences between the left and right ears. The mean power reflectance for each measurement position over all sessions depended on the location of the

  18. Duration of content and function words in oral discourse by speakers with fluent aphasia: Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Lee

    2014-04-01

    Words that had occurred ten times or more in the speech materials was arbitrarily categorized as ‘unique words’ that could more reliably reflect syllable duration. There were a total of 206 unique words (141 content and 65 function words in the aphasia speech materials and 253 unique words (187 content and 66 function in the normal materials, most of them were disyllabic or monosyllabic. A higher lexical diversity in the normal group, but similar number of different function words for both groups, was consistent with earlier findings of impaired lexical access in aphasia. Table 1 displays the average duration per syllable and per word for content and function words among the two speaker groups. Our study showed that word duration in aphasic speech was longer than that in control speech. This is in line with our earlier results of higher speaking rate in normal speech. While content words were longer than function words in the aphasic speech, the difference was not as significant as that in controls.

  19. The periodicity of sleep duration – an infradian rhythm in spontaneous living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong SN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shi Ngar Wong, Mark Halaki, Chin Moi ChowDiscipline of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The sleep–wake cycle is a process not only dictated by homeostatic and circadian factors but also by social and environmental influences. Thus, the total sleep time partly reflects sleep need, which is integral to the dynamics of sleep loss recovery. This study explored the nature of the observed oscillations in total sleep time in healthy adults under spontaneous living conditions. Actigraph-measured sleep data for 13 healthy young male adults were collected over 14 consecutive days and analyzed for habitual sleep duration. The total sleep time periodicity was modeled using the cosinor method for each individual across the 14 days. The findings confirm the existence of periodicity in habitual sleep duration as there were clear periodic patterns in the majority of the participants. Although exclusive to each individual, the observed oscillations may be a resultant response of homeostatic sleep need, circadian timing, and/or social and environmental influences. These findings instigate further indepth studies into the periodicity of sleep duration in healthy individuals to provide a better understanding of sleep need in short versus long sleepers, in predicting work performance, and reducing sleepiness-related accidents following shift work, and how this periodicity may impact sleep treatment outcome in clinical populations.Keywords: sleep regulation, homeostasis, habitual sleep, spontaneous living, healthy males

  20. Calibration of hydrological models using flow-duration curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Westerberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The degree of belief we have in predictions from hydrologic models will normally depend on how well they can reproduce observations. Calibrations with traditional performance measures, such as the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency, are challenged by problems including: (1 uncertain discharge data, (2 variable sensitivity of different performance measures to different flow magnitudes, (3 influence of unknown input/output errors and (4 inability to evaluate model performance when observation time periods for discharge and model input data do not overlap. This paper explores a calibration method using flow-duration curves (FDCs to address these problems. The method focuses on reproducing the observed discharge frequency distribution rather than the exact hydrograph. It consists of applying limits of acceptability for selected evaluation points (EPs on the observed uncertain FDC in the extended GLUE approach. Two ways of selecting the EPs were tested – based on equal intervals of discharge and of volume of water. The method was tested and compared to a calibration using the traditional model efficiency for the daily four-parameter WASMOD model in the Paso La Ceiba catchment in Honduras and for Dynamic TOPMODEL evaluated at an hourly time scale for the Brue catchment in Great Britain. The volume method of selecting EPs gave the best results in both catchments with better calibrated slow flow, recession and evaporation than the other criteria. Observed and simulated time series of uncertain discharges agreed better for this method both in calibration and prediction in both catchments. An advantage with the method is that the rejection criterion is based on an estimation of the uncertainty in discharge data and that the EPs of the FDC can be chosen to reflect the aims of the modelling application, e.g. using more/less EPs at high/low flows. While the method appears less sensitive to epistemic input/output errors than previous use of limits of

  1. Reflection of curved shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mölder, S.

    2017-09-01

    Shock curvatures are related to pressure gradients, streamline curvatures and vorticity in flows with planar and axial symmetry. Explicit expressions, in an influence coefficient format, are used to relate post-shock pressure gradient, streamline curvature and vorticity to pre-shock gradients and shock curvature in steady flow. Using higher order, von Neumann-type, compatibility conditions, curved shock theory is applied to calculate the flow near singly and doubly curved shocks on curved surfaces, in regular shock reflection and in Mach reflection. Theoretical curved shock shapes are in good agreement with computational fluid dynamics calculations and experiment.

  2. Duration adaptation occurs across the sub- and supra-second systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhei eShima

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available After repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively short duration, a subsequent stimulus of long duration is perceived as being even longer, and after repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively long duration, a subsequent stimulus of short duration is perceived as being even shorter. This phenomenon is called duration adaptation, and has been reported only for sub-second durations. We examined whether duration adaptation also occurs for supra-second durations (Experiment 1 and whether duration adaptation occurs across sub- and supra-second durations (Experiment 2. Duration adaptation occurred not only for sub-second durations, but also for supra-second durations and across sub- and supra-second durations. These results suggest that duration adaptation involves an interval-independent system or two functionally related systems that are associated with both the sub- and supra-second durations.

  3. Fragments on teachers' reflective practicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Predrag Ž.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available in many historical and comparative overviews of the works, in which there is an analytical discussion of the dominant pedagogical theories in the twentieth century, John Dewey (Dewey, 1933 is referred to as the founder and creator of the concept of reflection (reflective thought and knowledge in practice. Reflection as a concept is understood as the forms and the form of problem solving, as well as continuously thinking about the causes of problems in situations in situ, including active and systematically and consistently changing connecting ideas with solutions to the problems and situations that preceded them (Hatton & Smith, 1995. Reflective thinking is the most general level to tackle practical problems, allowing the ''recommended'' doubts and confusion before proposing possible solutions to the problem. Dewey wrote about a reflective action which refers to the use of solutions to the problem and to thinking through the course of the action. in later works of the authors who have dealt with this problem, an unambiguous link can be observed between the so-called ''professional'' action and the reflection on action which, in this cyclical relationship, leads to visible changes (Zeichner & Gore, 1984. Already at first glance, this implies a connection with experiential learning and adult position of observation and reflection in various models of experiential learning, which will be discussed later. it would be useful to compare this method with a cyclic action of routine as an expression of impulse, tradition and authority. Reflective action, as opposed to the routine, is a consistently and carefully thought-out action (practice reflection, which is an ''awakened'' knowledge and belief, and that is an expression of openness, accountability and commitment. We are ready for reflection, says Schon, when the ''knowledge-in-action'' - a kind of knowledge that professionals notice when it is acted spontaneously - occurs suddenly and unintentionally

  4. Modulation of tactile duration judgments by emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuanghua eShi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Judging the duration of emotional stimuli is known to be influenced by their valence and arousal values. However, whether and how perceiving emotion in one modality affects time perception in another modality is still unclear. To investigate this, we compared the influence of different types of emotional pictures – a picture of threat, disgust, or a neutral picture presented at the start of a trial – on temporal bisection judgments of the duration of a subsequently presented vibrotactile stimulus. We found an overestimation of tactile duration following exposure to pictures of threat, but not pictures of disgust (even though these scored equally high on arousal, in a short-range temporal bisection task (range 300/900 ms. Follow-up experiments revealed that this duration lengthening effect was abolished when the range to be bisected was increased (1000/1900 ms. However, duration overestimation was maintained in the short-range bisection task regardless of whether the interval between the visual and tactile events was short or long. This pattern is inconsistent with a general arousal interpretation of duration distortion and suggests that crossmodal linkages in the processing of emotions and emotional regulation are two main factors underlying the manifestation of crossmodal duration modulation.

  5. Modulation of tactile duration judgments by emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhuanghua; Jia, Lina; Müller, Hermann J

    2012-01-01

    Judging the duration of emotional stimuli is known to be influenced by their valence and arousal values. However, whether and how perceiving emotion in one modality affects time perception in another modality is still unclear. To investigate this, we compared the influence of different types of emotional pictures-a picture of threat, disgust, or a neutral picture presented at the start of a trial-on temporal bisection judgments of the duration of a subsequently presented vibrotactile stimulus. We found an overestimation of tactile duration following exposure to pictures of threat, but not pictures of disgust (even though these scored equally high on arousal), in a short-range temporal bisection task (range 300/900 ms). Follow-up experiments revealed that this duration lengthening effect was abolished when the range to be bisected was increased (1000/1900 ms). However, duration overestimation was maintained in the short-range bisection task regardless of whether the interval between the visual and tactile events was short or long. This pattern is inconsistent with a general arousal interpretation of duration distortion and suggests that crossmodal linkages in the processing of emotions and emotional regulation are two main factors underlying the manifestation of crossmodal duration modulation.

  6. Arabic Handwritten Word Recognition Using HMMs with Explicit State Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sellami

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe an offline unconstrained Arabic handwritten word recognition system based on segmentation-free approach and discrete hidden Markov models (HMMs with explicit state duration. Character durations play a significant part in the recognition of cursive handwriting. The duration information is still mostly disregarded in HMM-based automatic cursive handwriting recognizers due to the fact that HMMs are deficient in modeling character durations properly. We will show experimentally that explicit state duration modeling in the HMM framework can significantly improve the discriminating capacity of the HMMs to deal with very difficult pattern recognition tasks such as unconstrained Arabic handwriting recognition. In order to carry out the letter and word model training and recognition more efficiently, we propose a new version of the Viterbi algorithm taking into account explicit state duration modeling. Three distributions (Gamma, Gauss, and Poisson for the explicit state duration modeling have been used, and a comparison between them has been reported. To perform word recognition, the described system uses an original sliding window approach based on vertical projection histogram analysis of the word and extracts a new pertinent set of statistical and structural features from the word image. Several experiments have been performed using the IFN/ENIT benchmark database and the best recognition performances achieved by our system outperform those reported recently on the same database.

  7. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  8. Examining duration of binge eating episodes in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N; Lavender, Jason M; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Steve A; Crosby, Ross D; Peterson, Carol B; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of this article is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 min, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in bulimia nervosa. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Pereira Gomes Felden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with short sleep duration in adolescents from Maravilha – Santa Catarina (SC, southern Brazil. Methods: The sample consisted of 516 adolescents aged 10–19 years of both genders. Issues associated with short sleep duration and difficulty falling asleep, chronotype, daytime sleepiness, physical activity, sedentary behavior and weight status were investigated. Results: The prevalence of short sleep duration (<8h on school days was 53.6%. Adolescents aged 17–19 years showed a 2.05-fold (95%CI: 1.20–3.50 greater prevalence of short sleep duration than those aged 10–12 years. The ones studying in morning and evening shifts had a higher prevalence of short sleep duration compared to those in the afternoon shift. Older age and school shift were the main factors associated with short sleep duration. Conclusions: Adolescents from Maravilha showed high prevalence of short sleep duration, and older adolescents that studied in the morning and evening shifts showed reduced sleep.

  10. Type III Radio Burst Duration and SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration (>15 min), low-frequency (SEP events of solar cycle 23. The Type III durations are distributed symmetrically at 1 MHz yielding a mean value of approximately 33 min (median = 32 min) for the large SEP events. When the SEP events with ground level enhancement (GLE,) are considered, the distribution is essentially unchanged (mean = 32 min, median = 30 min). To test the importance of type III bursts in indicating SEP events, we considered a set of six type III bursts from the same active region (AR 10588) whose durations fit the "long duration" criterion. We analyzed the coronal mass ejections (CMEs), flares, and type II radio bursts associated with the type III bursts. The CMEs were of similar speeds and the flares are also of similar size and duration. All but one of the type III bursts was not associated with a type II burst in the metric or longer wavelength domains. The burst without type II burst also lacked a solar energetic particle (SEP) event at energies >25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 rein) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event, consistent with the statistical study of Cliver and Ling (2009, ApJ ).

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Bamshad, Michael; Noonan, Carolyn; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Watson, Nathaniel F

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins. Academic clinical research center. 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (sleeping twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.06, 0.95; P sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Voice attractiveness: influence of stimulus duration and type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdenzi, C; Patel, S; Mehu-Blantar, I; Khidasheli, M; Sander, D; Delplanque, S

    2013-06-01

    Voice attractiveness is a relatively new area of research. Some aspects of the methodology used in this domain deserve particular attention. Especially, the duration of voice samples is often neglected as a factor and happens to be manipulated without the perceptual consequences of these manipulations being known. Moreover, the type of voice stimulus varies from a single vowel to complex sentences. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the extent to which stimulus duration (nonmanipulated vs. normalized) and type (vowel vs. word) influence perceived voice attractiveness. Twenty-seven male and female raters made attractiveness judgments of 30 male and female voice samples. Voice samples included a single vowel /a/, a three-vowel series /i a o/, and the French word "bonjour" (i.e., "hello"). These samples were presented in three conditions: nonmanipulated, shortened, and lengthened duration. Duration manipulation was performed using the pitch synchronous overlap and add (PSOLA) algorithm implemented in Praat. Results for the effect of stimulus type showed that word length samples were more attractive to the opposite sex than vowels. Results for the effect of duration showed that the nonmanipulated sound sample duration was not predictive of perceived attractiveness. Duration manipulation, on the other hand, altered perceived attractiveness for the lengthening condition. In particular, there was a linear decrease in attractiveness as a function of modification percentage (especially for the word, as compared with the vowels). Recommendations for voice sample normalization with the PSOLA algorithm are thus to prefer shortening over lengthening and, if not possible, to limit the extent of duration manipulation-for example, by normalizing to the mean sample duration.

  13. Equilibrium unemployment and the duration of unemployment benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Lalive, Rafael; van Ours, Jan C.; Zweimüller, Josef

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses microdata to evaluate the impact on the steady-state unemployment rate of an increase in maximum benefit duration. We evaluate a policy change in Austria that extended maximum benefit duration and use this policy change to estimate the causal impact of benefit duration on labor market flows. We find that the policy change leads to a significant increase in the steady-state unemployment rate and, surprisingly, most of this increase is due to an increase in the inflow into rathe...

  14. Reflectance spectroscopy for soil analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last three decades or more, researchers have estimated soil properties using visible and near infrared (VNIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), with varying results. This presentation reviews the history and state-of –the art of VNIR-DRS, including relative estimation accuracy for var...

  15. Critical Reflection as Doctoral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter considers how doctoral education, particularly in applied settings such as education, social work, counseling, and health care, could be reimagined if it was organized around the idea and process of critical reflection: of helping students to better understand how power operates in educational environments and how students' sense of…

  16. Trainee Teachers' Experience of Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Liz

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an investigation of trainee teachers' experience of reflection whilst undertaking a teaching qualification for the post-compulsory sector. The study used a sequential, mixed-methods design, employing a structured questionnaire and a semi-structured interview; 127 individuals completed the questionnaire about their experience…

  17. Planar Para Algebras, Reflection Positivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Liu, Zhengwei

    2017-05-01

    We define a planar para algebra, which arises naturally from combining planar algebras with the idea of ZN para symmetry in physics. A subfactor planar para algebra is a Hilbert space representation of planar tangles with parafermionic defects that are invariant under para isotopy. For each ZN, we construct a family of subfactor planar para algebras that play the role of Temperley-Lieb-Jones planar algebras. The first example in this family is the parafermion planar para algebra (PAPPA). Based on this example, we introduce parafermion Pauli matrices, quaternion relations, and braided relations for parafermion algebras, which one can use in the study of quantum information. An important ingredient in planar para algebra theory is the string Fourier transform (SFT), which we use on the matrix algebra generated by the Pauli matrices. Two different reflections play an important role in the theory of planar para algebras. One is the adjoint operator; the other is the modular conjugation in Tomita-Takesaki theory. We use the latter one to define the double algebra and to introduce reflection positivity. We give a new and geometric proof of reflection positivity by relating the two reflections through the string Fourier transform.

  18. Creative reflection in industrial design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, J.K.; Verbrugge, J.K.

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation is a reflection of the writer on his career as an industrial designer of Demand-Driven Design for a period of approximately 25 years. This period is exposed with a discussion of five designs. The projects are introduced by developments in the surrounding design landscape, such as

  19. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice.

  20. Reykjanes ambient noise reflection interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdel, Arie; Wedemeijer, Harry; Paap, B; Vandeweijer, Vincent; Weemstra, C.; Jousset, Philippe; Franke, Steven; Blanck, Hanna; Águstsson, K.; Hersir, Gylfi Páll

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the application of ambient noise seismic interferometry (ANSI) to data that were recorded continuously in 2014 and 2015 at Iceland’s peninsula Reykjanes. The objective of this study is the retrieval of reflected body waves (P-waves) that provide high-resolution

  1. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  2. Reflections on the Gordon Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertel, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background:This brief reflection on the work of the Gordon Commission calls out significant themes and implications found in the various papers authored by the commissioners and other scholars, especially those included in this special issue of Teachers College Record. Purpose: The forward-looking vision of the Gordon Commission is contrasted with…

  3. Reflections on Community College Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Deborah L.; Antczak, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Focused researchers have filled the important role of documenting the evolution of community colleges, which have changing missions and diverse programs, designed around their communities. This article reflects on key works of Council for the Study of Community College (CSCC) members in thematic areas of access, student success, faculty…

  4. Questioning Intuition through Reflective Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Current literature on ethics and moral development focuses on discussion concerning the impact of intuition on moral decision-making. Through the use of student journal reflections over the course of one semester, this study utilized a grounded theory approach in order to explore and understand participant levels of awareness and understanding of…

  5. REFLECTION AND REFRACTION, VOLUME 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLAUS, DAVID J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS VOLUME 2 OF A TWO-VOLUME SET PROVIDES AUTOINSTRUCTION IN PHYSICS. THE UNITS COVERED IN THIS VOLUME ARE (1) REFLECTION OF LIGHT, (2) PHOTOMETRY, (3) POLARIZATION, (4) REFRACTION OF LIGHT, (5) SNELL'S LAW, (6) LENSES, FOCUS, AND FOCAL POINTS, (7) IMAGE FORMATION, AND (8) ABERRATIONS, THE EYE, AND MAGNIFICATION. THE INTRODUCTION AND UNITS ON…

  6. Ice duration, winter stratification, and mixing behavior of subalpine lakes in western Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, J.; Adams, S.; Abrams, R.; Engel, B.

    2011-12-01

    regional weather. There is more temporal variability in the spring turnover, reflecting the influence of elevation (and snowpack) on ice duration and therefore the persistence of winter stratification. We are interested in the impact of elevation and ice duration on summer water temperatures, which indicate three modes of mixing behavior during the summer season.

  7. Loneliness, duration of loneliness, and reported stress symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBerard, M S; Kleinknecht, R A

    1995-06-01

    The correlations between intensity of loneliness, duration of loneliness, and reported psychological and somatic stress symptoms were examined in 195 undergraduate students (100 women and 95 men). Analysis indicated that intensity and duration of loneliness were significantly correlated and both were also significantly positively correlated with subjects' reported psychological and somatic stress symptoms. In a forced-entry multiple regression equation predicting over-all stress symptomatology, only duration of loneliness emerged as a significant predictor, while intensity of loneliness did not add significant predictability. For college students, loneliness may be related to a wide array of reported psychological and somatic stress symptoms. It is also suggested that the duration of a lonely experience is perhaps a better predictor for symptoms of stress than intensity of loneliness.

  8. How climate seasonality modifies drought duration and deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.F.; Tijdeman, E.; Wanders, N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364253940; Lanen, H.A.J.; Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Drought propagation through the terrestrial hydrological cycle is associated with a change in drought characteristics (duration and deficit), moving from precipitation via soil moisture to discharge. Here we investigate climate controls on drought propagation with a modeling experiment in 1271

  9. Racial disparities in short sleep duration by occupation and industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Chandra L; Redline, Susan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, Michelle A; Hu, Frank B

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, has been shown to vary by occupation and industry, but few studies have investigated differences between black and white populations...

  10. Effects of soaking duration on germination and seedling growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) Roma VF, UC82B and Xina varieties were investigated. The treatments consisted of three soaking durations (12, 24, 36 h) and control replicated four times in a latin square design. Results indicated significant ...

  11. Modeling drivers' passing duration and distance in a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen Farah

    2013-07-01

    The main contribution of this paper is in the empirical models developed for passing duration and distance which highlights the factors that affect drivers' passing behavior and can be used to enhance the passing models in simulation programs.

  12. A Jump Diffusion Model for Volatility and Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    by the market microstructure theory. Traditional measures of volatility do not utilize durations. I adopt a jump diffusion process to model the persistence of intraday volatility and conditional duration, and their interdependence. The jump component is disentangled from the continuous part of the price......, volatility and conditional duration process. I develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference of irregularly spaced multivariate process with jumps. The algorithm provides smoothed estimates of the latent variables such as spot volatility, jump times and jump sizes. I apply this model to IBM data and I find...... meaningful relationship between volatility and conditional duration. Also, jumps play an important role in the total variation, but the jump variation is smaller than traditional measures that use returns sampled at lower frequency....

  13. The influence of population density and duration of breeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of population density and duration of breeding on broiler chickens productivity and profitability. S Mitrovic, V Dermanovi c, M Radivojevi c, Z Raji c, D Živkovi c, D Ostoji c, N Filipovi c ...

  14. Association between duration of the sleep and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, V; Hubácek, J A; Lánská, V; Vrablík, M; Králová Lesná, I; Suchánek, P; Zimmelová, P; Veleminský, M

    2009-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that there could be an association between the duration of sleep in humans and development of the obesity. We have analyzed the group of the probands (n = 3970, 2038 males and 1932 females, aged 18-65 years), with permanent address in the Central or South Bohemia. We ascertained the relationship between the duration of their sleep (obtained per questionnaire) and body mass index, weight, height, the value of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, waist and hip circumference, the values of total-, high density- and low density- cholesterol, thyroid hormone and body exercise performed. The optimal values of the body mass index (and optimal body weight) were associated with the duration of sleep 7 hours per night (P sleep duration.

  15. Resting-state connectivity of the sustained attention network correlates with disease duration in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Maneshi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, a normal electroencephalogram between generalized spike and wave (GSW discharges is believed to reflect normal brain function. However, some studies indicate that even excluding GSW-related errors, IGE patients perform poorly on sustained attention task, the deficit being worse as a function of disease duration. We hypothesized that at least in a subset of structures which are normally involved in sustained attention, resting-state functional connectivity (FC is different in IGE patients compared to controls and that some of the changes are related to disease duration. METHOD: Seeds were selected based on a sustained attention study in controls. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data was obtained from 14 IGE patients and 14 matched controls. After physiological noise removal, the mean time-series of each seed was used as a regressor in a general linear model to detect regions that showed correlation with the seed. In patients, duration factor was defined based on epilepsy duration. Between-group differences weighted by the duration factor were evaluated with mixed-effects model. Correlation was then evaluated in IGE patients between the FC, averaged over each significant cluster, and the duration factor. RESULTS: Eight of 18 seeds showed significant difference in FC across groups. However, only for seeds in the medial superior frontal and precentral gyri and in the medial prefrontal area, average FC taken over significant clusters showed high correlation with the duration factor. These 3 seeds showed changes in FC respectively with the premotor and superior frontal gyrus, the dorsal premotor, and the supplementary motor area plus precentral gyrus. CONCLUSION: Alterations of FC in IGE patients are not limited to the frontal areas. However, as indicated by specificity analysis, patients with long history of disease show changes in FC mainly within the frontal areas.

  16. Factors Influencing the Duration of Fluoroscopy in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Gok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is established in urology practice with routine use of fluoroscopic guidance. Aim of this study is investigating factors which influence duration of fluoroscopy in percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Material and Method: Factors influencing duration of fluoroscopy were evaluated on 199 patients who were underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy in Türkiye Yüksek Ižhtisas Hospital between January 2008 and May 2011. An intravenous pyelogram(IVP and non-contrasted Computerized Tomography(CT were studied for all patients and size and Hounsfield Unit(HU of all stones were evaluated. Stone load was recorded as the value obtained by multiplying diameter of largest axis and the axis vertical to the former one, which are measured with ruler. Current study evaluated effects of surgical experience, number of insertions into kidney, history of previous operation in same kidney, radio-density or Hounsfield Unit of the stone as calculated in Computerized Tomography and preoperatively calculated stone load on duration of fluoroscopy. Results: It was observed that higher experience has statistically significant effect on the duration of fluoroscopy (p = 0.006. A statistically significant difference was observed between preoperatively calculated stone load categories and duration of fluoroscopy (p<0.001. When effect of one previous renal surgery on the duration of fluoroscopy was considered, there was no statistically significant relation (p = 0.393. There was a statistically significant relationship between preoperatively calculated Hounsfield Unit values and the duration of fluoroscopy (p< 0.001. A statistically significant relationship was found between single insertion or multiple insertions and the duration of fluoroscopy (p<0.001. Discussion: In conclusion, it was observed in current study that size of the stone, radio-density or Hounsfield Unit of the stone, experience and number of insertions were related with the

  17. Factors associated with sleep duration in Brazilian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Santos, Manoella De Oliveira; Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with short sleep duration on southern Brazilian high school students. Our study was comprised of 1,132 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in public high schools in São José, Brazil. The students answered a questionnaire about working (work and workload), health perception, smoking, school schedule, sleep (duration and daytime sleepiness), and socio-demographics data. The results showed that more than two thirds of adolescent workers had short sleep duration (76.7%), and those with a higher workload (more than 20 hours) had a shorter sleep duration (7.07 hours) compared to non-workers (7.83 hours). In the analysis of factors associated with short sleep duration, adolescents who worked (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.95) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to those who did not work. In addition, older adolescents (17-19 years) and students with poor sleep quality were 40% and 55% more likely to have short sleep duration compared to younger adolescents (14-16 years) and students with good sleep quality, respectively. Adolescents with daytime sleepiness were more likely to have short sleep duration (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07) compared to those without excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition students of the morning shift (OR = 6.02, 95% CI 4.23 to 8.57) and evening shift (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.22) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to adolescents of the afternoon shift. Thereby adolescents who are workers, older, attended morning and evening classes and have excessive daytime sleepiness showed risk factors for short sleep duration. In this sense, it is pointed out the importance of raising awareness of these risk factors for short sleep duration of students from public schools from São José, located in southern Brazil.

  18. SEED GROWTH RATE, GROWTH DURATION, AND YIELD IN SOYBEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Guffy, R. D.; Hesketh, J. D.; Nelson, R. L.; Bernard, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    Seed growth rate and duration of growth were studied for different soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] cultivars and isolines differing in maturity and stem termination behavior under field conditions. Various methods for estimating rate and duration were compared, and such estimates were compared with yield, along with mature seed weight, seed number, and days from planting to maturity. Three estimates of seed filling period were all highly correlated with each other, but the final seed weight,...

  19. Strategies for crew selection for long duration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.; Holland, Albert W.; Santy, Patricia A.; Rose, Robert M.; Mcfadden, Terry J.

    1990-01-01

    Issues surrounding psychological reactions to long duration spaceflight are discussed with respect to the definition of criteria for selecting crewmembers for such expeditions. Two broad dimensions of personality and behavior are defined - Instrumentality including achievement orientation, leadership, and ability to perform under pressure and Expressivity encompassing interpersonal sensitivity and competence. A strategy for validating techniques to select in candidates with the optimum psychological profile to perform successfully on long duration missions is described.

  20. Modulation of tactile duration judgments by emotional pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuanghua eShi; Lina eJia; Hermann Josef Mueller

    2012-01-01

    Judging the duration of emotional stimuli is known to be influenced by their valence and arousal values. However, whether and how perceiving emotion in one modality affects time perception in another modality is still unclear. To investigate this, we compared the influence of different types of emotional pictures – a picture of threat, disgust, or a neutral picture presented at the start of a trial – on temporal bisection judgments of the duration of a subsequently presented vibrotactile stim...

  1. Modulation of tactile duration judgments by emotional pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Z.; Jia, L.; Muller, Hermann J.

    2012-01-01

    Judging the duration of emotional stimuli is known to be influenced by their valence and arousal values. However, whether and how perceiving emotion in one modality affects time perception in another modality is still unclear. To investigate this, we compared the influence of different types of emotional pictures—a picture of threat, disgust, or a neutral picture presented at the start of a trial—on temporal bisection judgments of the duration of a subsequently presented vibrotactile stimulus...

  2. Changing pattern of cardiovascular risk with duration of Diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cardiovascular risk factors were compared in two groups based on the median year duration of DM. A further 6 sub-grouping was done to look at pattern of increase of the different CVD risk factors. Results: duration of DM range from 1-30 years, median of 5 years and modal of 1 year. There was a difference in the means of ...

  3. Nonparametric Kernel Testing in Semiparametric Autoregressive Conditional Duration Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pipat Wongsaart; Jiti Gao

    2011-01-01

    A crucially important advantage of the semiparametric regression approach to the nonlinear autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) model developed in Wongsaart et al. (2011), i.e. the so-called Semiparametric ACD (SEMI-ACD) model, is the fact that its estimation method does not require a parametric assumption on the conditional distribution of the standardized duration process and, therefore, the shape of the baseline hazard function. The research in this paper complements that of Wongsaart...

  4. Intonation and Duration Curve in Persian Interrogative Sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Keyhani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: prosody is a very important factor in communication and includes such parameters as: duration, intonation, pitch, stress, rhythm etc. Intonation is the pitch variation in one sentence. Duration is the time taken to utter a voice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate some parameters of prosody such as duration and intonation curve in interrogative sentences among normal Farsi speaking adults in order to determine the characteristics of this aspect of language with an emphasis on laboratory testing.Methods: This study was performed as a cross-sectional one. The participants included 134 male and female Farsi speaking individuals aging between 18-30 years. In this study two interrogative sentences with open and closed answers were used. The voice samples were analyzed by Dr.speech -real analysis software. Data analysis incorporated unilateral analysis of variance and an intonation curve was drawn for each sentence.Results: The parameter of duration among men and women was significantly different (p≤0.001. Duration in open questions was significantly longer than yes/no questions (p≤0.001. The intonation curve of the two groups were similar.Conclusion: Men and women use duration changes, for making difference in prosody. On the whole, duration among women is longer than men. In open questions, the duration of sentences is mostly due to the question word. The intonation curve in open questions has more amplitude. Women show much more changes in basic frequency for transferring interrogative state in their expressions.

  5. Duration of illness in ambulatory children diagnosed with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingler, G H; Hussey, G D; Zwarenstein, M

    2000-10-01

    To measure the duration of illness in ambulatory children diagnosed with bronchiolitis and to examine clinical predictors of duration of illness. Validation inception cohort study. Duration of follow up was 28 days. A primary-level ambulatory department of a public sector children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. One hundred eighty-one children aged 2 to 23 months who went to the hospital as their first contact for that episode of illness, and had a clinical diagnosis of bronchiolitis were enrolled consecutively on weekday mornings if their guardian stated that they were contactable by telephone. Resolution of symptoms, as judged by the guardian, measured by twice-weekly telephone interviews. Median duration of illness (calculated as the reported duration of symptoms before initial hospital visit plus the time from first consultation to recovery) was 12 days (95% confidence interval, 11-14 days). After 21 days, 18% were still ill and after 28 days, 9% were still ill. Sixty-two patients (34.2%) had unscheduled consultations within 28 days, a median of 13 days after the first consultation. There was no association of duration of illness with age, sex, z score for weight for age, or respiratory rate. Ambulatory children diagnosed with bronchiolitis recover with few complications, but the resolution of symptoms may take several weeks. Providing parents with this information could help reduce the high rate of unscheduled return visits as observed in this cohort.

  6. Correlation between Sleep Duration and Risk of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyar, Sazal; Patyar, Rakesh Raman

    2015-05-01

    Modern lifestyle and job requirements have changed the sleep habits of most of the adult population. Various population-based studies have associated an increase in mortality with either shortened sleep or long sleep duration. Thus a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and all-cause mortality in both men and women has been suggested. Several studies have found an association between sleep duration and risk of cardiovascular diseases also. Efforts to understand the etiology of stroke have indicated an association between sleep and stroke too. Obstructive sleep apnea, a sleep-related disorder, has been reported to significantly increase the risk of stroke. Moreover, many studies have shown that both short and long sleep durations are related to increased likelihood of diabetes and hypertension, which themselves are risk factors for stroke. Therefore, this review focuses on the correlation between sleep duration and risk of stroke based on the experimental and epidemiologic studies. Although a few experimental studies have reported that partial sleep deprivation may reduce stroke incidence and severity, yet, most experimental and observational studies have indicated a strong association between short/long sleep durations and higher risk of stroke. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations between Short Sleep Duration and Central Obesity in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell-Haglöw, Jenny; Berne, Christian; Janson, Christer; Sahlin, Carin; Lindberg, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aim was to assess associations between sleep duration, sleep stages, and central obesity in women. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: City of Uppsala, Sweden. Participants: Population-based sample of 400 women (range 20-70 years). Interventions: Full-night polysomnography and measurement of anthropometric variables. Measurements and Results: Sleep duration was inversely related to both waist circumference and sagittal abdominal diameter. Sleep duration remained inversely related to waist circumference (adj. β = −1.22 cm/h; P = 0.016) and sagittal abdominal diameter (adj. β = −0.46 cm/h; P = 0.001) after adjusting for potential confounders. Duration of slow wave sleep (SWS, adj. β = −0.058 cm/min; P = 0.025) and REM sleep (adj. β = −0.062 cm/min; P = 0.002) were both inversely related to waist circumference after adjustments. Moreover, duration of REM sleep was inversely related to sagittal abdominal diameter (adj. β = −0.021 cm/min; P Berne C; Janson C; Sahlin C; Lindberg E. Associations between short sleep duration and central obesity in women. SLEEP 2010;33(5): 593-598. PMID:20469801

  8. Sleep duration differences between children of migrant and native origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labree, L J W Wim; van de Mheen, H Dike; Rutten, F F H Frans; Rodenburg, G Gerda; Koopmans, G T Gerrit; Foets, M Marleen

    To explore whether primary school children of migrant and native Dutch origins differ regarding their sleep duration per night, a risk for overweight and obesity, and to determine to what degree differences in parenting styles contribute to these differences. A cross-sectional survey, including 1,943 children aged 8-9 years old and their primary caregivers, was performed. Data were collected from primary schools in cities and adjacent municipalities in The Netherlands: Eindhoven and Rotterdam. The outcome measure was mean sleep duration per night. The main independent variable was migrant background, based on the country of birth of the parents. A possible mediating variable was parenting style (rejecting, neglecting, permissive, authoritarian, authoritative). Age and sex of the child as well as parental socioeconomic status, as indicated by educational level, were added as confounders. Dutch children have the highest sleep duration: more than 11 h (mean = 670.1; SD = 27.7). All migrant children show less than 11 h of sleep per night. Migrant children of non-Western origin, especially Turkish and Moroccan children, show the lowest sleep duration per night. Parenting styles do not contribute to these differences. Migrant background is associated with sleep duration. As children of migrant origin are, in general, at higher risk for overweight and obesity and sleep duration is regarded as a risk factor for overweight and obesity, further investigation of this association is needed.

  9. Relationships between school start time, sleep duration, and adolescent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L; Berger, Aaron T; Widome, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    The objectives were 2-fold: (1) to examine how high school start times relate to adolescent sleep duration, and (2) to test associations between sleep duration and mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors in teens. This study examines selected questions from survey data collected between 2010 and 2013 high school students. Respondents included more than 9000 students in grades 9 to 12 in 8 high schools in 5 school districts across the United States. The survey instrument is the 97-item Teen Sleep Habits Survey. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Because of clustering within schools and the use of repeated measures, generalized estimating equations were used to account for variance inflation. Greater sleep duration was associated with fewer reports of various mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors (all P values start times were significantly associated with greater sleep duration. Given that later start times allow for greater sleep duration and that adequate sleep duration is associated with more favorable mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors, it is important that school districts prioritize exploring and implementing policies, such as delayed start times, that may increase the amount of sleep of adolescent students, which is needed for their optimal development. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal recall of breastfeeding duration twenty years after delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natland Siv Tone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the health benefits from breastfeeding often rely on maternal recall of breastfeeding. Although short-term maternal recall has been found to be quite accurate, less is known about long-term accuracy. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of long-term maternal recall of breastfeeding duration. Methods In a prospective study of pregnancy and birth outcome, detailed information on breastfeeding during the child’s first year of life was collected from a cohort of Norwegian women who gave birth in 1986–88. Among 374 of the participants, data on breastfeeding initiation and duration were compared to recalled data obtained from mailed questionnaires some 20 years later. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland-Altman plot, and Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between the two sources of data. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors of misreporting breastfeeding duration by more than one month. Results Recorded and recalled breastfeeding duration were strongly correlated (ICC=0.82, p Conclusion Breastfeeding duration was recalled quite accurately 20 years after mothers gave birth in a population where breastfeeding is common and its duration long.

  11. Association of sleep duration and insulin resistance in Taiwanese vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Jiunn-Kae

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short sleep duration has been reported to associate with increased insulin resistance. However, no studies have investigated whether such association exists in vegetarians. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and insulin resistance in Taiwanese vegetarians. Methods A total of 1290 individuals were recruited from a regional hospital in south Taiwan during their regular routine physical examination. Only individuals who described themselves as Buddhist vegetarians were included in the study. Demographic information and clinical characteristics were collected and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between sleep duration and insulin resistance. Results A total of 433 vegetarians were included in the study. Results from univariate logistic regression indicated that insulin resistance was significantly associated with male sex, greater waist circumference, higher triglyceride levels, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, higher plasma creatinine levels, higher alanine transaminase levels, greater energy expenditure, and sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night. Multiple logistic regression revealed that insulin resistance was significantly and independently associated with sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night (odd ratios = 2.27, 95% confidence interval = 1.24, 4.11 after adjusting for waist circumference and levels of alanine transaminase. Conclusions Sleep duration of more than 8 hours per night is an independent risk factor associated with increased insulin resistance in vegetarians.

  12. Duration estimates within a modality are integrated sub-optimally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Bo eCai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceived duration can be influenced by various properties of sensory stimuli. For example, visual stimuli of higher temporal frequency are perceived to last longer than those of lower temporal frequency. How does the brain form a representation of duration when each of two simultaneously presented stimuli influences perceived duration in different way? To answer this question, we investigated the perceived duration of a pair of dynamic visual stimuli of different temporal frequencies in comparison to that of a single visual stimulus of either low or high temporal frequency. We found that the duration representation of simultaneously occurring visual stimuli is best described by weighting the estimates of duration based on each individual stimulus. However, the weighting performance deviates from the prediction of statistically optimal integration. In addition, we provided a Bayesian account to explain a difference in the apparent sensitivity of the psychometric curves introduced by the order in which the two stimuli are displayed in a two-alternative forced-choice task.

  13. Associations between insomnia, sleep duration and poor work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yan; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2820 Chinese manufacturing workers were categorized as insomnia patients and individuals with normal sleeping pattern by interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Sleep duration was classified into four categories: ≥7h, 6-7h, 5-6h, and Work ability was assessed using the Chinese Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Regression analysis examined the independent and joint association of sleep duration and insomnia with poor work ability, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Insomnia and objective short sleep duration were both independently associated with poor work ability. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥7h sleep duration group, the highest risk of poor work ability was in the insomnia patients with associated with increased risk of poor work ability. Objective sleep duration should be taken into consideration when assessing the work ability of people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimating Drilling Cost and Duration Using Copulas Dependencies Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Kindi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of drilling budget and duration is a high-level challenge for oil and gas industry. This is due to the many uncertain activities in the drilling procedure such as material prices, overhead cost, inflation, oil prices, well type, and depth of drilling. Therefore, it is essential to consider all these uncertain variables and the nature of relationships between them. This eventually leads into the minimization of the level of uncertainty and yet makes a "good" estimation points for budget and duration given the well type. In this paper, the copula probability theory is used in order to model the dependencies between cost/duration and MRI (mechanical risk index. The MRI is a mathematical computation, which relates various drilling factors such as: water depth, measured depth, true vertical depth in addition to mud weight and horizontal displacement. In general, the value of MRI is utilized as an input for the drilling cost and duration estimations. Therefore, modeling the uncertain dependencies between MRI and both cost and duration using copulas is important. The cost and duration estimates for each well were extracted from the copula dependency model where research study simulate over 10,000 scenarios. These new estimates were later compared to the actual data in order to validate the performance of the procedure. Most of the wells show moderate - weak relationship of MRI dependence, which means that the variation in these wells can be related to MRI but to the extent that it is not the primary source.

  15. Durations of adolescent sexual relationships before and after conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Dreves, V; Zabin, L S; Emerson, M R

    1995-09-01

    To explore durations of young couples' relationships between meeting and first intercourse, before first conception and for two years following conception and the associations between these durations; to describe the association between these durations and the young women's perceptions of the nature of these relationships. Three hundred and seven adolescent women were enrolled in a prospective study while presenting for pregnancy tests (the index event); they were followed for two years in three groups--those with negative tests, those who terminated the pregnancy and those who bore a child. Retrospective information about durations of relationships with first partners and partners at the index event was obtained at baseline; follow-up data was obtained on continuing relationships with the index partner. Durations of relationships between adolescent females and their partners in this sample, both before and after conception, are rarely brief; the median duration of a girl's prior relationship with a partner with whom she conceives is almost two years. Similarly, almost half of the sample is still in a relationship at two years following the index event, a proportion that rises to two-thirds among those who bore a child together. Contrary to common belief or practice, there may be sufficient time and commitment to include many male partners in intervention programs before, and in parenting programs after, a first conception--a practice which could have positive implications for both adolescent partners and, potentially, for their child.

  16. Objectively-measured sleep duration and hyperglycemia in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Sharon J.; Nelson, Deborah B.; Pien, Grace W.; Homko, Carol; Goetzl, Laura M.; Davey, Adam; Foster, Gary D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our primary purpose was to assess the impact of objectively-measured nighttime sleep duration on gestational glucose tolerance. We additionally examined associations of objectively-measured daytime sleep duration and nap frequency on maternal glycemic control. Methods 63 urban, low-income, pregnant women wore wrist actigraphs for an average of 6 full days in mid-pregnancy prior to screening for hyperglycemia using the 1-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Correlations of nighttime and daytime sleep durations with 1-hour OGTT values were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate independent associations between sleep parameters and hyperglycemia, defined as 1-hour OGTT values ≥ 130 mg/dL. Results Mean nighttime sleep duration was 6.9 ± 0.9 hours which was inversely correlated with 1-hour OGTT values (r = −0.28, p = 0.03). Shorter nighttime sleep was associated with hyperglycemia, even after controlling for age and body mass index (adjusted OR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1, 0.8). There were no associations of daytime sleep duration and nap frequency with 1-hour OGTT values or hyperglycemia. Conclusions Using objective measures of maternal sleep time, we found that women with shorter nighttime sleep durations had an increased risk of gestational hyperglycemia. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm our negative daytime sleep findings. PMID:24239498

  17. Objectively measured sleep duration and hyperglycemia in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Sharon J; Nelson, Deborah B; Pien, Grace W; Homko, Carol; Goetzl, Laura M; Davey, Adam; Foster, Gary D

    2014-01-01

    Our primary purpose was to assess the impact of objectively measured nighttime sleep duration on gestational glucose tolerance. We additionally examined associations of objectively measured daytime sleep duration and nap frequency on maternal glycemic control. Sixty-three urban, low-income, pregnant women wore wrist actigraphs for an average of 6 full days in mid-pregnancy prior to screening for hyperglycemia using the 1-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Correlations of nighttime and daytime sleep durations with 1-h OGTT values were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate independent associations between sleep parameters and hyperglycemia, defined as 1-h OGTT values ≥130 mg/dL. Mean nighttime sleep duration was 6.9±0.9 h which was inversely correlated with 1-h OGTT values (r=-0.28, P=.03). Shorter nighttime sleep was associated with hyperglycemia, even after controlling for age and body mass index (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.2 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.1-0.8]). There were no associations of daytime sleep duration and nap frequency with 1-h OGTT values or hyperglycemia. Using objective measures of maternal sleep time, we found that women with shorter nighttime sleep durations had an increased risk for gestational hyperglycemia. Larger prospective studies are needed to confirm our negative daytime sleep findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Time Adaptation Shows Duration Selectivity in the Human Parietal Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi J Hayashi

    Full Text Available Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject's attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain.

  19. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years......) are also considered. The issues related to the social relevance of the research deriving from psycho political validity implying consideration of power dynamics in the personal, relational and collective domains are included. The primary basis for these reflections is a follow-up study concerning young...... adults’ life trajectories including ethnic minority and ethnic majority young adults (n= 9) in Denmark; the first wave conducted in the mid-nineties and the second wave 10 years later. In addition, some issues are taken up from a research project about youth intimate partnership formation patterns...

  20. Seismic reflection and refraction methods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    , reflection method is a very sophisticated version of the echosounding used in submarines, ships, and radar systems. Whereas, in seismic refraction method, principal portion of the wave-path is along the interface between the two layers and hence... into electrical signals, which are recorded digitally. The Ocean Bottom Seismometers 221 (OBS) are normally designed to record the earth motion under oceans and lakes from air-gun seismic sources. The air gun array is towed behind a ship usually at a...

  1. Evaluation of teaching: some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Canós Darós

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some reflections about the process of evaluation of teaching as a starting point for an improvement. Without information there cannot be change. Any improvement in the classroom requires dealing with information coming from, first, the students as counterpart in the university learning teaching process; second, other colleagues who give their professional opinion and; third, of ourselves as lecturers, so that a complete evaluation is made from all points of view.

  2. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics with reflections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Sarah; Vinet, Luc [Centre de Recherches Mathematiques, Universite de Montreal, Montreal CP6128 (QC) H3C 3J7 (Canada); Zhedanov, Alexei, E-mail: post@crm.umontreal.ca, E-mail: luc.vinet@umontreal.ca, E-mail: zhedanov@fti.dn.ua [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Technology, Donetsk 83114 (Ukraine)

    2011-10-28

    We consider a realization of supersymmetric quantum mechanics where supercharges are differential-difference operators with reflections. A supersymmetric system with an extended Scarf I potential is presented and analyzed. Its eigenfunctions are given in terms of little -1 Jacobi polynomials which obey an eigenvalue equation of Dunkl type and arise as a q {yields} -1 limit of the little q-Jacobi polynomials. Intertwining operators connecting the wavefunctions of extended Scarf I potentials with different parameters are presented. (paper)

  3. Transcriptional Signatures of Sleep Duration Discordance in Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, N F; Buchwald, D; Delrow, J J; Altemeier, W A; Vitiello, M V; Pack, A I; Bamshad, M; Noonan, C; Gharib, S A

    2017-01-01

    Habitual short sleep duration is associated with adverse metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory effects. Co-twin study methodologies account for familial (eg, genetics and shared environmental) confounding, allowing assessment of subtle environmental effects, such as the effect of habitual short sleep duration on gene expression. Therefore, we investigated gene expression in monozygotic twins discordant for actigraphically phenotyped habitual sleep duration. Eleven healthy monozygotic twin pairs (82% female; mean age 42.7 years; SD = 18.1), selected based on subjective sleep duration discordance, were objectively phenotyped for habitual sleep duration with 2 weeks of wrist actigraphy. Peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) RNA from fasting blood samples was obtained on the final day of actigraphic measurement and hybridized to Illumina humanHT-12 microarrays. Differential gene expression was determined between paired samples and mapped to functional categories using Gene Ontology. Finally, a more comprehensive gene set enrichment analysis was performed based on the entire PBL transcriptome. The mean 24-hour sleep duration of the total sample was 439.2 minutes (SD = 46.8 minutes; range 325.4-521.6 minutes). Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 64.4 minutes (SD = 21.2; range 45.9-114.6 minutes). The twin cohort displayed distinctive pathway enrichment based on sleep duration differences. Habitual short sleep was associated with up-regulation of genes involved in transcription, ribosome, translation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Unexpectedly, genes down-regulated in short sleep twins were highly enriched in immuno-inflammatory pathways such as interleukin signaling and leukocyte activation, as well as developmental programs, coagulation cascade, and cell adhesion. Objectively assessed habitual sleep duration in monozygotic twin pairs appears to be associated with distinct patterns of differential gene expression and pathway enrichment. By

  4. Duration, compression, and the aided loudness discomfort level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, T; Scheller, T

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine how the unaided and aided loudness discomfort level (LDL) varies with the duration of the input signal and whether the electroacoustic characteristics of compression circuits affect this relationship in a manner that may alter the listener's dynamic range for short duration sounds. Ten hearing-impaired and 20 normal-hearing listeners participated. LDLs were determined for noise bursts of durations ranging in six steps from 32 to 1024 msec, using a two-alternative, forced-choice adaptive tracking procedure in which input level varied until LDL was achieved. LDLs were also obtained for continuous discourse, using a clinical procedure. Subjects were also given the opportunity to self adjust maximum output SPL to their LDL using either output limiting or volume controls in response to fixed 90 dB SPL noise bursts. Testing was conducted unaided and with hearing aids representing two analog (output compression limiting, wide dynamic range compression) and four digital compression circuits. Primary circuit contrasts included compression threshold, compression ratio, attack time and the presence or absence of unity gain at high levels. For the unaided condition, both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired subjects showed increasing LDLs with decreasing signal duration. Under aided conditions, circuits with compression thresholds of 45 to 50 dB SPL and compression ratios of 2:1 produced LDL functions that were similar in slope to the impaired listener's unaided functions. Slopes were steeper when the attack time was slow (128 msec) than when it was fast (2 msec). Circuits with compression ratios of 8:1 produced flat LDL duration functions (i.e., a loss of duration-dependent effects). Similar duration-dependent LDL effects were also observed when subjects adjusted their own hearing aid output characteristics in response to 90 dB noise bursts. For the unaided condition, results suggest that normal-hearing and hearing

  5. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  6. Sleep duration, nap habits, and mortality in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Perach, Rotem

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of nighttime sleep duration on mortality and the effect modification of daytime napping on the relationship between nighttime sleep duration and mortality in older persons. Prospective survey with 20-yr mortality follow-up. The Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study, a multidimensional assessment of a stratified random sample of the older Jewish population in Israel conducted between 1989-1992. There were 1,166 self-respondent, community-dwelling participants age 75-94 yr (mean, 83.40, standard deviation, 5.30). Nighttime sleep duration, napping, functioning (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, Orientation Memory Concentration Test), health, and mortality. Duration of nighttime sleep of more than 9 hr was significantly related to increased mortality in comparison with sleeping 7-9 hr (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31, P sleep of fewer than 7 hr mortality did not differ from that of 7-9 hr of sleep. For those who nap, sleeping more than 9 hr per night significantly increased mortality risk (HR = 1.385, P sleep reduced mortality significantly in the unadjusted model (HR = 0.71, P sleep appears to be harmful up to age 84 yr and may be protective thereafter (HR = 1.51, confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-2.02, P sleep duration in individuals who take daily naps and suggest that the examination of the effect of sleep needs to take into account sleep duration per 24 hr, rather than daytime napping or nighttime sleep per se. Cohen-Mansfield J; Perach R. Sleep duration, nap habits, and mortality in older persons. SLEEP 2012;35(7):1003-1009.

  7. Longitudinal differences in sleep duration in Hispanic and Caucasian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L; Quan, Stuart F; Morgan, Wayne J; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2016-02-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with significant negative consequences, including poor school performance, behavioral problems, obesity, and hypertension. There is prior evidence that there are disparities in sleep duration related to ethnicity; however, there are no specific data on Hispanic children. We aimed to test the hypothesis that there are ethnic differences in parent-reported sleep duration in a community-based cohort of Hispanic and Caucasian children. We examined the parent-reported sleep patterns of a community-based prospective cohort (Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study [TuCASA]) involving 338 Hispanic and Caucasian children at two time points approximately five years apart. In the initial phase of the TuCASA study with a cohort median age of 8.8 years (interquartile range (IQR), 7.6-10.1 years), parent-reported sleep duration during weekdays was shorter in Hispanic (median, 9.5 h; IQR, 9.0, 10.0 years) than in Caucasian children (10 h; IQR, 9.5, 10.0 h; p sleep duration during weekends tended to be shorter in Hispanic than in Caucasian children (p = 0.06). Short sleep duration in Hispanic children may contribute to health disparities. Our research suggests that in Hispanic children, behavioral interventions toward improving sleep duration accomplished by earlier bedtimes or delayed school start times and mechanistic studies to unravel any inherent tendency toward a delayed sleep phase are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Objective Sleep Duration Is Prospectively Associated With Endothelial Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Martica H; Mulukutla, Suresh; Kline, Christopher E; Samuelsson, Laura B; Taylor, Briana J; Thayer, Julian F; Krafty, Robert T; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms linking short sleep duration to cardiovascular disease (CVD) are poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that endothelial dysregulation may lie along the causal pathway linking sleep duration to cardiovascular risk, although current evidence in humans is based on cross-sectional studies. Our objective was to evaluate the prospective association between objectively assessed sleep duration and clinical indices of endothelial health. A total of 141 medically healthy adults underwent an overnight laboratory sleep study when they were between the ages of 21 and 60 years. Total sleep time was objectively assessed by polysomnography at study entry. Endothelial health, including brachial artery diameter (BAD) and flow-mediated dilation (FMD), was measured 18.9 ± 4.6 years later. Medical health and psychiatric status were assessed at both time points. Approximately half of the sample had a lifetime history of major depressive disorder. In univariate analyses, shorter sleep duration was associated with increased BAD (β = -0.24, p = .004) and decreased FMD (β = 0.17, p = .042). BAD, but not FMD, remained significantly associated with sleep duration after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI), smoking, diabetes, hypertension, and lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD) at T2. The association between sleep duration and BAD was stronger than the association between BAD and an aggregate measure of CVD risk including three or more of the following risk factors: male sex, age ≥ 65 years, smoker, BMI ≥ 30, diabetes, hypertension, and MDD. Objectively assessed short sleep duration was prospectively associated with increased BAD over a 12- to 30-year period.

  9. Reflection as the Homebase of Teacher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrias Tri Susanto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reflection is widely accepted as a process to support, or even underlie, teacher education. However, the concept holds several confusions among education experts and practitioners. This article would then attempt to explain some confusing terms by reviewing relevant literature on this issue and to provide discussions on the benefits and challenges of reflection manifested in various options of reflective practicum. Keywords: Reflection, teacher education, reflective practicum

  10. Postexercise oxygen consumption in trained females: effect of exercise duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T J; Vroman, N B; Kertzer, R

    1994-07-01

    Many research studies report the long-lasting elevation of metabolism following exercise. However, little is known regarding the impact of duration and intensity on this phenomenon, particularly in trained women in whom the time of the menstrual cycle has been controlled. This study examined the effects of a constant walking intensity (70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)) on the treadmill at various levels of duration (20, 40, and 60 min) on 3-h recovery of oxygen uptake (VO2). Eight trained (mean +/- SD) (VO2max = 47.6 +/- 3.2 ml.kg-1.min-1) females (mean age = 30.2 +/- 5.0 yr, mean weight = 58.7 +/- 7.6 kg, mean height = 165.6 +/- 7.0 cm) participated in the study. Subjects reported to the lab for a maximal oxygen consumption test and returned on four additional occasions (control, 20, 40, 60 min) in random fashion. Treadmill speed and grade were established to yield the appropriate intensity for each subject. Following each exercise bout subjects sat quietly for a 3-h time period. Variables measured included VO2, minute ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and core (rectal) temperature (Tc). Variables were measured each 15 min of recovery. An ANOVA was used to assess differences due to duration. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated by subtracting the resting VO2 from the absolute VO2 and summing the individual EPOCs during each 3-h postexercise session and comparing these individual values to the preexercise VO2 values. The EPOC was significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in each of the three durations as compared with the control (sitting) and preexercise periods. The total EPOC was significantly higher for the 60-min duration (15.2 l) as compared with either 20-min (8.b l) or 40-min (9.8 l) duration (P < 0.05). This was observed without significant changes in VE, RER, HR, SBP, DBP, or Tc. Additionally, there were no differences during exercise

  11. Influence of sleep duration on cortical oxygenation in elderly individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kazuko; Miyata, Seiko; Ando, Motoo; Matsuoka, Hiroki; Yasuma, Fumihiko; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Kawano, Naoko; Banno, Masahiro; Ozaki, Norio; Noda, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Cerebral blood flow and its regulation are affected by pathological conditions commonly observed in the elderly population, such as dementia, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus (DM), stroke, and hypertension. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sleep duration on cortical oxygenated hemoglobin (OxyHb) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Seventy-three individuals (age, 70.1 ± 3.9 years, 51 men and 22 women) participated in this study. Cortical OxyHb levels were measured with NIRS. We evaluated age, body mass index (BMI), smoking status, alcohol intake, sleep duration, hypertension, DM, and hyperlipidemia using a questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured using plethysmography. Peak OxyHb and area under the NIRS curve significantly decreased in participants with sleep duration sleep duration ≥7 h (0.136 ± 0.212 mM·mm vs 0.378 ± 0.342 mM·mm, P = 0.001; 112.0 ± 243.6 vs 331.7 ± 428.7, P  = 0.012, respectively). Sleep duration was significantly correlated with peak OxyHb level and area under the NIRS curve (r = 0.378, P  = 0.001; r = 0.285, P  = 0.015, respectively). Multiple regression analysis, including age, BMI, sex, smoking status, alcohol intake, sleep duration, hypertension, DM, and hyperlipidemia revealed that sleep duration was the only significant independent factor associated with peak OxyHb and area under the NIRS curve (β = 0.343, P  = 0.004; β = 0.244, P  = 0.049, respectively), and smoking status was independently correlated with time to the peak OxyHb (β = -0.319, P  = 0.009). Sleep duration may be an important factor that influences cortical oxygenation in the elderly population. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. A Twin Study of Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Noonan, Carolyn; Goldberg, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine the relative importance of genetic and environmental contributions to the association between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Twins from the University of Washington Twin Registry, a community-based sample of U.S. twins, provided self-reported height and weight for BMI calculation and habitual sleep duration. A generalized estimating equation model evaluated the overall and within twin pair effects of sleep duration on BMI with and without stratification by twin zygosity. A structural equation model was used to assess genetic and non-genetic contributions to BMI and sleep duration. Results: The study sample included 1,224 twins comprised of 423 monozygotic, 143 dizygotic, and 46 indeterminate pairs. The mean age was 36.9 years; 69% were female. A multivariate adjusted analysis of all twins revealed an elevated mean BMI (26.0 kg/m2) in short sleeping twins (sleeping 7–8.9 h/night (BMI 24.8 kg/m2; p sleeping twins having a mean BMI of 25.8 kg/m2 compared to 24.9 kg/m2 for the 7–8.9 h/night sleep duration group (p = 0.02). When restricted to monozygotic twins, the within-twin pair analysis continued to reveal an elevated BMI in the short sleeping twins (25.7 kg/m2) compared to the 7–8.9 h/night reference group (24.7 kg/m2; p = 0.02). No differences in mean BMI were observed between the 7–8.9 h/night reference group twins and longer sleeping twins (≥ 9 h/night) in the analysis of all twins, the overall within-twin pair analysis, or the within-twin pair analysis stratified by zygosity. The heritability of sleep duration was 0.31 (p = 0.08) and BMI 0.76 (p sleep duration and BMI (p = 0.28). Conclusions: Short sleep was associated with elevated BMI following careful adjustment for genetics and shared environment. These findings point toward an environmental cause of the relationship between sleep duration and BMI. Citation: Watson NF; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Noonan C; Goldberg J. A twin study of sleep duration

  13. Semiparametric modeling of grouped current duration data with preferential reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, Alexander C; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Thoma, Marie; Buck Louis, Germaine M

    2014-10-15

    Current duration data arise in cross-sectional studies from questions on the length of time from an initiating event to the time of interview. For example, in the National Survey on Family Growth, women who were considered at risk for pregnancy were asked (i) 'Are you currently attempting pregnancy?' and (ii) 'If yes, how many months have you been attempting to get pregnant?' The responses to (ii), referred to as the current durations, are length-biased because women with longer durations are more likely to answer yes to question (i) and therefore be included in the sample. Previous methods to analyze such data include continuous time nonparametric and parametric approaches. In this article, we propose a semiparametric Cox model and a piecewise constant baseline model (used to account for digit preference) to analyze grouped current duration data. We discuss and investigate through simulation studies, the robustness properties of the proposed methods when digit preference is present. Lastly, we present an analysis of the current duration data resulting from the 2002 National Survey on Family Growth. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Sleep duration, sleep quality and body weight: parallel developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-09-10

    The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparing Prospectively Recorded Posttraumatic Amnesia Duration With Retrospective Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Caroline M; Spitz, Gershon; Ponsford, Jennie L

    2016-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted comparing different methods for determining the duration of posttraumatic amnesia (PTA). This study compared prospectively recorded PTA duration (P-PTA) with retrospective reports of the return of continuous memory (R-PTA). Fifty-nine individuals admitted to a head injury rehabilitation unit with a traumatic brain injury who had their PTA duration recorded using the Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale. Participants were between 6 months and 6 years postinjury at the time of study. P-PTA was determined on the basis of Westmead Post-Traumatic Amnesia Scale responses. R-PTA was ascertained using a semistructured telephone interview. Although the PTA measures were significantly positively correlated (r = 0.76), mean R-PTA was significantly longer than mean P-PTA. In 34 cases (57.6%), R-PTA was longer than P-PTA (13 participants moved to a higher injury severity band), and in 22 cases (37.3%), R-PTA was shorter than P-PTA (8 participants moved to a lower injury severity band). The difference between P-PTA and R-PTA was not significantly associated with age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, overall PTA duration, or the number of days postinjury of the retrospective interview. Prospective and retrospective estimates of PTA duration were not comparable within the present sample. Further research comparing the two methods is needed.

  16. The impact of sleep duration on self-rated health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frange, Cristina; de Queiroz, Sandra Souza; da Silva Prado, Juliana Martuscelli; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To review the association between sleep duration and self-rated health. Methods A search for original and review articles focusing on sleep duration and self-rated health was performed in PubMed. The general search strategy was [(“sleep duration” OR “total sleep time” OR “time in bed”) AND “self-rated health”]. Results We found 22 articles in the English language; 8 articles with no direct association between sleep duration and self-rated health were excluded. Of these articles, 14 were considered potentially relevant and examined in detail, and 9 were excluded for not having self-rated health as the primary outcome. This work was compounded by 5 papers. The extremes of sleep duration (short or long) exhibited an interaction with poor or worse self-rated health. Conclusion The sleep duration issue should be considered when inquiring about health conditions, as this factor can lead to adverse results in global health status. PMID:26483912

  17. VO2max, protocol duration, and the VO2 plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Byung-Kon; Kravitz, Len; Robergs, Robert

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare VO2max, VO2-time slopes at the end of the protocol (last 30 s), and the presence of a VO2 plateau (VO2-time slope VO2max. Eight male (23.8 +/- 3.2 yr) and eight female (26.0 +/- 8.9 yr) subjects of moderate to high fitness levels participated in the study. VO2max was significantly higher in men than in women for each protocol duration, with main effect means of 4.23 versus 2.84 L.min(-1), respectively. For women, VO2max did not differ between any protocol duration. For men, VO2max for the 8-min protocol (4.44 +/- 0.39 L.min(-1)) was significantly higher than for all other protocol durations. Analysis of covariance, using the highest VO2max as the covariate, removed all protocol-duration significance for men. The VO2 slope for the final 30 s of each test was significantly lower for the 16-min protocol compared with the 5-min protocol, for both men and women. The ventilation threshold across four protocols was similar, at approximately 76% of VO2max for both men and women. The protocol duration of tests to VO2max should be between 8 and 10 min for healthy, moderately to highly trained subjects.

  18. Duration and structure of the past four interglaciations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, I.J.; Landwehr, J.M.; Ludwig, K. R.; Coplen, T.B.; Riggs, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    Reanalysis and additional dating of the Devils Hole ??18O paleotemperature record confirm that the last interglaciation in the Great Basin (the continental analog of marine isotopic substage 5e) lasted ???22,000 yr, consistent with the Vostok paleotemperature record which suggests a duration of ???19,000 yr for this event in Antarctica. The three preceding interglaciations in the Devils Hole record (analogs of marine isotopic substages 7e, 9c, and 11c) range from 20,000 to 26,000 yr in duration. A ???20,000-yr duration for the last interglaciation is consistent with TIMS uranium-series dated sea-level high stands. Thus, the widely held view that interglaciations were of 11,000-to 13,000-yr duration and constituted only about 10% of mid-to-late Pleistocene climatic cycles needs reexamination. The warmest portion of each interglaciation in the Devils Hole time series is marked by a ??18O plateau, signifying apparent climatic stability for periods of 10,000-to 15,000-yr duration. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  19. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Sandoval, L.; Leveton, L.; Arias, D.

    2011-01-01

    In 1956, on the eve of human space travel Strughold first proposed a simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to optimize the potential of the ISS as a gateway to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Initial search of formal and grey literature augmented by liaison with subject matter experts. Search strategy focused on both the use of term long duration mission and long duration spaceflight, and also broader related current and historical definitions and classification models of spaceflight. The related sea and air travel literature was also subsequently explored with a view to identifying analogous models or classification systems. There are multiple different definitions and classification systems for spaceflight including phase and type of mission, craft and payload and related risk management models. However the frequently used concepts of long duration mission and long duration spaceflight are infrequently operationally defined by authors, and no commonly referenced classical or gold standard definition or model of these terms emerged from the search. The categorization (Cat) system for sailing was found to be of potential analogous utility, with its focus on understanding the need for crew and craft autonomy at various levels of potential adversity and inability to gain outside support or return to a safe location, due to factors of time, distance and location.

  20. Effect of walking speed on gait sub phase durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebenstreit, Felix; Leibold, Andreas; Krinner, Sebastian; Welsch, Götz; Lochmann, Matthias; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-10-01

    Gait phase durations are important spatiotemporal parameters in different contexts such as discrimination between healthy and pathological gait and monitoring of treatment outcomes after interventions. Although gait phases strongly depend on walking speed, the influence of different speeds has rarely been investigated in literature. In this work, we examined the durations of the stance sub phases and the swing phase for 12 different walking speeds ranging from 0.6 to 1.7 m/s in 21 healthy subjects using infrared cinematography and an instrumented treadmill. We separated the stance phase into loading response, mid stance, terminal stance and pre-swing phase and we performed regression modeling of all phase durations with speed to determine general trends. With an increasing speed of 0.1m/s, stance duration decreased while swing duration increased by 0.3%. All distinct stance sub phases changed significantly with speed. These findings suggest the importance of including all distinct gait sub phases in spatiotemporal analyses, especially when different walking speeds are involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Variation in Vowel Duration Among Southern African American English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-08-01

    Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. In this study, we examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the 2 groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Vowels produced by females were significantly longer than vowels produced by males for both AAE and WAE. African American speakers should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers.

  2. Predicting Severity and Duration of Road Traffic Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict severity and duration of traffic accidents by employing Ordered Probit model and Hazard model, respectively. The models are estimated using traffic accident data collected in Jilin province, China, in 2010. With the developed models, three severity indicators, namely, number of fatalities, number of injuries, and property damage, as well as accident duration, are predicted, and the important influences of related variables are identified. The results indicate that the goodness-of-fit of Ordered Probit model is higher than that of SVC model in severity modeling. In addition, accident severity is proven to be an important determinant of duration; that is, more fatalities and injuries in the accident lead to longer duration. Study results can be applied to predictions of accident severity and duration, which are two essential steps in accident management process. By recognizing those key influences, this study also provides suggestive results for government to take effective measures to reduce accident impacts and improve traffic safety.

  3. Do Stretch Durations Affect Muscle Mechanical and Neurophysiological Properties?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opplert, J; Genty, J-B; Babault, N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether stretching durations influence acute changes of mechanical and neurophysiological properties of plantar flexor muscles. Plantar flexors of 10 active males were stretched in passive conditions on an isokinetic dynamometer. Different durations of static stretching were tested in 5 randomly ordered experimental trials (1, 2, 3, 4 and 10×30-s). Fascicle stiffness index, evoked contractile properties and spinal excitability (Hmax/Mmax) were examined before (PRE), immediately after (POST0) and 5 min after (POST5) stretching. No stretch duration effect was recorded for any variable. Moreover, whatever the stretching duration, stiffness index, peak twitch torque and rate of force development were significantly lower at POST0 and POST5 as compared to PRE (Pstretch duration, no significant changes of Hmax/Mmax ratio were recorded. In conclusion, 30 s of static stretching to maximum tolerated discomfort is sufficient enough to alter mechanical properties of plantar flexor muscles, but 10×30 s does not significantly affect these properties further. Stretching does not impair spinal excitability. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Sleep Duration and School Readiness of Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Albert Martin; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Sophia Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    To examine the average sleep duration in Chinese preschoolers and to investigate the association between sleep duration and school readiness. This is a cross-sectional study that included 553 Chinese children (mean age = 5.46 years) from 20 preschools in 2 districts of Hong Kong. Average daily sleep duration in the last week was reported by parents and school readiness as measured by the teacher-rated Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). Most Chinese preschoolers had 9-10 hours of sleep per day. Only 11% of preschoolers had the recommended 11-12 hours of sleep per day. This group was associated with more "very ready" CEDI domains. Sleep deprivation (≤7 hours per day) was associated with a lower CEDI total score, lower scores in the emotional maturity and language/cognitive domain, and prosocial behaviors subdomain but a greater score in the hyperactivity/inattention subdomain. Children with a lower family socioeconomic index, lower maternal education level, infrequent parent-child interactions, and who used electronic devices for more than 3 hours per day had shortened sleep durations. Optimal sleep duration was associated with better school readiness in preschool children, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with lower school readiness, more hyperactivity and inattention, and less prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  6. Nighttime Sleep Duration and Sleep Behaviors among Toddlers from Low-Income Families: Associations with Obesogenic Behaviors and Obesity and the Role of Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Erin R; Calamaro, Christina J; Bentley, Lauren M; Hurley, Kristen M; Wang, Yan; Black, Maureen M

    2016-10-01

    Shortened sleep duration is associated with poor health and obesity among young children. Little is known about relationships among nighttime sleep duration, sleep behaviors, and obesogenic behaviors/obesity among toddlers. This study characterizes sleep behaviors/duration and examines relationships with obesogenic behaviors/obesity among toddlers from low-income families. Mothers of toddlers (age 12-32 months) were recruited from urban/suburban sites serving low-income families. Mothers provided demographic information and completed the Brief Infant Sleep Questionnaire (BISQ); a 6-item Toddler Sleep Behavior Scale was derived (TSBS-BISQ, higher score reflects more recommended behaviors). Toddler weight/length were measured; obesity defined as ≥95th percentile weight-for-length. Measures of obesogenic behaviors: physical activity [accelerometry, minutes/day in Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA)] and diet quality [24-hour recall, Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI-2005)]. Bivariate and adjusted multivariable models examined associations between nighttime sleep behaviors/duration and obesogenic behaviors/obesity. Sample included 240 toddlers (mean age = 20.2 months), 55% male, 69% black, 59% urban. Toddlers spent 55.4 minutes/day in MVPA, mean HEI-2005 score was 55.4, 13% were obese. Mean sleep duration was 9.1 hours, with 35% endorsing 5-6 recommended sleep behaviors (TSBS-BISQ). In multivariable models, MVPA was positively related to sleep duration; obese toddlers had a shorter nighttime sleep duration than healthy weight toddlers [odds ratio = 0.69, p = 0.014]. Nighttime sleep duration was associated with high TSBS-BISQ scores, F = 6.1, p = 0.003. Toddlers with a shorter nighttime sleep duration are at higher risk for obesity and inactivity. Interventions to promote healthy sleep behaviors among toddlers from low-income families may improve nighttime sleep duration and reduce obesogenic behaviors/obesity.

  7. Reflections from the ivory tower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capwell, Ellen M

    2004-07-01

    One health educator reflects on a career shift from public health practitioner to college faculty. The opportunity arose through informal Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) networking. Similarities between the practitioner and academic roles are noted in relation to politics, mentoring, service on committees, presentations, consultation, and chain of command. Notable differences are discussed in areas of hiring and job security, work rules, teaching versus administration, molding students versus reshaping adults, degree of focus on health content versus program process, amount of bureaucracy and red tape, and degree of freedom to advocate. Recommendations are included for successful transitions. Both roles have unique rewards.

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION: A useful reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R. J.; Steele, A. G.; Wood, B. M.; Hill, K. D.

    2005-10-01

    We discuss a simple, practical transformation between the probability density function (PDF) of the measurand and the associated PDF of the process for producing measurement results, both of which are used in metrology. This transformation is a reflection through the reported value and captures the essential reversal of skewness of these two perspectives for one-dimensional cases (i.e. any scalar quantity with no free parameters). It is useful for reconciling the skewness of the measurand and measurement-results perspectives, identifying cases where the choice of perspective should not matter and helping to treat the exceptional cases, involving PDF asymmetry, where it can matter.

  9. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  10. Reflections on strategic nurse leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jean

    2012-10-01

    This paper sets out some personal reflections by the Chief Nursing Officer for Wales on the challenges facing nurses and midwives as they undertake strategic leadership roles in NHS organisations. The paper looks at the national approach taken in Wales where behavioural competencies for executive nurse directors have been implemented. It considers the implications of the breadth of responsibilities executive nurse directors have and the importance of developing and supporting middle grade nurse managers and clinical directors. It concludes by looking at who is responsible for care within an organisation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  12. Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim Khlopov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.

  13. Influence of trial duration on the bias of the estimated treatment effect in clinical trials when individual heterogeneity is ignored.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cécilia-Joseph, Elsa; Auvert, Bertran; Broët, Philippe; Moreau, Thierry

    2015-05-01

    In randomized clinical trials where the times to event of two treatment groups are compared under a proportional hazards assumption, it has been established that omitting prognostic factors from the model entails an underestimation of the hazards ratio. Heterogeneity due to unobserved covariates in cancer patient populations is a concern since genomic investigations have revealed molecular and clinical heterogeneity in these populations. In HIV prevention trials, heterogeneity is unavoidable and has been shown to decrease the treatment effect over time. This article assesses the influence of trial duration on the bias of the estimated hazards ratio resulting from omitting covariates from the Cox analysis. The true model is defined by including an unobserved random frailty term in the individual hazard that reflects the omitted covariate. Three frailty distributions are investigated: gamma, log-normal, and binary, and the asymptotic bias of the hazards ratio estimator is calculated. We show that the attenuation of the treatment effect resulting from unobserved heterogeneity strongly increases with trial duration, especially for continuous frailties that are likely to reflect omitted covariates, as they are often encountered in practice. The possibility of interpreting the long-term decrease in treatment effects as a bias induced by heterogeneity and trial duration is illustrated by a trial in oncology where adjuvant chemotherapy in stage 1B NSCLC was investigated. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Genetic Associations with Gestational Duration and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ge; Feenstra, Bjarke; Bacelis, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that genetic factors contribute to the duration of gestation and the risk of preterm birth, robust associations with genetic variants have not been identified. We used large data sets that included the gestational duration to determine possible genetic associations....... Methods We performed a genomewide association study in a discovery set of samples obtained from 43,568 women of European ancestry using gestational duration as a continuous trait and term or preterm (... of association in the replication sets; these variants also showed genomewide significance in a joint analysis. Common variants in EBF1, EEFSEC, and AGTR2 showed association with preterm birth with genomewide significance. An analysis of mother-infant dyads suggested that these variants act at the level...

  15. Sexual desire and relationship duration in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Sarah H; Milhausen, Robin R

    2012-01-01

    Sexual desire is often present at the beginning of a romantic relationship. However, research is divided regarding whether, and how, desire is experienced as a relationship progresses. The authors examined relationship duration and its effect on sexual desire in a sample of 170 undergraduate men and women between the ages of 18 and 25 years. Hierarchical multiple regression results indicated that women's sexual desire was significantly and negatively predicted by relationship duration after controlling for age, relationship satisfaction, and sexual satisfaction. Men's sexual desire, however, was not significantly affected by the duration of their romantic relationships. These findings suggest that men and women may have different experiences with sexual desire as relationships progress and that sexual desire might be affected by different factors depending on one's gender. Possible reasons for these results are suggested and therapeutic implications are discussed.

  16. Compound muscle action potential duration in critical illness neuromyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Christopher L; Boon, Andrea J; Harper, C Michel; Goodman, Brent P

    2018-03-01

    We sought to determine the specificity of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) durations and amplitudes in a large critical illness neuromyopathy (CINM) cohort relative to controls with other neuromuscular conditions. Fifty-eight patients with CINM who had been seen over a 17-year period were retrospectively studied. Electrodiagnostic findings of the CINM cohort were compared with patients with axonal peripheral neuropathy and myopathy due to other causes. Mean CMAP durations were prolonged, and mean CMAP amplitudes were severely reduced both proximally and distally in all nerves studied in the CINM cohort relative to the control groups. The specificity of prolonged CMAP durations for CINM approached 100% if they were encountered in more than 1 nerve. Prolonged, low-amplitude CMAPs occur more frequently and with greater severity in CINM patients than in neuromuscular controls with myopathy and axonal neuropathy and are highly specific for the diagnosis of CINM. Muscle Nerve 57: 395-400, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Conditional probability of rainfall extremes across multiple durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong Dong; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

    2017-04-01

    The conditional probability that extreme rainfall will occur at one location given that it is occurring at another location is critical in engineering design and management circumstances including planning of evacuation routes and the sitting of emergency infrastructure. A challenge with this conditional simulation is that in many situations the interest is not so much the conditional distributions of rainfall of the same duration at two locations, but rather the conditional distribution of flooding in two neighbouring catchments, which may be influenced by rainfall of different critical durations. To deal with this challenge, a model that can consider both spatial and duration dependence of extremes is required. The aim of this research is to develop a model that can take account both spatial dependence and duration dependence into the dependence structure of extreme rainfalls. To achieve this aim, this study is a first attempt at combining extreme rainfall for multiple durations within a spatial extreme model framework based on max-stable process theory. Max-stable processes provide a general framework for modelling multivariate extremes with spatial dependence for just a single duration extreme rainfall. To achieve dependence across multiple timescales, this study proposes a new approach that includes addition elements representing duration dependence of extremes to the covariance matrix of max-stable model. To improve the efficiency of calculation, a re-parameterization proposed by Koutsoyiannis et al. (1998) is used to reduce the number of parameters necessary to be estimated. This re-parameterization enables the GEV parameters to be represented as a function of timescale. A stepwise framework has been adopted to achieve the overall aims of this research. Firstly, the re-parameterization is used to define a new set of common parameters for marginal distribution across multiple durations. Secondly, spatial interpolation of the new parameter set is used to

  18. An Algorithm for Successive Identification of Reflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Vejlby; Larsen, Jan

    1994-01-01

    A new algorithm for successive identification of seismic reflections is proposed. Generally, the algorithm can be viewed as a curve matching method for images with specific structure. However, in the paper, the algorithm works on seismic signals assembled to constitute an image in which...... the investigated reflections produce curves. In numerical examples, the authors work on signals assembled in CMP gathers. The key idea of the algorithm is to estimate the reflection curve parameters and the reflection coefficients along these curves by combining the multipulse technique and the generalized Radon...... stops the reflection estimation when the actual estimated reflection is insignificant. The reflection validation procedure ensures that the estimated reflections follow the shape of the investigated reflection curves. The algorithm is successfully used in two numerical examples. One is based...

  19. Drought Duration Biases in Current Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Heewon; Gudmundsson, Lukas; Seneviratne, Sonia

    2016-04-01

    Several droughts in the recent past are characterized by their increased duration and intensity. In particular, substantially prolonged droughts have brought major societal and economic losses in certain regions, yet climate change projections of such droughts in terms of duration is subject to large uncertainties. This study analyzes the biases of drought duration in state-of-the-art global climate model (GCM) simulations from the 5th phase of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Drought durations are defined as negative precipitation anomalies and evaluated with three observation-based datasets in the period of 1901-2010. Large spread in biases of GCMs is commonly found in all regions, with particular strong biases in North East Brazil, Africa, Northern Australia, Central America, Central and Northern Europe, Sahel and Asia. Also in most regions, the interquartile range of bias lies below 0, meaning that the GCMs tend to underestimate drought durations. Meanwhile in some regions such as Western South America, the Amazon, Sahel, West and South Africa, and Asia, considerable inconsistency among the three observation-based datasets were found. These results indicate substantial uncertainties and errors in current GCMs for simulating drought durations as well as a large spread in observation-based datasets, both of which are found to be particularly strong in those regions that are often considered to be hot spots of projected future drying. The underlying sources of these uncertainties need to be identified in further study and will be applied to constrain GCM-based drought projections under climate change.

  20. Sleep duration estimates of Canadian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to provide contemporary sleep duration estimates of Canadian school-aged children and adolescents and to determine the proportion adhering to the sleep duration recommendations. This study included 24 896 participants aged 10-17 years from the 2013/2014 Canadian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC), a nationally representative cross-sectional study. Bedtime and wake-up times were reported by participants and their sleep duration was calculated. Participants were then classified as having a sleep duration that met the recommended range (9-11 h per night for 10-13-year-olds or 8-10 h per night for 14-17-year-olds), a sleep duration that was shorter than the recommended range or a sleep duration that was longer than the recommended range. An estimated 68% of children aged 10-13 years and 72% of adolescents aged 14-17 years sleep for the recommended amount per night when averaged across all days of the week. Short sleepers represent 31% of school-aged children and 26% of adolescents. Long sleepers are rare (adolescents sleep ~1 h more at weekends compared to weekdays. Approximately 5% of the participants typically went to bed after midnight on weekdays and 31% did so at weekends; these proportions reached 11 and 45%, respectively, within 16-17-year-olds. In general, differences in sleep times between boys and girls are small and not clinically significant. In conclusion, almost one-third of Canadian children and adolescents sleep less than the recommended amount. Public health efforts should continue to monitor the sleep of Canadian children and adolescents and identify subgroups of the population more likely to be affected by insufficient sleep. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  1. Sleep Duration and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Alicja R; Nightingale, Claire M; Donin, Angela S; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H; Owen, Christopher G

    2017-09-01

    Associations between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk markers in childhood have been little studied. We examined associations between self-reported sleep duration and T2D risk markers in children. Cross-sectional study of 4525 multiethnic UK children aged 9 to 10 years. Sleep time was calculated from self-reported usual time of going to bed and getting up on a school day, validated in a subset using accelerometers. Fasting blood samples provided levels of serum lipids and insulin, plasma glucose, and HbA1c. Physical measures included height, weight, bioimpedance, and blood pressure. Multilevel linear regression models of anthropometric, T2D, and cardiovascular risk markers with sleep duration were adjusted for sex, age, month, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, observer (physical measures only), and random effect of school. On average, children slept 10.5 hours per night (95% range 8.0-12.0 hours). There were strong inverse graded relationships between sleep duration, adiposity, and diabetes risk markers. In adjusted models, a 1-hour-longer sleep duration was associated with 0.19 lower BMI (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09 to 0.28), 0.03 kg/m(5) lower fat mass index (95% CI 0.00 to 0.05 kg/m(5)), 2.9% lower homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (95% CI 1.2% to 4.4%), and 0.24% lower fasting glucose (95% CI 0.03% to 0.44%); there was no association with HbA1c or cardiovascular risk. Associations with insulin and glucose remained after an additional adjustment for adiposity markers. The finding of an inverse association between sleep duration and T2D risk markers in childhood is novel. Intervention studies are needed to establish the causality of these associations, which could provide a simple strategy for early T2D prevention. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Sleep duration and weight gain: reconsideration by panel data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Chihiro; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Inconsistent findings in previous studies of the association between sleep duration and changes in body mass index (BMI) may be attributed to misclassification of sleep duration fluctuations over time and unmeasured confounders such as genetic factors. The aim of the present study was to overcome these failings by using repeated measurements and panel data analysis to examine the sleep-BMI association. Panel data were derived by secondary use of the data from mandatory health checkups at a Japanese gas company. Male non-shift workers aged 19-39 years in 2007 were annually followed until 2010 (n = 1687, 6748 records). BMI was objectively measured, and sleep duration was self-reported. Compared with 7-hour sleepers, panel analysis with the population-averaged model showed a significant increase in BMI among 5-hour (0.11 kg/m(2), P = 0.001), 6-hour (0.07 kg/m(2), P = 0.038), and ≥8-hour (0.19 kg/m(2), P = 0.009) sleepers. On the other hand, after adjustment for unobserved time-invariant confounders using the fixed-effects model, the magnitude of the association was considerably attenuated and no longer significant (5-hour, 0.07 kg/m(2), P = 0.168; 6-hour, 0.02 kg/m(2), P = 0.631; ≥8-hour sleepers, 0.06 kg/m(2), P = 0.460). The longitudinal association between sleep duration and changes in BMI may be upwardly biased by unobserved time-invariant confounders rather than misclassified sleep duration. The net effect of sleep duration on weight gain may therefore be less than previously believed.

  3. Managerial process: the reflective practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenall, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The successful management journey is replete with moments of truth. Recognizing those moments and their significance for successful managerial practice is both a reflective and a conscious practice. This article, written by a successful pharmacist who now manages a busy public service hospital pharmacy documents his management journey from starting position as a drug store pharmacist to his present position in the public service. The paper uses managerial process theory as a critical tool to assess the author's own managerial style. Starting off as an autocratic manager with micro management tendencies, he has now developed a different style of management built on a basic philosophy about the value of people. He sees a need for managers to build a work environment that supports the efforts of employees. This style has not only made him a more effective people manager and motivator, but he argues it has also made him a better pharmacist. The author concludes by advocating the value of reflective practice, particularly for healthcare administrators as a means of balancing the technical demands of their disciplines with the ongoing requirements of managing people.

  4. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  5. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Diana; Orr, Martin; Whitmire, Alexandra; Leveton, Lauren; Sandoval, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the need for a shared definitional model of long duration human spaceflight, that would provide a framework and vision to facilitate communication, research and practice In 1956, on the eve of human space travel, Hubertus Strughold first proposed a "simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight" that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Here we describe our preliminary findings and outline potential approaches for the future development of a definition and broader classification system

  6. Uninsured Spells of the Poor: Prevalence and Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Timothy D.

    1997-01-01

    The number of persons without health insurance is increasing. Although research has focused on the uninsured poor and the duration of spells without health insurance, less attention has been paid to the dynamics of spells without health insurance among those in poverty. Here it is shown that the typical uninsured spell is longer for the uninsured poor (roughly 8.3 months) than for the uninsured non-poor (roughly 6 months) and that the duration of spells has increased over time. In addition, more than 40 percent of the uninsured at a point in time are chronically uninsured and poor or near-poor. PMID:10179996

  7. Duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy in people with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Amanda; Wildman, Martin

    2013-05-31

    Respiratory disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). Life expectancy of people with CF has increased dramatically in the last 40 years. One of the major reasons for this increase is the mounting use of antibiotics to treat chest exacerbations caused by bacterial infections. The optimal duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy is not clearly defined. Individuals usually receive intravenous antibiotics for 14 days, but treatment may range from 10 to 21 days. A shorter duration of antibiotic treatment risks inadequate clearance of infection which could lead to further lung damage. Prolonged courses of intravenous antibiotics are expensive and inconvenient and the incidence of allergic reactions to antibiotics also increases with prolonged courses. The use of aminoglycosides requires frequent monitoring to avoid some of their side effects. However, some organisms which infect people with CF are known to be multi-resistant to antibiotics, and may require a longer course of treatment. To assess the optimal duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy for treating chest exacerbations in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals, abstract books and conference proceedings.Most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 15 November 2012. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing different durations of intravenous antibiotic courses for acute respiratory exacerbations in people with CF, either with the same drugs at the same dosage, the same drugs at a different dosage or frequency or different antibiotics altogether, including studies with additional therapeutic agents. No eligible trials were identified. No eligible trials were identified. There are no clear guidelines on the optimum duration of intravenous

  8. Cognitive Assessment in Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert; Seaton, Kimberly; Sipes, Walter

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and use of a tool for assessing spaceflight cognitive ability in astronauts. This tool. the Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) has been used to provide ISS flight surgeons with an objective clinical tool to monitor the astronauts cognitive status during long-duration space flight and allow immediate feedback to the astronaut. Its use is medically required for all long-duration missions and it contains a battery of five cognitive assessment subtests that are scheduled monthly and compared against the individual preflight baseline.

  9. Probabilistic representation of duration of load effects in timber structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    to be considered. These two cases are maximum load level exceeding load-carrying capacity and damage accumulation (caused by the load and its duration) leading to failure. The effect of both load intensity and load duration on the capacity of timber has been an area of large interest over the last decades......-based design of timber structures in terms of a modification factor View the MathML source which is multiplied on the short-term resistance of the timber material. The scenario of a beam subject to office space life loads is analyzed and the modification factor View the MathML source is calibrated by using...

  10. [Phenomenon of Perceived Duration in the Subjective Present].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Ikuya

    2017-11-01

    Among phenomena involving the subjective present, duration perception is especially worth discussing from the viewpoints of psychophysics, cognitive neuroscience, and computational modeling of underlying mechanisms. First, several situations in which moving visual stimuli appear to last longer are reported. Second, the phenomenon of illusory time compression, which occurs in a moving stimulus after prolonged observation of another stimulus moving at a faster speed, is described. Third, how an attended visual stimulus appears to last longer and how a stimulus appears to last for a shorter duration when attention is directed away are explained. Finally, possible underlying mechanisms in relation to the stages of hierarchical visual information processing are discussed.

  11. Effect of Music on Pain and Duration of Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Amiri, Z.; Sh Marefat; L Nazari; L Ajori

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This randomized clinical trial (RCT) was conducted to evaluate whether use of music could reduce the pain and duration of labor. Methods: Between 2010 and 2011, a total of 99 women at 38 weeks or greater with spontaneous labor were randomized to fast music, slow music, and control groups. Labor pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS) at beginning of the active phase and then every 1 hour. Duration of active phase and second stage of labor was recorded. Analysis of all...

  12. Robust reflective pupil slicing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Jeffrey T.; Behr, Bradford B.; Cenko, Andrew T.; Hajian, Arsen R.

    2014-07-01

    Tornado Spectral Systems (TSS) has developed the High Throughput Virtual Slit (HTVSTM), robust all-reflective pupil slicing technology capable of replacing the slit in research-, commercial- and MIL-SPEC-grade spectrometer systems. In the simplest configuration, the HTVS allows optical designers to remove the lossy slit from pointsource spectrometers and widen the input slit of long-slit spectrometers, greatly increasing throughput without loss of spectral resolution or cross-dispersion information. The HTVS works by transferring etendue between image plane axes but operating in the pupil domain rather than at a focal plane. While useful for other technologies, this is especially relevant for spectroscopic applications by performing the same spectral narrowing as a slit without throwing away light on the slit aperture. HTVS can be implemented in all-reflective designs and only requires a small number of reflections for significant spectral resolution enhancement-HTVS systems can be efficiently implemented in most wavelength regions. The etendueshifting operation also provides smooth scaling with input spot/image size without requiring reconfiguration for different targets (such as different seeing disk diameters or different fiber core sizes). Like most slicing technologies, HTVS provides throughput increases of several times without resolution loss over equivalent slitbased designs. HTVS technology enables robust slit replacement in point-source spectrometer systems. By virtue of pupilspace operation this technology has several advantages over comparable image-space slicer technology, including the ability to adapt gracefully and linearly to changing source size and better vertical packing of the flux distribution. Additionally, this technology can be implemented with large slicing factors in both fast and slow beams and can easily scale from large, room-sized spectrometers through to small, telescope-mounted devices. Finally, this same technology is directly

  13. Regional estimation of rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves using generalized least squares regression of partial duration series statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2002-01-01

    for discriminating between the exponential distribution and various two-parameter distributions in the PDS model. The resulting model can be used for estimation of rainfall intensity-duration-frequency curves at an arbitrary location in a region. For illustration, the regional model is applied to rainfall data from......A general framework for regional analysis and modeling of extreme rainfall characteristics is presented. The model is based on the partial duration series (PDS) method that includes in the analysis all events above a threshold level. In the PDS model the average annual number of exceedances...

  14. Breastfeeding duration related to practised contraception in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouwe, J.P. van; Lanting, C.I.; Dommelen, P. van; Treffers, P.E.; Buuren, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to gain insight into contraception practised and related to breastfeeding duration. Methods: Mothers with infants up to 6 months received a questionnaire on infant feeding (breast or formula feeding) and contraception (hormonal or non-hormonal methods). Estimates of

  15. Rice seed quality as influenced by storage duration and package ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aimed at evaluating the changes in rice seed quality as a function of storage duration and package type through characterization of seed quality determinants. Two rice varieties NERICA8 and NERICAL56) were measured into four package types (nylon bag, polyethylene bag, jute bag, and paper bag) and stored ...

  16. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour.

  17. PENGGUNAAN PARTIAL DURATION DALAM IMUNISASI PORTOFOLIO OBLIGASI KORPORASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Wardhana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bond investment had been popular recently in Indonesian capital market by theissuance of government retail bond known as Obligasi Ritel Indonesia(ORI. The emergence ofORI in Indonesian bond market had brought into account the need to disseminate many aspectsof bond trading included duration concept that was central in the discussion of bond investment.Previous research done by Widayanti (2007 towards corporate bond traded in Surabaya StockExchange could not immunize the bond portfolio because of the unparallel movement ofinterest rate during the research period. This research aimed at continuing the previous researchby applying different tools of analysis, known as partial duration which was suitable forunparallel movement of interest rate. The result obtained indicated that partial durationcould not be used for the immunization both single and portfolio of bonds. However, it wasfound that by using partial duration to immunize single and portfolio of bonds, the deviationbetween expected and obtained result was somewhat lower compared to Modified duration.

  18. Labour Migration and Duration of Breastfeeding in Lesotho ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the differences in the duration of breastfeeding between wives of labour migrants and those of non-labour migrants. The data used in the study are obtained from the Lesotho Demographic and Health Survey carried out between September 1991 and April 1992. The survey was a national ...

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Duration of Diabetes Mellitus on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: and Objectives: Risk factors predisposing to foot ulceration in diabetic subjects are multiple. Long duration of diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor, likewise peripheral neuropathy (PN), which globally, is recognized as the commonest risk factor for foot disease in diabetic subjects. Objectives: To evaluate the ...

  20. influence of drying temperature and storage duration on fissuring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Moisture and temperature gradients induce the development of fissures during drying of paddy kernels. This affects the milling quality of the paddy and eventually reduces the head rice yield. To this effect, a study was conducted to investigate the influence of drying temperature and stor- age duration on the ...

  1. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of fresh water for many perennial river systems. (Dettinger and Cayan 1995; ... management, planning and decision making for various socio-economic ... Methodology. Seasonal snow cover build-up for a winter season is broadly described by snow cover depth and its duration. Variability in winter weather patterns. Table 1.

  2. Duration Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  3. Overweight duration in older adults and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnold, Melina; Freisling, Heinz; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that cancer risk related to overweight and obesity is mediated by time and might be better approximated by using life years lived with excess weight. In this study we aimed to assess the impact of overweight duration and intensity in older adults on the risk of developin...

  4. 7 CFR 205.500 - Areas and duration of accreditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Areas and duration of accreditation. 205.500 Section 205.500 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC...

  5. Treatment Duration of Topics in Senior Secondary School Core ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kofimereku

    Treatment Duration of Topics in Senior Secondary School Core. Mathematics in Ghana: A Case Study ... time of 160 minutes per week for 96 weeks for the SSS Core Mathematics Program was inadequate. Introduction ..... lessons, the whole exercise had to be postponed to second term because of the Schools and Colleges ...

  6. 7 CFR 906.58 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 906.58 Section 906.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  7. 7 CFR 987.80 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 987.80 Section 987.80 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this...

  8. 7 CFR 956.91 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 956.91 Section 956.91 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  9. 7 CFR 905.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 905.85 Section 905.85 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall...

  10. 7 CFR 923.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 923.67 Section 923.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  11. Sleep duration, cognitive decline, and dementia risk in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Espeland, Mark A; Brunner, Robert L; Lovato, Laura C; Wallace, Robert B; Leng, Xiaoyan; Phillips, Lawrence S; Robinson, Jennifer G; Kotchen, Jane M; Johnson, Karen C; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E; Mysiw, W Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence linking habitual sleep duration with risks of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia is lacking. We conducted a prospective study on 7444 community-dwelling women (aged 65-80 y) with self-reported sleep duration, within the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study in 1995-2008. Incident MCI/dementia cases were ascertained by validated protocols. Cox models were used to adjust for multiple sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other clinical characteristics. We found a statistically significant (P = .03) V-shaped association with a higher MCI/dementia risk in women with either short (≤6 hours/night) or long (≥8 hours/night) sleep duration (vs. 7 hours/night). The multicovariate-adjusted hazard for MCI/dementia was increased by 36% in short sleepers irrespective of CVD, and by 35% in long sleepers without CVD. A similar V-shaped association was found with cognitive decline. In older women, habitual sleep duration predicts the future risk for cognitive impairments including dementia, independent of vascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between sleep duration and diabetes mellitus: Isfahan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recent studies revealed an association between sleep disturbance and metabolic disorders, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. An aim of this study was to assess the relation between sleep duration and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: ...

  13. Influence of Intensity and Duration of Yoga on Anxiety and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic illness is commonly associated with anxiety and depression. Both anxiety and depression respond to yoga. However, there is no report on the association between the intensity and duration of yoga practice with the benefits seen. Aim: The present study was intended to determine whether the daily ...

  14. 34 CFR 686.3 - Duration of student eligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of student eligibility. 686.3 Section 686.3 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION TEACHER EDUCATION ASSISTANCE FOR COLLEGE AND HIGHER EDUCATION (TEACH...

  15. Determining prescription durations based on the parametric waiting time distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støvring, Henrik; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    in continued treatment. We exploited this to estimate percentiles of the IAD by inversion of the estimated FRD and defined the duration of a prescription as the time within which 80% of current users will have presented themselves again. Statistical properties were examined in simulation studies...

  16. Duration of exclusive breastfeeding and subsequent child feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Mothers of young children in Ghana believe that breastfeeding exclusively for six months impairs subsequent introduction of other foods. The current study was designed to determine whether feeding adequacy among 9-23 months old children is influenced by duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Design: We ...

  17. Influence of Drying Temperature and Storage Duration on Fissuring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moisture and temperature gradients induce the development of fissures during drying of paddy kernels. This affects the milling quality of the paddy and eventually reduces the head rice yield. To this effect, a study was conducted to investigate the influence of drying temperature and storage duration on the cracking ...

  18. Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration variability over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 125; Issue 7. Consistent seasonal ... Consistent seasonal snow cover depth and duration, delay days and early melt days of consistent seasonal snow cover at 11 stations spread across different mountain ranges over the WH were analyzed. Mean, maximum and ...

  19. Discrete time duration models with group-level heterogeneity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Honoré, Bo; Hu, Loujia

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic discrete choice panel data models have received a great deal of attention. In those models, the dynamics is usually handled by including the lagged outcome as an explanatory variable. In this paper we consider an alternative model in which the dynamics is handled by using the duration in ...

  20. Sleep duration differences between children of migrant and native origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.W.W. Labree (L. J. W. (Wim)); H. van de Mheen (Dike); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); G. Koopmans (Gerrit); M.M.E. Foets (Marleen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim: To explore whether primary school children of migrant and native Dutch origins differ regarding their sleep duration per night, a risk for overweight and obesity, and to determine to what degree differences in parenting styles contribute to these differences. Subjects and methods: A

  1. 20 CFR 725.219 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 725.219... of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning... month in which any one of the following events first occurs: (1) The child dies; (2) The child marries...

  2. Effect of lime pre-treatment mellowing duration on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of lime pre-treatment duration on some geotechnical properties of shale treated with cement for use as flexible pavement material was studied. Atterberg's limits, compaction, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on the natural shale and shale pre-treated ...

  3. Does short sleep duration favor abdominal adiposity in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, Angelo

    2007-01-01

    The main aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether the increased body mass index (BMI) characterizing short-duration sleeping children is related to an increased predisposition to abdominal adiposity. A total of 422 children (211 boys and 211 girls) involved in the "Québec en Forme" Project were tested for body weight, height, waist circumference, and sleep duration. As there was no gender interaction with the other factors, a partial regression of waist circumference on hours of sleep was performed for both genders combined, adjusting for age, sex, BMI, parental obesity, parental education, total annual family income, frequency of taking breakfast, watching television, playing videogames, computer use, and frequency of practicing sports activities outside of school. Sleep duration had an independent effect on waist circumference, with the correlation between these variables remaining significant after adjustment for BMI and the several other covariates (r=- 0.17, p<0.001). In conclusion, these results suggest that short sleep duration favors abdominal adiposity in children. This finding is of particular concern since abdominal obesity is an important feature of the metabolic syndrome.

  4. The Workers' Value of the Remaining Employment Contract Duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommeren, van Jos; Hazans, Mihails

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces and applies a method for estimating workers' marginal willingness to pay for job attributes employing data on job search activity. Worker's willingness to pay for the remaining duration of the employment contract is derived. We provide evidence that workers attach substantial

  5. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45 Section 166.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions...

  6. The key to reducing duration of untreated first psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joa, Inge; Johannessen, Jan Olav; Auestad, Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    The TIPS early intervention program reduced the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) in first-episode schizophrenia from 16 to 5 weeks in a health care sector using a combination of easy access detection teams (DTs) and a massive information campaign (IC) about the signs and symptoms of psychosis...

  7. Evaluation of critical storm duration rainfall estimates used in flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... purpose of the study was to evaluate and compare the methods used in flood hydrology to estimate depth-duration-fre- quency (DDF) ... Algorithm and Scale Invariance (RLMA&SI) approach were compared in 3 distinctive TC-ranges. The results ..... A software program, 'Design Rainfall. Estimation in South ...

  8. Selection and scheduling of jobs with time-dependent duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper two mathematical programming models, both with multiple objective functions, are proposed to solve four related categories of job scheduling problems. All four of these categories have the property that the duration of the jobs is dependent on the time of implementation and in some cases the preceding job.

  9. Duration and speed of speech events: A selection of methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibbon Dafydd

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of speech timing, i.e. the duration and speed or tempo of speech events, has increased in importance over the past twenty years, in particular in connection with increased demands for accuracy, intelligibility and naturalness in speech technology, with applications in language teaching and testing, and with the study of speech timing patterns in language typology. H owever, the methods used in such studies are very diverse, and so far there is no accessible overview of these methods. Since the field is too broad for us to provide an exhaustive account, we have made two choices: first, to provide a framework of paradigmatic (classificatory, syntagmatic (compositional and functional (discourse-oriented dimensions for duration analysis; and second, to provide worked examples of a selection of methods associated primarily with these three dimensions. Some of the methods which are covered are established state-of-the-art approaches (e.g. the paradigmatic Classification and Regression Trees, CART , analysis, others are discussed in a critical light (e.g. so-called ‘rhythm metrics’. A set of syntagmatic approaches applies to the tokenisation and tree parsing of duration hierarchies, based on speech annotations, and a functional approach describes duration distributions with sociolinguistic variables. Several of the methods are supported by a new web-based software tool for analysing annotated speech data, the Time Group Analyser.

  10. Response of pigeonpea genotypes of differrent maturity duration to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    altitude where temperature decreased with increase in altitude and variation in photoperiod was achieved through artificial lighting (about 12.6 hr - natural day length, 14.5 hr and 16.0 hr). The genotypes used in the study were carefully selected to represent different maturity duration (extra-short-, short-, medium- and long ...

  11. 20 CFR 655.158 - Duration of positive recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of positive recruitment. 655.158 Section 655.158 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY... recruitment. Except as otherwise noted, the obligation to engage in positive recruitment described in §§ 655...

  12. The influence of population density and duration of breeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... Key words: Population density (birds per m2), duration of fattening, profitability, poultry welfare, broilers. INTRODUCTION. Success in intensive ... and others are less sensitive to the occurrence of stress in a given environmental ..... maximum 35 kg, while preserving the welfare of animals. This fact gives the ...

  13. Males control the duration of copulation in the tropical millipede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prolonged copulation in Alloporus uncinatus is a form of mate guarding against sperm competition. Here we show, using a simple experiment, that males control the duration of copulation, an often overlooked assumption regarding the adaptive significance of prolonged copulation. The sex-specific evolutionary benefits of ...

  14. Optimal duration of systemic treatment in metastatic colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simkens, Lieke H. J.; Koopman, Miriam; Punt, Cornelis J. A.

    2014-01-01

    With the currently available cytotoxic and targeted drugs, metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) may be controlled by systemic treatment for a significant period of time. However, many questions remain about the optimal use of drugs and duration of treatment. We reviewed the data from clinical trials

  15. Valproic Acid and Sleep Duration in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep duration and behavior were assessed in 46 children (age range 1.7-17.4 years before and after tapering valproic acid (VPA administered for more than 6 months for epilepsy, in a study at University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Sperm storage and duration of fertility in female ostriches ( Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the duration of sperm storage and the fertile period following separation of sexes were investigated by egg break-out and by counting the sperm in the perivitelline membrane (spermOPVL) above the germinal disc (GD) region. Fertilisation ...

  17. Values for health states with different life durations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scalone, Luciana; Stalmeier, Peep F. M.; Milani, Silvano; Krabbe, Paul F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent research suggests that the value of health states may depend on their duration, implying a more complex relationship between quality and quantity of life than the standard linear relationship assumed in the quality-adjusted life years (QALY) model. Objective This study models how

  18. Values for health states with different life durations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scalone, L.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Milani, S.; Krabbe, P.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research suggests that the value of health states may depend on their duration, implying a more complex relationship between quality and quantity of life than the standard linear relationship assumed in the quality-adjusted life years (QALY) model. OBJECTIVE: This study models how

  19. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Ardi

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color attribute and shifted their gaze to the arrow to…

  20. Attention, Exposure Duration, and Gaze Shifting in Naming Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments are reported in which the role of attribute exposure duration in naming performance was examined by tracking eye movements. Participants were presented with color-word Stroop stimuli and left- or right-pointing arrows on different sides of a computer screen. They named the color

  1. response of pigeonpea genotypes of different maturity duration to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Duration type. Genotype. Origin A gro-ecological conditions. Altitude (m) Latitude. Cropping environment. Extra-short. ICPL 90011. India. 500. 17 o N. - Planting is performed just before the summer solstice and flowering occurs in August. Short. ICPL 87091. India. 500. 17 o N. - same as above. Medium. ICP 7035. India. 400.

  2. Effect of germination duration on nutritional and functional properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of germination duration on proximate, minerals, anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of two local sorghum varieties (Girana and Miskr) were investigated. A 2*3*2 full factorial design was used to conduct the experiment. Sorghum varieties were soaked for 24 hours at room temperature and germinated ...

  3. CRISP: A Computational Model of Fixation Durations in Scene Viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuthmann, Antje; Smith, Tim J.; Engbert, Ralf; Henderson, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Eye-movement control during scene viewing can be represented as a series of individual decisions about where and when to move the eyes. While substantial behavioral and computational research has been devoted to investigating the placement of fixations in scenes, relatively little is known about the mechanisms that control fixation durations.…

  4. Effect of Music on Pain and Duration of Labor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Amiri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This randomized clinical trial (RCT was conducted to evaluate whether use of music could reduce the pain and duration of labor. Methods: Between 2010 and 2011, a total of 99 women at 38 weeks or greater with spontaneous labor were randomized to fast music, slow music, and control groups. Labor pain was assessed on a visual analogue scale (VAS at beginning of the active phase and then every 1 hour. Duration of active phase and second stage of labor was recorded. Analysis of all proportions was carried out using t- test, Mann-whitney test, and Pearson’s chi-square test when appropriate. Results: Patients in the fast music group revealed lower VAS scores at all time after music therapy, except fourth hour, and in the first and fifth hours, this differences were significant. In slow music group VAS scores, only in fifth hour were significantly lower than those of control group. Duration of labor was significantly lower in the fast music group than control. Conclusion: Listening fast music in the active phase of labor decreased pain and duration of labor.

  5. Sleep duration and BMI in a sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Katie A; Wall, Melanie M; Larson, Nicole I; Laska, Melissa N; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-06-01

    We examined the association between sleep duration and BMI in young adults, and, specifically, in possible gender differences. The population-based sample included 955 young men and 1051 young women (mean age = 25.3 years, s.d. = 1.7) who participated in Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults)-III. In 2008-2009, study participants completed a survey, on which they reported their weight, height, and typical bed and awakening times. Gender-specific regression models estimated cross-sectional associations between sleep duration and weight status, adjusting for age, race, SES, family structure, depressive symptoms, physical activity, and sedentary and dietary behaviors. In multivariable-adjusted linear regression models, an hour increase in sleep was associated with a -0.38 (-0.70, -0.048) BMI in men. Men who slept BMI (27.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 26.9, 28.9) than men who slept 7-9 h/day (26.5; 95% CI: 26.1, 27.0). Prevalence estimates of overweight (BMI ≥ 25) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) were also inversely associated with sleep duration among men. Sleep duration was not associated with BMI, overweight, or obesity in women. Among women, but not men, there was a statistically significant positive association between trouble falling or staying asleep and mean BMI. Sleep may be an important modifiable risk factor for obesity, particularly in young adult men.

  6. Effect of feeding duration of Spirulina platensis on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spirulina platensis is a good candidate as an in-feed antibiotics substitute for broilers. However, its use seems impractical owing to its high price, especially when being administered throughout the whole rearing period. This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding duration of S. platensis on growth, haematological ...

  7. Predicting the phytoextraction duration to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Song, J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Japenga, J.

    2007-01-01

    The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain

  8. Effects of Learned Episodic Event Structure on Prospective Duration Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Myrthe; Gennari, Silvia P.

    2017-01-01

    The field of psychology of time has typically distinguished between prospective timing and retrospective duration estimation: in prospective timing, participants attend to and encode time, whereas in retrospective estimation, estimates are based on the memory of what happened. Prior research on prospective timing has primarily focused on…

  9. 15 CFR 256.5 - Duration of projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES RESEARCH ASSOCIATE PROGRAM § 256.5 Duration of projects. The work of a Research Associate is generally conducted on a full-time basis. Typically, Research Associates are in residence at NIST for 6 to 18 months; longer...

  10. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303 Section 85.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and Engines Used in Motor Vehicles Under Section 177...

  11. Correlates of selected indices of physical fitness and duration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was done to determine the relationship between the measures of physical fitness and the duration of incarceration of inmates in Kano prisons. Subjects' physical fitness level (cardio-respiratory fitness, body mass index and waist circumference) was assessed using standardized protocols.

  12. P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B; Kühl, Jørgen T; Pietersen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results on the association between P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to obtain a detailed description of the relationship between P-wave duration and the risk of AF. METHODS: Using computerized analysis...... of electrocardiograms from a large primary care population, we evaluated the association between P-wave duration and the risk of AF. Secondary end-points were death from cardiovascular causes and putative ischemic stroke. Data on drug use, comorbidity, and outcomes were collected from administrative registries. RESULTS......] 1.41-1.81), intermediate (112-119 ms; HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.13-1.31), long (120-129 ms; HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.39-1.62), and very long P-wave duration (≥130 ms; HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.89-2.23) had an increased risk of incident AF. With respect to death from cardiovascular causes, we found an increased risk...

  13. Reaching a national consensus on the duration of high school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Senior High School (SHS) is one of the levels of education within the structure of pre-tertiary education in Ghana. The duration of the SHS cannot, therefore, be determined without due consideration to the entire structure, the inputs and outputs of the other levels, namely KG, Primary and the Junior High School (JHS).

  14. Optimal duration of dual antiplatelet therapy after coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witberg, Guy; Lev, Eli; Kornowski, Ran

    2015-11-15

    Dual antiplatelet pharmacotherapy reduces ischemic events at the cost of excess bleeding in patients who underwent coronary stenting. The currently recommended treatment period is based on trials held some 20 years ago and not relevant to current clinical practice. In recent years, numerous clinical trials have tried to answer the question of what is the optimal duration of therapy to maximize clinical benefit. These trials showed 2 seemingly conflicting answers-on one hand, shorter treatment duration seems to be safer in reducing bleeding while not increasing ischemic events, and on the other hand, longer duration is superior in terms of preventing ischemic events albeit at the cost of increased bleeding rates. In this review, we summarize the evidence favoring each approach, highlight the limitations of the various pivotal clinical trials in this field, review future directions of research and changes in practice that may influence the duration of antiplatelet therapy, and attempt to propose a personalized approach to achieve maximal benefit for the individual patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 5 CFR 352.704 - Duration of reemployment rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 352.704 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights of Former Bureau of Indian Affairs and Indian Health Service Employees After Service Under the Indian Self-Determination Act in Tribal Organizations § 352.704 Duration of...

  16. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.

  17. Mathematical Model of Lifetime Duration at Insulation of Electrical Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Răduca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper present a mathematical model of lifetime duration at hydro generator stator winding insulation when at hydro generator can be appear the damage regimes. The estimation to make by take of the programming and non-programming revisions, through the introduction and correlation of the new defined notions.

  18. Context-dependent neural modulations in the perception of duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki eMurai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuroimaging studies have revealed that distinct brain networks are recruited in the perception of sub- and supra-second timescales, whereas psychophysical studies have suggested that there are common or continuous mechanisms for perceiving these two durations. The present study aimed to elucidate the neural implementation of such continuity by examining the neural correlates of peri-second timing.We measured neural activity during a duration reproduction task using fMRI. Our results replicate the findings of previous studies in showing that separate neural networks are recruited for sub- versus supra-second time perception: motor systems including the motor cortex and the supplementary motor area for sub-second perception, and the frontal, parietal, and auditory cortical areas for supra-second perception. We further found that the peri-second perception activated both the sub- and supra-second networks, and that the timing system that processed duration perception in previous trials was more involved in subsequent peri-second processing. These results indicate that the sub- and supra-second timing systems overlap at around 1 second, and cooperate to optimally encode duration based on the hysteresis of previous trials.

  19. Males control the duration of copulation in the tropical millipede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SILLEl\\"-TULLBERG, B. 1981. Prolonged copulation: a male. 'postcopulatory' stratcgy in a promiscuous species, Lyg(lel~.\\. ('(JlU!.I·lri.\\ (Hetcroptera: Lygaedae). Rehav. Eco!. Sociohio!. 9: 283-289. TELFORD. S.R. & DANGERFIELD. J.M. 1991a. Manipulalinn of the sex ratio and duration of copulation in the tropical millipede.

  20. 15 CFR 4a.5 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 4a.5 Section 4a.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce CLASSIFICATION..., except as provided in § 1.6(d) of E.O. 12958. Under E.O. 12958, information may be exempted from...

  1. Different duration of Colchicine for preventing recurrence of Gouty arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Karimzadeh

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gout is a Common recurrent clinical syndrome characterized by increased serum uric acid and recurrent attacks of acute arthritis. Colchicine is used for Prophylaxis against recurrence of arthritis, but the duration of its administration has mentioned variable. In this study, optimal duration of prophylactic colchicine for prevention of gouty arthritis was assessed. Methods : In a clinical trial 190 patients with gouty arthritis divided randomly to group 1,2and 3 and received colchicine for 3 to 6, 7 to 9 and 10 to 12 months then colchicine discontinued and the patients followed one year for recurrence of arthritis. Result assessed by survival analysis with Kaplan –Meier method. Results: The probability of recurrence of arthritis (in order of duration of colchicine prophylaxis was 54%, 27.5% and 23%, respectively. The difference between group one and others was statistically significant, but between group 2 and 3 was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The most suitable duration of colchicine prophylaxis that accompanied with lower recurrence rate was 7-9 months, which seems more cost -effective than 10-12 months regimen. Key words: Gout, Colchicine, Arthritis, Recurrence

  2. Sleep Duration, Activity Levels, and Measures of Obesity in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Betty L; Ammar, Erica M; Pile, Debra

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sleep and activity as they relate to obesity measures of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Findings from recent studies have linked physical inactivity and short sleep with obesity. A total of 337 subjects were collected from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample was evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between sleep duration, activity levels, and measures of obesity. Pearson r correlation revealed a significant positive relationship between WC and sedentary activity, r(318) = .168, p = .003. Analysis also showed a significant inverse association between sleep duration and WC, r(319) = -.113, p = .043. No statistical significance was found using BMI as the measure of obesity in relation to duration of sleep or activity level. In support of recent literature, this study found duration of sleep and sedentary activity in adults may relate to the development of obesity as measured by WC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Social capital, pathway to care and duration of untreated psychosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social capital, pathway to care and duration of untreated psychosis: Findings from a low- and middle-income country context. ... to formal health services. This is especially likely in contexts where mental health services are scarce and inaccessible, which has important implications for mental health education campaigns.

  4. Rainfall Intensity-Duration-Frequency relationship for Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The annual maximum rainfall magnitudes of varying duration were abstracted from rainfall charts and fitted to theoretical frequency distributions and then extrapolation of values for larger return periods were made. The analysis of rainfall intensities was expressed using the IDF equation of the generalized mathematical form ...

  5. Reflectance spectra of primitive chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Llorca, J.

    2013-05-01

    We are studying a wide sample of pristine carbonaceous chondrites from the NASA Antarctic collection in order to get clues on the physico-chemical processes occurred in the parent bodies of these meteorites. We are obtaining laboratory reflectance spectra of different groups of carbonaceous chondrites, but here we focus in CM and CI chondrites. We discuss the main spectral features that can be used to identify primitive carbonaceous asteroids by remote sensing techniques. Two different spectrometers were used covering the entire 0.3 to 30 μm electromagnetic window. Only a handful of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) exhibit bands or features clearly associated with aqueous alteration. Among them are the target asteroids of Osiris Rex and Marco Polo-R missions.

  6. Reflections of a Freirean educator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Manuel Ghiso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It exposed a reflection on the role of education with meaning, where for to seek answers, it is good to work methodically with the students, spending more time to the critical analysis of our languages, our practices and especially our daily life. In this activity we would learn together to observe, compare, select and establish relationships between events and discourses; exercising the right to ask, disagree, criticize, be curious, creative open and democratic. It is certainly a challenge worth taking on, but it is impossible if we do not want it, if we do not restore the creative impulse that allows us to dream of a country where life has value and people have and can become subjects capable of exercising democratically their rights as citizens. All this requires educators high doses of creativity, energy, love, respect, dialogue and solidarity.

  7. Reflections in the clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Carrió, F; Hernández-Clemente, J C

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze some models of expert decision and their impact on the clinical practice. We have analyzed decision-making considering the cognitive aspects (explanatory models, perceptual skills, analysis of the variability of a phenomenon, creating habits and inertia of reasoning and declarative models based on criteria). We have added the importance of emotions in decision making within highly complex situations, such as those occurring within the clinical practice. The quality of the reflective act depends, among other factors, on the ability of metacognition (thinking about what we think). Finally, we propose an educational strategy based on having a task supervisor and rectification scenarios to improve the quality of medical decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. Temporal reflectance changes in vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2009-01-01

    in the surface chemistry of vegetables may be captured in an integrating sphere illumination which enables the creation of detailed surface chemistry maps with a good combination of spectral and spatial resolutions. Prior to multispectral image recording, the vegetables were prefried and frozen at -30Â......Quality control in the food industry is often performed by measuring various chemical compounds of the food involved. We propose an imaging concept for acquiring high quality multispectral images to evaluate changes of carrots and celeriac over a period of 14 days. Properties originating......°C for four months. During the 14 days of image recording, the vegetables were kept at +5°C in refrigeration. In this period, surface changes and thereby reflectance properties were very subtle. To describe this small variation we employed advanced statistical techniques to search a large featurespace...

  9. Endface reflectivities of optical nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Hu, Zhifang; Yu, Huakang; Fang, Wei; Qiu, Min; Tong, Limin

    2009-06-22

    Endface reflectivities (ERs) of optical nanowires are investigated using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. Typical ERs of both free-standing and substrate-supported silica, tellurite, PMMA and semiconductor nanowires or nanofibers are obtained. Unlike in conventional waveguides such as optical fibers, ERs of nanowires are usually considerably lower when operated in single mode. Dependences of ER on the diameter and the refractive index of the nanowire, and the wavelength of the guided light are also investigated. These results are helpful for estimating and understanding ERs in optical nanowires with diameters close to or smaller than the wavelengths of the light, and may offer valuable references for practical applications such as nanowire or nanofiber-based resonators and lasers.

  10. Can we predict the duration of an interglacial?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Tzedakis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Differences in the duration of interglacials have long been apparent in palaeoclimate records of the Late and Middle Pleistocene. However, a systematic evaluation of such differences has been hampered by the lack of a metric that can be applied consistently through time and by difficulties in separating the local from the global component in various proxies. This, in turn, means that a theoretical framework with predictive power for interglacial duration has remained elusive. Here we propose that the interval between the terminal oscillation of the bipolar seesaw and three thousand years (kyr before its first major reactivation provides an estimate that approximates the length of the sea-level highstand, a measure of interglacial duration. We apply this concept to interglacials of the last 800 kyr by using a recently-constructed record of interhemispheric variability. The onset of interglacials occurs within 2 kyr of the boreal summer insolation maximum/precession minimum and is consistent with the canonical view of Milankovitch forcing pacing the broad timing of interglacials. Glacial inception always takes place when obliquity is decreasing and never after the obliquity minimum. The phasing of precession and obliquity appears to influence the persistence of interglacial conditions over one or two insolation peaks, leading to shorter (~ 13 kyr and longer (~ 28 kyr interglacials. Glacial inception occurs approximately 10 kyr after peak interglacial conditions in temperature and CO2, representing a characteristic timescale of interglacial decline. Second-order differences in duration may be a function of stochasticity in the climate system, or small variations in background climate state and the magnitude of feedbacks and mechanisms contributing to glacial inception, and as such, difficult to predict. On the other hand, the broad duration of an interglacial may be determined by the phasing of astronomical parameters and the history of

  11. A General Investigation of Optimized Atmospheric Sample Duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, Paul W.; Miley, Harry S.

    2012-11-28

    ABSTRACT The International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of up to 80 aerosol and xenon monitoring systems spaced around the world that have collection systems sensitive enough to detect nuclear releases from underground nuclear tests at great distances (CTBT 1996; CTBTO 2011). Although a few of the IMS radionuclide stations are closer together than 1,000 km (such as the stations in Kuwait and Iran), many of them are 2,000 km or more apart. In the absence of a scientific basis for optimizing the duration of atmospheric sampling, historically scientists used a integration times from 24 hours to 14 days for radionuclides (Thomas et al. 1977). This was entirely adequate in the past because the sources of signals were far away and large, meaning that they were smeared over many days by the time they had travelled 10,000 km. The Fukushima event pointed out the unacceptable delay time (72 hours) between the start of sample acquisition and final data being shipped. A scientific basis for selecting a sample duration time is needed. This report considers plume migration of a nondecaying tracer using archived atmospheric data for 2011 in the HYSPLIT (Draxler and Hess 1998; HYSPLIT 2011) transport model. We present two related results: the temporal duration of the majority of the plume as a function of distance and the behavior of the maximum plume concentration as a function of sample collection duration and distance. The modeled plume behavior can then be combined with external information about sampler design to optimize sample durations in a sampling network.

  12. Impact of a feeding log on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Deborah L

    2011-04-01

    Even with the gradual upward trends in breastfeeding initiation and duration, breastfeeding rates at 6 months continue to lag well behind the 50% target set for any breastfeeding and the 25% target set for exclusive breastfeeding by the Healthy People 2010 initiatives. Overall evidence is limited in identifying effective interventions that promote breastfeeding duration and more research needs to be focused on specific nursing strategies and their effect on breastfeeding outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of a daily feeding log, guided by Bandura's social cognitive learning theory, on breastfeeding duration and exclusivity in primiparous mothers. The study used a randomized, controlled, two-group experimental design with a sample of 86 primiparous mothers. The experimental group completed a daily breastfeeding log for a minimum of 3 weeks and breastfeeding outcomes were examined over 6 months. The breastfeeding outcome variable was analyzed using survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression procedures. Subjects in the experimental group did not breastfeed significantly longer than the control group, however, a larger proportion of subjects in the experimental group reported full breastfeeding at 6 months as compared with subjects in the control group. Additional predictor variables were WIC enrollment, planned duration of breastfeeding, feeding frequency and feeding length at 1 week. The findings from the study suggest that the breastfeeding log may be a valuable tool in self-regulating breastfeeding and promoting a longer duration of full breastfeeding, but its acceptability may be impacted by socio-demographic variables.

  13. Ice duration drives winter nitrate accumulation in north temperate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Steven M; Labou, Stephanie G.; Baulch, Helen M.; Hunt, Randall J.; Lottig, Noah R.; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2017-01-01

    The duration of winter ice cover on lakes varies substantially with climate variability, and has decreased over the last several decades in many temperate lakes. However, little is known of how changes in seasonal ice cover may affect biogeochemical processes under ice. We examined winter nitrogen (N) dynamics under ice using a 30+ yr dataset from five oligotrophic/mesotrophic north temperate lakes to determine how changes in inorganic N species varied with ice duration. Nitrate accumulated during winter and was strongly related to the number of days since ice-on. Exogenous inputs accounted for less than 3% of nitrate accumulation in four of the five lakes, suggesting a paramount role of nitrification in regulating N transformation and the timing of chemical conditions under ice. Winter nitrate accumulation rates ranged from 0.15 μg N L−1 d−1 to 2.7 μg N L−1 d−1 (0.011–0.19 μM d−1), and the mean for intermediate depths was 0.94 μg N L−1 d−1(0.067 μM d−1). Given that winters with shorter ice duration (< 120 d) have become more frequent in these lakes since the late 1990s, peak winter nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate production under ice may be declining. As ice extent and duration change, the physical and chemical conditions supporting life will shift. This research suggests we may expect changes in the form and amount of inorganic N, and altered dissolved nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, in lakes during winters with shorter ice duration.

  14. The role of emotion in design reflection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, D.K.; Reymen, Isabelle

    2003-01-01

    Reflection on design processes performed by designers is called design reflection. In our view, this kind of reflection aims at answering essential questions like “Is my design answering the stakeholder concerns?”, “Am I solving the essential problems or am I wasting time on irrelevant aspects?”,

  15. Reflective Writing: Insights into What Lies beneath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathpalia, Sujata S.; Heah, Carmel

    2008-01-01

    Educationists and writing practitioners consider reflection to be a defining feature of student portfolios (Fink 2003; Zubizarreta 2004; Jones and Shelton 2006). A writing portfolio without reflection is merely a collection of written work which does not contribute to "real" learning. Reflection in the portfolio approach happens when…

  16. Improving Inquiry Teaching through Reflection on Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Miller, Cory

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we explore middle school science teachers' learning of inquiry-based instructional strategies through reflection on practice teaching sessions during a summer enrichment program with middle level students. The reflection sessions were part of a larger year-long inquiry professional development program in which teachers learned science content and inquiry pedagogy. The program included a 2-week summer institute in which teachers participated in science content sessions, practice teaching to middle level students, and small group-facilitated reflection sessions on their teaching. For this study, data collection focused on teachers' recorded dialogue during the facilitator - run reflection sessions, the teachers' daily written reflections, a final written reflection, and a written reflection on a videotaped teaching session. We investigated the teachers' reflection levels and the themes teachers focused on during their reflection sessions. Teachers were found to reflect at various reflection levels, from simple description to a more sophisticated focus on how to improve student learning. Recurrent themes point to the importance of providing situated learning environments, such as the practice teaching with immediate reflection for teachers to have time to practice new instructional strategies and gain insight from peers and science educators on how to handle student learning issues.

  17. Enabling Critical Reflection on Research Supervisory Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Margot; Kayrooz, Carole

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an instrument--The Reflective Supervisor Questionnaire (RSQ). The RSQ maps the domain of research supervisory practice as a facilitative process involving educational tasks and activities. It is designed to assist research supervisors explore, by means of self-reflection and reflection on feedback from…

  18. Reflective Journals: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, James T.

    2015-01-01

    The use of reflective journals has been identified as an effective tool to promote reflection in preservice teachers. This review of literature provides the reader with an understanding of the various ways journals are used and assessed in teacher education programs. The findings of this review outline the use of reflective journals on topics such…

  19. Reflection and Learning: Characteristics, Obstacles, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, David

    2011-01-01

    Reflection represents an important form of human thought; from ancient to modern times, the human capacity for reflective thinking has held the imagination of various philosophers and educational theorists. Despite this interest, researchers define reflection in different ways. One of the purposes of this article is to explore the activity of…

  20. Sleep Quality, Sleep Duration, and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study With 60,586 Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Liu, Xudong; Deng, Han-Bing; Chan, Ta-Chien; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Feng; Vermeulen, Roel; Tam, Tony; Wong, Martin C S; Tse, L A; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    2018-01-15

    There is limited information on the relationship between risk of cardiovascular disease and the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration, especially from large, prospective, cohort studies. This study is to prospectively investigate the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration on the development of coronary heart disease. This study examined 60,586 adults aged 40 years or older. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on sleep quality and sleep duration as well as a wide range of potential confounders. Events of coronary heart disease were self-reported in subsequent medical examinations. Two types of Sleep Score (multiplicative and additive) were constructed to reflect the participants' sleep profiles, considering both sleep quality and sleep duration. The Cox regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 2,740 participants (4.5%) reported new events of coronary heart disease at follow-up. For sleep duration, participants in the group of 8 h/d) did not reach statistical significance (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.98-1.26). For sleep quality, both dreamy sleep (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.10-1.32) and difficult to fall asleep/use of sleeping pills or drugs (HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.25-1.56) were associated with an increased risk of the disease. Participants in the lowest quartile of multiplicative Sleep Score (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.16-1.47) and of additive sleep score (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.16-1.47) were associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease compared with those in the highest quartile. Both short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. The association for long sleep duration does not reach statistical significance. Lower Sleep Score (poorer sleep profile) increases the risk of coronary heart disease, suggesting the importance of considering sleep duration and sleep quality together when developing strategies to

  1. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  2. An analysis on the efficiency of non-parametric estimation of duration dependence by hasard-based duration models

    OpenAIRE

    MADRE, JL; YAMAMOTO, T; NAKAGAWA, N; KITAMURA, R

    2004-01-01

    Hasard-based duration models have been applied in transportation research field to represent the choice or the event along the time dimension. Simulation analysis is carried out in this study to examine the efficiency of non-parametric estimation of the baseline hazard function in comparison with parametric estimation when the distribution is correctly assumed.

  3. THz generation using a reflective stair-step echelon

    CERN Document Server

    Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K; Huang, W Ronny; Nelson, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel method for THz generation in lithium niobate using a reflective stair-step echelon structure. The echelon produces a discretely tilted pulse front with less angular dispersion compared to a high groove-density grating. The THz output was characterized using both a 1-lens and 3-lens imaging system to set the tilt angle at room and cryogenic temperatures. Using broadband 800 nm pulses with a pulse energy of 0.95 mJ and a pulse duration of 70 fs (24 nm FWHM bandwidth, 39 fs transform limited width), we produced THz pulses with field strengths as high as 500 kV/cm and pulse energies as high as 3.1 $\\mu$J. The highest conversion efficiency we obtained was 0.33%. In addition, we find that the echelon is easily implemented into an experimental setup for quick alignment and optimization.

  4. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a good understanding of duration gap model used for managing interest rate risk. The article starts with a overview of interest rate risk and explain how this type of risk should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a

  5. Do writing and storytelling skill influence assessment of reflective ability in medical students' written reflections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Louise; Niehaus, Brian; DeVries, Charlie D; Siegel, Jennifer R; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2010-10-01

    Increasingly, students are asked to write reflections as part of their medical education, but some question the influence of other factors on the evaluation of these reflections. In this pilot study, the investigators determined whether scores from a validated rubric to measure reflective ability were affected by irrelevant variance resulting from writing or storytelling ability. Students in clerkships wrote reflections on professionalism. All were given identical prompts, with half receiving additional structured guidelines on reflection. Sixty reflections, 30 from each group, were randomly chosen and scored for reflection, writing, and storytelling by trained raters using validated rubrics. There was no correlation between reflection and either writing (r = 0.049, P = .35) or storytelling (r = 0.14, P = .13). The guidelines increased reflection, but not writing or storytelling scores. Reflection is a distinct construct unaffected by learners' writing or storytelling skills. These findings support reflective ability as a distinct skill.

  6. Theory of reflection reflection and transmission of electromagnetic, particle and acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lekner, John

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the reflection of electromagnetic and particle waves by interfaces. The interfaces can be sharp or diffuse. The topics of the book contain absorption, inverse problems, anisotropy, pulses and finite beams, rough surfaces, matrix methods, numerical methods,  reflection of particle waves and neutron reflection. Exact general results are presented, followed by long wave reflection, variational theory, reflection amplitude equations of the Riccati type, and reflection of short waves. The Second Edition of the Theory of Reflection is an updated and much enlarged revision of the 1987 monograph. There are new chapters on periodically stratified media, ellipsometry, chiral media, neutron reflection and reflection of acoustic waves. The chapter on anisotropy is much extended, with a complete treatment of the reflection and transmission properties of arbitrarily oriented uniaxial crystals. The book gives a systematic and unified treatment reflection and transmission of electromagnetic and particle...

  7. Daytime Water Detection Based on Sky Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo; Matthies, Larry; Bellutta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A water body s surface can be modeled as a horizontal mirror. Water detection based on sky reflections and color variation are complementary. A reflection coefficient model suggests sky reflections dominate the color of water at ranges > 12 meters. Water detection based on sky reflections: (1) geometrically locates the pixel in the sky that is reflecting on a candidate water pixel on the ground (2) predicts if the ground pixel is water based on color similarity and local terrain features. Water detection has been integrated on XUVs.

  8. Reflectance measurement validation using acoustic horns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Neely, Stephen T

    2015-10-01

    Variability in wideband acoustic reflectance (and absorbance) measurements adversely affects the clinical utility of reflectance for diagnosis of middle-ear disorders. A reflectance standard would encourage consistency across different measurement systems and help identify calibration related issues. Theoretical equations exist for the reflectance of finite-length exponential, conical, and parabolic acoustic horns. Reflectance measurements were repeatedly made in each of these three horn shapes and the results were compared to the corresponding theoretical reflectance. A method is described of adjusting acoustic impedance measurements to compensate for spreading of the wave front that propagates from the small diameter sound port of the probe to the larger diameter of the acoustic cavity. Agreement between measured and theoretical reflectance was less than 1 dB at most frequencies in the range from 0.2 to 10 kHz. Pearson correlation coefficients were greater than 0.95 between measured and theoretical time-domain reflectance within the flare region of the horns. The agreement suggests that the distributed reflectance of acoustic horns may be useful for validating reflectance measurements made in human ear canals; however, refinements to reflectance measurement methods may still be needed.

  9. Remotely Sensing the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern

    2015-01-01

    In remote sensing, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) provides insight into physiological processes occurring inside the leaves in a stand of plants. Developed by Gamon et al., (1990 and 1992), PRI evolved from laboratory measurements of the reflectance of individual leaves (Bilger et al.,1989). Yet in a remotely sensed image, a pixel measurement may include light from both reflecting and transmitting leaves. We conducted laboratory experiments comparing values of PRI based upon polarized reflectance and transmittance measurements of water and nutrient stressed leaves. We illuminated single detached leaves using a current controlled light source (Oriel model 66881) and measured the leaf weight using an analytical balance (Mettler model AE 260) and the light reflected and transmitted by the leaf during dry down using two Analytical Spectral Devices spectroradiometers. Polarizers on the incident and reflected light beams allowed us to divide the leaf reflectance into two parts: a polarized surface reflectance and a non-polarized 'leaf interior' reflectance. Our results underscore the importance when calculating PRI of removing the leaf surface reflection, which contains no information about physiological processes ongoing in the leaf interior. The results show that the leaf physiology information is in the leaf interior reflectance, not the leaf transmittance. Applied to a plant stand, these results suggest use of polarization measurements in sun-view directions that minimize the number of sunlit transmitting leaves in the sensor field of view.

  10. Understanding the processes of writing papers reflectively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Krishna; Naidoo, Jennie

    2013-07-01

    This paper explores the writing of research papers using reflective frameworks. Reflective practice is integral to professional education and development. However, healthcare students, academics and practitioners have given limited attention to how to write reflectively. In addition, there are limited resources on the practical aspects of writing papers reflectively. The following major databases were searched: PubMed, Medline, King's Library, Excerpta Medica Database, Department of Health database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The searches were conducted using 'free text' and 'index' terms. Only relevant papers published in English were reviewed and scrutinised. Unpublished reports, internal publications, snowballing from the reference lists and personal contacts were also included in the search. This is a review paper that critiques the frameworks used for reflective practice. Writing papers reflectively is a complex task. Healthcare professionals and researchers need to understand the meaning of reflection and make appropriate use of reflective frameworks. Demystifying the process of reflectively writing papers will help professionals develop skills and competencies. IMPLICATION FOR RESEARCH/PRACTICE: This article provides a practical guide to reflection and how nursing and allied healthcare students, academics and practitioners can practise it. The paper identifies four generic stages in frameworks: description, assessment, evaluation and action, which are illustrated by annotated 'skeletal' examples. It is hoped that this will assist the process of reflective practice, writing and learning.

  11. Perfect anti-reflection from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Park, Q-Han

    2013-01-01

    Reducing unwanted reflections through impedance matching, called anti-reflection, has long been an important challenge in optics and electrical engineering. Beyond trial and error optimization, however, a systematic way to realize anti-reflection is still absent. Here, we report the discovery of an analytic solution to this long standing problem. For electromagnetic waves, we find the graded permittivity and permeability that completely remove any given impedance mismatch. We demonstrate that perfect broadband anti-reflection is possible when a dispersive, graded refractive index medium is used for the impedance-matching layer. We also present a design rule for the ultra-thin anti-reflection coating which we confirm experimentally by showing the anti-reflection behavior of an exemplary λ/25-thick coating made of metamaterials. This work opens a new path to anti-reflection applications in optoelectronic device, transmission line and stealth technologies.

  12. Reflections on the Goldwater Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelbaum, Paul S

    2017-06-01

    The APA's Goldwater Rule, precluding psychiatrists from rendering opinions to the media about public figures whom they have not examined, has often engendered controversy. Here, I consider the justifications for the rule, how well they stand up to criticism, and the extent, if any, to which modifications might be called for. Although embarrassment to the profession is often cited as the basis for the Rule, it reflects more substantive concerns, including the risk of harm to living persons and discouraging persons in need of treatment from seeking psychiatric attention. The most potent criticisms of the Rule are that it discourages public education about mental illness and its effects and precludes legitimate scholarly endeavors by psychiatrists studying foreign leaders, historical figures, and others. However, there are many ways of providing education about mental illness without violating the Rule, and read properly, it should not prevent legitimate historical investigation, though some clarification of the Rule on this point might be helpful. Even psychiatrists who seek to aid policymakers in dealing with international or domestic threats should not find that the Rule interferes with their efforts. On balance, the Goldwater Rule continues to be an important underpinning of ethical behavior by psychiatrists. © 2017 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  13. Reflections on the knife edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John Patrick Michael; Chabner, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    The accompanying article, written by John Murphy, a retired lawyer and lifelong outdoorsman from his beloved Colorado Rockies, draws the striking parallel between his experiences as a mountain climber and as a patient with metastatic melanoma facing the hope and uncertainty of experimental therapy. Both are life-threatening circumstances, demanding courage and hope, and challenging our soul in a way almost unique to human experience. Both involve a conscious choice to move forward into dangerous and uncertain territory, and require a determination to look death (John's "Reaper") in the eye. Many remarkable books and films have been written about such experiences. I recall in particular the 2003 documentary film Touching the Void, about the incredible survival of a mountaineer who returned from a perilous fall in Peru. I highly recommend it to the reader. Another is Laura Hillenbrand's Unbroken: A World War II Story of Survival, Resilience, and Redemption (Random House, 2010), about the survival of a prisoner of war, the celebrated miler Louis Zamperini. Again, unbridled courage and undeniable hope turned futility into future. John Murphy's reflections remind us of the daily heroism of our patients who are holding tight to the lifeline offered by clinical research. Good climbing, John. All of us are with you on that Knife Edge, waiting for our turn to ascend... and hoping to be as courageous as you were then on Capitol Peak and are again now on the Knife Edge of a clinical trial. For our turn will come.

  14. Reflecting on Normative Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    There is a widespread belief that the European Union (EU) is a novel kind of power not only in its own institutional set-up but also in its external relations. It is said to rely on civilian rather than military means and to pursue the spread of particular norms rather than self-interested geogra......There is a widespread belief that the European Union (EU) is a novel kind of power not only in its own institutional set-up but also in its external relations. It is said to rely on civilian rather than military means and to pursue the spread of particular norms rather than self......-interested geographical expansion or military superiority. In the 1970s, François Duchêne called it a ‘civilian power’ (1972: 43); in the early 2000s it was argued that the label ‘normative power’ would be better suited (Manners 2000, 2002). Just as Duchêne’s civilian power reflected the Cold War milieu of the 1970s......, the normative power approach signified a crystallisation of the EU in the post-Cold War era....

  15. Beyond Globalization: Reflections on Glocalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Dallmayr

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The old adage states that humankind moves “one step forward” before it moves “two steps backward”, suggesting that there is no such thing as a linear evolution. This is particularly true when applied to our present time, the “age of globalization”. In the case of globalism, “two steps back” are needed in order to assess more soberly the present historical trajectory, and capture the “internal dialectic” of globalism. In fact, what we are witnessing today in many parts of the world is a backlash to globalism, manifest in an upsurge of traditional nationalism, if not chauvinism and ethnocentrism. The core issue is a difficult relation between nearness and distance, between the concretely singular and the general/universal which the term “globalism” seeks to capture but, of course, cannot explain. My reflections in the following seek to explore and shed some light on this relation. In a first step, I venture into philosophical (and theological terrain in an effort to discern the meaning of human situatedness in a place, a space, or a “world”. Next, I discuss the inevitable tensions or conflicts between nearness and distance, that is, the inner “dialectic” between the local and the global. Finally, I translate the local/global syndrome into the correlation of “earth and world”, “roots and routes”, familiar loyalties and unfamiliar peregrinations.

  16. Maternal attachment representations and initiation and duration of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfe, Elaine

    2012-05-01

    Despite the evidence that there are considerable benefits of breastfeeding, there are still gaps in understanding why many women have difficulties initiating and maintaining breastfeeding. In this prospective longitudinal study, the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding were expanded to include attachment representations, which are known to influence health behaviors as well as one's ability to cope with stressful situations. Participants (n = 460) completed attachment and depression questionnaires during a prenatal clinic appointment, and in the postpartum period, mothers reported on their mood and breastfeeding behaviors. Consistent with attachment theory and previous research, women with attachment approach orientations were more likely to breastfeed, breastfeed longer, and continue breastfeeding when they experienced initial difficulties. The results of this study demonstrate that it is important to look beyond demographics to understand breastfeeding initiation and duration and provide further evidence that attachment representations influence health decisions.

  17. Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Improved Waste Collection System (IWCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This high angle overall view shows the top side components of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Waste Collection System (WCS) scheduled to fly aboard NASA's Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, for the STS-54 mission. Detailed Test Objective 662, Extended duration orbiter WCS evaluation, will verify the design of the new EDO WCS under microgravity conditions for a prolonged period. OV-105 has been modified with additional structures in the waste management compartment (WMC) and additional avionics to support/restrain the EDO WCS. Among the advantages the new IWCS is hoped to have over the currect WCS are greater dependability, better hygiene, virtually unlimited capacity, and more efficient preparation between shuttle missions. Unlike the previous WCS, the improved version will not have to be removed from the spacecraft to be readied for the next flight. The WCS was documented in JSC's Crew Systems Laboratory Bldg 7.

  18. Sex difference in subjective duration of looming and receding sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    Looming sounds (sounds increasing in intensity over time) are more salient than receding sounds (a looming sound reversed in time). For example, they are estimated as being longer, louder, and more changing in loudness than receding sounds. Some authors interpret the looming salience as evolutionarily adaptive, because it increases the margins of safety of the perceiver in the case of preparatory behaviours (e.g., a motor reaction to an approaching sound source). Recently, Neuhoff et al (2009, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 35 225-234) found that females more than males show overestimation of the spatiotemporal properties of virtually simulated looming sound sources. Here, I investigated whether the sex difference could be observed for the subjective duration of looming and receding sounds, and found that females more than males overestimate the duration of looming sounds in comparison to receding sounds.

  19. Modulating action duration to establish non-conventional communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Schmitz, Laura; Knoblich, Günther

    2017-01-01

    In many joint actions, knowledge about the precise task to be performed is distributed asymmetrically such that one person has information that another person lacks. In such situations, interpersonal coordination can be achieved if the knowledgeable person modulates basic parameters of her goal......-directed actions in a way that provides relevant information to the co-actor with incomplete task knowledge. Whereas such sensorimotor communication has frequently been shown for spatial parameters like movement amplitude, little is known about how co-actors use temporal parameters of their actions to establish...... communication. The current study investigated whether systematic modulations of action duration provide a sufficient basis for communication. The results of three experiments demonstrate that knowledgeable actors spontaneously and systematically adjusted the duration of their actions to communicate task...

  20. Effects of stimulus duration on gustatory evoked potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotvel, Camilla Arndal; Møller, Stine; Kivisaar, Kätlin

    . 19 normal-tasting subjects (10 females, mean age ± sd: 27 ± 3) were stimulated with aqueous 0.5g/L sucralose in between continuous periods of non-chlorinated tap water to avoid somatosensory onsets. The sucralose stimulus duration was either short (~0.6s) or long (~4s) and presented in random...... sucralose stimulation kept the GEP significant for longer and produced a larger peak occurring at ~1.6sec (t-test) while maintaining the characteristic negative temporal deflection as opposed to the short stimulation which produced frontal activity. Instances of brain response to varying NaCl stimulus...... sucralose stimulation duration resulted in larger GEP peak amplitude above the gustatory cortex and may indicate higher intensity perception (Kelling and Halpern, 1988)....