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Sample records for subiculum presubiculum parasubiculum

  1. Organizational connectivity among the CA1, subiculum, presubiculum, and entorhinal cortex in the rabbit.

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    Honda, Yoshiko; Shibata, Hideshi

    2017-12-01

    The laminar and topographical organization of connections between the hippocampal formation and parahippocampal regions was investigated in the rabbit following in vivo injection of cholera toxin B subunit as a retro- and antero-grade tracer and biotinylated dextran amine as an anterograde tracer. We confirmed several connectional features different from those of the rat, that is, the rabbit presubiculum received abundant afferents from CA1 and had many reciprocal connections with the entorhinal cortex. On the other hand, we identified many similarities with the rat: both the CA1 and subicular afferents that originated from the entorhinal cortex were abundant; moreover, the presubiculum received many inputs from the subiculum and sent massive projections to the entorhinal cortex. By plotting retrograde and anterograde labels in two-dimensional unfolded maps of the entire hippocampal and parahippocampal regions, we found that each group of entorhinal cells that project to CA1, subiculum, and presubiculum, and also the termination of the presubiculo-entorhinal projection, was distributed in band-like zones in layers II-III, extending across the medial and lateral entorhinal cortex. Our results suggest that the rabbit has a basic connectivity that is common with that of the rat, and also has additional hippocampal-presubicular and entorhino-presubicular connections that may reflect functional evolution in learning and memory. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Neuropeptide S ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 through activation of cognate receptor-expressing neurons in the subiculum complex.

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    Shao, Yu-Feng; Wang, Can; Xie, Jun-Fan; Kong, Xiang-Pan; Xin, Le; Dong, Chao-Yu; Li, Jing; Ren, Wen-Ting; Hou, Yi-Ping

    2016-07-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that neuropeptide S (NPS), via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPS receptor (NPSR) in the olfactory cortex, facilitates olfactory function. High level expression of NPSR mRNA in the subiculum complex of hippocampal formation suggests that NPS-NPSR system might be involved in the regulation of olfactory spatial memory. The present study was undertaken to investigate effects of NPS on the scopolamine- or MK801-induced impairment of olfactory spatial memory using computer-assisted 4-hole-board spatial memory test, and by monitoring Fos expression in the subiculum complex in mice. In addition, dual-immunofluorescence microscopy was employed to identify NPS-induced Fos-immunereactive (-ir) neurons that also bear NPSR. Intracerebroventricular administration of NPS (0.5 nmol) significantly increased the number of visits to switched odorants in recall trial in mice suffering from odor-discriminating inability induced by scopolamine, a selective muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist, or MK801, a N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, after training trials. The improvement of olfactory spatial memory by NPS was abolished by the NPSR antagonist [D-Val(5)]NPS (40 nmol). Ex vivo c-Fos and NPSR immunohistochemistry revealed that, as compared with vehicle-treated mice, NPS markedly enhanced Fos expression in the subiculum complex encompassing the subiculum (S), presubiculum (PrS) and parasubiculum (PaS). The percentages of Fos-ir neurons that also express NPSR were 91.3, 86.5 and 90.0 % in the S, PrS and PaS, respectively. The present findings demonstrate that NPS, via selective activation of the neurons bearing NPSR in the subiculum complex, ameliorates olfactory spatial memory impairment induced by scopolamine and MK801 in mice.

  3. Muscarinic depolarization of layer II neurons of the parasubiculum.

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    Stephen D Glasgow

    Full Text Available The parasubiculum (PaS is a component of the hippocampal formation that sends its major output to layer II of the entorhinal cortex. The PaS receives strong cholinergic innervation from the basal forebrain that is likely to modulate neuronal excitability and contribute to theta-frequency network activity. The present study used whole cell current- and voltage-clamp recordings to determine the effects of cholinergic receptor activation on layer II PaS neurons. Bath application of carbachol (CCh; 10-50 µM resulted in a dose-dependent depolarization of morphologically-identified layer II stellate and pyramidal cells that was not prevented by blockade of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Bath application of the M1 receptor antagonist pirenzepine (1 µM, but not the M2-preferring antagonist methoctramine (1 µM, blocked the depolarization, suggesting that it is dependent on M1 receptors. Voltage-clamp experiments using ramped voltage commands showed that CCh resulted in the gradual development of an inward current that was partially blocked by concurrent application of the selective Kv7.2/3 channel antagonist XE-991, which inhibits the muscarine-dependent K(+ current I M. The remaining inward current also reversed near EK and was inhibited by the K(+ channel blocker Ba(2+, suggesting that M1 receptor activation attenuates both I M as well as an additional K(+ current. The additional K(+ current showed rectification at depolarized voltages, similar to K(+ conductances mediated by Kir 2.3 channels. The cholinergic depolarization of layer II PaS neurons therefore appears to occur through M1-mediated effects on I M as well as an additional K(+ conductance.

  4. Layer-Specific Organization of Local Excitatory and Inhibitory Synaptic Connectivity in the Rat Presubiculum

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    Peng, Yangfan; Barreda Tomás, Federico J.; Klisch, Constantin; Vida, Imre

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The presubiculum is part of the parahippocampal spatial navigation system and contains head direction and grid cells upstream of the medial entorhinal cortex. This position within the parahippocampal cortex renders the presubiculum uniquely suited for analyzing the circuit requirements underlying the emergence of spatially tuned neuronal activity. To identify the local circuit properties, we analyzed the topology of synaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons in all layers of the presubiculum by testing 4250 potential synaptic connections using multiple whole-cell recordings of up to 8 cells simultaneously. Network topology showed layer-specific organization of microcircuits consistent with the prevailing distinction of superficial and deep layers. While connections among pyramidal cells were almost absent in superficial layers, deep layers exhibited an excitatory connectivity of 3.9%. In contrast, synaptic connectivity for inhibition was higher in superficial layers though markedly lower than in other cortical areas. Finally, synaptic amplitudes of both excitatory and inhibitory connections showed log-normal distributions suggesting a nonrandom functional connectivity. In summary, our study provides new insights into the microcircuit organization of the presubiculum by revealing area- and layer-specific connectivity rules and sets new constraints for future models of the parahippocampal navigation system. PMID:28334142

  5. Diversity and overlap of Parvalbumin and Somatostatin expressing interneurons in mouse presubiculum

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    Mérie eNassar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The presubiculum, located between hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, plays a fundamental role in representing spatial information, notably head direction. Little is known about GABAergic interneurons of this region. Here, we used three transgenic mouse lines, Pvalb-Cre, Sst-Cre and X98, to examine distinct interneurons labeled with tdTomato or green fluorescent protein. The distribution of interneurons in presubicular lamina for each animal line was compared to that in the GAD67-GFP knock-in animal line. Labelling was specific in the Pvalb-Cre line with 87% of labeled interneurons immunopositive for (PV. Immunostaining for somatostatin (SOM revealed good specificity in the X98 line with 89% of fluorescent cells, but a lesser specificity in Sst-Cre animals where only 71% of labeled cells were immunopositive. A minority of ~ 6% of interneurons co-expressed PV and SOM in the presubiculum of Sst-Cre animals. The electrophysiological and morphological properties of fluorescent interneurons from Pvalb-Cre, Sst-Cre and X98 mice differed. Distinct physiological groups of presubicular interneurons were resolved by unsupervised cluster analysis of parameters describing passive properties, firing patterns and AP shapes. One group consisted of SOM-positive, Martinotti type neurons with a low firing threshold (cluster 1. Fast spiking basket cells, mainly from the Pvalb-Cre line, formed a distinct group (cluster 3. Another group (cluster 2 contained interneurons of intermediate electrical properties and basket-cell like morphologies. These labeled neurons were recorded from both Sst-Cre and Pvalb-Cre animals. Thus, our results reveal a wide variation in anatomical and physiological properties for these interneurons, a real overlap of interneurons immuno-positive for both PV and SOM as well as an off-target recombination in the Sst-Cre line, possibly linked to maternal cre inheritance.

  6. Morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper

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    Živanović-Mačužić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human subiculum is a significant part of the hippocampal formation positioned between the hippocampus proper and the entorhinal and other cortices. It plays an important role in spatial navigation, memory processing and control of the response to stress. The aim of our study was identification of the morphometric characteristics of the neurons of the human subiculum proper: the maximum length and width of cell body and total dendritic length and volume of cell body. Comparing the measured parameters of different types of subicular neurons (bipolar, multipolar, pyramidal neurons with triangular-shaped soma and neurons with oval-shaped soma, we can conclude that bipolar neurons have the lowest values of the measured parameters: the maximum length of their cell body is 14.1 ± 0.2 µm, the maximum width is 13.9 ± 0.5 µm, and total dendritic length is 14597 ± 3.1 µm. The lowest volume value was observed in bipolar neurons; the polymorphic layer is 1152.99 ± 662.69 µm3. The pyramidal neurons of the pyramidal layer have the highest value for the maximal length of the cell body (44.43 ± 7.94 µm, maximum width (23.64 ± 1.89 µm, total dendritic length (1830 ± 466.3 µm and volume (11768.65±4004.9 µm3 These characteristics of the pyramidal neurons indicate their importance, because the axons of these neurons make up the greatest part of the fornix, along with the axons of neurons of the CA1 hippocampal field.

  7. Heterogeneous spatial representation by different subpopulations of neurons in the subiculum.

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    Brotons-Mas, J R; Schaffelhofer, S; Guger, C; O'Mara, S M; Sanchez-Vives, M V

    2017-02-20

    The subiculum is a pivotal structure located in the hippocampal formation that receives inputs from grid and place cells and that mediates the output from the hippocampus to cortical and sub-cortical areas. Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of boundary vector cells (BVC) in the subiculum, as well as exceptional stability during recordings conducted in the dark, suggesting that the subiculum is involved in the coding of allocentric cues and also in path integration. In order to better understand the role of the subiculum in spatial processing and the coding of external cues, we recorded subicular units in freely moving rats while performing two experiments: the "size experiment" in which we modified the arena size, and the "barrier experiment" in which we inserted new barriers in a familiar open field thus dividing the enclosure into four comparable sub-chambers. We hypothesized that if physical boundaries were deterministic of the firing of subicular units a strong spatial replication pattern would be found in most spatially modulated units. In contrast, our results demonstrate heterogeneous space coding by different cell types: place cells, barrier-related units and BVC. We also found units characterized by narrow spike waveforms, most likely belonging to axonal recordings, that showed grid-like patterns. Our data indicate that the subiculum codes space in a flexible manner, and that it is involved in the processing of allocentric information, external cues and path integration, thus broadly supporting spatial navigation. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fast and slow γ rhythms are intrinsically and independently generated in the subiculum.

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    Jackson, Jesse; Goutagny, Romain; Williams, Sylvain

    2011-08-24

    Gamma rhythms are essential for memory encoding and retrieval. Despite extensive study of these rhythms in the entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus, CA3, and CA1, almost nothing is known regarding their generation and organization in the structure delivering the most prominent hippocampal output: the subiculum. Here we show using a complete rat hippocampal preparation in vitro that the subiculum intrinsically and independently generates spontaneous slow (25-50 Hz) and fast (100-150 Hz) gamma rhythms during the rising phase and peak of persistent subicular theta rhythms. These two gamma frequencies are phase modulated by theta rhythms without any form of afferent input from the entorhinal cortex or CA1. Subicular principal cells and interneurons phase lock to both fast and slow gamma, and single cells are independently phase modulated by each form of gamma rhythm, enabling selective participation in neural synchrony at both gamma frequencies at different times. Fast GABAergic inhibition is required for the generation of fast gamma, whereas slow gamma is generated by excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. In addition, the transverse subicular axis exhibits gamma rhythm topography with faster gamma coupling arising in the distal subiculum region. The subiculum therefore possesses a unique intrinsic circuit organization that can autonomously regulate the timing and topography of hippocampal output synchronization. These results suggest the subiculum is a third spontaneous gamma generator in the hippocampal formation (in addition to CA3 and the entorhinal cortex), and these gamma rhythms likely play an active role in mediating the flow of information between the hippocampus and multiple cortical and subcortical brain regions.

  9. Oxytocin induces penile erection when injected into the ventral subiculum: role of nitric oxide and glutamic acid.

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    Melis, Maria Rosaria; Succu, Salvatora; Cocco, Cristina; Caboni, Emanuela; Sanna, Fabrizio; Boi, Antonio; Ferri, Gian Luca; Argiolas, Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Oxytocin (100 ng) induces penile erection when injected unilaterally into the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus of male rats. The pro-erectile effect started mostly 30 min after treatment and occurred 15 min after an increase in both nitric oxide (NO) production, measured by the concentration of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-), the main metabolites of newly formed NO, and extra-cellular glutamic acid concentration in the dialysate obtained from the ventral subiculum by intracerebral microdialysis. These responses were abolished by d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin (2 microg), an oxytocin receptor antagonist, S-methyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC), a selective inhibitor of neuronal NO-synthase (25 microg), and haemoglobin, a NO scavenger (25 microg), given into the ventral subiculum before oxytocin. Unlike d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me)(2)-Orn(8)-vasotocin, SMTC and haemoglobin, (+)MK-801 (5 microg), a noncompetitive antagonist of NMDA receptors abolished oxytocin-induced penile erection, but reduced only partially the increase in NO production and extra-cellular glutamic acid. As NMDA (0.25-1 microg) injected into the ventral subiculum induces penile erection episodes, which also occurred with an increase of NO production and extra-cellular glutamic acid, and NMDA responses were abolished by (+)MK-801 (5 microg), but not by SMTC (25 microg) or haemoglobin (25 microg), injected into the ventral subiculum, these results show that oxytocin injected into the ventral subiculum increases NO production by activating its own receptors. NO in turn increases glutamic acid neurotransmission, leading to penile erection, possibly through neural (glutamatergic) efferent projections from the ventral subiculum to extra-hippocampal brain areas (e.g., prefrontal cortex) modulating the activity of mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Serotonin Regulates the Firing of Principal Cells of the Subiculum by Inhibiting a T-type Ca(2+) Current

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    Petersen, Anders V; Jensen, Camilla S; Crépel, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    The subiculum is the main output of the hippocampal formation. A high proportion of its principal neurons fire action potentials in bursts triggered by the activation of low threshold calcium currents. This firing pattern promotes synaptic release and regulates spike-timing-dependent plasticity...

  11. Contacts between medial and lateral perforant pathway fibers and parvalbumin expressing neurons in the subiculum of the rat.

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    Wouterlood, F G; Boekel, A J; Aliane, V; Beliën, J A M; Uylings, H B M; Witter, M P

    2008-10-15

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) projects via the perforant pathway to all subfields in the hippocampal formation. One can distinguish medial and lateral components in the pathway, originating in corresponding medial and lateral subdivisions of EC. We analyzed the innervation by medial and lateral perforant pathway fibers of parvalbumin-expressing neurons in the subiculum. A neuroanatomical tracer (biotinylated dextran amine, BDA) was stereotaxically injected in the medial or lateral entorhinal cortex, thus selectively labeling either perforant pathway component. Transport was allowed for 1 week. Transported BDA was detected with streptavidin-Alexa Fluor 488. Parvalbumin neurons were visualized via immunofluorescence histochemistry, using the fluorochrome Alexa Fluor 594. Via a random systematic sampling scheme using a two-channel, sequential-mode confocal laser scanning procedure, we obtained image series at high magnification from the molecular layer of the subiculum. Labeled entorhinal fibers and parvalbumin-expressing structures were three dimensionally (3D) reconstructed using computer software. Further computer analysis revealed that approximately 16% of the 3D objects ('boutons') of BDA-labeled fibers was engaged in contacts with parvalbumin-immunostained dendrites in the subiculum. Both medial and lateral perforant pathway fibers and their boutons formed such appositions. Contacts are suggestive for synapses. We found no significant differences between the medial and lateral components in the relative numbers of contacts. Thus, the medial and lateral subdivisions of the entorhinal cortex similarly tune the firing of principal neurons in the subiculum by way of parvalbumin positive interneurons in their respective terminal zones.

  12. Dopamine and glutamate interaction mediates reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior by stimulation of the ventral subiculum.

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    Taepavarapruk, Pornnarin; Butts, Kelly A; Phillips, Anthony G

    2014-10-31

    Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease characterized by recurrent episodes of relapse to drug-seeking/-taking behaviors. The ventral subiculum, the primary output of the hippocampus, plays a critical role in mediating drug-seeking behavior. A d-amphetamine intravenous self-administration rat model was employed along with focal electrical stimulation of the ventral subiculum (20 Hz/200 pulses) to examine its role in reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. Dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens was measured by in vivo microdialysis and subsequent HPLC-ED analyses. Pharmacological antagonism of dopamine and ionotropic glutamate receptors locally within the nucleus accumbens was employed to assess the role of glutamate and dopamine in reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior induced by stimulation of the ventral subiculum. Here, we demonstrate that reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior following extinction of d-amphetamine self-administration by rats was induced by electrical stimulation in the ventral subiculum but not the cortex. This reinstatement was accompanied by a significant increase in dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens and was disrupted by microinfusion of a dopamine D1 or D2 antagonist into the nucleus accumbens. Inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate or non- N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors had no effect on the reinstatement induced by ventral subiculum stimulation, whereas co-infusion of D1 and N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonists at formerly ineffective doses prevented drug-seeking behavior. These data support the hypothesis that dopamine/glutamate interactions within the ventral striatum related to memory processes are involved in relapse to addictive behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Excitatory effects induced by carbachol on bursting neurons of the rat subiculum.

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    Kawasaki, H; Avoli, M

    1996-11-15

    Conventional intracellular recordings were made from neurons of the rat subiculum in an in vitro slice preparation. Intracellular pulses of depolarizing current (duration, 10-120 ms) delivered at a resting membrane potential of -62.2 +/- 7.7 mV (mean +/- SD, n = 14) induced bursts of 3-5 fast, action potentials riding on a slow depolarization. The burst was terminated by an afterhyperpolarization (burst AHP) that lasted 117 +/- 26 ms and reached peak amplitude of 5.1 +/- 1.8 mV (n = 8). Bath application of the cholinergic agonist carbachol (CCh; 30-100 microM; n = 20) in the presence of ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists induced a steady depolarization (4.6 +/- 2.7 mV) of the membrane potential, and a small increase in input resistance. Action potential bursts continued to occur in response to intracellular depolarizing pulses during CCh application. However, this cholinergic agonist reduced and eventually blocked the burst AHP, which was replaced by action potentials firing. In the presence of CCh (> 70 microM; n = 9) the burst response, was followed by a depolarizing plateau potential (PP) that outlasted the intracellular depolarizing pulse by 731 +/- 386 ms (range 160-1900 ms), and could trigger repetitive action potential firing at 35-116 Hz. The effects induced by CCh were reversed by bath application of the muscarinic antagonist atropine (0.5-1 microM; n = 4). Our findings demonstrate that CCh exerts in the rat subiculum an excitatory action that is dependent upon muscarinic receptor stimulation. This cholinergic mechanism may play a physiological role in the subicular processing of signals arising from the hippocampus proper, and may also contribute to the generation of sustained epileptiform discharges induced in the limbic system by cholinergic agents.

  14. Atrophy of the Posterior Subiculum Is Associated with Memory Impairment, Tau- and Aβ Pathology in Non-demented Individuals

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    Olof Lindberg

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is associated with atrophy of the cornu ammonis (CA 1 and the subiculum subfield of the hippocampus (HC, and with deficits in episodic memory and spatial orientation. These deficits are mainly associated with the functionality of the posterior HC. We therefore hypothesized that key AD pathologies, i.e., β-amyloid and tau pathology would be particularly associated with the volume of the posterior subiculum in non-demented individuals. In our study we included 302 cognitively normal elderly participants (CN, 183 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD and 171 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI, all of whom underwent 3T magnetic resonance images (MRI. The subicular subfield was segmented using Freesurfer 5.3 and divided into 10 volumetric segments moving from the most posterior (segment 1 to the most anterior part along the axis of the hippocampal head and body (segment 10. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF Aβ42 and phosphorylated tau (P-tau were quantified using ELISA and were used as biomarkers for β-amyloid and tau pathology, respectively. In the total sample, tau-pathology and Aβ-pathology and (measured by elevated P-tau and low Aβ42 levels in CSF and mild memory dysfunction were mostly associated with the volume changes of the posterior subiculum. Both SCD and MCI patients with elevated P-tau or low Aβ42 levels displayed predominantly posterior subicular atrophy in comparisons to control subjects with normal CSF biomarker levels. Finally, there was no main effect of Aβ42 or P-tau when comparing SCD with abnormal P-tau or Aβ42 with SCD with normal levels of these CSF-biomarkers. However, in the left subiculum there was a significant interaction revealing atrophy in the left posterior but not the anterior subiculum in participants with low Aβ42 levels. The same pattern was observed on the contralateral side in participants with elevated P-tau levels. In conclusion, AD pathologies and mild

  15. Dorsal Periaqueductal gray simultaneously modulates ventral Subiculum induced-plasticity in the Basolateral Amygdala and the Nucleus Accumbens

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    Omer eHorovitz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The ventral subiculum of the hippocampus projects both to the basolateral amygdala, which is typically, associated with a response to aversive stimuli, as well as to the nucleus accumbens, which is typically associated with a response to appetitive stimuli. Traditionally, studies of the responses to emotional events focus on either negative or positive affect-related processes, however, emotional experiences often affect both. The ability of high-level processing brain regions (e.g. medial prefrontal cortex to modulate the balance between negative and positive affect-related regions was examined extensively. In contrast, the ability of low-level processing areas (e.g. periaqueductal grey - PAG to do so, has not been sufficiently studied. To address whether midbrain structures have the ability to modulate limbic regions, we first examined the ventral subiculum stimulation’s (vSub ability to induce plasticity in the basolateral amygdala (BLA and nucleus accumbens (NAcc simultaneously in rats. Further, dorsal PAG (dPAG priming ability to differentially modulate vSub stimulation induced plasticity in the BLA and the NAcc was subsequently examined. vSub stimulation resulted in plasticity in both the BLA and the NAcc simultaneously. Moreover, depending on stimulus intensity, differential dPAG priming effects on LTP in these two regions were observed. The results demonstrate that negative and positive affect-related processes may be simultaneously modulated. Furthermore, under some conditions lower-level processing areas, such as the dPAG, may differentially modulate plasticity in these regions and thus affect the long-term emotional outcome of the experience.

  16. Role of Ventral Subiculum in Context-Induced Relapse to Alcohol Seeking after Punishment-Imposed Abstinence.

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    Marchant, Nathan J; Campbell, Erin J; Whitaker, Leslie R; Harvey, Brandon K; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Adhikary, Sweta; Hope, Bruce T; Heins, Robert C; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Vardy, Eyal; Bonci, Antonello; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-03-16

    In many human alcoholics, abstinence is self-imposed because of the negative consequences of excessive alcohol use, and relapse is often triggered by exposure to environmental contexts associated with prior alcohol drinking. We recently developed a rat model of this human condition in which we train alcohol-preferring P rats to self-administer alcohol in one context (A), punish the alcohol-reinforced responding in a different context (B), and then test for relapse to alcohol seeking in Contexts A and B without alcohol or shock. Here, we studied the role of projections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell from ventral subiculum (vSub), basolateral amygdala, paraventricular thalamus, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex in context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence. First, we measured double-labeling of the neuronal activity marker Fos with the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B (injected in NAc shell) and demonstrated that context-induced relapse is associated with selective activation of the vSub→NAc shell projection. Next, we reversibly inactivated the vSub with GABA receptor agonists (muscimol+baclofen) before the context-induced relapse tests and provided evidence for a causal role of vSub in this relapse. Finally, we used a dual-virus approach to restrict expression of the inhibitory κ opioid-receptor based DREADD (KORD) in vSub→NAc shell projection neurons. We found that systemic injections of the KORD agonist salvinorin B, which selectively inhibits KORD-expressing neurons, decreased context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. Our results demonstrate a critical role of vSub in context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence and further suggest a role of the vSub→NAc projection in this relapse. In many human alcoholics, abstinence is self-imposed because of the negative consequences of excessive use, and relapse is often triggered by exposure to environmental contexts associated with prior alcohol use. Until recently, an

  17. Resilience to audiogenic seizures is associated with p-ERK1/2 dephosphorylation in the subiculum of Fmr1 knockout mice

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    Giulia eCuria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Young, but not adult, Fmr1 knockout (KO mice display audiogenic seizures (AGS that can be prevented by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In order to identify the cerebral regions involved in these phenomena, we characterized the response to AGS in Fmr1 KO mice and wild type (WT controls at postnatal day (P 45 and P90. To characterize the diverse response to AGS in various cerebral regions, we evaluated the activity markers FosB/ΔFosB and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2. Wild running (100% of tested mice followed by clonic/tonic seizures (30% were observed in P45 Fmr1 KO mice, but not in WT mice. In P90 Fmr1 KO mice, wild running was only present in 25% of tested animals. Basal FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity was higher (P<0.01 vs WT in the CA1 and subiculum of P45 Fmr1 KO mice. Following the AGS test, FosB/ΔFosB expression consistently increased in most of the analyzed regions in both groups at P45, but not at P90. Interestingly, FosB/ΔFosB immunoreactivity was significantly higher in P45 Fmr1 KO mice in the medial geniculate body (P<0.05 vs WT and CA3 (P<0.01. Neurons presenting with immunopositivity to p-ERK1/2 were more abundant in the subiculum of Fmr1 KO mice in control condition (P<0.05 vs WT, in both age groups. In this region, p-ERK1/2-immunopositive cells significantly decreased (-75%, P<0.01 in P90 Fmr1 KO mice exposed to the AGS test, but no changes were found in P45 mice or in other brain regions. In both age groups of WT mice, p-ERK1/2-immunopositive cells increased in the subiculum after exposure to the acoustic test. Our findings illustrate that FosB/ΔFosB markers are overexpressed in the medial geniculate body and CA3 in Fmr1 KO mice experiencing AGS, and that p-ERK1/2 is markedly decreased in the subiculum of Fmr1 KO mice resistant to AGS induction. These findings suggest that resilience to AGS is associated with dephosphorylation of p-ERK1/2 in the subiculum of mature Fmr1 KO mice.

  18. Role of projections from ventral subiculum to nucleus accumbens shell in context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking in rats.

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    Bossert, Jennifer M; Adhikary, Sweta; St Laurent, Robyn; Marchant, Nathan J; Wang, Hui-Ling; Morales, Marisela; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-05-01

    In humans, exposure to contexts previously associated with heroin use can provoke relapse. In rats, exposure to heroin-paired contexts after extinction of drug-reinforced responding in different contexts reinstates heroin seeking. We previously demonstrated that the projections from ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) to nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell play a role in this reinstatement. The ventral subiculum (vSub) sends glutamate projections to NAc shell and vmPFC. Here, we determined whether these projections contribute to context-induced reinstatement. We trained rats to self-administer heroin (0.05-0.1 mg/kg/infusion) for 3 h per day for 12 days; drug infusions were paired with a discrete tone-light cue. Lever pressing in the presence of the discrete cue was subsequently extinguished in a different context. We then tested the rats for reinstatement in the heroin- and extinction-associated contexts under extinction conditions. We combined Fos with the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold (FG) to determine projection-specific activation during the context-induced reinstatement tests. We also used anatomical disconnection procedures to determine whether the vSub → NAc shell and vSub → vmPFC projections are functionally involved in this reinstatement. Exposure to the heroin but not the extinction context reinstated lever pressing. Context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking was associated with increased Fos expression in vSub neurons, including those projecting to NAc shell and vmPFC. Anatomical disconnection of the vSub → NAc shell projection, but not the vSub → vmPFC projection, decreased this reinstatement. Our data indicate that the vSub → NAc shell glutamatergic projection, but not the vSub → vmPFC projection, contributes to context-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking.

  19. Anatomical Pathways for Auditory Memory in Primates

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    Monica Munoz-Lopez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Episodic memory or the ability to store context-rich information about everyday events depends on the hippocampal formation (entorhinal cortex, subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, hippocampus proper, and dentate gyrus. A substantial amount of behavioral-lesion and anatomical studies have contributed to our understanding of the organization of how visual stimuli are retained in episodic memory. However, whether auditory memory is organized similarly is still unclear. One hypothesis is that, like the ‘visual ventral stream’ for which the connections of the inferior temporal gyrus with the perirhinal cortex are necessary for visual recognition in monkeys, direct connections between the auditory association areas of the superior temporal gyrus and the hippocampal formation and with the parahippocampal region (temporal pole, perhirinal, and posterior parahippocampal cortices might also underlie recognition memory for sounds. Alternatively, the anatomical organization of memory could be different in audition. This alternative ‘indirect stream’ hypothesis posits that, unlike the visual association cortex, the majority of auditory association cortex makes one or more synapses in intermediate, polymodal areas, where they may integrate information from other sensory modalities, before reaching the medial temporal memory system. This review considers anatomical studies that can support either one or both hypotheses – focusing on anatomical studies on the primate brain that have reported not only direct auditory association connections with medial temporal areas, but, importantly, also possible indirect pathways for auditory information to reach the medial temporal lobe memory system.

  20. Pathological changes in hippocampal neuronal circuits underlie age-associated neurodegeneration and memory loss: positive clue toward SAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, P; Premkumar, P; Priyanka, R; Jayachandran, K S; Anusuyadevi, M

    2015-08-20

    Among vertebrates hippocampus forms the major component of the brain in consolidating information from short-term memory to long-term memory. Aging is considered as the major risk factor for memory impairment in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD) like pathology. Present study thus aims at investigating whether age-specific degeneration of neuronal-circuits in hippocampal formation (neural-layout of Subiculum-hippocampus proper-dentate gyrus (DG)-entorhinal cortex (EC)) results in cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effect of Resveratrol (RSV) was attempted to study in the formation of hippocampal neuronal-circuits. Radial-Arm-Maze was conducted to evaluate hippocampal-dependent spatial and learning memory in control and experimental rats. Nissl staining of frontal cortex (FC), subiculum, hippocampal-proper (CA1→CA2→CA3→CA4), DG, amygdala, cerebellum, thalamus, hypothalamus, layers of temporal and parietal lobe of the neocortex were examined for pathological changes in young and aged wistar rats, with and without RSV. Hippocampal trisynaptic circuit (EC layerII→DG→CA3→CA1) forming new memory and monosynaptic circuit (EC→CA1) that strengthen old memories were found disturbed in aged rats. Loss of Granular neuron observed in DG and polymorphic cells of CA4 can lead to decreased mossy fibers disturbing neural-transmission (CA4→CA3) in perforant pathway. Further, intensity of nissl granules (stratum lacunosum moleculare (SLM)-SR-SO) of CA3 pyramidal neurons was decreased, disturbing the communication in schaffer collaterals (CA3-CA1) during aging. We also noticed disarranged neuronal cell layer in Subiculum (presubiculum (PrS)-parasubiculum (PaS)), interfering output from hippocampus to prefrontal cortex (PFC), EC, hypothalamus, and amygdala that may result in interruption of thought processes. We conclude from our observations that poor memory performance of aged rats as evidenced through radial arm maze (RAM) analysis was due to the

  1. Building hippocampal circuits to learn and remember: insights into the development of human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavenex, Pierre; Banta Lavenex, Pamela

    2013-10-01

    The hippocampal formation is essential for the processing of episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts. Interestingly, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. From 2 to 7 years of age, there are fewer memories than predicted based on a forgetting function alone, a phenomenon known as childhood amnesia. Here, we discuss the postnatal maturation of the primate hippocampal formation with the goal of characterizing the development of the neurobiological substrates thought to subserve the emergence of episodic memory. Distinct regions, layers and cells of the hippocampal formation exhibit different profiles of structural and molecular development during early postnatal life. The protracted period of neuronal addition and maturation in the dentate gyrus is accompanied by the late maturation of specific layers in different hippocampal regions that are located downstream from the dentate gyrus, particularly CA3. In contrast, distinct layers in several hippocampal regions, particularly CA1, which receive direct projections from the entorhinal cortex, exhibit an early maturation. In addition, hippocampal regions that are more highly interconnected with subcortical structures, including the subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum and CA2, mature even earlier. These findings, together with our studies of the development of human spatial memory, support the hypothesis that the differential maturation of distinct hippocampal circuits might underlie the differential emergence of specific "hippocampus-dependent" memory processes, culminating in the emergence of episodic memory concomitant with the maturation of all hippocampal circuits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Afferent projections to the mammillary complex of the rat, with special reference to those from surrounding hypothalamic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Ruiz, A.; Alonso, A.; Sanz, J. M.; Llinas, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    To better understand the functional organization of the mammillary nuclei, we investigated the afferents to this nuclear complex in the rat with iontophoretically injected wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. Particular attention was paid to tracing local hypothalamic afferents to these nuclei. Injections into the medial mammillary nucleus (MMN) revealed strong projections from the subicular region, and weaker projections from the prefrontal cortex, medial septum, and the nucleus of the diagonal band of Broca. Other descending subcortical projections to the MMN arise from the anterior and the lateral hypothalamic area, the medial preoptic area, and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. Ascending afferents to the MMN were found to originate in the raphe and various tegmental nuclei. Following all injections into the MMN, labelled neurons were found in nuclei surrounding the mammillary body. The lateral and posterior subdivisions of the tuberomammillary nucleus projected mainly to the pars medianus and pars medialis of the MMN. The dorsal and ventral premammillary nuclei projected to the pars lateralis of the MMN. The supramammillary nucleus at rostral level had a small projection to the pars medialis and lateralis of the MMN. However, the most obvious projection from this nucleus was to the pars posterior of the MMN, chiefly from the lateral part of the caudal supramammillary nucleus. Injections into the lateral mammillary nucleus revealed inputs from the presubiculum, parasubiculum, septal region, dorsal tegmental nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and periaqueductal gray. In addition, the lateral mammillary nucleus was found to receive a moderate projection from the medial part of the supramammillary nucleus and stronger projections from the lateral part of the caudal supramammillary nucleus. A very light projection was also seen from the lateral and posterior subdivisions of the tuberomammillary nucleus. These findings add to our knowledge

  3. Thalamocortical projections of the anterodorsal thalamic nucleus in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hideshi; Honda, Yoshiko

    2012-08-15

    The anterior thalamic nuclei consist of the anterodorsal (AD), anteroventral, and anteromedial nuclei, each of which are highly differentiated and may contribute to different aspects of various cognitive and memory functions. In particular, the AD is unique in that it is implicated in learning at the earliest stage of discriminative avoidance conditioning in the rabbit. To better understand the functional roles played by the AD in memory and learning processes, we analyzed the organization of thalamocortical projections of the AD in the rabbit, using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine and the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit B. The data show that the AD provides strong projections to layers I and IV of area 30 and to layers I, III, IV, and VI of area 29 in the retrosplenial cortex, and to layers I and III-VI of the presubiculum. The projections to the retrosplenial cortex are organized such that the rostral and caudal AD, respectively, project to the caudal and rostral retrosplenial cortex. In contrast, the projections to the presubiculum are not organized topographically. Other minor projections were also observed in the parasubiculum and part of the medial entorhinal area. These results indicate that the AD provides strong projections to the retrosplenial cortex and presubiculum, suggesting that these projections constitute essential pathways to these cortical regions for transmitting mnemonic information, such as a novel conditioning stimulus during the initial stage of avoidance learning. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Pyramidal cells of rodent presubiculum express a tetrodotoxin-insensitive Na+ current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Desdemona; Dinocourt, Céline; Eugène, Emmanuel; Wood, John N; Wood, John; Miles, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Presubicular neurons are activated physiologically by a specific preferred head direction. Here we show that firing in these neurones is characterized by action potentials with a large overshoot and a reduced firing frequency adaptation during repetitive firing. We found that a component of the sodium current of presubicular cells was not abolished by tetrodotoxin (TTX, 10 mum) and was activated at more depolarized voltages than TTX-sensitive currents. This inward current was completely abolished by the removal of external sodium, suggesting that sodium is the charge carrier of this TTX-insensitive (TTX-I) current. The channels responsible for the TTX-I sodium current seemed to be expressed at sites distant from the soma, giving rise to a voltage-dependent delay in current activation. The voltage required for half-maximal activation was 21 mV, and 36 mV for inactivation, which is similar to that reported for Na(V)1.8 sodium channels. However, the kinetics were considerably slower, with a time constant of current decay of 1.4 s. The current was not abolished in pyramidal cells from animals lacking either the Na(V)1.8 or the Na(V)1.9 subunit. This, possibly novel, TTX-I sodium current could contribute to the coding functions of presubicular neurons, specifically the maintained firing associated with signalling of a stable head position.

  5. Distribution of Wfs1 protein in the central nervous system of the mouse and its relation to clinical symptoms of the Wolfram syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luuk, H.; Koks, S.; Plaas, M.

    2008-01-01

    enrichment of Wf1 protein in the central extended amygdala and ventral striatum. Prominent Wfs1 expression was seen in the hippocampal CA1 region, parasubiculum, superficial part of the second and third layers of the prefrontal cortex and proisocortical areas, hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory system......, alveus, fimbria, dorsal hippocampal commissure; subiculum, and to a lesser extent in the central sublenticular extended amygdala, compact part of substantia nigra, and ventral tegmental area. The neuroanatomical findings suggest that the lack of Wf1 protein function can be related to several neurological...... and psychiatric symptoms found in Wolfram syndrome. Enrichment of Wfs1 protein in the central extended amygdala suggests a role in the modulation of anxiety and fear Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8/20...

  6. Presubiculum stimulation in vivo evokes distinct oscillations in superficial and deep entorhinal cortex layers in chronic epileptic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolner, E.A.; Kloosterman, F.; van Vliet, E.A.; Witter, M.P.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Gorter, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    The characteristic cell loss in layer III of the medial entorhinal area (MEA-III) in human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy is reproduced in the rat kainate model of the disease. To understand how this cell loss affects the functional properties of the MEA, we investigated whether projections from the

  7. Zbtb20-Induced CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Development and Area Enlargement in the Cerebral Midline Cortex of Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob V; Blom, Jonas B; Noraberg, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Expression of the transcriptional repressor Zbtb20 is confined to the hippocampal primordium of the developing dorsal midline cortex in mice. Here, we show that misexpression of Zbtb20 converts projection neurons of the subiculum and postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum) to CA1 pyramidal neurons...... that are innervated by Schaffer collateral projections in ectopic strata oriens and radiatum. The Zbtb20-transformed neurons express Bcl11B, Satb2, and Calbindin-D28k, which are markers of adult CA1 pyramidal neurons. Downregulation of Zbtb20 expression by RNA interference impairs the normal maturation of CA1...... pyramidal neurons resulting in deficiencies in Calbindin-D28k expression and in reduced apical dendritic arborizations in stratum lacunosum moleculare. Overall, the results show that Zbtb20 is required for various aspects of CA1 pyramidal neuron development such as the postnatal extension of apical...

  8. Activity-dependent volume transmission by transgene NPY attenuates glutamate release and LTP in the subiculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Kanter-Schlifke, Irene; Lin, En-Ju D

    2008-01-01

    governing the release and action of transgene NPY in neuronal circuitries. Using whole-cell recordings from subicular neurons, we show that in animals transduced by recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vector carrying the NPY gene, transgene NPY is released during high-frequency activation of CA1...

  9. The relevance of hippocampal subfield integrity and clock drawing test performance for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirjak, Dusan; Sambataro, Fabio; Remmele, Barbara; Kubera, Katharina M; Schröder, Johannes; Seidl, Ulrich; Thomann, Anne K; Maier-Hein, Klaus H; Wolf, Robert C; Thomann, Philipp A

    2017-08-31

    The clock drawing test (CDT) is one of the worldwide most used screening tests for Alzheimer's disease (AD). MRI studies have identified temporo-parietal regions being involved in CDT impairment. However, the contributions of specific hippocampal subfields and adjacent extrahippocampal structures to CDT performance in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have not been investigated so far. It is unclear whether morphological alterations or CDT score, or a combination of both, are able to predict AD. 38 AD patients, 38 MCI individuals and 31 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological assessment and MRI at 3 Tesla. FreeSurfer 5.3 was used to perform hippocampal parcellation. We used a collection of statistical methods to better understand the relationship between CDT and hippocampal formation. We also tested the clinical feasibility of this relationship when predicting AD. Impaired CDT performance in AD was associated with widespread atrophy of the cornu ammonis, presubiculum, and subiculum, whereas MCI subjects showed CDT-related alterations of the CA4-dentate gyrus and subiculum. CDT correlates in AD and MCI showed regional and quantitative overlap. Importantly, CDT score was the best predictor of AD. Our findings lend support for an involvement of different hippocampal subfields in impaired CDT performance in AD and MCI. CDT seems to be more efficient than subfield imaging for predicting AD.

  10. Complementary Patterns of Direct Amygdala and Hippocampal Projections to the Macaque Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, John P; Wright, Nicholas F; Rosene, Douglas L; Saunders, Richard C

    2015-11-01

    The projections from the amygdala and hippocampus (including subiculum and presubiculum) to prefrontal cortex were compared using anterograde tracers injected into macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta). Almost all prefrontal areas were found to receive some amygdala inputs. These connections, which predominantly arose from the intermediate and magnocellular basal nucleus, were particularly dense in parts of the medial and orbital prefrontal cortex. Contralateral inputs were not, however, observed. The hippocampal projections to prefrontal areas were far more restricted, being confined to the ipsilateral medial and orbital prefrontal cortex (within areas 11, 13, 14, 24a, 32, and 25). These hippocampal projections principally arose from the subiculum, with the fornix providing the sole route. Thus, while the lateral prefrontal cortex essentially receives only amygdala inputs, the orbital prefrontal cortex receives both amygdala and hippocampal inputs, though these typically target different areas. Only in medial prefrontal cortex do direct inputs from both structures terminate in common sites. But, even when convergence occurs within an area, the projections predominantly terminate in different lamina (hippocampal inputs to layer III and amygdala inputs to layers I, II, and VI). The resulting segregation of prefrontal inputs could enable the parallel processing of different information types in prefrontal cortex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Contacts between medial and lateral perforant pathway fibers and parvalbumin expressing neurons in the subiculum of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterlood, F.G.; Boekel, A.J.; Aliane, V.; Belien, J.A.M.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Witter, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    The entorhinal cortex (EC) projects via the perforant pathway to all subfields in the hippocampal formation. One can distinguish medial and lateral components in the pathway, originating in corresponding medial and lateral subdivisions of EC. We analyzed the innervation by medial and lateral

  12. Architecture of the Entorhinal Cortex A Review of Entorhinal Anatomy in Rodents with Some Comparative Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menno P. Witter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The entorhinal cortex (EC is the major input and output structure of the hippocampal formation, forming the nodal point in cortico-hippocampal circuits. Different division schemes including two or many more subdivisions have been proposed, but here we will argue that subdividing EC into two components, the lateral EC (LEC and medial EC (MEC might suffice to describe the functional architecture of EC. This subdivision then leads to an anatomical interpretation of the different phenotypes of LEC and MEC. First, we will briefly summarize the cytoarchitectonic differences and differences in hippocampal projection patterns on which the subdivision between LEC and MEC traditionally is based and provide a short comparative perspective. Second, we focus on main differences in cortical connectivity, leading to the conclusion that the apparent differences may well correlate with the functional differences. Cortical connectivity of MEC is features interactions with areas such as the presubiculum, parasubiculum, retrosplenial cortex (RSC and postrhinal cortex, all areas that are considered to belong to the “spatial processing domain” of the cortex. In contrast, LEC is strongly connected with olfactory areas, insular, medial- and orbitofrontal areas and perirhinal cortex. These areas are likely more involved in processing of object information, attention and motivation. Third, we will compare the intrinsic networks involving principal- and inter-neurons in LEC and MEC. Together, these observations suggest that the different phenotypes of both EC subdivisions likely depend on the combination of intrinsic organization and specific sets of inputs. We further suggest a reappraisal of the notion of EC as a layered input-output structure for the hippocampal formation.

  13. Roles of hippocampal subfields in verbal and visual episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammit, Andrea R; Ezzati, Ali; Zimmerman, Molly E; Lipton, Richard B; Lipton, Michael L; Katz, Mindy J

    2017-01-15

    Selective hippocampal (HC) subfield atrophy has been reported in older adults with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between the volume of hippocampal subfields and visual and verbal episodic memory in cognitively normal older adults. This study was conducted on a subset of 133 participants from the Einstein Aging Study (EAS), a community-based study of non-demented older adults systematically recruited from the Bronx, N.Y. All participants completed comprehensive EAS neuropsychological assessment. Visual episodic memory was assessed using the Complex Figure Delayed Recall subtest from the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Verbal episodic memory was assessed using Delayed Recall from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT). All participants underwent 3T MRI brain scanning with subsequent automatic measurement of the hemispheric hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2-CA3, CA4-dente gyrus, presubiculum, and subiculum). We used linear regressions to model the association between hippocampal subfield volumes and visual and verbal episodic memory tests while adjusting for age, sex, education, and total intracranial volume. Participants had a mean age of 78.9 (SD=5.1) and 60.2% were female. Total hippocampal volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.31, p=0.001) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.007); subiculum volume was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.27, p=0.002) and FCSRT Delayed Recall (β=0.24, p=0.010); CA1 was associated with Complex Figure Delayed Recall (β=0.26, pmemory. Our results suggest that hippocampal subfields have sensitive roles in the process of visual and verbal episodic memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal Hippocampal Morphology in Dissociative Identity Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Correlates with Childhood Trauma and Dissociative Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M.; Giesen, Mechteld E.; Nijenhuis, Ellert R.S.; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H.; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M.; Madsen, Sarah K.; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M.; Toga, Arthur W.; Veltman, Dick J.; Reinders, Antje A.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural MRI scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared to HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared to HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. PMID:25545784

  15. Abnormal hippocampal morphology in dissociative identity disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder correlates with childhood trauma and dissociative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalavi, Sima; Vissia, Eline M; Giesen, Mechteld E; Nijenhuis, Ellert R S; Draijer, Nel; Cole, James H; Dazzan, Paola; Pariante, Carmine M; Madsen, Sarah K; Rajagopalan, Priya; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Veltman, Dick J; Reinders, Antje A T S

    2015-05-01

    Smaller hippocampal volume has been reported in individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID), but the regional specificity of hippocampal volume reductions and the association with severity of dissociative symptoms and/or childhood traumatization are still unclear. Brain structural magnetic resonance imaging scans were analyzed for 33 outpatients (17 with DID and 16 with PTSD only) and 28 healthy controls (HC), all matched for age, sex, and education. DID patients met criteria for PTSD (PTSD-DID). Hippocampal global and subfield volumes and shape measurements were extracted. We found that global hippocampal volume was significantly smaller in all 33 patients (left: 6.75%; right: 8.33%) compared with HC. PTSD-DID (left: 10.19%; right: 11.37%) and PTSD-only with a history of childhood traumatization (left: 7.11%; right: 7.31%) had significantly smaller global hippocampal volume relative to HC. PTSD-DID had abnormal shape and significantly smaller volume in the CA2-3, CA4-DG and (pre)subiculum compared with HC. In the patient groups, smaller global and subfield hippocampal volumes significantly correlated with higher severity of childhood traumatization and dissociative symptoms. These findings support a childhood trauma-related etiology for abnormal hippocampal morphology in both PTSD and DID and can further the understanding of neurobiological mechanisms involved in these disorders. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cannabis-related hippocampal volumetric abnormalities specific to subregions in dependent users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chye, Yann; Suo, Chao; Yücel, Murat; den Ouden, Lauren; Solowij, Nadia; Lorenzetti, Valentina

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence. A total of 35 healthy controls (HC), 22 non-dependent (CB-nondep), and 39 dependent (CB-dep) cannabis users were recruited. We investigated group differences in hippocampal subregion volumes between HC, CB-nondep, and CB-dep users. We further explored the association between CB use variables (age of onset of regular use, monthly use, lifetime use) and hippocampal subregions in CB-nondep and CB-dep users separately. The CA1, CA2/3, CA4/DG, as well as total hippocampal gray matter were reduced in volume in CB-dep but not in CB-nondep users, relative to HC. The right CA2/3 and CA4/DG volumes were also negatively associated with lifetime cannabis use in CB-dep users. Our results suggest a regionally and dependence-specific influence of cannabis use on the hippocampus. Hippocampal alteration in cannabis users was specific to the CA and DG regions and confined to dependent users.

  17. Segmenting subregions of the human hippocampus on structural magnetic resonance image scans: An illustrated tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Marshall A.; Zeidman, Peter; Barry, Daniel N.; Williams, Elaine; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The hippocampus plays a central role in cognition, and understanding the specific contributions of its subregions will likely be key to explaining its wide-ranging functions. However, delineating substructures within the human hippocampus in vivo from magnetic resonance image scans is fraught with difficulties. To our knowledge, the extant literature contains only brief descriptions of segmentation procedures used to delineate hippocampal subregions in magnetic resonance imaging/functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. Methods: Consequently, here we provide a clear, step-by-step and fully illustrated guide to segmenting hippocampal subregions along the entire length of the human hippocampus on 3T magnetic resonance images. Results: We give a detailed description of how to segment the hippocampus into the following six subregions: dentate gyrus/Cornu Ammonis 4, CA3/2, CA1, subiculum, pre/parasubiculum and the uncus. Importantly, this in-depth protocol incorporates the most recent cyto- and chemo-architectural evidence and includes a series of comprehensive figures which compare slices of histologically stained tissue with equivalent 3T images. Conclusion: As hippocampal subregion segmentation is an evolving field of research, we do not suggest this protocol is definitive or final. Rather, we present a fully explained and expedient method of manual segmentation which remains faithful to our current understanding of human hippocampal neuroanatomy. We hope that this ‘tutorial’-style guide, which can be followed by experts and non-experts alike, will be a practical resource for clinical and research scientists with an interest in the human hippocampus. PMID:28596993

  18. Hippocampal and amygdalar local structural differences in elderly patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestia, Annapaola; Cavedo, Enrica; Boccardi, Marina; Muscio, Cristina; Adorni, Andrea; Geroldi, Cristina; Bonetti, Matteo; Thompson, Paul M; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-01-01

    Morphological abnormalities have been reported for the hippocampi and amygdalae in young schizophrenia patients, but very little is known about the pattern of abnormalities in elderly schizophrenia patients. Here we investigated local structural differences in the hippocampi and amygdalae of elderly schizophrenia patients compared with healthy elderly subjects. We also related these differences to clinical symptom severity. 20 schizophrenia patients (mean age: 67.4 ± 6.2 years; Mini-Mental State Exam: 22.8 ± 4.4) and 20 healthy elderly subjects (70.3 ± 7.5 years; 29.0 ± 1.1) underwent high resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. The Radial Atrophy Mapping technique was used to reconstruct the 3D shape of the amygdala and the hippocampus. Local differences in tissue reductions were computed between groups and permutation tests were run to correct for multiple comparisons, in statistical maps thresholded at p = 0.05. Significant tissue reduction was observed bilaterally in the amygdala and hippocampus of schizophrenia patients. The basolateral-ventral-medial amygdalar nucleus showed the greatest involvement, with over 30% local tissue reduction. The centro-medial, cortical, and lateral nuclei were also atrophic in patients. The hippocampus showed significant tissue loss in the medio-caudal and antero-lateral aspects of CA1, and in medial section of its left head (pre- and para-subiculum). In the left amygdala and hippocampus, local tissue volumes were significantly correlated with negative symptoms. Tissue loss and altered morphology were found in elderly schizophrenia patients. Tissue loss mapped to amygdalo-hippocampal subregions known to have bidirectional and specific connections with frontal cortical and limbic structures and was related to clinical severity. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitrative Stress and Tau Accumulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism-Dementia Complex (ALS/PDC) in the Kii Peninsula, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Yukiko; Ma, Ning; Yoneda, Misao; Morimoto, Satoru; Okano, Hideyuki; Murayama, Shigeo; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Kuzuhara, Shigeki; Kokubo, Yasumasa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The Kii Peninsula of Japan is known to be a high incidence area of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (Kii ALS/PDC) with tauopathy. Nitrative stress and oxidative stress on ALS/PDC and their relationship to tau pathology were clarified. Methods: Seven patients with Kii ALS/PDC (3 males and 4 females, average age 70.7 years, 3 with ALS, 2 with ALS with dementia, and 2 with PDC) were analyzed in this study. Five patients with Alzheimer's disease and five normal aged subjects were used as controls. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded temporal lobe sections (the hippocampal area including hippocampus, prosubiculum, subiculum, presubiculum, and parahippocampal gyri) using antibodies to detect phosphorylated tau (anti-AT-8), nitrated guanine (anti-8-NG), anti-iNOS, anti-NFκB, and oxidized guanine (anti-8-OHdG) antibodies. Results: Most hippocampal neurons of Kii ALS/PDC patients were stained with anti-8-NG, anti-iNOS, anti-NFκB, and anti-8-OHdG antibodies and some AT-8 positive neurons were co-stained with anti-8-NG antibody. The numbers of 8-NG positive neurons and 8-OHdG positive neurons were greater than AT-8 positive neurons and the number of 8-NG positive neurons was larger in patients with Kii ALS/PDC than in controls. Conclusion: Nitrative and oxidative stress may take priority over tau accumulation and lead to the neurodegeneration in Kii ALS/PDC.

  20. Interactive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and age on hippocampal volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2013-12-01

    Previous cross-sectional MRI studies with healthy, young-to-middle-aged adults reported no significant differences between smokers and non-smokers on total hippocampal volume. However, these studies did not specifically test for greater age-related volume loss in the total hippocampus or hippocampal subregions in smokers, and did they did not examine relationships between hippocampal and subfield volumes and episodic learning and memory performance. Healthy, young-to-middle-aged (45 ± 12 years of age) smokers (n=39) and non-smokers (n=43) were compared on total hippocampal and subfield volumes derived from high-resolution 4 Tesla MRI, emphasizing testing for greater age-related volume losses in smokers. Associations between hippocampal volumes and measures of episodic learning and memory were examined. Smokers showed significantly smaller volumes, as well as greater volume loss with increasing age than non-smokers in the bilateral total hippocampus and multiple subfields. In smokers, greater pack-years were associated with smaller volumes of the total hippocampus, presubiculum, and subiculum. In the entire cohort, performance on measures of learning and memory was related to larger total hippocampal and several subfield volumes, predominately in the left hemisphere. Chronic cigarette smoking in this young-to-middle aged cohort was associated with smaller total hippocampal and subfield volumes, which were exacerbated by advancing age. Findings also indicated an adverse smoking dose/duration response (i.e., pack-years) with total hippocampal and select subfield volumes. These hippocampal volume abnormalities in smokers may be related to the deficiencies in episodic learning and memory in young-to-middle-aged smokers reported in previous studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding Neuronal Mechanisms of Epilepsy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Control il ti. Human brain. Control epileptic. Mutani et al., 1994 ... of Calcium Transients Evoked in. Response to Spontaneous Epileptic ... Proof : Feed forward inhibition in subiculum. CA1. Subiculum. Stimulation artifact. -60 mV. Excitatory neuron. Inhibitory neuron. Excitatory neuron. Excitatory. Synapse. Inhibitory. Synapse.

  2. Random or selective neuroanatomical connectivity. Study of the distribution of fibers over two populations of identified interneurons in cerebral cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkenoog, M.; van den Oever, M.C.; Uylings, H.B.M.; Wouterlood, F.G.

    2005-01-01

    We present a neuroanatomical tracing method in a stereological approach to study the proportional distribution of fibers of a particular projection over two chemically different populations of neurons. The fiber projection from the presubiculum to the medial division of the entorhinal cortex of the

  3. Thalamocortical projections of the anteroventral thalamic nucleus in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Hideshi; Yoshiko, Honda

    2015-04-01

    The anterior thalamic nuclei are one of the regions that play critical roles in behavioral learning and memory functions. A part of the anterior thalamic nuclei, the anteroventral nucleus (AV) is well developed and differentiated into the parvocellular (AVp) and magnocellular (AVm) division in the rabbit. The AV is crucial for learning discriminative avoidance conditioning. Although communication between the AV and cortex is considered important in learning, little is known about the neural connections of the AV in the rabbit. Thus, this study used anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine and the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B subunit to examine the organization of the thalamocortical projections of the AV. Our data show that each division of the AV provides a unique set of projections to restricted regions and layers of the retrosplenial cortex and presubiculum. In addition, the AVp projects to layers I and IV of retrosplenial areas 29 and 30 and to layers I and VI of the presubiculum. The dorsolateral AVm projects to layers I and IV of area 29 and to layers I, III, and V of the presubiculum. However, the ventromedial AVm only projects to layer I of area 29. These projections are generally organized such that the rostral-to-caudal axis of the AV corresponds to the caudal-to-rostral axis of the retrosplenial cortex and to the temporal-to-septal axis of the presubiculum. These findings suggest distinct functional roles played by each division of the AV in the learning and memory functions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Reversal of theta rhythm flow through intact hippocampal circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jesse; Amilhon, Bénédicte; Goutagny, Romain; Bott, Jean-Bastien; Manseau, Frédéric; Kortleven, Christian; Bressler, Steven L; Williams, Sylvain

    2014-10-01

    Activity flow through the hippocampus is thought to arise exclusively from unidirectional excitatory synaptic signaling from CA3 to CA1 to the subiculum. Theta rhythms are important for hippocampal synchronization during episodic memory processing; thus, it is assumed that theta rhythms follow these excitatory feedforward circuits. To the contrary, we found that theta rhythms generated in the rat subiculum flowed backward to actively modulate spike timing and local network rhythms in CA1 and CA3. This reversed signaling involved GABAergic mechanisms. However, when hippocampal circuits were physically limited to a lamellar slab, CA3 outputs synchronized CA1 and the subiculum using excitatory mechanisms, as predicted by classic hippocampal models. Finally, analysis of in vivo recordings revealed that this reversed theta flow was most prominent during REM sleep. These data demonstrate that communication between CA3, CA1 and the subiculum is not exclusively unidirectional or excitatory and that reversed inhibitory theta signaling also contributes to intrahippocampal synchrony.

  5. Mapping of potential neurogenic niche in the human temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Barreto Nogueira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ are known neurogenic niches in adult mammals. Nonetheless, the existence of neurogenic niches in adult humans is controversial. We hypothesized that mapping neurogenic niches in the human temporal lobe could clarify this issue. Neurogenic niches and neurogenesis were investigated in 28 temporal lobes via immunostaining for nestin and doublecortin (DCX, respectively. Nestin was observed in a continuous layer formed by the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ, terminating in the subiculum. In the subiculum, remarkable DCX expression was observed through the principal efferent pathway of the hippocampus to the fimbria. A possible explanation for the results is that the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ form a unit containing neural stem cells that differentiate into neurons in the subiculum. Curiously, the area previously identified as the human rostral migratory stream may in truth be the fornix, which contains axons that originate in the subiculum. This study suggests that neurogenesis may occur in an orchestrated manner in a broad area of the human temporal lobe.

  6. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors depress synaptic transmission onto subicular burst firing neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kintscher, M.; Breustedt, J.; Miceli, S.M.; Schmitz, D.; Wozny, C.

    2012-01-01

    The subiculum (SUB) is a pivotal structure positioned between the hippocampus proper and various cortical and subcortical areas. Despite the growing body of anatomical and intrinsic electrophysiological data of subicular neurons, modulation of synaptic transmission in the SUB is not well understood.

  7. The genus Phanerochaete (Corticiaceae, Basidiomycotina) sensu lato in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Martinez; Karen K. Nakasone

    2005-01-01

    Eight species of Phanerochaete are reported from Uruguay for the first time, including a new species, P. vesiculosa. Phanerochaete vesiculosa is characterized by thin-walled, clavate to cylindrical vesicles embedded in the subiculum. A key to the known species of Phanerochaete from Uruguay is provided.

  8. Hippocampal disconnection in early Alzheimer's disease: a 7 tesla MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisse, Laura E M; Reijmer, Yael D; ter Telgte, Annemieke; Kuijf, Hugo J; Leemans, Alexander; Luijten, Peter R; Koek, Huiberdina L; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Biessels, Geert Jan

    2015-01-01

    In patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), atrophy of the entorhinal cortex (ERC) and hippocampal formation may induce degeneration of connecting white matter tracts. We examined the association of hippocampal subfield and ERC atrophy at 7 tesla MRI with fornix and parahippocampal cingulum (PHC) microstructure in patients with early AD. Twenty-five patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 15) or early AD (n = 10) and 17 controls underwent 3 tesla diffusion MRI to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) of the fornix and PHC and 7 tesla MRI to obtain ERC and hippocampal subfield volumes. Linear regression analyses were performed, adjusted for age, gender, and intracranial volume. Fornix FA was significantly lower and subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1, and dentate gyrus &CA4 volume were significantly smaller in patients with MCI or AD as compared to controls. In patients with MCI or AD, fornix FA was positively associated with subiculum volume (β = 0.53, 95% CI 0.10; 0.96), but not with ERC/other subfield volumes. PHC FA was not associated with ERC/subfield volumes. These findings indicate that in early AD subiculum atrophy is associated with lower FA of the fornix, which primarily consists of axons originating in the subiculum. This suggests that degeneration of subicular cell bodies and their axons are related processes in early AD.

  9. Experiment list: SRX248466 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ee also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal form...9,14_ChIPseq || strain background=C57/DBA F1 hybrid || genotype/variation=Wild-type || age=10 wks || gender=male || tissue=hippocampu

  10. Experiment list: SRX248469 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal format..._ChIPseq || strain background=C57/DBA F1 hybrid || genotype/variation=HD-82Q || age=10 wks || gender=male || tissue=hippocampus

  11. Experiment list: SRX216303 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available || strain=C57/DBA F1 hybrid || gender=female || age=3 month || treatment group=Naïve || tissue=hippocampus |...lso TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formatio...of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see a

  12. Experiment list: SRX915004 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocam... formation. 43224492,95.2,35.5,13846 GSM1629393: ChIP-Seq H3K27Ac HET; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=hippocampus... || sample type=hippocampal tissue || tissue=hippocampus http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u

  13. Experiment list: SRX915006 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocam... formation. 41631597,68.1,17.4,16879 GSM1629395: ChIP-Seq H4K16Ac HET; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=hippocampus... || sample type=hippocampal tissue || tissue=hippocampus http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u

  14. Experiment list: SRX216311 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal format...H3K4me3_ChIPseq || strain=C57/DBA F1 hybrid || gender=male || age=3 month || treatment group=Naïve || tissue=hippocampus

  15. Experiment list: SRX216309 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal format...38 || strain=C57/DBA F1 hybrid || gender=female || age=3 month || treatment group=vehicle; DMSO/Saline solution (1:4) || tissue=hippo...campus || chip antibody=AcH4K12; Anti-Histone H4 (acetyl

  16. Experiment list: SRX248468 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal format...Pseq || strain background=C57/DBA F1 hybrid || genotype/variation=Wild-type || age=10 wks || gender=male || tissue=hippocampus

  17. Neuropeptide Y inhibits hippocampal seizures and wet dog shakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woldbye, D P; Madsen, T M; Larsen, P J

    1996-01-01

    effects in the dentate gyrus and subiculum, but also in areas to which epileptiform EEG activity spreads before reverberating. In addition, NPY strongly reduced seizure-related 'wet dog shakes' (WDS). This is consistent with previous studies showing that the dentate gyrus is essential for the generation...

  18. Loss of Parvalbumin in the Hippocampus of MAM Schizophrenia Model Rats Is Attenuated by Peripubertal Diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yijuan; Grace, Anthony A

    2016-11-01

    Loss of parvalbumin interneurons in the hippocampus is a robust finding in schizophrenia brains. Rats exposed during embryonic day 17 to methylazoxymethanol acetate exhibit characteristics consistent with an animal model of schizophrenia, including decreased parvalbumin interneurons in the ventral hippocampus. We reported previously that peripubertal administration of diazepam prevented the emergence of pathophysiology in adult methylazoxymethanol acetate rats. We used an unbiased stereological method to examine the impact of peripubertal diazepam treatment on parvalbumin interneuron number in the ventral subiculum, dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala. Methylazoxymethanol acetate rats with peripubertal diazepam showed significantly more parvalbumin interneurons (3355±173 in the ventral subiculum, 1211±76 in the dentate gyrus) than methylazoxymethanol acetate without diazepam (2375±109 and 824±54, respectively). No change was found in the basolateral amygdala. Peripubertal diazepam attenuated the decrease of parvalbumin in the ventral hippocampus of methylazoxymethanol acetate rats. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  19. Experiment list: SRX517454 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippoc...al formation. 20701750,98.8,12.3,357 GSM1369660: Input GBD36 140228; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=mouse hippocampus... || genotype=control || chip antibody=input || strain=C57BL/6J genetic background || tissue=mouse hippocampus

  20. Experiment list: SRX1177283 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippoc...e_name=brain || tissue=hippocampus http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/eachData/bw/SRX1177283.bw...al formation. 25259742,90.8,6.8,24767 GSM1866056: ChIPseq Hippo H3K4me3.AY1669; Homo sapiens; ChIP-Seq sourc

  1. Experiment list: SRX216301 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available train=C57/DBA F1 hybrid || gender=female || age=3 month || treatment group=Trichostatin A (TSA) 2.4 mg/kg || tissue=hippocampus...lso TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formatio...of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see a

  2. Experiment list: SRX769391 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal format.... 8592658,98.7,8.9,19675 GSM1555061: HD82Q H3K27me3 GBD27; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=mouse hippocampus... || genotype=N171-82Q (HD) || strain=C57/DBA F1 hybrid || tissue=hippocampus || developmental stage=adult

  3. Experiment list: SRX517459 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal forma...n. 18548152,98.8,12.0,348 GSM1369665: H3K27me3 GBD40 140319; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=mouse hippocampus... || genotype=CaMKII-tTA/tetO-H2BGFP || chip antibody=H3K27me3 || strain=C57BL/6J genetic background || tissue=mouse hippocampus

  4. Experiment list: SRX517457 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippoc...al formation. 17743589,98.8,11.9,331 GSM1369663: Input GBD36 140319; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=mouse hippocampus... || genotype=control || chip antibody=input || strain=C57BL/6J genetic background || tissue=mouse hippocampus

  5. Experiment list: SRX517455 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal forma...n. 16244235,98.7,12.6,360 GSM1369661: H3K27me3 GBD39 140228; Mus musculus; ChIP-Seq source_name=mouse hippocampus... || genotype=wild type || chip antibody=H3K27me3 || strain=C57BL/6J genetic background || tissue=mouse hippocampus

  6. Neural correlates of emotional personality: a structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Koelsch

    Full Text Available Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called E κ value (computed from the electrocardiogram which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and E κ values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music. ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens. Individuals with higher E κ values (indexing higher tender emotionality showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher E κ showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher E κ showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (E κ correlates with both function (increased network centrality and structure (grey matter volume of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for

  7. Neural Correlates of Emotional Personality: A Structural and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called Eκ value (computed from the electrocardiogram) which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and Eκ values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM) and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females) while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music). ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Individuals with higher Eκ values (indexing higher tender emotionality) showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females) showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher Eκ showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher Eκ showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (Eκ) correlates with both function (increased network centrality) and structure (grey matter volume) of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for emotional

  8. Major depressive episodes over the course of 7 years and hippocampal subfield volumes at 7 tesla MRI: the PREDICT-MR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisse, L E M; Biessels, G J; Stegenga, B T; Kooistra, M; van der Veen, P H; Zwanenburg, J J M; van der Graaf, Y; Geerlings, M I

    2015-04-01

    Smaller hippocampal volumes have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). The hippocampus consists of several subfields that may be differentially related to MDD. We investigated the association of occurrence of major depressive episodes (MDEs), assessed five times over seven years, with hippocampal subfield and entorhinal cortex volumes at 7 tesla MRI. In this prospective study of randomly selected general practice attendees, MDEs according to DSM-IV-R criteria were assessed at baseline and after 6, 12, 39 and 84 months follow-up. At the last follow-up, a T2 (0.7 mm(3)) 7 tesla MRI scan was obtained in 47 participants (60±10 years). The subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) 1 to 3, dentate gyrus&CA4 and entorhinal cortex volumes were manually segmented according a published protocol. Of the 47 participants, 13 had one MDE and 5 had multiple MDEs. ANCOVAs, adjusted for age, sex, education and intracranial volume, revealed no significant differences in hippocampal subfield or entorhinal cortex volumes between participants with and without an MDE in the preceding 84 months. Multiple episodes were associated with smaller subiculum volumes (B=-0.03 mL/episode; 95% CI -0.06; -0.003), but not with the other hippocampal subfield volumes, entorhinal cortex, or total hippocampal volume. A limitation of this study is the small sample size which makes replication necessary. In this exploratory study, we found that an increasing number of major depressive episodes was associated with smaller subiculum volumes in middle-aged and older persons, but not with smaller volumes in other hippocampal subfields or the entorhinal cortex. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural correlates of emotional personality: a structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Skouras, Stavros; Jentschke, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Studies addressing brain correlates of emotional personality have remained sparse, despite the involvement of emotional personality in health and well-being. This study investigates structural and functional brain correlates of psychological and physiological measures related to emotional personality. Psychological measures included neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness scores, as assessed using a standard personality questionnaire. As a physiological measure we used a cardiac amplitude signature, the so-called E κ value (computed from the electrocardiogram) which has previously been related to tender emotionality. Questionnaire scores and E κ values were related to both functional (eigenvector centrality mapping, ECM) and structural (voxel-based morphometry, VBM) neuroimaging data. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were obtained from 22 individuals (12 females) while listening to music (joy, fear, or neutral music). ECM results showed that agreeableness scores correlated with centrality values in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens). Individuals with higher E κ values (indexing higher tender emotionality) showed higher centrality values in the subiculum of the right hippocampal formation. Structural MRI data from an independent sample of 59 individuals (34 females) showed that neuroticism scores correlated with volume of the left amygdaloid complex. In addition, individuals with higher E κ showed larger gray matter volume in the same portion of the subiculum in which individuals with higher E κ showed higher centrality values. Our results highlight a role of the amygdala in neuroticism. Moreover, they indicate that a cardiac signature related to emotionality (E κ) correlates with both function (increased network centrality) and structure (grey matter volume) of the subiculum of the hippocampal formation, suggesting a role of the hippocampal formation for

  10. High-resolution fMRI of Content-sensitive Subsequent Memory Responses in Human Medial Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Alison R.; Bornstein, Aaron M.; Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Gaare, Meghan E.; Glover, Gary H.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    The essential role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in long-term memory for individual events is well established, yet important questions remain regarding the mnemonic functions of the component structures that constitute the region. Within the hippocampus, recent functional neuroimaging findings suggest that formation of new memories depends on the den tate gyrus and the CA3 field, whereas the contribution of the subiculum may be limited to retrieval. During encoding, it has been further hypothesized that structures within MTL cortex contribute to encoding in a content-sensitive manner, whereas hippocampal structures may contribute to encoding in a more domain-general manner. In the current experiment, high-resolution fMRI techniques were utilized to assess novelty and subsequent memory effects in MTL subregions for two classes of stimuli—faces and scenes. During scanning, participants performed an incidental encoding (target detection) task with novel and repeated faces and scenes. Subsequent recognition memory was indexed for the novel stimuli encountered during scanning. Analyses revealed voxels sensitive to both novel faces and novel scenes in all MTL regions. However, similar percentages of voxels were sensitive to novel faces and scenes in perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex, and a combined region comprising the dentate gyrus, CA2, and CA3, whereas parahippocampal cortex, CA1, and subiculum demonstrated greater sensitivity to novel scene stimuli. Paralleling these findings, subsequent memory effects in perirhinal cortex were observed for both faces and scenes, with the magnitude of encoding activation being related to later memory strength, as indexed by a graded response tracking recognition confidence, whereas subsequent memory effects were scene-selective in parahippocampal cortex. Within the hippocampus, encoding activation in the subiculum correlated with subsequent memory for both stimulus classes, with the magnitude of encoding activation varying

  11. Early Development of Parvalbumin-, Somatostatin-, and Cholecystokinin-Expressing Neurons in Rat Brain following Prenatal Immune Activation and Maternal Iron Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boksa, Patricia; Zhang, Ying; Nouel, Dominique; Wong, Alice; Wong, Tak Pan

    2016-01-01

    Prenatal maternal infection and maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy are 2 early environmental insults associated with increased risk for schizophrenia in offspring. Substantial evidence suggests that abnormalities in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneuron function, especially in the parvalbumin subtype of GABA interneuron, both developmentally and in adulthood, may contribute mechanistically to cognitive deficits and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This study used a rat model to test whether prenatal immune activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; at gestation days, GD, 15 and 16) or maternal iron deficiency (from GD2 to postnatal day P7) or the combination of both insults alters major subtypes of GABAergic interneurons (parvalbumin, somatostatin, cholecystokinin) in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia (medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus, ventral subiculum) in offspring at P14 or P28. Prenatal LPS treatment significantly increased the density of parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons at P14 in the medial PFC, dorsolateral PFC, and ventral subiculum of offspring born from iron-sufficient but not iron-deficient dams. Prenatal LPS also increased cholecystokinin neuron density in the medial PFC at P28, under both iron-sufficient and iron-deficient conditions. We observed a large increase in parvalbumin neuron density from P14 to P28 in the medial PFC and subiculum across all birth groups, that was not observed in other brain regions, and significant decreases in somatostatin neuron density from P14 to P28 in all brain regions examined across all birth groups, indicating differential developmental trajectories for parvalbumin and somatostatin neurons in various brain regions during this early postnatal period. Thus, it appears that the medial PFC and ventral subiculum, brain regions involved in circuitry modulating ventral tegmental dopamine and nucleus accumbens activities, may be regions vulnerable

  12. Selective Silencing of Hippocampal Parvalbumin Interneurons Induces Development of Recurrent Spontaneous Limbic Seizures in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, Meinrad; Romanov, Roman A; Wood, James; Weger, Stefan; Heilbronn, Regine; Wulff, Peer; Tasan, Ramon O; Harkany, Tibor; Sperk, Günther

    2017-08-23

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent form of focal epilepsies and is generally associated with malfunctioning of the hippocampal formation. Recently, a preferential loss of parvalbumin (PV) neurons has been observed in the subiculum of TLE patients and in animal models of TLE. To demonstrate a possible causative role of defunct PV neurons in the generation of TLE, we permanently inhibited GABA release selectively from PV neurons of the ventral subiculum by injecting a viral vector expressing tetanus toxin light chain in male mice. Subsequently, mice were subjected to telemetric EEG recording and video monitoring. Eighty-eight percent of the mice presented clusters of spike-wave discharges (C-SWDs; 40.0 ± 9.07/month), and 64% showed spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs; 5.3 ± 0.83/month). Mice injected with a control vector presented with neither C-SWDs nor SRSs. No neurodegeneration was observed due to vector injection or SRS. Interestingly, mice that presented with only C-SWDs but no SRSs, developed SRSs upon injection of a subconvulsive dose of pentylenetetrazole after 6 weeks. The initial frequency of SRSs declined by ∼30% after 5 weeks. In contrast to permanent silencing of PV neurons, transient inhibition of GABA release from PV neurons through the designer receptor hM4Di selectively expressed in PV-containing neurons transiently reduced the seizure threshold of the mice but induced neither acute nor recurrent seizures. Our data demonstrate a critical role for perisomatic inhibition mediated by PV-containing interneurons, suggesting that their sustained silencing could be causally involved in the development of TLE.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) generally takes years after an initial insult during which maladaptation of hippocampal circuitries takes place. In human TLE and in animal models of TLE, parvalbumin neurons are selectively lost in the subiculum, the major output area of the hippocampus. The present

  13. Correlation between oxytocin neuronal sensitivity and oxytocin receptor binding: An electrophysiological and autoradiographical study comparing rat and guinea pig hippocampus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, M.; Tribollet, E.; Dubois-Dauphin, M.; Dreifuss, J.J. (Univ. Medical Center, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1989-01-01

    In transverse hippocampal slices from rat and guinea pig brains, the authors obtained unitary extracellular recordings from nonpyramidal neurones located in or near the stratum pyramidale in the CA1 field and in the transition region between the CA1 and the subiculum. In rats, these neurones responded to oxytocin at 50-1,000 nM by a reversible increase in firing rate. The oxytocin-induced excitation was suppressed by a synthetic structural analogue that acts as a potent, selective antioxytocic on peripheral receptors. Nonpyramidal neurones were also excited by carbachol at 0.5-10 {mu}M. The effect of this compound was postsynaptic and was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine. In guinea pigs, by contrast, nonpyramidal neurones were unaffected by oxytocin, although they were excited by carbachol. Light microscopic autoradiography, carried out using a radioiodinated selective antioxytocic as a ligand, revealed labeling in the subiculum and in the CA1 area of the hippocampus of rats, whereas no oxytocin-binding sites were detected in the hippocampus of guinea pigs. The results indicate (i) that a hippocampal action of oxytocin is species-dependent and (ii) that a positive correlation exists between neuronal responsiveness to oxytocin and the presence in the hippocampus of high-affinity binding sites for this peptide.

  14. Sub-regional hippocampal injury is associated with fornix degeneration in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Young Lee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined in vivo evidence of axonal degeneration in association with neuronal pathology in Alzheimer’s disease (AD through analysis of fornix microstructural integrity and measures of hippocampal subfield atrophy. Based on known anatomical topography, we hypothesized that the local thickness of subiculum and CA1 hippocampus fields would be associated with fornix integrity, reflecting an association between AD-related injury to hippocampal neurons and degeneration of associated axon fibers. To test this hypothesis, multi-modal imaging, combining measures of local hippocampal radii with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, was applied to 44 individuals clinically diagnosed with AD, 44 individuals clinically diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and 96 cognitively normal individuals. Fornix microstructural degradation, as measured by reduced DTI-based fractional anisotropy (FA, was prominent in both MCI and AD, and was associated with reduced hippocampal volumes. Further, reduced fornix FA was associated with reduced anterior CA1 and antero-medial subiculum thickness. Finally, while both lesser fornix FA and lesser hippocampal volume were associated with lesser episodic memory, only the hippocampal measures were significant predictors of episodic memory in models including both hippocampal and fornix predictors. The region-specific association between fornix integrity and hippocampal neuronal death may provide in vivo evidence for degenerative white matter injury in AD: axonal pathology that is closely linked to neuronal injury.

  15. Cell-Type-Specific Circuit Connectivity of Hippocampal CA1 Revealed through Cre-Dependent Rabies Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and applied a Cre-dependent, genetically modified rabies-based tracing system to map direct synaptic connections to specific CA1 neuron types in the mouse hippocampus. We found common inputs to excitatory and inhibitory CA1 neurons from CA3, CA2, the entorhinal cortex (EC, the medial septum (MS, and, unexpectedly, the subiculum. Excitatory CA1 neurons receive inputs from both cholinergic and GABAergic MS neurons, whereas inhibitory neurons receive a great majority of inputs from GABAergic MS neurons. Both cell types also receive weaker input from glutamatergic MS neurons. Comparisons of inputs to CA1 PV+ interneurons versus SOM+ interneurons showed similar strengths of input from the subiculum, but PV+ interneurons received much stronger input than SOM+ neurons from CA3, the EC, and the MS. Thus, rabies tracing identifies hippocampal circuit connections and maps how the different input sources to CA1 are distributed with different strengths on each of its constituent cell types.

  16. The physiological phosphorylation of tau is critically changed in fetal brains of individuals with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, I; Jarc, J; Dassler, E; Aronica, E; Iyer, A; Adle-Biassette, H; Scharrer, A; Reischer, T; Hainfellner, J A; Kovacs, G G

    2017-04-28

    Down syndrome (DS) is a common cause of mental retardation accompanied by cognitive impairment. Comprehensive studies suggested a link between development and ageing, as nearly all individuals with DS develop Alzheimer disease (AD)-like pathology. However, there is still a paucity of data on tau in early DS to support this notion. Using morphometric immunohistochemistry we compared tau phosphorylation in normal brains and in brains of individuals with DS from early development until early postnatal life. We observed in DS a critical loss of physiological phosphorylation of tau. Rhombencephalic structures showed prominent differences between controls and DS using antibodies AT8 (Ser-202/Thr-205) and AT180 (Thr-231). In contrast, in the subiculum only a small portion of controls deviated from DS using antibodies AT100 (Thr-212/Ser-214) and AT270 (Thr-181). With exception of the subiculum, phosphorylation-independent tau did not differ between groups, as confirmed by immunostaining for the HT-7 antibody (epitope between 159 and 163 of the human tau) as well. Our observations suggest functional tau disturbance in DS brains during development, rather than axonal loss. This supports the role of tau as a further important player in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in DS and related AD. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  17. Dancing or Fitness Sport? The Effects of Two Training Programs on Hippocampal Plasticity and Balance Abilities in Healthy Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfeld, Kathrin; Müller, Patrick; Aye, Norman; Schmicker, Marlen; Dordevic, Milos; Kaufmann, Jörn; Hökelmann, Anita; Müller, Notger G

    2017-01-01

    Age-related degenerations in brain structure are associated with balance disturbances and cognitive impairment. However, neuroplasticity is known to be preserved throughout lifespan and physical training studies with seniors could reveal volume increases in the hippocampus (HC), a region crucial for memory consolidation, learning and navigation in space, which were related to improvements in aerobic fitness. Moreover, a positive correlation between left HC volume and balance performance was observed. Dancing seems a promising intervention for both improving balance and brain structure in the elderly. It combines aerobic fitness, sensorimotor skills and cognitive demands while at the same time the risk of injuries is low. Hence, the present investigation compared the effects of an 18-month dancing intervention and traditional health fitness training on volumes of hippocampal subfields and balance abilities. Before and after intervention, balance was evaluated using the Sensory Organization Test and HC volumes were derived from magnetic resonance images (3T, MP-RAGE). Fourteen members of the dance (67.21 ± 3.78 years, seven females), and 12 members of the fitness group (68.67 ± 2.57 years, five females) completed the whole study. Both groups revealed hippocampal volume increases mainly in the left HC (CA1, CA2, subiculum). The dancers showed additional increases in the left dentate gyrus and the right subiculum. Moreover, only the dancers achieved a significant increase in the balance composite score. Hence, dancing constitutes a promising candidate in counteracting the age-related decline in physical and mental abilities.

  18. Associations between hippocampal morphometry and neuropathologic markers of Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Blanken

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal atrophy, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles are established pathologic markers of Alzheimer's disease. We analyzed the temporal lobes of 9 Alzheimer's dementia (AD and 7 cognitively normal (NC subjects. Brains were scanned post-mortem at 7 Tesla. We extracted hippocampal volumes and radial distances using automated segmentation techniques. Hippocampal slices were stained for amyloid beta (Aβ, tau, and cresyl violet to evaluate neuronal counts. The hippocampal subfields, CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4, and subiculum were manually traced so that the neuronal counts, Aβ, and tau burden could be obtained for each region. We used linear regression to detect associations between hippocampal atrophy in 3D, clinical diagnosis and total as well as subfield pathology burden measures. As expected, we found significant correlations between hippocampal radial distance and mean neuronal count, as well as diagnosis. There were subfield specific associations between hippocampal radial distance and tau in CA2, and cresyl violet neuronal counts in CA1 and subiculum. These results provide further validation for the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Center Harmonized Hippocampal Segmentation Protocol (HarP.

  19. Electrode location and clinical outcome in hippocampal electrical stimulation for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondallaz, Percy; Boëx, Colette; Rossetti, Andrea O; Foletti, Giovanni; Spinelli, Laurent; Vulliemoz, Serge; Seeck, Margitta; Pollo, Claudio

    2013-06-01

    To study the clinical outcome in hippocampal deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) according to the electrode location. Eight MTLE patients implanted in the hippocampus and stimulated with high-frequency DBS were included in this study. Five underwent invasive recordings with depth electrodes to localize ictal onset zone prior to chronic DBS. Position of the active contacts of the electrode was calculated on postoperative imaging. The distances to the ictal onset zone were measured as well as atlas-based hippocampus structures impacted by stimulation were identified. Both were correlated with seizure frequency reduction. The distances between active electrode location and estimated ictal onset zone were 11±4.3 or 9.1±2.3mm for patients with a >50% or 50% seizure frequency reduction, 100% had the active contacts located 3mm to the subiculum. Decrease of epileptogenic activity induced by hippocampal DBS in refractory MTLE: (1) seems not directly associated with the vicinity of active electrode to the ictal focus determined by invasive recordings; (2) might be obtained through the neuromodulation of the subiculum. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Spatial Cognition and Episodic Memory Formation in the Limbic Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2017-04-01

    The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex. Areas 35 and 36 roughly cover the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. Areas 24, 25, 32, and 33 belong to the anterior cingulate gyrus, while areas 23, 26, 29, 30, and 31 to the posterior cingulate gyrus. Areas 25, 32, and the anteroinferior portion of area 24 are deeply involved in emotional responses, particularly in their autonomic functions, through reciprocal connections with the amygdaloid complex, anterior thalamus and projections to the brainstem and spinal visceral centers. Areas 29 and 30 have dense reciprocal connections with areas 23 and 31, the dorsolateral prefrontal areas, and the regions related to the hippocampus. They play pivotal roles in mediating spatial cognition, working memory processing, and episodic memory formation.

  1. A limited positioning system for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Matthew

    2015-06-01

    The 2014 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine is an enormous triumph for John O'Keefe and May-Britt and Edvard Moser and an historic event for cognitive and behavioral neuroscience. Neuronal representations decoded from action potentials form a mechanistic bridge between brain and mind and demonstrate the continuity of psychology with biology and physical science. The cognitive map theory powered an ongoing, international research program inspired by Hebb (The Organization of Behavior. New York, NY: Wiley) that showed the way toward linking specific patterns of neuronal activity to high level representation and processing. The prize celebrates a path that led from fundamental, philosophical questions about psychological space to enduring, scientific facts: place, head direction, grid, and boundary fields in the hippocampus, presubiculum, entorhinal cortex, and other brain circuits provide a cellular basis for spatial behavior, learning, and memory. By awarding this prize, the Nobel committee affirmed neuroethology and comparative psychology, marked the end of a chapter in one debate about the existence of animal cognition, and recognized cognitive neurophysiology. The "inner GPS" in the brain" demonstrates "a cellular basis for higher cognitive function." Animals represent, process, and use information defined by abstract relationships among items (O'Keefe and Conway,) to guide flexible, goal-directed actions. Beyond raising the ontological status of "animal mind," the committee agreed that abstract mental representations can be investigated rigorously by recording single unit activity in the brain of behaving animals. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The association of brain structure with gait velocity in older adults: a quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Ali [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Katz, Mindy J. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Michael L. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, The Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center and Departments of Radiology, Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences and the Dominick P. Purpura Department of Neuroscience, Bronx, NY (United States); Montefiore Medical Center, The Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Lipton, Richard B. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Bronx, NY (United States); Verghese, Joe [Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Saul B. Korey Department of Neurology, Bronx, NY (United States); Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Division of Cognitive and Motor Aging, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    While cortical processes play an important role in controlling locomotion, the underlying structural brain changes associated with slowing of gait in aging are not yet fully established. Our study aimed to examine the relationship between cortical gray matter volume (GM), white matter volume (WM), ventricular volume (VV), hippocampal and hippocampal subfield volumes, and gait velocity in older adults free of dementia. Gait and cognitive performance was tested in 112 community-residing adults, age 70 years and over, participating in the Einstein Aging Study. Gait velocity (cm/s) was obtained using an instrumented walkway. Volumetric MRI measures were estimated using a FreeSurfer software. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of GM, WM, VV, and hippocampal total and subfield volumes and gait velocity using linear regression models. In complementary models, the effect of memory performance on the relationship between gait velocity and regional volumes was evaluated. Slower gait velocity was associated with smaller cortical GM and total hippocampal volumes. There was no association between gait velocity and WM or VV. Among hippocampal subfields, only smaller presubiculum volume was significantly associated with decrease in gait velocity. Addition of the memory performance to the models attenuated the association between gait velocity and all volumetric measures. Our findings indicate that total GM and hippocampal volumes as well as specific hippocampal subfield volumes are inversely associated with locomotor function. These associations are probably affected by cognitive status of study population. (orig.)

  3. Region-specific alterations in glucocorticoid receptor expression in the postmortem brain of teenage suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ghanshyam N; Rizavi, Hooriyah S; Ren, Xinguo; Dwivedi, Yogesh; Palkovits, Miklós

    2013-11-01

    Abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and suicide. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reported dysregulation of the HPA axis in suicide may be related to a disturbed feedback inhibition caused by decreased corticoid receptors in the brain. We therefore determined the protein and gene expression of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the postmortem brain of teenage suicide victims and matched normal controls. Protein and mRNA expression of GR (GR-α and GR-β) and MR and the mRNA expression of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), a target gene for GR were determined by immunolabeling using Western blot technique and the real-time RT-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus, subiculum, and amygdala obtained from 24 teenage suicide victims and 24 teenage control subjects. We observed that protein and gene expression of GR-α was significantly decreased in the PFC and amygdala, but not in the hippocampus or subiculum, of teenage suicide victims compared with normal control subjects. Also, the mRNA levels of GR inducible target gene GILZ was significantly decreased in PFC and amygdaloid nuclei but not in hippocampus compared with controls. In contrast, no significant differences were observed in protein or gene expression of MR in any of the areas studied between teenage suicide victims and normal control subjects. There was no difference in the expression of GR-β in the PFC between suicide victims and normal controls. These results suggested that the observed dysregulation of the HPA axis in suicide may be related to a decreased expression of GR-α and GR inducible genes in the PFC and amygdala of teenage suicide victims. The reason why GR receptors are not dysregulated in the hippocampus or subiculum, presumably two sites of stress action, are not clear at this time. Copyright

  4. Associations of hippocampal subfields in the progression of cognitive decline related to Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Heidi; Mak, Elijah; Chander, Russell Jude; Ng, Aloysius; Au, Wing Lok; Sitoh, Yih Yian; Tan, Louis C S; Kandiah, Nagaendran

    2017-01-01

    Hippocampal atrophy has been associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, literature on how hippocampal atrophy affects the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment in PD has been limited. Previous studies assessed the hippocampus as an entire entity instead of their individual subregions. We studied the progression of cognitive status in PD subjects over 18 in relation to hippocampal subfields atrophy. 65 PD subjects were included. Using the MDS task force criteria, PD subjects were classified as either having no cognitive impairment (PD-NCI) or PD-MCI. We extended the study by investigating the hippocampal subfields atrophy patterns in those who converted from PD-NCI to PD-MCI (PD-converters) compared to those who remained cognitively stable (PD-stable) over 18 months. Freesurfer 6.0 was used to perform the automated segmentation of the hippocampus into thirteen subregions. PD-MCI showed lower baseline volumes in the left fimbria, right CA1, and right HATA; and lower global cognition scores compared to PD-NCI. Baseline right CA1 was also correlated with baseline attention. Over 18 months, decline in volumes of CA2-3 and episodic memory were also seen in PD-converters compared to PD-stable. Baseline volumes of GC-DG, right CA4, left parasubiculum, and left HATA were predictive of the conversion from PD-NCI to PD-MCI. The findings from this study add to the anatomical knowledge of hippocampal subregions in PD, allowing us to understand the unique functional contribution of each subfield. Structural changes in the hippocampus subfields could be early biomarkers to detect cognitive impairment in PD.

  5. Amnesia in Frontotemporal Dementia with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Masquerading Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yamanami-Irioka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A 68-year-old man with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD later developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, which was confirmed at autopsy at age 72 years. Because neuronal loss and AD-type pathologies (Braak stage II for neurofibrillary tangles were scant, TDP-43-positive intracytoplasmic inclusions in hippocampal dentate granular cells and in neurons in the subiculum and amygdala, even though small in amount, may represent the earliest lesions of ALS-related dementia and could be the cause of dementia in this patient. Although the persistent elevation of creatine kinase from the onset could be a pointer to the presence of motor involvement, more accurate characterization of dementia, which may differentiate ALS-related dementia and AD, is necessary.

  6. Quantitative Comparison of 21 Protocols for Labeling Hippocampal Subfields and Parahippocampal Cortical Subregions in In Vivo MRI: Towards Developing a Harmonized Segmentation Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Amaral, Robert S.C.; Augustinack, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    of guiding subsequent work on developing a harmonized substructure segmentation protocol. Method: MRI scans of a single healthy adult human subject were acquired both at 3 T and 7 T. Representatives from 21 research groups applied their respective manual segmentation protocols to the MRI modalities......Objective: An increasing number of human in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have focused on examining the structure and function of the subfields of the hippocampal formation (the dentate gyrus, CA fields 1 − 3, and the subiculum) and subregions of the parahippocampal gyrus...... of structures and use different rules, landmarks, and cues to define their anatomical extents. This paper characterizes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the variability in the existing manual segmentation protocols for labeling hippocampal and parahippocampal substructures in MRI, with the goal...

  7. Prefrontal-hippocampal interactions in memory and emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingji eJin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The hippocampal formation (HPC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC have well-established roles in memory encoding and retrieval. However, the mechanisms underlying interactions between the HPC and mPFC in achieving these functions is not fully understood. Considerable research supports the idea that a direct pathway from the HPC and subiculum to the mPFC is critically involved in cognitive and emotional regulation of mnemonic processes. More recently, evidence has emerged that an indirect pathway from the HPC to the mPFC via midline thalamic nucleus reuniens (RE may plays a role in spatial and emotional memory processing. Here we will consider how bidirectional interactions between the HPC and mPFC are involved in working memory, episodic memory and emotional memory in animals and humans. We will also consider how dysfunctions in bidirectional HPC-mPFC pathways contribute to psychiatric disorders.

  8. Dopamine System Dysregulation in Major Depressive Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Anthony A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Anhedonia is considered a core feature of major depressive disorder, and the dopamine system plays a pivotal role in the hedonic deficits described in this disorder. Dopaminergic activity is complex and under the regulation of multiple brain structures, including the ventral subiculum of the hippocampus and the basolateral amygdala. Whereas basic and clinical studies demonstrate deficits of the dopaminergic system in depression, the origin of these deficits likely lies in dysregulation of its regulatory afferent circuits. This review explores the current information regarding the afferent modulation of the dopaminergic system and its relevance to major depressive disorder, as well as some of the system-level effects of novel antidepressants such as agomelatine and ketamine. PMID:29106542

  9. Chronic Hypertension Leads to Neurodegeneration in the TgSwDI Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruyer, Anna; Soplop, Nadine; Strickland, Sidney; Norris, Erin H

    2015-07-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies link vascular disorders, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and stroke, with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hypertension, specifically, is an important modifiable risk factor for late-onset AD. To examine the link between midlife hypertension and the onset of AD later in life, we chemically induced chronic hypertension in the TgSwDI mouse model of AD in early adulthood. Hypertension accelerated cognitive deficits in the Barnes maze test (Phypertension induced hippocampal neurodegeneration at an early age in this mouse line (43% reduction in the dorsal subiculum; P<0.05), establishing this as a useful research model of AD with mixed vascular and amyloid pathologies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Update on Hippocampal Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Juliana R; Cortés, Etty P; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G

    2015-10-01

    The diagnostic hallmarks of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) are severe volume loss of the hippocampus, severe neuronal loss, and reactive gliosis involving primarily two especially vulnerable fields, CA1 and the subiculum. Occasionally, HS may be the only neuropathological change detected in older individuals with dementia and is known as pure HS. In the majority of cases, HS occurs in the setting of other degenerative changes, usually Alzheimer's disease (AD). In these cases, it is classified as combined HS. Although a clinical profile for HS has been identified, its similarities with AD make the diagnosis during life quite challenging; thus, the diagnosis is often made postmortem. The pathogenesis of HS is not completely understood, but the strong association with transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), in approximately 90%, and the recent discovery of genetic risk factors are important contributions to a better understanding of the disease process.

  11. Long-lasting modification of intrinsic discharge properties in subicular neurons following status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmer, Jörg; Su, Hailing; Beck, Heinz; Yaari, Yoel

    2002-07-01

    A single episode of status epilepticus (SE) induces neuropathological changes in the brain that may lead to the development of a permanent epileptic condition. Most studies of this plasticity have focused on the hippocampus, where both synaptic function and intrinsic neuronal excitability have been shown to be persistently modified by SE. However, many other brain structures are activated during SE and may also be involved in the subsequent epileptogenic process. Here we have investigated whether SE, induced in rats with pilocarpine and terminated after 40 min with diazepam, persistently modifies the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons in the subiculum. Subicular slices were prepared from control and SE-experienced rats (2-5 weeks after SE). In the control group, only 4% of the neurons fired bursts in response to intrasomatic, threshold-straddling depolarizing current pulses (low-threshold bursters). The remaining neurons either fired bursts in response to strong (3x threshold) depolarizations (35%; high-threshold bursters) or fired in a completely regular mode (61%; nonbursters). In the SE-experienced group, the fractions of low- and high-threshold bursters markedly increased to 29% and 53%, respectively. This change in firing behaviour was associated with a marked increase in the size of the spike after depolarization, particularly in low-threshold bursters. Experimental suppression of Ca2+ currents selectively blocked low-threshold bursting but did not affect high-threshold bursting, suggesting that a dual Ca2+- dependent and Ca2+- independent mechanism controls bursting in these neurons. The persistent up-regulation of intrinsic bursting in the subiculum, in concert with similar changes in the hippocampus, undoubtedly contributes to epileptogenesis following pilocarpine-induced SE.

  12. Hippocampal morphology and distinguishing late-onset from early-onset elderly depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmaier, Martina; Narr, Katherine L; Toga, Arthur W; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Thompson, Paul M; Hamilton, Liberty; Haroon, Ebrahim; Pham, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas; Kumar, Anand

    2008-02-01

    Despite evidence for hippocampal abnormalities in elderly depression, it is unknown whether these changes are regionally specific. This study used three-dimensional mapping techniques to identify regional hippocampal abnormalities in early- and late-onset depression. Neuropsychological correlates of hippocampal morphology were also investigated. With high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, hippocampal morphology was compared among elderly patients with early- (N=24) and late-onset (N=22) depression and comparison subjects (N=34). Regional structural abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous hippocampal surface points to the central core of each individual's hippocampal surface model, between groups. Hippocampal volumes differed between depressed patients and comparison subjects but not between patients with early- and late-onset depression. However, statistical mapping results showed that regional surface contractions were significantly pronounced in late- compared to early-onset depression in the anterior of the subiculum and lateral posterior of the CA1 subfield in the left hemisphere. Significant shape differences were observed bilaterally in anterior CA1-CA3 subfields and the subiculum in patients in relation to comparison subjects. These results were similar when each disease group was separately compared to comparison subjects. Hippocampal surface contractions significantly correlated with memory measures among late- but not early-onset depressed patients or comparison subjects. More pronounced regional volume deficits and their associations with memory in late-onset depression may suggest that these patients are more likely to develop cognitive impairment over time than individuals with early-onset depression. Mapping regional hippocampal abnormalities and their cognitive correlates may help guide research in defining risk profiles and treatment strategies.

  13. Assessment of PET & ASL metabolism in the hippocampal subfields of MCI and AD using simultaneous PET-MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goubran, Maged; Douglas, David; Chao, Steven; Quon, Andrew; Tripathi, Pragya; Holley, Dawn; Vasanawala, Minal; Zaharchuk, Greg; Zeineh, Michael [Stanford University (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been reported to show decreased metabolic activity in the hippocampus using FDG PET-MR. Histological data suggests that the hippocampal subfields are selectively affected in AD. Given the simultaneous imaging nature of integrated PET-MR scanners and the multimodal capabilities of PET-MR, our purpose here is to assess FDG activity, as well as ASL perfusion in the subfields of MCI and AD patients. 10 consecutive subjects were recruited for this study 3 MCI, 3 AD patients and 4 age-matched controls. The scanning was performed on a simultaneous 3T PET/MR scanner. To delineate the hippocampal subfields, automatic segmentation of hippocampal subfields (ASHS) was employed. Static FDG-PET series were reconstructed for analysis at 45-75 min for all subjects. All imaging sequences were automatically registered to the oblique coronal T2-weighted images (segmentation space). PET standardized uptake values (SUV) in the hippocampal subfields were normalized by the pons. FDG PET metabolism was reduced significantly in AD, as well as MCI patients as compared to controls, with the highest effect demonstrated in the CA3/DG and CA1/2 (p = 0.047, subfields. Patients (MCI and AD combined) had decreased metabolism as compared to controls in CA1/2 and significantly smaller volumes the Subiculum. When assessing CBF across groups, a significant decrease in CBF was found in the Subiculum. Our preliminary results demonstrate that PET-MRI may potentially be a sensitive biomarker and tool for early diagnosis of AD. They also confirm the importance of assessing metabolic and structural changes of neurodegenerative diseases at the subfield level.

  14. Amphetamine sensitisation and memory in healthy human volunteers: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Daly, Owen G; Joyce, Daniel; Tracy, Derek K; Stephan, Klaas E; Murray, Robin M; Shergill, Sukhwinder

    2014-09-01

    Amphetamine sensitisation (AS) is an established animal model of the hypersensitivity to psychostimulants seen in patients with schizophrenia. AS also models the dysregulation of mesolimbic dopamine signalling which has been implicated in the development of psychotic symptoms. Recent data suggest that the enhanced excitability of mesolimbic dopamine neurons in AS is driven by a hyperactivity of hippocampal (subiculum) neurons, consistent with a strong association between hippocampal dysfunction and schizophrenia. While AS can be modelled in human volunteers, its functional consequences on dopaminoceptive brain regions (i.e. striatum and hippocampus) remains unclear. Here we describe the effects of a sensitising dosage pattern of dextroamphetamine on the neural correlates of motor sequence learning in healthy volunteers, within a randomised, double-blind, parallel-groups design. Behaviourally, sensitisation was characterised by enhanced subjective responses to amphetamine but did not change performance (i.e. learning rate) during an explicit sequence learning task. In contrast, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements showed that repeated intermittent amphetamine exposure was associated with increased blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal within the medial temporal lobe (MTL) (subiculum/entorhinal cortex) and midbrain, in the vicinity of the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA) during sequence encoding. Importantly, MTL hyperactivity correlated with the sensitisation of amphetamine-induced attentiveness. The MTL-midbrain hyperactivity reported here mirrors observations in sensitised rodents and is consistent with contemporary models of schizophrenia and behavioural sensitisation. These findings of meso-hippocampal hyperactivity during AS thus link pathophysiological concepts of dopamine dysregulation to cognitive models of psychosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Exposure to short photoperiod regime reduces ventral subicular lesion-induced anxiety-like behavior in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadeep, Duttagupta; Srikumar, B N; Shankaranarayana Rao, B S; Kutty, Bindu M

    2017-03-01

    Neurodegeneration of hippocampal structures is implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD exhibit 'sundown syndrome' featuring mood swings and anxiety. Although there are studies demonstrating circadian rhythm disruption associated with sundown phenomenon, the mechanisms underlying the emotional disturbances remain elusive. In the present study, we examined the relationship between subiculum (a key hippocampal output structure) and anxiety. Our study demonstrates that bilateral ventral subicular lesion (VSL) leads to anxiogenic behavior. In the elevated plus maze test, VSL rats made less number of entries into the open arms and spent significantly more time in the closed arms. Similarly, in the light-dark exploration test, VSL rats spent significantly more time in the dark chamber and made fewer entries into the light chamber. VSL also produced significant neurodegeneration in the paraventricular, suprachiasmatic and dorsomedial nuclei of the hypothalamus. Exposing VSL rats to a short photoperiod regime (SPR; 06/18h light-dark cycle) for 21days ameliorated the anxiety-like behavior. VSL rats on SPR also exhibited increased food consumption and higher core body temperature. Our study supports the hypothesis that the ventral subiculum regulates anxiety-like behavior and that SPR helps in the alleviation of such behavior. Even though the mechanisms underlying anxiolytic effects of light-dark cycle manipulation are yet to be elucidated, such non-pharmacological strategies can help to mitigate anxiety-like behavior. A proper understanding of the effectiveness of photoperiod manipulation will help in developing strategies in the management of emotional disturbances associated with affective and neurodegenerative disorders including AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of hippocampal atrophy in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: a 3-Tesla MRI shape.

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    Mumoli, Laura; Labate, Angelo; Vasta, Roberta; Cherubini, Andrea; Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Aguglia, Umberto; Quattrone, Aldo; Gambardella, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    In patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), brain MRI often detects hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Almost half of patients with MTLE do not show any hippocampal damage on visual or volumetric assessment. Here, we wished to prospectively assess 65 patients with MTLE (41 women, mean age: 39±10years, range: 21-69; right (12/65 patients) (MRI-negative) nMTLE; right (14/65 patients) (MRI-positive with HS) pMTLE; left (24/65 patients) nMTLE; and left (15/65 patients) pMTLE) using shape analysis (SA). There were significant differences among pMTLE versus nMTLE for age at seizure onset (20.2±12.8 vs. 31.8±16.7years; p=.0029), duration of epilepsy (14.6±12.7 vs. 21.3±9.6years; p=.0227), risk of refractoriness (p=.0067), frequency of antecedent febrile convulsions (FCs) (pShape analysis of hippocampal formation was conducted comparing each group versus 44 matched controls. In all four subgroups, SA detected a significant atrophy in the corresponding hippocampus that coincided with the epileptogenic area. The damage was significantly more severe in patients with pMTLE (F value: 5.00) than in subgroups with nMTLE (F value: 3.50) and mainly corresponded to the CA1 subregion and subiculum. In the patients with MTLE, SA detects hippocampal damage that lateralizes with the epileptogenic area. Such damage is most prominent in the CA1 subregion and subiculum that are crucial in the pathogenesis of MTLE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anatomical substrates for direct interactions between hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and the thalamic nucleus reuniens

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    Varela, C.; Kumar, S.; Yang, J. Y.; Wilson, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The reuniens nucleus in the midline thalamus projects to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus, and has been suggested to modulate interactions between these regions, such as spindle–ripple correlations during sleep and theta band coherence during exploratory behavior. Feedback from the hippocampus to the nucleus reuniens has received less attention but has the potential to influence thalamocortical networks as a function of hippocampal activation. We used the retrograde tracer cholera toxin B conjugated to two fluorophores to study thalamic projections to the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and to the prelimbic and infralimbic subregions of mPFC. We also examined the feedback connections from the hippocampus to reuniens. The goal was to evaluate the anatomical basis for direct coordination between reuniens, mPFC, and hippocampus by looking for double-labeled cells in reuniens and hippocampus. In confirmation of previous reports, the nucleus reuniens was the origin of most thalamic afferents to the dorsal hippocampus, whereas both reuniens and the lateral dorsal nucleus projected to ventral hippocampus. Feedback from hippocampus to reuniens originated primarily in the dorsal and ventral subiculum. Thalamic cells with collaterals to mPFC and hippocampus were found in reuniens, across its anteroposterior axis, and represented, on average, about 8 % of the labeled cells in reuniens. Hippocampal cells with collaterals to mPFC and reuniens were less common (~1 % of the labeled subicular cells), and located in the molecular layer of the subiculum. The results indicate that a subset of reuniens cells can directly coordinate activity in mPFC and hippocampus. Cells with collaterals in the hippocampus–reuniens–mPFC network may be important for the systems consolidation of memory traces and for theta synchronization during exploratory behavior. PMID:23571778

  18. Quantitative Comparison of 21 Protocols for Labeling Hippocampal Subfields and Parahippocampal Subregions in In Vivo MRI: Towards a Harmonized Segmentation Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkevich, Paul A.; Amaral, Robert S. C.; Augustinack, Jean C.; Bender, Andrew R.; Bernstein, Jeffrey D.; Boccardi, Marina; Bocchetta, Martina; Burggren, Alison C.; Carr, Valerie A.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chetelat, Gael; Daugherty, Ana M.; Davachi, Lila; Ding, Song-Lin; Ekstrom, Arne; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Hassan, Abdul; Huang, Yushan; Iglesias, Eugenio; La Joie, Renaud; Kerchner, Geoffrey A.; LaRocque, Karen F.; Libby, Laura A.; Malykhin, Nikolai; Mueller, Susanne G.; Olsen, Rosanna K.; Palombo, Daniela J.; Parekh, Mansi B; Pluta, John B.; Preston, Alison R.; Pruessner, Jens C.; Ranganath, Charan; Raz, Naftali; Schlichting, Margaret L.; Schoemaker, Dorothee; Singh, Sachi; Stark, Craig E. L.; Suthana, Nanthia; Tompary, Alexa; Turowski, Marta M.; Van Leemput, Koen; Wagner, Anthony D.; Wang, Lei; Winterburn, Julie L.; Wisse, Laura E.M.; Yassa, Michael A.; Zeineh, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE An increasing number of human in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have focused on examining the structure and function of the subfields of the hippocampal formation (the dentate gyrus, CA fields 1–3, and the subiculum) and subregions of the parahippocampal gyrus (entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices). The ability to interpret the results of such studies and to relate them to each other would be improved if a common standard existed for labeling hippocampal subfields and parahippocampal subregions. Currently, research groups label different subsets of structures and use different rules, landmarks, and cues to define their anatomical extents. This paper characterizes, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the variability in the existing manual segmentation protocols for labeling hippocampal and parahippocampal substructures in MRI, with the goal of guiding subsequent work on developing a harmonized substructure segmentation protocol. METHOD MRI scans of a single healthy adult human subject were acquired both at 3 Tesla and 7 Tesla. Representatives from 21 research groups applied their respective manual segmentation protocols to the MRI modalities of their choice. The resulting set of 21 segmentations was analyzed in a common anatomical space to quantify similarity and identify areas of agreement. RESULTS The differences between the 21 protocols include the region within which segmentation is performed, the set of anatomical labels used, and the extents of specific anatomical labels. The greatest overall disagreement among the protocols is at the CA1/subiculum boundary, and disagreement across all structures is greatest in the anterior portion of the hippocampal formation relative to the body and tail. CONCLUSIONS The combined examination of the 21 protocols in the same dataset suggests possible strategies towards developing a harmonized subfield segmentation protocol and facilitates comparison between published studies. PMID

  19. Frequent globular neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in the medial temporal region as a possible characteristic feature in multiple system atrophy with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Taku; Mochizuki, Yoko; Komori, Takashi; Isozaki, Eiji

    2016-10-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized clinically by parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and/or autonomic dysfunction, and pathologically by alpha-synuclein-related multisystem neurodegeneration, so-called alpha-synucleinopathy, which particularly involves the striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar systems, with glial cytoplasmic inclusions and neuronal cytoplasmic/nuclear inclusions (NCIs/NNIs). In the recent consensus criteria for the diagnosis of MSA, dementia is described as one of the features not supporting a diagnosis of MSA. However, MSA with dementia has been reported, although the location of the lesion responsible for the dementia remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate where this lesion may be found, by analyzing 12 autopsy-proven MSA cases, with a particular focus on the medial temporal region. Three of 12 cases with MSA had dementia (MSA-D). Compared with MSA cases without dementia, MSA-D cases had frequent globular NCIs (G-NCIs) in the medial temporal region, especially in their subiculum. In addition, MSA-D cases could be divided into two types; MSA-D with distinct fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (FTLD type) and without distinct fronto-temporal lobar degeneration (non-FTLD type). There was no association between dementia and Alzheimer pathologies, such as neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. We suggest that frequent G-NCIs in the medial temporal region, and particularly the subiculum, is one of the important pathological findings of MSA-D, even when a case with MSA-D reveals no significant cerebral atrophy. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  20. Detection of volume loss in hippocampal layers in Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI: A feasibility study

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    Claire Boutet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, the hippocampus is an early site of tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Histological studies have shown that lesions are not uniformly distributed within the hippocampus. Moreover, alterations of different hippocampal layers may reflect distinct pathological processes. 7 T MRI dramatically improves the visualization of hippocampal subregions and layers. In this study, we aimed to assess whether 7 T MRI can detect volumetric changes in hippocampal layers in vivo in patients with AD. We studied four AD patients and seven control subjects. MR images were acquired using a whole-body 7 T scanner with an eight channel transmit–receive coil. Hippocampal subregions were manually segmented from coronal T2*-weighted gradient echo images with 0.3 × 0.3 × 1.2 mm3 resolution using a protocol that distinguishes between layers richer or poorer in neuronal bodies. Five subregions were segmented in the region of the hippocampal body: alveus, strata radiatum, lacunosum and moleculare (SRLM of the cornu Ammonis (CA, hilum, stratum pyramidale of CA and stratum pyramidale of the subiculum. We found strong bilateral reductions in the SRLM of the cornu Ammonis and in the stratum pyramidale of the subiculum (p < 0.05, with average cross-sectional area reductions ranging from −29% to −49%. These results show that it is possible to detect volume loss in distinct hippocampal layers using segmentation of 7 T MRI. 7 T MRI-based segmentation is a promising tool for AD research.

  1. Conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer disease predicted by hippocampal atrophy maps.

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    Apostolova, Liana G; Dutton, Rebecca A; Dinov, Ivo D; Hayashi, Kiralee M; Toga, Arthur W; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Thompson, Paul M

    2006-05-01

    While most patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) transition to Alzheimer disease (AD), others develop non-AD dementia, remain in the MCI state, or improve. To test the following hypotheses: smaller hippocampal volumes predict conversion of MCI to AD, whereas larger hippocampal volumes predict cognitive stability and/or improvement; and patients with MCI who convert to AD have greater atrophy in the CA1 hippocampal subfield and subiculum. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. University of California-Los Angeles Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. We followed up 20 MCI subjects clinically and neuropsychologically for 3 years. Baseline regional hippocampal atrophy was analyzed with region-of-interest and 3-dimensional hippocampal mapping techniques. During the 3-year study, 6 patients developed AD (MCI-c), 7 remained stable (MCI-nc), and 7 improved (MCI-i). Patients with MCI-c had 9% smaller left and 13% smaller right mean hippocampal volumes compared with MCI-nc patients. Radial atrophy maps showed greater atrophy of the CA1 subregion in MCI-c. Patients with MCI-c had significantly smaller hippocampi than MCI-i patients (left, 24%; right, 27%). Volumetric analyses showed a trend for greater hippocampal atrophy in MCI-nc relative to MCI-i patients (eg, 16% volume loss). After permutation tests corrected for multiple comparison, the atrophy maps showed a significant difference on the right. Subicular differences were seen between MCI-c and MCI-i patients, and MCI-nc and MCI-i patients. Multiple linear regression analysis confirmed the group effect to be highly significant and independent of age, hemisphere, and Mini-Mental State Examination scores at baseline. Smaller hippocampi and specifically CA1 and subicular involvement are associated with increased risk for conversion from MCI to AD. Patients with MCI-i tend to have larger hippocampal volumes and relative preservation of both the subiculum and CA1.

  2. Hippocampal connectivity and Alzheimer's dementia: effects of synapse loss and tangle frequency in a two-component model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, W; Masliah, E; Hill, L R; Butters, N; Terry, R

    1994-11-01

    Our prior research on patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) found a high correspondence between premortem dementia and accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) with concurrent loss of synapse density in several brain regions. In the present study, we examined these same clinicopathologic relationships in the context of seven subregions of the hippocampal formation using a sample of 16 AD patients who had been administered three well-known mental status tests antemortem. We found NFT counts to be most strongly correlated with degree of dementia when they were seen in CA1, the subiculum, and CA4; NFTs in these subregions appeared significantly clustered on factor analysis. Synapse loss was most strongly correlated with dementia when it occurred in the molecular layers of the dentate fasciculus and stratum lacunosum, CA2/3, and CA4; synapse loss in these subregions appeared significantly clustered on factor analysis. In general, these results were compatible with a two-component model of hippocampal connectivity and function in the context of AD. The first component consists of subregions preceding CA1 in a hypothesized input-processing sequence intrinsic to the hippocampus that summates neuronal excitation and that influences cognition primarily through synapse density. The second component consists of an "output module," mainly CA1 and the subiculum, that receives the processed signal, passes it on to extrahippocampal cortical and subcortical targets, and affects cognition primarily by NFT accumulation in output neurons. A "net pathology" score combining standardized z-scores for synapse density and NFTs was significantly correlated with all three mental status measures in all hippocampal subregions except the entorhinal cortex, and stepwise regressions on these data found net pathology in CA4 to be the most independent significant predictor of premortem dementia.

  3. Evaluation of the oscillatory interference model of grid cell firing through analysis and measured period variance of some biological oscillators.

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    Eric A Zilli

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Models of the hexagonally arrayed spatial activity pattern of grid cell firing in the literature generally fall into two main categories: continuous attractor models or oscillatory interference models. Burak and Fiete (2009, PLoS Comput Biol recently examined noise in two continuous attractor models, but did not consider oscillatory interference models in detail. Here we analyze an oscillatory interference model to examine the effects of noise on its stability and spatial firing properties. We show analytically that the square of the drift in encoded position due to noise is proportional to time and inversely proportional to the number of oscillators. We also show there is a relatively fixed breakdown point, independent of many parameters of the model, past which noise overwhelms the spatial signal. Based on this result, we show that a pair of oscillators are expected to maintain a stable grid for approximately t = 5mu(3/(4pisigma(2 seconds where mu is the mean period of an oscillator in seconds and sigma(2 its variance in seconds(2. We apply this criterion to recordings of individual persistent spiking neurons in postsubiculum (dorsal presubiculum and layers III and V of entorhinal cortex, to subthreshold membrane potential oscillation recordings in layer II stellate cells of medial entorhinal cortex and to values from the literature regarding medial septum theta bursting cells. All oscillators examined have expected stability times far below those seen in experimental recordings of grid cells, suggesting the examined biological oscillators are unfit as a substrate for current implementations of oscillatory interference models. However, oscillatory interference models can tolerate small amounts of noise, suggesting the utility of circuit level effects which might reduce oscillator variability. Further implications for grid cell models are discussed.

  4. Mapping local hippocampal changes in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing with MRI at 3 Tesla.

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    Frisoni, Giovanni B; Ganzola, Rossana; Canu, Elisa; Rüb, Udo; Pizzini, Francesca B; Alessandrini, Franco; Zoccatelli, Giada; Beltramello, Alberto; Caltagirone, Carlo; Thompson, Paul M

    2008-12-01

    Histological studies have suggested differing involvement of the hippocampal subfields in ageing and in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to assess in vivo local hippocampal changes in ageing and Alzheimer's disease based on high resolution MRI at 3 Tesla. T(1)-weighted images were acquired from 19 Alzheimer's disease patients [age 76 +/- 6 years, three males, Mini-Mental State Examination 13 +/- 4] and 19 controls (age 74 +/- 5 years, 11 males, Mini-Mental State Examination 29 +/- 1). The hippocampal formation was isolated by manual tracing. Radial atrophy mapping was used to assess group differences and correlations by averaging hippocampal shapes across subjects using 3D parametric surface mesh models. Percentage difference, Pearson's r, and significance maps were produced. Hippocampal volumes were inversely correlated with age in older healthy controls (r = 0.56 and 0.6 to the right and left, respectively, P mapped to medial and lateral areas of the tail and body corresponding to the CA1 subfield and ventral areas of the head corresponding to the presubiculum. Significantly increased volume with older age mapped to a few small spots mainly located to the CA1 sector of the right hippocampus. Volumes were 35% and 30% smaller in Alzheimer's disease patients to the right and left (P mapped not only to CA1 areas of the body and tail corresponding to those also associated with age, but also to dorsal CA1 areas of the head unaffected by age. Regions corresponding to the CA2-3 fields were relatively spared in both ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease maps to areas in the body and tail that partly overlap those affected by normal ageing. Specific areas in the anterior and dorsal CA1 subfield involved in Alzheimer's disease were not in normal ageing. These patterns might relate to differential neural systems involved in Alzheimer's disease and ageing.

  5. Neuroanatomical distribution of oxytocin and vasopressin 1a receptors in the socially monogamous coppery titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus)

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    Freeman, Sara M.; Walum, Hasse; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Smith, Aaron L.; Goodman, Mark M.; Bales, Karen L.; Young, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The coppery titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) is a socially monogamous New World primate that has been studied in the field and the laboratory to investigate the behavioral neuroendocrinology of primate pair bonding and parental care. Arginine vasopressin has been shown to influence male titi monkey pair-bonding behavior, and studies are currently underway to examine the effects of oxytocin on titi monkey behavior and physiology. Here, we use receptor autoradiography to identify the distribution of arginine vasopressin 1a (AVPR1a) and oxytocin receptors (OXTR) in hemispheres of titi monkey brain (n=5). AVPR1a are diffuse and widespread throughout the brain, but the OXTR distribution is much more limited, with the densest binding being in the hippocampal formation (dentate gyrus, CA1 field) and the presubiculum (layers I and III). Moderate OXTR binding was detected in the nucleus basalis of Meynert, pulvinar, superior colliculus, layer 4C of primary visual cortex, periaqueductal gray, pontine gray, nucleus prepositus, and spinal trigeminal nucleus. OXTR mRNA overlapped with OXTR radioligand binding, confirming that the radioligand was detecting OXTR protein. AVPR1a binding is present throughout the cortex, especially in cingulate, insular, and occipital cortices, as well as in the caudate, putamen, nucleus accumbens, central amygdala, endopiriform nucleus, hippocampus (CA4 field), globus pallidus, lateral geniculate nucleus, infundibulum, habenula, periaqueductal gray, substantia nigra, olivary nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, and cerebellum. Furthermore, we show that, in titi monkey brain, the OXTR antagonist ALS-II-69 is highly selective for OXTR and that the AVPR1a antagonist SR49059 is highly selective for AVPR1a. Based on these results and the fact that both ALS-II-69 and SR49059 are non-peptide, small-molecule antagonists that should be capable of crossing the blood brain barrier, these two compounds emerge as excellent candidates for the pharmacological

  6. Childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and the development of hippocampal subregions during adolescence.

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    Whittle, Sarah; Simmons, Julian G; Hendriksma, Sylke; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Byrne, Michelle L; Dennison, Meg; Allen, Nicholas B

    2017-02-01

    It is well established that childhood maltreatment has a detrimental impact on the brain, particularly the hippocampus. However, the hippocampus is a functionally and structurally heterogeneous region, and little is known about how maltreatment might affect hippocampal subregion development throughout important periods of plasticity. This study investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of hippocampal subregion volumes from early to late adolescence. It also investigated associations between onset of psychiatric disorder and hippocampal subregion volume development. One hundred and sixty-six (85 male) adolescents took part in three magnetic resonance imaging assessments during adolescence (mean age at each assessment: 12.79 [SD 0.43] years, 16.70 [SD 0.52] years, and 19.08 [SD 0.46] years), provided a self-report of childhood maltreatment, and were assessed for Axis I psychopathology. Childhood maltreatment was associated with the development of right total and left cornu ammonis 4 (CA4-DG) volumes from early to late adolescence. Early and late onset psychopathology was associated with the development of right presubiculum and right cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) volumes, respectively. Maltreatment findings appeared to be specific to males, whereas psychopathology findings appeared to be specific to females. These findings provide evidence for possible deleterious effects of childhood maltreatment and early onset psychiatric disorder on the development of different subregions of the hippocampus. Altered development of the right CA1, on the other hand, might precede the development of late-adolescent onset psychopathology. Our results highlight the importance of considering development in research examining associations between stress, mental illness, and hippocampal morphology.

  7. Human anterolateral entorhinal cortex volumes are associated with cognitive decline in aging prior to clinical diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rosanna K; Yeung, Lok-Kin; Noly-Gandon, Alix; D'Angelo, Maria C; Kacollja, Arber; Smith, Victoria M; Ryan, Jennifer D; Barense, Morgan D

    2017-09-01

    We investigated whether older adults without subjective memory complaints, but who present with cognitive decline in the laboratory, demonstrate atrophy in medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions associated with Alzheimer's disease. Forty community-dwelling older adults were categorized based on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) performance. Total gray/white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, and white matter hyperintensity load were quantified from whole-brain T1-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging scans, whereas hippocampal subfields and MTL cortical subregion volumes (CA1, dentate gyrus/CA2/3, subiculum, anterolateral and posteromedial entorhinal, perirhinal, and parahippocampal cortices) were quantified using high-resolution T2-weighted scans. Cognitive status was evaluated using standard neuropsychological assessments. No significant differences were found in the whole-brain measures. However, MTL volumetry revealed that anterolateral entorhinal cortex (alERC) volume-the same region in which Alzheimer's pathology originates-was strongly associated with MoCA performance. This is the first study to demonstrate that alERC volume is related to cognitive decline in undiagnosed community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Onset of hippocampus-dependent memory impairments in 5XFAD transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Girard, Stéphane D; Jacquet, Marlyse; Baranger, Kévin; Migliorati, Martine; Escoffier, Guy; Bernard, Anne; Khrestchatisky, Michel; Féron, François; Rivera, Santiago; Roman, François S; Marchetti, Evelyne

    2014-07-01

    The 5XFAD mice are an early-onset transgenic model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in which amyloid plaques are first observed between two and four months of age in the cortical layer five and in the subiculum of the hippocampal formation. Although cognitive alterations have been described in these mice, there are no studies that focused on the onset of hippocampus-dependent memory deficits, which are a hallmark of the prodromal stage of AD. To identify when the first learning and memory impairments appear, 5XFAD mice of two, four, and six months of age were compared with their respective wild-type littermates using the olfactory tubing maze, which is a very sensitive hippocampal-dependent task. Deficits in learning and memory started at four months with a substantial increase at six months of age while no olfactory impairments were observed. The volumetric study using magnetic resonance imaging of the whole brain and specific areas (olfactory bulb, striatum, and hippocampus) did not reveal neuro-anatomical difference. Slight memory deficits appeared at 4 months of age in correlation with an increased astrogliosis and amyloid plaque formation. This early impairment in learning and memory related to the hippocampal dysfunction is particularly suited to assess preclinical therapeutic strategies aiming to delay or suppress the onset of AD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Staging of Alzheimer's Pathology in Triple Transgenic Mice: A Light and Electron Microscopic Analysis

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    Kwang-Jin Oh

    2010-01-01

    , and TauP301L gene mutations, remains unclear. At 3 weeks of age, AT180, Alz50, MC1, AT8, and PHF-1 intraneuronal immunoreactivity appeared in the amygdala and hippocampus and at later ages in the cortex of 3xTg-AD mice. AT8 and PHF-1 staining was fixation dependent in young mutant mice. 6E10 staining was seen at all ages. Fluorescent immunomicroscopy revealed CA1 neurons dual stained for 6E10 and Alz50 and single Alz50 immunoreactive neurons in the subiculum at 3 weeks and continuing to 20 months. Although electron microscopy confirmed intraneuronal cytoplasmic Alz50, AT8, and 6E10 reaction product in younger 3xTg-AD mice, straight filaments appeared at 23 months of age in female mice. The present data suggest that other age-related biochemical mechanisms in addition to early intraneuronal accumulation of 6E10 and tau underlie the formation of tau filaments in 3xTg-AD mice.

  10. Age-related deficits in the mnemonic similarity task for objects and scenes.

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    Stark, Shauna M; Stark, Craig E L

    2017-08-30

    Using the Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST), we have demonstrated an age-related impairment in lure discrimination, or the ability to recognize an item as distinct from one that was similar, but not identical to one viewed earlier. A growing body of evidence links these behavioral changes to age-related alterations in the hippocampus. In this study, we sought to evaluate a novel version of this task, utilizing scenes that might emphasize the role of the hippocampus in contextual and spatial processing. In addition, we investigated whether, by utilizing two stimulus classes (scenes and objects), we could also interrogate the roles of the PRC and PHC in aging. Thus, we evaluated differential contributions to these tasks by relating performance on objects versus scenes to volumes of the hippocampus and surrounding medial temporal lobe structures. We found that while there was an age-related impairment on lure discrimination performance for both objects and scenes, relationships to brain volumes and other measure of memory performance were stronger when using objects. In particular, lure discrimination performance for objects showed a positive relationship with the volume of the hippocampus, specifically the combined dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 subfields, and the subiculum. We conclude that though using scenes was effective in detecting age-related lure discrimination impairments, it does not provide as strong a brain-behavior relationship as using objects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with dementia (ALSD)].

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    Nakano, Imaharu

    2006-11-01

    Patients with ALSD show characteristic mental and behavioral changes, represented by lack of insight into their tragic condition. Psychiatric symptoms usually precede life-threatening motor neuron symptoms. Cerebral SPECT, especially 3D-SSP, exercises its power in the diagnosis of ALSD by demonstrating constant and sharp blood flow reduction in the prefrontal region. The neuropathology of the cerebral cortex is characterized by most prominent and probably earliest degeneration in the medial side cortex of the temporal pole, border zone between the CA1 and subiculum, ambient gyrus, and amygdala as well as cytoplasmic ubiquitinated inclusion bodies in the dentate gyrus granular neurons and other cortical small neurons. Motoneuron pathology is almost the same as that in classic ALS except for more prominent Bunina bodies and less affected pyramidal tract. The substantia nigra is usually degenerated without Lewy bodies. A condition recently proposed as motor neuron disease-inclusion dementia seems to be a forme froste of ALSD. Several cases of ALSD exhibited upper motor neuron-dominant involvement, showing the possibility that the category of ALSD may be widened than considered so far.

  12. Experience with the Cardinal Coordinate System Contributes to the Precision of Cognitive Maps.

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    Hao, Xin; Huang, Yi; Song, Yiying; Kong, Xiangzhen; Liu, Jia

    2017-01-01

    The coordinate system has been proposed as a fundamental and cross-culturally used spatial representation, through which people code location and direction information in the environment. Here we provided direct evidence demonstrating that daily experience with the cardinal coordinate system (i.e., east, west, north, and south) contributed to the representation of cognitive maps. Behaviorally, we found that individuals who relied more on the cardinal coordinate system for daily navigation made smaller errors in an indoor pointing task, suggesting that the cardinal coordinate system is an important element of cognitive maps. Neurally, the extent to which individuals relied on the cardinal coordinate system was positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the entorhinal cortex, suggesting that the entorhinal cortex may serve as the neuroanatomical basis of coordinate-based navigation (the entorhinal coordinate area, ECA). Further analyses on the resting-state functional connectivity revealed that the intrinsic interaction between the ECA and two hippocampal sub-regions, the subiculum and cornu ammonis, might be linked with the representation precision of cognitive maps. In sum, our study reveals an association between daily experience with the cardinal coordinate system and cognitive maps, and suggests that the ECA works in collaboration with hippocampal sub-regions to represent cognitive maps.

  13. Experience with the Cardinal Coordinate System Contributes to the Precision of Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The coordinate system has been proposed as a fundamental and cross-culturally used spatial representation, through which people code location and direction information in the environment. Here we provided direct evidence demonstrating that daily experience with the cardinal coordinate system (i.e., east, west, north, and south contributed to the representation of cognitive maps. Behaviorally, we found that individuals who relied more on the cardinal coordinate system for daily navigation made smaller errors in an indoor pointing task, suggesting that the cardinal coordinate system is an important element of cognitive maps. Neurally, the extent to which individuals relied on the cardinal coordinate system was positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the entorhinal cortex, suggesting that the entorhinal cortex may serve as the neuroanatomical basis of coordinate-based navigation (the entorhinal coordinate area, ECA. Further analyses on the resting-state functional connectivity revealed that the intrinsic interaction between the ECA and two hippocampal sub-regions, the subiculum and cornu ammonis, might be linked with the representation precision of cognitive maps. In sum, our study reveals an association between daily experience with the cardinal coordinate system and cognitive maps, and suggests that the ECA works in collaboration with hippocampal sub-regions to represent cognitive maps.

  14. Hippocampal Apoptosis in Major Depression Is a Minor Event and Absent from Subareas at Risk for Glucocorticoid Overexposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucassen, Paul J.; Müller, Marianne B.; Holsboer, Florian; Bauer, Jan; Holtrop, Anne; Wouda, Jose; Hoogendijk, Witte J. G.; De Kloet, E. Ron; Swaab, Dick F.

    2001-01-01

    Glucocorticoid (GC) overexposure in animals has been implicated in hippocampal dysfunctioning and neuronal loss. In major depression, hypercortisolemia, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical-axis alterations, and reduced hippocampal volumes are commonly observed; hence, hippocampal neurodegeneration is also expected. To study possible GC-related pathology, we investigated hippocampal tissue of 15 major-depressed patients, 16 matched controls, and 9 steroid-treated patients, using in situ-end-labeling for DNA fragmentation and apoptosis, and heat-shock protein 70 and nuclear transcription factor κB immunocytochemistry for damage-related responses. No obvious massive cell loss was observed in any group. In 11 of 15 depressed patients, rare, but convincing apoptosis was found in entorhinal cortex, subiculum, dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA4. Also in three steroid-treated patients, apoptosis was found. Except for several steroid-treated patients, heat-shock protein 70 staining was generally absent, nor was nuclear transcription factor-κB activation found. The detection in 11 of 15 depressed patients, in three steroid-treated, and in one control patient, demonstrates for the first time that apoptosis is involved in steroid-related changes in the human hippocampus. However, in absence of major pyramidal loss, its rare occurrence, that notably was absent from areas at risk for GC damage such as CA3, indicates that apoptosis probably only contributes to a minor extent to the volume changes in depression. PMID:11159183

  15. Mapping the structural and functional network architecture of the medial temporal lobe using 7T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Preya; Bassett, Danielle S; Wisse, Laura E M; Detre, John A; Stein, Joel M; Yushkevich, Paul A; Shinohara, Russell T; Pluta, John B; Valenciano, Elijah; Daffner, Molly; Wolk, David A; Elliott, Mark A; Litt, Brian; Davis, Kathryn A; Das, Sandhitsu R

    2018-02-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) subregions play integral roles in memory function and are differentially affected in various neurological and psychiatric disorders. The ability to structurally and functionally characterize these subregions may be important to understanding MTL physiology and diagnosing diseases involving the MTL. In this study, we characterized network architecture of the MTL in healthy subjects (n = 31) using both resting state functional MRI and MTL-focused T2-weighted structural MRI at 7 tesla. Ten MTL subregions per hemisphere, including hippocampal subfields and cortical regions of the parahippocampal gyrus, were segmented for each subject using a multi-atlas algorithm. Both structural covariance matrices from correlations of subregion volumes across subjects, and functional connectivity matrices from correlations between subregion BOLD time series were generated. We found a moderate structural and strong functional inter-hemispheric symmetry. Several bilateral hippocampal subregions (CA1, dentate gyrus, and subiculum) emerged as functional network hubs. We also observed that the structural and functional networks naturally separated into two modules closely corresponding to (a) bilateral hippocampal formations, and (b) bilateral extra-hippocampal structures. Finally, we found a significant correlation in structural and functional connectivity (r = 0.25). Our findings represent a comprehensive analysis of network topology of the MTL at the subregion level. We share our data, methods, and findings as a reference for imaging methods and disease-based research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Structural and functional correlates of behavioral pattern separation in the hippocampus and medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxey, Christopher R; Kirwan, C Brock

    2015-04-01

    Structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) are known to be involved in declarative memory processes. However, little is known about how age-related changes in MTL structures, white matter integrity, and functional connectivity affect pattern separation processes in the MTL. In this study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the volumes of MTL regions of interest, including hippocampal subfields (dentate gyrus, CA3, CA1, and subiculum) in healthy older and younger adults. Additionally, we used diffusion tensor imaging to measure white matter integrity for both groups. Finally, we used functional MRI to acquire resting functional connectivity measures for both groups. We show that, along with age, the volume of left CA3/dentate gyrus predicts memory performance. Differences in fractional anisotropy and the strength of resting functional connections between the hippocampus and other cortical structures implicated in memory processing were not significant predictors of performance. As previous studies have only hinted, it seems that the size of left CA3/dentate gyrus contributes more to successful discrimination between similar mnemonic representations than other hippocampal sub-fields, MTL structures, and other neuroimaging correlates. Accordingly, the implications of aging and atrophy on lure discrimination capacities are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Inflammatory pathology markers (activated microglia and reactive astrocytes) in early and late onset Alzheimer disease: a post mortem study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipa, R; Ferreira, V; Brochado, P; Robinson, A; Reis, I; Marques, F; Mann, D M; Melo-Pires, M; Sousa, N

    2017-10-17

    The association between the pathological features of AD and dementia is stronger in younger old persons than in older old persons suggesting that additional factors are involved in the clinical expression of dementia in the oldest old. Cumulative data suggests that neuroinflammation plays a prominent role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and different studies reported an age-associated dysregulation of the neuroimmune system. Consequently, we sought to characterize the pattern of microglial cell activation and astrogliosis in brain post mortem tissue of pathologically confirmed cases of early and late onset AD (EOAD and LOAD) and determine their relation to age. Immunohistochemistry (CD68 and glial fibrillary acidic protein) with morphometric analysis of astroglial profiles in 36 cases of AD and 28 similarly aged controls. Both EOAD and LOAD groups had higher microglial scores in CA1, entorhinal and temporal cortices, and higher astroglial response in CA1, dentate gyrus, entorhinal and temporal cortices, compared to aged matched controls. Additionally, EOAD had higher microglial scores in subiculum, entorhinal and temporal subcortical white matter, and LOAD higher astrogliosis in CA2 region. Overall, we found that the neuroinflammatory pathological markers in late stage AD human tissue to have a similar pattern in both EOAD and LOAD, though the severity of the pathological markers in the younger group was higher. Understanding the age effect in AD will be important when testing modifying agents that act on the neuroinflammation. © 2017 British Neuropathological Society.

  18. The reinstatement model of drug relapse: recent neurobiological findings, emerging research topics, and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Jennifer M; Marchant, Nathan J; Calu, Donna J; Shaham, Yavin

    2013-10-01

    Results from many clinical studies suggest that drug relapse and craving are often provoked by acute exposure to the self-administered drug or related drugs, drug-associated cues or contexts, or certain stressors. During the last two decades, this clinical scenario has been studied in laboratory animals by using the reinstatement model. In this model, reinstatement of drug seeking by drug priming, drug cues or contexts, or certain stressors is assessed following drug self-administration training and subsequent extinction of the drug-reinforced responding. In this review, we first summarize recent (2009-present) neurobiological findings from studies using the reinstatement model. We then discuss emerging research topics, including the impact of interfering with putative reconsolidation processes on cue- and context-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, and similarities and differences in mechanisms of reinstatement across drug classes. We conclude by discussing results from recent human studies that were inspired by results from rat studies using the reinstatement model. Main conclusions from the studies reviewed highlight: (1) the ventral subiculum and lateral hypothalamus as emerging brain areas important for reinstatement of drug seeking, (2) the existence of differences in brain mechanisms controlling reinstatement of drug seeking across drug classes, (3) the utility of the reinstatement model for assessing the effect of reconsolidation-related manipulations on cue-induced drug seeking, and (4) the encouraging pharmacological concordance between results from rat studies using the reinstatement model and human laboratory studies on cue- and stress-induced drug craving.

  19. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P.; Adams, Hieab H. H.; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L.; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E.; Bis, Joshua C.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M. Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W.; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H.; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H.; Bohlken, Marc M.; Boks, Marco P.; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M.; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R. K.; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E.; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A.; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K.; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J.; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N.; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H.; Liewald, David C. M.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F.; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A.; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C.; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M. Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S.; Risacher, Shannon L.; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J.; Royle, Natalie A.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G.; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L.; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J.; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V.; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T.; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J.; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.; Van Eijk, Kristel R.; Van Erp, Theo G. M.; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T.; Whelan, Christopher D.; Windham, Beverly G.; Winkler, Anderson M.; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A.; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A.; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E.; Becker, Diane M.; Becker, James T.; Bennett, David A.; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M.; Brunner, Han G.; Buckner, Randy L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Bulayeva, Kazima B.; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D.; Cannon, Dara M.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R.; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E.; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M.; Davies, Gareth E.; De Craen, Anton J. M.; De Geus, Eco J. C.; De Jager, Philip L.; De Zubicaray, Greig I.; Deary, Ian J.; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C.; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D.; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O.; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E.; Fleischman, Debra A.; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Fox, Peter T.; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Glahn, David C.; Gollub, Randy L.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Green, Robert C.; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack Jr, Clifford R.; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Kahn, René S.; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S.; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B.; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S.; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M.; McMahon, Francis J.; McMahon, Katie L.; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morris, Derek W.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A.; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L.; Ophoff, Roel A.; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Pike, G. Bruce; Potkin, Steven G.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L.; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I.; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L.; Sachdev, Perminder S.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R.; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W.; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M.; Stott, David J.; Sussmann, Jessika E.; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W.; Traynor, Bryan J.; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hernández, Maria C. Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Van Haren, Neeltje E. M.; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N.; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J.; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Wassink, Thomas H.; Weale, Michael E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Weiner, Michael W.; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y.; Wright, Clinton B.; Zielke, Ronald H.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Wright, Margaret J.; Longstreth, W. T.; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J.; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J.; Medland, Sarah E.; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M.; Ikram, M. Arfan

    2017-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (rg=−0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:28098162

  20. 5-HT4-receptors modulate induction of long-term depression but not potentiation at hippocampal output synapses in acute rat brain slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wawra

    Full Text Available The subiculum is the principal target of CA1 pyramidal cells and mediates hippocampal output to various cortical and subcortical regions of the brain. The majority of subicular pyramidal cells are burst-spiking neurons. Previous studies indicated that high frequency stimulation in subicular burst-spiking cells causes presynaptic NMDA-receptor dependent long-term potentiation (LTP whereas low frequency stimulation induces postsynaptic NMDA-receptor-dependent long-term depression (LTD. In the present study, we investigate the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 4 (5-HT4 receptor activation and blockade on both forms of synaptic plasticity in burst-spiking cells. We demonstrate that neither activation nor block of 5-HT4 receptors modulate the induction or expression of LTP. In contrast, activation of 5-HT4 receptors facilitates expression of LTD, and block of the 5-HT4 receptor prevents induction of short-term depression and LTD. As 5-HT4 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase 1 (AC1, 5-HT4 receptors might modulate PKA activity through AC1. Since LTD is blocked in the presence of 5-HT4 receptor antagonists, our data are consistent with 5-HT4 receptor activation by ambient serotonin or intrinsically active 5-HT4 receptors. Our findings provide new insight into aminergic modulation of hippocampal output.

  1. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  2. Virtual endoscopy of the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, E.; Caramella, D.; Panconi, M.; Bartolozzi, C. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Oncology, Transplants and Advanced Technologies in Medicine; Berettini, S.; Sellari Franceschini, S.; Forli, F. [Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Neuroscience

    2001-01-01

    Virtual endoscopy is a computer-generated simulation of fiberoptic endoscopy, and its application to the study of the middle ear has been recently proposed. The need to represent the middle ear anatomy by means of virtual endoscopy arose from the increased interest of otolarygologists in transtympanic endoscopy. In fact, this imaging method allows the visualization of middle ear anatomy with high detail, but it is evasive and is essentially used for surgical guidance. Virtual endoscopy provides similar perspectives of the tympanic cavity but does not require the tympanic perforation. In the study of the middle ear, specific attention is given to the retroperitoneum. This region contains elevations of the medial wall (pyramidal eminence and ridge, styloid eminence and ridge, subiculum, ponticulus) and depressions (sinus tympani, posterior sinus tympani, facial sinus, fossula of Grivot, oval window fossula), which can be effectively displayed by virtual endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy is foreseen as a useful tool in preoperative management of patients who are candidates for middle ear surgery, since it can predict with high detail the patient's specific anatomy by imaging perspectives familiar to otosurgeons. (orig.)

  3. Inverse current source density method in two dimensions: inferring neural activation from multielectrode recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łęski, Szymon; Pettersen, Klas H; Tunstall, Beth; Einevoll, Gaute T; Gigg, John; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2011-12-01

    The recent development of large multielectrode recording arrays has made it affordable for an increasing number of laboratories to record from multiple brain regions simultaneously. The development of analytical tools for array data, however, lags behind these technological advances in hardware. In this paper, we present a method based on forward modeling for estimating current source density from electrophysiological signals recorded on a two-dimensional grid using multi-electrode rectangular arrays. This new method, which we call two-dimensional inverse Current Source Density (iCSD 2D), is based upon and extends our previous one- and three-dimensional techniques. We test several variants of our method, both on surrogate data generated from a collection of Gaussian sources, and on model data from a population of layer 5 neocortical pyramidal neurons. We also apply the method to experimental data from the rat subiculum. The main advantages of the proposed method are the explicit specification of its assumptions, the possibility to include system-specific information as it becomes available, the ability to estimate CSD at the grid boundaries, and lower reconstruction errors when compared to the traditional approach. These features make iCSD 2D a substantial improvement over the approaches used so far and a powerful new tool for the analysis of multielectrode array data. We also provide a free GUI-based MATLAB toolbox to analyze and visualize our test data as well as user datasets.

  4. Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibar, Derrek P; Adams, Hieab H H; Jahanshad, Neda; Chauhan, Ganesh; Stein, Jason L; Hofer, Edith; Renteria, Miguel E; Bis, Joshua C; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Ikram, M Kamran; Desrivières, Sylvane; Vernooij, Meike W; Abramovic, Lucija; Alhusaini, Saud; Amin, Najaf; Andersson, Micael; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Athanasiu, Lavinia; Axelsson, Tomas; Beecham, Ashley H; Beiser, Alexa; Bernard, Manon; Blanton, Susan H; Bohlken, Marc M; Boks, Marco P; Bralten, Janita; Brickman, Adam M; Carmichael, Owen; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Chen, Qiang; Ching, Christopher R K; Chouraki, Vincent; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Crivello, Fabrice; Den Braber, Anouk; Doan, Nhat Trung; Ehrlich, Stefan; Giddaluru, Sudheer; Goldman, Aaron L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Grimm, Oliver; Griswold, Michael E; Guadalupe, Tulio; Gutman, Boris A; Hass, Johanna; Haukvik, Unn K; Hoehn, David; Holmes, Avram J; Hoogman, Martine; Janowitz, Deborah; Jia, Tianye; Jørgensen, Kjetil N; Karbalai, Nazanin; Kasperaviciute, Dalia; Kim, Sungeun; Klein, Marieke; Kraemer, Bernd; Lee, Phil H; Liewald, David C M; Lopez, Lorna M; Luciano, Michelle; Macare, Christine; Marquand, Andre F; Matarin, Mar; Mather, Karen A; Mattheisen, Manuel; McKay, David R; Milaneschi, Yuri; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Nho, Kwangsik; Nugent, Allison C; Nyquist, Paul; Loohuis, Loes M Olde; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Papmeyer, Martina; Pirpamer, Lukas; Pütz, Benno; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Richards, Jennifer S; Risacher, Shannon L; Roiz-Santiañez, Roberto; Rommelse, Nanda; Ropele, Stefan; Rose, Emma J; Royle, Natalie A; Rundek, Tatjana; Sämann, Philipp G; Saremi, Arvin; Satizabal, Claudia L; Schmaal, Lianne; Schork, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Shin, Jean; Shumskaya, Elena; Smith, Albert V; Sprooten, Emma; Strike, Lachlan T; Teumer, Alexander; Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana; Toro, Roberto; Trabzuni, Daniah; Trompet, Stella; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Van der Grond, Jeroen; Van der Lee, Sven J; Van der Meer, Dennis; Van Donkelaar, Marjolein M J; Van Eijk, Kristel R; Van Erp, Theo G M; Van Rooij, Daan; Walton, Esther; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Christopher D; Windham, Beverly G; Winkler, Anderson M; Wittfeld, Katharina; Woldehawariat, Girma; Wolf, Christiane; Wolfers, Thomas; Yanek, Lisa R; Yang, Jingyun; Zijdenbos, Alex; Zwiers, Marcel P; Agartz, Ingrid; Almasy, Laura; Ames, David; Amouyel, Philippe; Andreassen, Ole A; Arepalli, Sampath; Assareh, Amelia A; Barral, Sandra; Bastin, Mark E; Becker, Diane M; Becker, James T; Bennett, David A; Blangero, John; van Bokhoven, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Brodaty, Henry; Brouwer, Rachel M; Brunner, Han G; Buckner, Randy L; Buitelaar, Jan K; Bulayeva, Kazima B; Cahn, Wiepke; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Cichon, Sven; Cookson, Mark R; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Curran, Joanne E; Czisch, Michael; Dale, Anders M; Davies, Gareth E; De Craen, Anton J M; De Geus, Eco J C; De Jager, Philip L; De Zubicaray, Greig I; Deary, Ian J; Debette, Stéphanie; DeCarli, Charles; Delanty, Norman; Depondt, Chantal; DeStefano, Anita; Dillman, Allissa; Djurovic, Srdjan; Donohoe, Gary; Drevets, Wayne C; Duggirala, Ravi; Dyer, Thomas D; Enzinger, Christian; Erk, Susanne; Espeseth, Thomas; Fedko, Iryna O; Fernández, Guillén; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fisher, Simon E; Fleischman, Debra A; Ford, Ian; Fornage, Myriam; Foroud, Tatiana M; Fox, Peter T; Francks, Clyde; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gibbs, J Raphael; Glahn, David C; Gollub, Randy L; Göring, Harald H H; Green, Robert C; Gruber, Oliver; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guelfi, Sebastian; Håberg, Asta K; Hansell, Narelle K; Hardy, John; Hartman, Catharina A; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Heinz, Andreas; Le Hellard, Stephanie; Hernandez, Dena G; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Ho, Beng-Choon; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Holsboer, Florian; Homuth, Georg; Hosten, Norbert; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Huentelman, Matthew; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Ikeda, Masashi; Jack, Clifford R; Jenkinson, Mark; Johnson, Robert; Jönsson, Erik G; Jukema, J Wouter; Kahn, René S; Kanai, Ryota; Kloszewska, Iwona; Knopman, David S; Kochunov, Peter; Kwok, John B; Lawrie, Stephen M; Lemaître, Hervé; Liu, Xinmin; Longo, Dan L; Lopez, Oscar L; Lovestone, Simon; Martinez, Oliver; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mattay, Venkata S; McDonald, Colm; McIntosh, Andrew M; McMahon, Francis J; McMahon, Katie L; Mecocci, Patrizia; Melle, Ingrid; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Mohnke, Sebastian; Montgomery, Grant W; Morris, Derek W; Mosley, Thomas H; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nalls, Michael A; Nauck, Matthias; Nichols, Thomas E; Niessen, Wiro J; Nöthen, Markus M; Nyberg, Lars; Ohi, Kazutaka; Olvera, Rene L; Ophoff, Roel A; Pandolfo, Massimo; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Pike, G Bruce; Potkin, Steven G; Psaty, Bruce M; Reppermund, Simone; Rietschel, Marcella; Roffman, Joshua L; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Rotter, Jerome I; Ryten, Mina; Sacco, Ralph L; Sachdev, Perminder S; Saykin, Andrew J; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schmidt, Helena; Schofield, Peter R; Sigursson, Sigurdur; Simmons, Andrew; Singleton, Andrew; Sisodiya, Sanjay M; Smith, Colin; Smoller, Jordan W; Soininen, Hilkka; Steen, Vidar M; Stott, David J; Sussmann, Jessika E; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Toga, Arthur W; Traynor, Bryan J; Troncoso, Juan; Tsolaki, Magda; Tzourio, Christophe; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hernández, Maria C Valdés; Van der Brug, Marcel; van der Lugt, Aad; van der Wee, Nic J A; Van Haren, Neeltje E M; van 't Ent, Dennis; Van Tol, Marie-Jose; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vellas, Bruno; Veltman, Dick J; Völzke, Henry; Walter, Henrik; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Wassink, Thomas H; Weale, Michael E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Weiner, Michael W; Wen, Wei; Westman, Eric; White, Tonya; Wong, Tien Y; Wright, Clinton B; Zielke, Ronald H; Zonderman, Alan B; Martin, Nicholas G; Van Duijn, Cornelia M; Wright, Margaret J; Longstreth, W T; Schumann, Gunter; Grabe, Hans J; Franke, Barbara; Launer, Lenore J; Medland, Sarah E; Seshadri, Sudha; Thompson, Paul M; Ikram, M Arfan

    2017-01-18

    The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r g =-0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.

  5. Alterations in hippocampal network oscillations and theta-gamma coupling arise before Aβ overproduction in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Goutagny, Romain; Gu, Ning; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Jackson, Jesse; Chabot, Jean-Guy; Quirion, Rémi; Krantic, Slavica; Williams, Sylvain

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory impairments. Brain oscillatory activity is critical for cognitive function and is altered in AD patients. Recent evidence suggests that accumulation of soluble amyloid-beta (Aβ) induces reorganization of hippocampal networks. However, whether fine changes in network activity might be present at very early stages, before Aβ overproduction, remains to be determined. We therefore assessed whether theta and gamma oscillations and their cross-frequency coupling, which are known to be essential for normal memory function, were precociously altered in the hippocampus. Electrophysiological field potential recordings were performed using complete hippocampal preparations in vitro from young transgenic CRND8 mice, a transgenic mouse model of AD. Our results indicate that a significant proportion of 1-month-old TgCRND8 mice showed robust alterations of theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling in the principal output region of the hippocampus, the subiculum. In addition we showed that, compared to controls, these mice expressed negligible levels of Aβ. Finally, these network alterations were not due to genetic factors as 15-day-old animals did not exhibit theta-gamma coupling alterations. Thus, initial alterations in hippocampal network activity arise before Aβ accumulation and may represent an early biomarker for AD. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Changing and shielded magnetic fields suppress c-Fos expression in the navigation circuit: input from the magnetosensory system contributes to the internal representation of space in a subterranean rodent.

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    Burger, Tomás; Lucová, Marcela; Moritz, Regina E; Oelschläger, Helmut H A; Druga, Rastislav; Burda, Hynek; Wiltschko, Wolfgang; Wiltschko, Roswitha; Nemec, Pavel

    2010-09-06

    The neural substrate subserving magnetoreception and magnetic orientation in mammals is largely unknown. Previous experiments have demonstrated that the processing of magnetic sensory information takes place in the superior colliculus. Here, the effects of magnetic field conditions on neuronal activity in the rodent navigation circuit were assessed by quantifying c-Fos expression. Ansell's mole-rats (Fukomys anselli), a mammalian model to study the mechanisms of magnetic compass orientation, were subjected to natural, periodically changing, and shielded magnetic fields while exploring an unfamiliar circular arena. In the undisturbed local geomagnetic field, the exploration of the novel environment and/or nesting behaviour induced c-Fos expression throughout the head direction system and the entorhinal-hippocampal spatial representation system. This induction was significantly suppressed by exposure to periodically changing and/or shielded magnetic fields; discrete decreases in c-Fos were seen in the dorsal tegmental nucleus, the anterodorsal and the laterodorsal thalamic nuclei, the postsubiculum, the retrosplenial and entorhinal cortices, and the hippocampus. Moreover, in inactive animals, magnetic field intensity manipulation suppressed c-Fos expression in the CA1 and CA3 fields of the hippocampus and the dorsal subiculum, but induced expression in the polymorph layer of the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that key constituents of the rodent navigation circuit contain populations of neurons responsive to magnetic stimuli. Thus, magnetic information may be integrated with multimodal sensory and motor information into a common spatial representation of allocentric space within this circuit.

  7. FRACTIONAL ANISOTROPY OF THE FORNIX AND HIPPOCAMPAL ATROPHY IN ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE

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    Kejal eKantarci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decrease in the directionality of water diffusion measured with fractional anisotropy on diffusion tensor imaging has been linked to loss of myelin and axons in the white matter. Fornix fractional anisotropy is consistently decreased in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. Furthermore, decreased fornix fractional anisotropy is one of the earliest MRI abnormalities observed in cognitively normal individuals who are at an increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease, such as in pre-symptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations and in pre-clinical Alzheimer’s disease. Reductions of fractional anisotropy at these early stages which predicted the decline in memory function. Fornix carries the efferent projections from the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus and subiculum, connecting these structures to the septal nuclei, anterior thalamic nucleus, mammillary bodies and medial hypothalamus. Fornix also carries the afferent cholinergic and GABAergic projections from the medial septal nuclei and the adjacent diagonal band back to the medial temporal lobe, interconnecting the core limbic structures. Because fornix carries the axons projecting from the hippocampus, integrity of the fornix is in-part linked to the integrity of the hippocampus. In keeping with that, fornix fractional anisotropy is reduced in subjects with hippocampal atrophy, correlating with memory function. The literature on fractional anisotropy reductions in the fornix in the clinical spectrum of Alzheimer’s disease from pre-symptomatic carriers of familial Alzheimer’s disease mutations to pre-clinical Alzheimer’s disease, mild cognitive impairment and dementia stages is reviewed.

  8. Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A), Enriched in Ventral Hippocampus Neurons, is Required for Consolidation of Social but not Nonsocial Memories in Mice.

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    Hegde, Shweta; Capell, Will R; Ibrahim, Baher A; Klett, Jennifer; Patel, Neema S; Sougiannis, Alexander T; Kelly, Michy P

    2016-11-01

    The capacity to form long-lasting social memories is critical to our health and survival. cAMP signaling in the ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP) appears to be required for social memory formation, but the phosphodiesterase (PDE) involved remains unknown. Previously, we showed that PDE11A, which degrades cAMP and cGMP, is preferentially expressed in CA1 and subiculum of the VHIPP. Here, we determine whether PDE11A is expressed in neurons where it could directly influence synaptic plasticity and whether expression is required for the consolidation and/or retrieval of social memories. In CA1, and possibly CA2, PDE11A4 is expressed throughout neuronal cell bodies, dendrites (stratum radiatum), and axons (fimbria), but not astrocytes. Unlike PDE2A, PDE9A, or PDE10A, PDE11A4 expression begins very low at postnatal day 7 (P7) and dramatically increases until P28, at which time it stabilizes to young adult levels. This expression pattern is consistent with the fact that PDE11A is required for social long-term memory (LTM) formation during adolescence and adulthood. Male and female PDE11 knockout (KO) mice show normal short-term memory (STM) for social odor recognition (SOR) and social transmission of food preference (STFP), but no LTM 24 h post training. Importantly, PDE11A KO mice show normal LTM for nonsocial odor recognition. Deletion of PDE11A may impair memory consolidation by impairing requisite protein translation in the VHIPP. Relative to WT littermates, PDE11A KO mice show reduced expression of RSK2 and lowered phosphorylation of S6 (pS6-235/236). Together, these data suggest PDE11A is selectively required for the proper consolidation of recognition and associative social memories.

  9. SOD1 Lysine 123 Acetylation in the Adult Central Nervous System

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    Michael Kaliszewski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 knockout (Sod1-/- mice exhibit an accelerated aging phenotype. In humans, SOD1 mutations are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, and post-translational modification (PTM of wild-type SOD1 has been associated with sporadic ALS. Reversible acetylation regulates many enzymes and proteomic studies have identified SOD1 acetylation at lysine 123 (K123. The function and distribution of K123-acetylated SOD1 (Ac-K123 SOD1 in the nervous system is unknown. Here, we generated polyclonal rabbit antibodies against Ac-K123 SOD1. Sod1 deletion in Sod1-/- mice, K123 mutation, or preabsorption with Ac-K123 peptide all abolished antibody binding. Using immunohistochemistry, we assessed Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution in the normal adult mouse nervous system. In the cerebellum, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in cell bodies of the granular cell layer and Purkinje cell dendrites and interneurons of the molecular cell layer. In the hippocampus, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was strong in the fimbria, subiculum, pyramidal cells, and Schaffer collateral fibers of the cornus ammonis (CA1 region and granule and neuronal progenitor cells of the dentate gyrus. In addition, labeling was observed in the choroid plexus and the ependyma of the brain ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord. In the olfactory bulb, Ac-K123 SOD1 staining was prominent in axons of sensory neurons, in cell bodies of interneurons, and neurites of the mitral and tufted cells. In the retina, labeling was strong in the retinal ganglion cell layer and axons of retinal ganglion cells, the inner nuclear layer, and cone photoreceptors of the outer nuclear layer. In summary, our findings describe Ac-K123 SOD1 distribution to distinct regions and cell types of the normal nervous system.

  10. Mechanisms of action of cannabidiol in adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

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    González-García, Coral; Torres, Irene Moreno; García-Hernández, Ruth; Campos-Ruíz, Lucía; Esparragoza, Luis Rodríguez; Coronado, María José; Grande, Aranzazu García; García-Merino, Antonio; Sánchez López, Antonio J

    2017-12-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most important compounds in Cannabis sativa, lacks psychotropic effects, and possesses a high number of therapeutic properties including the amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The aim of this study was to analyse the relative efficacy of CBD in adoptively transferred EAE (at-EAE), a model that allows better delineation of the effector phase of EAE. Splenocytes and lymph nodes from mice with actively induced EAE were cultured in the presence of MOG 35-55 and IL-12 and inoculated intraperitoneally in recipient female C57BL/6J mice. The effects of CBD were evaluated using clinical scores and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the central nervous system, the extent of cell infiltration, axonal damage, demyelination, microglial activation and cannabinoid receptors expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Lymph cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress and IL-6 production were measured in vitro. Preventive intraperitoneal treatment with CBD ameliorated the clinical signs of at-EAE, and this improvement was accompanied by a reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient in the subiculum area of the brain. Inflammatory infiltration, axonal damage, and demyelination were reduced, and cannabinoid receptor expression was modulated. Incubation with CBD decreased encephalitogenic cell viability, increasing early apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing IL-6 production. The reduction in viability was not mediated by CB 1 , CB 2 or GPR55 receptors. CBD markedly improved the clinical signs of at-EAE and reduced infiltration, demyelination and axonal damage. The CBD-mediated decrease in the viability of encephalitogenic cells involves ROS generation, apoptosis and a decrease in IL-6 production and may contribute to the therapeutic effect of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Nop2 is expressed during proliferation of neural stem cells and in adult mouse and human brain.

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    Kosi, Nina; Alić, Ivan; Kolačević, Matea; Vrsaljko, Nina; Jovanov Milošević, Nataša; Sobol, Margarita; Philimonenko, Anatoly; Hozák, Pavel; Gajović, Srećko; Pochet, Roland; Mitrečić, Dinko

    2015-02-09

    The nucleolar protein 2 gene encodes a protein specific for the nucleolus. It is assumed that it plays a role in the synthesis of ribosomes and regulation of the cell cycle. Due to its link to cell proliferation, higher expression of Nop2 indicates a worse tumor prognosis. In this work we used Nop2(gt1gaj) gene trap mouse strain. While lethality of homozygous animals suggested a vital role of this gene, heterozygous animals allowed the detection of expression of Nop2 in various tissues, including mouse brain. Histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy techniques, applied to a mature mouse brain, human brain and on mouse neural stem cells revealed expression of Nop2 in differentiating cells, including astrocytes, as well as in mature neurons. Nop2 was detected in various regions of mouse and human brain, mostly in large pyramidal neurons. In the human, Nop2 was strongly expressed in supragranular and infragranular layers of the somatosensory cortex and in layer III of the cingulate cortex. Also, Nop2 was detected in CA1 and the subiculum of the hippocampus. Subcellular analyses revealed predominant location of Nop2 within the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus. To test if Nop2 expression correlates to cell proliferation occurring during tissue regeneration, we induced strokes in mice by middle cerebral artery occlusion. Two weeks after stroke, the number of Nop2/nestin double positive cells in the region affected by ischemia and the periventricular zone substantially increased. Our findings suggest a newly discovered role of Nop2 in both mature neurons and in cells possibly involved in the regeneration of nervous tissue. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of low-level sarin and cyclosarin exposure on hippocampal subfields in Gulf War Veterans.

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    Chao, Linda L; Kriger, Stephen; Buckley, Shannon; Ng, Peter; Mueller, Susanne G

    2014-09-01

    More than 100,000 US troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) when an ammunition dump at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed during the 1991 Gulf War (GW). We previously reported reduced hippocampal volume in GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure relative to matched, unexposed GW veterans estimated from 1.5T magnetic resonance images (MRI). Here we investigate, in a different cohort of GW veterans, whether low-level GB/GF exposure is associated with structural alterations in specific hippocampal subfields, estimated from 4T MRI. The Automatic Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields (ASHS) technique was used to quantify CA1, CA2, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum (SUB) subfields volumes from high-resolution T2-weighted images acquired on a 4T MR scanner in 56 GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure and 56 "matched" unexposed GW veterans (mean age 49±7 years). GB/GF exposed veterans had smaller CA2 (p=0.003) and CA3/DG (p=0.01) subfield volumes compared to matched, unexposed GW veterans. There were no group difference in total hippocampal volume, quantified with FreeSurfer, and no dose-response relationship between estimated levels of GB/GF exposure and total hippocampal or subfield volume. These findings extend our previous report of structural alterations in the hippocampi of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure to volume changes in the CA2, CA3, and DG hippocampal subfields in a different cohort of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. 512-Channel and 13-Region Simultaneous Recordings Coupled with Optogenetic Manipulation in Freely Behaving Mice.

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    Xie, Kun; Fox, Grace E; Liu, Jun; Tsien, Joe Z

    2016-01-01

    The development of technologies capable of recording both single-unit activity and local field potentials (LFPs) over a wide range of brain circuits in freely behaving animals is the key to constructing brain activity maps. Although mice are the most popular mammalian genetic model, in vivo neural recording has been traditionally limited to smaller channel count and fewer brain structures because of the mouse's small size and thin skull. Here, we describe a 512-channel tetrode system that allows us to record simultaneously over a dozen cortical and subcortical structures in behaving mice. This new technique offers two major advantages - namely, the ultra-low cost and the do-it-yourself flexibility for targeting any combination of many brain areas. We show the successful recordings of both single units and LFPs from 13 distinct neural circuits of the mouse brain, including subregions of the anterior cingulate cortices, retrosplenial cortices, somatosensory cortices, secondary auditory cortex, hippocampal CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum, lateral entorhinal cortex, perirhinal cortex, and prelimbic cortex. This 512-channel system can also be combined with Cre-lox neurogenetics and optogenetics to further examine interactions between genes, cell types, and circuit dynamics across a wide range of brain structures. Finally, we demonstrate that complex stimuli - such as an earthquake and fear-inducing foot-shock - trigger firing changes in all of the 13 brain regions recorded, supporting the notion that neural code is highly distributed. In addition, we show that localized optogenetic manipulation in any given brain region could disrupt network oscillations and caused changes in single-unit firing patterns in a brain-wide manner, thereby raising the cautionary note of the interpretation of optogenetically manipulated behaviors.

  14. The relationship between subcortical brain volume and striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in healthy humans assessed with [11 C]-raclopride and [11 C]-(+)-PHNO PET.

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    Caravaggio, Fernando; Ku Chung, Jun; Plitman, Eric; Boileau, Isabelle; Gerretsen, Philip; Kim, Julia; Iwata, Yusuke; Patel, Raihaan; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Remington, Gary; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2017-11-01

    Abnormalities in dopamine (DA) and brain morphology are observed in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, it is not fully understood how these abnormalities may relate to one another. For such in vivo findings to be used as biomarkers for neuropsychiatric disease, it must be understood how variability in DA relates to brain structure under healthy conditions. We explored how the availability of striatal DA D2/3 receptors (D2/3 R) is related to the volume of subcortical brain structures in a sample of healthy humans. Differences in D2/3 R availability measured with an antagonist radiotracer ([11 C]-raclopride) versus an agonist radiotracer ([11 C]-(+)-PHNO) were examined. Data from 62 subjects scanned with [11 C]-raclopride (mean age = 38.98 ± 14.45; 23 female) and 68 subjects scanned with [11 C]-(+)-PHNO (mean age = 38.54 ± 14.59; 25 female) were used. Subcortical volumes were extracted from T1-weighted images using the Multiple Automatically Generated Templates (MAGeT-Brain) algorithm. Partial correlations were used controlling for age, gender, and total brain volume. For [11 C]-(+)-PHNO, ventral caudate volumes were positively correlated with BPND in the dorsal caudate and globus pallidus (GP). Ventral striatum (VS) volumes were positively correlated with BPND in the VS. With [11 C]-raclopride, BPND in the VS was negatively correlated with subiculum volume of the hippocampus. Moreover, BPND in the GP was negatively correlated with the volume of the lateral posterior nucleus of the thalamus. Findings are purely exploratory and presented corrected and uncorrected for multiple comparisons. We hope they will help inform the interpretation of future PET studies where concurrent changes in D2/3 R and brain morphology are observed. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5519-5534, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hippocampal sclerosis and TDP-43 pathology in aging and Alzheimer disease.

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    Nag, Sukriti; Yu, Lei; Capuano, Ana W; Wilson, Robert S; Leurgans, Sue E; Bennett, David A; Schneider, Julie A

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the association of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) with TAR-DNA binding protein of 43kDa (TDP-43) and other common age-related pathologies, dementia, probable Alzheimer disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and cognitive domains in community-dwelling older subjects. Diagnoses of dementia, probable AD, and MCI in 636 autopsied subjects from the Religious Order Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project were based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests. HS was defined as severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the hippocampal CA1 and/or subiculum. The severity and distribution of TDP-43 were assessed, and other age-related pathologies were also documented. HS was more common in those aged >90 years (18.0%) compared to younger subjects (9.2%). HS cases commonly coexisted with TDP-43 pathology (86%), which was more severe (p pathology; only TDP-43 pathology increased the odds of HS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.07-3.34). In logistic regression models accounting for age, TDP-43, and other common age-related pathologies, HS cases had higher odds of dementia (OR = 3.71, 95% CI = 1.93-7.16), MCI, and probable AD (OR = 3.75, 95% CI = 2.01-7.02). In linear regression models, including an interaction term for HS and TDP-43 pathology, HS with coexisting TDP-43 was associated with lower function in multiple cognitive domains, whereas HS without TDP-43 did not have statistically significant associations. TDP-43 without HS was separately related to lower episodic memory. The combined roles of HS and TDP-43 pathology are significant factors underlying global cognitive impairment and probable AD in older subjects. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  16. Hippocampal sclerosis and TDP-43 pathology in aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

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    Nag, Sukriti; Yu, Lei; Capuano, Ana W.; Wilson, Robert S.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Bennett, David A.; Schneider, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of hippocampal sclerosis (HS) with TAR-DNA binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) and other common age-related pathologies, dementia, probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and cognitive domains in community-dwelling older subjects. Methods Diagnoses of dementia, probable AD and MCI in 636 autopsied subjects from the Religious Order Study and the Rush Memory and Aging Project were based on clinical evaluation and cognitive performance tests. HS was defined as severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the hippocampal CA1and/or subiculum. The severity and distribution of TDP-43 was assessed and other age-related pathologies were also documented. Results HS was more common in those aged > 90 years (18.0%) compared to younger subjects (9.2%). HS cases commonly coexisted with TDP-43 pathology (86%), which was more severe (p pathology; only TDP-43 pathology increased the odds of HS (OR=2.63; 95% CI 2.07-3.34). In logistic regression models accounting for age, TDP-43 and other common age-related pathologies; HS cases had higher odds of dementia (OR=3.71; 95% CI=1.93-7.16), MCI and probable AD (OR=3.75; 95% CI=2.01-7.02). In linear regression models, including an interaction term for HS and TDP-43 pathology; HS with coexisting TDP-43 was associated with lower function in multiple cognitive domains while HS without TDP-43 did not have statistically significant associations. TDP-43 without HS was separately related to lower episodic memory. Interpretation The combined role of hippocampal sclerosis and TDP-43 pathology are significant factors underlying global cognitive impairment and probable AD in older subjects. PMID:25707479

  17. Intracellular amyloid-β accumulation in calcium-binding protein-deficient neurons leads to amyloid-β plaque formation in animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

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    Moon, Minho; Hong, Hyun-Seok; Nam, Dong Woo; Baik, Sung Hoon; Song, Hyundong; Kook, Sun-Young; Kim, Yong Soo; Lee, Jeewoo; Mook-Jung, Inhee

    2012-01-01

    One of the major hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the extracellular deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) as senile plaques in specific brain regions. Clearly, an understanding of the cellular processes underlying Aβ deposition is a crucial issue in the field of AD research. Recent studies have found that accumulation of intraneuronal Aβ (iAβ) is associated with synaptic deficits, neuronal death, and cognitive dysfunction in AD patients. In this study, we found that Aβ deposits had several shapes and sizes, and that iAβ occurred before the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques in the subiculum of 5XFAD mice, an animal model of AD. We also observed pyroglutamate-modified Aβ (N3pE-Aβ), which has been suggested to be a seeding molecule for senile plaques, inside the Aβ plaques only after iAβ accumulation, which argues against its seeding role. In addition, we found that iAβ accumulates in calcium-binding protein (CBP)-free neurons, induces neuronal death, and then develops into senile plaques in 2-4-month-old 5XFAD mice. These findings suggest that N3pE-Aβ-independent accumulation of Aβ in CBP-free neurons might be an early process that triggers neuronal damage and senile plaque formation in AD patients. Our results provide new insights into several long-standing gaps in AD research, namely how Aβ plaques are formed, what happens to iAβ and how Aβ causes selective neuronal loss in AD patients.

  18. Increased metabolic activity in the septum and habenula during stress is linked to subsequent expression of learned helplessness behavior

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    Martine M Mirrione

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrollable stress can have a profound effect on an organism’s ability to respond effectively to future stressful situations. Behavior subsequent to uncontrollable stress can vary greatly between individuals, falling on a spectrum between healthy resilience and maladaptive learned helplessness. It is unclear whether dysfunctional brain activity during uncontrollable stress is associated with vulnerability to learned helplessness; therefore, we measured metabolic activity during uncontrollable stress that correlated with ensuing inability to escape future stressors. We took advantage of small animal positron emission tomography (PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18FDG to probe in vivo metabolic activity in wild type Sprague Dawley rats during uncontrollable, inescapable, unpredictable foot-shock stress, and subsequently tested the animals response to controllable, escapable, predictable foot-shock stress. When we correlated metabolic activity during the uncontrollable stress with consequent behavioral outcomes, we found that the degree to which animals failed to escape the foot-shock correlated with increased metabolic activity in the lateral septum and habenula. When used a seed region, metabolic activity in the habenula correlated with activity in the lateral septum, hypothalamus, medial thalamus, mammillary nuclei, ventral tegmental area, central gray, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and rostromedial tegmental nucleus, caudal linear raphe, and subiculum transition area. Furthermore, the lateral septum correlated with metabolic activity in the preoptic area, medial thalamus, habenula, interpeduncular nuclei, periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, and caudal linear raphe. Together, our data suggest a group of brain regions involved in sensitivity to uncontrollable stress involving the lateral septum and habenula.

  19. Mutation of Elfn1 in mice causes seizures and hyperactivity.

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    Jackie Dolan

    Full Text Available A growing number of proteins with extracellular leucine-rich repeats (eLRRs have been implicated in directing neuronal connectivity. We previously identified a novel family of eLRR proteins in mammals: the Elfns are transmembrane proteins with 6 LRRs, a fibronectin type-3 domain and a long cytoplasmic tail. The recent discovery that Elfn1 protein, expressed postsynaptically, can direct the elaboration of specific electrochemical properties of synapses between particular cell types in the hippocampus strongly reinforces this hypothesis. Here, we present analyses of an Elfn1 mutant mouse line and demonstrate a functional requirement for this gene in vivo. We first carried out detailed expression analysis of Elfn1 using a β-galactosidase reporter gene in the knockout line. Elfn1 is expressed in distinct subsets of interneurons of the hippocampus and cortex, and also in discrete subsets of cells in the habenula, septum, globus pallidus, dorsal subiculum, amygdala and several other regions. Elfn1 is expressed in diverse cell types, including local GABAergic interneurons as well as long-range projecting GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Elfn1 protein localises to axons of excitatory neurons in the habenula, and long-range GABAergic neurons of the globus pallidus, suggesting the possibility of additional roles for Elfn1 in axons or presynaptically. While gross anatomical analyses did not reveal any obvious neuroanatomical abnormalities, behavioural analyses clearly illustrate functional effects of Elfn1 mutation. Elfn1 mutant mice exhibit seizures, subtle motor abnormalities, reduced thigmotaxis and hyperactivity. The hyperactivity is paradoxically reversible by treatment with the stimulant amphetamine, consistent with phenotypes observed in animals with habenular lesions. These analyses reveal a requirement for Elfn1 in brain function and are suggestive of possible relevance to the etiology and pathophysiology of epilepsy and attention

  20. Short- and long-term cognitive effects of chronic cannabinoids administration in late-adolescence rats.

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    Hila Abush

    Full Text Available The use of cannabis can impair cognitive function, especially short-term memory. A controversial question is whether long-term cannabis use during the late-adolescence period can cause irreversible deficits in higher brain function that persist after drug use stops. In order to examine the short- and long-term effects of chronic exposure to cannabinoids, rats were administered chronic i.p. treatment with the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN; 1.2 mg/kg for two weeks during the late adolescence period (post-natal days 45-60 and tested for behavioral and electrophysiological measures of cognitive performance 24 hrs, 10 and 30 days after the last drug injection. The impairing effects of chronic WIN on short-term memory in the water maze and the object recognition tasks as well as long-term potentiation (LTP in the ventral subiculum (vSub-nucleus accumbens (NAc pathway were temporary as they lasted only 24 h or 10 d after withdrawal. However, chronic WIN significantly impaired hippocampal dependent short-term memory measured in the object location task 24 hrs, 10, 30, and 75 days after the last drug injection. Our findings suggest that some forms of hippocampal-dependent short-term memory are sensitive to chronic cannabinoid administration but other cognitive impairments are temporary and probably result from a residue of cannabinoids in the brain or acute withdrawal effects from cannabinoids. Understanding the effects of cannabinoids on cognitive function may provide us with tools to overcome these impairments and for cannabinoids to be more favorably considered for clinical use.

  1. Magnesium chloride alone or in combination with diazepam fails to prevent hippocampal damage following transient forebrain ischemia

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    H. Milani

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, magnesium ion (Mg2+ acts as an endogenous modulator of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA-coupled calcium channels, and may play a major role in the pathomechanisms of ischemic brain damage. In the present study, we investigated the effects of magnesium chloride (MgCl2, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 mmol/kg, either alone or in combination with diazepam (DZ, on ischemia-induced hippocampal cell death. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g were subjected to transient forebrain ischemia for 15 min using the 4-vessel occlusion model. MgCl2 was applied systemically (sc in single (1x, 2 h post-ischemia or multiple doses (4x, 1, 2, 24 and 48 h post-ischemia. DZ was always given twice, at 1 and 2 h post-ischemia. Thus, ischemia-subjected rats were assigned to one of the following treatments: vehicle (0.1 ml/kg, N = 34, DZ (10 mg/kg, N = 24, MgCl2 (2.5 mmol/kg, N = 10, MgCl2 (5.0 mmol/kg, N = 17, MgCl2 (7.5 mmol/kg, N = 9 or MgCl2 (5 mmol/kg + DZ (10 mg/kg, N = 14. Seven days after ischemia the brains were analyzed histologically. Fifteen minutes of ischemia caused massive pyramidal cell loss in the subiculum (90.3% and CA1 (88.4% sectors of the hippocampus (P0.05. Both DZ alone and DZ + MgCl2 reduced rectal temperature significantly (P<0.05. No animal death was observed after drug treatment. These data indicate that exogenous magnesium, when administered systemically post-ischemia even in different multiple dose schedules, alone or with diazepam, is not useful against the histopathological effects of transient global cerebral ischemia in rats.

  2. Induction of complement proteins in a mouse model for cerebral microvascular Aβ deposition

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    DeFilippis Kelly

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The deposition of amyloid β-protein (Aβ in cerebral vasculature, known as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA, is a common pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. In familial forms of CAA single mutations in the Aβ peptide have been linked to the increase of vascular Aβ deposits accompanied by a strong localized activation of glial cells and elevated expression of neuroinflammatory mediators including complement proteins. We have developed human amyloid-β precursor protein transgenic mice harboring two CAA Aβ mutations (Dutch E693Q and Iowa D694N that mimic the prevalent cerebral microvascular Aβ deposition observed in those patients, and the Swedish mutations (K670N/M671L to increase Aβ production. In these Tg-SwDI mice, we have reported predominant fibrillar Aβ along microvessels in the thalamic region and diffuse plaques in cortical region. Concurrently, activated microglia and reactive astrocytes have been detected primarily in association with fibrillar cerebral microvascular Aβ in this model. Here we show that three native complement components in classical and alternative complement pathways, C1q, C3, and C4, are elevated in Tg-SwDI mice in regions rich in fibrillar microvascular Aβ. Immunohistochemical staining of all three proteins was increased in thalamus, hippocampus, and subiculum, but not frontal cortex. Western blot analysis showed significant increases of all three proteins in the thalamic region (with hippocampus as well as the cortical region, except C3 that was below detection level in cortex. Also, in the thalamic region (with hippocampus, C1q and C3 mRNAs were significantly up-regulated. These complement proteins appeared to be expressed largely by activated microglial cells associated with the fibrillar microvascular Aβ deposits. Our findings demonstrate that Tg-SwDI mice exhibit elevated complement protein expression in response to fibrillar vascular Aβ deposition that is

  3. Tunicamycin-induced unfolded protein response in the developing mouse brain

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    Wang, Haiping; Wang, Xin [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Ke, Zun-Ji [Department of Biochemistry, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 1200 Cailun Road, Shanghai 201203 (China); Comer, Ashley L.; Xu, Mei; Frank, Jacqueline A. [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Zhang, Zhuo; Shi, Xianglin [Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Luo, Jia, E-mail: jialuo888@uky.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Nutritional Sciences, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress, resulting in the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress and UPR are associated with many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to environmental insults which may cause ER stress. We evaluated the UPR in the brain of postnatal mice. Tunicamycin, a commonly used ER stress inducer, was administered subcutaneously to mice of postnatal days (PDs) 4, 12 and 25. Tunicamycin caused UPR in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of mice of PD4 and PD12, which was evident by the upregulation of ATF6, XBP1s, p-eIF2α, GRP78, GRP94 and MANF, but failed to induce UPR in the brain of PD25 mice. Tunicamycin-induced UPR in the liver was observed at all stages. In PD4 mice, tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was observed in layer II of the parietal and optical cortex, CA1–CA3 and the subiculum of the hippocampus, the cerebellar external germinal layer and the superior/inferior colliculus. Tunicamycin-induced caspase-3 activation was also shown on PD12 but to a much lesser degree and mainly located in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, deep cerebellar nuclei and pons. Tunicamycin did not activate caspase-3 in the brain of PD25 mice and the liver of all stages. Similarly, immature cerebellar neurons were sensitive to tunicamycin-induced cell death in culture, but became resistant as they matured in vitro. These results suggest that the UPR is developmentally regulated and the immature brain is more susceptible to ER stress. - Highlights: • Tunicamycin caused a development-dependent UPR in the mouse brain. • Immature brain was more susceptible to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. • Tunicamycin caused more neuronal death in immature brain than mature brain. • Tunicamycin-induced neuronal death is region-specific.

  4. Response to Deep Brain Stimulation in Three Brain Targets with Implications in Mental Disorders: A PET Study in Rats.

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    Casquero-Veiga, Marta; Hadar, Ravit; Pascau, Javier; Winter, Christine; Desco, Manuel; Soto-Montenegro, María Luisa

    2016-01-01

    To investigate metabolic changes in brain networks by deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and dorsomedial thalamus (DM) using positron emission tomography (PET) in naïve rats. 43 male Wistar rats underwent stereotactic surgery and concentric bipolar platinum-iridium electrodes were bilaterally implanted into one of the three brain sites. [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose-PET (18FDG-PET) and computed tomography (CT) scans were performed at the 7th (without DBS) and 9th day (with DBS) after surgery. Stimulation period matched tracer uptake period. Images were acquired with a small-animal PET-CT scanner. Differences in glucose uptake between groups were assessed with Statistical Parametric Mapping. DBS induced site-specific metabolic changes, although a common increased metabolic activity in the piriform cortex was found for the three brain targets. mPFC-DBS increased metabolic activity in the striatum, temporal and amygdala, and reduced it in the cerebellum, brainstem (BS) and periaqueductal gray matter (PAG). NAcc-DBS increased metabolic activity in the subiculum and olfactory bulb, and decreased it in the BS, PAG, septum and hypothalamus. DM-DBS increased metabolic activity in the striatum, NAcc and thalamus and decreased it in the temporal and cingulate cortex. DBS induced significant changes in 18FDG uptake in brain regions associated with the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuitry. Stimulation of mPFC, NAcc and DM induced different patterns of 18FDG uptake despite interacting with the same circuitries. This may have important implications to DBS research suggesting individualized target selection according to specific neural modulatory requirements.

  5. The retrograde connections and anatomical segregation of the Göttingen minipig nucleus accumbens

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    Anders Christian Meidahl

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleus accumbens (NAcc has been implicated in several psychiatric disorders such as treatment resistant depression (TRD and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, and has been an ongoing experimental target for deep brain stimulation (DBS in both rats and humans. In order to translate basic scientific results from rodents to the human setting a large animal model is needed to thoroughly study the effect of such therapeutic interventions. The aim of the study was, accordingly, to describe the basic anatomy of the Göttingen minipig NAcc and its retrograde connections.Tracing was carried out by MRI-guided stereotactic unilateral fluorogold injections in the NAcc of Göttingen minipigs. After two weeks the brains were sectioned and subsequently stained with Nissl-, autometallographic (AMG development of myelin, and DARPP-32 and calbindin immunohistochemistry.The minipig NAcc was divided in a central core and an outer medial, ventral and lateral shell. We confirmed the NAcc to be a large and well-segregated structure towards its medial, ventral and lateral borders. The fluorogold tracing revealed inputs to NAcc from the medial parts of the prefrontal cortex, BA 25 (subgenual cortex, insula bilaterally, amygdala, the CA1-region of hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, subiculum, paraventricular and anterior parts of thalamus, dorsomedial parts of hypothalamus, substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, the retrorubral field and the dorsal and median raphe nuclei.In conclusion the Göttingen minipig NAcc is a large ventral striatal structure that can be divided into a core and shell with prominent afferent connections from several subrhinal and infra-/prelimbic brain areas.

  6. Region-specific upregulation of parvalbumin-, but not calretinin-positive cells in the ventral hippocampus during adolescence.

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    Caballero, Adriana; Diah, Kimberly C; Tseng, Kuei Y

    2013-12-01

    Animal studies have highlighted the role of the ventral hippocampus-prefrontal cortex pathway in the acquisition of mature cortical function through refinement of GABAergic circuits during adolescence. Inhibitory GABAergic responses are mediated by highly specialized interneurons, which have distinct functional properties and are characterized by the expression of calcium binding proteins. Among these, we recently found that parvalbumin (PV)- and calretinin (CR)-positive interneurons in the prefrontal cortex follow opposite developmental trajectories during the periadolescent transition period. In the present study, we asked whether interneurons expressing PV and CR in the ventral hippocampus follow similar periadolescent trajectories as seen in the prefrontal cortex. By measuring the relative abundance of these interneurons in three age groups (postnatal days (PD) 25-40, 45-55, and 60-85), we found that regions within the dorso-ventral axis of the ventral hippocampus undergo distinct developmental trajectories in PV expression during the periadolescent transition. Specifically, the ventral subiculum displayed a dramatic increase in PV-positive interneurons from PD25-40 to PD45-55 with an increasing rostro-caudal gradient, whereas negligible changes were found in the dorsal and middle regions. In contrast, the number of CR-positive interneurons in the ventral hippocampus remained unchanged across the three age groups studied. Together, these results describe for the first time that GABAergic circuits in the ventral hippocampus undergo protracted development during adolescence, in particular the PV-positive cell population circumscribed to the ventral region of the ventral hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Non-neuronal cell responses differ between normal and Down syndrome developing brains.

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    Kanaumi, Takeshi; Milenkovic, Ivan; Adle-Biassette, Homa; Aronica, Eleonora; Kovacs, Gabor G

    2013-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS), the most common genetic cause of mental retardation, is characterized by reduced number of neurons and delayed myelination. Though non-neuronal cells in the brain are vital for the development, survival, and function of neurons, there is a paucity of comparative studies of normal development and DS, in particular in the temporal lobe, a region of interest for cognitive decline. We evaluated immunoreactivity for CD68 (macrophage), HLA-DR (microglia), Olig2 and TPPP/p25 (oligodendroglia), and GFAP (astroglia) in the germinal matrix (GM), temporal lobe white matter (TeWM) and hippocampus from 14 weeks of gestations to newborn in 28 DS patients and 30 age-matched controls. The rate of increase of CD68 positive cells in the GM, CA1 hippocampal subregion and subiculum was significantly higher in DS. The density of Olig2 positive cells in the GM was lower in DS brains at early stages, then showed a transient increase contrasting controls. Olig2 expression increased more in the TeWM in DS, suggesting an altered pattern of oligodendrocyte progenitor generation. GFAP-immunoreactivity in DS was significantly lower in the middle pregnancy period in the TeWM and did not increase between early and middle periods in the GM compared to controls, likely reflecting a defect in astrocyte production. The altered expression of non-neuronal cell markers during normal development and DS may play a role in, or reflect, defective neurogenesis, leading to reduced number of neurons and delayed myelination in the developing DS brain. This has implications for the understanding of the mental retardation in DS patients. Copyright © 2013 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of alcoholic extract of Panicum miliaceum L. seed on hippocampus neuronal density in male mouse

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    Arezoo Bornarodi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hippocampus organization is a part of temporal lobe, which consists of several sections including hippocampal body, dentate gyrus and subiculum. Panicum miliaceum L. contains proteins, vitamins and antioxidants for human health. This study was conducted to examine the effect of the alcoholic extract of the seed of Panicum miliaceum L. plant on hippocampus neuronal density. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male mice were divided into 4 groups (n=6, each group. The alcoholic extract of the seed of the Panicum miliaceum L. plant was prepared by soxhlet extraction. Three doses of the extract 25, 50, 75 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected to 3 treatment groups for 21 days and the control group received normal saline injection. At the end of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and after perfusion, their brains were removed from the skull. After tissue processing, slices of the brain were prepared and stained. Then, different regions of the hippocampus were photographed and neuronal densities were evaluated. Results: Results showed that the neuronal density in the CA1, CA3 regions of the group treated with 50 mg/kg of the alcoholic extract and in all regions of hippocampus (CA1,CA2,CA3 in groups treated with dose of 75 mg/kg of the alcoholic extract had a significant increase compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: The present study shows that the alcoholic extract of the seed of Panicum miliaceum L. plant increases neuronal density and induces neurogenesis in the mouse hippocampus.

  9. Context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence is associated with activation of cortical and subcortical brain regions.

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    Pelloux, Yann; Hoots, Jennifer K; Cifani, Carlo; Adhikary, Sweta; Martin, Jennifer; Minier-Toribio, Angelica; Bossert, Jennifer M; Shaham, Yavin

    2017-06-29

    We recently developed a rat model of context-induced relapse to alcohol seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence to mimic relapse after self-imposed abstinence due to adverse consequences of drug use. Here, we determined the model's generality to cocaine and have begun to explore brain mechanisms of context-induced relapse to cocaine seeking after punishment-imposed abstinence, using the activity marker Fos. In exp. 1, we trained rats to self-administer cocaine (0.75 mg/kg/infusion, 6 hours/day, 12 days) in context A. Next, we transferred them to context B where for the paired group, but not unpaired group, 50 percent of cocaine-reinforced lever presses caused aversive footshock. We then tested the rats for cocaine seeking under extinction conditions in contexts A and B. We also retested them for relapse after retraining in context A and repunishment in context B. In exp. 2, we used Fos immunoreactivity to determine relapse-associated neuronal activation in brain regions of rats exposed to context A, context B or neither context. Results showed the selective shock-induced suppression of cocaine self-administration and context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence in rats exposed to paired, but not unpaired, footshock. Additionally, context-induced relapse was associated with selective activation of dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insula, dorsal striatum, basolateral amygdala, paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus, lateral habenula, substantia nigra, ventral subiculum, and dorsal raphe, but not nucleus accumbens, central amygdala, lateral hypothalamus, ventral tegmental area and other brain regions. Together, context-induced relapse after punishment-imposed abstinence generalizes to rats with a history of cocaine self-administration and is associated with selective activation of cortical and subcortical regions. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Behavioral and Physiological Effects of a Novel Kappa-Opioid Receptor-Based DREADD in Rats.

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    Marchant, Nathan J; Whitaker, Leslie R; Bossert, Jennifer M; Harvey, Brandon K; Hope, Bruce T; Kaganovsky, Konstantin; Adhikary, Sweta; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Vardy, Eyal; Roth, Bryan L; Shaham, Yavin

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, novel methods using engineered receptors have enabled researchers to manipulate neuronal activity with increased spatial and temporal specificity. One widely used chemogenetic method in mice and rats is the DREADD (designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs) system in which a mutated muscarinic G protein-coupled receptor is activated by an otherwise inert synthetic ligand, clozapine-N-oxide (CNO). Recently, the Roth laboratory developed a novel inhibitory DREADD in which a mutated kappa-opioid receptor (KORD) is activated by the pharmacologically inert drug salvinorin B (SalB; Vardy et al, 2015). They demonstrated the feasibility of using KORD to study brain circuits involved in motivated behavior in mice. Here, we used behavioral, electrophysiological, and neuroanatomical methods to demonstrate the feasibility of using the novel KORD to study brain circuits involved in motivated behavior in rats. In Exp. 1, we show that SalB dose-dependently decreased spontaneous and cocaine-induced locomotor activity in rats expressing KORD to midbrain (ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra). In Exp. 2, we show that SalB completely inhibited tonic firing in KORD-expressing putative dopamine neurons in midbrain. In Exp. 3, we used a 'retro-DREADD' dual-virus approach to restrict expression of KORD in ventral subiculum neurons that project to nucleus accumbens shell. We show that KORD activation selectively decreased novel context-induced Fos expression in this projection. Our results indicate that the novel KORD is a promising tool to selectively inactivate brain areas and neural circuits in rat studies of motivated behavior.

  11. Hippocampal subfield volumes in mood disorders.

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    Cao, B; Passos, I C; Mwangi, B; Amaral-Silva, H; Tannous, J; Wu, M-J; Zunta-Soares, G B; Soares, J C

    2017-09-01

    Volume reduction and shape abnormality of the hippocampus have been associated with mood disorders. However, the hippocampus is not a uniform structure and consists of several subfields, such as the cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, the dentate gyrus (DG) including a granule cell layer (GCL) and a molecular layer (ML) that continuously crosses adjacent subiculum (Sub) and CA fields. It is known that cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with mood disorders may be localized to specific hippocampal subfields. Thus, it is necessary to investigate the link between the in vivo hippocampal subfield volumes and specific mood disorders, such as bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, we used a state-of-the-art hippocampal segmentation approach, and we found that patients with BD had reduced volumes of hippocampal subfields, specifically in the left CA4, GCL, ML and both sides of the hippocampal tail, compared with healthy subjects and patients with MDD. The volume reduction was especially severe in patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). We also demonstrated that hippocampal subfield volume reduction was associated with the progression of the illness. For patients with BD-I, the volumes of the right CA1, ML and Sub decreased as the illness duration increased, and the volumes of both sides of the CA2/3, CA4 and hippocampal tail had negative correlations with the number of manic episodes. These results indicated that among the mood disorders the hippocampal subfields were more affected in BD-I compared with BD-II and MDD, and manic episodes had focused progressive effect on the CA2/3 and CA4 and hippocampal tail.

  12. Fast voltage-sensitive dye imaging of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in the rat granular retrosplenial cortex.

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    Nixima, Ken'ichi; Okanoya, Kazuo; Ichinohe, Noritaka; Kurotani, Tohru

    2017-09-01

    between coronal and horizontal planes. Since deep layers of the GRS receive inputs from the subiculum, GRS circuits may work as an integrator of multiple sources such as sensory and memory information. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Autoradiographic characterization of [3H]-5-HT-moduline binding sites in rodent brain and their relationship to 5-HT1B receptors

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    Cloëz-Tayarani, Isabelle; Cardona, Ana; Rousselle, Jean-Claude; Massot, Olivier; Edelman, Lena; Fillion, Gilles

    1997-01-01

    5-HT-moduline is an endogenous tetrapeptide [Leu-Ser-Ala-Leu (LSAL)] that was first isolated from bovine brain tissue. To understand the physiological role of this tetrapeptide, we studied the localization of 5-HT-moduline binding sites in rat and mouse brains. Quantitative data obtained with a gaseous detector of β-particles (β-imager) indicated that [3H]-5-HT-moduline bound specifically to rat brain sections with high affinity (Kd = 0.77 nM and Bmax = 0.26 dpm/mm2). Using film autoradiography in parallel, we found that 5-HT-moduline binding sites were expressed in a variety of rat and mouse brain structures. In 5-HT1B receptor knock-out mice, the specific binding of [3H]-5-HT-moduline was not different from background labeling, indicating that 5-HT-moduline targets are exclusively located on the 5-HT1B receptors. Although the distribution of 5-HT-moduline binding sites was similar to that of 5-HT1B receptors, they did not overlap totally. Differences in distribution patterns were found in regions containing either high levels of 5-HT1B receptors such as globus pallidus and subiculum that were poorly labeled or in other regions such as dentate gyrus of hippocampus and cortex where the relative density of 5-HT-moduline binding sites was higher than that of 5-HT1B receptors. In conclusion, our data, based on autoradiographic localization, indicate that 5-HT-moduline targets are located on 5-HT1B receptors present both on 5-HT afferents and postsynaptic neurons. By interacting specifically with 5-HT1B receptors, this tetrapeptide may play a pivotal role in pathological states such as stress that involves the dysfunction of 5-HT neurotransmission. PMID:9275223

  14. Perceived Stress Is Differentially Related to Hippocampal Subfield Volumes among Older Adults.

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    Molly E Zimmerman

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to stress has been shown to impact a wide range of health-related outcomes in older adults. Despite extensive animal literature revealing deleterious effects of biological markers of stress on the dentate gyrus subfield of the hippocampus, links between hippocampal subfields and psychological stress have not been studied in humans. This study examined the relationship between perceived stress and hippocampal subfield volumes among racially/ethnically diverse older adults.Between July 2011 and March 2014, 116 nondemented participants were consecutively drawn from the Einstein Aging Study, an ongoing community-based sample of individuals over the age of 70 residing in Bronx, New York. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, and underwent 3.0 T MRI. FreeSurfer was used to derive total hippocampal volume, hippocampal subfield volumes (CA1, CA2/CA3, CA4/Dentate Gyrus (CA4/DG, and subiculum, entorhinal cortex volume, whole brain volume, and total intracranial volume.Linear regression analyses revealed that higher levels of perceived stress were associated with smaller total hippocampal volume (β = -0.20, t = -2.40, p = 0.02, smaller CA2/CA3 volumes (β = -0.18, t = -2.24, p = 0.03 and smaller CA4/DG volumes (β = -0.19, t = -2.28, p = 0.03 after controlling for total intracranial volume, age, gender, and race. These findings remained unchanged after removal of individuals with clinically significant symptoms of depression.Our findings provide evidence of a relationship between a direct indicator of psychological stress and specific hippocampal subfield volumes in elderly individuals. These results highlight the importance of clinical screening for chronic stress in otherwise healthy older adults.

  15. Phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibody detects intraneuronal dot-like structures showing morphological characters of granulovacuolar degeneration.

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    Kadokura, Ai; Yamazaki, Tsuneo; Kakuda, Satoko; Makioka, Kouki; Lemere, Cynthia A; Fujita, Yukio; Takatama, Masamitsu; Okamoto, Koichi

    2009-09-29

    TAR-DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) was considered to be a disease-specific component of ubiquitin-positive and tau-negative inclusions in the brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, this protein also accumulates abnormally in neurons in other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the role of TDP-43 deposition in these diseases is not clear, abnormal phosphorylation of the protein is suggested to be a critical step in disease pathogenesis. In this study, we generated a new phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibody and examined AD brain sections from temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and temporal neocortex, by immunohistochemistry. The antibody, called A2, specifically recognized phosphorylated TDP-43 in western blotting using ALS and AD specimens, detecting a strong 45kDa band and several shorter fragments at around 25kDa with smears. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in AD brain sections without staining nuclei that were normal physiological TDP-43 localization sites. These results were consistent with previous reports. However, intraneuronal dot-like structures were also intensely labeled by immunohistochemistry. These structures were observed in all the AD brain sections examined and also occurred in sections from the brains of aged subjects without AD pathologies. The morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of these granular structures were compatible with those of granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD). The A2 antibody clearly and intensely detected granular structures distributed over the hippocampus, subiculum, parahippocampus and temporal neocortex. Thus, immunohistochemistry using phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibodies would be a new useful tool for identifying GVD.

  16. Effects of Erythropoietin on Hippocampal Volume and Memory in Mood Disorders.

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    Miskowiak, Kamilla W; Vinberg, Maj; Macoveanu, Julian; Ehrenreich, Hannelore; Køster, Nicolai; Inkster, Becky; Paulson, Olaf B; Kessing, Lars V; Skimminge, Arnold; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2015-08-15

    Persistent cognitive dysfunction in depression and bipolar disorder (BD) impedes patients' functional recovery. Erythropoietin (EPO) increases neuroplasticity and reduces cognitive difficulties in treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and remitted BD. This magnetic resonance imaging study assessed the neuroanatomical basis for these effects. Patients with TRD who were moderately depressed or BD in partial remission were randomized to 8 weekly EPO (40,000 IU) or saline infusions in a double-blind, parallel-group design. Patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging, memory assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and mood ratings with the Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Young Mania Rating Scale at baseline and week 14. Hippocampus segmentation and analysis of hippocampal volume, shape, and gray matter density were conducted with FMRIB Software Library tools. Memory change was analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of covariance adjusted for depression symptoms, diagnosis, age, and gender. Eighty-four patients were randomized; 1 patient withdrew and data collection was incomplete for 14 patients; data were thus analyzed for 69 patients (EPO: n = 35, saline: n = 34). Compared with saline, EPO was associated with mood-independent memory improvement and reversal of brain matter loss in the left hippocampal cornu ammonis 1 to cornu ammonis 3 and subiculum. Using the entire sample, memory improvement was associated with subfield hippocampal volume increase independent of mood change. EPO-associated memory improvement in TRD and BD may be mediated by reversal of brain matter loss in a subfield of the left hippocampus. EPO may provide a therapeutic option for patients with mood disorders who have impaired neuroplasticity and cognition. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of thalamic projection in NMDA receptor-induced disruption of cortical slow oscillation and short-term plasticity

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    Tamás eKiss

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available NMDA receptor (NMDAR antagonists, such as phencyclidine, ketamine or dizocilpine (MK-801 are commonly used in psychiatric drug discovery in order to model several symptoms of schizophrenia, including psychosis and impairments in working memory. In spite of the widespread use of NMDAR antagonists in preclinical and clinical studies, our understanding of the mode of action of these drugs on brain circuits and neuronal networks is still limited. In the present study spontaneous local field potential (LFP, multi- (MUA and single unit activity, and evoked potential, including paired-pulse facilitation (PPF in response to electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral subiculum were carried out in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in urethane anesthetized rats. Systemic administration of MK-801 (0.05~mg/kg, i.v. decreased overall MUA, with a diverse effect on single unit activity, including increased, decreased or unchanged firing, and in line with our previous findings shifted delta frequency power of the LFP and disrupted PPF (Kiss et al., Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010. In order to provide further insight to the mechanisms of action of NMDAR antagonists, MK-801 was administered intracranially into the mPFC and mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus (MD. Microinjections of MK-801, but not physiological saline, localized into the MD evoked changes in both LFP parameters and PPF similar to the effects of systemically administered MK-801. Local microinjection of MK-801 into the mPFC was without effect on these parameters. Our findings indicate that the primary site of the action of systemic administration of NMDA receptor antagonists is unlikely to be the cortex. We presume that multiple neuronal networks, involving thalamic nuclei contribute to disrupted behavior and cognition following NMDA receptor blockade.

  18. Olfactory bulbectomy reduces cerebral glucose utilization: 2-[14C]deoxyglucose autoradiographic study.

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    Skelin, Ivan; Sato, Hiroki; Diksic, Mirko

    2008-07-30

    The olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rat is an extensively investigated animal model of depression. In the present study the effects of olfactory bulbectomy in drug-naive adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-240 g) on global (gCGU) and regional cerebral glucose (rCGU) utilization was evaluated. Two weeks following surgery, the autoradiographic measurement of CGU using [14C]-2-deoxyglucose was employed. The levels of CGU in the OBX and sham-operated rats were compared in 40 brain regions. Statistical methods indicate significantly lower levels of global (overall) CGU in the OBX group than in the sham group. Discriminant analysis was done on the z-scores to remove animal to animal variability. The following thirteen regions were identified by the stepwise discriminant analysis of the z-scores as significantly contributing to the differences between the sham and OBX: amygdala, cingulate cortex, caudate putamen at the level of globus pallidus, caudate putamen-lateral part, dorsal subiculum, dorsal thalamus, hypothalamus, median raphe, somatosensory cortex, substantia nigra, ventral hippocampus, ventral tegmental area and the ventral thalamus. The pattern of changes in the rCGU following OBX does not completely correlate with the pattern of connectivity of the olfactory bulbs, however, many regions with direct connection to the olfactory bulbs (e.g., amygdala, hypothalamus, ventral hippocampus, and ventral tegmental area) were found to be important for differentiation. No left to right asymmetries in the rCGU were found. The data suggest that there are very important regional differences in glucose utilization between the OBX and sham operated rats, which points to the need to study antidepressants in an animal model of depression rather than in normal animals.

  19. Corticolimbic expression of TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels in the rodent brain.

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    Melissa A Fowler

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC channels are a family of non-selective cation channels that are activated by increases in intracellular Ca(2+ and G(q/phospholipase C-coupled receptors. We used quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, immunoblots and patch-clamp recording from several brain regions to examine the expression of the predominant TRPC channels in the rodent brain. Quantitative real-time PCR of the seven TRPC channels in the rodent brain revealed that TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels were the predominant TRPC subtypes in the adult rat brain. In situ hybridization histochemistry and immunoblotting further resolved a dense corticolimbic expression of the TRPC4 and TRPC5 channels. Total protein expression of HIP TRPC4 and 5 proteins increased throughout development and peaked late in adulthood (6-9 weeks. In adults, TRPC4 expression was high throughout the frontal cortex, lateral septum (LS, pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus (HIP, dentate gyrus (DG, and ventral subiculum (vSUB. TRPC5 was highly expressed in the frontal cortex, pyramidal cell layer of the HIP, DG, and hypothalamus. Detailed examination of frontal cortical layer mRNA expression indicated TRPC4 mRNA is distributed throughout layers 2-6 of the prefrontal cortex (PFC, motor cortex (MCx, and somatosensory cortex (SCx. TRPC5 mRNA expression was concentrated specifically in the deep layers 5/6 and superficial layers 2/3 of the PFC and anterior cingulate. Patch-clamp recording indicated a strong metabotropic glutamate-activated cation current-mediated depolarization that was dependent on intracellular Ca(2+and inhibited by protein kinase C in brain regions associated with dense TRPC4 or 5 expression and absent in regions lacking TRPC4 and 5 expression. Overall, the dense corticolimbic expression pattern suggests that these Gq/PLC coupled nonselective cation channels may be involved in learning, memory, and goal-directed behaviors.

  20. Influence of neuropathology on convection-enhanced delivery in the rat hippocampus.

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    Svetlana Kantorovich

    Full Text Available Local drug delivery techniques, such as convention-enhanced delivery (CED, are promising novel strategies for delivering therapeutic agents otherwise limited by systemic toxicity and blood-brain-barrier restrictions. CED uses positive pressure to deliver infusate homogeneously into interstitial space, but its distribution is dependent upon appropriate tissue targeting and underlying neuroarchitecture. To investigate effects of local tissue pathology and associated edema on infusate distribution, CED was applied to the hippocampi of rats that underwent electrically-induced, self-sustaining status epilepticus (SE, a prolonged seizure. Infusion occurred 24 hours post-SE, using a macromolecular tracer, the magnetic resonance (MR contrast agent gadolinium chelated with diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid and covalently attached to albumin (Gd-albumin. High-resolution T1- and T2-relaxation-weighted MR images were acquired at 11.1 Tesla in vivo prior to infusion to generate baseline contrast enhancement images and visualize morphological changes, respectively. T1-weighted imaging was repeated post-infusion to visualize final contrast-agent distribution profiles. Histological analysis was performed following imaging to characterize injury. Infusions of Gd-albumin into injured hippocampi resulted in larger distribution volumes that correlated with increased injury severity, as measured by hyperintense regions seen in T2-weighted images and corresponding histological assessments of neuronal degeneration, myelin degradation, astrocytosis, and microglial activation. Edematous regions included the CA3 hippocampal subfield, ventral subiculum, piriform and entorhinal cortex, amygdalar nuclei, middle and laterodorsal/lateroposterior thalamic nuclei. This study demonstrates MR-visualized injury processes are reflective of cellular alterations that influence local distribution volume, and provides a quantitative basis for the planning of local therapeutic

  1. Soluble amyloid beta levels are elevated in the white matter of Alzheimer's patients, independent of cortical plaque severity.

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    Collins-Praino, Lyndsey E; Francis, Yitshak I; Griffith, Erica Y; Wiegman, Anne F; Urbach, Jonathan; Lawton, Arlene; Honig, Lawrence S; Cortes, Etty; Vonsattel, Jean Paul G; Canoll, Peter D; Goldman, James E; Brickman, Adam M

    2014-08-17

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease and the leading cause of dementia. In addition to grey matter pathology, white matter changes are now recognized as an important pathological feature in the emergence of the disease. Despite growing recognition of the importance of white matter abnormalities in the pathogenesis of AD, the causes of white matter degeneration are still unknown. While multiple studies propose Wallerian-like degeneration as the source of white matter change, others suggest that primary white matter pathology may be due, at least in part, to other mechanisms, including local effects of toxic Aβ peptides. In the current study, we investigated levels of soluble amyloid-beta (Aβ) in white matter of AD patients (n=12) compared with controls (n=10). Fresh frozen white matter samples were obtained from anterior (Brodmann area 9) and posterior (Brodmann area 1, 2 and 3) areas of post-mortem AD and control brains. ELISA was used to examine levels of soluble Aβ -42 and Aβ -40. Total cortical neuritic plaque severity rating was derived from individual ratings in the following areas of cortex: mid-frontal, superior temporal, pre-central, inferior parietal, hippocampus (CA1), subiculum, entorhinal cortex, transentorhinal cortex, inferior temporal, amygdala and basal forebrain. Compared with controls, AD samples had higher white matter levels of both soluble Aβ -42 and Aβ -40. While no regional white matter differences were found in Aβ -40, Aβ -42 levels were higher in anterior regions than in posterior regions across both groups. After statistically controlling for total cortical neuritic plaque severity, differences in both soluble Aβ -42 and Aβ -40 between the groups remained, suggesting that white matter Aβ peptides accumulate independent of overall grey matter fibrillar amyloid pathology and are not simply a reflection of overall amyloid burden. These results shed light on one potential mechanism through which

  2. A Role for Phosphodiesterase 11A (PDE11A) in the Formation of Social Memories and the Stabilization of Mood.

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    Kelly, Michy P

    2017-01-01

    The most recently discovered 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase family is the Phosphodiesterase 11 (PDE11) family, which is encoded by a single gene PDE11A. PDE11A is a dual-specific PDE, breaking down both cAMP and cGMP. There are four PDE11A splice variants (PDE11A1-4) with distinct tissue expression profiles and unique N-terminal regulatory regions, suggesting that each isoform could be individually targeted with a small molecule or biologic. PDE11A4 is the PDE11A isoform expressed in brain and is found in the hippocampal formation of humans and rodents. Studies in rodents show that PDE11A4 mRNA expression in brain is, in fact, restricted to the hippocampal formation (CA1, possibly CA2, subiculum, and the adjacently connected amygdalohippocampal area). Within the hippocampal formation of rodents, PDE11A4 protein is expressed in neurons but not astrocytes, with a distribution across nuclear, cytoplasmic, and membrane compartments. This subcellular localization of PDE11A4 is altered in response to social experience in mouse, and in vitro studies show the compartmentalization of PDE11A4 is controlled, at least in part, by homodimerization and N-terminal phosphorylation. PDE11A4 expression dramatically increases in the hippocampus with age in the rodent hippocampus, from early postnatal life to late aging, suggesting PDE11A4 function may evolve across the lifespan. Interestingly, PDE11A4 protein shows a three to tenfold enrichment in the rodent ventral hippocampal formation (VHIPP; a.k.a. anterior in primates) versus dorsal hippocampal formation (DHIPP). Consistent with this enrichment in VHIPP, studies in knockout mice show that PDE11A regulates the formation of social memories and the stabilization of mood and is a critical mechanism by which social experience feeds back to modify the brain and subsequent social behaviors. PDE11A4 likely controls behavior by regulating hippocampal glutamatergic, oxytocin, and cytokine signaling, as well as protein

  3. Acquisition of a novel behavior induces higher levels of Arc mRNA than does overtrained performance.

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    Kelly, M P; Deadwyler, S A

    2002-01-01

    Arc (also termed activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein or Arg3.1), is an effector immediate early gene whose upregulation has been demonstrated during events of synaptic plasticity. In the present study, the possibility that Arc would be specifically upregulated in rats during the acquisition of a quickly learned behavioral task but not in overtrained animals was investigated. Three groups of rats, pseudotrained, newly trained and overtrained, were examined with respect to Arc expression following training on a simple operant lever-pressing task. Newly trained animals were killed 30 min following the session in which they demonstrated acquisition of the task, and overtrained animals were trained on the same task for 13-14 days and then killed. Relative to base level measures taken 6 h following the session, all three groups demonstrated significant levels of induction of Arc mRNA; however, newly trained animals exhibited heightened induction of Arc mRNA relative to both pseudotrained and overtrained animals. The increased levels of Arc mRNA in newly trained animals were located in the CA1 and CA3 fields of hippocampus, the subiculum, and the anterior cingulate, piriform, infra/prelimbic, perirhinal and entorhinal cortical areas. Additionally, Arc mRNA was expressed differentially across the above anatomic structures in a relative pattern that was the same in all three groups. Finally, levels of Arc mRNA in specific brain regions of newly trained animals correlated negatively with the rate of task acquisition, such that slow learners exhibited higher levels of Arc mRNA than fast learners. From these results we suggest that Arc is upregulated in an experience-dependent manner, with higher levels of induction occurring during the initial stage of learning. Furthermore, the finding of increased Arc levels in slow versus fast learners indicates that Arc expression may be associated with the length of time required to: (1) form new associations or (2

  4. Tau accumulation in the nucleus accumbens in tangle-predominant dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tangle-predominant dementia (TPD) is characterized neuropathologically by numerous neurofibrillary tangles in the limbic areas with no or occasional senile plaques throughout the brain. TPD is an under-recognized disease, while it is a common cause of dementia in those over 80 years of age. In the present study, we describe hyperphosphorylated tau (tau) accumulation in the nucleus accumbens (Acb) in patients with TPD. Results We investigated immunohistochemically the brain tissues from 7 patients with TPD, 22 with Alzheimer disease (AD) and 11 non-demented aged subjects. In the Acb of all 7 TPD patients, a considerable number of tau positive neurons were found together with many neuropil threads. The tau deposits in the Acb were labeled with all the anti-tau antibodies used in the present study. They included conformational change-specific, phosphorylation-specific and phosphorylation-independent antibodies. The Acb consists of the predominant medium-sized neurons with a small number of large neurons. Both the cell types were affected by tau pathology in TPD. Tau accumulation in the majority of such neurons appeared to be pretangle-like, diffuse deposits with only occasional paired helical filament formation. Tau positive neurons were also found in the Acb in some AD and non-demented aged subjects but much fewer in the majority of cases. The immunoblot analyses of fresh frozen samples of the Acb and parahippocampal cortex from 3 TPD and 3 AD patients revealed that the insoluble tau in the Acb was a mixture of the 3- and 4-repeat isoforms. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of tau accumulation in the Acb in TPD. The Acb receives direct and massive projections from the hippocampal CA1 and subiculum where neurofibrillary tangles are known to occur more frequently in TPD than in AD. The prevalence of abnormal tau accumulation in the Acb in TPD may support the idea that abnormal tau aggregation propagates via neural

  5. Peripheral administration of the soluble TNF inhibitor XPro1595 modifies brain immune cell profiles, decreases beta-amyloid plaque load, and rescues impaired long-term potentiation in 5xFAD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Kathryn P; Sompol, Pradoldej; Kannarkat, George T; Chang, Jianjun; Sniffen, Lindsey; Wildner, Mary E; Norris, Christopher M; Tansey, Malú G

    2017-06-01

    Clinical and animal model studies have implicated inflammation and peripheral immune cell responses in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Peripheral immune cells including T cells circulate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of healthy adults and are found in the brains of AD patients and AD rodent models. Blocking entry of peripheral macrophages into the CNS was reported to increase amyloid burden in an AD mouse model. To assess inflammation in the 5xFAD (Tg) mouse model, we first quantified central and immune cell profiles in the deep cervical lymph nodes and spleen. In the brains of Tg mice, activated (MHCII + , CD45 high , and Ly6C high ) myeloid-derived CD11b + immune cells are decreased while CD3 + T cells are increased as a function of age relative to non-Tg mice. These immunological changes along with evidence of increased mRNA levels for several cytokines suggest that immune regulation and trafficking patterns are altered in Tg mice. Levels of soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor (sTNF) modulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and are increased in CSF and brain parenchyma post-mortem in AD subjects and Tg mice. We report here that in vivo peripheral administration of XPro1595, a novel biologic that sequesters sTNF into inactive heterotrimers, reduced the age-dependent increase in activated immune cells in Tg mice, while decreasing the overall number of CD4 + T cells. In addition, XPro1595 treatment in vivo rescued impaired long-term potentiation (LTP) measured in brain slices in association with decreased Aβ plaques in the subiculum. Selective targeting of sTNF may modulate brain immune cell infiltration, and prevent or delay neuronal dysfunction in AD. Immune cells and cytokines perform specialized functions inside and outside the brain to maintain optimal brain health; but the extent to which their activities change in response to neuronal dysfunction and degeneration is not well understood. Our findings indicate that neutralization of s