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Sample records for subiculum presubiculum parasubiculum

  1. Comparative anatomy of the prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, postsubiculum, and parasubiculum in human, monkey, and rodent.

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    Ding, Song-Lin

    2013-12-15

    The subicular complex, including the prosubiculum (ProS), subiculum (Sub), presubiculum, postsubiculum (PoS), and parasubiculum (PaS), plays important roles in the medial temporal memory system and is heavily involved in many neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and epilepsy. In the literature, the ProS (in primate) and PoS (in rodent) are inconstantly identified, making data comparison difficult across species. This review is an attempt to discuss equivalencies and extent of the five subicular components in human, monkey, and rodent based on available information on their cytoarchitecture, chemoarchitecture, molecular signature, and neural connectivity. All five subicular cortices exist in human, monkey, and rodent. In human and monkey, the ProS and Sub extend into the uncal region anteriorly, and the PoS and PaS reach the cingulate isthmus posteriorly. In rodent, most of the typical subicular cortices are located in the dorsal and caudal portions of the hippocampal formation, and the modified version of the ventral ProS and Sub corresponds to the modified description of the uncal ProS and Sub in monkey and human. An interesting triangular region in rodent located at the juncture of the PoS, PaS, retrosplenial cortex, and visual cortex appears to be the equivalent of the monkey area prostriata. Major connections of the five subicular cortices are also summarized based on unified criteria discussed in this review, with distinct connections revealed between the ProS and the Sub. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neuropeptide S ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the subiculum complex.

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    Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Xin, Le; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Ren, Wen-Ting; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide S (NPS), via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPS receptor (NPSR) in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the subiculum complex of hippocampal formation suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory spatial memory. The present study was undertaken to investigate effects of NPS on the scopolamine- or MK801-induced impairment of olfactory spatial memory using computer-assisted 4-hole-board spatial memory test, and by monitoring Fos expression in the subiculum complex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos-immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPS (0.5 nmol) significantly increased the number of visits to switched odorants in recall trial in mice suffering from odor-discriminating inability induced by scopolamine, a selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, or MK801, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, after training trials. The improvement of olfactory spatial memory by NPS was abolished by the NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS (40 nmol). Ex vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced Fos expression in the subiculum complex encompassing the subiculum (S), presubiculum (PrS) and parasubiculum (PaS). The percentages of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 91.3, 86.5 and 90.0 % in the S, PrS and PaS, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the subiculum complex, ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 in mice.

  3. Bayesian longitudinal segmentation of hippocampal substructures in brain MRI using subject-specific atlases

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    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Augustinack, Jean

    2016-01-01

    and 23 controls), it found differences in atrophy rates between AD and controls that the cross sectional method could not detect in a number of subregions: right parasubiculum, left and right presubiculum, right subiculum, left dentate gyrus, left CA4, left HATA and right tail. In ADNI (836 subjects: 369...... not find: left presubiculum, right subiculum, left and right parasubiculum, left and right HATA. Moreover, many of the differences that the cross-sectional method already found were detected with higher significance. The presented algorithm will be made available as part of the open-source neuroimaging...... differences and significantly higher Dice overlaps than the cross-sectional approach for nearly every subregion (average across subregions: 4.5% vs. 6.5%, Dice overlap: 81.8% vs. 75.4%). The longitudinal algorithm also demonstrated increased sensitivity to group differences: in MIRIAD (69 subjects: 46 with AD...

  4. Subiculum-entorhinal cortex interactions during in vitro ictogenesis.

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    Herrington, Rochelle; Lévesque, Maxime; Avoli, Massimo

    2015-09-01

    Our aim was to establish the contribution of neuronal networks located in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and subiculum to the generation of interictal and ictal onset patterns recorded in vitro. We employed field potential recordings of epileptiform activity in rat brain slices induced with the application of the K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine. Local connections between the EC and subiculum were severed to understand how EC-subicular circuits contribute to patterns of epileptiform synchronization. First, we found that ictal discharges occurred synchronously in these two structures, initiating from either the EC or subiculum, and were characterized by low voltage fast (LVF) or sudden onsets. Second, sudden onset ictal events initiated more frequently in the EC, whereas LVF onset ictal discharges appeared more likely to initiate in the subiculum (Psynchronization and, specifically, to ictogenesis in this in vitro model. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diversity and overlap of Parvalbumin and Somatostatin expressing interneurons in mouse presubiculum

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    Mérie eNassar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The presubiculum, located between hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, plays a fundamental role in representing spatial information, notably head direction. Little is known about GABAergic interneurons of this region. Here, we used three transgenic mouse lines, Pvalb-Cre, Sst-Cre and X98, to examine distinct interneurons labeled with tdTomato or green fluorescent protein. The distribution of interneurons in presubicular lamina for each animal line was compared to that in the GAD67-GFP knock-in animal line. Labelling was specific in the Pvalb-Cre line with 87% of labeled interneurons immunopositive for (PV. Immunostaining for somatostatin (SOM revealed good specificity in the X98 line with 89% of fluorescent cells, but a lesser specificity in Sst-Cre animals where only 71% of labeled cells were immunopositive. A minority of ~ 6% of interneurons co-expressed PV and SOM in the presubiculum of Sst-Cre animals. The electrophysiological and morphological properties of fluorescent interneurons from Pvalb-Cre, Sst-Cre and X98 mice differed. Distinct physiological groups of presubicular interneurons were resolved by unsupervised cluster analysis of parameters describing passive properties, firing patterns and AP shapes. One group consisted of SOM-positive, Martinotti type neurons with a low firing threshold (cluster 1. Fast spiking basket cells, mainly from the Pvalb-Cre line, formed a distinct group (cluster 3. Another group (cluster 2 contained interneurons of intermediate electrical properties and basket-cell like morphologies. These labeled neurons were recorded from both Sst-Cre and Pvalb-Cre animals. Thus, our results reveal a wide variation in anatomical and physiological properties for these interneurons, a real overlap of interneurons immuno-positive for both PV and SOM as well as an off-target recombination in the Sst-Cre line, possibly linked to maternal cre inheritance.

  6. Roles for the subiculum in spatial information processing, memory, motivation and the temporal control of behaviour.

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    O'Mara, Shane M; Sanchez-Vives, Maria V; Brotons-Mas, Jorge R; O'Hare, Eugene

    2009-08-01

    The subiculum is in a pivotal position governing the output of the hippocampal formation. Despite this, it is a rather under-explored and sometimes ignored structure. Here, we discuss recent data indicating that the subiculum participates in a wide range of neurocognitive functions and processes. Some of the functions of subiculum are relatively well-known-these include providing a relatively coarse representation of space and participating in, and supporting certain aspects of, memory (particularly in the dynamic bridging of temporal intervals). The subiculum also participates in a wide variety of other neurocognitive functions too, however. Much less well-known are roles for the subiculum, and particularly the ventral subiculum, in the response to fear, stress and anxiety, and in the generation of motivated behaviour (particularly the behaviour that underlies drug addiction and the response to reward). There is an emerging suggestion that the subiculum participates in the temporal control of behaviour. It is notable that these latter findings have emerged from a consideration of instrumental behaviour using operant techniques; it may well be the case that the use of the watermaze or similar spatial tasks to assess subicular function (on the presumption that its functions are very similar to the hippocampus proper) has obscured rather than revealed neurocognitive functions of subiculum. The anatomy of subiculum suggests it participates in a rather subtle fashion in a very broad range of functions, rather than in a relatively more isolated fashion in a narrower range of functions, as might be the case for "earlier" components of hippocampal circuitry, such as the CA1 and CA3 subfields. Overall, there appears to a strong dorso-ventral segregation of function within subiculum, with the dorsal subiculum relatively more concerned with space and memory, and the ventral hippocampus concerned with stress, anxiety and reward. Finally, it may be the case that the whole

  7. Shared rhythmic subcortical GABAergic input to the entorhinal cortex and presubiculum.

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    Viney, Tim James; Salib, Minas; Joshi, Abhilasha; Unal, Gunes; Berry, Naomi; Somogyi, Peter

    2018-04-05

    Rhythmic theta frequency (~5-12 Hz) oscillations coordinate neuronal synchrony and higher frequency oscillations across the cortex. Spatial navigation and context-dependent episodic memories are represented in several interconnected regions including the hippocampal and entorhinal cortices, but the cellular mechanisms for their dynamic coupling remain to be defined. Using monosynaptically-restricted retrograde viral tracing in mice, we identified a subcortical GABAergic input from the medial septum that terminated in the entorhinal cortex, with collaterals innervating the dorsal presubiculum. Extracellularly recording and labeling GABAergic entorhinal-projecting neurons in awake behaving mice show that these subcortical neurons, named orchid cells, fire in long rhythmic bursts during immobility and locomotion. Orchid cells discharge near the peak of hippocampal and entorhinal theta oscillations, couple to entorhinal gamma oscillations, and target subpopulations of extra-hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Thus, orchid cells are a specialized source of rhythmic subcortical GABAergic modulation of 'upstream' and 'downstream' cortico-cortical circuits involved in mnemonic functions. © 2018, Viney et al.

  8. Morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper

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    Živanović-Mačužić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human subiculum is a significant part of the hippocampal formation positioned between the hippocampus proper and the entorhinal and other cortices. It plays an important role in spatial navigation, memory processing and control of the response to stress. The aim of our study was identification of the morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper: the maximum length and width of cell body and total dendritic length and volume of cell body. Comparing the measured parameters of different types of subicular neurons (bipolar, multipolar, pyramidal neurons with triangular-shaped soma and neurons with oval-shaped soma, we can conclude that bipolar neurons have the lowest values of the measured parameters: the maximum length of their cell body is 14.1 ± 0.2 µm, the maximum width is 13.9 ± 0.5 µm, and total dendritic length is 14597 ± 3.1 µm. The lowest volume value was observed in bipolar neurons; the polymorphic layer is 1152.99 ± 662.69 µm3. The pyramidal neurons of the pyramidal layer have the highest value for the maximal length of the cell body (44.43 ± 7.94 µm, maximum width (23.64 ± 1.89 µm, total dendritic length (1830 ± 466.3 µm and volume (11768.65±4004.9 µm3 These characteristics of the pyramidal neurons indicate their importance, because the axons of these neurons make up the greatest part of the fornix, along with the axons of neurons of the CA1 hippocampal field.

  9. Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal area CA1-subiculum projection: implications for theories of memory.

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    O'Mara, S M; Commins, S; Anderson, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews investigations of synaptic plasticity in the major, and underexplored, pathway from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum. This brain area is the major synaptic relay for the majority of hippocampal area CA1 neurons, making the subiculum the last relay of the hippocampal formation prior to the cortex. The subiculum thus has a very major role in mediating hippocampal-cortical interactions. We demonstrate that the projection from hippocampal area CA1 to the subiculum sustains plasticity on a number of levels. We show that this pathway is capable of undergoing both long-term potentiation (LTP) and paired-pulse facilitation (PPF, a short-term plastic effect). Although we failed to induce long-term depression (LTD) of this pathway with low-frequency stimulation (LFS) and two-pulse stimulation (TPS), both protocols can induce a "late-developing" potentiation of synaptic transmission. We further demonstrate that baseline synaptic transmission can be dissociated from paired-pulse stimulation of the same pathway; we also show that it is possible, using appropriate protocols, to change PPF to paired-pulse depression, thus revealing subtle and previously undescribed mechanisms which regulate short-term synaptic plasticity. Finally, we successfully recorded from individual subicular units in the freely-moving animal, and provide a description of the characteristics of such neurons in a pellet-chasing task. We discuss the implications of these findings in relation to theories of the biological consolidation of memory.

  10. Reduced age-related degeneration of the hippocampal subiculum in long-term meditators.

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    Kurth, Florian; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Luders, Eileen

    2015-06-30

    Normal aging is known to result in a reduction of gray matter within the hippocampal complex, particularly in the subiculum. The present study was designed to address the question whether the practice of meditation can amend this age-related subicular atrophy. For this purpose, we established the correlations between subicular volume and chronological age within 50 long-term meditators and 50 control subjects. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were automatically processed combining cytoarchitectonically defined probabilistic maps with advanced tissue segmentation and registration methods. Overall, we observed steeper negative regression slopes in controls. The analysis further revealed a significant group-by-age interaction for the left subiculum with a significant negative correlation between age and subicular volume in controls, but no significant correlation in meditators. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest a reduced age-related atrophy of the left subiculum in meditators compared to healthy controls. Possible explanations might be a relative increase of subicular tissue over time through long-term training as meditation is a process that incorporates regular and ongoing mental efforts. Alternatively, because meditation is an established form of reducing stress, our observation might reflect an overall preservation of subicular tissue through a reduced neuronal vulnerability to negative effects of stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dopamine system dysregulation by the ventral subiculum as the common pathophysiological basis for schizophrenia psychosis, psychostimulant abuse, and stress.

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    Grace, Anthony A

    2010-11-01

    The dopamine system is under multiple forms of regulation, and in turn provides effective modulation of system responses. Dopamine neurons are known to exist in several states of activity. The population activity, or the proportion of dopamine neurons firing spontaneously, is controlled by the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus. In contrast, burst firing, which is proposed to be the behaviorally salient output of the dopamine system, is driven by the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg). When an animal is exposed to a behaviorally salient stimulus, the PPTg elicits a burst of action potentials in the dopamine neurons. However, this bursting only occurs in the portion of the dopamine neuron population that is firing spontaneously. This proportion is regulated by the ventral subiculum. Therefore, the ventral subiculum provides the gain, or the amplification factor, for the behaviorally salient stimulus. The ventral subiculum itself is proposed to carry information related to the environmental context. Thus, the ventral subiculum will adjust the responsivity of the dopamine system based on the needs of the organism and the characteristics of the environment. However, this finely tuned system can be disrupted in disease states. In schizophrenia, a disruption of interneuronal regulation of the ventral subiculum is proposed to lead to an overdrive of the dopamine system, rendering the system in a constant hypervigilant state. Moreover, amphetamine sensitization and stressors also appear to cause an abnormal dopaminergic drive. Such an interaction could underlie the risk factors of drug abuse and stress in the precipitation of a psychotic event. On the other hand, this could point to the ventral subiculum as an effective site of therapeutic intervention in the treatment or even the prevention of schizophrenia.

  12. Memory Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Correlates with Reduced Hippocampal CA1 and Subiculum Volumes

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    Yan-Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little attention has been paid to the role of subcortical deep gray matter (SDGM structures in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM-induced cognitive impairment, especially hippocampal subfields. Our aims were to assess the in vivo volumes of SDGM structures and hippocampal subfields using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and to test their associations with cognitive performance in T2DM. Methods: A total of 80 T2DM patients and 80 neurologically unimpaired healthy controls matched by age, sex and education level was enrolled in this study. We assessed the volumes of the SDGM structures and seven hippocampal subfields on MRI using a novel technique that enabled automated volumetry. We used Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA scores as measures of cognitive performance. The association of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c with SDGM structures and neuropsychological tests and correlations between hippocampal subfields and neuropsychological tests were assessed by partial correlation analysis in T2DM. Results: Bilaterally, the hippocampal volumes were smaller in T2DM patients, mainly in the CA1 and subiculum subfields. Partial correlation analysis showed that the MoCA scores, particularly those regarding delayed memory, were significantly positively correlated with reduced hippocampal CA1 and subiculum volumes in T2DM patients. Additionally, higher HbA1c levels were significantly associated with poor memory performance and hippocampal atrophy among T2DM patients. Conclusions: These data indicate that the hippocampus might be the main affected region among the SDGM structures in T2DM. These structural changes in the hippocampal CA1 and subiculum areas might be at the core of underlying neurobiological mechanisms of hippocampal dysfunction, suggesting that degeneration in these regions could be responsible for memory impairments in T2DM patients.

  13. Electrophysiological and Morphological Characterization of Chrna2 Cells in the Subiculum and CA1 of the Hippocampus: An Optogenetic Investigation

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    Heather Nichol

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha2 subunit (Chrna2 is a specific marker for oriens lacunosum-moleculare (OLM interneurons in the dorsal CA1 region of the hippocampus. It was recently shown using a Chrna2-cre mice line that OLM interneurons can modulate entorhinal cortex and CA3 inputs and may therefore have an important role in gating, encoding, and recall of memory. In this study, we have used a combination of electrophysiology and optogenetics using Chrna2-cre mice to determine the role of Chrna2 interneurons in the subiculum area, the main output region of the hippocampus. We aimed to assess the similarities between Chrna2 subiculum and CA1 neurons in terms of the expression of interneuron markers, their membrane properties, and their inhibitory input to pyramidal neurons. We found that subiculum and CA1 dorsal Chrna2 cells similarly expressed the marker somatostatin and had comparable membrane and firing properties. The somas of Chrna2 cells in both regions were found in the deepest layer with axons projecting superficially. However, subiculum Chrna2 cells displayed more extensive projections with dendrites which occupied a significantly larger area than in CA1. The post-synaptic responses elicited by Chrna2 cells in pyramidal cells of both regions revealed comparable inhibitory responses elicited by GABAA receptors and, interestingly, GABAB receptor mediated components. This study provides the first in-depth characterization of Chrna2 cells in the subiculum, and suggests that subiculum and CA1 Chrna2 cells are generally similar and may play comparable roles in both sub-regions.

  14. Regional Specific Evidence for Memory-Load Dependent Activity in the Dorsal Subiculum and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

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    Shih-pi Ku

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1 receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum, both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known. However, very few studies have investigated its role within the frame of memory function. Thus, it is not known whether its contribution depends on memory load. In addition, the deep layers of the EC have been shown to be predictive of subsequent memory performance, but not its superficial layers. Hence, here we tested the extent to which the proximal part of the subiculum and the superficial and deep layers of the LEC contribute to non-spatial memory, and whether this contribution depends on the memory load of the task. To do so, we imaged brain activity at cellular resolution in these areas in rats performing a delayed nonmatch to sample task based on odors with two different memory loads (5 or 10 odors. This imaging technique is based on the detection of the RNA of the immediate-early gene Arc, which is especially tied to synaptic plasticity and behavioral demands, and is commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We report for the first time that the proximal part of the subiculum is recruited in a memory-load dependent manner and the deep layers of the LEC engaged under high memory load conditions during the retrieval of non-spatial memory, thus shedding light on the specific networks contributing to non-spatial memory retrieval.

  15. Regional Specific Evidence for Memory-Load Dependent Activity in the Dorsal Subiculum and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex.

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    Ku, Shih-Pi; Nakamura, Nozomu H; Maingret, Nicolas; Mahnke, Liv; Yoshida, Motoharu; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2017-01-01

    The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1) receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum), both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known. However, very few studies have investigated its role within the frame of memory function. Thus, it is not known whether its contribution depends on memory load. In addition, the deep layers of the EC have been shown to be predictive of subsequent memory performance, but not its superficial layers. Hence, here we tested the extent to which the proximal part of the subiculum and the superficial and deep layers of the LEC contribute to non-spatial memory, and whether this contribution depends on the memory load of the task. To do so, we imaged brain activity at cellular resolution in these areas in rats performing a delayed nonmatch to sample task based on odors with two different memory loads (5 or 10 odors). This imaging technique is based on the detection of the RNA of the immediate-early gene Arc , which is especially tied to synaptic plasticity and behavioral demands, and is commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We report for the first time that the proximal part of the subiculum is recruited in a memory-load dependent manner and the deep layers of the LEC engaged under high memory load conditions during the retrieval of non-spatial memory, thus shedding light on the specific networks contributing to non-spatial memory retrieval.

  16. Regional Specific Evidence for Memory-Load Dependent Activity in the Dorsal Subiculum and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

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    Ku, Shih-pi; Nakamura, Nozomu H.; Maingret, Nicolas; Mahnke, Liv; Yoshida, Motoharu; Sauvage, Magdalena M.

    2017-01-01

    The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1) receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum), both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known. However, very few studies have investigated its role within the frame of memory function. Thus, it is not known whether its contribution depends on memory load. In addition, the deep layers of the EC have been shown to be predictive of subsequent memory performance, but not its superficial layers. Hence, here we tested the extent to which the proximal part of the subiculum and the superficial and deep layers of the LEC contribute to non-spatial memory, and whether this contribution depends on the memory load of the task. To do so, we imaged brain activity at cellular resolution in these areas in rats performing a delayed nonmatch to sample task based on odors with two different memory loads (5 or 10 odors). This imaging technique is based on the detection of the RNA of the immediate-early gene Arc, which is especially tied to synaptic plasticity and behavioral demands, and is commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We report for the first time that the proximal part of the subiculum is recruited in a memory-load dependent manner and the deep layers of the LEC engaged under high memory load conditions during the retrieval of non-spatial memory, thus shedding light on the specific networks contributing to non-spatial memory retrieval. PMID:28790897

  17. Reorganization of Basolateral Amygdala-Subiculum Circuitry in Mouse Epilepsy Model

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    Dongliang eMa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the reorganized basolateral amygdala (BLA-subiculum pathway in a status epilepticus (SE mouse model with epileptic episodes induced by pilocarpine. We have previously observed a dramatic loss of neurons in the CA1-3 fields of the hippocampus in epileptic mice. Herein, we observed a 43-57 % reduction in the number of neurons in the BLA of epileptic mice. However, injection of an anterograde tracer, Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (PHA-L into the BLA indicated 25.63 % increase in the number of PHA-L-immunopositive terminal-like structures in the ventral subiculum (v-Sub of epileptic mice as compared to control mice. These data suggest that the projections from the basal nucleus at BLA to the vSub in epileptic mice are resistant to epilepsy-induced damage. Consequently, these epileptic mice exhibit partially impairment but not total loss of context-dependent fear memory. Epileptic mice also show increased c-Fos expression in the BLA and vSub when subjected to contextual memory test, suggesting the participation of these 2 brain areas in foot shock-dependent fear conditioning. These results indicate the presence of functional neural connections between the BLA-vSub regions that participate in learning and memory in epileptic mice.

  18. Serotonin Regulates the Firing of Principal Cells of the Subiculum by Inhibiting a T-type Ca(2+) Current

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    Petersen, Anders V; Jensen, Camilla S; Crépel, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    The subiculum is the main output of the hippocampal formation. A high proportion of its principal neurons fire action potentials in bursts triggered by the activation of low threshold calcium currents. This firing pattern promotes synaptic release and regulates spike-timing-dependent plasticity. ...... of epileptiform discharges induced in in vitro models for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)....

  19. Combined lesions of hippocampus and subiculum Do not produce deficits in a nonspatial social olfactory memory task.

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    Burton, S; Murphy, D; Qureshi, U; Sutton, P; O'Keefe, J

    2000-07-15

    Rats transmit information to each other about which foods are safe to eat. If a rat smells a food odor on the breath of another rat, it is subsequently more likely to eat that food than an alternative. Work by Galef et al. (1988) has shown that the observer rat forms an association between two olfactory stimuli on the breath of the demonstrator rat that has eaten the food, the food odor and carbon disulphide, which is normally present in the rat breath. Bunsey and Eichenbaum (1995) claimed that the hippocampus/subicular region is required for the long-term retention of this nonspatial form of associative memory on the basis that combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum produced a deficit, but lesions of either structure alone did not. We report here a failure to repeat this finding. Rats with either combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum or with amygdala lesions were tested on their ability to remember this association either immediately (testing short-term memory) or after a 24 hr delay (testing long-term memory). Neither lesion group exhibited significant memory deficits on this nonspatial associative task at either test interval. In contrast, a deficit was observed on a spatial memory task (forced-choice alternation t-maze) for animals with combined lesions of the hippocampus and subiculum. These results contradict the findings of Bunsey and Eichenbaum (1995) and support the idea that the hippocampus/subicular region is not required for this nonspatial associative memory.

  20. Increased BOLD activation to predator stressor in subiculum and midbrain of amphetamine-sensitized maternal rats.

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    Febo, Marcelo; Pira, Ashley S

    2011-03-25

    Amphetamine, which is known to cause sensitization, potentiates the hormonal and neurobiological signatures of stress and may also increase sensitivity to stress-inducing stimuli in limbic areas. Trimethylthiazoline (5μL TMT) is a chemical constituent of fox feces that evokes innate fear and activates the neuronal and hormonal signatures of stress in rats. We used blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI to test whether amphetamine sensitization (1mg/kg, i.p. ×3days) in female rats has a lasting effect on the neural response to a stress-evoking stimulus, the scent of a predator, during the postpartum period. The subiculum and dopamine-enriched midbrain VTA/SN of amphetamine-sensitized but not control mothers showed a greater BOLD signal response to predator odor than a control putrid scent. The greater responsiveness of these two brain regions following stimulant sensitization might impact neural processing in response to stressors in the maternal brain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bayesian longitudinal segmentation of hippocampal substructures in brain MRI using subject-specific atlases.

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    Iglesias, Juan Eugenio; Van Leemput, Koen; Augustinack, Jean; Insausti, Ricardo; Fischl, Bruce; Reuter, Martin

    2016-11-01

    The hippocampal formation is a complex, heterogeneous structure that consists of a number of distinct, interacting subregions. Atrophy of these subregions is implied in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, most prominently in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thanks to the increasing resolution of MR images and computational atlases, automatic segmentation of hippocampal subregions is becoming feasible in MRI scans. Here we introduce a generative model for dedicated longitudinal segmentation that relies on subject-specific atlases. The segmentations of the scans at the different time points are jointly computed using Bayesian inference. All time points are treated the same to avoid processing bias. We evaluate this approach using over 4700 scans from two publicly available datasets (ADNI and MIRIAD). In test-retest reliability experiments, the proposed method yielded significantly lower volume differences and significantly higher Dice overlaps than the cross-sectional approach for nearly every subregion (average across subregions: 4.5% vs. 6.5%, Dice overlap: 81.8% vs. 75.4%). The longitudinal algorithm also demonstrated increased sensitivity to group differences: in MIRIAD (69 subjects: 46 with AD and 23 controls), it found differences in atrophy rates between AD and controls that the cross sectional method could not detect in a number of subregions: right parasubiculum, left and right presubiculum, right subiculum, left dentate gyrus, left CA4, left HATA and right tail. In ADNI (836 subjects: 369 with AD, 215 with early cognitive impairment - eMCI - and 252 controls), all methods found significant differences between AD and controls, but the proposed longitudinal algorithm detected differences between controls and eMCI and differences between eMCI and AD that the cross sectional method could not find: left presubiculum, right subiculum, left and right parasubiculum, left and right HATA. Moreover, many of the differences that the cross-sectional method already found

  2. Synaptic Remodeling in the Dentate Gyrus, CA3, CA1, Subiculum, and Entorhinal Cortex of Mice: Effects of Deprived Rearing and Voluntary Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea T. U. Schaefers

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal cell proliferation is strongly increased and synaptic turnover decreased after rearing under social and physical deprivation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus. We examined if a similar epigenetic effect of rearing environment on adult neuroplastic responses can be found in mice (Mus musculus. We examined synaptic turnover rates in the dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex. No direct effects of deprived rearing on rates of synaptic turnover were found in any of the studied regions. However, adult wheel running had the effect of leveling layer-specific differences in synaptic remodeling in the dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, but not in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum of animals of both rearing treatments. Epigenetic effects during juvenile development affected adult neural plasticity in mice, but seemed to be less pronounced than in gerbils.

  3. Two different mechanisms associated with ripple-like oscillations (100-250 Hz) in the human epileptic subiculum in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Rojas, C; Huberfeld, G; Baulac, M; Clemenceau, S; Charpier, S; Miles, R; Menendez de la Prida, L; Le Van Quyen, M

    2015-01-01

    Transient high-frequency oscillations (150-600 Hz) in local field potential generated by human hippocampal and parahippocampal areas have been related to both physiological and pathological processes. The cellular basis and effects of normal and abnormal forms of high-frequency oscillations (HFO) has been controversial. Here, we searched for HFOs in slices of the subiculum prepared from human hippocampal tissue resected for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. HFOs occurred spontaneously in extracellular field potentials during interictal discharges (IID) and also during pharmacologically induced preictal discharges (PID) preceding ictal-like events. While most of these events might be considered pathological since they invaded the fast ripple band (>250 Hz), others were spectrally similar to physiological ripples (150-250 Hz). Do similar cellular mechanisms underly IID-ripples and PID-ripples? Are ripple-like oscillations a valid proxy of epileptogenesis in human TLE? With combined intra- or juxta-cellular and extracellular recordings, we showed that, despite overlapping spectral components, ripple-like IID and PID oscillations were associated with different cellular and synaptic mechanisms. IID-ripples were associated with rhythmic GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic potentials with moderate neuronal firing. In contrast, PID-ripples were associated with depolarizing synaptic inputs frequently reaching the threshold for bursting in most cells. Thus ripple-like oscillations (100-250 Hz) in the human epileptic hippocampus are associated with different mechanisms for synchrony reflecting distinct dynamic changes in inhibition and excitation during interictal and pre-ictal states. PMID:25448920

  4. Impaired expression of GABA transporters in the human Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Tessa E; Palpagama, Thulani H; Waldvogel, Henry J; Synek, Beth J L; Turner, Clinton; Faull, Richard L; Kwakowsky, Andrea

    2017-05-20

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and plays an important role in regulating neuronal excitability. GABA reuptake from the synapse is dependent on specific transporters - mainly GAT-1, GAT-3 and BGT-1 (GATs). This study is the first to show alterations in the expression of the GATs in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We found a significant increase in BGT-1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the dentate gyrus, in the stratum oriens of the CA2 and CA3 and the superior temporal gyrus. In AD there was a significant decrease in GAT-1 expression in the entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus. We also found a significant decrease in GAT-3 immunoreactivity in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 and CA3, the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. These observations indicate that the expression of the GATs shows brain-region- and layer-specific alterations in AD, suggesting a complex activation pattern of different GATs during the course of the disease. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Resilience to audiogenic seizures is associated with p-ERK1/2 dephosphorylation in the subiculum of Fmr1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia eCuria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Young, but not adult, Fmr1 knockout (KO mice display audiogenic seizures (AGS that can be prevented by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In order to identify the cerebral regions involved in these phenomena, we characterized the response to AGS in Fmr1 KO mice and wild type (WT controls at postnatal day (P 45 and P90. To characterize the diverse response to AGS in various cerebral regions, we evaluated the activity markers FosB/ΔFosB and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2. Wild running (100% of tested mice followed by clonic/tonic seizures (30% were observed in P45 Fmr1 KO mice, but not in WT mice. In P90 Fmr1 KO mice, wild running was only present in 25% of tested animals. Basal FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity was higher (P<0.01 vs WT in the CA1 and subiculum of P45 Fmr1 KO mice. Following the AGS test, FosB/ΔFosB expression consistently increased in most of the analyzed regions in both groups at P45, but not at P90. Interestingly, FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity was significantly higher in P45 Fmr1 KO mice in the medial geniculate body (P<0.05 vs WT and CA3 (P<0.01. Neurons presenting with immunopositivity to p-ERK1/2 were more abundant in the subiculum of Fmr1 KO mice in control condition (P<0.05 vs WT, in both age groups. In this region, p-ERK1/2-immunopositive cells significantly decreased (-75%, P<0.01 in P90 Fmr1 KO mice exposed to the AGS test, but no changes were found in P45 mice or in other brain regions. In both age groups of WT mice, p-ERK1/2-immunopositive cells increased in the subiculum after exposure to the acoustic test. Our findings illustrate that FosB/ΔFosB markers are overexpressed in the medial geniculate body and CA3 in Fmr1 KO mice experiencing AGS, and that p-ERK1/2 is markedly decreased in the subiculum of Fmr1 KO mice resistant to AGS induction. These findings suggest that resilience to AGS is associated with dephosphorylation of p-ERK1/2 in the subiculum of mature Fmr1 KO mice.

  6. Pathological changes in hippocampal neuronal circuits underlie age-associated neurodegeneration and memory loss: positive clue toward SAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, P; Premkumar, P; Priyanka, R; Jayachandran, K S; Anusuyadevi, M

    2015-08-20

    Among vertebrates hippocampus forms the major component of the brain in consolidating information from short-term memory to long-term memory. Aging is considered as the major risk factor for memory impairment in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) like pathology. Present study thus aims at investigating whether age-specific degeneration of neuronal-circuits in hippocampal formation (neural-layout of Subiculum-hippocampus proper-dentate gyrus (DG)-entorhinal cortex (EC)) results in cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effect of Resveratrol (RSV) was attempted to study in the formation of hippocampal neuronal-circuits. Radial-Arm-Maze was conducted to evaluate hippocampal-dependent spatial and learning memory in control and experimental rats. Nissl staining of frontal cortex (FC), subiculum, hippocampal-proper (CA1→CA2→CA3→CA4), DG, amygdala, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, layers of temporal and parietal lobe of the neocortex were examined for pathological changes in young and aged wistar rats, with and without RSV. Hippocampal trisynaptic circuit (EC layerII→DG→CA3→CA1) forming new memory and monosynaptic circuit (EC→CA1) that strengthen old memories were found disturbed in aged rats. Loss of Granular neuron observed in DG and polymorphic cells of CA4 can lead to decreased mossy fibers disturbing neural-transmission (CA4→CA3) in perforant pathway. Further, intensity of nissl granules (stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM)-SR-SO) of CA3 pyramidal neurons was decreased, disturbing the communication in schaffer collaterals (CA3-CA1) during aging. We also noticed disarranged neuronal cell layer in Subiculum (presubiculum (PrS)-parasubiculum (PaS)), interfering output from hippocampus to prefrontal cortex (PFC), EC, hypothalamus, and amygdala that may result in interruption of thought processes. We conclude from our observations that poor memory performance of aged rats as evidenced through radial arm maze (RAM) analysis was due to the

  7. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript and calcium binding proteins immunoreactivity in the subicular complex of the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Barbara; Najdzion, Janusz; Równiak, Maciej; Bogus-Nowakowska, Krystyna; Hermanowicz, Beata; Kolenkiewicz, Małgorzata; Żakowski, Witold; Robak, Anna

    2016-03-01

    In this study we present the distribution and colocalization pattern of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and three calcium-binding proteins: calbindin (CB), calretinin (CR) and parvalbumin (PV) in the subicular complex (SC) of the guinea pig. The subiculum (S) and presubiculum (PrS) showed higher CART-immunoreactivity (-IR) than the parasubiculum (PaS) as far as the perikarya and neuropil were concerned. CART- IR cells were mainly observed in the pyramidal layer and occasionally in the molecular layer of the S. In the PrS and PaS, single CART-IR perikarya were dispersed, however with a tendency to be found only in superficial layers. CART-IR fibers were observed throughout the entire guinea pig subicular neuropil. Double-labeling immunofluorescence showed that CART-IR perikarya, as well as fibers, did not stain positively for any of the three CaBPs. CART-IR fibers were only located near the CB-, CR-, PV-IR perikarya, whereas CART-IR fibers occasionally intersected fibers containing one of the three CaBPs. The distribution pattern of CART was more similar to that of CB and CR than to that of PV. In the PrS, the CART, CB and CR immunoreactivity showed a laminar distribution pattern. In the case of the PV, this distribution pattern in the PrS was much less prominent than that of CART, CB and CR. We conclude that a heterogeneous distribution of the CART and CaBPs in the guinea pig SC is in keeping with findings from other mammals, however species specific differences have been observed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Building hippocampal circuits to learn and remember: insights into the development of human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenex, Pierre; Banta Lavenex, Pamela

    2013-10-01

    The hippocampal formation is essential for the processing of episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts. Interestingly, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. From 2 to 7 years of age, there are fewer memories than predicted based on a forgetting function alone, a phenomenon known as childhood amnesia. Here, we discuss the postnatal maturation of the primate hippocampal formation with the goal of characterizing the development of the neurobiological substrates thought to subserve the emergence of episodic memory. Distinct regions, layers and cells of the hippocampal formation exhibit different profiles of structural and molecular development during early postnatal life. The protracted period of neuronal addition and maturation in the dentate gyrus is accompanied by the late maturation of specific layers in different hippocampal regions that are located downstream from the dentate gyrus, particularly CA3. In contrast, distinct layers in several hippocampal regions, particularly CA1, which receive direct projections from the entorhinal cortex, exhibit an early maturation. In addition, hippocampal regions that are more highly interconnected with subcortical structures, including the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum and CA2, mature even earlier. These findings, together with our studies of the development of human spatial memory, support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits might underlie the differential emergence of specific "hippocampus-dependent" memory processes, culminating in the emergence of episodic memory concomitant with the maturation of all hippocampal circuits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Global action against dementia call for innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dajue Wang

    2016-01-01

    With the fast-growing aging population, dementia has become a health priority. However, in the past, medicine was largely dealing with physical disorders, and not enough knowledge and experience have been accumulated for mental health. The main and first symptom of this disorder is the loss of memory; hence, understanding the hippocampal formation is the key to tackling dementia. In 2007, a milestone book titled"Hippocampus Book"was published. One of the authors/editors is the 2014 Nobel Laureate in Physiology and Medicine, Professor John O'Keefe. It is a MUST-READ encyclopedia about the hippocampal formation, for those who wish to commit them-selves to helping the patients with dementia. The formation consists of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, and dentate gyrus. The hippocampus is further divided into CA1, CA2, and CA3. The entorhinal cortex is the gateway of receiving all sensory information from the neocortex, while the subiculum is the exit for the efferent projections to the neocortex. Memory is divided into short-term and long-term memory. The former does not require protein synthesis while the latter does. The electrophysiological activities of creating these memories are short-term potentiation and long-term potentiation respectively. In most cases, the entorhinal cortex is the first structure to be damaged, and even short-term memory cannot be created. However, all except spatial memory are stored in the neocortex. Damage to the hippocampal formation would not affect the storage and retrieval of memories. Hence, past memories may remain intact in the early phases of the disorder. This devastating progressive disease has no cure. However, the highly plastic hippocampal formation may offer us some hope. It is the responsibility of the pharmaceutical industries to develop new drugs. Clinicians should add their efforts to the endeavor. The author would suggest that they explore insulin-like growth factors, brain

  10. Global action against dementia call for innovations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dajue Wang

    2016-01-01

    With the fast-growing aging population, dementia has become a health priority.However, in the past, medicine was largely dealing with physical disorders, and not enough knowledge and experience have been accumulated for mental health. The main and first symptom of this disorder is the loss of memory; hence, understanding the hippocampal formation is the key to tackling dementia. In 2007, a milestone book titled 'Hippocampus Book' was published. One of the authors/editors is the 2014 Nobel Laureate in Physiology and Medicine, Professor John O’Keefe. It is a MUST-READ encyclopedia about the hippocampal formation, for those who wish to commit themselves to helping the patients with dementia. The formation consists of the hippocampus,entorhinal cortex, subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, and dentate gyrus. The hippocampus is further divided into CA1, CA2, and CA3. The entorhinal cortex is the gateway of receiving all sensory information from the neocortex, while the subiculum is the exit for the efferent projections to the neocortex. Memory is divided into short-term and long-term memory. The former does not require protein synthesis while the latter does. The electrophysiological activities of creating these memories are short-term potentiation and long-term potentiation respectively. In most cases, the entorhinal cortex is the first structure to be damaged, and even short-term memory cannot be created. However, all except spatial memory are stored in the neocortex. Damage to the hippocampal formation would not affect the storage and retrieval of memories. Hence, past memories may remain intact in the early phases of the disorder. This devastating progressive disease has no cure. However, the highly plastic hippocampal formation may offer us some hope. It is the responsibility of the pharmaceutical industries to develop new drugs. Clinicians should add their efforts to the endeavor. The author would suggest that they explore insulin-like growth factors

  11. Relationship between hippocampal subfield volumes and memory deficits in patients with thalamus infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Luo, Tianyou; Lv, Fajin; Shi, Dandan; Qiu, Jiang; Li, Qi; Fang, Weidong; Peng, Juan; Li, Yongmei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Yang

    2016-09-01

    Clinical studies have shown that thalamus infarction (TI) affects memory function. The thalamic nucleus is directly or indirectly connected to the hippocampal system in animal models. However, this connection has not been investigated using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans. From the pathological perspective, TI patients may serve as valid models for revealing the interaction between the thalamus and hippocampus in memory function. In this study, we aim to assess different hippocampal subfield volumes in TI patients and control subjects using MRI and test their associations with memory function. A total of 37 TI patients (TI group), 38 matched healthy control subjects (HC group), and 22 control patients with other stroke location (SC group) underwent 3.0-T MRI scans and clinical memory examinations. Hippocampal subfield volumes were measured and compared by using FreeSurfer software. We examined the correlation between hippocampal subfield volumes and memory scores. Smaller ipsilesional presubiculum and subiculum volumes were observed, and former was related to graphics recall in both left and right TI patients. The left subiculum volume was correlated with short-delayed recall in left TI patients. The right presubiculum volume was correlated with short- and long-delayed recall in right TI patients. TI was found to result in hippocampal abnormality and memory deficits, and its neural mechanisms might be related with and interaction between the thalamus and hippocampus.

  12. Distribution of Wfs1 protein in the central nervous system of the mouse and its relation to clinical symptoms of the Wolfram syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luuk, H.; Koks, S.; Plaas, M.

    2008-01-01

    enrichment of Wf1 protein in the central extended amygdala and ventral striatum. Prominent Wfs1 expression was seen in the hippocampal CA1 region, parasubiculum, superficial part of the second and third layers of the prefrontal cortex and proisocortical areas, hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system......, alveus, fimbria, dorsal hippocampal commissure; subiculum, and to a lesser extent in the central sublenticular extended amygdala, compact part of substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. The neuroanatomical findings suggest that the lack of Wf1 protein function can be related to several neurological...... and psychiatric symptoms found in Wolfram syndrome. Enrichment of Wfs1 protein in the central extended amygdala suggests a role in the modulation of anxiety and fear Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/20...

  13. Differential regulation of amyloid-β-protein mRNA expression within hippocampal neuronal subpopulations in Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, G.A.; Lewis, D.A.; Bahmanyar, S.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Young, W.G.; Morrison, J.H.; Wilson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have mapped the neuroanatomical distribution of amyloid-β-protein mRNA within neuronal subpopulations of the hippocampal formation in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), normal aged human, and patients with Alzheimer disease. Amyloid-β-protein mRNA appears to be expressed in all hippocampal neurons, but at different levels of abundance. In the central nervous system of monkey and normal aged human, image analysis shows that neurons of the dentate gyrus and cornu Ammonis fields contain a 2.5-times-greater hybridization signal than is present in neurons of the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. In contrast, in the Alzheimer disease hippocampal formation, the levels of amyloid-β-protein mRNA in the cornu Ammonis field 3 and parasubiculum are equivalent. These findings suggest that within certain neuronal subpopulations cell type-specific regulation of amyloid-β-protein gene expression may be altered in Alzheimer disease

  14. Activity-dependent volume transmission by transgene NPY attenuates glutamate release and LTP in the subiculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Lin, En-Ju D

    2008-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene transduction of the brain using viral vectors in epileptogenic regions can effectively suppress seizures in animals, and is being considered as a promising alternative treatment strategy for epilepsy. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the detailed mechanisms...

  15. [Hippocampal subfield volume alteration in post-traumatic stress disorder: a magnetic resonance imaging study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Zhang, Lianqing; Hu, Xinyu; Hu, Xiaoxiao; Li, Lingjiang; Gong, Qiyong; Huang, Xiaoqi

    2018-04-01

    In the current study, we aim to investigate whether post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with structural alterations in specific subfields of hippocampus comparing with trauma-exposed control (TC) in a relatively large sample. We included 67 PTSD patients who were diagnosed under Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition) (DSM-Ⅳ) criteria and 78 age- and sex-matched non-PTSD adult survivors who experienced similar stressors. High resolution T1 weighted images were obtained via a GE 3.0 T scanner. The structural data was automatically segmented using FreeSurfer software, and volume of whole hippocampus and subfield including CA1, CA2-3, CA4-DG, fimbria, presubiculum, subiculum and fissure were extracted. Volume differences between the two groups were statistically compared with age, years of education, duration from the events and intracranial volume (ICV) as covariates. Hemisphere, sex and diagnosis were entered as fixed factors. Relationship between morphometric measurements with Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score and illness duration were performed using Pearson's correlation with SPSS. Comparing to TC, PTSD patients showed no statistically significant alteration in volumes of the whole hippocampus and all the subfields ( P > 0.05). In male patients, there were significant correlations between CAPS score and volume of right CA2-3 ( R 2 = 0.197, P = 0.034), right subiculum ( R 2 = 0.245, P = 0.016), and duration statistically correlated with right fissure ( R 2 = 0.247, P = 0.016). In female patients, CAPS scores significant correlated with volume of left presubiculum ( R 2 = 0.095, P = 0.042), left subiculum ( R 2 = 0.090, P = 0.048), and left CA4-DG ( R 2 = 0.099, P = 0.037). The main findings of the current study suggest that stress event causes non-selective damage to hippocampus in both PTSD patients and TC, and gender-specific lateralization may underlie PTSD pathology.

  16. Distribution of seratonin-1A receptors in the monkey and the postmortem human hippocampal region. A quantitative autoradiographic study using the selective agonist (3H)8-PH-DPAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, Christer; Radesaeter, A.C.; Lang, Walter; Chan-Palay, Victoria

    1986-01-01

    Serotonin-1A receptors were visualized and their anatomical distribution mapped within the monkey and the human hippocampus by using in vitro receptor autoradiography of the selective agonist ( 3 H)8-OH-N, N-dipropyl-2-aminotetralin (( 3 H)8-OH-DPAT). The results show high densities of serotonin-1A receptors hetergeneously distributed in different subfields and layers of the monkey and the human hippocampal region. High densities are found in the molecular layer of area dentata, all layers of regio superior and the subiculum, parasubiculum, and layers 2, and 4 through 6 of the entorhinal area. In the human hippocampus, a distinct band of ( 3 H)8-OH-DPAT binding sites is present in the subgranular zone of the area dentata. The similar anatomical distribution of ( 3 H)8-OH-DPAT binding sites in the monkey and the human hippocampal region suggests that the serotonin-1A receptor is phylogenetically well preserved and indicates that this receptor may mediate action(s) of serotonin in the primate, including the human hippocampal region. (author)

  17. One-trial memory for object-place associations after separate lesions of hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal region in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkova, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-03-01

    In earlier studies of one-trial spatial memory in monkeys (Parkinson et al., 1988; Angeli et al., 1993), severe and chronic memory impairment for both object-place association and place alone was found after ablation of the hippocampal formation. The results appeared to provide the first clear-cut evidence in the monkey of the essential role of the hippocampus in spatial memory, but that interpretation neglected the inclusion in the lesion of the underlying posterior parahippocampal region. To determine the separate contributions of the hippocampus and posterior parahippocampal region to these spatial forms of one-trial memory, we trained 10 rhesus monkeys, as before, to remember the spatial positions of either two different trial-unique objects overlying two of the wells in a three-well test tray (object-place trials) or simply two of the three wells (place trials). Six of the monkeys then received ibotenic acid lesions restricted to the hippocampal formation (group H), and the four others received selective ablations of the posterior parahippocampal region (group P), comprising mainly parahippocampal cortex, parasubiculum, and presubiculum. Group H was found to be completely unaffected postoperatively on both types of trials, whereas group P sustained an impairment on both types equal in magnitude to that observed after the combined lesions in the original studies. Thus, contrary to the previous interpretation, one-trial memory for object-place association and, perhaps more fundamentally, one-trial memory for two different places appear to be critically dependent not on the hippocampal formation but rather on the posterior parahippocampal region.

  18. Architecture of the Entorhinal Cortex A Review of Entorhinal Anatomy in Rodents with Some Comparative Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno P. Witter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC is the major input and output structure of the hippocampal formation, forming the nodal point in cortico-hippocampal circuits. Different division schemes including two or many more subdivisions have been proposed, but here we will argue that subdividing EC into two components, the lateral EC (LEC and medial EC (MEC might suffice to describe the functional architecture of EC. This subdivision then leads to an anatomical interpretation of the different phenotypes of LEC and MEC. First, we will briefly summarize the cytoarchitectonic differences and differences in hippocampal projection patterns on which the subdivision between LEC and MEC traditionally is based and provide a short comparative perspective. Second, we focus on main differences in cortical connectivity, leading to the conclusion that the apparent differences may well correlate with the functional differences. Cortical connectivity of MEC is features interactions with areas such as the presubiculum, parasubiculum, retrosplenial cortex (RSC and postrhinal cortex, all areas that are considered to belong to the “spatial processing domain” of the cortex. In contrast, LEC is strongly connected with olfactory areas, insular, medial- and orbitofrontal areas and perirhinal cortex. These areas are likely more involved in processing of object information, attention and motivation. Third, we will compare the intrinsic networks involving principal- and inter-neurons in LEC and MEC. Together, these observations suggest that the different phenotypes of both EC subdivisions likely depend on the combination of intrinsic organization and specific sets of inputs. We further suggest a reappraisal of the notion of EC as a layered input-output structure for the hippocampal formation.

  19. GABAA receptor subunit expression changes in the human Alzheimer's disease hippocampus, subiculum, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakowsky, Andrea; Calvo-Flores Guzmán, Beatriz; Pandya, Madhavi; Turner, Clinton; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L

    2018-02-27

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. GABA type A receptors (GABA A Rs) are severely affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the distribution and subunit composition of GABA A Rs in the AD brain are not well understood. This is the first comprehensive study to show brain region- and cell layer-specific alterations in the expression of the GABA A R subunits α1-3, α5, β1-3 and γ2 in the human AD hippocampus, entorhinal cortex and superior temporal gyrus (STG). In late-stage AD tissue samples using immunohistochemistry we found significant alteration of all investigated GABA A Rs subunits except for α3 and β1 that were well preserved. The most prominent changes include an increase in GABA A R α1 expression associated with AD in all layers of the CA3 region, in the stratum (str.) granulare and hilus of the dentate gyrus (DG). We found a significant increase in GABA A R α2 expression in the str. oriens of the CA1-3, str. radiatum of the CA2,3 and decrease in the str. pyramidale of the CA1 region in AD cases. In AD there was a significant increase in GABA A R α5 subunit expression in str. pyramidale, str. oriens of the CA1 region and decrease in the STG. We also found a significant decrease in the GABA A R β3 subunit immunoreactivity in the str. oriens of the CA2, str. granulare and str. moleculare of the DG. In conclusion, these findings indicate that the expression of the GABA A R subunits shows brain region- and layer-specific alterations in AD, and these changes could significantly influence and alter GABA A R function in the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Roles of hippocampal subfields in verbal and visual episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Andrea R; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lipton, Richard B; Lipton, Michael L; Katz, Mindy J

    2017-01-15

    Selective hippocampal (HC) subfield atrophy has been reported in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between the volume of hippocampal subfields and visual and verbal episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults. This study was conducted on a subset of 133 participants from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based study of non-demented older adults systematically recruited from the Bronx, N.Y. All participants completed comprehensive EAS neuropsychological assessment. Visual episodic memory was assessed using the Complex Figure Delayed Recall subtest from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Delayed Recall from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). All participants underwent 3T MRI brain scanning with subsequent automatic measurement of the hemispheric hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2-CA3, CA4-dente gyrus, presubiculum, and subiculum). We used linear regressions to model the association between hippocampal subfield volumes and visual and verbal episodic memory tests while adjusting for age, sex, education, and total intracranial volume. Participants had a mean age of 78.9 (SD=5.1) and 60.2% were female. Total hippocampal volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.31, p=0.001) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.007); subiculum volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.002) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.24, p=0.010); CA1 was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.26, pepisodic memory. Our results suggest that hippocampal subfields have sensitive roles in the process of visual and verbal episodic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cannabis-related hippocampal volumetric abnormalities specific to subregions in dependent users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chye, Yann; Suo, Chao; Yücel, Murat; den Ouden, Lauren; Solowij, Nadia; Lorenzetti, Valentina

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence. A total of 35 healthy controls (HC), 22 non-dependent (CB-nondep), and 39 dependent (CB-dep) cannabis users were recruited. We investigated group differences in hippocampal subregion volumes between HC, CB-nondep, and CB-dep users. We further explored the association between CB use variables (age of onset of regular use, monthly use, lifetime use) and hippocampal subregions in CB-nondep and CB-dep users separately. The CA1, CA2/3, CA4/DG, as well as total hippocampal gray matter were reduced in volume in CB-dep but not in CB-nondep users, relative to HC. The right CA2/3 and CA4/DG volumes were also negatively associated with lifetime cannabis use in CB-dep users. Our results suggest a regionally and dependence-specific influence of cannabis use on the hippocampus. Hippocampal alteration in cannabis users was specific to the CA and DG regions and confined to dependent users.

  2. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R.S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural MRI scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared to HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared to HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  3. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Distribution of neurotensin receptors in the primate hippocampal region: a quantitative autoradiographic study in the monkey and the postmortem human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohler, Christer; Radesater, A.; Chan-Palay, V.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of [ 3 H]neurotensin ([ 3 H]NT) binding sites in the monkey and the postmortem human brain was studied by using quantitative in vitro receptor autoradiography. Biochemical experiments carried out on tissue sections of the monkey hippocampus showed that the binding of [ 3 H]NT was saturable, reversible and of high specificity. The hippocampal [ 3 H]NT binding was displaced by fragment NT 8-13 but not fragment NT 1-8 of the peptide. The anatomical analysis showed a highly heterogeneous distribution of [ 3 H]NT binding sites within both the monkey and the human hippocampal region. In both species the highest density of [ 3 H]NT binding sites was found in the presubiculum (rank order of binding density: layer 2>6>1>3, 4, 5 in both monkey and man) and the entorhinal area (monkey: layer 4>6>5>1>2>3; human: layer 1=2>5>3). The subiculum and Ammon's horn were relatively poor in [ 3 H]NT binding sites in both species. In the area dentata the highest density of [ 3 H]NT binding sites was found in the hilar region. (author)

  5. Long-lasting enhancement of synaptic excitability of CA1/subiculum neurons of the rat ventral hippocampus by vasopressin and vasopressin(4-8)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Chepkova, A.N.; French, P.; Wied, D. de; Ontskul, A.H.; Ramakers, G.M.J.; Skrebitski, V.G.; Urban, I.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Vasopressin (VP) is axonally distributed in many brain structures, including the ventral hippocampus. Picogram quantities of VP injected into the hippocampus improve the passive avoidance response of rats, presumably by enhancing memory processes. Vasopressin is metabolized by the brain tissue into

  6. Anatomic guidelines defined by reformatting images on MRI for volume measurement of amygdala and hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshida, Tohru; Sakaki, Toshisuke; Uematsu, Sumio.

    1995-01-01

    Twelve patients with intractable partial epilepsy underwent MR scans at the Epilepsy Center of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were five women and seven men, ranging in age from five to 51 years (mean age: 26 years). Coronal images were obtained using a 3-D SPGR. The coronal images were transferred to an Allegro 5.1 workstation, and reformatted along the cardinal axes (axial and sagittal) in multiple view points. The anterior end of the amygdala was measured at the level just posterior to the disappearance of the temporal stem. The semilunar gyrus of the amygdala was separated from the ambient gyrus by the semianular sulcus that forms the boundary between the amygdala and the entorhinal cortex. The delineation of the hippocampal formation included the subicular complex, hippocampal proper, dentate gyrus, alveus, and fimbria. The uncal cleft separated the uncus above from the parahippocampal gyrus below. The roof of this cleft was formed by the hippocampus and the dentate gyrus, and the floor, by the presubiculum and subiculum. Although using some guidelines, strictly separating the hippocampal head from the posterior part of the amygdala was not feasible as was previously reported, because of the isointensity on MRI between the cortex of the amygdala and the hippocampus. The most posterior portion of the hippocampus was measured at the level of the subsplenial gyri, just below the splenium of the corpus callosum, to measure the hippocampal volume in its near totality. Therefore, it is reliable, and clinically useful, to measure the combined total volume of the amygdala and the hippocampus when comparing results with those of other centers. (S.Y.)

  7. Ensemble support vector machine classification of dementia using structural MRI and mini-mental state examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lauge; Nielsen, Mads

    2018-05-15

    The International Challenge for Automated Prediction of MCI from MRI data offered independent, standardized comparison of machine learning algorithms for multi-class classification of normal control (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), converting MCI (cMCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using brain imaging and general cognition. We proposed to use an ensemble of support vector machines (SVMs) that combined bagging without replacement and feature selection. SVM is the most commonly used algorithm in multivariate classification of dementia, and it was therefore valuable to evaluate the potential benefit of ensembling this type of classifier. The ensemble SVM, using either a linear or a radial basis function (RBF) kernel, achieved multi-class classification accuracies of 55.6% and 55.0% in the challenge test set (60 NC, 60 MCI, 60 cMCI, 60 AD), resulting in a third place in the challenge. Similar feature subset sizes were obtained for both kernels, and the most frequently selected MRI features were the volumes of the two hippocampal subregions left presubiculum and right subiculum. Post-challenge analysis revealed that enforcing a minimum number of selected features and increasing the number of ensemble classifiers improved classification accuracy up to 59.1%. The ensemble SVM outperformed single SVM classifications consistently in the challenge test set. Ensemble methods using bagging and feature selection can improve the performance of the commonly applied SVM classifier in dementia classification. This resulted in competitive classification accuracies in the International Challenge for Automated Prediction of MCI from MRI data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Test-retest reliability and longitudinal analysis of automated hippocampal subregion volumes in healthy ageing and Alzheimer's disease populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worker, Amanda; Dima, Danai; Combes, Anna; Crum, William R; Streffer, Johannes; Einstein, Steven; Mehta, Mitul A; Barker, Gareth J; C R Williams, Steve; O'daly, Owen

    2018-04-01

    The hippocampal formation is a complex brain structure that is important in cognitive processes such as memory, mood, reward processing and other executive functions. Histological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the hippocampal region in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. This highly plastic limbic region is made up of several subregions that are believed to have different functional roles. Therefore, there is a growing interest in imaging the subregions of the hippocampal formation rather than modelling the hippocampus as a homogenous structure, driving the development of new automated analysis tools. Consequently, there is a pressing need to understand the stability of the measures derived from these new techniques. In this study, an automated hippocampal subregion segmentation pipeline, released as a developmental version of Freesurfer (v6.0), was applied to T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 22 healthy older participants, scanned on 3 separate occasions and a separate longitudinal dataset of 40 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Test-retest reliability of hippocampal subregion volumes was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), percentage volume difference and percentage volume overlap (Dice). Sensitivity of the regional estimates to longitudinal change was estimated using linear mixed effects (LME) modelling. The results show that out of the 24 hippocampal subregions, 20 had ICC scores of 0.9 or higher in both samples; these regions include the molecular layer, granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, CA1, CA3 and the subiculum (ICC > 0.9), whilst the hippocampal fissure and fimbria had lower ICC scores (0.73-0.88). Furthermore, LME analysis of the independent AD dataset demonstrated sensitivity to group and individual differences in the rate of volume change over time in several hippocampal subregions (CA1, molecular layer, CA3, hippocampal tail, fissure and presubiculum

  9. The transcriptional repressor Zbtb20 is essential for specification of hippocampal projection neurons and territory in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    for specification of both hippocampal pyramidal neurons and territory in a mouse knockout model. Homozygous Zbtb20-/- mice are viable at birth, but display dwarfism and die during the first month of postnatal life. Characterization of the Zbtb20-/- brain phenotype reveals a small vestigial hippocampus...... with a dramatic change in the molecular patterning of the subiculum and Ammon’s horn. In absence of Zbtb20, the pattern of expression of distinct molecular markers was altered at four borders: retrosplenial cortex/subiculum, subiculum/CA1, CA1/CA2, and CA2/CA3, leading to a replacement of Ammon’s horn...

  10. Collateral Projections Innervate the Mammillary Bodies and Retrosplenial Cortex: A New Category of Hippocampal Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Mara, Shane M.

    2018-01-01

    To understand the hippocampus, it is necessary to understand the subiculum. Unlike other hippocampal subfields, the subiculum projects to almost all distal hippocampal targets, highlighting its critical importance for external networks. The present studies, in male rats and mice, reveal a new category of dorsal subiculum neurons that innervate both the mammillary bodies (MBs) and the retrosplenial cortex (RSP). These bifurcating neurons comprise almost half of the hippocampal cells that project to RSP. The termination of these numerous collateral projections was visualized within the medial mammillary nucleus and the granular RSP (area 29). These collateral projections included subiculum efferents that cross to the contralateral MBs. Within the granular RSP, the collateral projections form a particularly dense plexus in deep Layer II and Layer III. This retrosplenial termination site colocalized with markers for VGluT2 and neurotensin. While efferents from the hippocampal CA fields standardly collateralize, subiculum projections often have only one target site. Consequently, the many collateral projections involving the RSP and the MBs present a relatively unusual pattern for the subiculum, which presumably relates to how both targets have complementary roles in spatial processing. Furthermore, along with the anterior thalamic nuclei, the MBs and RSP are key members of a memory circuit, which is usually described as both starting and finishing in the hippocampus. The present findings reveal how the hippocampus simultaneously engages different parts of this circuit, so forcing an important revision of this network. PMID:29527569

  11. Metabolic rate in different rat brain areas during seizures induced by a specific delta opiate receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffmans, J; De Kloet, R; Dzoljic, M R

    1984-06-04

    The glucose utilization during specific delta opiate agonist-induced epileptiform phenomena, determined by the [14C]2-deoxyglucose technique (2-DG), was examined in various rat brain areas at different time intervals. The peak in EEG spiking response and the most intensive 2-DG uptake occurred 5 min after intraventricular (i.v.t.) administration of the delta opiate receptor agonist. The most pronounced 2-DG uptake at this time interval can be observed in the subiculum, including the CA1 hippocampal area, frontal cortex and central amygdala. A general decrease of glucose consumption, compared to control values, is observed after 10 min, in all regions, with exception of the subiculum. Since functional activity and 2-DG uptake are correlated, we suggest that the subiculum and/or CA1 area, are probably the brain regions most involved in the enkephalin-induced epileptic phenomena.

  12. Neuropeptide Y inhibits hippocampal seizures and wet dog shakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Larsen, P J

    1996-01-01

    effects in the dentate gyrus and subiculum, but also in areas to which epileptiform EEG activity spreads before reverberating. In addition, NPY strongly reduced seizure-related 'wet dog shakes' (WDS). This is consistent with previous studies showing that the dentate gyrus is essential for the generation...

  13. The genus Phanerochaete (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycotina) sensu lato in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinez; Karen K. Nakasone

    2005-01-01

    Eight species of Phanerochaete are reported from Uruguay for the first time, including a new species, P. vesiculosa. Phanerochaete vesiculosa is characterized by thin-walled, clavate to cylindrical vesicles embedded in the subiculum. A key to the known species of Phanerochaete from Uruguay is provided.

  14. Quantitative Comparison of 21 Protocols for Labeling Hippocampal Subfields and Parahippocampal Cortical Subregions in In Vivo MRI: Towards Developing a Harmonized Segmentation Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Amaral, Robert S.C.; Augustinack, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An increasing number of human in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have focused on examining the structure and function of the subfields of the hippocampal formation (the dentate gyrus, CA fields 1 − 3, and the subiculum) and subregions of the parahippocampal gyrus...

  15. Autoradiographic imaging of phosphoinositide turnover in the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, P.M.; Bredt, D.S.; Snyder, S.H.

    1990-01-01

    With [ 3 H]cytidine as a precursor, phosphoinositide turnover can be localized in brain slices by selective autoradiography of the product [ 3 H]cytidine diphosphate diacylglycerol, which is membrane-bound. In the cerebellum, glutamatergic stimulation elicits an increase of phosphoinositide turnover only in Purkinje cells and the molecular layer. In the hippocampus, both glutamatergic and muscarinic cholinergic stimulation increase phosphoinositide turnover, but with distinct localizations. Cholinergic stimulation affects CA1, CA3, CA4, and subiculum, whereas glutamatergic effects are restricted to the subiculum and CA3. Imaging phosphoinositide turnover in brain slices, which are amenable to electrophysiologic studies, will permit a dynamic localized analysis of regulation of this second messenger in response to synaptic stimulation of specific neuronal pathways

  16. Focal CA3 hippocampal subfield atrophy following LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody limbic encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, T; Chong, T; Aimola Davies, A; Ng, T; Johnson, M; Irani, S; Vincent, A; Husain, M; Jacob, S; Maddison, P; Kennard, C; Gowland, P; Rosenthal, C

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has linked chronic voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis with generalized hippocampal atrophy. However, autoantibodies bind to specific rodent hippocampal subfields. Here, human hippocampal subfield (subiculum, cornu ammonis 1-3, and dentate gyrus) targets of immunomodulation-treated LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis were investigated using in vivo ultra-high resolution (0.39 × 0....

  17. Preictal activity of subicular, CA1, and dentate gyrus principal neurons in the dorsal hippocampus before spontaneous seizures in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Satoshi; Toyoda, Izumi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2014-12-10

    Previous studies suggest that spontaneous seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy might be preceded by increased action potential firing of hippocampal neurons. Preictal activity is potentially important because it might provide new opportunities for predicting when a seizure is about to occur and insight into how spontaneous seizures are generated. We evaluated local field potentials and unit activity of single, putative excitatory neurons in the subiculum, CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus in epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Average action potential firing rates of neurons in the subiculum, CA1, and dentate gyrus, but not CA3, increased significantly and progressively beginning 2-4 min before locally recorded spontaneous seizures. In the subiculum, CA1, and dentate gyrus, but not CA3, 41-57% of neurons displayed increased preictal activity with significant consistency across multiple seizures. Much of the increased preictal firing of neurons in the subiculum and CA1 correlated with preictal theta activity, whereas preictal firing of neurons in the dentate gyrus was independent of theta. In addition, some CA1 and dentate gyrus neurons displayed reduced firing rates preictally. These results reveal that different hippocampal subregions exhibit differences in the extent and potential underlying mechanisms of preictal activity. The finding of robust and significantly consistent preictal activity of subicular, CA1, and dentate neurons in the dorsal hippocampus, despite the likelihood that many seizures initiated in other brain regions, suggests the existence of a broader neuronal network whose activity changes minutes before spontaneous seizures initiate. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416671-17$15.00/0.

  18. Transcription Factor Zbtb20 Controls Regional Specification of Mammalian Archicortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    2010-01-01

    Combinatorial expression of sets of transcription factors (TFs) along the mammalian cortex controls its subdivision into functional areas. Unlike neocortex, only few recent data suggest genetic mechanisms controlling the regionalization of the archicortex. TF Emx2 plays a crucial role in patterning...... later on becoming restricted exclusively to postmitotic neurons of hippocampus (Hi) proper, dentate gyrus (DG), and two transitory zones, subiculum (S) and retrosplenial cortex (Rsp). Analysis of Zbtb20-/- mice revealed altered cortical patterning at the border between neocortex and archicortex...

  19. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators’ brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM. To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls, where meditators have been practicing close to twenty years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentate, entorhinal cortex, subiculum as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri- hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators – perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity.

  20. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Kurth, Florian; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.; Gaser, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators' brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM). To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls), where meditators have been practicing close to 20 years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentata, entorhinal cortex, subiculum) as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri-) hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators—perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity. PMID:23847572

  1. Neural correlates of emotional personality: a structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koelsch

    Full Text Available Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called E κ value (computed from the electrocardiogram which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and E κ values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music. ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens. Individuals with higher E κ values (indexing higher tender emotionality showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher E κ showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher E κ showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (E κ correlates with both function (increased network centrality and structure (grey matter volume of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for

  2. Neural correlates of emotional personality: a structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called E κ value (computed from the electrocardiogram) which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and E κ values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM) and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females) while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music). ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Individuals with higher E κ values (indexing higher tender emotionality) showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females) showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher E κ showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher E κ showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (E κ) correlates with both function (increased network centrality) and structure (grey matter volume) of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for

  3. Major depressive episodes over the course of 7 years and hippocampal subfield volumes at 7 tesla MRI: the PREDICT-MR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisse, L E M; Biessels, G J; Stegenga, B T; Kooistra, M; van der Veen, P H; Zwanenburg, J J M; van der Graaf, Y; Geerlings, M I

    2015-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volumes have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). The hippocampus consists of several subfields that may be differentially related to MDD. We investigated the association of occurrence of major depressive episodes (MDEs), assessed five times over seven years, with hippocampal subfield and entorhinal cortex volumes at 7 tesla MRI. In this prospective study of randomly selected general practice attendees, MDEs according to DSM-IV-R criteria were assessed at baseline and after 6, 12, 39 and 84 months follow-up. At the last follow-up, a T2 (0.7 mm(3)) 7 tesla MRI scan was obtained in 47 participants (60±10 years). The subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1 to 3, dentate gyrus&CA4 and entorhinal cortex volumes were manually segmented according a published protocol. Of the 47 participants, 13 had one MDE and 5 had multiple MDEs. ANCOVAs, adjusted for age, sex, education and intracranial volume, revealed no significant differences in hippocampal subfield or entorhinal cortex volumes between participants with and without an MDE in the preceding 84 months. Multiple episodes were associated with smaller subiculum volumes (B=-0.03 mL/episode; 95% CI -0.06; -0.003), but not with the other hippocampal subfield volumes, entorhinal cortex, or total hippocampal volume. A limitation of this study is the small sample size which makes replication necessary. In this exploratory study, we found that an increasing number of major depressive episodes was associated with smaller subiculum volumes in middle-aged and older persons, but not with smaller volumes in other hippocampal subfields or the entorhinal cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Minocycline exacerbates apoptotic neurodegeneration induced by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in the early postnatal mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inta, Ioana; Vogt, Miriam A; Vogel, Anne S; Bettendorf, Markus; Gass, Peter; Inta, Dragos

    2016-10-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonists induce in perinatal rodent cortical apoptosis and protracted schizophrenia-like alterations ameliorated by antipsychotic treatment. The broad-spectrum antibiotic minocycline elicits antipsychotic and neuroprotective effects. Here we tested, if minocycline protects also against apoptosis triggered by the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 at postnatal day 7. Surprisingly, minocycline induced widespread cortical apoptosis and exacerbated MK-801-triggered cell death. In some areas such as the subiculum, the pro-apoptotic effect of minocycline was even more pronounced than that elicited by MK-801. These data reveal among antipsychotics unique pro-apoptotic properties of minocycline, raising concerns regarding consequences for brain development and the use in children.

  5. Long term exposure to combination paradigm of environmental enrichment, physical exercise and diet reverses the spatial memory deficits and restores hippocampal neurogenesis in ventral subicular lesioned rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapgal, Vijayakumar; Prem, Neethi; Hegde, Preethi; Laxmi, T R; Kutty, Bindu M

    2016-04-01

    Subiculum is an important structure of the hippocampal formation and plays an imperative role in spatial learning and memory functions. We have demonstrated earlier the cognitive impairment following bilateral ventral subicular lesion (VSL) in rats. We found that short term exposure to enriched environment (EE) did not help to reverse the spatial memory deficits in water maze task suggesting the need for an appropriate enriched paradigm towards the recovery of spatial memory. In the present study, the efficacy of long term exposure of VSL rats to combination paradigm of environmental enrichment (EE), physical exercise and 18 C.W. diet (Combination Therapy - CT) in reversing the spatial memory deficits in Morris water maze task has been studied. Ibotenate lesioning of ventral subiculum produced significant impairment of performance in the Morris water maze and reduced the hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Post lesion exposure to C.T. restored the hippocampal neurogenesis and improved the spatial memory functions in VSL rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the combination paradigm is critical towards the development of an enhanced behavioral and cognitive experience especially in conditions of CNS insults and the associated cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation between oxytocin neuronal sensitivity and oxytocin receptor binding: An electrophysiological and autoradiographical study comparing rat and guinea pig hippocampus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dubois-Dauphin, M.; Dreifuss, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    In transverse hippocampal slices from rat and guinea pig brains, the authors obtained unitary extracellular recordings from nonpyramidal neurones located in or near the stratum pyramidale in the CA1 field and in the transition region between the CA1 and the subiculum. In rats, these neurones responded to oxytocin at 50-1,000 nM by a reversible increase in firing rate. The oxytocin-induced excitation was suppressed by a synthetic structural analogue that acts as a potent, selective antioxytocic on peripheral receptors. Nonpyramidal neurones were also excited by carbachol at 0.5-10 μM. The effect of this compound was postsynaptic and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. In guinea pigs, by contrast, nonpyramidal neurones were unaffected by oxytocin, although they were excited by carbachol. Light microscopic autoradiography, carried out using a radioiodinated selective antioxytocic as a ligand, revealed labeling in the subiculum and in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of rats, whereas no oxytocin-binding sites were detected in the hippocampus of guinea pigs. The results indicate (i) that a hippocampal action of oxytocin is species-dependent and (ii) that a positive correlation exists between neuronal responsiveness to oxytocin and the presence in the hippocampus of high-affinity binding sites for this peptide

  7. Apoptosis in subicular neurons: A comparison between suicide and Addison's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Printha, K.; Hulathduwa, S. R.; Samarasinghe, K.; Suh, Y. H.; De Silva, K. R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Stress and depression shows possible links to neuronal death in hippocampus. Subiculum plays a prominent role in limbic stress integration and direct effect of corticosteroids on subicular neurons needs to be defined to assess its subsequent impact on hippocampal plasticity. Aim: This study was intended to assess apoptosis in subicular neurons of a young depressed suicide victim, where presumably stress induced excess of corticosteroids and a case of young Addison's disease with low level of corticosteroids. Materials and Method: Both bilateral adrenal glands (Addison's) and subiculum (both cases) were initially stained with hematoxylin and eosin; subicular neurons of both cases were examined for the degree of apoptosis using ‘ApopTag Kit’. Apoptotic cell counts were expressed as average number of labeled cells/mm2 and the results were analysed statistically using a non-parametric Mann–Whitney U test. Result: Apoptotic neurons were detected in the subicular region of both suicide and Addison victims, and it is statistically significant in both right and left between the cases (P Addison disease where the number of neuronal cell death between right and left was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The present study confirms the vulnerability of the subicular neurons to apoptosis, possibly due to corticosteroids in both ends of spectrum. PMID:20048453

  8. Cell-Type-Specific Circuit Connectivity of Hippocampal CA1 Revealed through Cre-Dependent Rabies Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and applied a Cre-dependent, genetically modified rabies-based tracing system to map direct synaptic connections to specific CA1 neuron types in the mouse hippocampus. We found common inputs to excitatory and inhibitory CA1 neurons from CA3, CA2, the entorhinal cortex (EC, the medial septum (MS, and, unexpectedly, the subiculum. Excitatory CA1 neurons receive inputs from both cholinergic and GABAergic MS neurons, whereas inhibitory neurons receive a great majority of inputs from GABAergic MS neurons. Both cell types also receive weaker input from glutamatergic MS neurons. Comparisons of inputs to CA1 PV+ interneurons versus SOM+ interneurons showed similar strengths of input from the subiculum, but PV+ interneurons received much stronger input than SOM+ neurons from CA3, the EC, and the MS. Thus, rabies tracing identifies hippocampal circuit connections and maps how the different input sources to CA1 are distributed with different strengths on each of its constituent cell types.

  9. GABAergic Synapses at the Axon Initial Segment of Basolateral Amygdala Projection Neurons Modulate Fear Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Rinki; Knapp, Stephanie; Chakraborty, Darpan; Horovitz, Omer; Albrecht, Anne; Kriebel, Martin; Kaphzan, Hanoch; Ehrlich, Ingrid; Volkmer, Hansjürgen; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2017-01-01

    Inhibitory synaptic transmission in the amygdala has a pivotal role in fear learning and its extinction. However, the local circuits formed by GABAergic inhibitory interneurons within the amygdala and their detailed function in shaping these behaviors are not well understood. Here we used lentiviral-mediated knockdown of the cell adhesion molecule neurofascin in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) to specifically remove inhibitory synapses at the axon initial segment (AIS) of BLA projection neurons. Quantitative analysis of GABAergic synapse markers and measurement of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in BLA projection neurons after neurofascin knockdown ex vivo confirmed the loss of GABAergic input. We then studied the impact of this manipulation on anxiety-like behavior and auditory cued fear conditioning and its extinction as BLA related behavioral paradigms, as well as on long-term potentiation (LTP) in the ventral subiculum-BLA pathway in vivo. BLA knockdown of neurofascin impaired ventral subiculum-BLA-LTP. While this manipulation did not affect anxiety-like behavior and fear memory acquisition and consolidation, it specifically impaired extinction. Our findings indicate that modification of inhibitory synapses at the AIS of BLA projection neurons is sufficient to selectively impair extinction behavior. A better understanding of the role of distinct GABAergic synapses may provide novel and more specific targets for therapeutic interventions in extinction-based therapies.

  10. Effects of surgical and chemical lesions on neurotransmitter candidates in the nucleus accumbens of the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1979-01-01

    The origin of fibers containing different neurotransmitter candidates in the nucleus accumbens of rat brain has been studied with surgical and chemical lesion techniques. Destruction of the medial forebrain bundle decreased the activity of aromatic amino acid decarboxylase by 80% in the nucleus. Cutting of the fornix or a hemitransection decreased the high affinity uptake of glutamate by 45% and the endogenous level of glutamate by 33%. The high affinity uptake of glutamate was concentrated in the synaptosomal fraction and the decrease after the lesion was most pronounced in this fraction. Restricted lesions indicated that fibers in the fimbria/fornix coming from the subiculum were responsible for this part of the glutamate uptake in the nucleus. Local injection of kainic acid into the nucleus was accompanied by a 75% decrease in choline acetyltransferase and a 35% decrease in acetylcholineserase activities, a 70% decrease in glutamate decarboxylase activity and a 60% decrease in the high affinity uptake of ..gamma..-aminobutyrate, a 45% decrease in high affinity glutamate uptake, and no change in aromatic amino acid decarboxylase activity. Performing a lesion of the fornix after kainic acid injection led to an 85% decrease in high affinity glutamate uptake, without further affecting the other neuronal markers. The results indicate that all aminergic fibers to the nucleus accumbens are ascending in the medial forebrain bundle, that the subiculum-accumbens fibers are glutamergic and the nucleus also contains intrinsic glutamergic or aspartergic cells. Cholinergic and ..gamma..-aminobutyrate-containing cells are wholly intrinsic to the nucleus.

  11. Dancing or Fitness Sport? The Effects of Two Training Programs on Hippocampal Plasticity and Balance Abilities in Healthy Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Kathrin; Müller, Patrick; Aye, Norman; Schmicker, Marlen; Dordevic, Milos; Kaufmann, Jörn; Hökelmann, Anita; Müller, Notger G

    2017-01-01

    Age-related degenerations in brain structure are associated with balance disturbances and cognitive impairment. However, neuroplasticity is known to be preserved throughout lifespan and physical training studies with seniors could reveal volume increases in the hippocampus (HC), a region crucial for memory consolidation, learning and navigation in space, which were related to improvements in aerobic fitness. Moreover, a positive correlation between left HC volume and balance performance was observed. Dancing seems a promising intervention for both improving balance and brain structure in the elderly. It combines aerobic fitness, sensorimotor skills and cognitive demands while at the same time the risk of injuries is low. Hence, the present investigation compared the effects of an 18-month dancing intervention and traditional health fitness training on volumes of hippocampal subfields and balance abilities. Before and after intervention, balance was evaluated using the Sensory Organization Test and HC volumes were derived from magnetic resonance images (3T, MP-RAGE). Fourteen members of the dance (67.21 ± 3.78 years, seven females), and 12 members of the fitness group (68.67 ± 2.57 years, five females) completed the whole study. Both groups revealed hippocampal volume increases mainly in the left HC (CA1, CA2, subiculum). The dancers showed additional increases in the left dentate gyrus and the right subiculum. Moreover, only the dancers achieved a significant increase in the balance composite score. Hence, dancing constitutes a promising candidate in counteracting the age-related decline in physical and mental abilities.

  12. Changes in Search Path Complexity and Length During Learning of a Virtual Water Maze: Age Differences and Differential Associations with Hippocampal Subfield Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Bender, Andrew R; Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2016-06-01

    Impairment of hippocampus-dependent cognitive processes has been proposed to underlie age-related deficits in navigation. Animal studies suggest a differential role of hippocampal subfields in various aspects of navigation, but that hypothesis has not been tested in humans. In this study, we examined the association between volume of hippocampal subfields and age differences in virtual spatial navigation. In a sample of 65 healthy adults (age 19-75 years), advanced age was associated with a slower rate of improvement operationalized as shortening of the search path over 25 learning trials on a virtual Morris water maze task. The deficits were partially explained by greater complexity of older adults' search paths. Larger subiculum and entorhinal cortex volumes were associated with a faster decrease in search path complexity, which in turn explained faster shortening of search distance. Larger Cornu Ammonis (CA)1-2 volume was associated with faster distance shortening, but not in path complexity reduction. Age differences in regional volumes collectively accounted for 23% of the age-related variance in navigation learning. Independent of subfield volumes, advanced age was associated with poorer performance across all trials, even after reaching the asymptote. Thus, subiculum and CA1-2 volumes were associated with speed of acquisition, but not magnitude of gains in virtual maze navigation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Associations between hippocampal morphometry and neuropathologic markers of Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Blanken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal atrophy, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles are established pathologic markers of Alzheimer's disease. We analyzed the temporal lobes of 9 Alzheimer's dementia (AD and 7 cognitively normal (NC subjects. Brains were scanned post-mortem at 7 Tesla. We extracted hippocampal volumes and radial distances using automated segmentation techniques. Hippocampal slices were stained for amyloid beta (Aβ, tau, and cresyl violet to evaluate neuronal counts. The hippocampal subfields, CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, and subiculum were manually traced so that the neuronal counts, Aβ, and tau burden could be obtained for each region. We used linear regression to detect associations between hippocampal atrophy in 3D, clinical diagnosis and total as well as subfield pathology burden measures. As expected, we found significant correlations between hippocampal radial distance and mean neuronal count, as well as diagnosis. There were subfield specific associations between hippocampal radial distance and tau in CA2, and cresyl violet neuronal counts in CA1 and subiculum. These results provide further validation for the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Center Harmonized Hippocampal Segmentation Protocol (HarP.

  14. Dissociable Hippocampal and Amygdalar D1-like receptor contribution to Discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrzejewski, Matthew E; Ryals, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning is an elementary form of reward-related behavioral adaptation. The mesolimbic dopamine system is widely considered to mediate critical aspects of reward-related learning. For example, initial acquisition of positively-reinforced operant behavior requires dopamine (DA) D1 receptor (D1R) activation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), and the ventral subiculum (vSUB). However, the role of D1R activation in these areas on appetitive, non-drug-related, Pavlovian learning is not currently known. In separate experiments, microinfusions of the D1-like receptor antagonist SCH-23390 (3.0 nmol/0.5 μL per side) into the amygdala and subiculum preceded discriminated Pavlovian conditioned approach (dPCA) training sessions. D1-like antagonism in all three structures impaired the acquisition of discriminated approach, but had no effect on performance after conditioning was asymptotic. Moreover, dissociable effects of D1-like antagonism in the three structures on components of discriminated responding were obtained. Lastly, the lack of latent inhibition in drug-treated groups may elucidate the role of D1-like in reward-related Pavlovian conditioning. The present data suggest a role for the D1 receptors in the amygdala and hippocampus in learning the significance of conditional stimuli, but not in the expression of conditional responses. PMID:26632336

  15. [Spatial Cognition and Episodic Memory Formation in the Limbic Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2017-04-01

    The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex. Areas 35 and 36 roughly cover the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. Areas 24, 25, 32, and 33 belong to the anterior cingulate gyrus, while areas 23, 26, 29, 30, and 31 to the posterior cingulate gyrus. Areas 25, 32, and the anteroinferior portion of area 24 are deeply involved in emotional responses, particularly in their autonomic functions, through reciprocal connections with the amygdaloid complex, anterior thalamus and projections to the brainstem and spinal visceral centers. Areas 29 and 30 have dense reciprocal connections with areas 23 and 31, the dorsolateral prefrontal areas, and the regions related to the hippocampus. They play pivotal roles in mediating spatial cognition, working memory processing, and episodic memory formation.

  16. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Ali [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Katz, Mindy J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Michael L. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center and Departments of Radiology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, The Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Richard B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Verghese, Joe [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Division of Cognitive and Motor Aging, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  17. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzati, Ali; Katz, Mindy J.; Lipton, Michael L.; Lipton, Richard B.; Verghese, Joe

    2015-01-01

    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  18. A computational theory of the hippocampal cognitive map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, J

    1990-01-01

    Evidence from single unit and lesion studies suggests that the hippocampal formation acts as a spatial or cognitive map (O'Keefe and Nadel, 1978). In this chapter, I summarise some of the unit recording data and then outline the most recent computational version of the cognitive map theory. The novel aspects of the present version of the theory are that it identifies two allocentric parameters, the centroid and the eccentricity, which can be calculated from the array of cues in an environment and which can serve as the bases for an allocentric polar co-ordinate system. Computations within this framework enable the animal to identify its location within an environment, to predict the location which will be reached as a result of any specific movement from that location, and conversely, to calculate the spatial transformation necessary to go from the current location to a desired location. Aspects of the model are identified with the information provided by cells in the hippocampus and dorsal presubiculum. The hippocampal place cells are involved in the calculation of the centroid and the presubicular direction cells in the calculation of the eccentricity.

  19. A limited positioning system for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    The 2014 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine is an enormous triumph for John O'Keefe and May-Britt and Edvard Moser and an historic event for cognitive and behavioral neuroscience. Neuronal representations decoded from action potentials form a mechanistic bridge between brain and mind and demonstrate the continuity of psychology with biology and physical science. The cognitive map theory powered an ongoing, international research program inspired by Hebb (The Organization of Behavior. New York, NY: Wiley) that showed the way toward linking specific patterns of neuronal activity to high level representation and processing. The prize celebrates a path that led from fundamental, philosophical questions about psychological space to enduring, scientific facts: place, head direction, grid, and boundary fields in the hippocampus, presubiculum, entorhinal cortex, and other brain circuits provide a cellular basis for spatial behavior, learning, and memory. By awarding this prize, the Nobel committee affirmed neuroethology and comparative psychology, marked the end of a chapter in one debate about the existence of animal cognition, and recognized cognitive neurophysiology. The "inner GPS" in the brain" demonstrates "a cellular basis for higher cognitive function." Animals represent, process, and use information defined by abstract relationships among items (O'Keefe and Conway,) to guide flexible, goal-directed actions. Beyond raising the ontological status of "animal mind," the committee agreed that abstract mental representations can be investigated rigorously by recording single unit activity in the brain of behaving animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Hippocampal dentation: Structural variation and its association with episodic memory in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming Beattie, Julia; Martin, Roy C; Kana, Rajesh K; Deshpande, Hrishikesh; Lee, Seongtaek; Curé, Joel; Ver Hoef, Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    While the hippocampus has long been identified as a structure integral to memory, the relationship between morphology and function has yet to be fully explained. We present an analysis of hippocampal dentation, a morphological feature previously unexplored in regard to its relationship with episodic memory. "Hippocampal dentation" in this case refers to surface convolutions, primarily present in the CA1/subiculum on the inferior aspect of the hippocampus. Hippocampal dentation was visualized using ultra-high resolution structural MRI and evaluated using a novel visual rating scale. The degree of hippocampal dentation was found to vary considerably across individuals, and was positively associated with verbal memory recall and visual memory recognition in a sample of 22 healthy adults. This study is the first to characterize the variation in hippocampal dentation in a healthy cohort and to demonstrate its association with aspects of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Amnesia in Frontotemporal Dementia with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Masquerading Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yamanami-Irioka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old man with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD later developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, which was confirmed at autopsy at age 72 years. Because neuronal loss and AD-type pathologies (Braak stage II for neurofibrillary tangles were scant, TDP-43-positive intracytoplasmic inclusions in hippocampal dentate granular cells and in neurons in the subiculum and amygdala, even though small in amount, may represent the earliest lesions of ALS-related dementia and could be the cause of dementia in this patient. Although the persistent elevation of creatine kinase from the onset could be a pointer to the presence of motor involvement, more accurate characterization of dementia, which may differentiate ALS-related dementia and AD, is necessary.

  2. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  3. Effects of Erythropoietin on Hippocampal Volume and Memory in Mood Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, Kamilla Woznica; Vinberg, Maj; Macoveanu, Julian

    2015-01-01

    study assessed the neuroanatomical basis for these effects. METHODS: Patients with TRD who were moderately depressed or BD in partial remission were randomized to 8 weekly EPO (40,000 IU) or saline infusions in a double-blind, parallel-group design. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging, memory...... with FMRIB Software Library tools. Memory change was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of covariance adjusted for depression symptoms, diagnosis, age, and gender. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients were randomized; 1 patient withdrew and data collection was incomplete for 14 patients; data were thus...... analyzed for 69 patients (EPO: n = 35, saline: n = 34). Compared with saline, EPO was associated with mood-independent memory improvement and reversal of brain matter loss in the left hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 to cornu ammonis 3 and subiculum. Using the entire sample, memory improvement was associated...

  4. Development of a histologically validated segmentation protocol for the hippocampal body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve, Trevor A; Yasuda, Clarissa L; Coras, Roland; Lail, Mohjevan; Blumcke, Ingmar; Livy, Daniel J; Malykhin, Nikolai; Gross, Donald W

    2017-08-15

    Recent findings have demonstrated that hippocampal subfields can be selectively affected in different disease states, which has led to efforts to segment the human hippocampus with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, no studies have examined the histological accuracy of subfield segmentation protocols. The presence of MRI-visible anatomical landmarks with known correspondence to histology represents a fundamental prerequisite for in vivo hippocampal subfield segmentation. In the present study, we aimed to: 1) develop a novel method for hippocampal body segmentation, based on two MRI-visible anatomical landmarks (stratum lacunosum moleculare [SLM] & dentate gyrus [DG]), and assess its accuracy in comparison to the gold standard direct histological measurements; 2) quantify the accuracy of two published segmentation strategies in comparison to the histological gold standard; and 3) apply the novel method to ex vivo MRI and correlate the results with histology. Ultra-high resolution ex vivo MRI was performed on six whole cadaveric hippocampal specimens, which were then divided into 22 blocks and histologically processed. The hippocampal bodies were segmented into subfields based on histological criteria and subfield boundaries and areas were directly measured. A novel method was developed using mean percentage of the total SLM distance to define subfield boundaries. Boundary distances and subfield areas on histology were then determined using the novel method and compared to the gold standard histological measurements. The novel method was then used to determine ex vivo MRI measures of subfield boundaries and areas, which were compared to histological measurements. For direct histological measurements, the mean percentages of total SLM distance were: Subiculum/CA1 = 9.7%, CA1/CA2 = 78.4%, CA2/CA3 = 97.5%. When applied to histology, the novel method provided accurate measures for CA1/CA2 (ICC = 0.93) and CA2/CA3 (ICC = 0.97) boundaries, but not for the

  5. Phase-locking of bursting neuronal firing to dominant LFP frequency components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Maria; Elijah, Daniel H; Squirrell, Daniel; Gigg, John; Montemurro, Marcelo A

    2015-10-01

    Neuronal firing in the hippocampal formation relative to the phase of local field potentials (LFP) has a key role in memory processing and spatial navigation. Firing can be in either tonic or burst mode. Although bursting neurons are common in the hippocampal formation, the characteristics of their locking to LFP phase are not completely understood. We investigated phase-locking properties of bursting neurons using simulations generated by a dual compartmental model of a pyramidal neuron adapted to match the bursting activity in the subiculum of a rat. The model was driven with stochastic input signals containing a power spectral profile consistent with physiologically relevant frequencies observed in LFP. The single spikes and spike bursts fired by the model were locked to a preferred phase of the predominant frequency band where there was a peak in the power of the driving signal. Moreover, the preferred phase of locking shifted with increasing burst size, providing evidence that LFP phase can be encoded by burst size. We also provide initial support for the model results by analysing example data of spontaneous LFP and spiking activity recorded from the subiculum of a single urethane-anaesthetised rat. Subicular neurons fired single spikes, two-spike bursts and larger bursts that locked to a preferred phase of either dominant slow oscillations or theta rhythms within the LFP, according to the model prediction. Both power-modulated phase-locking and gradual shift in the preferred phase of locking as a function of burst size suggest that neurons can use bursts to encode timing information contained in LFP phase into a spike-count code. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of PET & ASL metabolism in the hippocampal subfields of MCI and AD using simultaneous PET-MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubran, Maged; Douglas, David; Chao, Steven; Quon, Andrew; Tripathi, Pragya; Holley, Dawn; Vasanawala, Minal; Zaharchuk, Greg; Zeineh, Michael [Stanford University (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been reported to show decreased metabolic activity in the hippocampus using FDG PET-MR. Histological data suggests that the hippocampal subfields are selectively affected in AD. Given the simultaneous imaging nature of integrated PET-MR scanners and the multimodal capabilities of PET-MR, our purpose here is to assess FDG activity, as well as ASL perfusion in the subfields of MCI and AD patients. 10 consecutive subjects were recruited for this study 3 MCI, 3 AD patients and 4 age-matched controls. The scanning was performed on a simultaneous 3T PET/MR scanner. To delineate the hippocampal subfields, automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields (ASHS) was employed. Static FDG-PET series were reconstructed for analysis at 45-75 min for all subjects. All imaging sequences were automatically registered to the oblique coronal T2-weighted images (segmentation space). PET standardized uptake values (SUV) in the hippocampal subfields were normalized by the pons. FDG PET metabolism was reduced significantly in AD, as well as MCI patients as compared to controls, with the highest effect demonstrated in the CA3/DG and CA1/2 (p = 0.047, subfields. Patients (MCI and AD combined) had decreased metabolism as compared to controls in CA1/2 and significantly smaller volumes the Subiculum. When assessing CBF across groups, a significant decrease in CBF was found in the Subiculum. Our preliminary results demonstrate that PET-MRI may potentially be a sensitive biomarker and tool for early diagnosis of AD. They also confirm the importance of assessing metabolic and structural changes of neurodegenerative diseases at the subfield level.

  7. Voxel-based morphometry analyses of in-vivo MRI in the aging mouse lemur primate

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    Stephen John Sawiak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral atrophy is one of the most widely brain alterations associated to aging. A clear relationship has been established between age-associated cognitive impairments and cerebral atrophy. The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a small primate used as a model of age-related neurodegenerative processes. It is the first nonhuman primate in which cerebral atrophy has been correlated with cognitive deficits. Previous studies of cerebral atrophy in this model were based on time consuming manual delineation or measurement of selected brain regions from magnetic resonance images (MRI. These measures could not be used to analyse regions that cannot be easily outlined such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert or the subiculum. In humans, morphometric assessment of structural changes with age is generally performed with automated procedures such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The objective of our work was to perform user-independent assessment of age-related morphological changes in the whole brain of large mouse lemur populations thanks to VBM. The study was based on the SPMMouse toolbox of SPM 8 and involved thirty mouse lemurs aged from 1.9 to 11.3 years. The automatic method revealed for the first time atrophy in regions where manual delineation is prohibitive (nucleus basalis of Meynert, subiculum, prepiriform cortex, Brodmann areas 13-16, hypothalamus, putamen, thalamus, corpus callosum. Some of these regions are described as particularly sensitive to age-associated alterations in humans. The method revealed also age-associated atrophy in cortical regions (cingulate, occipital, parietal, nucleus septalis, and the caudate. Manual measures performed in some of these regions were in good agreement with results from automatic measures. The templates generated in this study as well as the toolbox for SPM8 can be downloaded. These tools will be valuable for future evaluation of various treatments that are tested to modulate cerebral aging in lemurs.

  8. Hippocampal subfield and medial temporal cortical persistent activity during working memory reflects ongoing encoding

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    Rachel K Nauer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies support a role for the medial temporal lobes (MTL in maintaining novel stimuli over brief working memory (WM delays, and suggest delay period activity predicts subsequent memory. Additionally, slice recording studies have demonstrated neuronal persistent spiking in entorhinal cortex (EC, perirhinal cortex (PrC, and hippocampus (CA1, CA3, subiculum. These data have led to computational models that suggest persistent spiking in parahippocampal regions could sustain neuronal representations of sensory information over many seconds. This mechanism may support both WM maintenance and encoding of information into long term episodic memory. The goal of the current study was to use high-resolution fMRI to elucidate the contributions of the MTL cortices and hippocampal subfields to WM maintenance as it relates to later episodic recognition memory. We scanned participants while they performed a delayed match to sample task with novel scene stimuli, and assessed their memory for these scenes post-scan. We hypothesized stimulus-driven activation that persists into the delay period—a putative correlate of persistent spiking—would predict later recognition memory. Our results suggest sample and delay period activation in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC, PrC, and subiculum (extending into DG/CA3 and CA1 was linearly related to increases in subsequent memory strength. These data extend previous neuroimaging studies that have constrained their analysis to either the sample or delay period by modeling these together as one continuous ongoing encoding process, and support computational frameworks that predict persistent activity underlies both WM and episodic encoding.

  9. Deficits in memory and visuospatial learning correlate with regional hippocampal atrophy in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Giulia; Rocca, Maria A; Pagani, Elisabetta; Riccitelli, Gianna C; Colombo, Bruno; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampus has a critical role in episodic memory and visuospatial learning and consolidation. We assessed the patterns of whole and regional hippocampal atrophy in a large group of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and their correlations with neuropsychological impairment. From 103 MS patients and 28 healthy controls (HC), brain dual-echo and high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired using a 3.0-Tesla scanner. All patients underwent a neuropsychological assessment of hippocampal-related cognitive functions, including Paired Associate Word Learning, Short Story, delayed recall of Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure and Paced Auditory Serial Attention tests. The hippocampi were manually segmented and volumes derived. Regional atrophy distribution was assessed using a radial mapping analysis. Correlations between hippocampal atrophy and clinical, neuropsychological and MRI metrics were also evaluated. Hippocampal volume was reduced in MS patients vs HC (p right and hippocampus). In MS patients, radial atrophy affected CA1 subfield and subiculum of posterior hippocampus, bilaterally. The dentate hilus (DG:H) of the right hippocampal head was also affected. Regional hippocampal atrophy correlated with brain T2 and T1 lesion volumes, while no correlation was found with disability. Damage to the CA1 and subiculum was significantly correlated to the performances at hippocampal-targeted neuropsychological tests. These results show that hippocampal subregions have a different vulnerability to MS-related damage, with a relative sparing of the head of the left hippocampus. The assessment of regional hippocampal atrophy may help explain deficits of specific cognitive functions in MS patients, including memory and visuospatial abilities.

  10. Nicotinic α4β2 receptor imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichika, Rama; Easwaramoorthy, Balasubramaniam; Collins, Daphne; Christian, Bradley T.; Shi, Bingzhi; Narayanan, Tanjore K.; Potkin, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2006-01-01

    The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Optimal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are therefore highly desired for this receptor. We report here the development and initial evaluation of 2-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine (nifene). In vitro binding affinity of nifene in rat brain homogenate using 3 H-cytisine exhibited a K i =0.50 nM for the α4β2 sites. The radiosynthesis of 2- 18 F-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine ( 18 F-nifene) was accomplished in 2.5 h with an overall radiochemical yield of 40-50%, decay corrected. The specific activity was estimated to be approx. 37-185 GBq/μmol. In vitro autoradiography in rat brain slices indicated selective binding of 18 F-nifene to anteroventral thalamic (AVT) nucleus, thalamus, subiculum, striata, cortex and other regions consistent with α4β2 receptor distribution. Rat cerebellum showed some binding, whereas regions in the hippocampus had the lowest binding. The highest ratio of >13 between AVT and cerebellum was measured for 18 F-nifene in rat brain slices. The specific binding was reduced (>95%) by 300 μM nicotine in these brain regions. Positron emission tomography imaging study of 18 F-nifene (130 MBq) in anesthetized rhesus monkey was carried out using an ECAT EXACT HR+ scanner. PET study showed selective maximal uptake in the regions of the anterior medial thalamus, ventro-lateral thalamus, lateral geniculate, cingulate gyrus, temporal cortex including the subiculum. The cerebellum in the monkeys showed lower binding than the other regions. Thalamus-to-cerebellum ratio peaked at 30-35 min postinjection to a value of 2.2 and subsequently reduced. The faster binding profile of 18 F-nifene indicates promise as a PET imaging agent and thus needs further evaluation

  11. Hippocampal subfield volumetry in mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Joie, Renaud; Perrotin, Audrey; de La Sayette, Vincent; Egret, Stéphanie; Doeuvre, Loïc; Belliard, Serge; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice; Chételat, Gaël

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is a well-known feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but sensitivity and specificity of hippocampal volumetry are limited. Neuropathological studies have shown that hippocampal subfields are differentially vulnerable to AD; hippocampal subfield volumetry may thus prove to be more accurate than global hippocampal volumetry to detect AD. CA1, subiculum and other subfields were manually delineated from 40 healthy controls, 18 AD, 17 amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), and 8 semantic dementia (SD) patients using a previously developed high resolution MRI procedure. Non-parametric group comparisons and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted. Complementary analyses were conducted to evaluate differences of hemispheric asymmetry and anterior-predominance between AD and SD patients and to distinguish aMCI patients with or without β-amyloid deposition as assessed by Florbetapir-TEP. Global hippocampi were atrophied in all three patient groups and volume decreases were maximal in the CA1 subfield (22% loss in aMCI, 27% in both AD and SD; all p volumetry was more accurate than global hippocampal measurement to distinguish patients from controls (areas under the ROC curve = 0.88 and 0.76, respectively; p = 0.05) and preliminary analyses suggest that it was independent from the presence of β-amyloid deposition. In patients with SD, whereas the degree of CA1 and subiculum atrophy was similar to that found in AD patients, hemispheric and anterior-posterior asymmetry were significantly more marked than in AD with greater involvement of the left and anterior hippocampal subfields. The findings suggest that CA1 measurement is more sensitive than global hippocampal volumetry to detect structural changes at the pre-dementia stage, although the predominance of CA1 atrophy does not appear to be specific to AD pathophysiological processes.

  12. Detection of volume loss in hippocampal layers in Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI: A feasibility study

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    Claire Boutet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, the hippocampus is an early site of tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Histological studies have shown that lesions are not uniformly distributed within the hippocampus. Moreover, alterations of different hippocampal layers may reflect distinct pathological processes. 7 T MRI dramatically improves the visualization of hippocampal subregions and layers. In this study, we aimed to assess whether 7 T MRI can detect volumetric changes in hippocampal layers in vivo in patients with AD. We studied four AD patients and seven control subjects. MR images were acquired using a whole-body 7 T scanner with an eight channel transmit–receive coil. Hippocampal subregions were manually segmented from coronal T2*-weighted gradient echo images with 0.3 × 0.3 × 1.2 mm3 resolution using a protocol that distinguishes between layers richer or poorer in neuronal bodies. Five subregions were segmented in the region of the hippocampal body: alveus, strata radiatum, lacunosum and moleculare (SRLM of the cornu Ammonis (CA, hilum, stratum pyramidale of CA and stratum pyramidale of the subiculum. We found strong bilateral reductions in the SRLM of the cornu Ammonis and in the stratum pyramidale of the subiculum (p < 0.05, with average cross-sectional area reductions ranging from −29% to −49%. These results show that it is possible to detect volume loss in distinct hippocampal layers using segmentation of 7 T MRI. 7 T MRI-based segmentation is a promising tool for AD research.

  13. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and the development of hippocampal subregions during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Hendriksma, Sylke; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Byrne, Michelle L; Dennison, Meg; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence. It also investigated associations between onset of psychiatric disorder and hippocampal subregion volume development. One hundred and sixty-six (85 male) adolescents took part in three magnetic resonance imaging assessments during adolescence (mean age at each assessment: 12.79 [ SD 0.43] years, 16.70 [ SD 0.52] years, and 19.08 [ SD 0.46] years), provided a self-report of childhood maltreatment, and were assessed for Axis I psychopathology. Childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of right total and left cornu ammonis 4 (CA4-DG) volumes from early to late adolescence. Early and late onset psychopathology was associated with the development of right presubiculum and right cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) volumes, respectively. Maltreatment findings appeared to be specific to males, whereas psychopathology findings appeared to be specific to females. These findings provide evidence for possible deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment and early onset psychiatric disorder on the development of different subregions of the hippocampus. Altered development of the right CA1, on the other hand, might precede the development of late-adolescent onset psychopathology. Our results highlight the importance of considering development in research examining associations between stress, mental illness, and hippocampal morphology.

  14. Nicotinic binding in rat brain: autoradiographic comparison of [3H]acetylcholine, [3H]nicotine, and [125I]-alpha-bungarotoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, P.B.; Schwartz, R.D.; Paul, S.M.; Pert, C.B.; Pert, A.

    1985-01-01

    Three radioligands have been commonly used to label putative nicotinic cholinoceptors in the mammalian central nervous system: the agonists [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]acetylcholine ([ 3 H]ACh--in the presence of atropine to block muscarinic receptors), and the snake venom extract, [ 125 I]-alpha-bungarotoxin([ 125 I]BTX), which acts as a nicotinic antagonist at the neuromuscular junction. Binding studies employing brain homogenates indicate that the regional distributions of both [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]ACh differ from that of [ 125 I]BTX. The possible relationship between brain sites bound by [ 3 H]nicotine and [ 3 H]ACh has not been examined directly. The authors have used the technique of autoradiography to produce detailed maps of [ 3 H]nicotine, [ 3 H]ACh, and [ 125 I]BTX labeling; near-adjacent tissue sections were compared at many levels of the rat brain. The maps of high affinity agonist labeling are strikingly concordant, with highest densities in the interpeduncular nucleus, most thalamic nuclei, superior colliculus, medial habenula, presubiculum, cerebral cortex (layers I and III/IV), and the substantia nigra pars compacta/ventral tegmental area. The pattern of [ 125 I]BTX binding is strikingly different, the only notable overlap with agonist binding being the cerebral cortex (layer I) and superior colliculus. [ 125 I]BTX binding is also dense in the inferior colliculus, cerebral cortex (layer VI), hypothalamus, and hippocampus, but is virtually absent in thalamus. Various lines of evidence suggest that the high affinity agonist-binding sites in brain correspond to nicotinic cholinergic receptors similar to those found at autonomic ganglia; BTX-binding sites may also serve as receptors for nicotine and are possibly related to neuromuscular nicotinic cholinoceptors

  15. Nicotinic {alpha}4{beta}2 receptor imaging agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichika, Rama [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Easwaramoorthy, Balasubramaniam [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Collins, Daphne [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Christian, Bradley T. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kettering Medical Center, Dayton, OH 45429 (United States); Shi, Bingzhi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kettering Medical Center, Dayton, OH 45429 (United States); Narayanan, Tanjore K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kettering Medical Center, Dayton, OH 45429 (United States); Potkin, Steven G. [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States); Mukherjee, Jogeshwar [Brain Imaging Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-3960 (United States)]. E-mail: j.mukherjee@uci.edu

    2006-04-15

    The {alpha}4{beta}2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) has been implicated in various neurodegenerative diseases. Optimal positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents are therefore highly desired for this receptor. We report here the development and initial evaluation of 2-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine (nifene). In vitro binding affinity of nifene in rat brain homogenate using {sup 3}H-cytisine exhibited a K {sub i}=0.50 nM for the {alpha}4{beta}2 sites. The radiosynthesis of 2-{sup 18}F-fluoro-3-[2-((S)-3-pyrrolinyl)methoxy]pyridine ({sup 18}F-nifene) was accomplished in 2.5 h with an overall radiochemical yield of 40-50%, decay corrected. The specific activity was estimated to be approx. 37-185 GBq/{mu}mol. In vitro autoradiography in rat brain slices indicated selective binding of {sup 18}F-nifene to anteroventral thalamic (AVT) nucleus, thalamus, subiculum, striata, cortex and other regions consistent with {alpha}4{beta}2 receptor distribution. Rat cerebellum showed some binding, whereas regions in the hippocampus had the lowest binding. The highest ratio of >13 between AVT and cerebellum was measured for {sup 18}F-nifene in rat brain slices. The specific binding was reduced (>95%) by 300 {mu}M nicotine in these brain regions. Positron emission tomography imaging study of {sup 18}F-nifene (130 MBq) in anesthetized rhesus monkey was carried out using an ECAT EXACT HR+ scanner. PET study showed selective maximal uptake in the regions of the anterior medial thalamus, ventro-lateral thalamus, lateral geniculate, cingulate gyrus, temporal cortex including the subiculum. The cerebellum in the monkeys showed lower binding than the other regions. Thalamus-to-cerebellum ratio peaked at 30-35 min postinjection to a value of 2.2 and subsequently reduced. The faster binding profile of {sup 18}F-nifene indicates promise as a PET imaging agent and thus needs further evaluation.

  16. Autoradiographic localization of (125I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarbin, M.A.; Kuhar, M.J.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Wolf, S.S.; Moody, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of ( 125 I-Tyr 4 )bombesin to rat brain slices was investigated. Radiolabeled (Tyr 4 )bombesin bound with high affinity (K/sub d/ . 4 nM) to a single class of sites (B/sub max/ . 130 fmol/mg of protein); the ratio of specific to nonspecific binding was 6/1. Also, pharmacology studies indicated that the C-terminal of bombesin was important for the high affinity binding activity. Autoradiographic studies indicated that the ( 125 I-Tyr4)bombesin-binding sites were discretely distributed in certain gray but not white matter regions of rat brain. Highest grain densities were present in the olfactory bulb and tubercle, nucleus accumbens, suprachiasmatic and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, central medial thalamic nucleus, medial amygdaloid nucleus, hippocampus, dentate gyrus, subiculum, nucleus of the solitary tract, and substantia gelatinosa. Moderate grain densities were present in the parietal cortex, deep layers of the neocortex, rhinal cortex, caudate putamen, stria terminalis, locus ceruleus, parabrachial nucleus, and facial nucleus. Low grain densities were present in the globus pallidus, lateral thalamus, and midbrain. Negligible grain densities were present in the cerebellum, corpus callosum, and all regions treated with 1 microM unlabeled bombesin. The discrete regional distribution of binding suggests that endogenous bombesin-like peptides may function as important regulatory agents in certain brain loci

  17. Quantitative autoradiographic mapping of serotonin receptors in the rat brain. I. Serotonin-1 receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, A.; Palacios, M.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution of serotonin-1 (5-HT 1 ) receptors in the rat brain was studied by light microscopic quantitative autoradiography. Receptors were labeled with [ 3 H]serotonin (5-[ 3 H]HT), 8-hydroxy-2-[N-dipropylamino- 3 H]tetralin (8-OH-[ 3 H]DPAT), [ 3 H]LSD and [ 3 H]mesulergine, and the densities quantified by microdensitometry with the aid of a computer-assisted image-analysis system. Competition experiments for 5-[ 3 H]HT binding by several serotonin-1 agonists led to the identification of brain areas enriched in each one of the three subtypes of 5-HT 1 recognition sites already described. The existence of these 'selective' areas allowed a detailed pharmacological characterization of these sites to be made in a more precise manner than has been attained in membrane-binding studies. Very high concentrations of 5-HT 1 receptors were localized in the choroid plexus, lateroseptal nucleus, globus pallidus and ventral pallidum, dentate gyrus, dorsal subiculum, olivary pretectal nucleus, substantia nigra, reticular and external layer of the entorhinal cortex. The distribution of 5-HT 1 receptors reported here is discussed in correlation with the distribution of serotoninergic neurons and fibers, the related anatomical pathways and the effects which appear to be mediated by these sites. (Auth.)

  18. 5-HT4-receptors modulate induction of long-term depression but not potentiation at hippocampal output synapses in acute rat brain slices.

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    Matthias Wawra

    Full Text Available The subiculum is the principal target of CA1 pyramidal cells and mediates hippocampal output to various cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. The majority of subicular pyramidal cells are burst-spiking neurons. Previous studies indicated that high frequency stimulation in subicular burst-spiking cells causes presynaptic NMDA-receptor dependent long-term potentiation (LTP whereas low frequency stimulation induces postsynaptic NMDA-receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD. In the present study, we investigate the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 (5-HT4 receptor activation and blockade on both forms of synaptic plasticity in burst-spiking cells. We demonstrate that neither activation nor block of 5-HT4 receptors modulate the induction or expression of LTP. In contrast, activation of 5-HT4 receptors facilitates expression of LTD, and block of the 5-HT4 receptor prevents induction of short-term depression and LTD. As 5-HT4 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1, 5-HT4 receptors might modulate PKA activity through AC1. Since LTD is blocked in the presence of 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, our data are consistent with 5-HT4 receptor activation by ambient serotonin or intrinsically active 5-HT4 receptors. Our findings provide new insight into aminergic modulation of hippocampal output.

  19. Hippocampal subfield volumes: Age, vascular risk, and correlation with associative memory

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    Yee Lee eShing

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging and age-related diseases have negative impact on the hippocampus (HC, which is crucial for such age-sensitive functions as memory formation, maintenance, and retrieval. We examined age differences in hippocampal subfield volumes in 10 younger and 19 older adults, and association of those volumes with memory performance in the older participants. We manually measured volumes of HC regions CA1 and CA2 (CA1-2, sectors CA3 and CA4 plus dentate gyrus (CA3-4/DG, subiculum and the entorhinal cortex using a contrast-optimized high-resolution PD-weighted MRI sequence. Although, as in previous reports, the volume of one region (CA1-2 was larger in the young, the difference was due to the presence of hypertensive subjects among the older adults. Among older participants, increased false alarm (FA rate in an associative recognition memory task was linked to reduced CA3-4/DG volume. We discuss the role of the dentate gyrus in pattern separation and the formation of discrete memory representations.

  20. Laminar activity in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex related to novelty and episodic encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Anne; Schütze, Hartmut; Speck, Oliver; Yonelinas, Andrew; Tempelmann, Claus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Berron, David; Cardenas-Blanco, Arturo; Brodersen, Kay H.; Enno Stephan, Klaas; Düzel, Emrah

    2014-01-01

    The ability to form long-term memories for novel events depends on information processing within the hippocampus (HC) and entorhinal cortex (EC). The HC–EC circuitry shows a quantitative segregation of anatomical directionality into different neuronal layers. Whereas superficial EC layers mainly project to dentate gyrus (DG), CA3 and apical CA1 layers, HC output is primarily sent from pyramidal CA1 layers and subiculum to deep EC layers. Here we utilize this directionality information by measuring encoding activity within HC/EC subregions with 7 T high resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Multivariate Bayes decoding within HC/EC subregions shows that processing of novel information most strongly engages the input structures (superficial EC and DG/CA2–3), whereas subsequent memory is more dependent on activation of output regions (deep EC and pyramidal CA1). This suggests that while novelty processing is strongly related to HC–EC input pathways, the memory fate of a novel stimulus depends more on HC–EC output. PMID:25424131

  1. Staging of Alzheimer's Pathology in Triple Transgenic Mice: A Light and Electron Microscopic Analysis

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    Kwang-Jin Oh

    2010-01-01

    , and TauP301L gene mutations, remains unclear. At 3 weeks of age, AT180, Alz50, MC1, AT8, and PHF-1 intraneuronal immunoreactivity appeared in the amygdala and hippocampus and at later ages in the cortex of 3xTg-AD mice. AT8 and PHF-1 staining was fixation dependent in young mutant mice. 6E10 staining was seen at all ages. Fluorescent immunomicroscopy revealed CA1 neurons dual stained for 6E10 and Alz50 and single Alz50 immunoreactive neurons in the subiculum at 3 weeks and continuing to 20 months. Although electron microscopy confirmed intraneuronal cytoplasmic Alz50, AT8, and 6E10 reaction product in younger 3xTg-AD mice, straight filaments appeared at 23 months of age in female mice. The present data suggest that other age-related biochemical mechanisms in addition to early intraneuronal accumulation of 6E10 and tau underlie the formation of tau filaments in 3xTg-AD mice.

  2. Delayed recall, hippocampal volume and Alzheimer neuropathology: findings from the Nun Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, J A; Gosche, K M; Riley, K P; Markesbery, W R; Snowdon, D A

    2004-02-10

    To examine the associations of hippocampal volume and the severity of neurofibrillary lesions determined at autopsy with delayed verbal recall performance evaluated an average of 1 year prior to death. Hippocampal volumes were computed using postmortem brain MRI from the first 56 scanned participants of the Nun Study. Quantitative neuropathologic studies included lesion counts, Braak staging, and determination of whether neuropathologic criteria for Alzheimer disease (AD) were met. Multiple regression was used to assess the association of hippocampal volume and neuropathologic lesions with the number of words (out of 10) recalled on the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Delayed Word Recall Test administered an average of 1 year prior to death. When entered separately, hippocampal volume, Braak stage, and the mean neurofibrillary tangle counts in the CA-1 region of the hippocampus and the subiculum were strongly associated with the number of words recalled after a delay, adjusting for age and education. When hippocampal volume was entered together with each neuropathologic index, only hippocampal volume retained a significant association with the delayed recall measure. The association between hippocampal volume and the number of words recalled was present in both demented and nondemented individuals as well as in those with and without substantial AD neurofibrillary pathology. The association of neurofibrillary tangles with delayed verbal recall may reflect associated hippocampal atrophy.

  3. Functional states of rat cortical circuits during the unpredictable availability of a reward-related cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Lamo, Iván; Sánchez-Campusano, Raudel; Gruart, Agnès; Delgado-García, José M

    2016-11-21

    Proper performance of acquired abilities can be disturbed by the unexpected occurrence of external changes. Rats trained with an operant conditioning task (to press a lever in order to obtain a food pellet) using a fixed-ratio (1:1) schedule were subsequently placed in a Skinner box in which the lever could be removed randomly. Field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) were chronically evoked in perforant pathway-hippocampal CA1 (PP-CA1), CA1-subiculum (CA1-SUB), CA1-medial prefrontal cortex (CA1-mPFC), mPFC-nucleus accumbens (mPFC-NAc), and mPFC-basolateral amygdala (mPFC-BLA) synapses during lever IN and lever OUT situations. While lever presses were accompanied by a significant increase in fPSP slopes at the five synapses, the unpredictable absence of the lever were accompanied by decreased fPSP slopes in all, except PP-CA1 synapses. Spectral analysis of local field potentials (LFPs) recorded when the animal approached the corresponding area in the lever OUT situation presented lower spectral powers than during lever IN occasions for all recording sites, apart from CA1. Thus, the unpredictable availability of a reward-related cue modified the activity of cortical and subcortical areas related with the acquisition of operant learning tasks, suggesting an immediate functional reorganization of these neural circuits to address the changed situation and to modify ongoing behaviors accordingly.

  4. Microtubule-Associated Proteins in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with and without Psychiatric Comorbidities and Their Relation with Granular Cell Layer Dispersion

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    Ludmyla Kandratavicius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite strong association between epilepsy and psychiatric comorbidities, biological substrates are unknown. We have previously reported decreased mossy fiber sprouting in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE patients with psychosis and increased in those with major depression. Microtubule associated proteins (MAPs are essentially involved in dendritic and synaptic sprouting. Methods. MTLE hippocampi of subjects without psychiatric history, MTLE + major depression, and MTLE + interictal psychosis derived from epilepsy surgery and control necropsies were investigated for neuronal density, granular layer dispersion, and MAP2 and tau immunohistochemistry. Results. Altered MAP2 and tau expression in MTLE and decreased tau expression in MTLE with psychosis were found. Granular layer dispersion correlated inversely with verbal memory scores, and with MAP2 and tau expression in the entorhinal cortex. Patients taking fluoxetine showed increased neuronal density in the granular layer and those taking haloperidol decreased neuronal density in CA3 and subiculum. Conclusions. Our results indicate relations between MAPs, granular layer dispersion, and memory that have not been previously investigated. Differential MAPs expression in human MTLE hippocampi with and without psychiatric comorbidities suggests that psychopathological states in MTLE rely on differential morphological and possibly neurochemical backgrounds. This clinical study was approved by our institution’s Research Ethics Board (HC-FMRP no. 1270/2008 and is registered under the Brazilian National System of Information on Ethics in Human Research (SISNEP no. 0423.0.004.000-07.

  5. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Adams, Hieab H H; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Craen, Anton J M; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Martin, Nicholas G; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wright, Margaret J; Longstreth, W T; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J; Medland, Sarah E; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-18

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r g =-0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.

  6. Hippocampome.org: a knowledge base of neuron types in the rodent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Diek W; White, Charise M; Rees, Christopher L; Komendantov, Alexander O; Hamilton, David J; Ascoli, Giorgio A

    2015-09-24

    Hippocampome.org is a comprehensive knowledge base of neuron types in the rodent hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, CA3, CA2, CA1, subiculum, and entorhinal cortex). Although the hippocampal literature is remarkably information-rich, neuron properties are often reported with incompletely defined and notoriously inconsistent terminology, creating a formidable challenge for data integration. Our extensive literature mining and data reconciliation identified 122 neuron types based on neurotransmitter, axonal and dendritic patterns, synaptic specificity, electrophysiology, and molecular biomarkers. All ∼3700 annotated properties are individually supported by specific evidence (∼14,000 pieces) in peer-reviewed publications. Systematic analysis of this unprecedented amount of machine-readable information reveals novel correlations among neuron types and properties, the potential connectivity of the full hippocampal circuitry, and outstanding knowledge gaps. User-friendly browsing and online querying of Hippocampome.org may aid design and interpretation of both experiments and simulations. This powerful, simple, and extensible neuron classification endeavor is unique in its detail, utility, and completeness.

  7. Episodic autobiographical memory is associated with variation in the size of hippocampal subregions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palombo, Daniela J; Bacopulos, Agnes; Amaral, Robert S C; Olsen, Rosanna K; Todd, Rebecca M; Anderson, Adam K; Levine, Brian

    2018-02-01

    Striking individual differences exist in the human capacity to recollect past events, yet, little is known about the neural correlates of such individual differences. Studies investigating hippocampal volume in relation to individual differences in laboratory measures of episodic memory in young adults suggest that whole hippocampal volume is unrelated (or even negatively associated) with episodic memory. However, anatomical and functional specialization across hippocampal subregions suggests that individual differences in episodic memory may be linked to particular hippocampal subregions, as opposed to whole hippocampal volume. Given that the DG/CA 2/3 circuitry is thought to be especially critical for supporting episodic memory in humans, we predicted that the volume of this region would be associated with individual variability in episodic memory. This prediction was supported using high-resolution MRI of the hippocampal subfields and measures of real-world (autobiographical) episodic memory. In addition to the association with DG/CA 2/3 , we further observed a relationship between episodic autobiographical memory and subiculum volume, whereas no association was observed with CA 1 or with whole hippocampal volume. These findings provide insight into the possible neural substrates that mediate individual differences in real-world episodic remembering in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  9. Decreased hippocampal 5-HT2A receptors in post mortem tissue from schizophrenic but not bipolar subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarr, E.; Pavey, G.; Bradbury, R.; Copolov, D.L.; Dean, B.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The hippocampus is important in cognition and sensory gating,both of which are thought to be impaired in schizophrenia. Since 5HT has also been implicated in cognition we investigated the hippocampal serotonergic system in subjects with either schizophrenia or bipolar mood disorder. Using autoradiography,we found significant (p 3 H] ketanserin binding in the CA3 (Mean ±SEM:29.6 ± 4.0 vs.46.6 ± 4.2 fmol/mgETE), the stratum radiatum (27.3 ± 2.7 vs.38.7 ± 3.9 fmol/mgETE) and pyramidal cell layer (35.6 ± 3.4 vs.51.4 ± 2.7 fmol/ mgETE) of CA1 as well as the outer (8.3 ± 1.5 vs.12.2 ± 1.4 fmol/mgETE) and pyramidal cell layer (16.4 ± 2.5 vs.32.1 ± 3.2 fmol/mgETE) of the subiculum in hippocampal tissue from schizophrenic subjects. No such differences were found in the dentate gyrus or CA2 region from schizophrenia subjects or in any hippocampal region from bipolar subjects. The lack of change in the bipolar cohort suggests that the decreased density of hippocampal 5-HT 2A receptors is disease specific and not a result of neuroleptic treatment, which both cohorts received. Copyright (2001) Australian Neuroscience Society

  10. A role for the hippocampal serotonergic system in the pathology of schizophrenia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarr, E.; Pavey, G.M.; Copolov, D.L.; Dean, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Theories of a role for serotonin in the pathology of schizophrenia predate the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. More recently, interest in the involvement of serotonin in the disorder is primarily due to the fact that the 'atypical' neuroleptic drugs target the serotonergic system, amongst others. We have previously reported decreases in the 5-HT 2A receptors in hippocampi obtained postmortem from subjects with schizophrenia. In the same cohort of subjects we now report decreases (p 3 H]citalopram binding in the CA1 region (17.5 ± 1.4 vs. 21.7 ± 1.3 fmole/mg ETE) and methiothepin-insensitive [3H]sumatriptan binding in the CA1 (2.85 ± 0.25 vs. 3.90 ± 0.33 fmole/mg ETE), the stratum radiatum/lacunosum moleculare (4.11 ± 0.32 vs. 5.35 ± 0.46 fmole/mg ETE) and subiculum (3.87 ± 0.26 vs. 5.08 ± 0.39 fmole/mg ETE) from subjects with schizophrenia. No changes were found in [ 3 H]8-OHDPAT or methiothepin-sensitive [ 3 H]sumatriptan binding. These data indicate that there are regionally specific decreases in the densities of hippocampal serotonin transporter and 5-HT 1F receptors which may be involved in the pathology of schizophrenia. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  11. Influence of dietary zinc on convulsive seizures and hippocampal NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in seizure susceptible EL mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, I; Akasaki, Y; Uchida, M; Kuchiiwa, S; Nakagawa, S; Takigawa, M

    1998-04-13

    Adequate, high and deficient dietary levels of zinc (Zn) were compared in seizure-susceptible EL mice with respect to convulsions and to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) diaphorase-positive hippocampal neurons. Diaphorase positivity is associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. Convulsive seizures in the EL mice given the various diets did not differ over 1-4 weeks, but convulsions in EL mice given the Zn-deficient diet for 4 weeks were more effectively suppressed by injection of zonisamide (ZNS) (75 mg/kg intraperitoneally) than in mice receiving high- or adequate-Zn diet for the same period. Numbers of NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in the CA1/CA2 region of the hippocampal formation were significantly higher in mice given the Zn-deficient diet for 4 weeks than in mice fed adequate Zn. Mice receiving the high-Zn diet for the same period had significantly fewer NADPH diaphorase-positive neurons in the subiculum than mice with adequate Zn. These results suggest that Zn deficiency inhibits convulsive seizures of EL mice, and that dietary Zn influences numbers of NO producing neurons in the hippocampal formation. Copyright 1998 Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. Alzheimer's-type neuropathology in the precuneus is not increased relative to other areas of neocortex across a range of cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter T; Abner, Erin L; Scheff, Stephen W; Schmitt, Frederick A; Kryscio, Richard J; Jicha, Gregory A; Smith, Charles D; Patel, Ela; Markesbery, William R

    2009-02-06

    We studied Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in the precuneus and surrounding brain areas. Anatomically, the precuneus corresponds to the medial portion of human cerebral cortical Brodmann Area 7. This study utilized patients from the University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center autopsy cohort. Data from 47 brains were used comprising patients of differing antemortem cognitive impairment severities, each with longitudinal clinical data and extensive neuropathological data. We assessed whether the precuneus and surrounding areas are differentially vulnerable to AD-type pathological lesions (diffuse amyloid plaques, neuritic amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles). Eleven areas of brain were evaluated for each case: amygdala, hippocampal CA1, subiculum, entorhinal cortex, frontal cortex, superior and middle temporal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, occipital cortex, posterior cingulate gyrus, Brodmann Area 31, and the precuneus proper. Like other areas of neocortex, the precuneus demonstrated increased diffuse and neuritic amyloid plaques early in the evolution in AD, and increased neurofibrillary tangles late in AD. Correcting for the antemortem cognitive status of the patients, there was no evidence of an increase in the density of AD-type pathology in the precuneus or neighboring areas relative to other areas of cerebral neocortex. Our results are not consistent with the idea that the precuneus is involved in a special way with plaques or tangles relative to other areas of neocortex.

  13. Connections of the corticomedial amygdala in the golden hamster. II. Efferents of the ''olfactory amygdala''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevetter, G.A.; Winans, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The anterior cortical (C1) and posterolateral cortical (C2) nuclei of the amygdala are designated the ''olfactory amygdala'' because they each receive direct projections from the main olfactory bulb. The efferents of these nuclei were traced after stereotaxic placement of 1-5 muCi tritiated proline in the corticomedial amygdala of the male golden hamsters. Following survival times of 12, 24, or 48 hours, 20 micron frozen sections of the brains were processed for light microscopic autoradiography. Efferents from C2 terminate in layers II and III of the olfactory tubercle and in layer Ib of pars ventralis and pars medialis of the anterior olfactory nucleus. Fibers from this nucleus also project to layers I and II of the infralimbic cortex and to the molecular layer of the agranular insular cortex. More posteriorly, fibers from C2 terminate in layer I of the dorsolateral entorhinal cortex, and in the endopiriform nucleus. From C1, efferent fibers travel in the stria terminalis and terminate in the precommissural bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Efferents from C1 also innervate the molecular layer of C2, the amygdalo-hippocampal area, and the adjacent piriform cortex. Neurons in both C1 and C2 project to the molecular layer of the medial amygdaloid nucleus and the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala, the plexiform layer of the ventral subiculum, and the molecular layer of the lateral entorhinal cortex

  14. Topographical memory analyzed in mice using the Hamlet test, a novel complex maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, Lucie; Gilabert, Damien; Rossel, Mireille; Trousse, Françoise; Maurice, Tangui

    2018-03-01

    The Hamlet test is an innovative device providing a complex environment for testing topographic memory in mice. Animals were trained in groups for weeks in a small village with a central agora, streets expanding from it towards five functionalized houses, where they can drink, eat, hide, run, interact with a stranger mouse. Memory was tested by depriving mice from water or food and analyzing their ability to locate the Drink/Eat house. Exploration and memory were analyzed in different strains, gender, and after different training periods and delays. After 2 weeks training, differences in exploration patterns were observed between strains, but not gender. Neuroanatomical structures activated by training, identified using FosB/ΔFosB immunolabelling, showed an involvement of the hippocampus-subiculum-parahippocampal gyrus axis and dopaminergic structures. Training increased hippocampal neurogenesis (cell proliferation and neuronal maturation) and modified the amnesic efficacy of muscarinic or nicotinic cholinergic antagonists. Moreover, topographical disorientation in Alzheimer's disease was addressed using intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid β 25-35 peptide in trained mice. When retested after 7 days, Aβ 25-35 -treated mice showed memory impairment. The Hamlet test specifically allows analysis of topographical memory in mice, based on complex environment. It offers an innovative tool for various ethological or pharmacological research needs. For instance, it allowed to examine topographical disorientation, a warning sign in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The circuit of Papez in mesial temporal sclerosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikawa, H.; Sasaki, M.; Tamakawa, Y.; Kamei, A.

    2001-01-01

    We looked at abnormalities in the circuit of Papez in patients with the mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). We reviewed the MRI studies of 15 patients with probable MTS, seeking changes in the fornix, mamillary body, mamillothalamic tract, thalamus and cingulate and parahippocampal gyri. We correlated any abnormalities with each other and with clinical severity. Atrophy and/or signal change in one or more structures in the circuit of Papez were found in five patients. They involved the parahippocampal gyri in all five, the fornices in four, mamillary bodies in three, the thalamus in two and the cingulate gyrus in one. Changes in the fornix, mamillary body, thalamus or cingulate gyrus were always accompanied by hippocampal and parahippocampal atrophy. The patients with abnormalities of the circuit of Papez did not have more severe epilepsy than those without. Changes in the parahippocampal gyrus, including the entorhinal cortex and subiculum, in which forniceal fibres originate, may be crucial in causing abnormalities more distally in the circuit. (orig.)

  16. Hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus volume uniquely linked to improvement in associative memory from childhood to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M; Flinn, Robert; Ofen, Noa

    2017-06-01

    Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8-25 years). Adults had smaller CA3-dentate gyrus volume as compared to children, which accounted for 67% of the indirect effect of age predicting better associative memory via hippocampal volumes. Whereas hippocampal body volume demonstrated non-linear age differences, larger hippocampal body volume was weakly related to better associative memory only when accounting for the mutual correlation with subfields measured within that region. Thus, typical development of associative memory was largely explained by age-related differences in CA3-dentate gyrus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Volume of hippocampal subfields and episodic memory in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joshua K; Ekstrom, Arne D; Ghetti, Simona

    2014-07-01

    Episodic memory critically depends on the hippocampus to bind the features of an experience into memory. Episodic memory develops in childhood and adolescence, and hippocampal changes during this period may contribute to this development. Little is known, however, about how the hippocampus contributes to episodic memory development. The hippocampus is comprised of several cytoarchitectural subfields with functional significance for episodic memory. However, hippocampal subfields have not been assessed in vivo during child development, nor has their relation with episodic memory been assessed during this period. In the present study, high-resolution T2-weighted images of the hippocampus were acquired in 39 children and adolescents aged 8 to 14 years (M=11.30, SD=2.38), and hippocampal subfields were segmented using a protocol previously validated in adult populations. We first validated the method in children and adolescents and examined age-related differences in hippocampal subfields and correlations between subfield volumes and episodic memory. Significant age-related increases in the subfield volume were observed into early adolescence in the right CA3/DG and CA1. The right CA3/DG subfield volumes were positively correlated with accurate episodic memory for item-color relations, and the right CA3/DG and subiculum were negatively correlated with item false alarm rates. Subfield development appears to follow a protracted developmental trajectory, and likely plays a pivotal role in episodic memory development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Glutaminase-Deficient Mice Display Hippocampal Hypoactivity, Insensitivity to Pro-Psychotic Drugs and Potentiated Latent Inhibition: Relevance to Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaisler-Salomon, Inna; Miller, Gretchen M; Chuhma, Nao; Lee, Sooyeon; Zhang, Hong; Ghoddoussi, Farhad; Lewandowski, Nicole; Fairhurst, Stephen; Wang, Yvonne; Conjard-Duplany, Agnès; Masson, Justine; Balsam, Peter; Hen, René; Arancio, Ottavio; Galloway, Matthew P; Moore, Holly M; Small, Scott A; Rayport, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Dysregulated glutamatergic neurotransmission has been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SCZ). Recently, presynaptic modulation of glutamate transmission has been shown to have therapeutic promise. We asked whether genetic knockdown of glutaminase (gene GLS1) to reduce glutamatergic transmission presynaptically by slowing the recycling of glutamine to glutamate, would produce a phenotype relevant to SCZ and its treatment. GLS1 heterozygous (GLS1 het) mice showed about a 50% global reduction in glutaminase activity, and a modest reduction in glutamate levels in brain regions relevant to SCZ pathophysiology, but displayed neither general behavioral abnormalities nor SCZ-associated phenotypes. Functional imaging, measuring regional cerebral blood volume, showed hippocampal hypometabolism mainly in the CA1 subregion and subiculum, the inverse of recent clinical imaging findings in prodromal and SCZ patients. GLS1 het mice were less sensitive to the behavioral stimulating effects of amphetamine, showed a reduction in amphetamine-induced striatal dopamine release and in ketamine-induced frontal cortical activation, suggesting that GLS1 het mice are resistant to the effects of these pro-psychotic challenges. Moreover, GLS1 het mice showed clozapine-like potentiation of latent inhibition, suggesting that reduction in glutaminase has antipsychotic-like properties. These observations provide further support for the pivotal role of altered glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the pathophysiology of SCZ, and suggest that presynaptic modulation of the glutamine–glutamate pathway through glutaminase inhibition may provide a new direction for the pharmacotherapy of SCZ. PMID:19516252

  19. Hippocampal CA3-dentate gyrus volume uniquely linked to improvement in associative memory from childhood to adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Ana M.; Flinn, Robert; Ofen, Noa

    2017-01-01

    Associative memory develops into adulthood and critically depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is a complex structure composed of subfields that are functionally-distinct, and anterior-posterior divisions along the length of the hippocampal horizontal axis that may also differ by cognitive correlates. Although each of these aspects has been considered independently, here we evaluate their relative contributions as correlates of age-related improvement in memory. Volumes of hippocampal subfields (subiculum, CA1-2, CA3-dentate gyrus) and anterior-posterior divisions (hippocampal head, body, tail) were manually segmented from high-resolution proton density-weighted images in a sample of healthy participants (age 8–25 years). Adults had smaller CA3-dentate gyrus volume as compared to children, which accounted for 67% of the indirect effect of age predicting better associative memory via hippocampal volumes. Whereas hippocampal body volume demonstrated non-linear age differences, larger hippocampal body volume was weakly related to better associative memory only when accounting for the mutual correlation with subfields measured within that region. Thus, typical development of associative memory was largely explained by age-related differences in CA3-dentate gyrus. PMID:28342999

  20. Neuronal response of the hippocampal formation to injury: blood flow, glucose metabolism, and protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameyama, M.; Wasterlain, C.G.; Ackermann, R.F.; Finch, D.; Lear, J.; Kuhl, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The reaction of the hippocampal formation to entorhinal lesions was studied from the viewpoints of cerebral blood flow ([ 123 I]isopropyl-iodoamphetamine[IMP])-glucose utilization ([ 14 C]2-deoxyglucose), and protein synthesis ([ 14 C]leucine), using single- and double-label autoradiography. Researchers' studies showed decreased glucose utilization in the inner part, and increased glucose utilization in the outer part of the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, starting 3 days after the lesion; increased uptake of [ 123 I]IMP around the lesion from 1 to 3 days postlesion; and starting 3 days after the lesion, marked decrease in [ 14 C]leucine incorporation into proteins and cell loss in the dorsal CA1 and dorsal subiculum in about one-half of the rats. These changes were present only in animals with lesions which invaded the ventral hippocampal formation in which axons of CA1 cells travel. By contrast, transsection of the 3rd and 4th cranial nerves resulted, 3 to 9 days after injury, in a striking increase in protein synthesis in the oculomotor and trochlear nuclei. These results raise the possibility that in some neurons the failure of central regeneration may result from the cell's inability to increase its rate of protein synthesis in response to axonal injury

  1. Systemic injection of kainic acid: Gliosis in olfactory and limbic brain regions quantified with [3H]PK 11195 binding autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altar, C.A.; Baudry, M.

    1990-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases may result from excessive stimulation of excitatory amino acid receptors by endogenous ligands. Because neuronal degeneration is associated with glial proliferation and hypertrophy, the degenerative changes throughout rat brain following the systemic administration of kainic acid (12 mg/kg) were mapped with quantitative autoradiography of [3H]PK 11195. This radioligand binds to a mitochondrial benzodiazepine binding site (MBBS) on microglia and astrocytes. Analysis of eight horizontal and four coronal brain levels revealed up to 16-fold increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding from 1 to 5 weeks but not 1 day after kainate injection. Increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding were predominantly in ventral limbic brain regions and olfactory projections to neocortical areas, with the olfactory cortex greater than subiculum/CA1 greater than anterior olfactory nucleus, medial thalamic nucleus, and piriform cortex greater than cingulate cortex and rostral hippocampus greater than dentate gyrus, septum, and amygdala greater than entorhinal cortex and temporal cortex. Little or no enhancement of [3H]PK 11195 binding was observed in numerous regions including the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, cerebellum, thalamic nuclei, choroid plexus, medulla, parietal or occipital cortex, or pons. A 2-fold greater extent of neurodegeneration was obtained in ventral portions of the olfactory bulb, entorhinal cortex, temporal cortex, and dentate gyrus compared with the dorsal portions of these structures. The pattern of increase in [3H]PK 11195 binding closely matched the patterns of neuronal degeneration reported following parenteral kainate injection. These findings strengthen the notion that quantitative autoradiography of [3H]PK 11195 is a valuable tool to quantify the extent of neuronal degeneration

  2. Quantified distribution of the noradrenaline innervation in the hippocampus of adult rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleskevich, S.; Descarries, L.; Lacaille, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    A recently developed radioautographic technique, based on the uptake labeling of monoamine terminals in vitro, was used to quantify the noradrenaline (NA) innervation in adult rat hippocampus. After incubation of brain slices with 1 microM 3H-NA, the NA varicosities were visualized as small aggregates of silver grains, in light microscope radioautographs prepared at 3 equidistant horizontal levels across the ventral 2/3 of the hippocampus. Using a computer-assisted image analyzer, counts were obtained from the subiculum (SUB), 3 sectors of Ammon's horn (CA1, CA3-a, CA3-b) and 3 sectors of the dentate gyrus (DG-medial blade, crest, and lateral blade), every lamina being sampled in each region. After a double correction for duration of radioautographic exposure and section thickness, and following measurement of varicosity diameter in electron microscope radioautographs, it was possible to express these results in number of terminals per volumetric unit of tissue. It was thus found that the overall density of hippocampal NA innervation averages 2.1 million varicosities/mm3 of tissue, a value almost twice as high as that in cerebral cortex. This innervation is 20% denser ventrally than dorsally and is heterogeneous both in terms of regional and laminar distribution. SUB and DG are more strongly innervated than Ammon's horn, wherein CA1 has the lowest overall density. In SUB and CA1, there is a clear predilection of NA varicosities for the stratum moleculare. In CA3, there is a narrow band of even stronger innervation in the stratum radiatum, near the apical border of the stratum pyramidale, contrasting with a 3 times lower density in this cell layer and the stratum oriens. In DG, the NA innervation is again the weakest in the cell body layer and exhibits an almost 3-fold greater density in the polymorph layer, the highest of all hippocampus

  3. Changes in expression of c-Fos protein following cocaine-cue extinction learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Dhonnchadha, B Á; Lovascio, B F; Shrestha, N; Lin, A; Leite-Morris, K A; Man, H Y; Kaplan, G B; Kantak, K M

    2012-09-01

    Extinguishing abnormally strengthened learned responses to cues associated with drugs of abuse remains a key tactic for alleviating addiction. To assist in developing pharmacotherapies to augment exposure therapy for relapse prevention, investigation into neurobiological underpinnings of drug-cue extinction learning is needed. We used regional analyses of c-Fos and GluR2 protein expression to delineate neural activity and plasticity that may be associated with cocaine-cue extinction learning. Rats were trained to self-administer cocaine paired with a light cue, and later underwent a single 2h extinction session for which cocaine was withheld but response-contingent cues were presented (cocaine-cue extinction). Control groups consisted of rats yoked to animals self-administering cocaine and receiving saline non-contingently followed by an extinction session, or rats trained to self-administer cocaine followed by a no-extinction session for which levers were retracted, and cocaine and cues were withheld. Among 11 brain sites examined, extinction training increased c-Fos expression in basolateral amygdala and prelimbic prefrontal cortex of cocaine-cue extinguished rats relative to both control conditions. In dorsal subiculum and infralimbic prefrontal cortex, extinction training increased c-Fos expression in both cocaine-cue and saline-cue extinguished rats relative to the no-extinction control condition. GluR2 protein expression was not altered in any site examined after extinction or control training. Findings suggest that basolateral amygdala and prelimbic prefrontal cortex neurons are activated during acquisition of cocaine-cue extinction learning, a process that is independent of changes in GluR2 abundance. Other sites are implicated in processing the significance of cues that are present early in extinction training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of low-level sarin and cyclosarin exposure on hippocampal subfields in Gulf War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Linda L; Kriger, Stephen; Buckley, Shannon; Ng, Peter; Mueller, Susanne G

    2014-09-01

    More than 100,000 US troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) when an ammunition dump at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed during the 1991 Gulf War (GW). We previously reported reduced hippocampal volume in GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure relative to matched, unexposed GW veterans estimated from 1.5T magnetic resonance images (MRI). Here we investigate, in a different cohort of GW veterans, whether low-level GB/GF exposure is associated with structural alterations in specific hippocampal subfields, estimated from 4T MRI. The Automatic Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields (ASHS) technique was used to quantify CA1, CA2, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum (SUB) subfields volumes from high-resolution T2-weighted images acquired on a 4T MR scanner in 56 GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure and 56 "matched" unexposed GW veterans (mean age 49±7 years). GB/GF exposed veterans had smaller CA2 (p=0.003) and CA3/DG (p=0.01) subfield volumes compared to matched, unexposed GW veterans. There were no group difference in total hippocampal volume, quantified with FreeSurfer, and no dose-response relationship between estimated levels of GB/GF exposure and total hippocampal or subfield volume. These findings extend our previous report of structural alterations in the hippocampi of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure to volume changes in the CA2, CA3, and DG hippocampal subfields in a different cohort of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Increased metabolic activity in the septum and habenula during stress is linked to subsequent expression of learned helplessness behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrione, Martine M; Schulz, Daniela; Lapidus, Kyle A B; Zhang, Samuel; Goodman, Wayne; Henn, Fritz A

    2014-01-01

    Uncontrollable stress can have a profound effect on an organism's ability to respond effectively to future stressful situations. Behavior subsequent to uncontrollable stress can vary greatly between individuals, falling on a spectrum between healthy resilience and maladaptive learned helplessness. It is unclear whether dysfunctional brain activity during uncontrollable stress is associated with vulnerability to learned helplessness; therefore, we measured metabolic activity during uncontrollable stress that correlated with ensuing inability to escape future stressors. We took advantage of small animal positron emission tomography (PET) and 2-deoxy-2[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ((18)FDG) to probe in vivo metabolic activity in wild type Sprague Dawley rats during uncontrollable, inescapable, unpredictable foot-shock stress, and subsequently tested the animals response to controllable, escapable, predictable foot-shock stress. When we correlated metabolic activity during the uncontrollable stress with consequent behavioral outcomes, we found that the degree to which animals failed to escape the foot-shock correlated with increased metabolic activity in the lateral septum and habenula. When used a seed region, metabolic activity in the habenula correlated with activity in the lateral septum, hypothalamus, medial thalamus, mammillary nuclei, ventral tegmental area, central gray, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and rostromedial tegmental nucleus, caudal linear raphe, and subiculum transition area. Furthermore, the lateral septum correlated with metabolic activity in the preoptic area, medial thalamus, habenula, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and caudal linear raphe. Together, our data suggest a group of brain regions involved in sensitivity to uncontrollable stress involving the lateral septum and habenula.

  6. Increased metabolic activity in the septum and habenula during stress is linked to subsequent expression of learned helplessness behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine M Mirrione

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrollable stress can have a profound effect on an organism’s ability to respond effectively to future stressful situations. Behavior subsequent to uncontrollable stress can vary greatly between individuals, falling on a spectrum between healthy resilience and maladaptive learned helplessness. It is unclear whether dysfunctional brain activity during uncontrollable stress is associated with vulnerability to learned helplessness; therefore, we measured metabolic activity during uncontrollable stress that correlated with ensuing inability to escape future stressors. We took advantage of small animal positron emission tomography (PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG to probe in vivo metabolic activity in wild type Sprague Dawley rats during uncontrollable, inescapable, unpredictable foot-shock stress, and subsequently tested the animals response to controllable, escapable, predictable foot-shock stress. When we correlated metabolic activity during the uncontrollable stress with consequent behavioral outcomes, we found that the degree to which animals failed to escape the foot-shock correlated with increased metabolic activity in the lateral septum and habenula. When used a seed region, metabolic activity in the habenula correlated with activity in the lateral septum, hypothalamus, medial thalamus, mammillary nuclei, ventral tegmental area, central gray, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and rostromedial tegmental nucleus, caudal linear raphe, and subiculum transition area. Furthermore, the lateral septum correlated with metabolic activity in the preoptic area, medial thalamus, habenula, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and caudal linear raphe. Together, our data suggest a group of brain regions involved in sensitivity to uncontrollable stress involving the lateral septum and habenula.

  7. Hippocampus duality: Memory and novelty detection are subserved by distinct mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Chauvel, Patrick; Moulin, Christopher J A; Regis, Jean; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2017-04-01

    The hippocampus plays a pivotal role both in novelty detection and in long-term memory. The physiological mechanisms underlying these behaviors have yet to be understood in humans. We recorded intracerebral evoked potentials within the hippocampus of epileptic patients (n = 10) during both memory and novelty detection tasks (targets in oddball tasks). We found that memory and detection tasks elicited late local field potentials in the hippocampus during the same period, but of opposite polarity (negative during novelty detection tasks, positive during memory tasks, ∼260-600 ms poststimulus onset, P < 0.05). Critically, these potentials had maximal amplitude on the same contact in the hippocampus for each patient. This pattern did not depend on the task as different types of memory and novelty detection tasks were used. It did not depend on the novelty of the stimulus or the difficulty of the task either. Two different hypotheses are discussed to account for this result: it is either due to the activation of CA1 pyramidal neurons by two different pathways such as the monosynaptic and trisynaptic entorhinal-hippocampus pathways, or to the activation of different neuronal populations, that is, differing either functionally (e.g., novelty/familiarity neurons) or located in different regions of the hippocampus (e.g., CA1/subiculum). In either case, these activities may integrate the activity of two distinct large-scale networks implementing externally or internally oriented, mutually exclusive, brain states. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Distinct BOLD activation profiles following central and peripheral oxytocin administration in awake rats

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    Craig F Ferris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain-barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5 or 2.5 mg/kg during functional magnetic resonance (fMRI in awake rats imaged at 7.0 tesla. These data were compared to OT (1ug/5 µl given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  9. Oxytocin induces penile erection and yawning when injected into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: Involvement of glutamic acid, dopamine, and nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Fabrizio; Bratzu, Jessica; Argiolas, Antonio; Melis, Maria Rosaria

    2017-11-01

    Oxytocin (5-100ng), but not Arg 8 -vasopressin (100ng), injected unilaterally into the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) induces penile erection and yawning in a dose-dependent manner in male rats. The minimal effective dose was 20ng for penile erection and 5ng for yawning. Oxytocin responses were abolished not only by the oxytocin receptor antagonist d(CH 2 ) 5 Tyr(Me) 2 -Orn 8 -vasotocin (1μg), but also by (+) MK-801 (1μg), an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) subtype, SCH 23390 (1μg), a D1 receptor antagonist, but not haloperidol (1μg), a D2 receptor antagonist, and SMTC (40μg), an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, injected into the BNST 15min before oxytocin. Oxytocin-induced penile erection, but not yawning, was also abolished by CNQX (1μg), an excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist of the AMPA subtype. In contrast, oxytocin responses were not reduced by bicuculline (20ng), a GABA A receptor antagonist, phaclofen (5μg), a GABA B receptor antagonist, CP 376395, a CRF receptor-1 antagonist (5μg), or astressin 2B, a CRF receptor-2 antagonist (150ng). Considering the ability of NMDA (100ng) to induce penile erection and yawning when injected into the BNST and the available evidence showing possible interaction among oxytocin, glutamic acid, and dopamine in the BNST, oxytocin possibly activates glutamatergic neurotransmission in the BNST. This in turn leads to the activation of neural pathways projecting back to the paraventricular nucleus, medial preoptic area, ventral tegmental area, and/or ventral subiculum/amygdala, thereby inducing penile erection and yawning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of thalamic projection in NMDA receptor-induced disruption of cortical slow oscillation and short-term plasticity

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    Tamás eKiss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available NMDA receptor (NMDAR antagonists, such as phencyclidine, ketamine or dizocilpine (MK-801 are commonly used in psychiatric drug discovery in order to model several symptoms of schizophrenia, including psychosis and impairments in working memory. In spite of the widespread use of NMDAR antagonists in preclinical and clinical studies, our understanding of the mode of action of these drugs on brain circuits and neuronal networks is still limited. In the present study spontaneous local field potential (LFP, multi- (MUA and single unit activity, and evoked potential, including paired-pulse facilitation (PPF in response to electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral subiculum were carried out in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in urethane anesthetized rats. Systemic administration of MK-801 (0.05~mg/kg, i.v. decreased overall MUA, with a diverse effect on single unit activity, including increased, decreased or unchanged firing, and in line with our previous findings shifted delta frequency power of the LFP and disrupted PPF (Kiss et al., Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010. In order to provide further insight to the mechanisms of action of NMDAR antagonists, MK-801 was administered intracranially into the mPFC and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD. Microinjections of MK-801, but not physiological saline, localized into the MD evoked changes in both LFP parameters and PPF similar to the effects of systemically administered MK-801. Local microinjection of MK-801 into the mPFC was without effect on these parameters. Our findings indicate that the primary site of the action of systemic administration of NMDA receptor antagonists is unlikely to be the cortex. We presume that multiple neuronal networks, involving thalamic nuclei contribute to disrupted behavior and cognition following NMDA receptor blockade.

  11. Fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the rat granular retrosplenial cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixima, Ken'ichi; Okanoya, Kazuo; Ichinohe, Noritaka; Kurotani, Tohru

    2017-09-01

    inhibition between coronal and horizontal planes. Since deep layers of the GRS receive inputs from the subiculum, GRS circuits may work as an integrator of multiple sources such as sensory and memory information. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Monoclonal antibody identification of subpopulations of cerebral cortical neurons affected in Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, C.A.; Rudnicka, M.; Hinton, D.R.; Blanks, J.C.; Kozlowski, M.

    1987-01-01

    Neuronal degeneration is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Given the paucity of molecular markers available for the identification of neuronal subtypes, the specificity of neuronal loss within the cerebral cortex has been difficult to evaluate. With a panel of four monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) applied to central nervous system tissues from AD patients, the authors have immunocytochemically identified a population of vulnerable cortical neurons; a subpopulation of pyramidal neurons is recognized by mAbs 3F12 and 44.1 in the hippocampus and neocortex, and clusters of multipolar neurons in the entorhinal cortex reactive with mAb 44.1 show selective degeneration. Closely adjacent stellate-like neurons in these regions, identified by mAb 6A2, show striking preservation in AD. The neurons recognized by mAbs 3F12 and 44.1 do not comprise a single known neurotransmitter system. mAb 3A4 identifies a phosphorylated antigen that is undetectable in normal brain but accumulates early in the course of AD in somas of vulnerable neurons. Antigen 3A4 is distinct from material reactive with thioflavin S or antibody generated against paired helical filaments. Initially, antigen 3A4 is localized to neurons in the entorhinal cortex and subiculum, later in the association neocortex, and, ultimately in cases of long duration, in primary sensory cortical regions. mAb 3F12 recognizes multiple bands of immunoblots of homogenates of normal and AD cortical tissues, whereas mAb 3A4 does not bind to immunoblots containing neurofilament proteins or brain homogenates from AD patients. Ultrastructurally, antigen 3A4 is localized to paired-helical filaments. Using these mAbs, further molecular characterization of the affected cortical neurons is now possible

  13. The effect of alcoholic extract of Panicum miliaceum L. seed on hippocampus neuronal density in male mouse

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    Arezoo Bornarodi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippocampus organization is a part of temporal lobe, which consists of several sections including hippocampal body, dentate gyrus and subiculum. Panicum miliaceum L. contains proteins, vitamins and antioxidants for human health. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the alcoholic extract of the seed of Panicum miliaceum L. plant on hippocampus neuronal density. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male mice were divided into 4 groups (n=6, each group. The alcoholic extract of the seed of the Panicum miliaceum L. plant was prepared by soxhlet extraction. Three doses of the extract 25, 50, 75 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected to 3 treatment groups for 21 days and the control group received normal saline injection. At the end of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and after perfusion, their brains were removed from the skull. After tissue processing, slices of the brain were prepared and stained. Then, different regions of the hippocampus were photographed and neuronal densities were evaluated. Results: Results showed that the neuronal density in the CA1, CA3 regions of the group treated with 50 mg/kg of the alcoholic extract and in all regions of hippocampus (CA1,CA2,CA3 in groups treated with dose of 75 mg/kg of the alcoholic extract had a significant increase compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The present study shows that the alcoholic extract of the seed of Panicum miliaceum L. plant increases neuronal density and induces neurogenesis in the mouse hippocampus.

  14. The relationship between subcortical brain volume and striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in healthy humans assessed with [11 C]-raclopride and [11 C]-(+)-PHNO PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggio, Fernando; Ku Chung, Jun; Plitman, Eric; Boileau, Isabelle; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Iwata, Yusuke; Patel, Raihaan; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-11-01

    Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions. We explored how the availability of striatal DA D 2/3 receptors (D 2/3 R) is related to the volume of subcortical brain structures in a sample of healthy humans. Differences in D 2/3 R availability measured with an antagonist radiotracer ([ 11 C]-raclopride) versus an agonist radiotracer ([ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO) were examined. Data from 62 subjects scanned with [ 11 C]-raclopride (mean age = 38.98 ± 14.45; 23 female) and 68 subjects scanned with [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO (mean age = 38.54 ± 14.59; 25 female) were used. Subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted images using the Multiple Automatically Generated Templates (MAGeT-Brain) algorithm. Partial correlations were used controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume. For [ 11 C]-(+)-PHNO, ventral caudate volumes were positively correlated with BP ND in the dorsal caudate and globus pallidus (GP). Ventral striatum (VS) volumes were positively correlated with BP ND in the VS. With [ 11 C]-raclopride, BP ND in the VS was negatively correlated with subiculum volume of the hippocampus. Moreover, BP ND in the GP was negatively correlated with the volume of the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Findings are purely exploratory and presented corrected and uncorrected for multiple comparisons. We hope they will help inform the interpretation of future PET studies where concurrent changes in D 2/3 R and brain morphology are observed. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5519-5534, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. FRACTIONAL ANISOTROPY OF THE FORNIX AND HIPPOCAMPAL ATROPHY IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

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    Kejal eKantarci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in the directionality of water diffusion measured with fractional anisotropy on diffusion tensor imaging has been linked to loss of myelin and axons in the white matter. Fornix fractional anisotropy is consistently decreased in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, decreased fornix fractional anisotropy is one of the earliest MRI abnormalities observed in cognitively normal individuals who are at an increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease, such as in pre-symptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations and in pre-clinical Alzheimer’s disease. Reductions of fractional anisotropy at these early stages which predicted the decline in memory function. Fornix carries the efferent projections from the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and subiculum, connecting these structures to the septal nuclei, anterior thalamic nucleus, mammillary bodies and medial hypothalamus. Fornix also carries the afferent cholinergic and GABAergic projections from the medial septal nuclei and the adjacent diagonal band back to the medial temporal lobe, interconnecting the core limbic structures. Because fornix carries the axons projecting from the hippocampus, integrity of the fornix is in-part linked to the integrity of the hippocampus. In keeping with that, fornix fractional anisotropy is reduced in subjects with hippocampal atrophy, correlating with memory function. The literature on fractional anisotropy reductions in the fornix in the clinical spectrum of Alzheimer’s disease from pre-symptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations to pre-clinical Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment and dementia stages is reviewed.

  16. Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin; Ke, Zun-Ji; Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1–CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. - Highlights: • Tunicamycin caused a development-dependent UPR in the mouse brain. • Immature brain was more susceptible to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. • Tunicamycin caused more neuronal death in immature brain than mature brain. • Tunicamycin-induced neuronal death is region-specific

  17. Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-Ji [Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A. [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia, E-mail: jialuo888@uky.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1–CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. - Highlights: • Tunicamycin caused a development-dependent UPR in the mouse brain. • Immature brain was more susceptible to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. • Tunicamycin caused more neuronal death in immature brain than mature brain. • Tunicamycin-induced neuronal death is region-specific.

  18. Short- and long-term cognitive effects of chronic cannabinoids administration in late-adolescence rats.

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    Hila Abush

    Full Text Available The use of cannabis can impair cognitive function, especially short-term memory. A controversial question is whether long-term cannabis use during the late-adolescence period can cause irreversible deficits in higher brain function that persist after drug use stops. In order to examine the short- and long-term effects of chronic exposure to cannabinoids, rats were administered chronic i.p. treatment with the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 1.2 mg/kg for two weeks during the late adolescence period (post-natal days 45-60 and tested for behavioral and electrophysiological measures of cognitive performance 24 hrs, 10 and 30 days after the last drug injection. The impairing effects of chronic WIN on short-term memory in the water maze and the object recognition tasks as well as long-term potentiation (LTP in the ventral subiculum (vSub-nucleus accumbens (NAc pathway were temporary as they lasted only 24 h or 10 d after withdrawal. However, chronic WIN significantly impaired hippocampal dependent short-term memory measured in the object location task 24 hrs, 10, 30, and 75 days after the last drug injection. Our findings suggest that some forms of hippocampal-dependent short-term memory are sensitive to chronic cannabinoid administration but other cognitive impairments are temporary and probably result from a residue of cannabinoids in the brain or acute withdrawal effects from cannabinoids. Understanding the effects of cannabinoids on cognitive function may provide us with tools to overcome these impairments and for cannabinoids to be more favorably considered for clinical use.

  19. Nicotinic α4β2 receptor imaging agents. Part III. Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-(2-(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)-5-(3′-18F-fluoropropyl)pyridine (18F-nifzetidine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichika, Rama; Easwaramoorthy, Balu; Christian, Bradley T.; Shi, Bingzhi; Narayanan, Tanjore K.; Collins, Daphne; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2011-01-01

    Thalamic and extrathalamic nicotinic α4β2 receptors found in the brain have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, substance abuse and other disorders. We report here the development of 3-(2-(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)-5-(3′-fluoropropyl)pyridine (nifzetidine) as a new putative high-affinity antagonist for nicotinic α4β2 receptors. Nifzetidine in rat brain homogenate assays containing α4β2 sites labeled with 3 H-cytisine exhibited a binding affinity: Ki=0.67 nM. The fluorine-18 analog, 3-(2-(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)-5-(3′- 18 F-fluoropropyl)pyridine ( 18 F-nifzetidine), was synthesized in 20%–40% yield, and apparent specific activity was estimated to be above 2 Ci/μmol. Rat brain slices indicated selective binding of 18 F-nifzetidine to thalamus, subiculum, striata, cortex and other regions consistent with α4β2 receptor distribution. This selective binding was displaced >85% by 150 μM nicotine. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging studies of 18 F-nifzetidine in anesthetized rhesus monkey showed slow uptake in the various brain regions. Retention of 18 F-nifzetidine was maximal in the thalamus and lateral geniculate followed by regions of the temporal and frontal cortex. Cerebellum showed the least uptake. Thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2.3 at 180 min postinjection and continued to rise. 18 F-Nifzetidine shows promise as a new PET imaging agent for α4β2 nAChR. However, the slow kinetics suggests a need for >3-h PET scans for quantitative studies of the α4β2 nAChRs.

  20. Tau pathology in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Gabor G; Rahimi, Jasmin; Ströbel, Thomas; Lutz, Mirjam I; Regelsberger, Günther; Streichenberger, Nathalie; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Höftberger, Romana; Liberski, Pawel P; Budka, Herbert; Sikorska, Beata

    2017-05-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a human prion disease with different etiologies. To determine the spectrum of tau pathologies in CJD, we assessed phospho-Tau (pTau) immunoreactivities in 75 sporadic CJD cases including an evaluation of the entorhinal cortex and six hippocampal subregions. Twelve cases (16%) showed only small tau-immunoreactive neuritic profiles. Fifty-two (69.3%) showed additional tau pathology in the medial temporal lobe compatible with primary age related tauopathy (PART). In 22/52 cases the lower pTau immunoreactivity load in the entorhinal cortex as compared to subiculum, dentate gyrus or CA4 region of the hippocampus was significantly different from the typical distribution of the Braak staging. A further 11 cases (14.7%) showed widespread tau pathologies compatible with features of primary tauopathies or the gray matter type of ageing-related tau astrogliopathy (ARTAG). Prominent gray matter ARTAG was also observed in two out of three additionally examined V203I genetic CJD cases. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed prominent increase of total tau protein in cases with widespread tau pathology, while pTau (T181) level was increased only in four. This correlated with immunohistochemical observations showing less pathology with anti-pTau T181 antibody when compared to anti-pTau S202/T205, T212/S214 and T231. The frequency of tau pathologies is not unusually high in sporadic CJD and does not precisely relate to PrP deposition. However, the pattern of hippocampal tau pathology often deviates from the stages of Braak. Currently applied examination of cerebrospinal fluid pTau (T181) level does not reliably reflect primary tauopathies, PART and ARTAG seen in CJD brains. © 2016 The Authors. Brain Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Neuropathology.

  1. The hippocampal continuation (indusium griseum): its connectivity in the hedgehog tenrec and its status within the hippocampal formation of higher vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzle, H

    2004-06-01

    The indusium griseum and its precallosal extension are usually considered poorly differentiated portions of the hippocampus. The connections of this so-called 'hippocampal continuation' (HCt) have only been analyzed so far in rodents, which show one of the least-developed HCt among mammals. In this study we have investigated the relatively well differentiated HCt of the small Madagascan hedgehog tenrec (Afrotheria) using histochemical and axonal transport techniques. The tenrec's HCt shows associative and commissural connections. It receives laminar specific afferents from the entorhinal cortex (collaterals from neurons projecting to the dentate area), the anterior and posterior piriform cortices as well as the supramammillary region. A few fibers also originate in the olfactory bulb and the dentate hilus. Among these input areas only the dentate hilus receives a significant reciprocal projection from the HCt. Additional HCt efferents are directed to the subcallosal septum (presumed septohippocampal nucleus), the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja. With the exception of the supramammillary afferents and possible efferents to the supraoptic nucleus we failed, however, to demonstrate distinct thalamic and hypothalamic connections. A comparison of the connections of the HCt with those of the hippocampal subdivisions reveal some similarity between the HCt and the dentate area, but the overall pattern of connectivity does not permit a correlation of the HCt with the dentate area, let alone the cornu ammonis and the subiculum. This view is supported by histochemical findings in the tenrec (immunoreactivity to calcium binding proteins) as well as the rat (data taken from the literature). The HCt is therefore considered a region in its own right within the hippocampal formation. It may be tentatively correlated with the medial cortex of reptiles, while the dentate area and the cornu ammonis may have evolved de novo in mammals.

  2. Connections of the corticomedial amygdala in the golden hamster. I. Efferents of the ''vomeronasal amygdala''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevetter, G.A.; Winans, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The medial (M) an posteromedial cortical (C3) amygdaloid nuclei and the nucleus of the accessory olfactory tract (NAOT) are designated the ''vomeronasal amygdala'' because they are the only components of the amygdala to receive a direct projection from the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The efferents of M and C3 were traced after injections of 3 H-proline into the amygdala in male golden hamsters. Frozen sections of the brains were processed for autoradiography. The efferents of the ''vomeronasal amygdala'' are largely to areas which are primary and secondary terminal areas along the vomeronasal pathway, although the efferents from C3 and M terminate in different layers in these areas than do the projections from the vomeronasal nerve or the AOB. Specifically, C3 projects ipsilaterally to the internal granule cell layer of the AOB, the cellular layer of NAOT, and layer Ib of M. Additional fibers from C3 terminate in a retrocommissural component of the bed nucleus of the strain terminalis (BNST) bilaterally, and in the cellular layers of the contralateral C3. The medial nucleus projects to the cellular layer of the ipsilateral NAOT, layer Ib of C3, and bilaterally to the medial component of BNST. Projections from M to non-vomeronasal areas terminate in the medial preoptic area-anterior hypothalamic junction, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, ventral premammillary nucleus and possibly in the ventral subiculum. These results demonstrate reciprocal connections between primary and secondary vomeronasal areas between the secondary areas themselves. They suggest that M, but not C3, projects to areas outside this vomeronasal network. The medial amygdaloid nucleus is therefore an important link between the vomeronasal organ and areas of the brain not receiving direct vomeronasal input

  3. Magnesium chloride alone or in combination with diazepam fails to prevent hippocampal damage following transient forebrain ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Milani

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, magnesium ion (Mg2+ acts as an endogenous modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-coupled calcium channels, and may play a major role in the pathomechanisms of ischemic brain damage. In the present study, we investigated the effects of magnesium chloride (MgCl2, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mmol/kg, either alone or in combination with diazepam (DZ, on ischemia-induced hippocampal cell death. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia for 15 min using the 4-vessel occlusion model. MgCl2 was applied systemically (sc in single (1x, 2 h post-ischemia or multiple doses (4x, 1, 2, 24 and 48 h post-ischemia. DZ was always given twice, at 1 and 2 h post-ischemia. Thus, ischemia-subjected rats were assigned to one of the following treatments: vehicle (0.1 ml/kg, N = 34, DZ (10 mg/kg, N = 24, MgCl2 (2.5 mmol/kg, N = 10, MgCl2 (5.0 mmol/kg, N = 17, MgCl2 (7.5 mmol/kg, N = 9 or MgCl2 (5 mmol/kg + DZ (10 mg/kg, N = 14. Seven days after ischemia the brains were analyzed histologically. Fifteen minutes of ischemia caused massive pyramidal cell loss in the subiculum (90.3% and CA1 (88.4% sectors of the hippocampus (P0.05. Both DZ alone and DZ + MgCl2 reduced rectal temperature significantly (P<0.05. No animal death was observed after drug treatment. These data indicate that exogenous magnesium, when administered systemically post-ischemia even in different multiple dose schedules, alone or with diazepam, is not useful against the histopathological effects of transient global cerebral ischemia in rats.

  4. Focal CA3 hippocampal subfield atrophy following LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas D; Chong, Trevor T-J; Aimola Davies, Anne M; Ng, Tammy W C; Johnson, Michael R; Irani, Sarosh R; Vincent, Angela; Husain, Masud; Jacob, Saiju; Maddison, Paul; Kennard, Christopher; Gowland, Penny A; Rosenthal, Clive R

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging has linked chronic voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis with generalized hippocampal atrophy. However, autoantibodies bind to specific rodent hippocampal subfields. Here, human hippocampal subfield (subiculum, cornu ammonis 1-3, and dentate gyrus) targets of immunomodulation-treated LGI1 VGKC-complex antibody-mediated limbic encephalitis were investigated using in vivo ultra-high resolution (0.39 × 0.39 × 1.0 mm3) 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging [n = 18 patients, 17 patients (94%) positive for LGI1 antibody and one patient negative for LGI1/CASPR2 but positive for VGKC-complex antibodies, mean age: 64.0 ± 2.55 years, median 4 years post-limbic encephalitis onset; n = 18 controls]. First, hippocampal subfield quantitative morphometry indicated significant volume loss confined to bilateral CA3 [F(1,34) = 16.87, P 3 months from symptom onset) were associated with CA3 atrophy. Third, whole-brain voxel-by-voxel morphometry revealed no significant grey matter loss. Fourth, CA3 subfield atrophy was associated with severe episodic but not semantic amnesia for postmorbid autobiographical events that was predicted by variability in CA3 volume. The results raise important questions about the links with histopathology, the impact of the observed focal atrophy on other CA3-mediated reconstructive and episodic mechanisms, and the role of potential antibody-mediated pathogenicity as part of the pathophysiology cascade in humans. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  5. Selective Limbic Blood–Brain Barrier Breakdown in a Feline Model of Limbic Encephalitis with LGI1 Antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröscher, Anna R.; Klang, Andrea; French, Maria; Quemada-Garrido, Lucía; Kneissl, Sibylle Maria; Bien, Christian G.; Pákozdy, Ákos; Bauer, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1) is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO), is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available. Taking advantage of this natural animal model to study pathological mechanisms will, therefore, contribute to a better understanding of its human counterpart. Here, we present a brain-wide histopathological analysis of FEPSO. We discovered that blood–brain barrier (BBB) leakage was present not only in all regions of the hippocampus but also in other limbic structures such as the subiculum, amygdale, and piriform lobe. However, in other regions, such as the cerebellum, no leakage was observed. In addition, this brain-region-specific immunoglobulin leakage was associated with the breakdown of endothelial tight junctions. Brain areas affected by BBB dysfunction also revealed immunoglobulin and complement deposition as well as neuronal cell death. These neuropathological findings were supported by magnetic resonance imaging showing signal and volume increase in the amygdala and the piriform lobe. Importantly, we could show that BBB disturbance in LGI1 encephalitis does not depend on T cell infiltrates, which were present brain-wide. This finding points toward another, so far unknown, mechanism of opening the BBB. The limbic predilection sites of immunoglobulin antibody leakage into the brain may explain why most patients with LGI1 antibodies have a limbic phenotype even though LGI1, the target protein, is ubiquitously distributed across the central nervous system. PMID:29093718

  6. Selective Limbic Blood–Brain Barrier Breakdown in a Feline Model of Limbic Encephalitis with LGI1 Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R. Tröscher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1 is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO, is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available. Taking advantage of this natural animal model to study pathological mechanisms will, therefore, contribute to a better understanding of its human counterpart. Here, we present a brain-wide histopathological analysis of FEPSO. We discovered that blood–brain barrier (BBB leakage was present not only in all regions of the hippocampus but also in other limbic structures such as the subiculum, amygdale, and piriform lobe. However, in other regions, such as the cerebellum, no leakage was observed. In addition, this brain-region-specific immunoglobulin leakage was associated with the breakdown of endothelial tight junctions. Brain areas affected by BBB dysfunction also revealed immunoglobulin and complement deposition as well as neuronal cell death. These neuropathological findings were supported by magnetic resonance imaging showing signal and volume increase in the amygdala and the piriform lobe. Importantly, we could show that BBB disturbance in LGI1 encephalitis does not depend on T cell infiltrates, which were present brain-wide. This finding points toward another, so far unknown, mechanism of opening the BBB. The limbic predilection sites of immunoglobulin antibody leakage into the brain may explain why most patients with LGI1 antibodies have a limbic phenotype even though LGI1, the target protein, is ubiquitously distributed across the central nervous system.

  7. Selective Limbic Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown in a Feline Model of Limbic Encephalitis with LGI1 Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröscher, Anna R; Klang, Andrea; French, Maria; Quemada-Garrido, Lucía; Kneissl, Sibylle Maria; Bien, Christian G; Pákozdy, Ákos; Bauer, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Human leucine-rich glioma-inactivated protein 1 encephalitis (LGI1) is an autoimmune limbic encephalitis in which serum and cerebrospinal fluid contain antibodies targeting LGI1, a protein of the voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex. Recently, we showed that a feline model of limbic encephalitis with LGI1 antibodies, called feline complex partial seizures with orofacial involvement (FEPSO), is highly comparable to human LGI1 encephalitis. In human LGI1 encephalitis, neuropathological investigations are difficult because very little material is available. Taking advantage of this natural animal model to study pathological mechanisms will, therefore, contribute to a better understanding of its human counterpart. Here, we present a brain-wide histopathological analysis of FEPSO. We discovered that blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage was present not only in all regions of the hippocampus but also in other limbic structures such as the subiculum, amygdale, and piriform lobe. However, in other regions, such as the cerebellum, no leakage was observed. In addition, this brain-region-specific immunoglobulin leakage was associated with the breakdown of endothelial tight junctions. Brain areas affected by BBB dysfunction also revealed immunoglobulin and complement deposition as well as neuronal cell death. These neuropathological findings were supported by magnetic resonance imaging showing signal and volume increase in the amygdala and the piriform lobe. Importantly, we could show that BBB disturbance in LGI1 encephalitis does not depend on T cell infiltrates, which were present brain-wide. This finding points toward another, so far unknown, mechanism of opening the BBB. The limbic predilection sites of immunoglobulin antibody leakage into the brain may explain why most patients with LGI1 antibodies have a limbic phenotype even though LGI1, the target protein, is ubiquitously distributed across the central nervous system.

  8. Mechanisms of action of cannabidiol in adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Coral; Torres, Irene Moreno; García-Hernández, Ruth; Campos-Ruíz, Lucía; Esparragoza, Luis Rodríguez; Coronado, María José; Grande, Aranzazu García; García-Merino, Antonio; Sánchez López, Antonio J

    2017-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most important compounds in Cannabis sativa, lacks psychotropic effects, and possesses a high number of therapeutic properties including the amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The aim of this study was to analyse the relative efficacy of CBD in adoptively transferred EAE (at-EAE), a model that allows better delineation of the effector phase of EAE. Splenocytes and lymph nodes from mice with actively induced EAE were cultured in the presence of MOG 35-55 and IL-12 and inoculated intraperitoneally in recipient female C57BL/6J mice. The effects of CBD were evaluated using clinical scores and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the central nervous system, the extent of cell infiltration, axonal damage, demyelination, microglial activation and cannabinoid receptors expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Lymph cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress and IL-6 production were measured in vitro. Preventive intraperitoneal treatment with CBD ameliorated the clinical signs of at-EAE, and this improvement was accompanied by a reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient in the subiculum area of the brain. Inflammatory infiltration, axonal damage, and demyelination were reduced, and cannabinoid receptor expression was modulated. Incubation with CBD decreased encephalitogenic cell viability, increasing early apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing IL-6 production. The reduction in viability was not mediated by CB 1 , CB 2 or GPR55 receptors. CBD markedly improved the clinical signs of at-EAE and reduced infiltration, demyelination and axonal damage. The CBD-mediated decrease in the viability of encephalitogenic cells involves ROS generation, apoptosis and a decrease in IL-6 production and may contribute to the therapeutic effect of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Late onset Tay-Sachs disease in mice with targeted disruption of the Hexa gene: behavioral changes and pathology of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklyaeva, Elena I; Dong, Weijia; Bureau, Alexandre; Fattahie, Roya; Xu, Yongqin; Su, Meng; Fick, Gordon H; Huang, Jing-Qi; Igdoura, Suleiman; Hanai, Nobuo; Gravel, Roy A

    2004-03-19

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease resulting from a block in the hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside, an intermediate in ganglioside catabolism. The mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease (Hexa -/-) has been described as behaviorally indistinguishable from wild type until at least 1 year of age due to a sialidase-mediated bypass of the metabolic defect that reduces the rate of GM2 ganglioside accumulation. In this study, we have followed our mouse model to over 2 years of age and have documented a significant disease phenotype that is reminiscent of the late onset, chronic form of human Tay-Sachs disease. Onset occurs at 11-12 months of age and progresses slowly, in parallel with increasing storage of GM2 ganglioside. The disease is characterized by hind limb spasticity, weight loss, tremors, abnormal posture with lordosis, possible visual impairment, and, late in the disease, muscle weakness, clasping of the limbs, and myoclonic twitches of the head. Immunodetection of GM2 ganglioside showed that storage varies widely in different regions, but is most intense in pyriform cortex, hippocampus (CA3 field, subiculum), amygdala, hypothalamus (paraventricular supraoptic, ventromedial and arcuate nuclei, and mammilary body), and the somatosensory cortex (layer V) in 1- to 2-year-old mutant mice. We suggest that the Tay-Sachs mouse model is a phenotypically valid model of disease and may provide for a reliable indicator of the impact of therapeutic strategies, in particular geared to the late onset, chronic form of human Tay-Sachs disease.

  10. Discrete mapping of brain Mu and delta opioid receptors using selective peptides: Quantitative autoradiography, species differences and comparison with kappa receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, N.A.; Hughes, J. (Addenbrookes Hospital Site, Cambridge (England))

    1989-05-01

    The opioid peptides, (3H)DAGO and (3H)DPDPE, bound to rat and guinea pig brain homogenates with a high, nanomolar affinity and to a high density of mu and delta receptors, respectively. (3H)DAGO binding to mu receptors was competitively inhibited by unlabelled opioids with the following rank order of potency: DAGO greater than morphine greater than DADLE greater than naloxone greater than etorphine much greater than U50488 much greater than DPDPE. In contrast, (3H)DPDPE binding to delta receptors was inhibited by compounds with the following rank order of potency: DPDPE greater than DADLE greater than etorphine greater than dynorphin(1-8) greater than naloxone much greater than U50488 much greater than DAGO. These profiles were consistent with specific labelling of the mu and delta opioid receptors, respectively. In vitro autoradiographic techniques coupled with computer-assisted image analyses revealed a discrete but differential anatomical localization of mu and delta receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain. In general, mu and delta receptor density in the rat exceeded that in the guinea pig brain and differed markedly from that of kappa receptors in these species. However, while mu receptors were distributed throughout the brain with hotspots in the fore-, mid- and hindbrain of the two rodents, the delta sites were relatively diffusely distributed, and were mainly concentrated in the forebrain with particularly high levels within the olfactory bulb (OB), n. accumbens and striatum. Notable regions of high density of mu receptors in the rat and guinea pig brain were the accessory olfactory bulb, striatal patches and streaks, amygdaloid nuclei, ventral hippocampal subiculum and dentate gyrus, numerous thalamic nuclei, geniculate bodies, central grey, superior and inferior colliculi, solitary and pontine nuclei and s. nigra.

  11. Mutation of Elfn1 in mice causes seizures and hyperactivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Dolan

    Full Text Available A growing number of proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs have been implicated in directing neuronal connectivity. We previously identified a novel family of eLRR proteins in mammals: the Elfns are transmembrane proteins with 6 LRRs, a fibronectin type-3 domain and a long cytoplasmic tail. The recent discovery that Elfn1 protein, expressed postsynaptically, can direct the elaboration of specific electrochemical properties of synapses between particular cell types in the hippocampus strongly reinforces this hypothesis. Here, we present analyses of an Elfn1 mutant mouse line and demonstrate a functional requirement for this gene in vivo. We first carried out detailed expression analysis of Elfn1 using a β-galactosidase reporter gene in the knockout line. Elfn1 is expressed in distinct subsets of interneurons of the hippocampus and cortex, and also in discrete subsets of cells in the habenula, septum, globus pallidus, dorsal subiculum, amygdala and several other regions. Elfn1 is expressed in diverse cell types, including local GABAergic interneurons as well as long-range projecting GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Elfn1 protein localises to axons of excitatory neurons in the habenula, and long-range GABAergic neurons of the globus pallidus, suggesting the possibility of additional roles for Elfn1 in axons or presynaptically. While gross anatomical analyses did not reveal any obvious neuroanatomical abnormalities, behavioural analyses clearly illustrate functional effects of Elfn1 mutation. Elfn1 mutant mice exhibit seizures, subtle motor abnormalities, reduced thigmotaxis and hyperactivity. The hyperactivity is paradoxically reversible by treatment with the stimulant amphetamine, consistent with phenotypes observed in animals with habenular lesions. These analyses reveal a requirement for Elfn1 in brain function and are suggestive of possible relevance to the etiology and pathophysiology of epilepsy and attention

  12. Corticolimbic expression of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels in the rodent brain.

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    Melissa A Fowler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels are a family of non-selective cation channels that are activated by increases in intracellular Ca(2+ and G(q/phospholipase C-coupled receptors. We used quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, immunoblots and patch-clamp recording from several brain regions to examine the expression of the predominant TRPC channels in the rodent brain. Quantitative real-time PCR of the seven TRPC channels in the rodent brain revealed that TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels were the predominant TRPC subtypes in the adult rat brain. In situ hybridization histochemistry and immunoblotting further resolved a dense corticolimbic expression of the TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels. Total protein expression of HIP TRPC4 and 5 proteins increased throughout development and peaked late in adulthood (6-9 weeks. In adults, TRPC4 expression was high throughout the frontal cortex, lateral septum (LS, pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus (HIP, dentate gyrus (DG, and ventral subiculum (vSUB. TRPC5 was highly expressed in the frontal cortex, pyramidal cell layer of the HIP, DG, and hypothalamus. Detailed examination of frontal cortical layer mRNA expression indicated TRPC4 mRNA is distributed throughout layers 2-6 of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, motor cortex (MCx, and somatosensory cortex (SCx. TRPC5 mRNA expression was concentrated specifically in the deep layers 5/6 and superficial layers 2/3 of the PFC and anterior cingulate. Patch-clamp recording indicated a strong metabotropic glutamate-activated cation current-mediated depolarization that was dependent on intracellular Ca(2+and inhibited by protein kinase C in brain regions associated with dense TRPC4 or 5 expression and absent in regions lacking TRPC4 and 5 expression. Overall, the dense corticolimbic expression pattern suggests that these Gq/PLC coupled nonselective cation channels may be involved in learning, memory, and goal-directed behaviors.

  13. Quantitative autoradiography of the binding sites for [125I] iodoglyburide, a novel high-affinity ligand for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlert, D.R.; Gackenheimer, S.L.; Mais, D.E.; Robertson, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a high specific activity ligand for localization of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the brain. When brain sections were incubated with [ 125 I]iodoglyburide (N-[2-[[[(cyclohexylamino)carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]ethyl]-5- 125 I-2- methoxybenzamide), the ligand bound to a single site with a KD of 495 pM and a maximum binding site density of 176 fmol/mg of tissue. Glyburide was the most potent inhibitor of specific [ 125 I]iodoglyburide binding to rat forebrain sections whereas iodoglyburide and glipizide were slightly less potent. The binding was also sensitive to ATP which completely inhibited binding at concentrations of 10 mM. Autoradiographic localization of [ 125 I]iodoglyburide binding indicated a broad distribution of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the brain. The highest levels of binding were seen in the globus pallidus and ventral pallidum followed by the septohippocampal nucleus, anterior pituitary, the CA2 and CA3 region of the hippocampus, ventral pallidum, the molecular layer of the cerebellum and substantia nigra zona reticulata. The hilus and dorsal subiculum of the hippocampus, molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, cerebral cortex, lateral olfactory tract nucleus, olfactory tubercle and the zona incerta contained relatively high levels of binding. A lower level of binding (approximately 3- to 4-fold) was found throughout the remainder of the brain. These results indicate that the ATP-sensitive potassium channel has a broad presence in the rat brain and that a few select brain regions are enriched in this subtype of neuronal potassium channels

  14. Zinc ions regulate opening of tight junction favouring efflux of macromolecules via the GSK3β/snail-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ruyue; Yuan, Lan; He, Weijiang; Yang, Xiaoda

    2018-01-24

    Zinc is an essential trace element presenting in particularly high concentration in the brain. In some regions, e.g. lateral amygdala, subiculum and hippocampus, rapidly-exchangeable zinc may transiently reach even up to 600 μM. To explore the possible roles of high-concentration Zn 2+ in regulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB), we investigated the effects of Zn 2+ on the functions and structures of the tight junction (TJ) with an in vitro model of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell monolayer. The experimental results indicated that high concentrations (>200 μM) of Zn 2+ can affect the TJ integrity in a polarized manner. Basolateral addition of Zn 2+ led to reversible TJ opening with pore paths of r ∼ 2 nm or more depending on Zn 2+ concentration. The efflux/influx ratios of different sized probes were found to be ∼4.6 for FD4 (M W 4000) and ∼1.8 for Eu-DTPA (M W 560), suggesting that the Zn 2+ -induced paracelluar channels favour efflux especially for macromolecules. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the elevated intracellular Zn 2+ taken from the basolateral side can increase phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β, primarily due to the inhibition of calcineurin (CaN), thus resulting in the elevation of the snail transcriptional repressors. Subsequently, Zn 2+ can cause the down-regulation of claudin-1, breakage of occludin and ZO-1 rings, and collapse of basolateral F-actin structures. These overall factors result in the formation of a trumpet-like paracellular channel, which allows asymmetric solute permeation. The ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 pathways may also be involved in the Zn 2+ -induced TJ opening process, while the activation of matrix metalloproteinase was not observed. Our results may suggest a potential role of zinc in regulation of BBB permeability associated with brain clearance of metabolites through the glymphatic system.

  15. Cannabinoids ameliorate impairments induced by chronic stress to synaptic plasticity and short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abush, Hila; Akirav, Irit

    2013-07-01

    Repeated stress is one of the environmental factors that precipitates and exacerbates mental illnesses like depression and anxiety as well as cognitive impairments. We have previously shown that cannabinoids can prevent the effects of acute stress on learning and memory. Here we aimed to find whether chronic cannabinoid treatment would alleviate the long-term effects of exposure to chronic restraint stress on memory and plasticity as well as on behavioral and neuroendocrine measures of anxiety and depression. Late adolescent rats were exposed to chronic restraint stress for 2 weeks followed each day by systemic treatment with vehicle or with the CB1/2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (1.2 mg/kg). Thirty days after the last exposure to stress, rats demonstrated impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) in the ventral subiculum-nucleus accumbens (NAc) pathway, impaired performance in the prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent object-recognition task and the hippocampal-dependent spatial version of this task, increased anxiety levels, and significantly reduced expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the amygdala, hippocampus, PFC, and NAc. Chronic WIN55,212-2 administration prevented the stress-induced impairment in LTP levels and in the spatial task, with no effect on stress-induced alterations in unconditioned anxiety levels or GR levels. The CB1 antagonist AM251 (0.3 mg/kg) prevented the ameliorating effects of WIN55,212-2 on LTP and short-term memory. Hence, the beneficial effects of WIN55,212-2 on memory and plasticity are mediated by CB1 receptors and are not mediated by alterations in GR levels in the brain areas tested. Our findings suggest that cannabinoid receptor activation could represent a novel approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits that accompany a variety of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders.

  16. Induction of complement proteins in a mouse model for cerebral microvascular Aβ deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeFilippis Kelly

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ in cerebral vasculature, known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA, is a common pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. In familial forms of CAA single mutations in the Aβ peptide have been linked to the increase of vascular Aβ deposits accompanied by a strong localized activation of glial cells and elevated expression of neuroinflammatory mediators including complement proteins. We have developed human amyloid-β precursor protein transgenic mice harboring two CAA Aβ mutations (Dutch E693Q and Iowa D694N that mimic the prevalent cerebral microvascular Aβ deposition observed in those patients, and the Swedish mutations (K670N/M671L to increase Aβ production. In these Tg-SwDI mice, we have reported predominant fibrillar Aβ along microvessels in the thalamic region and diffuse plaques in cortical region. Concurrently, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes have been detected primarily in association with fibrillar cerebral microvascular Aβ in this model. Here we show that three native complement components in classical and alternative complement pathways, C1q, C3, and C4, are elevated in Tg-SwDI mice in regions rich in fibrillar microvascular Aβ. Immunohistochemical staining of all three proteins was increased in thalamus, hippocampus, and subiculum, but not frontal cortex. Western blot analysis showed significant increases of all three proteins in the thalamic region (with hippocampus as well as the cortical region, except C3 that was below detection level in cortex. Also, in the thalamic region (with hippocampus, C1q and C3 mRNAs were significantly up-regulated. These complement proteins appeared to be expressed largely by activated microglial cells associated with the fibrillar microvascular Aβ deposits. Our findings demonstrate that Tg-SwDI mice exhibit elevated complement protein expression in response to fibrillar vascular Aβ deposition that is

  17. Phosphodiesterase 9A regulates central cGMP and modulates responses to cholinergic and monoaminergic perturbation in vivo.

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    Kleiman, Robin J; Chapin, Douglas S; Christoffersen, Curt; Freeman, Jody; Fonseca, Kari R; Geoghegan, Kieran F; Grimwood, Sarah; Guanowsky, Victor; Hajós, Mihály; Harms, John F; Helal, Christopher J; Hoffmann, William E; Kocan, Geralyn P; Majchrzak, Mark J; McGinnis, Dina; McLean, Stafford; Menniti, Frank S; Nelson, Fredrick; Roof, Robin; Schmidt, Anne W; Seymour, Patricia A; Stephenson, Diane T; Tingley, Francis David; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Verhoest, Patrick R; Schmidt, Christopher J

    2012-05-01

    Cyclic nucleotides are critical regulators of synaptic plasticity and participate in requisite signaling cascades implicated across multiple neurotransmitter systems. Phosphodiesterase 9A (PDE9A) is a high-affinity, cGMP-specific enzyme widely expressed in the rodent central nervous system. In the current study, we observed neuronal staining with antibodies raised against PDE9A protein in human cortex, cerebellum, and subiculum. We have also developed several potent, selective, and brain-penetrant PDE9A inhibitors and used them to probe the function of PDE9A in vivo. Administration of these compounds to animals led to dose-dependent accumulation of cGMP in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid, producing a range of biological effects that implied functional significance for PDE9A-regulated cGMP in dopaminergic, cholinergic, and serotonergic neurotransmission and were consistent with the widespread distribution of PDE9A. In vivo effects of PDE9A inhibition included reversal of the respective disruptions of working memory by ketamine, episodic and spatial memory by scopolamine, and auditory gating by amphetamine, as well as potentiation of risperidone-induced improvements in sensorimotor gating and reversal of the stereotypic scratching response to the hallucinogenic 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A agonist mescaline. The results suggested a role for PDE9A in the regulation of monoaminergic circuitry associated with sensory processing and memory. Thus, PDE9A activity regulates neuronal cGMP signaling downstream of multiple neurotransmitter systems, and inhibition of PDE9A may provide therapeutic benefits in psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases promoted by the dysfunction of these diverse neurotransmitter systems.

  18. Perceived Stress Is Differentially Related to Hippocampal Subfield Volumes among Older Adults.

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    Molly E Zimmerman

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to stress has been shown to impact a wide range of health-related outcomes in older adults. Despite extensive animal literature revealing deleterious effects of biological markers of stress on the dentate gyrus subfield of the hippocampus, links between hippocampal subfields and psychological stress have not been studied in humans. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and hippocampal subfield volumes among racially/ethnically diverse older adults.Between July 2011 and March 2014, 116 nondemented participants were consecutively drawn from the Einstein Aging Study, an ongoing community-based sample of individuals over the age of 70 residing in Bronx, New York. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and underwent 3.0 T MRI. FreeSurfer was used to derive total hippocampal volume, hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2/CA3, CA4/Dentate Gyrus (CA4/DG, and subiculum, entorhinal cortex volume, whole brain volume, and total intracranial volume.Linear regression analyses revealed that higher levels of perceived stress were associated with smaller total hippocampal volume (β = -0.20, t = -2.40, p = 0.02, smaller CA2/CA3 volumes (β = -0.18, t = -2.24, p = 0.03 and smaller CA4/DG volumes (β = -0.19, t = -2.28, p = 0.03 after controlling for total intracranial volume, age, gender, and race. These findings remained unchanged after removal of individuals with clinically significant symptoms of depression.Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between a direct indicator of psychological stress and specific hippocampal subfield volumes in elderly individuals. These results highlight the importance of clinical screening for chronic stress in otherwise healthy older adults.

  19. Influence of neuropathology on convection-enhanced delivery in the rat hippocampus.

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    Svetlana Kantorovich

    Full Text Available Local drug delivery techniques, such as convention-enhanced delivery (CED, are promising novel strategies for delivering therapeutic agents otherwise limited by systemic toxicity and blood-brain-barrier restrictions. CED uses positive pressure to deliver infusate homogeneously into interstitial space, but its distribution is dependent upon appropriate tissue targeting and underlying neuroarchitecture. To investigate effects of local tissue pathology and associated edema on infusate distribution, CED was applied to the hippocampi of rats that underwent electrically-induced, self-sustaining status epilepticus (SE, a prolonged seizure. Infusion occurred 24 hours post-SE, using a macromolecular tracer, the magnetic resonance (MR contrast agent gadolinium chelated with diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid and covalently attached to albumin (Gd-albumin. High-resolution T1- and T2-relaxation-weighted MR images were acquired at 11.1 Tesla in vivo prior to infusion to generate baseline contrast enhancement images and visualize morphological changes, respectively. T1-weighted imaging was repeated post-infusion to visualize final contrast-agent distribution profiles. Histological analysis was performed following imaging to characterize injury. Infusions of Gd-albumin into injured hippocampi resulted in larger distribution volumes that correlated with increased injury severity, as measured by hyperintense regions seen in T2-weighted images and corresponding histological assessments of neuronal degeneration, myelin degradation, astrocytosis, and microglial activation. Edematous regions included the CA3 hippocampal subfield, ventral subiculum, piriform and entorhinal cortex, amygdalar nuclei, middle and laterodorsal/lateroposterior thalamic nuclei. This study demonstrates MR-visualized injury processes are reflective of cellular alterations that influence local distribution volume, and provides a quantitative basis for the planning of local therapeutic

  20. Repetitive low-frequency stimulation reduces epileptiform synchronization in limbic neuronal networks.

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    D'Arcangelo, G; Panuccio, G; Tancredi, V; Avoli, M

    2005-01-01

    Deep-brain electrical or transcranial magnetic stimulation may represent a therapeutic tool for controlling seizures in patients presenting with epileptic disorders resistant to antiepileptic drugs. In keeping with this clinical evidence, we have reported that repetitive electrical stimuli delivered at approximately 1 Hz in mouse hippocampus-entorhinal cortex (EC) slices depress the EC ability to generate ictal activity induced by the application of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) or Mg(2+)-free medium (Barbarosie, M., Avoli, M., 1997. CA3-driven hippocampal-entorhinal loop controls rather than sustains in vitro limbic seizures. J. Neurosci. 17, 9308-9314.). Here, we confirmed a similar control mechanism in rat brain slices analyzed with field potential recordings during 4AP (50 microM) treatment. In addition, we used intrinsic optical signal (IOS) recordings to quantify the intensity and spatial characteristics of this inhibitory influence. IOSs reflect the changes in light transmittance throughout the entire extent of the slice, and are thus reliable markers of limbic network epileptiform synchronization. First, we found that in the presence of 4AP, the IOS increases, induced by a train of electrical stimuli (10 Hz for 1 s) or by recurrent, single-shock stimulation delivered at 0.05 Hz in the deep EC layers, are reduced in intensity and area size by low-frequency (1 Hz), repetitive stimulation of the subiculum; these effects were observed in all limbic areas contained in the slice. Second, by testing the effects induced by repetitive subicular stimulation at 0.2-10 Hz, we identified maximal efficacy when repetitive stimuli are delivered at 1 Hz. Finally, we discovered that similar, but slightly less pronounced, inhibitory effects occur when repetitive stimuli at 1 Hz are delivered in the EC, suggesting that the reduction of IOSs seen during repetitive stimulation is pathway dependent as well as activity dependent. Thus, the activation of limbic networks at low frequency

  1. Sex specific recruitment of a medial prefrontal cortex-hippocampal-thalamic system during context-dependent renewal of responding to food cues in rats.

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    Anderson, Lauren C; Petrovich, Gorica D

    2017-03-01

    Renewal, or reinstatement, of responding to food cues after extinction may explain the inability to resist palatable foods and change maladaptive eating habits. Previously, we found sex differences in context-dependent renewal of extinguished Pavlovian conditioned responding to food cues. Context-induced renewal involves cue-food conditioning and extinction in different contexts and the renewal of conditioned behavior is induced by return to the conditioning context (ABA renewal). Male rats showed renewal of responding while females did not. In the current study we sought to identify recruitment of key neural systems underlying context-mediated renewal and sex differences. We examined Fos induction within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), hippocampal formation, thalamus and amygdala in male and female rats during the test for renewal. We found sex differences in vmPFC recruitment during renewal. Male rats in the experimental condition showed renewal of responding and had more Fos induction within the infralimbic and prelimbic vmPFC areas compared to controls that remained in the same context throughout training and testing. Females in the experimental condition did not show renewal or an increase in Fos induction. Additionally, Fos expression differed between experimental and control groups and between the sexes in the hippocampal formation, thalamus and amygdala. Within the ventral subiculum, the experimental groups of both sexes had more Fos compared to control groups. Within the dorsal CA1 and the anterior region of the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, in males, the experimental group had higher Fos induction, while both females groups had similar number of Fos-positive neurons. Within the capsular part of the central amygdalar nucleus, females in the experimental group had higher Fos induction, while males groups had similar amounts. The differential recruitment corresponded to the behavioral differences between males and females and suggests

  2. A protocol for manual segmentation of medial temporal lobe subregions in 7 Tesla MRI

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    D. Berron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in MRI and increasing knowledge on the characterization and anatomical variability of medial temporal lobe (MTL anatomy have paved the way for more specific subdivisions of the MTL in humans. In addition, recent studies suggest that early changes in many neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases are better detected in smaller subregions of the MTL rather than with whole structure analyses. Here, we developed a new protocol using 7 Tesla (T MRI incorporating novel anatomical findings for the manual segmentation of entorhinal cortex (ErC, perirhinal cortex (PrC; divided into area 35 and 36, parahippocampal cortex (PhC, and hippocampus; which includes the subfields subiculum (Sub, CA1, CA2, as well as CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG which are separated by the endfolial pathway covering most of the long axis of the hippocampus. We provide detailed instructions alongside slice-by-slice segmentations to ease learning for the untrained but also more experienced raters. Twenty-two subjects were scanned (19–32 yrs, mean age = 26 years, 12 females with a turbo spin echo (TSE T2-weighted MRI sequence with high-resolution oblique coronal slices oriented orthogonal to the long axis of the hippocampus (in-plane resolution 0.44×0.44 mm2 and 1.0 mm slice thickness. The scans were manually delineated by two experienced raters, to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability. The Dice Similarity Index (DSI was above 0.78 for all regions and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC were between 0.76 to 0.99 both for intra- and inter-rater reliability. In conclusion, this study presents a fine-grained and comprehensive segmentation protocol for MTL structures at 7 T MRI that closely follows recent knowledge from anatomical studies. More specific subdivisions (e.g. area 35 and 36 in PrC, and the separation of DG and CA3 may pave the way for more precise delineations thereby enabling the detection of early volumetric changes in dementia and

  3. Distinct BOLD Activation Profiles Following Central and Peripheral Oxytocin Administration in Awake Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Craig F; Yee, Jason R; Kenkel, William M; Dumais, Kelly Marie; Moore, Kelsey; Veenema, Alexa H; Kulkarni, Praveen; Perkybile, Allison M; Carter, C Sue

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT) or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood-brain barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake rats imaged at 7.0 T. These data were compared to OT (1 μg/5 μl) given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis, we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors, e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose-response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity.

  4. Cellular targets of nitric oxide in the hippocampus.

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    Katalin Bartus

    Full Text Available In the hippocampus, as in many other CNS areas, nitric oxide (NO participates in synaptic plasticity, manifested as changes in pre- and/or postsynaptic function. While it is known that these changes are brought about by cGMP following activation of guanylyl cyclase-coupled NO receptors attempts to locate cGMP by immunocytochemistry in hippocampal slices in response to NO have failed to detect the cGMP elevation where expected, i.e. in the pyramidal neurones. Instead, astrocytes, unidentified varicose fibres and GABA-ergic nerve terminals are reported to be the prominent NO targets, raising the possibility that NO acts indirectly via other cells. We have re-investigated the distribution of cGMP generated in response to endogenous and exogenous NO in hippocampal slices using immunohistochemistry and new conditions designed to optimise cGMP accumulation and, hence, its detectability. The conditions included use of tissue from the developing rat hippocampus, a potent inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-2, and an allosteric enhancer of the NO-receptive guanylyl cyclase. Under these conditions, cGMP was formed in response to endogenous NO and was found in a population of pyramidal cell somata in area CA3 and subiculum as well as in structures described previously. The additional presence of exogenous NO resulted in hippocampal cGMP reaching the highest level recorded for brain tissue (1700 pmol/mg protein and in cGMP immunolabelling throughout the pyramidal cell layer. Populations of axons and interneurones were also stained. According with these results, immunohistochemistry for the common NO receptor β1-subunit indicated widespread expression. A similar staining pattern for the α1-subunit with an antibody used previously in the hippocampus and elsewhere, however, proved to be artefactual. The results indicate that the targets of NO in the hippocampus are more varied and extensive than previous evidence had suggested and, in particular, that the

  5. Exposure to an open-field arena increases c-Fos expression in a distributed anxiety-related system projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid complex.

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    Hale, M W; Hay-Schmidt, A; Mikkelsen, J D; Poulsen, B; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A

    2008-08-26

    Anxiety states and anxiety-related behaviors appear to be regulated by a distributed and highly interconnected system of brain structures including the basolateral amygdala. Our previous studies demonstrate that exposure of rats to an open-field in high- and low-light conditions results in a marked increase in c-Fos expression in the anterior part of the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus (BLA) compared with controls. The neural mechanisms underlying the anatomically specific effects of open-field exposure on c-Fos expression in the BLA are not clear, however, it is likely that this reflects activation of specific afferent input to this region of the amygdala. In order to identify candidate brain regions mediating anxiety-induced activation of the basolateral amygdaloid complex in rats, we used cholera toxin B subunit (CTb) as a retrograde tracer to identify neurons with direct afferent projections to this region in combination with c-Fos immunostaining to identify cells responding to exposure to an open-field arena in low-light (8-13 lux) conditions (an anxiogenic stimulus in rats). Adult male Wistar rats received a unilateral microinjection of 4% CTb in phosphate-buffered saline into the basolateral amygdaloid complex. Rats were housed individually for 11 days after CTb injections and handled (HA) for 2 min each day. On the test day rats were either, 1) exposed to an open-field in low-light conditions (8-13 lux) for 15 min (OF); 2) briefly HA or 3) left undisturbed (control). We report that dual immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos and CTb revealed an increase in the percentage of c-Fos-immunopositive basolateral amygdaloid complex-projecting neurons in open-field-exposed rats compared with HA and control rats in the ipsilateral CA1 region of the ventral hippocampus, subiculum and lateral entorhinal cortex. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to the open-field arena activates an anxiety-related neuronal system with convergent input to the

  6. Lesão encefálica hipóxica em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito: prevalência, distribuição e associação com tempo de sobrevida e outras lesões cranioencefálicas e extracranianas Hypoxic brain damage in victims of fatal road traffic accident: prevalence, distribution and association with survival time and other head and extracranial injuries

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    Sebastião Silva Gusmão

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever a prevalência e a distribuição da lesão encefálica hipóxica e sua associação com tempo de sobrevida e outras lesões cranioencefálicas e extracranianas. MÉTODO: Realizou-se o estudo anátomo-patológico macro e microscópico de 120 vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito, independente do tempo de sobrevida, necropsiadas no Instituto Médico Legal de Minas Gerais, em Belo Horizonte, no período entre 1989 e 1993. O estudo foi prospectivo e os indivíduos foram selecionados aleatoriamente. RESULTADOS: Das 120 vítimas, 51 eram motoristas ou passageiros de veículos motorizados e 69 eram pedestres. Oitenta e três pacientes (69,2% faleceram no local do acidente ou com menos de 24 horas de sobrevida e 37 (30,8% sobreviveram um ou mais dias. Evidência histológica de lesão encefálica hipóxica foi detectada em 23 (19,2% dos 120 encéfalos. A prevalência foi de 4,8% entre os pacientes que sobreviveram menos de 24 horas e 51,4% para aqueles com um ou mais dias de sobrevida. A lesão encefálica hipóxica foi encontrada principalmente no hipocampo e subiculum (65,2%, tálamo (34,8%, neocórtex cerebral (26,1% e núcleos da base (21,7%. Não se observou associação significativa entre lesão encefálica hipóxica e hipertensão intracraniana, trauma tóraco-abdominal e pneumonia e/ou meningite nos pacientes com sobrevida igual ou superior a um dia. CONCLUSÃO: A lesão encefálica hipóxica ocorre em alta frequência em vítimas fatais de acidente de trânsito com um ou mais dias de sobrevida, não estando significativamente associada a hipertensão intracraniana, trauma tóraco-abdominal e pneumonia e/ou meningite.OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and distribution of hypoxic brain damage and its association with survival time and other head and extracranial injuries. METHOD: A macro and microscopical study of brain lesions in 120 victims of fatal road traffic accident, independent of the survival time, was made