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  1. The Flynn Effect within Subgroups in the U.S.: Gender, Race, Income, Education, and Urbanization Differences in the NLSY-Children Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, SiewChing; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Wanstrom, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although the Flynn Effect has been studied widely across cultural, geographic, and intellectual domains, and many explanatory theories have been proposed, little past research attention has been paid to subgroup differences. Rodgers and Wanstrom (2007) identified an aggregate-level Flynn Effect (FE) at each age between 5 and 13 in the Children of…

  2. The Flynn Effect within Subgroups in the U.S.: Gender, Race, Income, Education, and Urbanization Differences in the NLSY-Children Data

    OpenAIRE

    Ang, SiewChing; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Wänström, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although the Flynn Effect has been studied widely across cultural, geographic, and intellectual domains, and many explanatory theories have been proposed, little past research attention has been paid to subgroup differences. Rodgers and Wänström (2007) identified an aggregate-level Flynn Effect (FE) at each age between 5 and 13 in the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSYC) PIAT-Math data. FE patterns were not obtained for Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, or D...

  3. Differences in Psychosocial Predictors of Obesity Among LGBT Subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jacob C; Smalley, K Bryant; Barefoot, K Nikki

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the overall presence of and differences in rates of overweight/obesity among a large, nationally diverse sample of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT)-identified individuals (i.e., cisgender lesbians, cisgender gay men, cisgender bisexual women, cisgender bisexual men, transgender women, and transgender men) and to identify specific psychosocial predictors of obesity within each of the six LGBT subgroups. A total of 2702 LGBT-identified participants participated in the online study. Participants completed a series of demographic questions (including weight and height) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale 21. The percentage of participants who were overweight/obese did not differ significantly across LGBT subgroups, with 61.1% of the total sample being overweight/obese. However, the percentage of participants who self-reported body mass indexes in the obese range differed significantly across the six LGBT subgroups, with the highest prevalence in transgender men (46.0%). In addition, the predictors of obesity varied by subgroup, with age a significant predictor for cisgender lesbians, cisgender gay men, and cisgender bisexual women, relationship status for cisgender bisexual women, employment status for both cisgender gay men and cisgender bisexual women, education level for cisgender lesbians, and depression, anxiety, and stress for cisgender gay men. None of the examined psychosocial factors emerged as predictors of obesity for cisgender bisexual men, transgender women, or transgender men. These findings suggest that there are substantial variations in the presence and predictors of obesity across LGBT subgroups that support the need for culturally tailored healthy weight promotion efforts within the LGBT community.

  4. The Flynn Effect within Subgroups in the U.S.: Gender, Race, Income, Education, and Urbanization Differences in the NLSY-Children Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Siewching; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Wänström, Linda

    2010-07-01

    Although the Flynn Effect has been studied widely across cultural, geographic, and intellectual domains, and many explanatory theories have been proposed, little past research attention has been paid to subgroup differences. Rodgers and Wänström (2007) identified an aggregate-level Flynn Effect (FE) at each age between 5 and 13 in the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSYC) PIAT-Math data. FE patterns were not obtained for Reading Recognition, Reading Comprehension, or Digit Span, consistent with past FE research suggesting a closer relationship to fluid intelligence measures of problem solving and analytic reasoning than to crystallized measures of verbal comprehension and memory. These prior findings suggest that the NLSYC data can be used as a natural laboratory to study more subtle FE patterns within various demographic subgroups. We test for subgroup Flynn Effect differences by gender, race/ethnicity, maternal education, household income, and urbanization. No subgroups differences emerged for three demographic categories. However, children with more educated (especially college educated) mothers and/or children born into higher income households had an accelerated Flynn effect in their PIAT-M scores compared to cohort peers with lower educated mothers or lower income households. We interpret both the positive and the null findings in relation to previous theoretical explanations.

  5. Obituary: Rodger Doxsey (1947-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livio, Mario

    2009-12-01

    Rodger Doxsey, an astronomer at the Space Telescope Science Institute, passed away on October 13, 2009, after a prolonged illness. For the past 20 years, Rodger has been known to be truly the go-to guy for making the Hubble Space Telescope perform as it has. I have always argued that no person is truly irreplaceable. I still believe that to be true. However, my colleague and friend Rodger Doxsey came probably as close as anyone ever could to being irreplaceable. I know of no one who had a deeper and more thorough understanding of the workings of HST than Rodger had. In fact, there used to be a joke around the Institute, that when Rodger goes on vacation, the telescope experiences some malfunction. Usually when we retire a computer, we make sure that all the information on it is stored elsewhere. Unfortunately we cannot do the same with the human brain. Rodger was always driven by one passion - the desire to make the Hubble Space Telescope the most productive scientific instrument ever. He has been involved with, and often led, every effort to prolong the life of the telescope, and to make it operate more efficiently. Here is a description by another Hubble pioneer, astronomer John Bahcall, of the birth of the "Hubble Space Telescope Snapshot Program," a wonderful example of one of Rodger's many brainchildren: "The Snapshot program originated in a lunchtime conversation between Rodger Doxsey and myself in the STScI cafeteria sometime in the spring of 1989. We were both late to lunch and probably were the only people in the cafeteria. The principal topic of conversation was the expected low observing efficiency of the HST. Rodger described the extraordinary difficulty in making a schedule that would use a reasonable percentage of the available time for science observations. Slewing was slow and changing instruments or modes of observing was time-consuming. Also, the scheduling software that existed in 1989 was not very powerful. I asked Rodger, without thinking very

  6. Subgrouping Poor Readers on the Basis of Individual Differences in Reading-Related Abilities

    OpenAIRE

    Catts, Hugh W.; Hogan, Tiffany; Fey, Marc E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the use of the Reading Component Model to subgroup poor readers. A large sample of poor readers was identified in second grade and subgrouped on the basis of relative strengths and weaknesses in word recognition and listening comprehension. Although homogeneous subgroups were not identified, poor readers could be classified into four subgroups that differed significantly in reading-related abilities. Further analyses showed that poor readers' strengths and weakn...

  7. Different demographic, genetic, and longitudinal traits in language versus memory Alzheimer's subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mez, Jesse; Cosentino, Stephanie; Brickman, Adam M; Huey, Edward D; Mayeux, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The study's objective was to compare demographics, APOE genotypes, and rate of rise over time in functional impairment in neuropsychologically defined language, typical, and memory subgroups of clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). 1,368 participants from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center database with a diagnosis of probable AD (CDR 0.5-1.0) were included. A language subgroup (n = 229) was defined as having language performance >1 SD worse than memory performance. A memory subgroup (n = 213) was defined as having memory performance >1 SD worse than language performance. A typical subgroup (n = 926) was defined as having a difference in language and memory performance of memory subgroup, the language subgroup was 3.7 years older and more frequently self-identified as African American (OR = 3.69). Under a dominant genetic model, the language subgroup had smaller odds of carrying at least one APOEε4 allele relative to the memory subgroup. While this difference was present for all ages, it was more striking at a younger age (OR = 0.19 for youngest tertile; OR = 0.52 for oldest tertile). Compared with the memory subgroup, the language subgroup rose 35% faster on the Functional Assessment Questionnaire and 44% faster on CDR sum of boxes over time. Among a subset of participants who underwent autopsy (n = 98), the language, memory, and typical subgroups were equally likely to have an AD pathologic diagnosis, suggesting that variation in non-AD pathologies across subtypes did not lead to the observed differences. The study demonstrates that a language subgroup of AD has different demographics, genetic profile, and disease course in addition to cognitive phenotype.

  8. Missing link between the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet; Ponce, David; Parsons, Tom; Hart, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    The next major earthquake to strike the ~7 million residents of the San Francisco Bay Area will most likely result from rupture of the Hayward or Rodgers Creek faults. Until now, the relationship between these two faults beneath San Pablo Bay has been a mystery. Detailed subsurface imaging provides definitive evidence of active faulting along the Hayward fault as it traverses San Pablo Bay and bends ~10° to the right toward the Rodgers Creek fault. Integrated geophysical interpretation and kinematic modeling show that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults are directly connected at the surface-a geometric relationship that has significant implications for earthquake dynamics and seismic hazard. A direct link enables simultaneous rupture of the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults, a scenario that could result in a major earthquake ( M = 7.4) that would cause extensive damage and loss of life with global economic impact.

  9. Quality-of-Life Differences among Diagnostic Subgroups of Children Receiving Ventilating Tubes for Otitis Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The pathological picture may differ considerably between diagnostic subgroups of children with otitis media receiving ventilating tubes. The aims of this study are to investigate differences in quality of life among diagnostic subgroups of children treated with ventilating tubes...... media with effusion (OME), and 38% mixed diagnosis of rAOM and OME (rAOM/OME). There were no significant differences between children diagnosed with rAOM and children diagnosed with rAOM/OME. However, these children had a significantly poorer quality of life at baseline compared with children diagnosed...... with only OME. Factors associated with clinical success included a diagnosis of rAOM, number of interrupted nights, physician visits, and canceled social activities due to OM. CONCLUSIONS: Results highlight the importance of distinguishing between diagnostic subgroups of children having ventilating tube...

  10. Sexual and Gender Minority Youth Suicide: Understanding Subgroup Differences to Inform Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kimberly H McManama; Putney, Jennifer M; Hebert, Nicholas W; Falk, Amy M; Aguinaldo, Laika D

    2016-08-01

    Sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth are disproportionately affected by suicide-related thoughts and behaviors relative to their heterosexual and/or non-transgender peers. Theory and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique factors that contribute to this elevated risk, with distinguishable differences among SGM subgroups. Although SGM youth suicide prevention research is in its nascence, initial findings indicate that interventions which focus on family support and acceptance may be beneficial. It is critical that we develop and test tailored interventions for SGM youth at risk for suicide, with specific attention to subgroup differences and reductions in suicide-related thoughts and behaviors as outcomes.

  11. Differences in feedforward trunk muscle activity in subgroups of patients with mechanical low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silfies, Sheri P; Mehta, Rupal; Smith, Sue S; Karduna, Andrew R

    2009-07-01

    To investigate alterations in trunk muscle timing patterns in subgroups of patients with mechanical low back pain (MLBP). Our hypothesis was that subjects with MLBP would demonstrate delayed muscle onset and have fewer muscles functioning in a feedforward manner than the control group. We further hypothesized that we would find differences between subgroups of our patients with MLBP, grouped according to diagnosis (segmental instability and noninstability). Case-control. Laboratory. Forty-three patients with chronic MLBP (25 instability, 18 noninstability) and 39 asymptomatic controls. Not applicable. Surface electromyography was used to measure onset time of 10 trunk muscles during a self-perturbation task. Trunk muscle onset latency relative to the anterior deltoid was calculated and the number of muscles functioning in feedforward determined. Activation timing patterns (Pfeedforward (P=.02; eta=.30; 1-beta=.83) were statistically different between patients with MLBP and controls. The control group activated the external oblique, lumbar multifidus, and erector spinae muscles in a feedforward manner. The heterogeneous MLBP group did not activate the trunk musculature in feedforward, but responded with significantly delayed activations. MLBP subgroups demonstrated significantly different timing patterns. The noninstability MLBP subgroup activated trunk extensors in a feedforward manner, similar to the control group, but significantly earlier than the instability subgroup. Lack of feedforward activation of selected trunk musculature in patients with MLBP may result in a period of inefficient muscular stabilization. Activation timing was more impaired in the instability than the noninstability MLBP subgroup. Training specifically for recruitment timing may be an important component of the rehabilitation program.

  12. Differences in neighborhood social cohesion and aerobic physical activity by Latino subgroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenda Murillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has examined the role of neighborhood social cohesion in physical activity outcomes; however, less is known about this relationship across Latino subgroups. The purpose of our study was to examine the association between neighborhood social cohesion and aerobic leisure-time physical activity (LTPA among Latino adults and to determine whether these associations differ by Latino subgroup. We used cross-sectional 2013–2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS data on Latinos originating from 5 countries/regions (i.e., Latinos of Puerto Rican, Mexican/Mexican-American, Cuban/Cuban-American, Dominican and Central or South American origin aged ≥18 years (n=11,126. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between self-reported neighborhood social cohesion and meeting aerobic LTPA guidelines. Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, and acculturation. We also investigated whether associations varied by Latino subgroup. In adjusted models for all Latino adults, compared with those reporting low social cohesion, individuals who reported high social cohesion (Odds Ratio [OR]: 1.33; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.17–1.52 were significantly more likely to meet the aerobic physical activity guideline. When stratified by Latino subgroups, among Mexican/Mexicans-Americans (OR: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.16, 1.66 and Cuban/Cuban Americans (OR: 1.73; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.97 high social cohesion was associated with meeting the aerobic activity guideline. Among Dominicans, those who reported medium social cohesion (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.93 were less likely to meet the aerobic activity guideline. When examining aerobic physical activity outcomes in the Latino population, the role of neighborhood social cohesion and the variability among Latino subgroups should be considered. Keywords: Neighborhood social cohesion, Physical activity, Latinos, subgroups

  13. Dietary and physical activity behaviors of New York City children from different ethnic minority subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangeepuram, Nita; Mervish, Nancy; Galvez, Maida P; Brenner, Barbara; Wolff, Mary S

    2012-01-01

    To examine racial/ethnic differences in diet and physical activity behaviors in ethnic minority New York City children. Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 486 6- to 8-year-old children were used. Race/ethnicity was derived using a caregiver's report of child's race and Hispanic ancestry. Dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour diet recalls using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and caregiver interviews. We compared diet and activity measures across racial/ethnic subgroups using chi-square and analysis of variance tests. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, and caregiver education (with breastfeeding history and total energy intake included in diet models). Participants (N = 486) were categorized as Mexican (29.4%), Dominican (8.4%), Puerto Rican (20.6%), other/mixed Hispanic (14.0%), or non-Hispanic black (27.6%). Obesity rates were lower in non-Hispanic blacks (18%) than in Hispanics (31%). Mexicans had the lowest obesity rates among Hispanic subgroups (25%), and Dominicans had the highest (39%). There were differences in mean daily servings of food groups, with Mexicans having healthier diets and Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks having less healthy diets. Sedentary time was lower in Mexicans than in other groups in adjusted models. Examination of additional models, including home language, did not show significant differences in the estimates. Diet and activity behaviors varied across racial/ethnic subgroups. Specifically, Mexican children had healthier diets, the least amount of sedentary time, and the lowest rates of obesity among the Hispanic subgroups examined. Targeted interventions in ethnic subgroups may be warranted to address specific behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Streptococcus pneumoniae PspC Subgroup Prevalence in Invasive Disease and Differences in Contribution to Complement Evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Maten, Erika; van den Broek, Bryan; de Jonge, Marien I; Rensen, Kim J W; Eleveld, Marc J; Zomer, Aldert L; Cremers, Amelieke J H; Ferwerda, Gerben; de Groot, Ronald; Langereis, Jeroen D; van der Flier, Michiel

    2018-04-01

    The pneumococcal capsular serotype is an important determinant of complement resistance and invasive disease potential, but other virulence factors have also been found to contribute. Pneumococcal surface protein C (PspC), a highly variable virulence protein that binds complement factor H to evade C3 opsonization, is divided into two subgroups: choline-bound subgroup I and LPxTG-anchored subgroup II. The prevalence of different PspC subgroups in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and functional differences in complement evasion are unknown. The prevalence of PspC subgroups in IPD isolates was determined in a collection of 349 sequenced strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from adult patients. pspC deletion mutants and isogenic pspC switch mutants were constructed to study differences in factor H binding and complement evasion in relation to capsule thickness. Subgroup I pspC was far more prevalent in IPD isolates than subgroup II pspC The presence of capsule was associated with a greater ability of bound factor H to reduce complement opsonization. Pneumococcal subgroup I PspC bound significantly more factor H and showed more effective complement evasion than subgroup II PspC in isogenic encapsulated pneumococci. We conclude that variation in the PspC subgroups, independent of capsule serotypes, affects pneumococcal factor H binding and its ability to evade complement deposition. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  15. Phenotypic subgroups of polycystic ovary syndrome have different intra-renal resistance symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciftci, Ceylan F; Uckuyu, Ayla; Karadeli, Elif; Turhan, Erdem; Toprak, Erzat; Ozcimen, Emel E

    2012-12-01

    The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is known to be related with increased metabolic and cardiovascular risks. Various phenotypic subgroups of PCOS have been proven to have metabolic and endocrine disorders with varying degrees of severity However, intra-renal vascular resistance, which is an indirect indication of atherosclerosis, remains unknown in PCOS subgroups. In this study we examined whether PCOS subgroups have different intra-renal resistance symptoms. 98 PCOS patients (diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria) 30 controls were included in the study The diagnosis of PCOS was established in the presence of at least two of the following criteria: 1-oligo and/or amenorrhea (OM); 2-clinic and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (HA); 3-polycystic ovarian morphology (PCO) detected by transvaginal ultrasonography 37 patients (Group 1) met all three criteria (HA+OM+PCO), 29 patients (Group 2) met two of the criteria including hyperandrogenism (HA+OM or HA+PCO) and the remaining 32 patients (Group 3) had no hyperandrogenism but fulfilled the other two criteria; PCO+OM. Renal Doppler ultrasonography and hormonal/biochemical analyses were carried out. The first outcome measure was designated as the differences in the renal resistive index (RRI) values of the groups, and the second outcome measure was designated as the relation of RRI with the insulin resistance and lipid profile. In Group 1, the RRI and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values were significantly higher than in Group 3 and controls (P PCOS subgroups have metabolic and endocrine disorders and cardiovascular risks of varying degrees of severity Moreover, we showed that there was no increase of metabolic and cardiovascular risks in PCOS patients without hyperandrogenism.

  16. Different HLA-DRB1 allele distributions in distinct clinical subgroups of sarcoidosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisell Magnus

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong genetic influence by the MHC class II region has been reported in sarcoidosis, however in many studies with different results. This may possibly be caused by actual differences between distinct ethnic groups, too small sample sizes, or because of lack of accurate clinical subgrouping. Subjects and methods In this study we HLA typed a large patient population (n = 754 recruited from one single centre. Patients were sub-grouped into those with Löfgren's syndrome (LS (n = 302 and those without (non-Löfgren's (n = 452, and the majority of them were clinically classified into those with recovery within two years (resolving and those with signs of disease for more than two years (non-resolving. PCR was used for determination of HLA-DRB1 alleles. Swedish healthy blood donors (n = 1366 served as controls. Results There was a dramatic difference in the distribution of HLA alleles in LS compared to non-LS patients (p = 4 × 10-36. Most notably, DRB1*01, DRB1*03 and DRB1*14, clearly differed in LS and non-LS patients. In relation to disease course, DRB1*07, DRB1*14 and DRB1*15 generally associated with, while DRB1*01 and DRB1*03 protected against, a non-resolving disease. Interestingly, the clinical influence of DRB1*03 (good prognosis dominated over that of DRB1*15 (bad prognosis. Conclusions We found several significant differences between LS and non-LS patients and we therefore suggest that genetic association studies in sarcoidosis should include a careful clinical characterisation and sub-grouping of patients, in order to reveal true genetic associations. This may be particularly accurate to do in the heterogeneous non-LS group of patients.

  17. Internalin profiling and multilocus sequence typing suggest four Listeria innocua subgroups with different evolutionary distances from Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianshun; Chen, Qiaomiao; Jiang, Lingli; Cheng, Changyong; Bai, Fan; Wang, Jun; Mo, Fan; Fang, Weihuan

    2010-03-31

    Ecological, biochemical and genetic resemblance as well as clear differences of virulence between L. monocytogenes and L. innocua make this bacterial clade attractive as a model to examine evolution of pathogenicity. This study was attempted to examine the population structure of L. innocua and the microevolution in the L. innocua-L. monocytogenes clade via profiling of 37 internalin genes and multilocus sequence typing based on the sequences of 9 unlinked genes gyrB, sigB, dapE, hisJ, ribC, purM, gap, tuf and betL. L. innocua was genetically monophyletic compared to L. monocytogenes, and comprised four subgroups. Subgroups A and B correlated with internalin types 1 and 3 (except the strain 0063 belonging to subgroup C) and internalin types 2 and 4 respectively. The majority of L. innocua strains belonged to these two subgroups. Subgroup A harbored a whole set of L. monocytogenes-L. innocua common and L. innocua-specific internalin genes, and displayed higher recombination rates than those of subgroup B, including the relative frequency of occurrence of recombination versus mutation (rho/theta) and the relative effect of recombination versus point mutation (r/m). Subgroup A also exhibited a significantly smaller exterior/interior branch length ratio than expected under the coalescent model, suggesting a recent expansion of its population size. The phylogram based on the analysis with correction for recombination revealed that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of L. innocua subgroups A and B were similar. Additionally, subgroup D, which correlated with internalin type 5, branched off from the other three subgroups. All L. innocua strains lacked seventeen virulence genes found in L. monocytogenes (except for the subgroup D strain L43 harboring inlJ and two subgroup B strains bearing bsh) and were nonpathogenic to mice. L. innocua represents a young species descending from L. monocytogenes and comprises four subgroups: two major subgroups A and B

  18. Internalin profiling and multilocus sequence typing suggest four Listeria innocua subgroups with different evolutionary distances from Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Ecological, biochemical and genetic resemblance as well as clear differences of virulence between L. monocytogenes and L. innocua make this bacterial clade attractive as a model to examine evolution of pathogenicity. This study was attempted to examine the population structure of L. innocua and the microevolution in the L. innocua-L. monocytogenes clade via profiling of 37 internalin genes and multilocus sequence typing based on the sequences of 9 unlinked genes gyrB, sigB, dapE, hisJ, ribC, purM, gap, tuf and betL. Results L. innocua was genetically monophyletic compared to L. monocytogenes, and comprised four subgroups. Subgroups A and B correlated with internalin types 1 and 3 (except the strain 0063 belonging to subgroup C) and internalin types 2 and 4 respectively. The majority of L. innocua strains belonged to these two subgroups. Subgroup A harbored a whole set of L. monocytogenes-L. innocua common and L. innocua-specific internalin genes, and displayed higher recombination rates than those of subgroup B, including the relative frequency of occurrence of recombination versus mutation (ρ/θ) and the relative effect of recombination versus point mutation (r/m). Subgroup A also exhibited a significantly smaller exterior/interior branch length ratio than expected under the coalescent model, suggesting a recent expansion of its population size. The phylogram based on the analysis with correction for recombination revealed that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of L. innocua subgroups A and B were similar. Additionally, subgroup D, which correlated with internalin type 5, branched off from the other three subgroups. All L. innocua strains lacked seventeen virulence genes found in L. monocytogenes (except for the subgroup D strain L43 harboring inlJ and two subgroup B strains bearing bsh) and were nonpathogenic to mice. Conclusions L. innocua represents a young species descending from L. monocytogenes and comprises four subgroups: two

  19. Internalin profiling and multilocus sequence typing suggest four Listeria innocua subgroups with different evolutionary distances from Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological, biochemical and genetic resemblance as well as clear differences of virulence between L. monocytogenes and L. innocua make this bacterial clade attractive as a model to examine evolution of pathogenicity. This study was attempted to examine the population structure of L. innocua and the microevolution in the L. innocua-L. monocytogenes clade via profiling of 37 internalin genes and multilocus sequence typing based on the sequences of 9 unlinked genes gyrB, sigB, dapE, hisJ, ribC, purM, gap, tuf and betL. Results L. innocua was genetically monophyletic compared to L. monocytogenes, and comprised four subgroups. Subgroups A and B correlated with internalin types 1 and 3 (except the strain 0063 belonging to subgroup C and internalin types 2 and 4 respectively. The majority of L. innocua strains belonged to these two subgroups. Subgroup A harbored a whole set of L. monocytogenes-L. innocua common and L. innocua-specific internalin genes, and displayed higher recombination rates than those of subgroup B, including the relative frequency of occurrence of recombination versus mutation (ρ/θ and the relative effect of recombination versus point mutation (r/m. Subgroup A also exhibited a significantly smaller exterior/interior branch length ratio than expected under the coalescent model, suggesting a recent expansion of its population size. The phylogram based on the analysis with correction for recombination revealed that the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA of L. innocua subgroups A and B were similar. Additionally, subgroup D, which correlated with internalin type 5, branched off from the other three subgroups. All L. innocua strains lacked seventeen virulence genes found in L. monocytogenes (except for the subgroup D strain L43 harboring inlJ and two subgroup B strains bearing bsh and were nonpathogenic to mice. Conclusions L. innocua represents a young species descending from L. monocytogenes and

  20. Quality-of-Life Differences among Diagnostic Subgroups of Children Receiving Ventilating Tubes for Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Christian Hamilton; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein; Kjeldsen, Anette Drøhse; Faber, Christian Emil; Johansen, Eva Charlotte Jung; Godballe, Christian

    2015-10-01

    The pathological picture may differ considerably between diagnostic subgroups of children with otitis media receiving ventilating tubes. The aims of this study are to investigate differences in quality of life among diagnostic subgroups of children treated with ventilating tubes and to investigate possible predictors for clinical success. Longitudinal observational study. Secondary care units. Four hundred ninety-one families were enrolled in the study. The Otitis Media-6 questionnaire was applied in the assessment of child quality of life. Caregivers completed questionnaires at 7 time points from before treatment to 18-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate possible predictors for clinical success. Response rates ranged from 96% to 81%; diagnostic distribution: 15% recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM), 47% otitis media with effusion (OME), and 38% mixed diagnosis of rAOM and OME (rAOM/OME). There were no significant differences between children diagnosed with rAOM and children diagnosed with rAOM/OME. However, these children had a significantly poorer quality of life at baseline compared with children diagnosed with only OME. Factors associated with clinical success included a diagnosis of rAOM, number of interrupted nights, physician visits, and canceled social activities due to OM. Results highlight the importance of distinguishing between diagnostic subgroups of children having ventilating tube treatment. A diagnosis of rAOM was found to predict baseline quality of life. Children with rAOM with or without OME were found to suffer significantly more than children with only OME before treatment. Factors associated with disease severity were found to predict clinical success. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  1. [Positive deviance: concept analysis using the evolutionary approach of Rodgers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létourneau, Josiane; Alderson, Marie; Caux, Chantal; Richard, Lucie

    2013-06-01

    Positive deviance is a relatively new concept in healthcare. Since 2006, it has been applied to infection control in order to increase the awareness to good hand hygiene practices. This article focus on presenting analytical results of this concept using the evolutionary approach of Rodgers based on the philosophical postulate that concepts are dynamical and changing with time. For doing so, a census of the writings in nursing, medicine and psychology was carried out. By going through the CINAHL, Medline and PsyclNFO databases using positive deviance as a keyword for the time period: 1975 to May 2012, and in accordance with the method of Rodgers, ninety articles were retained (30 per discipline). The analysis enables one to notice that positive deviance described as an individual characteristic at first, is now used as a behavioral changing approach in nursing and medicine as well. At the end of the analysis and apart from this article, positive deviance will be used in order to study the practice of nurses that adheres to hand hygiene despite limiting constraints within hospital. We will then be able to continue the development of this concept in order to bring it, as Rodgers recommends, beyond the analysis. It would then be an important contribution to good nursing practices in the field of infection control and prevention.

  2. Subgroup differences in the lexical tone mismatch negativity (MMN) among Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Yun; Huang, Wan-ting; Wang, Wen-jing; Liu, Chang; Dong, Qi

    2016-01-01

    The association/dissociation of pitch processing between music and language is a long lasting debate. We examined this music-language relationship by investigating to what extent pitch deficits in these two domains were dissociable. We focused on a special neurodevelopmental pitch disorder - congenital amusia, which primarily affects musical pitch processing. Recent research has also revealed lexical tone deficits in speech among amusics. Approximately one-third of Mandarin amusics exhibits behavioural difficulties in lexical tone perception, which is known as tone agnosia. Using mismatch negativities (MMNs), our current work probed lexical tone encoding at the pre-attentive level among the Mandarin amusics with (tone agnosics) and without (pure amusics) behavioural lexical tone deficits compared with age- and IQ-matched controls. Relative to the controls and the pure amusics, the tone agnosics exhibited reduced MMNs specifically in response to lexical tone changes. Their tone-consonant MMNs were intact and similar to those of the other two groups. Moreover, the tone MMN reduction over the left hemisphere was tightly linked to behavioural insensitivity to lexical tone changes. The current study thus provides the first psychophysiological evidence of subgroup differences in lexical tone processing among Mandarin amusics and links amusics' behavioural tone deficits to impaired pre-attentive tone processing. Despite the overall music pitch deficits, the subgroup differences in lexical tone processing in Mandarin-speaking amusics suggest dissociation of pitch deficits between music and speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of chronic lymphotic leukemia transcriptomic profile: differences between molecular subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantus Lewintre, Eloisa; Reinoso Martín, Cristina; Montaner, David; Marín, Miguel; José Terol, María; Farrás, Rosa; Benet, Isabel; Calvete, Juan J; Dopazo, Joaquín; García-Conde, Javier

    2009-01-01

    B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a lymphoproliferative disorder with a variable clinical course. Patients with unmutated IgV(H) gene show a shorter progression-free and overall survival than patients with immunoglobulin heavy chain variable regions (IgV(H)) gene mutated. In addition, BCL6 mutations identify a subgroup of patients with high risk of progression. Gene expression was analysed in 36 early-stage patients using high-density microarrays. Around 150 genes differentially expressed were found according to IgV(H) mutations, whereas no difference was found according to BCL6 mutations. Functional profiling methods allowed us to distinguish KEGG and gene ontology terms showing coordinated gene expression changes across subgroups of CLL. We validated a set of differentially expressed genes according to IgV(H) status, scoring them as putative prognostic markers in CLL. Among them, CRY1, LPL, CD82 and DUSP22 are the ones with at least equal or superior performance to ZAP70 which is actually the most used surrogate marker of IgV(H) status.

  4. Subgroups of Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Might Differ Significantly in Genetic Predisposition to Asparaginase Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kutszegi

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (ASP is a key element in the treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. However, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs to ASP are major challenges in paediatric patients. Our aim was to investigate genetic variants that may influence the risk to Escherichia coli-derived ASP hypersensitivity. Sample and clinical data collection was carried out from 576 paediatric ALL patients who were treated according to protocols from the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GRIA1 and GALNT10 genes were genotyped. Patients with GRIA1 rs4958351 AA/AG genotype showed significantly reduced risk to ASP hypersensitivity compared to patients with GG genotype in the T-cell ALL subgroup (OR = 0.05 (0.01-0.26; p = 4.70E-04, while no such association was found in pre-B-cell ALL. In the medium risk group two SNPs of GRIA1 (rs2055083 and rs707176 were associated significantly with the occurrence of ASP hypersensitivity (OR = 0.21 (0.09-0.53; p = 8.48E-04 and OR = 3.02 (1.36-6.73; p = 6.76E-03, respectively. Evaluating the genders separately, however, the association of rs707176 with ASP HSRs was confined only to females. Our results suggest that genetic variants of GRIA1 might influence the risk to ASP hypersensitivity, but subgroups of patients can differ significantly in this respect.

  5. Different letter-processing strategies in diagnostic subgroups of developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Thomas; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2008-07-01

    Normally reading adults (N = 15) and primary school children (N = 24) and two diagnostic subgroups of children with developmental dyslexia (N = 21)-all native German speakers-performed a successive same-different task with pairs of letters and nonletters (pseudoletters or geometrical shapes). The first item of a pair was always presented on its own, and the second either on its own or surrounded by a congruent or incongruent nontarget shape. Adults showed congruence effects with nonletters but not with letters, and children with both types of stimuli. Frequent-word reading-impaired dyslexics (N = 11) in addition showed dramatically slower overall reaction times. Nonword reading-impaired dyslexics (N = 10) showed congruence effects with nonletters but negative congruence effects with letters. The results support the notion that normal readers have established a special visual processing strategy for letters. Processing speed rather than reading expertise seems crucial for this strategy to emerge. The contrasting effects between subgroups of dyslexics reveal specific underlying deficits.

  6. Differences in MRI findings between subgroups of recent-onset childhood arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkhus, Eva; Flatoe, Berit; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Riise, Oeystein; Reiseter, Tor

    2011-01-01

    MRI is sensitive for joint inflammation, but its ability to separate subgroups of arthritis in children has been questioned. Infectious arthritis (IA), postinfectious arthritis (PA), transient arthritis (TA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are subgroups that may need early, different treatment. To determine whether MRI findings differ in IA, PA/TA and JIA in recent-onset childhood arthritis. Fifty-nine children from a prospective study of incidence of arthritis (n = 216) were, based on clinical and biochemical criteria, examined by MRI. Joint fluid, synovium, bone marrow, soft tissue and cartilage were scored retrospectively and analysed by Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Fifty-nine children had MRI of one station. IA was suggested by bone marrow oedema (OR 7.46, P = 0.011) and absence of T1-weighted and T2-weighted low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 0.06, P = 0.015). Furthermore, soft-tissue oedema and reduced contrast enhancement in the epiphyses were more frequent in children with IA. JIA correlated positively with low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 13.30, P < 0.001) and negatively with soft-tissue oedema (OR 0.20, P = 0.018). No significant positive determinants were found for PA/TA, but bone marrow oedema, soft-tissue oedema, irregular thickened synovium and low signal intensity synovial tissue was less frequent than in IA/JIA. In children with high clinical suspicion of recent onset arthritis, there was a significant difference in the distribution of specific MRI features among the diagnostic groups. (orig.)

  7. Cluster subgroups based on overall pressure pain sensitivity and psychosocial factors in chronic musculoskeletal pain: Differences in clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Suzana C; George, Steven Z; Leite, Raquel D V; Oliveira, Anamaria S; Chaves, Thais C

    2018-05-17

    We aimed to empirically derive psychosocial and pain sensitivity subgroups using cluster analysis within a sample of individuals with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and to investigate derived subgroups for differences in pain and disability outcomes. Eighty female participants with CMP answered psychosocial and disability scales and were assessed for pressure pain sensitivity. A cluster analysis was used to derive subgroups, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to investigate differences between subgroups. Psychosocial factors (kinesiophobia, pain catastrophizing, anxiety, and depression) and overall pressure pain threshold (PPT) were entered into the cluster analysis. Three subgroups were empirically derived: cluster 1 (high pain sensitivity and high psychosocial distress; n = 12) characterized by low overall PPT and high psychosocial scores; cluster 2 (high pain sensitivity and intermediate psychosocial distress; n = 39) characterized by low overall PPT and intermediate psychosocial scores; and cluster 3 (low pain sensitivity and low psychosocial distress; n = 29) characterized by high overall PPT and low psychosocial scores compared to the other subgroups. Cluster 1 showed higher values for mean pain intensity (F (2,77)  = 10.58, p cluster 3, and cluster 1 showed higher values for disability (F (2,77)  = 3.81, p = 0.03) compared with both clusters 2 and 3. Only cluster 1 was distinct from cluster 3 according to both pain and disability outcomes. Pain catastrophizing, depression, and anxiety were the psychosocial variables that best differentiated the subgroups. Overall, these results call attention to the importance of considering pain sensitivity and psychosocial variables to obtain a more comprehensive characterization of CMP patients' subtypes.

  8. Do offenders and victims drink for different reasons? Testing mediation of drinking motives in the link between bullying subgroups and alcohol use in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archimi, A.; Kuntsche, E.N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have reported inconsistent evidence on associations between adolescents involved in different bullying subgroups (victims, offenders and offender-victims) and alcohol use. In addition, little is known about the underlying mechanisms between these bullying subgroups and

  9. Racial/ethnic differences in correlates of psychological distress among five Asian-American subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjeong; Choi, Eunsuk; Wenzel, Jennifer A

    2018-05-29

    Despite their vastly different historical backgrounds, unique languages and variable pre- and post-immigration experiences, Asian-Americans are considered to share stressors surrounding immigration, but there is a gap in describing manifestations of possible mental distress. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and compare differences in factors associated with psychological distress among Asian subgroups including Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean, Japanese, and non-Hispanic Whites. Using a cross-sectional study design, California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011/2012 data were analyzed. The sample consisted of 29,142 participants: 25,645 non-Hispanic Whites, 3497 non-Hispanic Asian-Americans, 1156 Chinese, 471 Filipinos, 864 Vietnamese, 704 Koreans, and 302 Japanese. Sociodemographic characteristics included gender, age group, marital status, education, poverty level, working status, health insurance, level of acculturation, social cohesion, neighborhood safety, and civic engagement. Physical health status included disability and chronic illness. Psychological distress was evaluated using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale. Results showed that psychological distress levels ranged between 1.96 and 4.52 (p < .05) out of 24 and associated factors were significantly different among the five Asian subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. The current study highlights the differences in characteristics of psychological distress among Asian subgroups. It underscores the significance of understanding individualized cultural and historical background in each Asian subgroup and subsequently developing and applying appropriate interventions for those groups. In addition, different influencing factors should be applied to assess and prioritize the needs of Asian subgroups to improve psychological distress. The study also warrants further investigation and careful description of each Asian subgroups.

  10. Tallying Differences between Demographic Subgroups from Multiple Institutions: The Practical Utility of Nonparametric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorke, Mantz

    2017-01-01

    When analysing course-level data by subgroups based upon some demographic characteristics, the numbers in analytical cells are often too small to allow inferences to be drawn that might help in the enhancement of practices. However, relatively simple analyses can provide useful pointers. This article draws upon a study involving a partnership with…

  11. A cross section study on low-dose lonization radiation and health effects in different sex subgroups of occupational population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiayuan; Yang Fei; Huang Zhonghang; Lu Xiaoqing; Liu Hui; Jiang Di; Yang Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between long-time exposure to low-dose ionization radiation and health effects. Methods: 1052 occupational subjects exposed to ionization radiation in Chengdu city were recruited in monitoring cohort in 2007, including 785 men (74.62%) and 267 women (25.38%). Individual exposure dose were monitored by Thermoluminescent Measurement. Health effects include blood routine examination, Chromosomal aberration, eye lens test, etc. Variance Analysis (ANOVA), χ 2 Test and Univariate Procedure of General Liner Model (Covariance Analysis) were implemented to test the difference among subgroups with SPSS 13.0 software. Results: Annual average of exposure dose of male and female were (0.76 ± 0.65) mSv and (0.75 ± 0.64) mSv. There is no statistical significant between sex subgroups (F= (0.136, P = 0.712). In females subgroup, the frequencies and ratios with low WBC, Low platelet, high RBC and high HGB were 30 (11.2%), 45(16.9%), 4(1.5%) and 3(1.1%) respectively. And in male subgroup, frequencies and ratios of above index were 32 (4.1%), 147 (18.7%), 64 (8.2%) and 115 (14.6%) respectively. Except low platelet, the distribution differences of the rest three blood indexes between sex subgroups were statistically significant (χ 2 test, P<0.01). Either in male or in female subgroups, no statistically significant difference of all health indexes(RBC, WBC, Platelet, HGB, and Chromosomal aberration) was observed in different radiation dose teams. Conclusion: In this monitoring cohort, the health effects were related to hormesis and adaptive response as well as radiation damage accumulation effect of low-dose ionization radiation. Females were the sensitive group to suffer adverse effects, while blood indexes were the sensitive indexes for monitoring radiation exposure. (authors)

  12. For whom does it work? Subgroup differences in the effects of a school-based universal prevention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; Koot, H.M.; van Lier, P.A.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined subgroup differences in the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based preventive intervention. The Good Behavior Game (GBG) was delivered in Grade 1 and 2 in a randomized controlled trial including 759 students. Changes in externalizing and internalizing problems were modeled

  13. Differences in knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and perceived risks regarding colorectal cancer screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese sub-groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, T Domi; Carney, Patricia A; Lee-Lin, Frances; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Leung, Holden; Lau, Christine; Lieberman, David A

    2014-04-01

    Asian ethnic subgroups are often treated as a single demographic group in studies looking at cancer screening and health disparities. To evaluate knowledge and health beliefs associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC screening among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese subgroups, a survey assessed participants' demographic characteristics, healthcare utilization, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes associated with CRC and CRC screening. Exploratory factor analysis identified six factors accounting >60 % of the total variance in beliefs and attitudes. Cronbach's alpha coefficients assessed internal consistency. Differences among Asian subgroups were assessed using a Chi square, Fisher's exact, or Kruskal-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient assessed an association among factors. 654 participants enrolled: 238 Chinese, 217 Korean, and 199 Vietnamese. Statistically significant differences existed in demographic and health care provider characteristics, knowledge, and attitude/belief variables regarding CRC. These included knowledge of CRC screening modalities, reluctance to discuss cancer, belief that cancer is preventable by diet and lifestyle, and intention to undergo CRC screening. Chinese subjects were more likely to use Eastern medicine (52 % Chinese, 25 % Korean, 27 % Vietnamese; p Vietnamese; p Vietnamese subjects were less likely to consider CRC screening (95 % Chinese, 95 % Korean, 80 % Vietnamese; p < 0.0001). Important differences exist in knowledge, attitudes, and health beliefs among Asian subgroups. Understanding these differences will enable clinicians to deliver tailored, effective health messages to improve CRC screening and other health behaviors.

  14. Generation of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in length of the G gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication, pathogenicity and immunity is unknown. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for avian metapneumovirus C a...

  15. PTSD's factor structure and measurement invariance across subgroups with differing count of trauma types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contractor, Ateka A; Caldas, Stephanie V; Dolan, Megan; Lagdon, Susan; Armour, Chérie

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the effect of the count of traumatizing event (TE) types on post-trauma mental health, several studies have compared posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity between individuals experiencing one versus multiple TE types. However, the validity of these studies depends on the establishment of measurement invariance of the construct(s) of interest. The current study examined the stability of the most optimal PTSD Model symptom cluster constructs (assessed by the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 [PCL-5]) across subgroups experiencing one versus multiple TE types. The sample included university students (n = 556) endorsing at least one TE (Stressful Life Events Screening Questionnaire). Using data from the entire sample, results suggest that the PCL-5-assessed Hybrid Model provided a significantly better fit compared to other models. Results also indicated invariance of factor loadings (metric), and intercepts (scalar) for the PCL-5-assessed Hybrid Model factors across subgroups endorsing one (n = 191) versus multiple TE types (n = 365). Our findings thus support the stability, applicability, and meaningful comparison of the PCL-assessed Hybrid Model factor structure (including subscale severity scores) across subgroups experiencing one versus multiple TE types. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Premorbid IQ subgroups in first episode non affective psychosis patients: Long-term sex differences in function and neurocognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Setién-Suero, Esther; Neergaard, Karl David; Belzunces, Àuria Albacete; Contreras, Fernando; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto

    2017-12-21

    Low IQ has been associated with schizophrenia, even to the point of being posited as a possible causal factor for psychosis. However, individuals with normal and high IQ also develop psychotic illnesses. The aim of this study was to characterize premorbid IQ subgroups at first episode of psychosis (FEP). The study sample comes from a large epidemiological, 3-year longitudinal, intervention program on psychosis containing individuals living in a catchment area in Spain. Estimated premorbid IQ (epIQ) scores were used to build low (110) epIQ subgroups in samples of FEP patients (N=292) and healthy controls (N=199). The epIQ subgroups were compared in sociodemographic, neuropsychological, clinical and premorbid characteristics. Long-term functional and cognitive outcome, with a focus on sex differences, were also explored. Low-epIQ was more frequently found in FEP patients (28.8%) than in healthy controls (14.6%). Low-epIQ patients were more likely to have worse premorbid adjustment, belong to low socioeconomic status families, have less years of education, and to be single, unemployed, and younger. They presented more severe impairments in processing speed, executive and global cognitive function. Female patients with low-epIQ showed better baseline function and more stable outcome than males. Our results indicate that low premorbid IQ is a morbid manifestation, easily detected in a subgroup of FEP patients that predicts poorer outcome particularly in males. This perspective provides important information for the tailoring of subgroup-specific early intervention programs for psychosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pain modulatory phenotypes differentiate subgroups with different clinical and experimental pain sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, Henrik B.; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    between subgroups. Cuff algometry was performed on lower legs in 400 chronic pain patients to assess pressure pain threshold (cPPT), pressure pain tolerance (cPTT), temporal summation of pain (TSP: increase in pain scores to ten repeated stimulations), and conditioned pain modulation (CPM: increase in c......PPT during cuff pain conditioning on the contralateral leg). Heat detection (HDT) and heat pain thresholds (HPT) at clinical painful and non-painful body areas were assessed. Based on TSP and CPM four distinct groups were formed: Group 1 (n=85) had impaired CPM and facilitated TSP. Group 2 (n=148) had...... impaired CPM and normal TSP. Group 3 (n=45) had normal CPM and facilitated TSP. Group 4 (n=122) had normal CPM and normal TSP. Group 1 showed more pain regions compared with the other three groups (PCPM and facilitated TSP plays an important role in widespread pain. Group 1...

  18. Stability and change in alcohol habits of different socio-demographic subgroups--a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydén, Lovisa; Wennberg, Peter; Forsell, Yvonne; Romelsjö, Anders

    2014-05-29

    Stability in alcohol habits varies over time and in subgroups, but there are few longitudinal studies assessing stability in alcohol habits by socio-demographic subgroups and potential predictors of stability and change. The aim was to study stability and change in alcohol habits by sex, age, and socio-economic position (SEP). Data derived from two longitudinal population based studies in Sweden; the PART study comprising 19 457 individuals aged 20-64 years in 1998-2000, and the Stockholm Public Health Cohort (SPHC) with 50 067 individuals aged 18-84 years in 2002. Both cohorts were followed-up twice; PART 2000-2003 and 2010, and SPHC 2007 and 2010. Alcohol habits were measured with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and with normal weekly alcohol consumption (NWAC). Stability in alcohol habits was measured with intraclass correlation. Odds ratios were estimated in multinomial logistic regression analysis to predict stability in alcohol habits. For the two drinking measures there were no consistent patterns of stability in alcohol habits by sex or educational level. The stability was higher for older age groups and self-employed women. To be a man aged 30-39 at baseline predicted both increase and decrease in alcohol habits. The findings illustrate higher stability in alcohol habits with increasing age and among self-employed women with risky alcohol habits. To be a man and the age 30-39 predicted change in alcohol habits. No conclusive pattern of socio-economic position as predictor of change in alcohol habits was found and other studies of potential predictors seem warranted.

  19. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ consistency or judgment of their own self-reported driving ability...... based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...... the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers are consistent in their reporting of driving ability, as the self-reported driving skill level...

  20. The relationship between post traumatic stress disorder and post traumatic growth: gender differences in PTG and PTSD subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuchang; Xu, Jiuping; Liu, Dongyue

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post traumatic growth (PTG) in 2,300 earthquake survivors 1 year after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between PTSD and PTG and also tested for the gender differences in PTSD and PTG subgroups. A stratification random sampling strategy and questionnaires were used to collect the data. The PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Check list-Civilian and the PTG was assessed using the Post traumatic growth inventory. 2,300 individuals were involved in the initial survey with 2,080 completing the final questionnaire, a response rate of 90.4%. One-way ANOVA analyses were performed to investigate the gender differences in the PTSD and PTG subgroups. One year following the earthquake, 40.1 and 51.1% of survivors reported PTSD and PTG, respectively. A bivariate correlation analysis indicated that there was a positive association between PTG and PTSD. The PTG and PTSD variance analysis conducted on female and male subgroups suggested that women were more affected than men. Given the relatively high PTG prevalence, it was concluded that researchers need to pay more attention to the positive outcomes of an earthquake rather than just focusing on the negative effects. The surveys and analyses indicated that psychological intervention and care for the earthquake disaster survivors should focus more on females and older people, who tend to be more adversely affected.

  1. Childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States: an examination of subgroup differences and impact on psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lynn A; Alegría, Margarita; Canino, Glorisa

    2012-05-01

    Prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States are presented separately for nativity status and ethnic origin subgroups, and the associations between different types of maltreatment and the development of anxiety and depressive disorders are examined. Analyses used self-report data from 1,427 Hispanic women who participated in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Foreign-born Hispanic women compared to U.S.-born Hispanic women reported significantly lower rates of sexual assault and witnessing interpersonal violence, and a significantly higher rate of being beaten. Ethnic subgroups reported similar rates of maltreatment, with the exception of rape. Bivariate analyses were remarkably consistent in that regardless of nativity status or ethnic subgroup, each type of maltreatment experience increased the risk of psychiatric disorder. In multivariate models controlling for all types of victimization and proxies of acculturation, having been beaten and witnessing interpersonal violence remained significant predictors of both disorders, but sexual abuse increased risk of anxiety only. A significant interaction effect of family cultural conflict and witnessing violence on anxiety provided very limited support for the hypothesis that acculturation moderates the influence of maltreatment on mental health outcomes. Implications for culturally relevant prevention and intervention approaches are presented.

  2. Subgroup complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an overview of a research area that combines geometries for groups (such as Tits buildings and generalizations), topological aspects of simplicial complexes from p-subgroups of a group (in the spirit of Brown, Quillen, and Webb), and combinatorics of partially ordered sets. The material is intended to serve as an advanced graduate-level text and partly as a general reference on the research area. The treatment offers optional tracks for the reader interested in buildings, geometries for sporadic simple groups, and G-equivariant equivalences and homology for subgroup complexes.

  3. Integrative genome-wide expression profiling identifies three distinct molecular subgroups of renal cell carcinoma with different patient outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beleut Manfred

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is characterized by a number of diverse molecular aberrations that differ among individuals. Recent approaches to molecularly classify RCC were based on clinical, pathological as well as on single molecular parameters. As a consequence, gene expression patterns reflecting the sum of genetic aberrations in individual tumors may not have been recognized. In an attempt to uncover such molecular features in RCC, we used a novel, unbiased and integrative approach. Methods We integrated gene expression data from 97 primary RCC of different pathologic parameters, 15 RCC metastases as well as 34 cancer cell lines for two-way nonsupervised hierarchical clustering using gene groups suggested by the PANTHER Classification System. We depicted the genomic landscape of the resulted tumor groups by means of Single Nuclear Polymorphism (SNP technology. Finally, the achieved results were immunohistochemically analyzed using a tissue microarray (TMA composed of 254 RCC. Results We found robust, genome wide expression signatures, which split RCC into three distinct molecular subgroups. These groups remained stable even if randomly selected gene sets were clustered. Notably, the pattern obtained from RCC cell lines was clearly distinguishable from that of primary tumors. SNP array analysis demonstrated differing frequencies of chromosomal copy number alterations among RCC subgroups. TMA analysis with group-specific markers showed a prognostic significance of the different groups. Conclusion We propose the existence of characteristic and histologically independent genome-wide expression outputs in RCC with potential biological and clinical relevance.

  4. Gender Differences in Intimate Partner Homicides Among Ethnic Sub-Groups of Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2016-03-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTIMATE PARTNER HOMICIDES AMONG ETHNIC SUBGROUPS OF ASIANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    SABRI, BUSHRA; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.; DABBY, FIROZA CHIC

    2013-01-01

    This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 was analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly nine out of ten cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. PMID:26391620

  6. Does Classification of Persons with Fibromyalgia into Multidimensional Pain Inventory Subgroups Detect Differences in Outcome after a Standard Chronic Pain Management Program?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin L Verra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The present study aimed to replicate and validate the empirically derived subgroup classification based on the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI in a sample of highly disabled fibromyalgia (FM patients. Second, it examined how the identified subgroups differed in their response to an intensive, interdisciplinary inpatient pain management program.

  7. Beyond demographics: differences in patient activation across new immigrant, diverse language subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetkin, Erica I; Zabor, Emily C; Brennessel, Debra; Kemeny, M Margaret; Hay, Jennifer L

    2014-02-01

    The federal government promotes "patient-centered medical homes" to plan care with respect to patients' cultures and values and support patients' self-care efforts. To promote self-care, the medical home would be best utilized by activated, engaged patients. The objective of this study was to measure and compare patient activation scores in English-, Spanish-, and Haitian Creole-speaking patients seen at an inner-city hospital ambulatory care practice. Patient activation was measured using the patient activation measure (PAM). Mean PAM scores and activation levels differed according to survey language (p differ between Haitian Creole and Spanish speakers, PAM stages differed according to language of survey completion (p differ between Hispanics and non-Hispanics or according to race, illustrating the need to examine the role of language and culture on patient activation.

  8. Does the impact of case management vary in different subgroups of multimorbidity? Secondary analysis of a quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jonathan; Kristensen, Søren Rud; Checkland, Kath; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Bower, Peter

    2017-08-03

    Health systems must transition from catering primarily to acute conditions, to meet the increasing burden of chronic disease and multimorbidity. Case management is a popular method of integrating care, seeking to accomplish this goal. However, the intervention has shown limited effectiveness. We explore whether the effects of case management vary in patients with different types of multimorbidity. We extended a previously published quasi-experiment (difference-in-differences analysis) with 2049 propensity matched case management intervention patients, adding an additional interaction term to determine subgroup effects (difference-in-difference-in-differences) by different conceptualisations of multimorbidity: 1) Mental-physical comorbidity versus others; 2) 3+ chronic conditions versus 5 versus others. Outcome measures included a variety of secondary care utilisation and cost measures. The majority of conceptualisations suggested little to no difference in effect between subgroups. Where results were significant, the vast majority of effect sizes identified in either direction were very small. The trend across the majority of the results appeared to show very slight increases of admissions with treatment for the most complex patients (highest risk). The exceptions to this, patients with a Charlson index >5 may benefit slightly more from case management with decreased ACSC admissions (effect size (ES): −0.06) and inpatient re-admissions (30 days, ES: −0.05), and patients with only cardiovascular/metabolic cluster conditions may benefit slightly more with decreased inpatient non-elective admissions (ES: −0.12). Only the three significant estimates for the musculoskeletal disorder cluster met the minimum requirement for at least a ‘small’ effect. Two of these estimates in particular were very large. This cluster represented only 0.5% of the total patients analysed, however, so is hugely vulnerable to the effects of outliers, and makes us very cautious of

  9. Discretization of Gene Expression Data Unmasks Molecular Subgroups Recurring in Different Human Cancer Types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Beleut

    Full Text Available Despite the individually different molecular alterations in tumors, the malignancy associated biological traits are strikingly similar. Results of a previous study using renal cell carcinoma (RCC as a model pointed towards cancer-related features, which could be visualized as three groups by microarray based gene expression analysis. In this study, we used a mathematic model to verify the presence of these groups in RCC as well as in other cancer types. We developed an algorithm for gene-expression deviation profiling for analyzing gene expression data of a total of 8397 patients with 13 different cancer types and normal tissues. We revealed three common Cancer Transcriptomic Profiles (CTPs which recurred in all investigated tumors. Additionally, CTPs remained robust regardless of the functions or numbers of genes analyzed. CTPs may represent common genetic fingerprints, which potentially reflect the closely related biological traits of human cancers.

  10. Plasma homovanillic acid differences in clinical subgroups of first episode schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, Immaculada; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Deulofeu, Ramon; de la Serna, Elena; Goti, Javier; Salvà, Joan; Bernardo, Miquel

    2009-07-30

    This study evaluates the relationship between plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels, which have been used to study the role of central dopamine in schizophrenia, and the positive/negative syndrome in first episode schizophrenic patients before and after antipsychotic treatment. Forty neuroleptic-naive first episode schizophrenic patients were monitored at baseline and on days 7, 14 and 28. Clinical status was evaluated with the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), and the Brief Psychotic Rating Scale. Plasma HVA levels were also measured. Patients were divided into predominantly positive or negative syndrome groups by subtracting SAPS from SANS scores, at baseline. A healthy control group was also enrolled. Schizophrenic patients as a group had significantly higher pHVA levels than controls at baseline (20.50+/-11.85 vs. 13.04+/-7.22 ng/ml). Moreover, 12 predominantly negative syndrome patients had similar mean baseline pHVA levels (21.30+/-12.36 ng/ml) to those of 28 predominantly positive syndrome patients (19.40+/-11.33 ng/ml). During follow-up, there was a different evolution of pHVA levels in the predominantly positive syndrome group than in the predominantly negative syndrome group, with a significantly greater global reduction of pHVA levels in the former. Although both groups showed clinical improvement following 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone, pHVA levels at endpoint were lower (13.29+/-5.91 ng/ml) than at baseline in patients in the predominantly positive syndrome group, while among those in the predominantly negative syndrome group there was no difference in pHVA levels before and after treatment (21.02+/-13.06 ng/ml). The different pHVA level profiles observed in predominantly positive and negative syndrome first episode patients after 4 weeks of treatment with risperidone suggest that each syndrome may have a different underlying neurobiology.

  11. Rg/sup a/ (Rodgers) and the HLA region: linkage and associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, C.M. (MRC Blood Group Reference Lab., London, Eng.); Gedde-Dahl, T. Jr.; Robson, E.B.; Thorsby, E.; Olaisen, B.; Arnason, A.; Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F.; Schreuder, I.

    1976-01-01

    In 19 families with 97 children the segregation of Rg/sup a/ (Rodgers) was found to be compatible with Mendelian inheritance and five backcross and 14 intercross families were found among HLA and BF type families. Close linkage (lods + 17.82) without recombination was found between Rg and the HLA region, with a direct count of 96 nonrecombinant meioses for Rg--HLA--B, Rg/sup -/ was strongly associated with HLA-B8 (29 of 30 haplotypes) and probably associated with Bw40, but did occur on other HLA--B haplotypes. By inference Rg/sup -/ is negatively associated with Ch/sup -/ (Chido). The Rg/sup -/Ch/sup -/ haplotype has not been observed. Rg/sup a/ and Ch/sup a/ may or may not be coded for by different sites of the same cistron closely linked to HLA--B:C and cannot as yet be excluded from being parts of B or C.

  12. The asymmetry of the entrainment range induced by the difference in intrinsic frequencies between two subgroups within the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie

    2017-06-01

    The rhythms of physiological and behavioral activities in mammals, which are regulated by the main clock suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the brain, can not be only synchronized to the natural 24 h light-dark cycle, but also to cycles with artificial periods. The range of the artificial periods that the animal can be synchronized to is called entrainment range. In the absence of the light-dark cycle, the animal can also maintain the circadian rhythm with an endogenous period close to 24 h. Experiments found that the entrainment range is not symmetrical with respect to the endogenous period. In the present study, an explanation is given for the asymmetry based on a Kuramoto model which describes the neuronal network of the SCN. Our numerical simulations and theoretical analysis show that the asymmetry results from the difference in the intrinsic frequencies between two subgroups of the SCN, as well as the entrainment range is affected by the difference.

  13. Identifying differences in early literacy skills across subgroups of language-minority children: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J; Goodrich, J Marc; Farver, JoAnn M

    2018-04-01

    Despite acknowledgment that language-minority children come from a wide variety of home language backgrounds and have a wide range of proficiency in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages, it is unknown whether differences across language-minority children in relative and absolute levels of proficiency in L1 and L2 predict subsequent development of literacy-related skills. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of language-minority children and evaluate whether differences in level and rate of growth of early literacy skills differed across subgroups. Five-hundred and twenty-six children completed measures of Spanish and English language and early literacy skills at the beginning, middle, and end of the preschool year. Latent growth models indicated that children's early literacy skills were increasing over the course of the preschool year. Latent profile analysis indicated that language-minority children could be classified into nine distinct groups, each with unique patterns of absolute and relative levels of proficiency in L1 and L2. Results of three-step mixture models indicated that profiles were closely associated with level of early literacy skills at the beginning of the preschool year. Initial level of early literacy skills was positively associated with growth in code-related skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness) and inversely associated with growth in language skills. These findings suggest that language-minority children are a diverse group with regard to their L1 and L2 proficiencies and that growth in early literacy skills is most associated with level of proficiency in the same language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Assédio moral: análise de conceito na perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers Acoso moral: análisis de concepto en la perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers Bullying: concept analysis from Rodgers' evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Ribeiro Pontes Cahú

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo analisar o conceito de assédio moral, na perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers, conforme expresso na literatura da saúde, ciências jurídicas, sociais e humanas. Trata-se de uma pesquisa documental, que teve como fontes de dados artigos disponibilizados no Portal de Periódicos/CAPES e na Buscalegis de 1954 a 2010. A amostra constituiu-se de 46 artigos. Para a análise dos dados, foram utilizados os passos propostos por Rodgers em seu modelo de análise conceitual. Em relação aos termos substitutivos, destacaram-se psicoterror e mobbing. Quanto aos atributos, os mais frequentes compreenderam a violência psicológica e a exclusão social do trabalhador. Os antecedentes mais relevantes foram as condições opressivas de trabalho. No tocante às consequências, destacaram-se os problemas psicossomáticos, empresariais e sociais. Nesse sentido, o conceito assédio moral constitui-se em violência psicológica com a intenção de humilhar e excluir socialmente a vítima, provocando distúrbios psicossomáticos, prejuízos à sociedade e à instituição de trabalho.El estudio tuvo como objetivo analizar el concepto de acoso moral, en la perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers, conforme referido en la literatura de la salud, ciencias jurídicas, sociales y humanas. Se trata de una investigación documental, que tuvo como fuentes de datos artículos disponibles en el Portal de Periódicos/CAPES y en la Buscalegis de 1954 a 2010. La muestra se constituyó de 46 artículos. Para el análisis de los datos, se utilizaron los pasos propuestos por Rodgers en su modelo de análisis conceptual. En relación a los términos sustitutivos, se destacaron psicoterror y mobbing. En cuanto a los atributos, los más frecuentes comprendieron la violencia psicológica y la exclusión social del trabajador. Los antecedentes más relevantes fueron las condiciones de opresión en el trabajo. En lo que respecta a las consecuencias, se

  15. Revisiting the Concepts "Approach", "Design" and "Procedure" According to the Richards and Rodgers (2011) Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Brett

    2012-01-01

    The three concepts Approach, Design and Procedure as proposed in Rodgers' Framework are considered particularly effective as a framework in second language teaching with the specific aim of developing communication as well as for better understanding methodology in the use of communicative language use.

  16. Subgrouping Automata: automatic sequence subgrouping using phylogenetic tree-based optimum subgrouping algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Joo-Hyun; Park, Jihyang; Kim, Eun-Mi; Kim, Juhan; Joo, Keehyoung; Lee, Jooyoung; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2014-02-01

    Sequence subgrouping for a given sequence set can enable various informative tasks such as the functional discrimination of sequence subsets and the functional inference of unknown sequences. Because an identity threshold for sequence subgrouping may vary according to the given sequence set, it is highly desirable to construct a robust subgrouping algorithm which automatically identifies an optimal identity threshold and generates subgroups for a given sequence set. To meet this end, an automatic sequence subgrouping method, named 'Subgrouping Automata' was constructed. Firstly, tree analysis module analyzes the structure of tree and calculates the all possible subgroups in each node. Sequence similarity analysis module calculates average sequence similarity for all subgroups in each node. Representative sequence generation module finds a representative sequence using profile analysis and self-scoring for each subgroup. For all nodes, average sequence similarities are calculated and 'Subgrouping Automata' searches a node showing statistically maximum sequence similarity increase using Student's t-value. A node showing the maximum t-value, which gives the most significant differences in average sequence similarity between two adjacent nodes, is determined as an optimum subgrouping node in the phylogenetic tree. Further analysis showed that the optimum subgrouping node from SA prevents under-subgrouping and over-subgrouping. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. In a secondary care setting, differences between neck pain subgroups classified using the Quebec task force classification system were typically small

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne; Kent, Peter; Kjaer, Per

    2015-01-01

    and patients with NP + NRI had experienced the largest improvements in pain intensity. Similar results were obtained for activity limitation. CONCLUSIONS: This study found baseline and outcome differences between neck pain subgroups classified using the Quebec Task Force Classification System. However......BACKGROUND: The component of the Quebec Task Force Classification System that subgroups patients based on the extent of their radiating pain and neurological signs has been demonstrated to have prognostic implications for patients with low back pain but has not been tested on patients with neck...... models. RESULTS: A total of 1,852 people were classified into subgroups (64 % females, mean age 49 years). Follow ups after 3, 6 and 12 months were available for 45 %, 32 % and 40 % of those invited to participate at each time point. A small improvement in pain was observed over time in all subgroups...

  18. Different diagnostic values of imaging parameters to predict pseudoprogression in glioblastoma subgroups stratified by MGMT promoter methylation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ra Gyoung [Catholic Kwandong University International St. Mary' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Catholic Kwandong University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho Sung; Shim, Woo Hyun; Kim, Sang Joon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Wooyul [Dankook Unversity Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether diffusion and perfusion imaging parameters demonstrate different diagnostic values for predicting pseudoprogression between glioblastoma subgroups stratified by O{sup 6}-mythylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status. We enrolled seventy-five glioblastoma patients that had presented with enlarged contrast-enhanced lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) one month after completing concurrent chemoradiotherapy and undergoing MGMT promoter methylation testing. The imaging parameters included 10 or 90 % histogram cutoffs of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC10), normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV90), and initial area under the time signal-intensity curve (IAUC90). The results of the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) with cross-validation were compared between MGMT methylation and unmethylation groups. MR imaging parameters demonstrated a trend toward higher accuracy in the MGMT promoter methylation group than in the unmethylation group (cross-validated AUCs = 0.70-0.95 and 0.56-0.87, respectively). The combination of MGMT methylation status with imaging parameters improved the AUCs from 0.70 to 0.75-0.90 for both readers in comparison with MGMT methylation status alone. The probability of pseudoprogression was highest (95.7 %) when nCBV90 was below 4.02 in the MGMT promoter methylation group. MR imaging parameters could be stronger predictors of pseudoprogression in glioblastoma patients with the methylated MGMT promoter than in patients with the unmethylated MGMT promoter. (orig.)

  19. Gp85 genetic diversity of avian leukosis virus subgroup J among different individual chickens from a native flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Meng, Fanfeng; Cui, Zhizhong; Fan, Jianhua; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng

    2017-05-01

    To compare the genetic diversity and quasispecies evolution of avian leukosis virus (ALV) among different individuals, 5 chickens, raised in Shandong Provice of China, were randomly selected from a local chicken flock associated with serious tumor cases. Blood samples were collected and inoculated into chicken embryo fibroblast and DF-1 cell lines for virus isolation and identification, respectively, of Marek's disease virus (MDV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), and ALV. Five strains of ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) were identified, and the gp85 gene from each strain was amplified and cloned. For each strain, about 20 positive clones of gp85 gene were selected for sequence analyses and the variability of the quasispecies of the 5 strains was compared. The results showed that the nuclear acid length of gp85 gene of 5 ALV-J isolates is 921 bp, 921 bp, 924 bp, 918 bp, and 912 bp respectively, and amino acid homologies of different gp85 clones from the 5 ALV-J strains were 99.3 to 100%, 99.3 to 100%, 99.4 to 100%, 98.4 to 100%, 99.0 to 100%, respectively. The proportions of dominant quasispecies were 65.0%, 85.0%, 85.0%, 50.0%, 84.2%, respectively, and homology of the gp85 among these dominant quasispecies was 89.2 to 92.5%. These data demonstrated the composition of the ALV-J quasispecies varied among infected individuals even within the same flock, and the dominant quasispecies continued to evolve both for their proportion and gene mutation. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Sun protection and exposure behaviors among Hispanic adults in the United States: differences according to acculturation and among Hispanic subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin cancer prevention interventions that target the growing number of U.S. Hispanics are lacking. The current study examined the prevalence and correlates of sun protection and exposure behaviors (i.e., sunscreen use, shade seeking, use of sun protective clothing, and sunburns among U.S. Hispanics with sun sensitive skin, with a focus on potential differences according to acculturation and Hispanic origin. Methods The sample consisted of 1676 Hispanic adults who reported having sun sensitive skin (i.e., they would experience a sunburn if they went out in the sun for one hour without protection after several months of not being in the sun. Participants completed survey questions as part of the nationally representative 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were conducted in August 2012. Results Greater acculturation was linked with both risky (i.e., not wearing sun protective clothing and protective (i.e., using sunscreen sun-related practices and with an increased risk of sunburns. Sun protection and exposure behaviors also varied according to individuals’ Hispanic origin, with for example individuals of Mexican heritage having a higher rate of using sun protective clothing and experiencing sunburns than several other subgroups. Conclusions Several Hispanic subpopulations (e.g., those who are more acculturated or from certain origins represent important groups to target in skin cancer prevention interventions. Future research is needed to test culturally relevant, tailored interventions to promote sun protection behaviors among U.S. Hispanics. Such initiatives should focus on public health education and increasing healthcare provider awareness of the importance of skin cancer prevention among Hispanics.

  1. Medulloblastoma in China: clinicopathologic analyses of SHH, WNT, and non-SHH/WNT molecular subgroups reveal different therapeutic responses to adjuvant chemotherapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-Yu Zhang

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma (MB is one of the most common primary central nervous system tumors in children. Data is lacking of a large cohort of medulloblastoma patients in China. Also, our knowledge on the sensitivity of different molecular subgroups of MB to adjuvant radiation therapy (RT or chemotherapy (CHT is still limited. The authors performed a retrospective study of 173 medulloblastoma patients treated at two institutions from 2002 to 2011. Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE tissues were available in all the cases and sections were stained to classify histological and molecular subgroups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to investigate prognostic factors. Of 173 patients, there were 118 children and 55 adults, 112 males and 61 females. Estimated 5-year overall survival (OS rates for all patients, children and adults were 52%, 48% and 63%, respectively. After multivariate analysis, postoperative primary radiation therapy (RT and chemotherapy (CHT were revealed as favorable prognostic factors influencing OS and EFS. Postoperative primary chemotherapy (CHT was found significantly improving the survival of children (p<0.001 while it was not a significant prognostic factor for adult patients. Moreover, patients in WNT subtype had better OS (p = 0.028 than others (SHH and Non-SHH/WNT subtypes given postoperative adjuvant therapies. Postoperative primary RT was found to be a strong prognostic factor influencing the survival in all histological and molecular subgroups (p<0.001. Postoperative primary CHT was found significantly to influence the survival of classic medulloblastoma (CMB (OS p<0.001, EFS p<0.001, SHH subgroup (OS p = 0.020, EFS p = 0.049 and WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.003, EFS p = 0.016 but not in desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DMB (OS p = 0.361, EFS p = 0.834 and Non-SHH/WNT subgroup (OS p = 0.127, EFS p = 0.055. Our study showed postoperative primary CHT significantly influence the

  2. The Rivermead Mobility Index Allows Valid Comparisons Between Subgroups of Patients Undergoing Rehabilitation After Stroke Who Differ With Respect to Age, Sex, or Side of Lesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Leo D.; Green, John R.; Houwink, Annemieke; Bagley, Pam J.; Smith, Jane; Molenaar, Ivo W.; Geurts, Alexander C.

    Roorda LD, Green JR, Houwink A, Bagley PJ, Smith J, Molenaar IW, Geurts AC. The Rivermead Mobility index allows valid comparisons between subgroups of patients undergoing rehabilitation after stroke who differ with respect to age, sex, or side of lesion. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2012;93:1086-90.

  3. Biological assessment of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene in cultured cells and SPF turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic variation in length of the glycoprotein (G) gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication and pathogenicity is unknown. In this study, we generated two Colorado (CO) strain-based recombinan...

  4. Outcome of 24 years national surveillance in different hereditary colorectal cancer subgroups leading to more individualised surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Lars Joachim; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). The benefits of colonic surveillance in Lynch syndrome and Amsterdam-positive (familial CRC type X familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX)) families are clear; only...... in the Lynch subgroup (2.0%) than in any other subgroup (0.0-0.4%, pLynch (3.6%) and non-Lynch (2.3-3.9%, p=0.28) subgroups. Non-Lynch Amsterdam-positive and Amsterdam-negative families were similar in their CRC (0.1-0.4%, p=0.......072), advanced adenoma (2.3-3.3%, p=0.32) and simple adenoma (8.4-9.9%, p=0.43) incidence. In moderate-risk families, no CRC and only one advanced adenoma was found. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of CRC in Lynch families is considerable, despite biannual surveillance. We suggest less frequent and more individualised...

  5. Antibody Prevalence and Factors Associated with Exposure to Orientia tsutsugamushi in Different Aboriginal Subgroups in West Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Sun Tee; Mohamed Zan, Hafizatul Anis; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Ngui, Romano

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited data is available on the current status of scrub typhus infection in the aboriginal population in Malaysia. This study was aimed to provide recent data on the degree of exposure of 280 individuals from seven aboriginal subgroups to Orientia tsutsugamushi (causative agent of scrub typhus) in West Malaysia. The environment, socioeconomic and behavioural risk factors associated with the disease were also investigated. Methods/Findings The antibody prevalence to O. tsutsugamushi ranged from 0 to 36.4% in seven subgroups, with high prevalence rates noted in subgroups involved in agricultural activity and the lowest prevalence rates noted in subgroups whose main occupations were associated to fishing. Univariate analysis indicated populations with age above 18 years (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02–1.30, P = 0.015), working (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.01–3.92, P = 0.044), working at agriculture area (OR = 1.18, 95% CI = 0.98–1.42, P = 0.031), receiving household income less than US$ 166.7 (RM500) per month (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.16–5.11, P = 0.016) and having close contact with animal pets (OR = 4.06, 95% CI = 1.20–13.76, P = 0.016) are significantly associated with exposure to O. tsutsugamushi. Multivariate analysis confirms that participants who are above 18 years old, receiving household income less than US$ 166.7 (RM500) per month and having close contact with animal pets are 3.6 times (95% CI = 1.81–7.03, Ppopulation in Malaysia. Awareness about the disease and education on the preventive measures are important in reducing the risk of acquiring scrub typhus in the population studied. PMID:23936576

  6. Subgroups based on thermal and pressure pain thresholds in women with chronic whiplash display differences in clinical presentation – an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Börsbo B

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Björn Börsbo,1,2 Gunilla M Liedberg,3 Mia Wallin,1,3 Björn Gerdle1,41Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Linköping, Linköping, Sweden; 2Clinical Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden; 3Department of Social and Welfare Studies, University of Linköping, Norrköping, Sweden; 4Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, UHL, Östergötland County Council, Linköping, SwedenPurpose: To investigate the presence of subgroups in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD based on pain thresholds for pressure (PPT, cold (CPT, and heat (HPT and to compare these subgroups with respect to symptomatology, disability, and health aspects. Methods: Two groups of female subjects – patients with chronic WAD (n = 28 and healthy controls (CON; n = 29 – were investigated. Quantitative sensory testing (QST for thermal thresholds and algometry for PPT at four sites in the body (over the trapezius and tibialis anterior bilaterally were determined. Habitual pain intensities, psychological strain, disability, and health aspects were registered using a questionnaire.Results: A cluster analysis based on PPT, CPT, and HPT identified two subgroups of chronic WAD: one sensitive subgroup (s-WAD; n = 21, and one less sensitive subgroup (ls-WAD; n = 6. S-WAD displayed widespread hyperalgesia, whereas ls-WAD had localized hyperalgesia in the neck area, with tendencies to supernormal values in remote areas of the body. Generally, s-WAD had a significantly worse situation than the CON with respect to symptomatology, disability, and health aspects. The ls-WAD group was intermediary between s-WAD and CON in these aspects.Conclusion: Different explanations, eg, severity of the pain condition per se, etiological factors, and pre-trauma differences in pain sensitivity, may exist for the differences in pain thresholds between the two subgroups. Future research should investigate the role of pain thresholds in the chronic

  7. Critical thinking: concept analysis from the perspective of Rodger's evolutionary method of concept analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio da Costa Carbogim

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the concept of critical thinking (CT in Rodger's evolutionary perspective. Method: documentary research undertaken in the Cinahl, Lilacs, Bdenf and Dedalus databases, using the keywords of 'critical thinking' and 'Nursing', without limitation based on year of publication. The data were analyzed in accordance with the stages of Rodger's conceptual model. The following were included: books and articles in full, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, which addressed CT in the teaching and practice of Nursing; articles which did not address aspects related to the concept of CT were excluded. Results: the sample was made up of 42 works. As a substitute term, emphasis is placed on 'analytical thinking', and, as a related factor, decision-making. In order, the most frequent preceding and consequent attributes were: ability to analyze, training of the student nurse, and clinical decision-making. As the implications of CT, emphasis is placed on achieving effective results in care for the patient, family and community. Conclusion: CT is a cognitive skill which involves analysis, logical reasoning and clinical judgment, geared towards the resolution of problems, and standing out in the training and practice of the nurse with a view to accurate clinical decision-making and the achieving of effective results.

  8. Critical thinking: concept analysis from the perspective of Rodger's evolutionary method of concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbogim, Fábio da Costa; Oliveira, Larissa Bertacchini de; Püschel, Vilanice Alves de Araújo

    2016-09-01

    to analyze the concept of critical thinking (CT) in Rodger's evolutionary perspective. documentary research undertaken in the Cinahl, Lilacs, Bdenf and Dedalus databases, using the keywords of 'critical thinking' and 'Nursing', without limitation based on year of publication. The data were analyzed in accordance with the stages of Rodger's conceptual model. The following were included: books and articles in full, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, which addressed CT in the teaching and practice of Nursing; articles which did not address aspects related to the concept of CT were excluded. the sample was made up of 42 works. As a substitute term, emphasis is placed on 'analytical thinking', and, as a related factor, decision-making. In order, the most frequent preceding and consequent attributes were: ability to analyze, training of the student nurse, and clinical decision-making. As the implications of CT, emphasis is placed on achieving effective results in care for the patient, family and community. CT is a cognitive skill which involves analysis, logical reasoning and clinical judgment, geared towards the resolution of problems, and standing out in the training and practice of the nurse with a view to accurate clinical decision-making and the achieving of effective results. analisar o conceito de pensamento crítico (PC), na perspectiva evolucionista de Rodgers. pesquisa documental realizada nas bases de dados Cinahl, Lilacs, Bdenf e Dedalus, utilizando-se as palavras-chave pensamento crítico e Enfermagem, sem delimitação de ano de publicação. Os dados foram analisados conforme etapas do modelo conceitual de Rodgers. Incluíram-se livros e artigos na íntegra, publicados em português, inglês ou espanhol que abordavam o PC no ensino e prática de Enfermagem, excluindo-se estudos que não abordassem aspectos relacionados ao conceito do PC. a amostra foi constituída por 42 trabalhos. Como termo substituto, destacou-se pensamento analítico e, como

  9. Chemical Basis for Qualitative and Quantitative Differences Between ABO Blood Groups and Subgroups: Implications for Organ Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakanthan, M; Tao, K; Zou, L; Meloncelli, P J; Lowary, T L; Suzuki, K; Boland, D; Larsen, I; Burch, M; Shaw, N; Beddows, K; Addonizio, L; Zuckerman, W; Afzali, B; Kim, D H; Mengel, M; Shapiro, A M J; West, L J

    2015-10-01

    Blood group ABH(O) carbohydrate antigens are carried by precursor structures denoted type I-IV chains, creating unique antigen epitopes that may differ in expression between circulating erythrocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Characterization of such differences is invaluable in many clinical settings including transplantation. Monoclonal antibodies were generated and epitope specificities were characterized against chemically synthesized type I-IV ABH and related glycans. Antigen expression was detected on endomyocardial biopsies (n = 50) and spleen (n = 11) by immunohistochemical staining and on erythrocytes by flow cytometry. On vascular endothelial cells of heart and spleen, only type II-based ABH antigens were expressed; type III/IV structures were not detected. Type II-based ABH were expressed on erythrocytes of all blood groups. Group A1 and A2 erythrocytes additionally expressed type III/IV precursors, whereas group B and O erythrocytes did not. Intensity of A/B antigen expression differed among group A1 , A2 , A1 B, A2 B and B erythrocytes. On group A2 erythrocytes, type III H structures were largely un-glycosylated with the terminal "A" sugar α-GalNAc. Together, these studies define qualitative and quantitative differences in ABH antigen expression between erythrocytes and vascular tissues. These expression profiles have important implications that must be considered in clinical settings of ABO-incompatible transplantation when interpreting anti-ABO antibodies measured by hemagglutination assays with reagent erythrocytes. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  10. Score distribution of the scoliosis research society health-related quality of life in different subgroups of adolescent subjects unaffected by scoliosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifei; Du, Yuanli; Liang, Jie; Chen, Ying; Tan, Xiaoyi; Xiang, Xuanping; Wang, Wanhong; Ru, Neng

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire performance in normal adolescents without scoliosis to establish a normative baseline useful for evaluating the discriminate validity of the SRS-22 in primary adolescent scoliosis; and (2) investigate impact of age and sex on SRS-22 in an adolescent population unaffected by scoliosis. The SRS-22 questionnaire is widely used to measure health-related quality of life of patients with spinal disease including scoliosis and lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, normal data, which are very important, when comparing patients and nonpatients, are few, little, and there are few studies about factors that may affect SRS questionnaire performance. The adolescent population was from 14 schools located in 7 provinces. A total of 2008 adolescents (961 females, 1026 males, 21 unknown; mean age, 14.3 yr; range, 11-20) completed the simplified Chinese version of SRS-22 questionnaire and demographic questions. Surveys were stratified into 8 age-sex groups for analysis: male/female; 12 to 13.4, 13.5 to 14.9, 15 to 15.9, and more than 16 years of age. Post hoc testing and the Tukey least significant difference were used to compare differences between any 2 of the 4 age groups. Self-image scores in males were higher than those in females (P < 0.01). Pain domain scores were significantly higher in males than those in females in the 13.5- to 14.9-year-old subgroup, whereas other subgroups showed no obvious differences. The function domain scores in males who were aged 15 to 15.9 years and those older than 16 years were significantly higher than those in females (P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences in mental health domain scores among age-sex subgroups, with the exception of the 13.5- to 14.9-year-old group. This is the first study to characterize the sex and age influence on the SRS-22 scores in normal population. Age and sex have an important

  11. Differences between two subgroups of low back pain patients in lumbopelvic rotation and symmetry in the erector spinae and hamstring muscles during trunk flexion when standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-hee; Yoo, Won-gyu; Choi, Bo-ram

    2013-04-01

    The present study was performed to examine lumbopelvic rotation and to identify asymmetry of the erector spinae and hamstring muscles in people with and without low back pain (LBP). The control group included 16 healthy subjects, the lumbar-flexion-rotation syndrome LBP group included 17 subjects, and the lumbar-extension-rotation syndrome LBP group included 14 subjects. Kinematic parameters were recorded using a 3D motion-capture system, and electromyography parameters were measured using a Noraxon TeleMyo 2400T. The two LBP subgroups showed significantly more lumbopelvic rotation during trunk flexion in standing than did the control group. The muscle activity and flexion-relaxation ratio asymmetries of the erector spinae muscles in the lumbar-flexion-rotation syndrome LBP group were significantly greater than those in the control group, and the muscle activity and flexion-relaxation ratio asymmetry of the hamstring muscles in the lumbar-extension-rotation syndrome LBP group were significantly greater than those in the control group. Imbalance or asymmetry of passive tissue could lead to asymmetry of muscular activation. Muscle imbalance can cause asymmetrical alignment or movements such as unexpected rotation. The results showed a greater increase in lumbopelvic rotation during trunk flexion in standing among the lumbar-flexion-rotation syndrome and lumbar-extension-rotation syndrome LBP groups compared with the control group. The differences between the two LBP subgroups may be a result of imbalance and asymmetry in erector spinae and hamstring muscle properties. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Shipborne Magnetic Survey of San Pablo Bay and Implications on the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. A.; Athens, N. D.; Denton, K.

    2012-12-01

    A shipborne magnetic survey of San Pablo Bay reveals a steep magnetic gradient as well as several prominent magnetic anomalies along the offshore extension of the Hayward Fault. The Hayward Fault enters San Pablo Bay at Pinole Point and potentially extends beneath San Pablo Bay for 15 km. About 1,000 line-km of shipborne magnetometer data were collected in San Pablo Bay along approximately north-east and north-west trending traverses. Shiptrack lines were spaced 200-m apart in a N55oE direction and tie-lines were spaced 500- and 1,000-m apart in a N145oE direction. Magnetometer and Geographic Positioning System (GPS) data were collected simultaneously at one-second intervals using a Geometrics G858 cesium vapor magnetometer with the sensor attached to a nonmagnetic pole extended about 2 m over the bow. Diurnal variations of the Earth's magnetic field were recorded at a ground magnetic base station and shipborne data were corrected for diurnal variations, International Geomagnetic Reference Field, cultural noise, heading errors, and leveling errors. The heading correction applied to the shipborne magnetic data accounts for a systematic shift in the magnetic readings due to the magnetic field produced by the boat and the orientation of the boat. The heading correction was determined by traversing several shiptrack lines in various azimuths in opposite directions. Magnetic measurements off the main survey lines (e.g., turns) were removed from the survey. After applying the heading correction, crossing values or the difference in values where two survey lines intersect were compared and the survey was leveled. Shipborne magnetic data reveal a prominent magnetic anomaly immediately offshore of Point Pinole that probably reflects ultramafic rocks (e.g. serpentinite), similar to those exposed in the northern part of the onshore Hayward Fault. Further to the northwest, shipborne magnetic data enhance two prominent aeromagnetic anomalies along the Hayward Fault in the

  13. Subgroup effects in a randomised trial of different types and doses of exercise during breast cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, K S; McKenzie, D C; Mackey, J R; Gelmon, K; Friedenreich, C M; Yasui, Y; Reid, R D; Vallerand, J R; Adams, S C; Proulx, C; Dolan, L B; Wooding, E; Segal, R J

    2014-10-28

    The Combined Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Trial tested different types and doses of exercise in breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Here, we explore potential moderators of the exercise training responses. Breast cancer patients initiating chemotherapy (N=301) were randomly assigned to three times a week, supervised exercise of a standard dose of 25-30 min of aerobic exercise, a higher dose of 50-60 min of aerobic exercise, or a higher dose of 50-60 min of combined aerobic and resistance exercise. Outcomes were patient-reported symptoms and health-related fitness. Moderators were baseline demographic, exercise/fitness, and cancer variables. Body mass index moderated the effects of the exercise interventions on bodily pain (P for interaction=0.038), endocrine symptoms (P for interaction=0.029), taxane/neuropathy symptoms (P for interaction=0.013), aerobic fitness (P for interaction=0.041), muscular strength (P for interaction=0.007), and fat mass (P for interaction=0.005). In general, healthy weight patients responded better to the higher-dose exercise interventions than overweight/obese patients. Menopausal status, age, and baseline fitness moderated the effects on patient-reported symptoms. Premenopausal, younger, and fitter patients achieved greater benefits from the higher-dose exercise interventions. Healthy weight, fitter, and premenopausal/younger breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are more likely to benefit from higher-dose exercise interventions.

  14. Existence of a dictatorial subgroup in social choice with independent subgroup utility scales, an alternative proof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khmelnitskaya, Anna Borisovna; van Deemen, Adrian; Rusinowska, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Social welfare orderings for different scales of individual utility measurement in distinct population subgroups are studied. In Khmelnitskaya (2000), employing the continuous version of Arrow’s impossibility theorem, it was shown that for combinations of independent subgroups scales every

  15. Cytogenetic prognostication within medulloblastoma subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, David J H; Northcott, Paul A; Remke, Marc; Korshunov, Andrey; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Kool, Marcel; Luu, Betty; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Garzia, Livia; Peacock, John; Mack, Stephen C; Wu, Xiaochong; Rolider, Adi; Morrissy, A Sorana; Cavalli, Florence M G; Jones, David T W; Zitterbart, Karel; Faria, Claudia C; Schüller, Ulrich; Kren, Leos; Kumabe, Toshihiro; Tominaga, Teiji; Shin Ra, Young; Garami, Miklós; Hauser, Peter; Chan, Jennifer A; Robinson, Shenandoah; Bognár, László; Klekner, Almos; Saad, Ali G; Liau, Linda M; Albrecht, Steffen; Fontebasso, Adam; Cinalli, Giuseppe; De Antonellis, Pasqualino; Zollo, Massimo; Cooper, Michael K; Thompson, Reid C; Bailey, Simon; Lindsey, Janet C; Di Rocco, Concezio; Massimi, Luca; Michiels, Erna M C; Scherer, Stephen W; Phillips, Joanna J; Gupta, Nalin; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Eberhart, Charles G; Fouladi, Maryam; Lach, Boleslaw; Jung, Shin; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Fèvre-Montange, Michelle; Jouvet, Anne; Jabado, Nada; Pollack, Ian F; Weiss, William A; Lee, Ji-Yeoun; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Rubin, Joshua B; de Torres, Carmen; Lavarino, Cinzia; Mora, Jaume; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tabori, Uri; Olson, James M; Gajjar, Amar; Packer, Roger J; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pomeroy, Scott L; French, Pim J; Kloosterhof, Nanne K; Kros, Johan M; Van Meir, Erwin G; Clifford, Steven C; Bourdeaut, Franck; Delattre, Olivier; Doz, François F; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Malkin, David; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Bouffet, Eric; Rutka, James T; Pfister, Stefan M; Taylor, Michael D

    2014-03-20

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular subgroups: WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Current medulloblastoma protocols stratify patients based on clinical features: patient age, metastatic stage, extent of resection, and histologic variant. Stark prognostic and genetic differences among the four subgroups suggest that subgroup-specific molecular biomarkers could improve patient prognostication. Molecular biomarkers were identified from a discovery set of 673 medulloblastomas from 43 cities around the world. Combined risk stratification models were designed based on clinical and cytogenetic biomarkers identified by multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses. Identified biomarkers were tested using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on a nonoverlapping medulloblastoma tissue microarray (n = 453), with subsequent validation of the risk stratification models. Subgroup information improves the predictive accuracy of a multivariable survival model compared with clinical biomarkers alone. Most previously published cytogenetic biomarkers are only prognostic within a single medulloblastoma subgroup. Profiling six FISH biomarkers (GLI2, MYC, chromosome 11 [chr11], chr14, 17p, and 17q) on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, we can reliably and reproducibly identify very low-risk and very high-risk patients within SHH, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas. Combining subgroup and cytogenetic biomarkers with established clinical biomarkers substantially improves patient prognostication, even in the context of heterogeneous clinical therapies. The prognostic significance of most molecular biomarkers is restricted to a specific subgroup. We have identified a small panel of cytogenetic biomarkers that reliably identifies very high-risk and very low-risk groups of patients, making it an excellent tool for selecting patients for therapy intensification and therapy de-escalation in future clinical trials.

  16. Histopathological subgroups in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, L A; Moreton, B J; Mapp, P I; Wilson, D; Hill, R; Ferguson, E; Scammell, B E; Walsh, D A

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a heterogeneous, multi-tissue disease. We hypothesised that different histopathological features characterise different stages during knee OA progression, and that discrete subgroups can be defined based on validated measures of OA histopathological features. Medial tibial plateaux and synovium were from 343 post-mortem (PM) and 143 OA arthroplasty donations. A 'chondropathy/osteophyte' group (n = 217) was classified as PM cases with osteophytes or macroscopic medial tibiofemoral chondropathy lesions ≥grade 3 to represent pre-surgical (early) OA. 'Non-arthritic' controls (n = 48) were identified from the remaining PM cases. Mankin histopathological scores were subjected to Rasch analysis and supplemented with histopathological scores for subchondral bone marrow replacement and synovitis. Item weightings were derived by principle components analysis (PCA). Histopathological subgroups were sought using latent class analysis (LCA). Chondropathy, synovitis and osteochondral pathology were each associated with OA at arthroplasty, but each was also identified in some 'non-arthritic' controls. Tidemark breaching in the chondropathy/osteophyte group was greater than in non-arthritic controls. Three histopathological subgroups were identified, characterised as 'mild OA', or 'severe OA' with mild or moderate/severe synovitis. Presence and severity of synovitis helps define distinct histopathological OA subgroups. The absence of a discrete 'normal' subgroup indicates a pathological continuum between normality and OA status. Identifying specific pathological processes and their clinical correlates in OA subgroups has potential to accelerate the development of more effective therapies. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Emotional intelligence in professional nursing practice: A concept review using Rodgers's evolutionary analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina E. Raghubir

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge around emotional intelligence originated in the 1990s from research regarding thoughts, emotions and abilities. The concept of emotional intelligence has evolved over the last 25 years; however, the understanding and use is still unclear. Despite this, emotional intelligence has been a widely-considered concept within professions such as business, management, education, and within the last 10 years has gained traction within nursing practice. Aims and objectives: The aim of this concept review is to clarify the understanding of the concept emotional intelligence, what attributes signify emotional intelligence, what are its antecedents, consequences, related terms and implications to advance nursing practice. Method: A computerized search was guided by Rodger's evolutional concept analysis. Data courses included: CINAHL, PyschINFO, Scopus, EMBASE and ProQuest, focusing on articles published in Canada and the United Stated during 1990–2017. Results: A total of 23 articles from various bodies of disciplines were included in this integrative concept review. The analysis reveals that there are many inconsistencies regarding the description of emotional intelligence, however, four common attributes were discovered: self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and social/relationship management. These attributes facilitate the emotional well-being among advance practice nurses and enhances the ability to practice in a way that will benefit patients, families, colleagues and advance practice nurses as working professionals and as individuals. Conclusion: The integration of emotional intelligence is supported within several disciplines as there is consensus on the impact that emotional intelligence has on job satisfaction, stress level, burnout and helps to facilitate a positive environment. Explicit to advance practice nursing, emotional intelligence is a concept that may be central to nursing practice as it has the

  18. Finite groups all of whose minimal subgroups are NE∗ -subgroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    subgroup of G if there exists a subnormal subgroup T of G such that G = HT and H ∩ T is a. NE-subgroup of G. In this article, we investigate the structure of G under the assump- tion that subgroups of prime order are NE∗-subgroups of G. The finite ...

  19. Rescue of avian leukosis subgroup-J-associated acutely transforming viruses carrying different lengths of the v-fps oncogene and analysis of their tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Cui, Shuai; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-12-01

    In our previous study, six subgroup J strains of avian leukosis virus (ALV-J)-associated acutely transforming viruses carrying different lengths of the v-fps oncogene, designated as Fu-J and Fu-J1-5, were isolated and characterized from fibrosarcomas in ALV-J-infected chickens. In the present study, the oncogenic potential of Fu-J and Fu-J1-5 was investigated using a reverse genetics technique. Six replication-defective viruses, named rFu-J and rFu-J1-5, were rescued with the replication-competent rescued ALV-J strain rSDAU1005 as a helper virus by co-transfection of chicken embryo fibroblast monolayers with infectious clone plasmids. Experimental bird studies were performed, demonstrating that only the rescued rFu-J virus carrying the complete v-fps oncogene with rSDAU1005 as the helper virus could induce acute fibrosarcoma after inoculation in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. These results provide direct evidence that the replication-defective acutely transforming Fu-J virus, with the complete v-fps oncogene, was associated with acute fibrosarcoma in chickens infected with ALV-J in the field, as reported previously.

  20. Generation and biological assessment of recombinant avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) viruses containing different length of the G gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingzhong; Estevez, Carlos; Song, Minxun; Kapczynski, Darrell; Zsak, Laszlo

    2010-02-01

    Genetic variation in length of the G gene among different avian metapneumovirus subgroup C (aMPV-C) isolates has been reported. However, its biological significance in virus replication, pathogenicity and immunity is unknown. In this study, we developed a reverse genetics system for aMPV-C and generated two Colorado (CO) strain-based recombinant viruses containing either the full-length G gene derived from a Canadian goose isolate or a C-terminally truncated G gene of the CO strain. The truncated short G (sG) gene encoded 252 amino acids (aa), which is 333 aa shorter than the full-length G (585 aa). The biological properties of these two recombinant G variants were assessed in Vero cells and in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) turkeys. In Vero cells, the short G variant displayed a similar level of growth dynamics and virus titers as the parental aMPV-CO strain, whereas the full-length G variant replicated less efficiently than the sG variant during the first 72 h post-infection. Both of the G variants induced typical cytopathic effects (CPE) that were indistinguishable from those seen with the parental aMPV-CO infection. In SPF turkeys, both of the G variants were attenuated and caused little or no disease signs, but the full-length G variant appeared to grow more readily in tracheal tissue than the sG variant during the first 5 days post-infection. Both G variants were immunogenic and induced a slightly different level of antibody response. These results demonstrated that the large portion (333 aa) of the extracellular domain of the viral attachment protein is not essential for virus viability in vitro and in vivo, but may play a role in enhancing virus attachment specificity and immunity in a natural host. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: H-α emission regions in Southern Milky Way (Rodgers+ 1960)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, A. W.; Campbell, C. T.; Whiteoak, J. B.

    2000-05-01

    The Catalogue of Rodgers, Cambell, and Whiteoak (RCW), was the result of a survey of emission nebulae carried out at Mt. Stromlo Observatory from December 1957 to April 1959. The entire region of the Milky Way southward of the Palomar sky survey with a latitude of plus or minus 15 degrees of the galactic equator was photographed in the light of hydrogen alpha with comparison plates obtained in yellow light. This work roughly complements the Sharpless (Sh2, see Cat. ) survey published in 1959. (2 data files).

  2. Molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Northcott, Paul A; Dubuc, Adrian M; Pfister, Stefan; Taylor, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts at stratifying medulloblastomas based on their molecular features have revolutionized our understanding of this morbidity. Collective efforts by multiple independent groups have subdivided medulloblastoma from a single disease into four distinct molecular subgroups characterized by disparate transcriptional signatures, mutational spectra, copy number profiles and, most importantly, clinical features. We present a summary of recent studies that have contributed to our understand...

  3. Urinary infection caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Helen

    1973-01-01

    The laboratory findings and clinical presentations in urinary infections in 23 nurses, 10 caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3 and 13 by Escherichia coli, were studied, and the symptoms and possible predisposing factors compared. There were no important differences between the two groups. The infections caused by Micrococcus subgroup 3 were symptomatically severe, as were those caused by Escherichia coli. PMID:4593863

  4. Intertumoral Heterogeneity within Medulloblastoma Subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalli, Florence M G; Remke, Marc; Rampasek, Ladislav; Peacock, John; Shih, David J H; Luu, Betty; Garzia, Livia; Torchia, Jonathon; Nor, Carolina; Morrissy, A Sorana; Agnihotri, Sameer; Thompson, Yuan Yao; Kuzan-Fischer, Claudia M; Farooq, Hamza; Isaev, Keren; Daniels, Craig; Cho, Byung-Kyu; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Grajkowska, Wieslawa A; Perek-Polnik, Marta; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Faure-Conter, Cecile; Jouvet, Anne; Giannini, Caterina; Nageswara Rao, Amulya A; Li, Kay Ka Wai; Ng, Ho-Keung; Eberhart, Charles G; Pollack, Ian F; Hamilton, Ronald L; Gillespie, G Yancey; Olson, James M; Leary, Sarah; Weiss, William A; Lach, Boleslaw; Chambless, Lola B; Thompson, Reid C; Cooper, Michael K; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Hauser, Peter; van Veelen, Marie-Lise C; Kros, Johan M; French, Pim J; Ra, Young Shin; Kumabe, Toshihiro; López-Aguilar, Enrique; Zitterbart, Karel; Sterba, Jaroslav; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Massimino, Maura; Van Meir, Erwin G; Osuka, Satoru; Shofuda, Tomoko; Klekner, Almos; Zollo, Massimo; Leonard, Jeffrey R; Rubin, Joshua B; Jabado, Nada; Albrecht, Steffen; Mora, Jaume; Van Meter, Timothy E; Jung, Shin; Moore, Andrew S; Hallahan, Andrew R; Chan, Jennifer A; Tirapelli, Daniela P C; Carlotti, Carlos G; Fouladi, Maryam; Pimentel, José; Faria, Claudia C; Saad, Ali G; Massimi, Luca; Liau, Linda M; Wheeler, Helen; Nakamura, Hideo; Elbabaa, Samer K; Perezpeña-Diazconti, Mario; Chico Ponce de León, Fernando; Robinson, Shenandoah; Zapotocky, Michal; Lassaletta, Alvaro; Huang, Annie; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Tabori, Uri; Bouffet, Eric; Bartels, Ute; Dirks, Peter B; Rutka, James T; Bader, Gary D; Reimand, Jüri; Goldenberg, Anna; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2017-06-12

    While molecular subgrouping has revolutionized medulloblastoma classification, the extent of heterogeneity within subgroups is unknown. Similarity network fusion (SNF) applied to genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression data across 763 primary samples identifies very homogeneous clusters of patients, supporting the presence of medulloblastoma subtypes. After integration of somatic copy-number alterations, and clinical features specific to each cluster, we identify 12 different subtypes of medulloblastoma. Integrative analysis using SNF further delineates group 3 from group 4 medulloblastoma, which is not as readily apparent through analyses of individual data types. Two clear subtypes of infants with Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma with disparate outcomes and biology are identified. Medulloblastoma subtypes identified through integrative clustering have important implications for stratification of future clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Subgroup differences and determinants of patient-reported mental and physical health at hospital discharge among patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T. B.; Herning, M.; Johansen, P. P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: (i) To describe patient-reported outcomes (PROs) at hospital-discharge across three diagnostic IHD sub-groups; chronic ischemic heart disease/stable angina (IHD/AP), non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction/unstable angina (NSTEMI/UAP) and ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), and (i......) to examine determinants among demographic-, clinical- and self-report health behavior characteristics for PROs at hospital discharge in patients with IHD....

  6. Generalized Sum of Fuzzy Subgroup and α-cut Subgroup

    OpenAIRE

    Daher Waly Freh Al-Rekabi; Alia Shany Hassan

    2012-01-01

    p>In this paper we study some results of the generalized sum of a fuzzynbsp;subgroup and alpha;-cut subgroup, we define a alpha;-cut subset and alpha;-cut subgroup, and then. We study some of their properties./p>

  7. Efficacy of long-term milnacipran treatment in patients meeting different thresholds of clinically relevant pain relief: subgroup analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled withdrawal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mease PJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Philip J Mease,1 Daniel J Clauw,2 Joel M Trugman,3 Robert H Palmer,3 Yong Wang3 1Swedish Medical Center and University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 3Forest Research Institute, Jersey City, NJ, USA Background: Fibromyalgia patients from a long-term, open-label study of milnacipran (50–200 mg/day were eligible to participate in a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled withdrawal study. The withdrawal study evaluated loss of therapeutic response in patients who achieved ≥50% pain improvements after receiving up to 3.25 years of milnacipran. This post-hoc analysis investigated whether patients who met lower thresholds of pain improvement also experienced worsening of fibromyalgia symptoms upon treatment withdrawal. Method: Among patients who received milnacipran ≥100 mg/day during the long-term study, three subgroups were identified based on percentage of pain reduction at randomization: ≥50% (protocol-defined "responders"; n=150; ≥30% to <50% (patients with clinically meaningful pain improvement; n=61; and <30% (n=110. Efficacy assessments included the visual analog scale (VAS for pain, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQR, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey Physical Component Summary (SF-36 PCS, and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results: In the ≥30 to <50% subgroup, significant worsening in pain was detected after treatment withdrawal. The difference between placebo and milnacipran in mean VAS score changes for this subgroup (+9.0, P<0.05 was similar to the difference in protocol-defined responders (+9.4, P<0.05. In the <30% subgroup, no worsening in pain was observed in either treatment arm. However, patients in this subgroup experienced significant worsening in FIQR scores after treatment withdrawal (placebo, +6.9; milnacipran, -2.8; P<0.001, as well as worsening in SF-36 PCS and BDI scores. Conclusion: Patients who

  8. Health care expenditures among Asian American subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Ortega, Alexander N

    2013-06-01

    Using two nationally representative data sets, this study examined health care expenditure disparities between Caucasians and different Asian American subgroups. Multivariate analyses demonstrate that Asian Americans, as a group, have significantly lower total expenditures compared with Caucasians. Results also point to considerable heterogeneities in health care spending within Asian American subgroups. Findings suggest that language assistance programs would be effective in reducing disparities among Caucasians and Asian American subgroups with the exception of Indians and Filipinos, who tend to be more proficient in English. Results also indicate that citizenship and nativity were major factors associated with expenditure disparities. Socioeconomic status, however, could not explain expenditure disparities. Results also show that Asian Americans have lower physician and pharmaceutical costs but not emergency department or hospital expenditures. These findings suggest the need for culturally competent policies specific to Asian American subgroups and the necessity to encourage cost-effective treatments among Asian Americans.

  9. [Changes of monocyte and monocyte-platelet aggregates in different subgroups of thrombotic events in patients with acute myocardial infarction during PCI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Sun, Cuifang; Liao, Wang; Wu, Zhongwei; Wang, Yudai; Huang, Xiuxian; Lu, Sijia; Dong, Xiaoli; Shuai, Fujie; Li, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of thrombotic events on the alterations of monocyte and monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods Blood was collected before PCI for flow cytometry. Monocyte subsets and MPAs were detected by four-color platform (CDl4-APC, CDl6-PE-Cy7, CD86-PE and CD41-Alexa Fluor R 488). According to the expression of the platelet surface marker CD41, the number of monocyte subsets and MPAs was analyzed using the fluorescent microspheres of absolute counting tube. The Wilcoxon rank sum test and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed. Results CD14 + CD16 ++ monocytes in intraprocedural thrombotic events (IPTE) group were significantly fewer than those in non-IPTE group, and the percentage in total mononuclear cells decreased. Compared with non-IPTE group, MPA binding ratio and monocyte subset MPA binding ratio were significantly higher in IPTE group. ROC analysis showed that MPA binding ratio and subgroup MPA binding ratio had a better predictive value for IPTE in patients with AMI. Conclusion The CD14 + CD16 ++ monocytes in IPTE group were significantly fewer than those in the non-IPTE group. MPA binding ratio and MPA binding ratio of monocyte subsets were significantly higher in the IPTE group than in the non-IPTE group, so they have a good predictive value for IPTE in patients with AMI.

  10. Temperature profile and water depth data collected from USS JOHN RODGERS using BT and XBT casts in the NE/NW Atlantic Ocean and other seas from 03 August 1988 to 03 October 1988 (NODC Accession 8900041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and water depth data were collected using BT and XBT casts from the USS JOHN RODGERS in the Northeast / Northwest Atlantic Ocean, Ionian Sea,...

  11. Finite subgroups of SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovier, A.; Lueling, M.; Wyler, D.

    1980-12-01

    We present a new class of finite subgroups of SU(3) of the form Zsub(m) s zsub(n) (semidirect product). We also apply the methods used to investigate semidirect products to the known SU(3) subgroups Δ(3n 2 ) and Δ(6n 2 ) and give analytic formulae for representations (characters) and Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. (orig.)

  12. The human and the inhuman: visual culture, political culture, and the images produced by George Rodger and Henri Cartier-Bresson in the Nazi concentration camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cazzonatto Zerwes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to grasp some aspects of the notion of humanism in photography and its closeness to the political culture and the visual culture in the period, through the specific experiences of George Rodger and Henri Cartier-Bresson, two photographers who were first-hand witnesses and provided accounts of horror in the Nazi concentration camps at the end of World War II. George Rodger photographed the Bergen-Belsen camp as soon as it was liberated by the British troops. Henri Cartier-Bresson was there with a film crew recording the deported masses newly freed from the Nazi concentration and extermination camps. These experiences came to have profound impact on the biography and work of both of them. In the two cases, there is a notion of humanism linked to World War II events, which is observed in photography and photographic representation, and it has a significant consequence for the contemporary visual culture.   Keywords: Visual Culture; Political Culture; War Photography; Photojournalism; Concentration Camps.   Original title: O humano e o desumano: cultura visual, cultura política e as imagens feitas por George Rodger e Henri Cartier-Bresson nos campos de concentração nazistas.

  13. THE BHB STARS IN THE SURVEY FIELDS OF RODGERS ET AL. (1993): NEW OBSERVATIONS AND COMPARISONS WITH OTHER RECENT SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinman, T. D.; Brown, Warren R.

    2011-01-01

    We study blue horizontal branch (BHB) and RR Lyrae stars in the Rodgers et al. fields and compare their velocity and density distributions with other surveys in the same part of the sky. Photometric data are given for 176 early-type stars in the northern field. We identify fourteen BHB stars and four possible BHB stars, and determine the selection efficiency of the Century survey, the HK survey, and the SDSS survey for BHB stars. We give light curves and γ radial velocities for three type ab RR Lyrae stars in the northern field; comparison with the nearby LONEOS survey shows that there is likely to be an equal number of lower-amplitude type ab RR Lyrae stars that we do not find. There are therefore at least twice as many BHB stars as type ab RR Lyrae stars in the northern field-similar to the ratio in the solar neighborhood. The velocity distribution of the southern field shows no evidence for an anomalous thick disk that was found by Gilmore et al.; the halo velocity peaks at a slightly prograde rotational velocity but there is also a significant retrograde halo component in this field. The velocity distribution in the northern field shows no evidence of Galactic rotation for |Z| ≥ 4 kpc and a slight prograde motion for |Z| < 4 kpc. The space densities of BHB stars in the northern field agree with an extrapolation of the power-law distribution recently derived by de Propris et al. For |Z| < 4 kpc, however, we observe an excess of BHB stars compared with this power law. We conclude that these BHB stars mostly belong to a spatially flattened, non-rotating inner halo component of the Milky Way in confirmation of the Kinman et al. analysis of Century survey BHB stars.

  14. Motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease and their impact on quality of life and on different clinical subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berganzo, K; Tijero, B; González-Eizaguirre, A; Somme, J; Lezcano, E; Gabilondo, I; Fernandez, M; Zarranz, J J; Gómez-Esteban, J C

    The aim of the present study is to analyse the influence that motor and non-motor symptoms have on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and to study the relationship between the two types of symptoms. This cross-sectional study included 103 patients with PD (55 men and 48 women). Quality of life was measured on the PDQ-39 scale. The UPDRS scale (I-IV) was also used, and different items were grouped to analyse the presence of tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and axial symptoms. The non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS) was administered to assess non-motor symptoms. We performed correlation analyses between different scales to analyse the influence of motor and non-motor symptoms on QoL. Correlations were observed between the PDQ-39 summary index (PDQ39_SI) and the NMSS (correlation coefficient [cc], 0.56; pde Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Negative symptom subgroups have different effects on the clinical course of schizophrenia after the first episode: a 24-month follow up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, C; Üçok, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure of negative symptoms in first-episode schizophrenia (FES), and to examine the relationship of these factors with clinical course and functioning of patients during the two-year follow up. We assessed 174 drug-naïve patients with FES using Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale-Expanded (BPRS), Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and a cognitive battery at admission. The scales were repeated monthly during follow up. We recorded the patients' functioning levels, remission, and work status after 12 and 24 months. A two-factor structure was found at the baseline, whereas one factor was found after 12 and 24 months. Expressive deficit (ED) factor consisted of alogia and blunted affect, and motivation-pleasure deficit (MPD) factor consisted of avolition and anhedonia. ED factor was related to earlier onset and remission, and it was negatively correlated with duration of education and cognitive test scores. MPD factor was related to duration of untreated psychosis, family history of schizophrenia, and work status, and it appeared as the only independent variable that contributed to the baseline GAF score in linear regression analysis. Our findings suggest that the factors have different aetiologies and impacts on the clinical course of schizophrenia and functioning after FES. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying subgroups of patients using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Mølgaard; Kent, Peter; Hestbæk, Lise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity in patients with low back pain (LBP) is well recognised and different approaches to subgrouping have been proposed. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) is a statistical technique that is increasingly being used to identify subgroups based on patient characteristics. However......, as LBP is a complex multi-domain condition, the optimal approach when using LCA is unknown. Therefore, this paper describes the exploration of two approaches to LCA that may help improve the identification of clinically relevant and interpretable LBP subgroups. METHODS: From 928 LBP patients consulting...... of statistical performance measures, qualitative evaluation of clinical interpretability (face validity) and a subgroup membership comparison. RESULTS: For the single-stage LCA, a model solution with seven patient subgroups was preferred, and for the two-stage LCA, a nine patient subgroup model. Both approaches...

  17. Sequential formation of subgroups in OB associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Lada, C.J.

    1977-01-01

    We reconsider the structure and formation of OB association in view of recent radio and infrared observations of the adjacent molecular clouds. As a result of this reexamination, we propose that OB subgroups are formed in a step-by-step process which involves the propagation of ionization (I) and shock (S) fronts through a molecular cloud complex. OB stars formed at the edge of a molecular cloud drive these I-S fronts into the cloud. A layer of dense neutral material accumulates between the I and S fronts and eventually becomes gravitationally unstable. This process is analyzed in detail. Several arguments concerning the temperature and mass of this layer suggest that a new OB subgroup will form. After approximately one-half million years, these stars will emerge from and disrupt the star-forming layer. A new shock will be driven into the remaining molecular cloud and will initiate another cycle of star formation.Several observed properties of OB associations are shown to follow from a sequential star-forming mechanism. These include the spatial separation and systematic differences in age of OB subgroups in a given association, the regularity of subgroup masses, the alignment of subgroups along the galactic plane, and their physical expansion. Detailed observations of ionization fronts, masers, IR sources, and molecular clouds are also in agreement with this model. Finally, this mechanism provides a means of dissipating a molecular cloud and exposing less massive stars (e.g., T Tauri stars) which may have formed ahead of the shock as part of the original cloud collapsed and fragmented

  18. O humano e o desumano: cultura visual, cultura política e as imagens feitas por George Rodger e Henri Cartier-Bresson nos campos de concentração nazistas

    OpenAIRE

    Erika Cazzonatto Zerwes

    2016-01-01

    Este artigo busca compreender alguns aspectos da noção de humanismo na fotografia e sua proximidade com a cultura política e a cultura visual do período, a partir das experiências específicas de George Rodger e Henri Cartier-Bresson, dois fotógrafos que viveram em primeira mão e que deram testemunho do horror dos campos de concentração nazistas ao final da Segunda Guerra Mundial. George Rodger fotografou o campo de Bergen-Belsen assim que foi libertado pelas tropas britânicas. Henri Cartier-B...

  19. Molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma identification using noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüml, Stefan; Margol, Ashley S; Sposto, Richard; Kennedy, Rebekah J; Robison, Nathan J; Vali, Marzieh; Hung, Long T; Muthugounder, Sakunthala; Finlay, Jonathan L; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Gilles, Floyd H; Judkins, Alexander R; Krieger, Mark D; Dhall, Girish; Nelson, Marvin D; Asgharzadeh, Shahab

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastomas in children can be categorized into 4 molecular subgroups with differing clinical characteristics, such that subgroup determination aids in prognostication and risk-adaptive treatment strategies. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a widely available, noninvasive tool that is used to determine the metabolic characteristics of tumors and provide diagnostic information without the need for tumor tissue. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that metabolite concentrations measured by MRS would differ between molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma and allow accurate subgroup determination. MRS was used to measure metabolites in medulloblastomas across molecular subgroups (SHH = 12, Groups 3/4 = 17, WNT = 1). Levels of 14 metabolites were analyzed to determine those that were the most discriminant for medulloblastoma subgroups in order to construct a multivariable classifier for distinguishing between combined Group 3/4 and SHH tumors. Medulloblastomas across molecular subgroups revealed distinct spectral features. Group 3 and Group 4 tumors demonstrated metabolic profiles with readily detectable taurine, lower levels of lipids, and high levels of creatine. SHH tumors showed prominent choline and lipid with low levels of creatine and little or no evidence of taurine. A 5-metabolite subgroup classifier inclusive of creatine, myo-inositol, taurine, aspartate, and lipid 13a was developed that could discriminate between Group 3/4 and SHH medulloblastomas with excellent accuracy (cross-validated area under the curve [AUC] = 0.88). The data show that medulloblastomas of Group 3/4 differ metabolically as measured using MRS when compared with SHH molecular subgroups. MRS is a useful and accurate tool to determine medulloblastoma molecular subgroups. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Finite groups in which some particular subgroups are TI-subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiangtao; Zhang, Cui

    2013-01-01

    We prove that G is a group in which all noncyclic subgroups are TI-subgroups if and only if all noncyclic subgroups of G are normal in G. Moreover, we classify groups in which all subgroups of even order are TI-subgroups....

  1. Finite groups all of whose minimal subgroups are NE-subgroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian Academy of Sciences ... In this article, we investigate the structure of under the assumption that subgroups of prime order are *-subgroups of . The finite groups, all of whose minimal subgroups of the generalized Fitting subgroup are *-subgroups are classified.

  2. A method for generating subgroup parameters from resonance tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    1993-01-01

    A method for generating subgroup or band parameters from resonance tables is described. A computer code SPART was written using this method. This code generates the subgroup parameters for any number of bands within the specified broad groups at different temperatures by reading the required input data from the binary cross section library in the Cadarache format. The results obtained with SPART code for two bands were compared with that obtained from GROUPIE code and a good agreement was obtained. Results of the generation of subgroup parameters in four bands for sample case of 239 Pu from resonance tables of Cadarache Ver.2 library is also presented. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Burnside structures of finite subgroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenok, I G

    2007-01-01

    We establish conditions guaranteeing that a group B possesses the following property: there is a number l such that if elements w, x -1 wx,...,x -l+1 wx l-1 of B generate a finite subgroup G then x lies in the normalizer of G. These conditions are of a quite special form. They hold for groups with relations of the form x n =1 which appear as approximating groups for the free Burnside groups B(m,n) of sufficiently large even exponent n. We extract an algebraic assertion which plays an important role in all known approaches to substantial results on the groups B(m,n) of large even exponent, in particular, to proving their infiniteness. The main theorem asserts that when n is divisible by 16, B has the above property with l=6

  4. Model-Based Recursive Partitioning for Subgroup Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibold, Heidi; Zeileis, Achim; Hothorn, Torsten

    2016-05-01

    The identification of patient subgroups with differential treatment effects is the first step towards individualised treatments. A current draft guideline by the EMA discusses potentials and problems in subgroup analyses and formulated challenges to the development of appropriate statistical procedures for the data-driven identification of patient subgroups. We introduce model-based recursive partitioning as a procedure for the automated detection of patient subgroups that are identifiable by predictive factors. The method starts with a model for the overall treatment effect as defined for the primary analysis in the study protocol and uses measures for detecting parameter instabilities in this treatment effect. The procedure produces a segmented model with differential treatment parameters corresponding to each patient subgroup. The subgroups are linked to predictive factors by means of a decision tree. The method is applied to the search for subgroups of patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis that differ with respect to their Riluzole treatment effect, the only currently approved drug for this disease.

  5. Research methods for subgrouping low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Keating, Jennifer L; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    important distinctions in their treatment needs or prognoses. Due to a proliferation of research methods and variability in how subgrouping results are interpreted, it is timely to open discussion regarding a conceptual framework for the research designs and statistical methods available for subgrouping...... studies (a method framework). The aims of this debate article are: (1) to present a method framework to inform the design and evaluation of subgrouping research in low back pain, (2) to describe method options when investigating prognostic effects or subgroup treatment effects, and (3) to discuss...... the strengths and limitations of research methods suitable for the hypothesis-setting phase of subgroup studies....

  6. The interest of gait markers in the identification of subgroups among fibromyalgia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Auvinet, Bernard; Chaleil, Denis; Cabane, Jean; Dumolard, Anne; Hatron, Pierre; Juvin, Robert; Lanteri-Minet, Michel; Mainguy, Yves; Negre-Pages, Laurence; Pillard, Fabien; Riviere, Daniel; Maugars, Yves-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a heterogeneous syndrome and its classification into subgroups calls for broad-based discussion. FM subgrouping, which aims to adapt treatment according to different subgroups, relies in part, on psychological and cognitive dysfunctions. Since motor control of gait is closely related to cognitive function, we hypothesized that gait markers could be of interest in the identification of FM patients' subgroups. This controlled study aimed at characterizin...

  7. Identifying Changes in Youth's Subgroup Membership over Time Based on Their Targeted Communication about Substance Use with Parents and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Using latent class/transition analyses, this study: (a) identified subgroups of youth based on their targeted communication about substance use with parents and friends, (b) examined subgroup differences in substance use, and (c) considered changes in subgroup membership over four years. Among 5,874 youth, five subgroups emerged, with parents-only…

  8. On the subgroups of PR groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedenko, V.M.

    1979-01-01

    The subgroups of PR-groups are being studied, i.e., the subgroups of connected and simply connected nonabelian Lie groups, their Lie algebras being defined by the commuting relations of the type [Hsub(i), Hsub(j)] = rsub(ij)Hsub(i) (i 1 of PR-group G there exists such complementary subgroup G 2 and that group G is expanded in semidirect product G = G 1 xG 2 [ru

  9. Subgroup Analysis of Trials Is Rarely Easy (SATIRE: a study protocol for a systematic review to characterize the analysis, reporting, and claim of subgroup effects in randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaga German

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Subgroup analyses in randomized trials examine whether effects of interventions differ between subgroups of study populations according to characteristics of patients or interventions. However, findings from subgroup analyses may be misleading, potentially resulting in suboptimal clinical and health decision making. Few studies have investigated the reporting and conduct of subgroup analyses and a number of important questions remain unanswered. The objectives of this study are: 1 to describe the reporting of subgroup analyses and claims of subgroup effects in randomized controlled trials, 2 to assess study characteristics associated with reporting of subgroup analyses and with claims of subgroup effects, and 3 to examine the analysis, and interpretation of subgroup effects for each study's primary outcome. Methods We will conduct a systematic review of 464 randomized controlled human trials published in 2007 in the 118 Core Clinical Journals defined by the National Library of Medicine. We will randomly select journal articles, stratified in a 1:1 ratio by higher impact versus lower impact journals. According to 2007 ISI total citations, we consider the New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA, Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, and BMJ as higher impact journals. Teams of two reviewers will independently screen full texts of reports for eligibility, and abstract data, using standardized, pilot-tested extraction forms. We will conduct univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to examine the association of pre-specified study characteristics with reporting of subgroup analyses and with claims of subgroup effects for the primary and any other outcomes. Discussion A clear understanding of subgroup analyses, as currently conducted and reported in published randomized controlled trials, will reveal both strengths and weaknesses of this practice. Our findings will contribute to a set of recommendations to optimize

  10. ∗-supplemented subgroups of finite groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A subgroup H of a group G is said to be M∗-supplemented in G if ... normal subgroups and determined the structure of finite groups by using some ...... [12] Monakhov V S and Shnyparkov A V, On the p-supersolubility of a finite group with a.

  11. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihisa

    2003-01-01

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  12. Cluster analysis of clinical data identifies fibromyalgia subgroups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Docampo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia (FM is mainly characterized by widespread pain and multiple accompanying symptoms, which hinder FM assessment and management. In order to reduce FM heterogeneity we classified clinical data into simplified dimensions that were used to define FM subgroups. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 48 variables were evaluated in 1,446 Spanish FM cases fulfilling 1990 ACR FM criteria. A partitioning analysis was performed to find groups of variables similar to each other. Similarities between variables were identified and the variables were grouped into dimensions. This was performed in a subset of 559 patients, and cross-validated in the remaining 887 patients. For each sample and dimension, a composite index was obtained based on the weights of the variables included in the dimension. Finally, a clustering procedure was applied to the indexes, resulting in FM subgroups. RESULTS: VARIABLES CLUSTERED INTO THREE INDEPENDENT DIMENSIONS: "symptomatology", "comorbidities" and "clinical scales". Only the two first dimensions were considered for the construction of FM subgroups. Resulting scores classified FM samples into three subgroups: low symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 1, high symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 2, and high symptomatology but low comorbidities (Cluster 3, showing differences in measures of disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified three subgroups of FM samples in a large cohort of FM by clustering clinical data. Our analysis stresses the importance of family and personal history of FM comorbidities. Also, the resulting patient clusters could indicate different forms of the disease, relevant to future research, and might have an impact on clinical assessment.

  13. High BRAF Mutation Frequency and Marked Survival Differences in Subgroups According to KRAS/BRAF Mutation Status and Tumor Tissue Availability in a Prospective Population-Based Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorbye, Halfdan; Dragomir, Anca; Sundström, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    were analyzed in a prospectively collected unselected population-based cohort of 798 non-resectable mCRC patients. The cohort contained many patients with poor performance status (39% PS 2-4) and elderly (37% age>75), groups usually not included in clinical trials. Patients without available tissue...... patients. Median survival in this cohort varied from 1 month in BRAF mutated patients not given chemotherapy to 26 months in wildtype KRAS/BRAF patients availability, BRAF mutation and KRAS mutation were all independent prognostic factors for survival. The observed 21% BRAF......CRC patients. Survival in unselected metastatic colorectal cancer patients is extremely variable and subgroups have an extremely short survival compared to trial patients. Patients without available TMA had worse prognostic factors and shorter survival, which questions the total generalizability of present TMA...

  14. Identification of subgroups among fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, B; Chaleil, D

    2012-09-28

    This paper presents some hypotheses concerning the identification of homogeneous subgroups among fibromyalgia (FM) patients in order to improve the management of the disease. It also reviews the available literature about this subject. Three methods for subgrouping are discussed according to clinical features, biomarkers, and gait analysis. Clinical subgrouping based on cluster analysis has been used for the identification of homogeneous subgroups of patients and, more recently, homogeneous clinical features. So far, longitudinal studies using clinical subgroups to direct treatment and predict outcome are still required. Biomarkers in FM, which is a neurobiological disease, are of promising interest, nevertheless currently, none of them can be used to subgroup FM patients. Due to the fact that cortical and subcortical mechanisms of gait control share some cognitive functions which are involved in FM, gait markers have been proposed to evaluate and to subgroup FM patients, in clinical settings. Three out of 4 core FM symptoms are linked to gait markers. Kinesia measured by means of cranio-caudal power is correlated to pain, and could be proposed to assess pain behavior (kinesiophobia). Stride frequency, which is linked to physical component, allows the identification of a hyperkinetic subgroup. Moreover, SF has been correlated to fatigue during the 6 minute walking test. Stride regularity, which expresses the unsteadiness of gait, is correlated to cognitive dysfunction in FM. Decreased stride regularity allows the recognition of a homogeneous subgroup characterized by an increased anxiety and depression, and decreased cognitive functions. These results need further studies to be validated and so used in the daily clinical practice.

  15. Identification of subgroups among fibromyalgia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chaleil

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some hypotheses concerning the identification of homogeneous subgroups among fibromyalgia (FM patients in order to improve the management of the disease. It also reviews the available literature about this subject. Three methods for subgrouping are discussed according to clinical features, biomarkers, and gait analysis. Clinical subgrouping based on cluster analysis has been used for the identification of homogeneous subgroups of patients and, more recently, homogeneous clinical features. So far, longitudinal studies using clinical subgroups to direct treatment and predict outcome are still required. Biomarkers in FM, which is a neurobiological disease, are of promising interest, nevertheless currently, none of them can be used to subgroup FM patients. Due to the fact that cortical and subcortical mechanisms of gait control share some cognitive functions which are involved in FM, gait markers have been proposed to evaluate and to subgroup FM patients, in clinical settings. Three out of 4 core FM symptoms are linked to gait markers. Kinesia measured by means of cranio-caudal power is correlated to pain, and could be proposed to assess pain behavior (kinesiophobia. Stride frequency, which is linked to physical component, allows the identification of a hyperkinetic subgroup. Moreover, SF has been correlated to fatigue during the 6 minute walking test. Stride regularity, which expresses the unsteadiness of gait, is correlated to cognitive dysfunction in FM. Decreased stride regularity allows the recognition of a homogeneous subgroup characterized by an increased anxiety and depression, and decreased cognitive functions. These results need further studies to be validated and so used in the daily clinical practice.

  16. Subgroup Analysis in Burnout: Relations Between Fatigue, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Arno

    2016-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that burned out patients do not form a homogeneous group and that subgroups should be considered. The identification of these subgroups may contribute to a better understanding of the burnout construct and lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. Subgroup analysis may also help clarify whether burnout is a distinct entity and whether subgroups of burnout overlap with other disorders such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. In a group of 113 clinically diagnosed burned out patients, levels of fatigue, depression, and anxiety were assessed. In order to identify possible subgroups, we performed a two-step cluster analysis. The analysis revealed two clusters that differed from one another in terms of symptom severity on the three aforementioned measures. Depression appeared to be the strongest predictor of group membership. These results are considered in the light of the scientific debate on whether burnout can be distinguished from depression and whether burnout subtyping is useful. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:26869983

  17. Subgroup analysis in burnout: relations between fatigue, anxiety and depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eVan Dam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have suggested that burned out patients do not form a homogeneous group and that subgroups should be considered. The identification of these subgroups may contribute to a better understanding of the burnout construct and lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. Subgroup analysis may also help clarify whether burnout is a distinct entity and whether subgroups of burnout overlap with other disorders such as depression and chronic fatigue syndrome. In a group of 113 clinically-diagnosed burned out patients, levels of fatigue, depression and anxiety were assessed. In order to identify possible subgroups, we performed a two-step cluster analysis. The analysis revealed two clusters that differed from one another in terms of symptom severity on the three aforementioned measures. Depression appeared to be the strongest predictor of group membership. These results are considered in the light of the scientific debate on whether burnout can be distinguished from depression and whether burnout subtyping is useful. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  18. SUBGR: A Program to Generate Subgroup Data for the Subgroup Resonance Self-Shielding Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-06

    The Subgroup Data Generation (SUBGR) program generates subgroup data, including levels and weights from the resonance self-shielded cross section table as a function of background cross section. Depending on the nuclide and the energy range, these subgroup data can be generated by (a) narrow resonance approximation, (b) pointwise flux calculations for homogeneous media; and (c) pointwise flux calculations for heterogeneous lattice cells. The latter two options are performed by the AMPX module IRFFACTOR. These subgroup data are to be used in the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) neutronic simulator MPACT, for which the primary resonance self-shielding method is the subgroup method.

  19. Some topics on permutable subgroups in infinite groups

    OpenAIRE

    Ialenti, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study permutability in different aspects of the theory of infinite groups. In particular, it will be studied the structure of groups in which all the members of a relevant system of subgroups satisfy a suitable generalized condition of permutability.

  20. Detailed mapping and rupture implications of the 1 km releasing bend in the Rodgers Creek Fault at Santa Rosa, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Suzanne; Langenheim, Victoria; Williams, Robert; Hitchcock, Christopher S.; DeLong, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) topography reveals for the first time the trace of the Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) through the center of Santa Rosa, the largest city in the northern San Francisco Bay area. Vertical deformation of the Santa Rosa Creek floodplain expresses a composite pull‐apart basin beneath the urban cover that is part of a broader 1‐km‐wide right‐releasing bend in the fault. High‐resolution geophysical data illuminate subsurface conditions that may be responsible for the complex pattern of surface faulting, as well as for the distribution of seismicity and possibly for creep behavior. We identify a dense, magnetic basement body bounded by the RCF beneath Santa Rosa that we interpret as a strong asperity, likely part of a larger locked patch of the fault to the south. A local increase in frictional resistance associated with the basement body appears to explain (1) distributed fault‐normal extension above where the RCF intersects the body; (2) earthquake activity around the northern end of the body, notably the 1969 ML 5.6 and 5.7 events and aftershocks; and (3) creep rates on the RCF that are higher to the north of Santa Rosa than to the south. There is a significant probability of a major earthquake on the RCF in the coming decades, and earthquakes associated with the proposed asperity have the potential to release seismic energy into the Cotati basin beneath Santa Rosa, already known from damaging historical earthquakes to produce amplified ground shaking.

  1. On the same side of the faultline: Inclusion in the leader’s subgroup and employee performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, B.; Shemla, M.; Li, J.; Wegge, J.

    Extending theory on faultlines and subgroups, we argue that faultlines splitting a team into homogeneous subgroups can have different effects on team members' individual performance, depending on different intra-subgroup processes. Specifically, we propose that the effect of faultline strength on

  2. Analysis of IgV gene mutations in B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia according to antigen-driven selection identifies subgroups with different prognosis and usage of the canonical somatic hypermutation machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degan, Massimo; Bomben, Riccardo; Bo, Michele Dal; Zucchetto, Antonella; Nanni, Paola; Rupolo, Maurizio; Steffan, Agostino; Attadia, Vincenza; Ballerini, Pier Ferruccio; Damiani, Daniela; Pucillo, Carlo; Poeta, Giovanni Del; Colombatti, Alfonso; Gattei, Valter

    2004-07-01

    Cases of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) with mutated (M) IgV(H) genes have a better prognosis than unmutated (UM) cases. We analysed the IgV(H) mutational status of B-CLL according to the features of a canonical somatic hypermutation (SHM) process, correlating this data with survival. In a series of 141 B-CLLs, 124 cases were examined for IgV(H) gene per cent mutations and skewing of replacement/silent mutations in the framework/complementarity-determining regions as evidence of antigen-driven selection; this identified three B-CLL subsets: significantly mutated (sM), with evidence of antigen-driven selection, not significantly mutated (nsM) and UM, without such evidence and IgV(H) gene per cent mutations above or below the 2% cut-off. sM B-CLL patients had longer survival within the good prognosis subgroup that had more than 2% mutations of IgV(H) genes. sM, nsM and UM B-CLL were also characterized for the biased usage of IgV(H) families, intraclonal IgV(H) gene diversification, preference of mutations to target-specific nucleotides or hotspots, and for the expression of enzymes involved in SHM (translesion DNA polymerase zeta and eta and activation-induced cytidine deaminase). These findings indicate the activation of a canonical SHM process in nsM and sM B-CLLs and underscore the role of the antigen in defining the specific clinical and biological features of B-CLL.

  3. Cluster Analysis of Clinical Data Identifies Fibromyalgia Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docampo, Elisa; Collado, Antonio; Escaramís, Geòrgia; Carbonell, Jordi; Rivera, Javier; Vidal, Javier; Alegre, José

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Fibromyalgia (FM) is mainly characterized by widespread pain and multiple accompanying symptoms, which hinder FM assessment and management. In order to reduce FM heterogeneity we classified clinical data into simplified dimensions that were used to define FM subgroups. Material and Methods 48 variables were evaluated in 1,446 Spanish FM cases fulfilling 1990 ACR FM criteria. A partitioning analysis was performed to find groups of variables similar to each other. Similarities between variables were identified and the variables were grouped into dimensions. This was performed in a subset of 559 patients, and cross-validated in the remaining 887 patients. For each sample and dimension, a composite index was obtained based on the weights of the variables included in the dimension. Finally, a clustering procedure was applied to the indexes, resulting in FM subgroups. Results Variables clustered into three independent dimensions: “symptomatology”, “comorbidities” and “clinical scales”. Only the two first dimensions were considered for the construction of FM subgroups. Resulting scores classified FM samples into three subgroups: low symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 1), high symptomatology and comorbidities (Cluster 2), and high symptomatology but low comorbidities (Cluster 3), showing differences in measures of disease severity. Conclusions We have identified three subgroups of FM samples in a large cohort of FM by clustering clinical data. Our analysis stresses the importance of family and personal history of FM comorbidities. Also, the resulting patient clusters could indicate different forms of the disease, relevant to future research, and might have an impact on clinical assessment. PMID:24098674

  4. Irreducible geometric subgroups of classical algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Burness, Timothy C; Testerman, Donna M

    2016-01-01

    Let G be a simple classical algebraic group over an algebraically closed field K of characteristic p \\ge 0 with natural module W. Let H be a closed subgroup of G and let V be a non-trivial irreducible tensor-indecomposable p-restricted rational KG-module such that the restriction of V to H is irreducible. In this paper the authors classify the triples (G,H,V) of this form, where H is a disconnected maximal positive-dimensional closed subgroup of G preserving a natural geometric structure on W.

  5. Interpretation of Subgroup Effects in Published Trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancock, Mark J; Kjær, Per; Korsholm, Lars

    2013-01-01

    With the rapidly expanding number of studies reporting on treatment subgroups come new challenges in analyzing and interpreting this sometimes complex area of the literature. This article discusses 3 important issues regarding the analysis and interpretation of existing trials or systematic revie...

  6. Identification of subgroups of inflammatory and degenerative MRI findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, Bodil Al-Mashhadi; Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Manniche, Claus

    and the clinical presentation of back pain. The objectives of this explorative study were: 1) Investigate subgroups of MRI findings of the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJs) using Latent Class Analysis (LCA) and 2) Investigate whether these subgroups differ in their demographic and clinical characteristics...

  7. Measuring the Speed of Aging across Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    People in different subgroups age at different rates. Surveys containing biomarkers can be used to assess these subgroup differences. We illustrate this using hand-grip strength to produce an easily interpretable, physical-based measure that allows us to compare characteristic-based ages across educational subgroups in the United States. Hand-grip strength has been shown to be a good predictor of future mortality and morbidity, and therefore a useful indicator of population aging. Data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS) were used. Two education subgroups were distinguished, those with less than a high school diploma and those with more education. Regressions on hand-grip strength were run for each sex and race using age and education, their interactions and other covariates as independent variables. Ages of identical mean hand-grip strength across education groups were compared for people in the age range 60 to 80. The hand-grip strength of 65 year old white males with less education was the equivalent to that of 69.6 (68.2, 70.9) year old white men with more education, indicating that the more educated men had aged more slowly. This is a constant characteristic age, as defined in the Sanderson and Scherbov article “The characteristics approach to the measurement of population aging” published 2013 in Population and Development Review. Sixty-five year old white females with less education had the same average hand-grip strength as 69.4 (68.2, 70.7) year old white women with more education. African-American women at ages 60 and 65 with more education also aged more slowly than their less educated counterparts. African American men with more education aged at about the same rate as those with less education. This paper expands the toolkit of those interested in population aging by showing how survey data can be used to measure the differential extent of aging across subpopulations. PMID:24806337

  8. Etiological Subgroups of Small-for-Gestational-Age: Differential Neurodevelopmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuhong; Eiden, Rina D.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Shenassa, Edmond D.; Xie, Chuanbo; Wen, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Objectives It remains unclear why substantial variations in neurodevelopmental outcomes exist within small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. We prospectively compared 5-y neurodevelopmental outcomes across SGA etiological subgroups. Methods Children born SGA (N = 1050) from U.S. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001–2007) was divided into etiological subgroups by each of 7 well-established prenatal risk factors. We fit linear regression models to compare 5-y reading, math, gross motor and fine motor scores across SGA subgroups, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders. Results Compared to singleton SGA subgroup, multiple-birth SGA subgroup had lower mean reading (adjusted mean difference, -4.08 [95% confidence interval, -6.10, -2.06]) and math (-2.22 [-3.61, -0.84]) scores. These disadvantages in reading and math existed only among multiple-birth SGA subgroup without ovulation stimulation (reading, -4.50 [-6.64, -2.36]; math, -2.91 [-4.37, -1.44]), but not among those with ovulation stimulation (reading, -2.33 [-6.24, 1.57]; math 0.63 [-1.86, 3.12]). Compared to singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) had lower mean reading (-4.81 [-8.50, -1.12]) and math (-2.95 [-5.51, -0.38]) scores. These differences were not mediated by Apgar score. Conclusions Multiple-birth SGA subgroups (vs. singleton SGA) or singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of smoking and inadequate GWG (vs. singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain) have poorer cognitive development up to 5 y. PMID:27501456

  9. Etiological Subgroups of Small-for-Gestational-Age: Differential Neurodevelopmental Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Li

    Full Text Available It remains unclear why substantial variations in neurodevelopmental outcomes exist within small-for-gestational-age (SGA children. We prospectively compared 5-y neurodevelopmental outcomes across SGA etiological subgroups.Children born SGA (N = 1050 from U.S. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007 was divided into etiological subgroups by each of 7 well-established prenatal risk factors. We fit linear regression models to compare 5-y reading, math, gross motor and fine motor scores across SGA subgroups, adjusting for socio-demographic confounders.Compared to singleton SGA subgroup, multiple-birth SGA subgroup had lower mean reading (adjusted mean difference, -4.08 [95% confidence interval, -6.10, -2.06] and math (-2.22 [-3.61, -0.84] scores. These disadvantages in reading and math existed only among multiple-birth SGA subgroup without ovulation stimulation (reading, -4.50 [-6.64, -2.36]; math, -2.91 [-4.37, -1.44], but not among those with ovulation stimulation (reading, -2.33 [-6.24, 1.57]; math 0.63 [-1.86, 3.12]. Compared to singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain, singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG had lower mean reading (-4.81 [-8.50, -1.12] and math (-2.95 [-5.51, -0.38] scores. These differences were not mediated by Apgar score.Multiple-birth SGA subgroups (vs. singleton SGA or singleton SGA subgroup with co-occurrence of smoking and inadequate GWG (vs. singleton SGA subgroup without maternal smoking and inadequate gestational weight gain have poorer cognitive development up to 5 y.

  10. A Note on TI-Subgroups of Finite Groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A subgroup of a finite group is called a TI-subgroup if H ∩ H x = 1 or for any x ∈ G . In this short note, the finite groups all of whose nonabelian subgroups are TI-subgroups are classified. Author Affiliations. Jiakuan Lu1 Linna Pang1. Department of Mathematics, Guangxi Normal University, Guangxi, Guilin 541004, ...

  11. Intergroup Leadership Across Distinct Subgroups and Identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rast, David E; Hogg, Michael A; van Knippenberg, Daan

    2018-03-01

    Resolving intergroup conflict is a significant and often arduous leadership challenge, yet existing theory and research rarely, if ever, discuss or examine this situation. Leaders confront a significant challenge when they provide leadership across deep divisions between distinct subgroups defined by self-contained identities-The challenge is to avoid provoking subgroup identity distinctiveness threat. Drawing on intergroup leadership theory, three studies were conducted to test the core hypothesis that, where identity threat exists, leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity will be better evaluated and are more effective than leaders promoting a collective identity; in the absence of threat, leaders promoting a collective identity will prevail. Studies 1 and 2 ( N = 170; N = 120) supported this general proposition. Study 3 ( N = 136) extended these findings, showing that leaders promoting an intergroup relational identity, but not a collective identity, improved intergroup attitudes when participants experienced an identity distinctiveness threat.

  12. Planar algebra of the subgroup-subfactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We think of R α G as the II1-factor (R ∪{ug: g ∈ G}) ⊂ L(L2(R)), where ug(ˆx) ..... define a global trace on P, where for 0± the trace for P0± ∼= C is the obvious identity .... function for strings is either a local maximum or a local minimum. ..... In order to understand how the inclusion tangles act on the subgroup-subfactor planar.

  13. Atorvastatin in stroke: a review of SPARCL and subgroup analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko N Huisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Branko N Huisa, Andrew B Stemer, Justin A ZivinDepartment of Neuroscience University of California, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease is associated with reduced incidence of stroke. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction of Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL trial showed daily treatment with 80 mg of atorvastatin in patients with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA reduced the incidence of fatal or nonfatal stroke by 16%. Several post hoc analyses of different subgroups followed the SPARCL study. They have not revealed any significant differences when patients were sorted by age, sex, presence of carotid disease or type of stroke, with the exception of intracranial hemorrhage as the entry event. Lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in addition to possible neuroprotective mechanisms due to atorvastatin treatment correlate with improved risk reduction. Although not predefined subgroups and subject to an insufficient power, these post hoc studies have generated new clinical questions. However, clinicians should avoid denying therapy based on such subgroup analysis. At this point, the best evidence powerfully demonstrates stroke and TIA patients should be prescribed high dose statin therapy for secondary stroke prevention.Keywords: statins, intracranial hemorrhage, neuroprotection, outcome, prevention, carotid stenosis, transient ischemic attack

  14. MPACT Subgroup Self-Shielding Efficiency Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stimpson, Shane; Liu, Yuxuan; Collins, Benjamin S.; Clarno, Kevin T.

    2016-01-01

    Recent developments to improve the efficiency of the MOC solvers in MPACT have yielded effective kernels that loop over several energy groups at once, rather that looping over one group at a time. These kernels have produced roughly a 2x speedup on the MOC sweeping time during eigenvalue calculation. However, the self-shielding subgroup calculation had not been reevaluated to take advantage of these new kernels, which typically requires substantial solve time. The improvements covered in this report start by integrating the multigroup kernel concepts into the subgroup calculation, which are then used as the basis for further extensions. The next improvement that is covered is what is currently being termed as ''Lumped Parameter MOC''. Because the subgroup calculation is a purely fixed source problem and multiple sweeps are performed only to update the boundary angular fluxes, the sweep procedure can be condensed to allow for the instantaneous propagation of the flux across a spatial domain, without the need to sweep along all segments in a ray. Once the boundary angular fluxes are considered to be converged, an additional sweep that will tally the scalar flux is completed. The last improvement that is investigated is the possible reduction of the number of azimuthal angles per octant in the shielding sweep. Typically 16 azimuthal angles per octant are used for self-shielding and eigenvalue calculations, but it is possible that the self-shielding sweeps are less sensitive to the number of angles than the full eigenvalue calculation.

  15. A single test for rejecting the null hypothesis in subgroups and in the overall sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunzhi; Zhou, Kefei; Ganju, Jitendra

    2017-01-01

    In clinical trials, some patient subgroups are likely to demonstrate larger effect sizes than other subgroups. For example, the effect size, or informally the benefit with treatment, is often greater in patients with a moderate condition of a disease than in those with a mild condition. A limitation of the usual method of analysis is that it does not incorporate this ordering of effect size by patient subgroup. We propose a test statistic which supplements the conventional test by including this information and simultaneously tests the null hypothesis in pre-specified subgroups and in the overall sample. It results in more power than the conventional test when the differences in effect sizes across subgroups are at least moderately large; otherwise it loses power. The method involves combining p-values from models fit to pre-specified subgroups and the overall sample in a manner that assigns greater weight to subgroups in which a larger effect size is expected. Results are presented for randomized trials with two and three subgroups.

  16. Heterogeneity in chronic fatigue syndrome - empirically defined subgroups from the PACE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T E; Chalder, T; Sharpe, M; White, P D

    2017-06-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is likely to be a heterogeneous condition. Previous studies have empirically defined subgroups using combinations of clinical and biological variables. We aimed to explore the heterogeneity of chronic fatigue syndrome. We used baseline data from the PACE trial, which included 640 participants with chronic fatigue syndrome. Variable reduction, using a combination of clinical knowledge and principal component analyses, produced a final dataset of 26 variables for 541 patients. Latent class analysis was then used to empirically define subgroups. The most statistically significant and clinically recognizable model comprised five subgroups. The largest, 'core' subgroup (33% of participants), had relatively low scores across all domains and good self-efficacy. A further three subgroups were defined by: the presence of mood disorders (21%); the presence of features of other functional somatic syndromes (such as fibromyalgia or irritable bowel syndrome) (21%); or by many symptoms - a group which combined features of both of the above (14%). The smallest 'avoidant-inactive' subgroup was characterized by physical inactivity, belief that symptoms were entirely physical in nature, and fear that they indicated harm (11%). Differences in the severity of fatigue and disability provided some discriminative validation of the subgroups. In addition to providing further evidence for the heterogeneity of chronic fatigue syndrome, the subgroups identified may aid future research into the important aetiological factors of specific subtypes of chronic fatigue syndrome and the development of more personalized treatment approaches.

  17. Subgroup analyses in confirmatory clinical trials: time to be specific about their purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tanniou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well recognized that treatment effects may not be homogeneous across the study population. Subgroup analyses constitute a fundamental step in the assessment of evidence from confirmatory (Phase III clinical trials, where conclusions for the overall study population might not hold. Subgroup analyses can have different and distinct purposes, requiring specific design and analysis solutions. It is relevant to evaluate methodological developments in subgroup analyses against these purposes to guide health care professionals and regulators as well as to identify gaps in current methodology. Methods We defined four purposes for subgroup analyses: (1 Investigate the consistency of treatment effects across subgroups of clinical importance, (2 Explore the treatment effect across different subgroups within an overall non-significant trial, (3 Evaluate safety profiles limited to one or a few subgroup(s, (4 Establish efficacy in the targeted subgroup when included in a confirmatory testing strategy of a single trial. We reviewed the methodology in line with this “purpose-based” framework. The review covered papers published between January 2005 and April 2015 and aimed to classify them in none, one or more of the aforementioned purposes. Results In total 1857 potentially eligible papers were identified. Forty-eight papers were selected and 20 additional relevant papers were identified from their references, leading to 68 papers in total. Nineteen were dedicated to purpose 1, 16 to purpose 4, one to purpose 2 and none to purpose 3. Seven papers were dedicated to more than one purpose, the 25 remaining could not be classified unambiguously. Purposes of the methods were often not specifically indicated, methods for subgroup analysis for safety purposes were almost absent and a multitude of diverse methods were developed for purpose (1. Conclusions It is important that researchers developing methodology for subgroup analysis

  18. The ergodic theory of lattice subgroups

    CERN Document Server

    Gorodnik, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    The results established in this book constitute a new departure in ergodic theory and a significant expansion of its scope. Traditional ergodic theorems focused on amenable groups, and relied on the existence of an asymptotically invariant sequence in the group, the resulting maximal inequalities based on covering arguments, and the transference principle. Here, Alexander Gorodnik and Amos Nevo develop a systematic general approach to the proof of ergodic theorems for a large class of non-amenable locally compact groups and their lattice subgroups. Simple general conditions on the spectral theory of the group and the regularity of the averaging sets are formulated, which suffice to guarantee convergence to the ergodic mean

  19. Density character of subgroups of topological groups

    OpenAIRE

    Leiderman, Arkady; Morris, Sidney A.; Tkachenko, Mikhail G.

    2015-01-01

    A subspace Y of a separable metrizable space X is separable, but without X metrizable this is not true even If Y is a closed linear subspace of a topological vector space X. K.H. Hofmann and S.A. Morris introduced the class of pro-Lie groups which consists of projective limits of finite-dimensional Lie groups and proved that it contains all compact groups, locally compact abelian groups and connected locally compact groups and is closed under products and closed subgroups. A topological group...

  20. Latent class analysis derived subgroups of low back pain patients - do they have prognostic capacity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgaard Nielsen, Anne; Hestbaek, Lise; Vach, Werner; Kent, Peter; Kongsted, Alice

    2017-08-09

    Heterogeneity in patients with low back pain is well recognised and different approaches to subgrouping have been proposed. One statistical technique that is increasingly being used is Latent Class Analysis as it performs subgrouping based on pattern recognition with high accuracy. Previously, we developed two novel suggestions for subgrouping patients with low back pain based on Latent Class Analysis of patient baseline characteristics (patient history and physical examination), which resulted in 7 subgroups when using a single-stage analysis, and 9 subgroups when using a two-stage approach. However, their prognostic capacity was unexplored. This study (i) determined whether the subgrouping approaches were associated with the future outcomes of pain intensity, pain frequency and disability, (ii) assessed whether one of these two approaches was more strongly or more consistently associated with these outcomes, and (iii) assessed the performance of the novel subgroupings as compared to the following variables: two existing subgrouping tools (STarT Back Tool and Quebec Task Force classification), four baseline characteristics and a group of previously identified domain-specific patient categorisations (collectively, the 'comparator variables'). This was a longitudinal cohort study of 928 patients consulting for low back pain in primary care. The associations between each subgroup approach and outcomes at 2 weeks, 3 and 12 months, and with weekly SMS responses were tested in linear regression models, and their prognostic capacity (variance explained) was compared to that of the comparator variables listed above. The two previously identified subgroupings were similarly associated with all outcomes. The prognostic capacity of both subgroupings was better than that of the comparator variables, except for participants' recovery beliefs and the domain-specific categorisations, but was still limited. The explained variance ranged from 4.3%-6.9% for pain intensity and

  1. Treatment implications of posterior fossa ependymoma subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Taylor, Michael D

    2016-11-15

    Posterior fossa ependymoma comprises two distinct molecular entities, ependymoma_posterior fossa A (EPN_PFA) and ependymoma_posterior fossa B (EPN_PFB), with differentiable gene expression profiles. As yet, the response of the two entities to treatment is unclear. To determine the relationship between the two molecular subgroups of posterior fossa ependymoma and treatment, we studied a cohort of 820 patients with molecularly profiled, clinically annotated posterior fossa ependymomas. We found that the strongest predictor of poor outcome in patients with posterior fossa ependymoma across the entire age spectrum was molecular subgroup EPN_PFA, which was recently reported in the paper entitled "Therapeutic impact of cytoreductive surgery and irradiation of posterior fossa ependymoma in the molecular era: a retrospective multicohort analysis" in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. Patients with incompletely resected EPN_PFA tumors had a very poor outcome despite receiving adjuvant radiation therapy, whereas a substantial proportion of patients with EPN_PFB tumors can be cured with surgery alone.

  2. Myasthenia gravis: subgroup classification and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilhus, Nils Erik; Verschuuren, Jan J

    2015-10-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease that is characterised by muscle weakness and fatigue, is B-cell mediated, and is associated with antibodies directed against the acetylcholine receptor, muscle-specific kinase (MUSK), lipoprotein-related protein 4 (LRP4), or agrin in the postsynaptic membrane at the neuromuscular junction. Patients with myasthenia gravis should be classified into subgroups to help with therapeutic decisions and prognosis. Subgroups based on serum antibodies and clinical features include early-onset, late-onset, thymoma, MUSK, LRP4, antibody-negative, and ocular forms of myasthenia gravis. Agrin-associated myasthenia gravis might emerge as a new entity. The prognosis is good with optimum symptomatic, immunosuppressive, and supportive treatment. Pyridostigmine is the preferred symptomatic treatment, and for patients who do not adequately respond to symptomatic therapy, corticosteroids, azathioprine, and thymectomy are first-line immunosuppressive treatments. Additional immunomodulatory drugs are emerging, but therapeutic decisions are hampered by the scarcity of controlled studies. Long-term drug treatment is essential for most patients and must be tailored to the particular form of myasthenia gravis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electroencephalographic characterization of subgroups of children with learning disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Roca-Stappung

    Full Text Available Electroencephalographic alterations have been reported in subjects with learning disorders, but there is no consensus on what characterizes their electroencephalogram findings. Our objective was to determine if there were subgroups within a group of scholars with not otherwise specified learning disorders and if they had specific electroencephalographic patterns. Eighty-five subjects (31 female, 8-11 years who scored low in at least two subscales -reading, writing and arithmetic- of the Infant Neuropsychological Evaluation were included. Electroencephalograms were recorded in 19 leads during rest with eyes closed; absolute power was obtained every 0.39 Hz. Three subgroups were formed according to children's performance: Group 1 (G1, higher scores than Group 2 in reading speed and reading and writing accuracy, Group 2 (G2, better performance than G1 in composition and Group 3 (G3, lower scores than Groups 1 and 2 in the three subscales. G3 had higher absolute power in frequencies in the delta and theta range at left frontotemporal sites than G1 and G2. G2 had higher absolute power within alpha frequencies than G3 and G1 at the left occipital site. G3 had higher absolute power in frequencies in the beta range than G1 in parietotemporal areas and than G2 in left frontopolar and temporal sites. G1 had higher absolute power within beta frequencies than G2 in the left frontopolar site. G3 had lower gamma absolute power values than the other groups in the left hemisphere, and gamma activity was higher in G1 than in G2 in frontopolar and temporal areas. This group of children with learning disorders is very heterogeneous. Three subgroups were found with different cognitive profiles, as well as a different electroencephalographic pattern. It is important to consider these differences when planning interventions for children with learning disorders.

  4. Model-based Recursive Partitioning for Subgroup Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Seibold, Heidi; Zeileis, Achim; Hothorn, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patient subgroups with differential treatment effects is the first step towards individualised treatments. A current draft guideline by the EMA discusses potentials and problems in subgroup analyses and formulated challenges to the development of appropriate statistical procedures for the data-driven identification of patient subgroups. We introduce model-based recursive partitioning as a procedure for the automated detection of patient subgroups that are identifiable by...

  5. A method for generating subgroup parameters from resonance tables and the SPART code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Mohanakrishnan, P.

    1995-01-01

    A method for generating subgroup or band parameters from resonance tables is described. A computer code SPART was written using this method. This code generates the subgroup parameters for any number of bands within the specified broad groups at different temperatures by reading the required input data from the binary cross section library in the Cadarache format. The results obtained with SPART code for two bands were compared with that obtained from GROUPIE code and a good agreement was obtained. Results of the generation of subgroup parameters in four bands for sample case of 239 Pu from resonance tables of Cadarache Ver.2 library is also presented. 6 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Additive subgroups of topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banaszczyk, Wojciech

    1991-01-01

    The Pontryagin-van Kampen duality theorem and the Bochner theorem on positive-definite functions are known to be true for certain abelian topological groups that are not locally compact. The book sets out to present in a systematic way the existing material. It is based on the original notion of a nuclear group, which includes LCA groups and nuclear locally convex spaces together with their additive subgroups, quotient groups and products. For (metrizable, complete) nuclear groups one obtains analogues of the Pontryagin duality theorem, of the Bochner theorem and of the Lévy-Steinitz theorem on rearrangement of series (an answer to an old question of S. Ulam). The book is written in the language of functional analysis. The methods used are taken mainly from geometry of numbers, geometry of Banach spaces and topological algebra. The reader is expected only to know the basics of functional analysis and abstract harmonic analysis.

  7. Subgroup analysis in burnout : Relations between fatigue, anxiety, and depression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Several authors have suggested that burned out patients do not form a homogeneous group and that subgroups should be considered. The identification of these subgroups may contribute to a better understanding of the burnout construct and lead to more specific therapeutic interventions. Subgroup

  8. Effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in subgroups of obese infertile women : a subgroup analysis of a RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, A M; Groen, H; Mutsaerts, M A Q; Burggraaff, J M; Kuchenbecker, W K H; Perquin, D A M; Koks, C A M; van Golde, R; Kaaijk, E M; Schierbeek, J M; Oosterhuis, G J E; Broekmans, F J; Vogel, N E A; Land, J A; Mol, B W J; Hoek, A

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Do age, ovulatory status, severity of obesity and body fat distribution affect the effectiveness of lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women? SUMMARY ANSWER: We did not identify a subgroup in which lifestyle intervention increased the healthy live birth rate however it did

  9. Clinimetrics corner: choosing appropriate study designs for particular questions about treatment subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Hancock, Mark; Petersen, Ditte H.D

    2010-01-01

    that are inappropriate given the randomized controlled trial design used. The research design to choose, when developing a study protocol that investigates the effect of treatment subgroups, depends on the particular research question. Similarly, the inferences that can be drawn from an existing study will vary...... receive the same treatment?'; and (4) 'Are outcomes for a number of treatments better if those treatments are matched to patients in specific subgroups, than if the SAME treatments are randomly given to patients?'. Illustrative examples of these studies are provided. Conclusion: If the clinical usefulness......Background: Many clinicians and researchers believe that there are subgroups of people with spinal pain who respond differently to treatment and have different prognoses. There has been considerable interest in this topic recently. However, problems occur when conclusions about subgroups are made...

  10. The Direct Assignment Option as a Modular Design Component: An Example for the Setting of Two Predefined Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wen An

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A phase II design with an option for direct assignment (stop randomization and assign all patients to experimental treatment based on interim analysis, IA for a predefined subgroup was previously proposed. Here, we illustrate the modularity of the direct assignment option by applying it to the setting of two predefined subgroups and testing for separate subgroup main effects. Methods. We power the 2-subgroup direct assignment option design with 1 IA (DAD-1 to test for separate subgroup main effects, with assessment of power to detect an interaction in a post-hoc test. Simulations assessed the statistical properties of this design compared to the 2-subgroup balanced randomized design with 1 IA, BRD-1. Different response rates for treatment/control in subgroup 1 (0.4/0.2 and in subgroup 2 (0.1/0.2, 0.4/0.2 were considered. Results. The 2-subgroup DAD-1 preserves power and type I error rate compared to the 2-subgroup BRD-1, while exhibiting reasonable power in a post-hoc test for interaction. Conclusion. The direct assignment option is a flexible design component that can be incorporated into broader design frameworks, while maintaining desirable statistical properties, clinical appeal, and logistical simplicity.

  11. Symptom dimensions and subgroups in childhood-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Kirsten E S; Zhou, Xueping; Liu, Siyuan; Gochman, Peter; Dickinson, Dwight; Rapoport, Judith L

    2017-11-13

    This study investigated symptom dimensions and subgroups in the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) cohort and their similarities to adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) literature. Scores from the Scales for the Assessment of Positive and Negative Symptoms (SAPS & SANS) from 125 COS patients were assessed for fit with previously established symptom dimensions from AOS literature using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). K-means cluster analysis of each individual's scores on the best fitting set of dimensions was used to form patient clusters, which were then compared using demographic and clinical data. CFA showed the SAPS & SANS data was well suited to a 2-dimension solution, including positive and negative dimensions, out of five well established models. Cluster analysis identified three patient groups characterized by different dimension scores: (1) low scores on both dimensions, (2) high negative, low positive scores, and (3) high scores on both dimensions. These groups had different Full scale IQ, Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) scores, ages of onset, and prevalence of some co-morbid behavior disorders (all psymptom-based subgroups within the NIMH COS cohort using an established AOS symptom structure. These findings confirm the heterogeneity of COS and were generally consistent with AOS literature. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Subgroup effects of occupational therapy-based intervention for people with advanced cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marc Sampedro; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen; la Cour, Karen

    2018-01-01

    cancer (N = 242) and found no overall effects on ADL ability. However, heterogeneity of treatment effect may disguise subgroup differences. Objective: To investigate whether subgroups of people with advanced cancer gain positive effects from the ‘Cancer Home-Life Intervention’ on ADL ability. Material....... Results: The ‘Cancer Home-Life Intervention’ had no statistically significant effect in the six subgroups. Modifying effects of age (0.30 [95% CI: −0.05 to 0.64]) and gender (0.23 [95% CI: −0.11 to 0.57]) were not found. Conclusion: There were no subgroup effects of the ‘Cancer Home-Life Intervention......’on ADL motor ability. Some indications suggest greater effects for those aged below 69 years; however, this result should be interpreted with caution....

  13. A comparison of three clustering methods for finding subgroups in MRI, SMS or clinical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Jensen, Rikke K; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-01-01

    ). There is a scarcity of head-to-head comparisons that can inform the choice of which clustering method might be suitable for particular clinical datasets and research questions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a head-to-head comparison of three commonly available methods (SPSS TwoStep CA, Latent Gold...... LCA and SNOB LCA). METHODS: The performance of these three methods was compared: (i) quantitatively using the number of subgroups detected, the classification probability of individuals into subgroups, the reproducibility of results, and (ii) qualitatively using subjective judgments about each program...... classify individuals into those subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Our subjective judgement was that Latent Gold offered the best balance of sensitivity to subgroups, ease of use and presentation of results with these datasets but we recognise that different clustering methods may suit other types of data...

  14. Subgroup effects of occupational therapy-based intervention for people with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro Pilegaard, Marc; Oestergaard, Lisa Gregersen; la Cour, Karen; Thit Johnsen, Anna; Brandt, Åse

    2018-03-23

    Many people with advanced cancer have decreased ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). We recently performed a randomized, controlled trial (RCT) assessing the efficacy of an occupational therapy-based program, the 'Cancer Home-Life Intervention' in people with advanced cancer (N = 242) and found no overall effects on ADL ability. However, heterogeneity of treatment effect may disguise subgroup differences. To investigate whether subgroups of people with advanced cancer gain positive effects from the 'Cancer Home-Life Intervention' on ADL ability. An exploratory subgroup analysis including 191 participants from a RCT. The outcome was ADL motor ability measured by the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS). Subgroups were defined by age, gender, years of education, type of primary tumor, functional level, and activity problems. The 'Cancer Home-Life Intervention' had no statistically significant effect in the six subgroups. Modifying effects of age (0.30 [95% CI: -0.05 to 0.64]) and gender (0.23 [95% CI: -0.11 to 0.57]) were not found. There were no subgroup effects of the 'Cancer Home-Life Intervention'on ADL motor ability. Some indications suggest greater effects for those aged below 69 years; however, this result should be interpreted with caution.

  15. Geographic Variations in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality Among Asian American Subgroups, 2003-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jia; Hastings, Katherine G; Boothroyd, Derek; Jose, Powell O; Chung, Sukyung; Shah, Janki B; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P; Rehkopf, David H

    2017-07-12

    There are well-documented geographical differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality for non-Hispanic whites. However, it remains unknown whether similar geographical variation in CVD mortality exists for Asian American subgroups. This study aims to examine geographical differences in CVD mortality among Asian American subgroups living in the United States and whether they are consistent with geographical differences observed among non-Hispanic whites. Using US death records from 2003 to 2011 (n=3 897 040 CVD deaths), age-adjusted CVD mortality rates per 100 000 population and age-adjusted mortality rate ratios were calculated for the 6 largest Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese) and compared with non-Hispanic whites. There were consistently lower mortality rates for all Asian American subgroups compared with non-Hispanic whites across divisions for CVD mortality and ischemic heart disease mortality. However, cerebrovascular disease mortality demonstrated substantial geographical differences by Asian American subgroup. There were a number of regional divisions where certain Asian American subgroups (Filipino and Japanese men, Korean and Vietnamese men and women) possessed no mortality advantage compared with non-Hispanic whites. The most striking geographical variation was with Filipino men (age-adjusted mortality rate ratio=1.18; 95% CI, 1.14-1.24) and Japanese men (age-adjusted mortality rate ratio=1.05; 95% CI: 1.00-1.11) in the Pacific division who had significantly higher cerebrovascular mortality than non-Hispanic whites. There was substantial geographical variation in Asian American subgroup mortality for cerebrovascular disease when compared with non-Hispanic whites. It deserves increased attention to prioritize prevention and treatment in the Pacific division where approximately 80% of Filipinos CVD deaths and 90% of Japanese CVD deaths occur in the United States. © 2017 The Authors

  16. A fast resonance interference treatment scheme with subgroup method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, L.; He, Q.; Wu, H.; Zu, T.; Shen, W.

    2015-01-01

    A fast Resonance Interference Factor (RIF) scheme is proposed to treat the resonance interference effects between different resonance nuclides. This scheme utilizes the conventional subgroup method to evaluate the self-shielded cross sections of the dominant resonance nuclide in the heterogeneous system and the hyper-fine energy group method to represent the resonance interference effects in a simplified homogeneous model. In this paper, the newly implemented scheme is compared to the background iteration scheme, the Resonance Nuclide Group (RNG) scheme and the conventional RIF scheme. The numerical results show that the errors of the effective self-shielded cross sections are significantly reduced by the fast RIF scheme compared with the background iteration scheme and the RNG scheme. Besides, the fast RIF scheme consumes less computation time than the conventional RIF schemes. The speed-up ratio is ~4.5 for MOX pin cell problems. (author)

  17. Report on the α subgroup forward collider experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, S.; Luk, K.B.

    1993-01-01

    The subgroup studied the potential of forward collider experiments for measuring the angle α using the B 0 →π + π - decay. In particular, they tried to answer the questions of what sensitivities the two different proposals (COBEX and forward BCD) could probe CP violation in the above decay mode in units of 10 7 seconds. A detailed comparison of the capabilities of the experiments would require extensive Monte Carlo estimates of the total number of reconstructed and tagged exclusive B meson decays as well as realistic estimates of the background. Both experiments have performed most of these calculations and their numbers have been used as the basis of discussion. Given the short time available in the workshop, the authors took the approach of examining the numbers presented by the proponents of the two experiments at the workshop and estimated what would be achievable

  18. Discrimination of multilocus sequence typing-based Campylobacter jejuni subgroups by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zautner, Andreas Erich; Masanta, Wycliffe Omurwa; Tareen, Abdul Malik; Weig, Michael; Lugert, Raimond; Groß, Uwe; Bader, Oliver

    2013-11-07

    Campylobacter jejuni, the most common bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis, shows a wide genetic diversity. Previously, we demonstrated by the combination of multi locus sequence typing (MLST)-based UPGMA-clustering and analysis of 16 genetic markers that twelve different C. jejuni subgroups can be distinguished. Among these are two prominent subgroups. The first subgroup contains the majority of hyperinvasive strains and is characterized by a dimeric form of the chemotaxis-receptor Tlp7(m+c). The second has an extended amino acid metabolism and is characterized by the presence of a periplasmic asparaginase (ansB) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (ggt). Phyloproteomic principal component analysis (PCA) hierarchical clustering of MALDI-TOF based intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) spectra was able to group particular C. jejuni subgroups of phylogenetic related isolates in distinct clusters. Especially the aforementioned Tlp7(m+c)(+) and ansB+/ ggt+ subgroups could be discriminated by PCA. Overlay of ICMS spectra of all isolates led to the identification of characteristic biomarker ions for these specific C. jejuni subgroups. Thus, mass peak shifts can be used to identify the C. jejuni subgroup with an extended amino acid metabolism. Although the PCA hierarchical clustering of ICMS-spectra groups the tested isolates into a different order as compared to MLST-based UPGMA-clustering, the isolates of the indicator-groups form predominantly coherent clusters. These clusters reflect phenotypic aspects better than phylogenetic clustering, indicating that the genes corresponding to the biomarker ions are phylogenetically coupled to the tested marker genes. Thus, PCA clustering could be an additional tool for analyzing the relatedness of bacterial isolates.

  19. Germ cell tumours in neonates and infants: a distinct subgroup?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, I.M.; Schepens, M.T.M.; Looijenga, L.H.J.; Strong, L.C.; Geurts van Kessel, A.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Human germ cell tumours (GCTs) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can be classified into four major subgroups. One of these subgroups encompasses (immature) teratomas and yolk sac tumours of patients under the age of 5 years. In this paper we review the various clinical, histological

  20. Personalized dementia care: proven effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in subgroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mierlo, L.D.; van der Roest, H.G.; Meiland, F.J.M.; Dröes, R.M.

    2010-01-01

    Many psychosocial intervention studies report effects in subgroups of people with dementia. Insight into the characteristics of these subgroups is important for care practice. This study reviews personal characteristics of people with dementia (living in the community or in an institution) that are

  1. Finite Groups with Given Quantitative Non-Nilpotent Subgroups II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiangtao; Zhang, Cui

    2014-01-01

    As an extension of Shi and Zhang's 2011 article [4], we prove that any finite group having at most 23 non-normal non-nilpotent proper subgroups is solvable except for G ≅ A 5 or SL(2, 5), and any finite group having at most three conjugacy classes of non-normal non-nilpotent proper subgroups is s...

  2. Subgroups of GLn(R) for local rings R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuku, A.O.; Mahdavi-Hezavehi, M.

    2002-07-01

    Let R be a local ring, with maximal ideal m, and residue class division ring R/m=D. Put A=M n (R)-n≥1, and denote by A*=GL n (R) the group of units of A. Here we investigate some algebraic structure of subnormal and maximal subgroups of A * . For instance, when D is of finite dimension over its center, it is shown that finitely generated subnormal subgroups of A* are central. It is also proved that maximal subgroups of A* are not finitely generated. Furthermore, assume that P is a nonabelian maximal subgroup of GL 1 (R) such that P contains a noncentral soluble normal subgroup of finite index, it is shown that D is a crossed product division algebra. (author)

  3. Active Learning Increases Children's Physical Activity across Demographic Subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M; Roberts, Gregory; Fall, Anna-Mária; Errisuriz, Vanessa L; Vaughn, Sharon

    2018-01-01

    Given the need to find more opportunities for physical activity within the elementary school day, this study was designed to asses the impact of I-CAN!, active lessons on: 1) student physical activity (PA) outcomes via accelerometry; and 2) socioeconomic status (SES), race, sex, body mass index (BMI), or fitness as moderators of this impact. Participants were 2,493 fourth grade students (45.9% male, 45.8% white, 21.7% low SES) from 28 central Texas elementary schools randomly assigned to intervention (n=19) or control (n=9). Multilevel regression models evaluated the effect of I-CAN! on PA and effect sizes were calculated. The moderating effects of SES, race, sex, BMI, and fitness were examined in separate models. Students in treatment schools took significantly more steps than those in control schools (β = 125.267, SE = 41.327, p = .002, d = .44). I-CAN! had a significant effect on MVPA with treatment schools realizing 80% (β = 0.796, SE =0.251, p = .001; d = .38) more MVPA than the control schools. There were no significant school-level differences on sedentary behavior (β = -0.177, SE = 0.824, p = .83). SES, race, sex, BMI, and fitness level did not moderate the impact of active learning on step count and MVPA. Active learning increases PA within elementary students, and does so consistently across demographic sub-groups. This is important as these sub-groups represent harder to reach populations for PA interventions. While these lessons may not be enough to help children reach daily recommendations of PA, they can supplement other opportunities for PA. This speaks to the potential of schools to adopt policy change to require active learning.

  4. High School Graduation Rates across English Learner Student Subgroups in Arizona. REL 2017-205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Haas, Eric; Zhu, Niufeng; Tran, Loan

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have documented differences in academic achievement between current and former English learner students. These differences validate calls for more focused analyses of achievement across English learner student subgroups. Specifically, there is interest in examining variation in academic success based on the amount of time a student…

  5. Development of degenerate and species-specific primers for the differential and simultaneous RT-PCR detection of grapevine-infecting nepoviruses of subgroups A, B and C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiaro, Michele; Elbeaino, Toufic; Martelli, Giovanni Paolo

    2007-04-01

    Based on the nucleotide sequence homology of RNA-1 and RNA-2 of nepoviruses isolated from grapevines, three sets of degenerate primers, one for each of the three subgroups of the genus (A, B and C), were designed and proved effective for RT-PCR detection of subgroups in infected grapevines and herbaceous hosts. Primers designed specifically for detecting subgroup A species amplified a fragment of 255 bp from samples infected by Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) and Grapevine deformation virus (GDefV), but not from samples infected by other nepovirus species. Similarly, primers for detection of subgroup B nepoviruses amplified a 390 bp product from samples infected by Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV), Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), Grapevine Anatolian ringspot virus (GARSV) and Artichoke Italian latent virus (AILV). The third set of primers amplified a 640 bp fragment, only from samples infected by subgroup C nepoviruses, i.e Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV), and Grapevine Tunisian ringspot virus (GTRSV). These primers were able to detect simultaneously all viral species belonging to the same subgroup and to discriminate species of different subgroups. Multiplex-PCR detection of subgroup A and B nepoviruses was obtained using a specific primer (sense for subgroup A and antisense for subgroup B) for each of the species of the same subgroup in combination with the degenerate subgroup-specific primers. In this way it was possible to detect four different viral species in single samples containing mixtures of viruses of the same subgroup. In particular, for viruses of subgroup A (TRSV, GFLV, ArMV and GDefV) amplicons of 190, 259, 301 and 371 bp were obtained, whereas amplicons of 190, 278, 425 and 485 bp, respectively, were obtained from samples infected with viruses of subgroup B (GCMV, AILV, GARSV and TBRV).

  6. The interest of gait markers in the identification of subgroups among fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinet, Bernard; Chaleil, Denis; Cabane, Jean; Dumolard, Anne; Hatron, Pierre; Juvin, Robert; Lanteri-Minet, Michel; Mainguy, Yves; Negre-Pages, Laurence; Pillard, Fabien; Riviere, Daniel; Maugars, Yves-Michel

    2011-11-11

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a heterogeneous syndrome and its classification into subgroups calls for broad-based discussion. FM subgrouping, which aims to adapt treatment according to different subgroups, relies in part, on psychological and cognitive dysfunctions. Since motor control of gait is closely related to cognitive function, we hypothesized that gait markers could be of interest in the identification of FM patients' subgroups. This controlled study aimed at characterizing gait disorders in FM, and subgrouping FM patients according to gait markers such as stride frequency (SF), stride regularity (SR), and cranio-caudal power (CCP) which measures kinesia. A multicentre, observational open trial enrolled patients with primary FM (44.1 ± 8.1 y), and matched controls (44.1 ± 7.3 y). Outcome measurements and gait analyses were available for 52 pairs. A 3-step statistical analysis was carried out. A preliminary single blind analysis using k-means cluster was performed as an initial validation of gait markers. Then in order to quantify FM patients according to psychometric and gait variables an open descriptive analysis comparing patients and controls were made, and correlations between gait variables and main outcomes were calculated. Finally using cluster analysis, we described subgroups for each gait variable and looked for significant differences in self-reported assessments. SF was the most discriminating gait variable (73% of patients and controls). SF, SR, and CCP were different between patients and controls. There was a non-significant association between SF, FIQ and physical components from Short-Form 36 (p = 0.06). SR was correlated to FIQ (p = 0.01) and catastrophizing (p = 0.05) while CCP was correlated to pain (p = 0.01). The SF cluster identified 3 subgroups with a particular one characterized by normal SF, low pain, high activity and hyperkinesia. The SR cluster identified 2 distinct subgroups: the one with a reduced SR was distinguished by high FIQ

  7. The interest of gait markers in the identification of subgroups among fibromyalgia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auvinet Bernard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a heterogeneous syndrome and its classification into subgroups calls for broad-based discussion. FM subgrouping, which aims to adapt treatment according to different subgroups, relies in part, on psychological and cognitive dysfunctions. Since motor control of gait is closely related to cognitive function, we hypothesized that gait markers could be of interest in the identification of FM patients' subgroups. This controlled study aimed at characterizing gait disorders in FM, and subgrouping FM patients according to gait markers such as stride frequency (SF, stride regularity (SR, and cranio-caudal power (CCP which measures kinesia. Methods A multicentre, observational open trial enrolled patients with primary FM (44.1 ± 8.1 y, and matched controls (44.1 ± 7.3 y. Outcome measurements and gait analyses were available for 52 pairs. A 3-step statistical analysis was carried out. A preliminary single blind analysis using k-means cluster was performed as an initial validation of gait markers. Then in order to quantify FM patients according to psychometric and gait variables an open descriptive analysis comparing patients and controls were made, and correlations between gait variables and main outcomes were calculated. Finally using cluster analysis, we described subgroups for each gait variable and looked for significant differences in self-reported assessments. Results SF was the most discriminating gait variable (73% of patients and controls. SF, SR, and CCP were different between patients and controls. There was a non-significant association between SF, FIQ and physical components from Short-Form 36 (p = 0.06. SR was correlated to FIQ (p = 0.01 and catastrophizing (p = 0.05 while CCP was correlated to pain (p = 0.01. The SF cluster identified 3 subgroups with a particular one characterized by normal SF, low pain, high activity and hyperkinesia. The SR cluster identified 2 distinct subgroups: the one with a

  8. The interest of gait markers in the identification of subgroups among fibromyalgia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a heterogeneous syndrome and its classification into subgroups calls for broad-based discussion. FM subgrouping, which aims to adapt treatment according to different subgroups, relies in part, on psychological and cognitive dysfunctions. Since motor control of gait is closely related to cognitive function, we hypothesized that gait markers could be of interest in the identification of FM patients' subgroups. This controlled study aimed at characterizing gait disorders in FM, and subgrouping FM patients according to gait markers such as stride frequency (SF), stride regularity (SR), and cranio-caudal power (CCP) which measures kinesia. Methods A multicentre, observational open trial enrolled patients with primary FM (44.1 ± 8.1 y), and matched controls (44.1 ± 7.3 y). Outcome measurements and gait analyses were available for 52 pairs. A 3-step statistical analysis was carried out. A preliminary single blind analysis using k-means cluster was performed as an initial validation of gait markers. Then in order to quantify FM patients according to psychometric and gait variables an open descriptive analysis comparing patients and controls were made, and correlations between gait variables and main outcomes were calculated. Finally using cluster analysis, we described subgroups for each gait variable and looked for significant differences in self-reported assessments. Results SF was the most discriminating gait variable (73% of patients and controls). SF, SR, and CCP were different between patients and controls. There was a non-significant association between SF, FIQ and physical components from Short-Form 36 (p = 0.06). SR was correlated to FIQ (p = 0.01) and catastrophizing (p = 0.05) while CCP was correlated to pain (p = 0.01). The SF cluster identified 3 subgroups with a particular one characterized by normal SF, low pain, high activity and hyperkinesia. The SR cluster identified 2 distinct subgroups: the one with a reduced SR was

  9. Type 2 diabetes: identifying high risk Asian American subgroups in a clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Elsie J; Wong, Eric C; Dixit, Anjali A; Fortmann, Stephen P; Linde, Randolph B; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2011-08-01

    We compared the prevalence and treatment of type 2 diabetes across Asian American subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) in a Northern California healthcare system. A three-year, cross-sectional sample of patient electronic health records was accessed to compare diabetes prevalence in 21,816 Asian and 73,728 NHWs aged 35+ years. Diabetes was classified through ICD-9 codes, abnormal laboratory values, or use of oral anti-diabetic medication. Multivariate adjusted prevalence rates for each Asian subgroup, and adjusted odds ratios (OR) relative to NHWs, were compared. Age-adjusted prevalence ranged from 5.8% to 18.2% (women) and 8.1 to 25.3% (men). Age-adjusted ORs of Asian subgroups ranged 1.11-3.94 (women) and 1.14-4.56 (men). The odds of diabetes were significantly higher in Asian Indians (women OR 3.44, men OR 3.54) and Filipinos (women OR 3.94, men OR 4.56), compared to NHWs. Results for Asian Indians and Filipinos were similar with age-and-BMI adjustment. Treatment rates across subgroups were 59.7-82.0% (women) and 62.9-79.4% (men). Heterogeneity exists in the prevalence of diabetes across Asian subgroups, independent of obesity prevalence. Asian Indian and Filipino subgroups had particularly high prevalence of diabetes when compared to NHWs. Future studies should explore these clinically important differences among Asian subgroups. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evidence for a Priori Existence of Attentional Bias Subgroups in Emotional Processing of Aversive Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper H. van Heck

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known regarding inter-individual differences in attentional biases for pain-related information; more knowledge is crucial, since these biases have been associated with differences in pain processing as well as in predicting the risk of postoperative pain. The present study investigated EEG correlates of attentional bias patterns for pain-related information, with specific focus on avoidance- and vigilance-like behavior. Forty-one participants performed a dot-probe task, where neutral and pain-related words were used to create neutral, congruent, incongruent, and double (two pain-related words trials. EEG was recorded, which was used to generate ERP's of the word-processing phase and the post-dot phase. Participants were placed in two subgroups based on the direction of their attentional bias (either positive; toward the pain-related words, or negative; away from pain-related words. Using t-profiles, four latency windows were identified on which the two subgroups differed significantly. These latency windows yield areas which correspond with the P1-N1 domain and the P3b for the word-processing phase, while the post-dot phase latency windows cover the areas of the P200 and the P3b. The two subgroups show differences on congruent, incongruent, and the double trials, but interestingly also on the neutral trials. Most notably, the area in the word-phase associated with the P3b is diminished in the subgroup showing a negative bias. The deflections associated with both early and late attentional components, including the P3B, as well as a positive deflection in the timeframe of proposed response evaluation processes differ significantly between subgroups. In this study we demonstrated that different attentional biases exist in the healthy population, by showing differences in ERP's. We also show differences in processing neutral trials, which suggests there are fundamental differences between these groups in processing words in general.

  11. Somatosensory nociceptive characteristics differentiate subgroups in people with chronic low back pain: a cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabey, Martin; Slater, Helen; OʼSullivan, Peter; Beales, Darren; Smith, Anne

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the existence of subgroups in a cohort with chronic low back pain (n = 294) based on the results of multimodal sensory testing and profile subgroups on demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and general health factors. Bedside (2-point discrimination, brush, vibration and pinprick perception, temporal summation on repeated monofilament stimulation) and laboratory (mechanical detection threshold, pressure, heat and cold pain thresholds, conditioned pain modulation) sensory testing were examined at wrist and lumbar sites. Data were entered into principal component analysis, and 5 component scores were entered into latent class analysis. Three clusters, with different sensory characteristics, were derived. Cluster 1 (31.9%) was characterised by average to high temperature and pressure pain sensitivity. Cluster 2 (52.0%) was characterised by average to high pressure pain sensitivity. Cluster 3 (16.0%) was characterised by low temperature and pressure pain sensitivity. Temporal summation occurred significantly more frequently in cluster 1. Subgroups were profiled on pain intensity, disability, depression, anxiety, stress, life events, fear avoidance, catastrophizing, perception of the low back region, comorbidities, body mass index, multiple pain sites, sleep, and activity levels. Clusters 1 and 2 had a significantly greater proportion of female participants and higher depression and sleep disturbance scores than cluster 3. The proportion of participants undertaking Low back pain, therefore, does not appear to be homogeneous. Pain mechanisms relating to presentations of each subgroup were postulated. Future research may investigate prognoses and interventions tailored towards these subgroups.

  12. Report of the compact detector subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkby, J.; Kondo, T.; Olsen, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses different detector designs that are being proposed for Superconducting Super Collider experiments. The detectors discussed are: Higgs particle detector, Solid State Box detector, SMART detector, muon detection system, and forward detector. Also discussed are triggering strategies for these detectors, high field solenoids, barium fluoride option for EM calorimetry, radiation damage considerations, and cost estimates

  13. Subgroup analysis of telehealthcare for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt Udsen, Flemming; Lilholt, Pernille H.; Hejlesen, Ole K.

    2017-01-01

    -to-pay threshold values. The purpose of this article was to assess potential sources of variation across subgroups, which could explain overall cost-effectiveness results or be utilized in future economic studies in telehealthcare research. METHODS: First, the cost-structures and cost-effectiveness across COPD......PURPOSE: Results from the Danish cluster-randomized trial of telehealthcare to 1,225 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the Danish Telecare North Trial, concluded that the telehealthcare solution was unlikely to be cost-effective, by applying international willingness...... severities were analyzed. Second, five additional subgroup analyses were conducted, focusing on differences in cost-effectiveness across a set of comorbidities, age-groups, genders, resource patterns (resource use in the social care sector prior to randomization), and delivery sites. All subgroups were...

  14. Identifying subgroups of CERME affect research papers

    OpenAIRE

    Hannula, Markku S.; Garcia Moreno-Esteva, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Research in mathematics related affect uses a variety of theoretical frameworks. Three different dimensions have been suggested as significant to characterize concepts in this area: (1) emotional, motivational, and cognitive aspects of affect, (2) state and trait aspects of affect, and (3) physiological, psychological, and sociological level of theorizing affect. In this study, we used the information in reference lists and graph theory to identify Graph Communities (coherent clusters) of res...

  15. Reports of MC and A system design workshop subgroups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of subgroup reports from the workshop on design of a materials control and accounting system for a low-enrichment fuel fabrication facility is presented. Responses to a MC and A design system questionnaire are also summarized

  16. Use of a fragment of the tuf gene for phytoplasma 16Sr group/subgroup differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contaldo, Nicoletta; Canel, Alessandro; Makarova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    The usefulness of RFLP analyses on a 435 bp fragment of the tuf gene for preliminary identification of phytoplasmas from a number of phytoplasma ribosomal groups and/or 'Candidatus. Phytoplasma' was verified. The strains employed belong to thirteen 16Sr DNA groups and 22 different subgroups...

  17. Identification and Characterization of Unique Subgroups of Chronic Pain Individuals with Dispositional Personality Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The current study attempted to identify and characterize distinct CP subgroups based on their level of dispositional personality traits. The secondary objective was to compare the difference among the subgroups in mood, coping, and disability. Methods. Individuals with chronic pain were assessed for demographic, psychosocial, and personality measures. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted in order to identify distinct subgroups of patients based on their level of personality traits. Differences in clinical outcomes were compared using the multivariate analysis of variance based on cluster membership. Results. In 229 participants, three clusters were formed. No significant difference was seen among the clusters on patient demographic factors including age, sex, relationship status, duration of pain, and pain intensity. Those with high levels of dispositional personality traits had greater levels of mood impairment compared to the other two groups (p<0.05. Significant difference in disability was seen between the subgroups. Conclusions. The study identified a high risk group of CP individuals whose level of personality traits significantly correlated with impaired mood and coping. Use of pharmacological treatment alone may not be successful in improving clinical outcomes among these individuals. Instead, a more comprehensive treatment involving psychological treatments may be important in managing the personality traits that interfere with recovery.

  18. The central subgroup of the nonabelian tensor square of Bieberbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Bieberbach group with point group C2 xC2 is a free torsion crystallographic group. A central subgroup of a nonabelian tensor square of a group G, denoted by ∇(G) is a normal subgroup generated by generator g⊗g for all g∈G and essentially depends on the abelianization of the group. In this paper, the formula of the ...

  19. Demonstration of Microbial Subgroups among Normal Vaginal Microbiota Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, M.-L. T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we identified subgroups of observations relating to the healthy vaginal microbiota. This microbiota resides in a dynamic environment that undergoes cyclic change during the menstrual cycle. Cluster analysis procedures were applied to divide a set of 226 normal microbiota observations into groups. Three subgroups containing 100, 65, and 61 observations were identified. Plots of principal components determined by canonical analysis were obtained to demonstrate graphically the clus...

  20. Cyclic subgroups in class groups of real quadratic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, L.C.; Zhang Xianke.

    1994-01-01

    While examining the class numbers of the real quadratic field Q(√n 2 + 3n + 9), we observed that the class number is often a multiple of 3. There is a simple explanation for this, namely -27 = (2n + 3) 2 - 4(n 2 + 3n + 9), so the cubes of the prime ideals above 3 are principal. If the prime ideals themselves are non-principal then 3 must divide the class number. In the present paper, we study this idea from a couple different directions. In the first section we present a criterion that allows us to show that the ideal class group of a real quadratic field has a cyclic subgroup of a given order n. We then give several families of fields to which this criterion applies, hence in which the ideal class groups contain elements of order n. In the second section, we discuss the situation where there is only a potential element of order p (=an odd prime) in the class group, such as the situation described above. We present a modification of the Cohen-Lenstra heuristics for the probability that in this situation the class number is actually a multiple of p. We also extend this idea to predict how often the potential element of order p is actually non-trivial. Both of these predictions agree fairly well with the numerical data. (author). 14 refs, 2 tabs

  1. Universal primers that amplify RNA from all three flavivirus subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnard Ross T

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species within the Flavivirus genus pose public health problems around the world. Increasing cases of Dengue and Japanese encephalitis virus in Asia, frequent outbreaks of Yellow fever virus in Africa and South America, and the ongoing spread of West Nile virus throughout the Americas, show the geographical burden of flavivirus diseases. Flavivirus infections are often indistinct from and confused with other febrile illnesses. Here we review the specificity of published primers, and describe a new universal primer pair that can detect a wide range of flaviviruses, including viruses from each of the recognised subgroups. Results Bioinformatic analysis of 257 published full-length Flavivirus genomes revealed conserved regions not previously targeted by primers. Two degenerate primers, Flav100F and Flav200R were designed from these regions and used to generate an 800 base pair cDNA product. The region amplified encoded part of the methyltransferase and most of the RNA-dependent-RNA-polymerase (NS5 coding sequence. One-step RT-PCR testing was successful using standard conditions with RNA from over 60 different flavivirus strains representing about 50 species. The cDNA from each virus isolate was sequenced then used in phylogenetic analyses and database searches to confirm the identity of the template RNA. Conclusion Comprehensive testing has revealed the broad specificity of these primers. We briefly discuss the advantages and uses of these universal primers.

  2. OMERACT-based fibromyalgia symptom subgroups: an exploratory cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Ann; Hoskin, Tanya L; Whipple, Mary O; Clauw, Daniel J; Barton, Debra L; Benzo, Roberto P; Williams, David A

    2014-10-16

    The aim of this study was to identify subsets of patients with fibromyalgia with similar symptom profiles using the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) core symptom domains. Female patients with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia and currently meeting fibromyalgia research survey criteria completed the Brief Pain Inventory, the 30-item Profile of Mood States, the Medical Outcomes Sleep Scale, the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory, the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQ-R) and the Short Form-36 between 1 June 2011 and 31 October 2011. Hierarchical agglomerative clustering was used to identify subgroups of patients with similar symptom profiles. To validate the results from this sample, hierarchical agglomerative clustering was repeated in an external sample of female patients with fibromyalgia with similar inclusion criteria. A total of 581 females with a mean age of 55.1 (range, 20.1 to 90.2) years were included. A four-cluster solution best fit the data, and each clustering variable differed significantly (P FIQ-R total scores (P = 0.0004)). In our study, we incorporated core OMERACT symptom domains, which allowed for clustering based on a comprehensive symptom profile. Although our exploratory cluster solution needs confirmation in a longitudinal study, this approach could provide a rationale to support the study of individualized clinical evaluation and intervention.

  3. Identifying and predicting subgroups of information needs among cancer patients: an initial study using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Melanie; Wirtz, Markus; Ernstmann, Nicole; Ommen, Oliver; Längler, Alfred; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Scheffer, Christian; Tauschel, Diethard; Pfaff, Holger

    2011-08-01

    Understanding how the information needs of cancer patients (CaPts) vary is important because met information needs affect health outcomes and CaPts' satisfaction. The goals of the study were to identify subgroups of CaPts based on self-reported cancer- and treatment-related information needs and to determine whether subgroups could be predicted on the basis of selected sociodemographic, clinical and clinician-patient relationship variables. Three hundred twenty-three CaPts participated in a survey using the "Cancer Patients Information Needs" scale, which is a new tool for measuring cancer-related information needs. The number of information need subgroups and need profiles within each subgroup was identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Multinomial logistic regression was applied to predict class membership. LCA identified a model of five subgroups exhibiting differences in type and extent of CaPts' unmet information needs: a subgroup with "no unmet needs" (31.4% of the sample), two subgroups with "high level of psychosocial unmet information needs" (27.0% and 12.0%), a subgroup with "high level of purely medical unmet information needs" (16.0%) and a subgroup with "high level of medical and psychosocial unmet information needs" (13.6%). An assessment of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics revealed that younger CaPts and CaPts' requiring psychological support seem to belong to subgroups with a higher level of unmet information needs. However, the most significant predictor for the subgroups with unmet information needs is a good clinician-patient relationship, i.e. subjective perception of high level of trust in and caring attention from nurses together with high degree of physician empathy seems to be predictive for inclusion in the subgroup with no unmet information needs. The results of our study can be used by oncology nurses and physicians to increase their awareness of the complexity and heterogeneity of information needs among CaPts and of

  4. A regional mineralogical study of the manganese-bearing Voelwater subgroup in the northern Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleyenstueber, A.S.E.

    1985-11-01

    The Voelwater Subgroup, of the Proterozoic Transvaal Sequence, in the Hotazel area, is preserved in five structurally controlled basins, on the eastern side of the Dimoten syncline. The Subgroup represents a relatively undisturbed unit of mixed volcanogenic - chemical sedimentary rocks. The Hotazel Formation within the Voelwater Subgroup, consists of a finely banded carbonate - silicate - hematite - manganese lutite sequence of banded iron-formation and must be unique in that it contains the world's largest land-based repository of manganese. Twenty-one drill cores, sampled lithologically at intervals of approximately one metre through the total sedimentary sequence, were studied by microscopic, X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe methods. The mineralogy of the Voelwater Subgroup was studied on a regional scale, with the emphasis on the minerals within the manganese beds of the Hotazel Formation. The objective of the study was: a. To study the variation and distrubution of minerals in the various manganese ores on a regional scale. b. To compare the mineralogical differences of the different ores mined, in order to gain a better understanding of their metallurgical behaviour. c. To try to locate high-grade manganese ore target areas for future exploration, with the aid of mineralogical information. d. To try to establish the origin of the manganese in the Voelwater Formation. e. To study the relationship of the manganese units with the adjacent chemical sediments of the Hotazel Formation

  5. Differential response of Acidobacteria subgroups to forest-to-pasture conversion and their biogeographic patterns in the western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acacio Aparecido Navarrete

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion - particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability - we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6 was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils.

  6. Differential Response of Acidobacteria Subgroups to Forest-to-Pasture Conversion and Their Biogeographic Patterns in the Western Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Acacio A.; Venturini, Andressa M.; Meyer, Kyle M.; Klein, Ann M.; Tiedje, James M.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.; Nüsslein, Klaus; Tsai, Siu M.; Rodrigues, Jorge L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Members of the phylum Acidobacteria are among the most abundant soil bacteria on Earth, but little is known about their response to environmental changes. We asked how the relative abundance and biogeographic patterning of this phylum and its subgroups responded to forest-to-pasture conversion in soils of the western Brazilian Amazon. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was employed to assess the abundance and composition of the Acidobacteria community across 54 soil samples taken using a spatially nested sampling scheme at the landscape level. Numerically, Acidobacteria represented 20% of the total bacterial community in forest soils and 11% in pasture soils. Overall, 15 different Acidobacteria subgroups of the current 26 subgroups were detected, with Acidobacteria subgroups 1, 3, 5, and 6 accounting together for 87% of the total Acidobacteria community in forest soils and 75% in pasture soils. Concomitant with changes in soil chemistry after forest-to-pasture conversion—particularly an increase in properties linked to soil acidity and nutrient availability—we observed an increase in the relative abundances of Acidobacteria subgroups 4, 10, 17, and 18, and a decrease in the relative abundances of other Acidobacteria subgroups in pasture relative to forest soils. The composition of the total Acidobacteria community as well as the most abundant Acidobacteria subgroups (1, 3, 5, and 6) was significantly more similar in composition across space in pasture soils than in forest soils. These results suggest that preponderant responses of Acidobacteria subgroups, especially subgroups 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6, to forest-to-pasture conversion effects in soils could be used to define management-indicators of agricultural practices in the Amazon Basin. These acidobacterial responses are at least in part through alterations on acidity- and nutrient-related properties of the Amazon soils. PMID:26733981

  7. Genetically meaningful phenotypic subgroups in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, O J; Veenstra-Vanderweele, J; Potter, M; Pericak-Vance, M A; Haines, J L

    2014-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with strong evidence for genetic susceptibility. However, the effect sizes for implicated chromosomal loci are small, hard to replicate and current evidence does not explain the majority of the estimated heritability. Phenotypic heterogeneity could be one phenomenon complicating identification of genetic factors. We used data from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, head circumferences, and ages at exams as classifying variables to identify more clinically similar subgroups of individuals with ASD. We identified two distinct subgroups of cases within the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange dataset, primarily defined by the overall severity of evaluated traits. In addition, there was significant familial clustering within subgroups (odds ratio, OR ≈ 1.38-1.42, P definition that should increase power to detect genetic factors influencing risk for ASD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  8. Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of discrete groups in subgroup bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gaoli

    2018-04-01

    We express each Clebsch-Gordan (CG) coefficient of a discrete group as a product of a CG coefficient of its subgroup and a factor, which we call an embedding factor. With an appropriate definition, such factors are fixed up to phase ambiguities. Particularly, they are invariant under basis transformations of irreducible representations of both the group and its subgroup. We then impose on the embedding factors constraints, which relate them to their counterparts under complex conjugate and therefore restrict the phases of embedding factors. In some cases, the phase ambiguities are reduced to sign ambiguities. We describe the procedure of obtaining embedding factors and then calculate CG coefficients of the group 𝒫𝒮ℒ2(7) in terms of embedding factors of its subgroups S4 and 𝒯7.

  9. Considerations for subgroups and phenocopies in complex disease genetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Ramanujam

    Full Text Available The number of identified genetic variants associated to complex disease cannot fully explain heritability. This may be partially due to more complicated patterns of predisposition than previously suspected. Diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS may consist of multiple disease causing mechanisms, each comprised of several elements. We describe how the effect of subgroups can be calculated using the standard association measurement odds ratio, which is then manipulated to provide a formula for the true underlying association present within the subgroup. This is sensitive to the initial minor allele frequencies present in both cases and the subgroup of patients. The methodology is then extended to the χ(2 statistic, for two related scenarios. First, to determine the true χ(2 when phenocopies or disease subtypes reduce association and are reclassified as controls when calculating statistics. Here, the χ(2 is given by (1 + σ * (a + b/(c + d/(1 - σ, or (1 + σ/(1 - σ for equal numbers of cases and controls. Second, when subgroups corresponding to heterogeneity mask the true effect size, but no reclassification is made. Here, the proportion increase in total sample size required to attain the same χ(2 statistic as the subgroup is given as γ = (1 - σ/2/((1 - σ(1 - σc/(a + c(1 - σd/(b + d, and a python script to calculate and plot this value is provided at kirc.se. Practical examples show how in a study of modest size (1000 cases and 1000 controls, a non-significant SNP may exceed genome-wide significance when corresponding to a subgroup of 20% of cases, and may occur in heterozygous form in all cases. This methodology may explain the modest association found in diseases such as MS wherein heterogeneity confounds straightforward measurement of association.

  10. Perceived discrimination and chronic health in adults from nine ethnic subgroups in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Shauna K

    2015-01-01

    This comparative analysis examines the association between chronic cardiovascular, respiratory and pain conditions, race, ethnicity, nativity, length of residency, and perceived discrimination among three racial and nine ethnic subgroups of Asian Americans (Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese), Latino-American (Cuban, Portuguese, and Mexican), and Afro-Caribbean American (Haitian, Jamaican, and Trinidadian/Tobagonian) respondents. Analysis used weighted Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys-merged data from the National Latino and Asian American Study and the National Survey of American Life. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine which groups within the model were more likely to report perceived discrimination effects. Afro-Caribbean subgroups were more likely to report perceived discrimination than Asian American and Latino-American subgroups were. Logistic regression revealed a significant positive association with perceived discrimination and chronic pain only for Latino-American respondents. Significant differences in reports of perceived discrimination emerged by race and ethnicity. Caribbean respondents were more likely to report high levels of perceived discrimination; however, they showed fewer significant associations related to chronic health conditions compared to Asian Americans and Latino-Americans. Examination of perceived discrimination across ethnic subgroups reveals large variations in the relationship between chronic health and discrimination by race and ethnicity. Examining perceived discrimination by ethnicity may reveal more complex chronic health patterns masked by broader racial groupings.

  11. Contribution of Dietary Supplements to Nutritional Adequacy by Socioeconomic Subgroups in Adults of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B. Blumberg

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many Americans have inadequate intakes of several nutrients, and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 identified vitamins A, C, D, and E, in addition to calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium, choline, and fiber as “underconsumed nutrients”. Based on nationally representative data on 10,698 adults from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, 2009–2012, assessments were made of socioeconomic differences, based on the Poverty Income Ratio (PIR, in terms of the association of dietary supplement use on nutrient intake and nutrient inadequacies. Compared to food alone, the use of any dietary supplement plus food was associated with significantly (p < 0.01 higher intakes of 15–16 of 19 nutrients examined in all socioeconomic groups; and significantly reduced rates of inadequacy for 10/17 nutrients in the subgroup PIR > 1.85 (not poor, but only 4–5/17 nutrients (calcium and vitamins A, C, D, E for the poor and nearly poor subgroups (PIR < 1.35 and PIR 1.35 to ≤1.85, respectively. An increased prevalence of intakes above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL was seen for 3–9/13 nutrients, but all were less than 5% in the PIR subgroups. In conclusion, dietary supplement use was associated with an increased micronutrient intake, decreased inadequacies, and a slight increase in the prevalence of intakes above the UL, with greater benefits seen in the PIR > 1.85 subgroup.

  12. Gestational weight gain and perinatal outcomes of subgroups of Asian-American women, Texas, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsiu-Rong; Walker, Lorraine O; Brown, Adama; Lee, Ju-Young

    2015-01-01

    Asian-American subgroups are heterogeneous, but few studies had addressed differences on gestational weight gain (GWG) and perinatal outcomes related to GWG among this growing and diverse population. The purposes of this study were to examine whether Asian-American women are at higher risk of inadequate or excessive GWG and adverse perinatal outcomes than non-Hispanic White (NH-White) women, and to compare those risks among Asian-American subgroups. This retrospective study included all singleton births to NH-Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnam, and NH-White women documented in 2009 Texas birth certificate data (N = 150,674). Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, multinomial logistic regression, and binary logistic regression. Chinese women were the reference group in the comparisons among Asian subgroups. Asian women had a higher risk of inadequate GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than NH-White women. No difference in the odds of excessive GWG was found among Asian subgroups, although Japanese women had the highest risk of inadequate GWG. After adjusting for confounders, Korean women had the lowest risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.49), whereas Filipino women and Asian Indian had the highest risks of gestational hypertension (AOR, 2.01 and 1.61), cesarean birth (AOR, 1.44 and 1.39), and low birth weight (AOR, 1.94 and 2.51) compared with Chinese women. These results support the heterogeneity of GWG and perinatal outcomes among Asian-American subgroups. The risks of adverse perinatal outcomes should be carefully evaluated separately among Asian-American subpopulations. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Subgroups of some Fuchsian groups defined by two linear congruences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yayenie, Omer

    In this article we define a new family of subgroups of Fuchsian groups H(√{m}) , for a squarefree positive integer m , and calculate their index in H(√{m}) and their parabolic class number. Moreover, we will show that the index of these subgroups is closely related to the solvability of a quadratic congruence x2≡ m(mod n) and the number of inequivalent solutions of a quadratic congruence x2≡ 1(mod n) . Finally, we will show that the results obtained by Yilmaz and Keskin [Acta Math. Sin 25 (2005), 215-222] are immediate corollaries of one of the main theorems of this article.

  14. Identities on maximal subgroups of GLn(D)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, D.; Mahdavi-Hezavehi, M.

    2002-04-01

    Let D be a division ring with centre F. Assume that M is a maximal subgroup of GL n (D), n≥1 such that Z(M) is algebraic over F. Group identities on M and polynomial identities on the F-linear hull F[M] are investigated. It is shown that if F[M] is a PI-algebra, then [D:F] n (D) and M is a maximal subgroup of N. If M satisfies a group identity, it is shown that M is abelian-by-finite. (author)

  15. Subgroups of class groups of algebraic quadratic function fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kunpeng; Zhang Xianke

    2001-09-01

    Ideal class groups H(K) of algebraic quadratic function fields K are studied, by using mainly the theory of continued fractions of algebraic functions. Properties of such continued fractions are discussed first. Then a necessary and sufficient condition is given for the class group H(K) to contain a cyclic subgroup of any order n, this criterion condition holds true for both real and imaginary fields K. Furthermore, several series of function fields K, including real, inertia imaginary, as well as ramified imaginary quadratic function fields, are given, and their class groups H(K) are proved to contain cyclic subgroups of order n. (author)

  16. How FDG-PET helps making decision for surgery in various difficult subgroups of temporal lobe epilepsy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepmongkol, S [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology and Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Locharernkul, C [Division of Neurology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University and Chulalongkorn Comprehensive Epilepsy Program under the patronage of Professor Doctor HRH Princess Chulabhorn, Bangkok (Thailand); Chaiwatanarat, T; Kingpetch, K; Sirisalipoch, S [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand); Limotai, C; Loplumlert, J [Chulalongkorn Comprehensive Epilepsy Program under the patronage of Professor Doctor HRH Princess Chulabhorn, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2007-07-01

    Concordant pre-surgical data are the important predictors of good surgical outcome in patients with localization-related epilepsy. Medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and concordant pre-surgical data is straightforward and may not need functional imaging. However, in other instances for example, HS with discordant data (HSD), bilateral HS with discordant data (BHSD), temporal lobe epilepsy with dual pathology (DP), non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy (NL) are the difficult subgroups. In these groups, functional imaging eg. brain perfusion SPECT or brain PET may play a major role for surgical decision making. To our knowledge, there was no previous data in using FDG-PET in different subgroups as mentioned. Only some previous studies in single subgroup without analyzing impact of PET findings on decision-making have been reported. We thus aim to evaluate the usefulness of FDG-PET in these 4 subgroups.

  17. Kohaspetsiifiline Rodgers eksistentsiaalsuse teel / Iris Madar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Madar, Iris

    2000-01-01

    Sebra galeriis avatud Eestis elava inglise skulptori Paul Rodgersi näitusest "Hear no evil", kus põimuvad mitmed tasandid lokaalsest universaalseni, sotsiaalsest eksistentsiaalseni. P. Rodgersi varasematest esinemistest Eestis alates 1993. a.

  18. Chromosome sizes of phytoplasmas composing major phylogenetic groups and subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcone, C; Neimark, H; Ragozzino, A; Lauer, U; Seemüller, E

    1999-09-01

    ABSTRACT Chromosome sizes of 71 phytoplasmas belonging to 12 major phylogenetic groups including several of the aster yellows subgroups were estimated from electrophoretic mobilities of full-length chromosomes in pulsed-field gels. Considerable variation in genome size, from 660 to 1,130 kilobases (kb), was observed among aster yellows phytoplasmas. Chromosome size heterogeneity was also observed in the stolbur phytoplasma group (range 860 to 1,350 kb); in this group, isolate STOLF contains the largest chromosome found in a phytoplasma to date. A wide range of chromosome sizes, from 670 to 1,075 kb, was also identified in the X-disease group. The other phytoplasmas examined, which included members of the apple proliferation, Italian alfalfa witches' broom, faba bean phyllody, pigeon pea witches' broom, sugarcane white leaf, Bermuda grass white leaf, ash yellows, clover proliferation, and elm yellows groups, all have chromosomes smaller than 1 megabase, and the size ranges within each of these groups is narrower than in the aster yellows, stolbur, and X-disease groups. The smallest chromosome, approximately 530 kb, was found in two Bermuda grass white leaf phytoplasma isolates. This not only is the smallest mollicute chromosome found to date, but also is the smallest chromosome known for any cell. More than one large DNA band was observed in several phytoplasma preparations. Possible explanations for the occurrence of more than one band may be infection of the host plant by different phytoplasmas, the presence of more than one chromosome in the same organism, or the presence of large extrachromosomal DNA elements.

  19. Latino Male Ethnic Subgroups: Patterns in College Enrollment and Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.

  20. Single-Phase Mail Survey Design for Rare Population Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, J. Michael; Andrews, William R.; Mathiowetz, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Although using random digit dialing (RDD) telephone samples was the preferred method for conducting surveys of households for many years, declining response and coverage rates have led researchers to explore alternative approaches. The use of address-based sampling (ABS) has been examined for sampling the general population and subgroups, most…

  1. Subgroup conflicts? Try the psychodramatic "double triad method".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhofstadt-Denève, Leni M F

    2012-04-01

    The present article suggests the application of a psychodramatic action method for tackling subgroup conflicts in which the direct dialogue between representatives of two opposing subgroups is prepared step by step through an indirect dialogue strategy within two triads, a strategy known as the Double Triad Method (DTM). In order to achieve integration in the group as a whole, it is important that all the members of both subgroups participate actively during the entire process. The first part of the article briefly explores the theoretical background, with a special emphasis on the Phenomenological-Dialectical Personality Model (Phe-Di PModel). In the second part, the DTM procedure is systematically described through its five action stages, each accompanied with 1) a spatial representation of the consecutive actions, 2) some illustrative statements for each stage, and 3) a theoretical interpretation of the dialectically involved personality dimensions in both protagonists. The article concludes with a discussion and suggestions for more extensive applications of the DTM method, including the question of its relationships to Agazarian's functional subgrouping, psychodrama, and sociodrama.

  2. On approximation of Lie groups by discrete subgroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... The notion of approximation of Lie groups by discrete subgroups was introduced by Tôyama in Kodai Math. Sem. Rep. 1 (1949) 36–37 and investigated in detail by Kuranishi in Nagoya Math. J. 2 (1951) 63–71. It is known as a theorem of Tôyama that any connected Lie group approximated by discrete ...

  3. Post hoc subgroups in clinical trials: Anathema or analytics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Herbert I; Pontes, Victor P

    2015-08-01

    There is currently much interest in generating more individualized estimates of treatment effects. However, traditional statistical methods are not well suited to this task. Post hoc subgroup analyses of clinical trials are fraught with methodological problems. We suggest that the alternative research paradigm of predictive analytics, widely used in many business contexts, can be adapted to help. We compare the statistical and analytics perspectives and suggest that predictive modeling should often replace subgroup analysis. We then introduce a new approach, cadit modeling, that can be useful to identify and test individualized causal effects. The cadit technique is particularly useful in the context of selecting from among a large number of potential predictors. We describe a new variable-selection algorithm that has been applied in conjunction with cadit. The cadit approach is illustrated through a reanalysis of data from the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study trial, which studied the efficacy of spironolactone in heart-failure patients. The trial was successful, but a serious adverse effect (hyperkalemia) was subsequently discovered. Our reanalysis suggests that it may be possible to predict the degree of hyperkalemia based on a logistic model and to identify a subgroup in which the effect is negligible. Cadit modeling is a promising alternative to subgroup analyses. Cadit regression is relatively straightforward to implement, generates results that are easy to present and explain, and can mesh straightforwardly with many variable-selection algorithms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. On approximation of Lie groups by discrete subgroups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Sciences at Sfax, University of Sfax,. Route Soukra ... Let S (G) denote the space of discrete co-compact subgroup of a Lie group G. We ..... For example, it suffices to apply the following fact: The mapping.

  5. electropherotypes and subgroups of group a rotaviruses circulating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    diarrhea caused by rotaviruses. The virus is a double stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus with 11 segments. Group A rotaviruses show a characteristic 4-2-3-2 pattern following electrophoresis. The VP6 subgroups, I and II exist. This work was carried out to study the prevalence of rotavirus infection among children 0-5 years with ...

  6. Non-meagre subgroups of reals disjoint with meagre sets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostana, Ziemowit

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 241, June (2018), s. 11-19 ISSN 0166-8641 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : algebraic sum * Baire property * non-meaurable subgroup Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.377, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/ article /pii/S0166864118300567

  7. Non-meagre subgroups of reals disjoint with meagre sets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostana, Ziemowit

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 241, June (2018), s. 11-19 ISSN 0166-8641 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : algebraic sum * Baire property * non-meaurable subgroup Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.377, year: 2016 https://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0166864118300567

  8. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C infection in chickens, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-07-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  9. Avian Metapneumovirus Subgroup C Infection in Chickens, China

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Yan, Xv; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Chunyan; Liu, Shuhang; She, Ruiping; Hu, Fengjiao; Quan, Rong; Liu, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus causes acute respiratory tract infection and reductions in egg production in various avian species. We isolated and characterized an increasingly prevalent avian metapneumovirus subgroup C strain from meat-type commercial chickens with severe respiratory signs in China. Culling of infected flocks could lead to economic consequences.

  10. Notes on discrete subgroups of Möbius transformations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Jørgensen's inequality gives a necessary condition for a nonelementary two generator subgroup of SL(2, C) to be discrete. By embedding SL(2, C) into. ˆU(1, 1; H), we obtain a new type of Jørgensen's inequality, which is in terms of the coefficients of involved isometries. We provide an example to show that this ...

  11. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G Hastings

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups.We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%. Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer's disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs.Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.

  12. Leading Causes of Death among Asian American Subgroups (2003-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Katherine G; Jose, Powell O; Kapphahn, Kristopher I; Frank, Ariel T H; Goldstein, Benjamin A; Thompson, Caroline A; Eggleston, Karen; Cullen, Mark R; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2015-01-01

    Our current understanding of Asian American mortality patterns has been distorted by the historical aggregation of diverse Asian subgroups on death certificates, masking important differences in the leading causes of death across subgroups. In this analysis, we aim to fill an important knowledge gap in Asian American health by reporting leading causes of mortality by disaggregated Asian American subgroups. We examined national mortality records for the six largest Asian subgroups (Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs) from 2003-2011, and ranked the leading causes of death. We calculated all-cause and cause-specific age-adjusted rates, temporal trends with annual percent changes, and rate ratios by race/ethnicity and sex. Rankings revealed that as an aggregated group, cancer was the leading cause of death for Asian Americans. When disaggregated, there was notable heterogeneity. Among women, cancer was the leading cause of death for every group except Asian Indians. In men, cancer was the leading cause of death among Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese men, while heart disease was the leading cause of death among Asian Indians, Filipino and Japanese men. The proportion of death due to heart disease for Asian Indian males was nearly double that of cancer (31% vs. 18%). Temporal trends showed increased mortality of cancer and diabetes in Asian Indians and Vietnamese; increased stroke mortality in Asian Indians; increased suicide mortality in Koreans; and increased mortality from Alzheimer's disease for all racial/ethnic groups from 2003-2011. All-cause rate ratios revealed that overall mortality is lower in Asian Americans compared to NHWs. Our findings show heterogeneity in the leading causes of death among Asian American subgroups. Additional research should focus on culturally competent and cost-effective approaches to prevent and treat specific diseases among these growing diverse populations.

  13. Clinical implications of medulloblastoma subgroups: incidence of CSF diversion surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Rutka, James T; Remke, Marc; Tabori, Uri; Hawkins, Cynthia; Bouffet, Eric; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    While medulloblastoma was initially thought to comprise a single homogeneous entity, it is now accepted that it in fact comprises 4 discrete subgroups, each with its own distinct demographics, clinical presentation, transcriptomics, genetics, and outcome. Hydrocephalus is a common complication of medulloblastoma and not infrequently requires CSF diversion. The authors report the incidence of CSF diversion surgery in each of the subgroups of medulloblastoma (Wnt, Shh, Group 3, and Group 4). The medical and imaging records for patients who underwent surgery for medulloblastoma at The Hospital for Sick Children were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the requirement for CSF diversion surgery either before or within 60 days of tumor resection. The modified Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (mCPPRH) was compared among subgroups. Of 143 medulloblastoma patients, treated from 1991 to 2013, sufficient data were available for 130 patients (15 with Wnt, 30 with Shh, 30 with Group 3, and 55 with Group 4 medulloblastomas). Of these, 28 patients (22%) ultimately underwent CSF diversion surgery: 0% with Wnt, 29% with Shh, 29% with Group 3, and 43% with Group 4 tumors. Patients in the Wnt subgroup had a lower incidence of CSF diversion than all other patients combined (p = 0.04). Wnt patients had a lower mCPPRH score (lower risk of CSF diversion, p = 0.045), were older, had smaller ventricles at diagnosis, and had no leptomeningeal metastases. The overall rate of CSF diversion surgery for Shh, Group 3, and Group 4 medulloblastomas is around 30%, but no patients in the present series with a Wnt medulloblastoma required shunting. The low incidence of hydrocephalus in patients with Wnt medulloblastoma likely reflects both host factors (age) and disease factors (lack of metastases). The absence of hydrocephalus in patients with Wnt medulloblastomas likely contributes to their excellent rate of survival and may also contribute to a higher quality

  14. Neuropsychological functioning in early-onset first-episode psychosis: comparison of diagnostic subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala, Arantzazu; Rapado, Marta; Arango, Celso; Robles, Olalla; de la Serna, Elena; González, Cristina; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José Manuel; Andrés, Patricia; Mayoral, María; Bombín, Igor

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to examine the nature and extent of cognitive impairment in first-episode early-onset psychosis (FE-EOP) soon after their stabilisation and to search for potential differences according to specific diagnostic sub-groups of patients. As part of a Spanish multicentre longitudinal study, 107 FE-EOP patients and 98 healthy controls were assessed on the following cognitive domains: attention, working memory, executive functioning, and verbal learning and memory. Three diagnostic categories were established in the patient sample: schizophrenia (n = 36), bipolar disorder (n = 19), and other psychosis (n = 52). Patients performed significantly worse than controls in all cognitive domains. The three diagnostic sub-groups did not differ in terms of impaired/preserved cognitive functions or degree of impairment. FE-EOP patients show significant cognitive impairment that, during this early phase, seems to be non-specific to differential diagnosis.

  15. Predicting disease Risk by Transformation Models in the Presence of Unspecified Subgroup Membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qianqian; Ma, Yanyuan; Wang, Yuanjia

    2017-10-01

    Some biomedical studies lead to mixture data. When a discrete covariate defining subgroup membership is missing for some of the subjects in a study, the distribution of the outcome follows a mixture distribution of the subgroup-specific distributions. Taking into account the uncertain distribution of the group membership and the covariates, we model the relation between the disease onset time and the covariates through transformation models in each sub-population, and develop a nonparametric maximum likelihood based estimation implemented through EM algorithm along with its inference procedure. We further propose methods to identify the covariates that have different effects or common effects in distinct populations, which enables parsimonious modeling and better understanding of the difference across populations. The methods are illustrated through extensive simulation studies and a real data example.

  16. Subgroup-Elimination Transcriptomics Identifies Signaling Proteins that Define Subclasses of TRPV1-Positive Neurons and a Novel Paracrine Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isensee, Jörg; Wenzel, Carsten; Buschow, Rene; Weissmann, Robert; Kuss, Andreas W.; Hucho, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Normal and painful stimuli are detected by specialized subgroups of peripheral sensory neurons. The understanding of the functional differences of each neuronal subgroup would be strongly enhanced by knowledge of the respective subgroup transcriptome. The separation of the subgroup of interest, however, has proven challenging as they can hardly be enriched. Instead of enriching, we now rapidly eliminated the subgroup of neurons expressing the heat-gated cation channel TRPV1 from dissociated rat sensory ganglia. Elimination was accomplished by brief treatment with TRPV1 agonists followed by the removal of compromised TRPV1(+) neurons using density centrifugation. By differential microarray and sequencing (RNA-Seq) based expression profiling we compared the transcriptome of all cells within sensory ganglia versus the same cells lacking TRPV1 expressing neurons, which revealed 240 differentially expressed genes (adj. p1.5). Corroborating the specificity of the approach, many of these genes have been reported to be involved in noxious heat or pain sensitization. Beyond the expected enrichment of ion channels, we found the TRPV1 transcriptome to be enriched for GPCRs and other signaling proteins involved in adenosine, calcium, and phosphatidylinositol signaling. Quantitative population analysis using a recent High Content Screening (HCS) microscopy approach identified substantial heterogeneity of expressed target proteins even within TRPV1-positive neurons. Signaling components defined distinct further subgroups within the population of TRPV1-positive neurons. Analysis of one such signaling system showed that the pain sensitizing prostaglandin PGD2 activates DP1 receptors expressed predominantly on TRPV1(+) neurons. In contrast, we found the PGD2 producing prostaglandin D synthase to be expressed exclusively in myelinated large-diameter neurons lacking TRPV1, which suggests a novel paracrine neuron-neuron communication. Thus, subgroup analysis based on the elimination

  17. Identification of subgroups of inflammatory and degenerative MRI findings in the spine and sacroiliac joints: a latent class analysis of 1037 patients with persistent low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbak, Bodil; Jensen, Rikke Krüger; Manniche, Claus

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate subgroups of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings for the spine and sacroiliac joints (SIJs) using latent class analysis (LCA), and to investigate whether these subgroups differ in their demographic and clinical characteristics. METHODS...

  18. A bovine respiratory syncytial virus strain with mutations in subgroup-specific antigenic domains of the G protein induces partial heterologous protection in cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrijver, R.S.; Langedijk, J.P.M.; Middel, W.G.J.; Kramps, J.A.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) strains are tentatively divided in subgroups A, AB and B, based on antigenic differences of the G protein. A Dutch BRSV strain (Waiboerhoeve: WBH), could not be assigned to one of the subgroups, because the strain did not react with any monoclonal antibody

  19. Differences in pathogenicity among strains of the same or different avian leukosis virus subgroups

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Průková, Dana; Vernerová, Z.; Pilčík, Tomáš; Stepanets, Volodymyr; Indrová, Marie; Geryk, Josef; Plachý, Jiří; Hejnar, Jiří; Svoboda, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2007), s. 15-27 ISSN 0307-9457 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/04/0489 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : chicken * wasting disease * ALV Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.257, year: 2007

  20. Identification and Characterization of Unique Subgroups of Chronic Pain Individuals with Dispositional Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S; Rice, D; McIntyre, A; Getty, H; Speechley, M; Sequeira, K; Shapiro, A P; Morley-Forster, P; Teasell, R W

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The current study attempted to identify and characterize distinct CP subgroups based on their level of dispositional personality traits. The secondary objective was to compare the difference among the subgroups in mood, coping, and disability. Methods. Individuals with chronic pain were assessed for demographic, psychosocial, and personality measures. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted in order to identify distinct subgroups of patients based on their level of personality traits. Differences in clinical outcomes were compared using the multivariate analysis of variance based on cluster membership. Results. In 229 participants, three clusters were formed. No significant difference was seen among the clusters on patient demographic factors including age, sex, relationship status, duration of pain, and pain intensity. Those with high levels of dispositional personality traits had greater levels of mood impairment compared to the other two groups (p personality traits significantly correlated with impaired mood and coping. Use of pharmacological treatment alone may not be successful in improving clinical outcomes among these individuals. Instead, a more comprehensive treatment involving psychological treatments may be important in managing the personality traits that interfere with recovery.

  1. Discrete neurocognitive subgroups in fully or partially remitted bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johan Høy; Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neurocognitive impairment in remitted patients with bipolar disorder contributes to functional disabilities. However, the pattern and impact of these deficits are unclear. METHODS: We pooled data from 193 fully or partially remitted patients with bipolar disorder and 110 healthy...... controls. Hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to determine whether there are discrete neurocognitive subgroups in bipolar disorder. The pattern of the cognitive deficits and the characteristics of patients in these neurocognitive subgroups were examined with analyses of covariance and least...... was cross-sectional which limits inferences regarding the causality of the findings. CONCLUSION: Globally and selectively impaired bipolar disorder patients displayed more functional disabilities than those who were cognitively intact. The present findings highlight a clinical need to systematically screen...

  2. Human rotavirus subgroups and severity of associated diarrhoea in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah, George E.; Hori, Hiroki; Anyanful, Akwasi; Addo, Julius A.; Commey, Joseph O.; Kamiya, Hitoshi; Nkrumah, Francis K.

    1995-11-01

    In a 12 month study of children with acute diarrhoea seeking medical care in 2 hospitals in Accra, Ghana, 16.3% were found to be infected with human rotaviruses (HRV). Vomiting and diarrhoea were the main symptoms observed. HRV infection was frequently associated with severe diarrhoea. Vomiting was however less frequent in HRV associated diarrhoea than in non HRV diarrhoea. No significant association was observed between the severity of dehydration and HRV infection. Subgroup II HRV was the predominant subgroup identified with the dominant serotypes being HRV serotypes 1 and 4. Poly-acrylamide gel electrophoresis of HRV RNAs isolated from 40 positive stool samples revealed the existence of 7 distinct electrophoretic migration patterns in the study population.

  3. Combined group ECC protection and subgroup parity protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-06-18

    A method and system are disclosed for providing combined error code protection and subgroup parity protection for a given group of n bits. The method comprises the steps of identifying a number, m, of redundant bits for said error protection; and constructing a matrix P, wherein multiplying said given group of n bits with P produces m redundant error correction code (ECC) protection bits, and two columns of P provide parity protection for subgroups of said given group of n bits. In the preferred embodiment of the invention, the matrix P is constructed by generating permutations of m bit wide vectors with three or more, but an odd number of, elements with value one and the other elements with value zero; and assigning said vectors to rows of the matrix P.

  4. Two subgroups of antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients identified with a Gaussian mixture model on cognition and electrophysiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, N.; Ebdrup, B.H.; Oranje, B

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in information processing and cognition are among the most robust findings in schizophrenia patients. Previous efforts to translate group-level deficits into clinically relevant and individualized information have, however, been non-successful, which is possibly explained by biologically...... different disease subgroups. We applied machine learning algorithms on measures of electrophysiology and cognition to identify potential subgroups of schizophrenia. Next, we explored subgroup differences regarding treatment response. Sixty-six antipsychotic-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients...... be used to classify subgroups of schizophrenia patients. The two distinct subgroups, which we identified, were psychopathologically inseparable before treatment, yet their response to dopaminergic blockade was predicted with significant accuracy. This proof of principle encourages further endeavors...

  5. Are there subgroups within the autistic spectrum? A cluster analysis of a group of children with autistic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, M; Eisenmajer, R; Leekam, S; Wing, L; Gould, J; Ong, B; Dowe, D

    1998-09-01

    Comprehensive data on the developmental history and current behaviours of a large sample of high-functioning individuals with diagnoses of autism, Asperger's syndrome, or other related disorder were collected via parent interviews. This provided the basis for a taxonomic analysis to search for subgroups. Most participants also completed theory of mind tasks. Three clusters or subgroups were obtained; these differed on theory of mind performance and on verbal abilities. Although subgroups were identified which bore some relationship to clinical differentiation of autistic, Asperger syndrome, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) cases, the nature of the differences between them appeared strongly related to ability variables. Examination of the kinds of behaviours that differentiated the groups suggested that a spectrum of autistic disorders on which children differ primarily in term of degrees of social and cognitive impairments could explain the findings.

  6. Upper bounds for reversible circuits based on Young subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdessaied, Nabila; Soeken, Mathias; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2014-01-01

    We present tighter upper bounds on the number of Toffoli gates needed in reversible circuits. Both multiple controlled Toffoli gates and mixed polarity Toffoli gates have been considered for this purpose. The calculation of the bounds is based on a synthesis approach based on Young subgroups...... that results in circuits using a more generalized gate library. Starting from an upper bound for this library we derive new bounds which improve the existing bound by around 77%....

  7. Characteristic properties of large subgroups in primary abelian groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    1. Introduction. The main purpose of this article is to study the relations between the structures of primary abelian groups and their ..... Case 2. γ − 2 exists. Let Gγ −1 be a direct summand of Gγ . We remark, in connection with Case 1, that any pγ −1. -high subgroup of Gγ is isomorphic to Gγ −1. As far as Case 2 is concerned, ...

  8. A note on TI-subgroups of finite groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A kernel and a complement of a quasi-Frobenius group G are the preimages of a kernel and a complement of the Frobenius group G/Z(G), respectively. Lemma 1.2 [1]. A group G is quasi-Frobenius if and only if G possesses a noncentral subgroup H such that H ∩ Hg ≤ Z(G) for all g ∈ G − H. In this case, H is a comple-.

  9. Irreducible almost simple subgroups of classical algebraic groups

    CERN Document Server

    Burness, Timothy C; Marion, Claude; Testerman, Donna M

    2015-01-01

    Let G be a simple classical algebraic group over an algebraically closed field K of characteristic p\\geq 0 with natural module W. Let H be a closed subgroup of G and let V be a nontrivial p-restricted irreducible tensor indecomposable rational KG-module such that the restriction of V to H is irreducible. In this paper the authors classify the triples (G,H,V) of this form, where V \

  10. A generalized Frattini subgroup of a finite group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabir Bhattacharya

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available For a finite group G and an arbitrary prime p, let SP(G denote the intersection of all maximal subgroups M of G such that [G:M] is both composite and not divisible by p; if no such M exists we set SP(G = G. Some properties of G are considered involving SP(G. In particular, we obtain a characterization of G when each M in the definition of SP(G is nilpotent.

  11. Molecular Subgroup of Primary Prostate Cancer Presenting with Metastatic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Steven M; Knight, Laura A; McCavigan, Andrena M; Logan, Gemma E; Berge, Viktor; Sherif, Amir; Pandha, Hardev; Warren, Anne Y; Davidson, Catherine; Uprichard, Adam; Blayney, Jaine K; Price, Bethanie; Jellema, Gera L; Steele, Christopher J; Svindland, Aud; McDade, Simon S; Eden, Christopher G; Foster, Chris; Mills, Ian G; Neal, David E; Mason, Malcolm D; Kay, Elaine W; Waugh, David J; Harkin, D Paul; Watson, R William; Clarke, Noel W; Kennedy, Richard D

    2017-10-01

    Approximately 4-25% of patients with early prostate cancer develop disease recurrence following radical prostatectomy. To identify a molecular subgroup of prostate cancers with metastatic potential at presentation resulting in a high risk of recurrence following radical prostatectomy. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering was performed using gene expression data from 70 primary resections, 31 metastatic lymph nodes, and 25 normal prostate samples. Independent assay validation was performed using 322 radical prostatectomy samples from four sites with a mean follow-up of 50.3 months. Molecular subgroups were identified using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. A partial least squares approach was used to generate a gene expression assay. Relationships with outcome (time to biochemical and metastatic recurrence) were analysed using multivariable Cox regression and log-rank analysis. A molecular subgroup of primary prostate cancer with biology similar to metastatic disease was identified. A 70-transcript signature (metastatic assay) was developed and independently validated in the radical prostatectomy samples. Metastatic assay positive patients had increased risk of biochemical recurrence (multivariable hazard ratio [HR] 1.62 [1.13-2.33]; p=0.0092) and metastatic recurrence (multivariable HR=3.20 [1.76-5.80]; p=0.0001). A combined model with Cancer of the Prostate Risk Assessment post surgical (CAPRA-S) identified patients at an increased risk of biochemical and metastatic recurrence superior to either model alone (HR=2.67 [1.90-3.75]; pmolecular subgroup of primary prostate cancers with metastatic potential. The metastatic assay may improve the ability to detect patients at risk of metastatic recurrence following radical prostatectomy. The impact of adjuvant therapies should be assessed in this higher-risk population. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of duloxetine in patients with fibromyalgia: tiredness subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Laurence A; Bennett, Robert; Russell, Irwin J; Wohlreich, Madelaine M; Chappell, Amy S; Wang, Fujun; D'Souza, Deborah N; Moldofsky, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study tested the hypothesis that baseline ratings of fatigue/tiredness would be negatively associated with the efficacy of duloxetine on measures of pain and functional ability in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods A post hoc analysis of pooled data from 4 double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of duloxetine in fibromyalgia was performed. The fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) tiredness item score (0 to 10 scale) was used to define tiredness subgroups. Patients were ...

  13. Empirically derived pain-patient MMPI subgroups: prediction of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J E; Armentrout, D P; Parker, J C; Kivlahan, D R

    1986-02-01

    Fifty-seven male chronic pain patients admitted to an inpatient multimodal pain treatment program at a Midwestern Veterans Administration hospital completed the MMPI, Profile of Mood States (POMS), Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS), Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (RAS), activity diaries, and an extensive pain questionnaire. All patients were assessed both before and after treatment, and most also were assessed 2-5 months prior to treatment. No significant changes occurred during the baseline period, but significant improvements were evident at posttreatment on most variables: MMPI, POMS, TSCS, RAS, pain severity, sexual functioning, and activity diaries. MMPI subgroup membership, based on a hierarchical cluster analysis in a larger sample, was not predictive of differential treatment outcome. Possible reasons for comparable treatment gains among these subgroups, which previously have been shown to differ on many psychological and behavioral factors, are discussed.

  14. Identification of subgroups of patients with tension type headache with higher widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Benito-González, Elena; Palacios-Ceña, María; Wang, Kelun; Castaldo, Matteo; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2017-12-01

    Identification of subgroups of patients with different levels of sensitization and clinical features can help to identify groups at risk and the development of better therapeutic strategies. The aim of this study was to identify subgroups of patients with tension type headache (TTH) with different levels of sensitization, clinical pain features, and psychological outcomes. A total of 197 individuals with TTH participated. Headache intensity, frequency, and duration and medication intake were collected with a 4-weeks diary. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over the temporalis muscle, C5-C6 joint, second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscle to determine widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale assessed anxiety and depression. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory evaluated the state and trait levels of anxiety. The Headache Disability Inventory evaluated the burden of headache. Health-related quality of life was determined with the SF-36 questionnaire. Groups were considered as positive (three or more criteria) or negative (less than three criteria) on a clinical prediction rule: headache duration patients with TTH with higher sensitization, higher chronicity of headaches and worse quality of life but lower frequency and duration of headache episodes. This subgroup of individuals with TTH may need particular attention and specific therapeutic programs for avoiding potential chronification.

  15. Television viewing in low-income latino children: variation by ethnic subgroup and English proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Darcy A; Matson, Pamela A; Ellen, Jonathan M

    2013-02-01

    Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0-4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (child television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing.

  16. Frequency of ABO, subgroup ABO and Rh(D) blood groups in major sudanese ethnic groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are differences in the distribution of ABO, sub group A BO and Rh(D) blood groups in different populations of the world. Relatively little information is available about blood group distributions in Sudanese population. To see the frequency of ABO, subgroup ABO and Rh(D) blood groups in major Sudanese ethnic groups(Danagla Shaygia and Gaaleen). Blood testing for ABO, subgroup ABO and Rh(D) typing was done over six months, in 300 unrelated individuals, from both genders. Blood samples were collected from students of the college of medical laboratory science - Sudan University of Science and Technology using finger prick method and following routine slide method. Blood group 'O' was the most predominant ( 52.7%) in both Rh positive and negative subjects followed by blood group A, B and AB. Majority (98.0%)o f the subjects were Rh(D) positive and only 2% were Rh negative. The predominant subgroup of ABO was A2 (14.1% ). The frequency of ABO blood groups in both Rh positive and negative subjects among the major Sudanese ethnic group was similar to that reported from neighbouring regions. (author)

  17. Television Viewing in Low-Income Latino Children: Variation by Ethnic Subgroup and English Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Pamela A.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Television viewing is associated with an increased risk for obesity in children. Latino children are at high risk for obesity and yet little is known about differences in television viewing habits within this population. The purpose of this study is to determine if hours of television viewed by young children with low-income Latina mothers differs by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Welfare, Children, & Families: A Three City Study. Participants were 422 low-income Latina mothers of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent with children ages 0–4 years old. The dependent variable was hours of daily television viewed by the child. The independent variable was maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Analyses involved the use of multiple negative binomial regression models, which were adjusted for demographic variables. Results Multivariable regression analyses showed that compared to children with mothers of Mexican descent, children of mothers of Puerto Rican descent watch more daily television (television viewing (IRR=1.29, 95% CI 1.04, 1.61). No relationship was found for children of Puerto Rican descent. Conclusions Child television viewing varies in low-income Latino children by maternal ethnic subgroup and English language proficiency. Interventionists must consider the varying sociocultural contexts of Latino children and their influence on television viewing. PMID:23301653

  18. Verification of a Subgroup Generation Method for Thorium Fuel Assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Ohsung; Kim, Myunghyun

    2013-01-01

    Resonance parameter consists of subgroup level and weight. The subgroup weight is obtained by solving the ultrafine slowing down equation and fixed source problem. That means this cross section library procedure considers conservation of the shielded cross section for pin-cell in order to obtain subgroup parameters. There are some isotopes to be concerned for research such as actinides and thorium. Minor actinides(MA) are existing with very small amount in a spent fuel, but effect is not negligible in a high burnup fuel assemblies. Some MAs have high fission cross sections under thermal neutron spectrum. Thorium isotopes was not investigated as much as uranium, but it has high potential for future application. In this study, a new cross section library to be replaced with HELIOS library was generated and compared for the assembly calculation, specially for assembly with thorium. An average capture cross section value at a certain fuel pin and multiplication factor of assembly were compared with nTRACER calculation with HELIOS library and Monte Carlo calculation of MCNP with ENDF-B/II. The accuracy of library data generated for thorium isotope in nTRACER calculation was tested for WASB model. There was a great improvement in K-eff and capture cross section for this assembly compared with old library, HELIOS library

  19. A 6-gene signature identifies four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples). Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples) using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p INSS stage 4 and/or dead of disease, p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group's specific characteristics. PMID:21492432

  20. A 6-gene signature identifies four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogner Per

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB; Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples. Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and/or dead of disease, p Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group's specific characteristics.

  1. Gambaran Populasi Golongan Darah Subgroup A (A1, A2 di PMI Kulon Progo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hieronymus Rayi Prasetya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Subgroup A1 and A2 are the most important in the blood group A. Subgroup A1 has the A antigen more than A2 subgroup, the A2 subgroup can cause misidentification of blood group due to poor A antigen and genetic variation possessed. Misidentification of the blood group will increase the risk of transfusion reactions. This research aims to describe the A1 and A2 subgroup population in Kulon Progo district. This study was conducted with a cross sectional sampling technique. The sample in this study were taken from donors of blood group A in Kulon Progo Red Cross. Identification of A1 and A2 subgroup is done by using lectin (Dolichos biflorus extract. The result of the examination of 53 samples showed that 96,2% was A1 subgroup and 3,8% was A2 subgroup. Key words : Subgroup A1, Subgroup A2, Population, Kulon Progo

  2. Attacking Heterogeneity in Schizophrenia by Deriving Clinical Subgroups From Widely Available Symptom Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Dwight; Pratt, Danielle N; Giangrande, Evan J; Grunnagle, MeiLin; Orel, Jennifer; Weinberger, Daniel R; Callicott, Joseph H; Berman, Karen F

    2018-01-13

    Previous research has identified (1) a "deficit" subtype of schizophrenia characterized by enduring negative symptoms and diminished emotionality and (2) a "distress" subtype associated with high emotionality-including anxiety, depression, and stress sensitivity. Individuals in deficit and distress categories differ sharply in development, clinical course and behavior, and show distinct biological markers, perhaps signaling different etiologies. We tested whether deficit and distress subtypes would emerge from a simple but novel data-driven subgrouping analysis, based on Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative and distress symptom dimensions, and whether subgrouping was informative regarding other facets of behavior and brain function. PANSS data, and other assessments, were available for 549 people with schizophrenia diagnoses. Negative and distress symptom composite scores were used as indicators in 2-step cluster analyses, which divided the sample into low symptom (n = 301), distress (n = 121), and deficit (n = 127) subgroups. Relative to the low-symptom group, the deficit and distress subgroups had comparably higher total PANSS symptoms (Ps symptom, cognitive and personality variables, among others. Initial analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a 182-participant subset of the full sample also suggested distinct patterns of neural recruitment during working memory. The field seeks more neuroscience-based systems for classifying psychiatric conditions, but these are inescapably behavioral disorders. More effective parsing of clinical and behavioral traits could identify homogeneous target groups for further neural system and molecular studies, helping to integrate clinical and neuroscience approaches. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2017.

  3. Able but unintelligent: including positively stereotyped black subgroups in the stereotype content model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Amy S; Czopp, Alexander M

    2011-01-01

    The stereotype content model (SCM) posits that warmth and competence are the key components underlying judgments about social groups. Because competence can encompass different components (e.g., intelligence, talent) different group members may be perceived to be competent for different reasons. Therefore, we believe it may be important to specify the type of competence being assessed when examining perceptions of groups that are positively stereotyped (i.e., Black athletes and musical Blacks). Consistent with the SCM, these subgroups were perceived as high in competence-talent but not in competence-intelligence and low in warmth. Both the intelligence and talent frame of competence fit in the SCM's social structural hypothesis.

  4. Eating habits of obese patients in the Netherlands: a comparison between various subgroups and the general Dutch population.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drent, M.L.; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.

    1995-01-01

    It is still uncertain whether subgroups of obese subjects demonstrate different eating patterns. The aim of this report is to compare data on dietary intake obtained by different methods (dietary history and dietary diary) in several groups of obese patients in which the effects of weight-reducing

  5. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving...... by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...

  6. Multinational comparative cross-sectional survey of views of medical students about acceptable terminology and subgroups in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Shanaya; Irfan, Muhammad; Bhargava, Rachna; Pinninti, Narsimha; Scott, Joseph; Mohammad Algahtani, Haifa; Guo, Zhihua; Gupta, Rishab; Nadkarni, Pallavi; Naeem, Farooq; Howells, Fleur; Sorsdahi, Katherine; Thorne, Kerensa; Osman-Hicks, Victoria; Pallikadavath, Sasee; Phiri, Peter; Carr, Hannah; Graves, Lizi; Kingdon, David

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to inform thinking around the terminology for 'schizophrenia' in different countries. The objective of this study was to investigate: (1) whether medical students view alternative terminology (psychosis subgroups), derived from vulnerability-stress models of schizophrenia, as acceptable and less stigmatising than the term schizophrenia; (2) if there are differences in attitudes to the different terminology across countries with different cultures and (3) whether clinical training has an impact in reducing stigma. This is a cross-sectional survey that examined the attitudes of medical students towards schizophrenia and the alternative subgroups. The study was conducted across eight sites: (1) University of Southampton, UK; (2) All India Institute of Medical Science, India; (3) Rowan University, USA; (4) Peshawar Medical College, Pakistan; (5) Capital Medical University, China; (6) College of Medicine and Medical sciences, Bahrain; (7) Queens University, Kingston, Canada and (8) University of Cape Town, South Africa. This study extended an initial pilot conducted by the Royal College of Psychiatrists on the term schizophrenia and psychosis subgroups to assess whether the subgroup terminology might have an effect on the attitudes of a convenience sample of medical students from eight different countries and potentially play a role in reducing stigmatisation. 1873 medical students completed a questionnaire recording their attitudes to schizophrenia and the psychosis subgroups. A reduction in negative perceptions were found for the psychosis subgroups, especially for the stress sensitivity psychosis and anxiety psychosis subgroups. Negative perceptions were found for drug-related psychosis. Participants who had undergone clinical training had overall positive attitudes. Differences across different countries were found. The attitudes towards psychosis subgroups used in this study have shown mixed results and variation across countries. Further

  7. Birth and fertility rates for states by Hispanic origin subgroups: United States, 1990 and 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul D; Mathews, T J

    2006-05-01

    This report presents U.S. and State-level data on births, birth rates, and fertility rates for Hispanic origin subgroups for 1990 and 2000. Data for non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks are provided for comparison. Data are presented in detailed tables, graphs, and maps. Between 1990 and 2000, the total U.S. Hispanic population increased 58 percent, from 22,353,999 to 35,305,818. Over the same period of time, births to Hispanic mothers increased 37 percent, from 595,073 to 815,868. The smaller increases in births compared with the population resulted in a falling birth rate among Hispanic mothers (26.7 in 1990 to 23.1 births per 1,000 total population in 2000). Birth and fertility rates for Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban mothers all fell between 1990 and 2000. Among the Hispanic subgroups, fertility rates in 2000 ranged from 105.1 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years for Mexican women to 49.3 for Cuban women. Differences in fertility exist not only between Hispanic subgroups but also within groups among States. For example, total fertility rates for Puerto Rican mothers, which estimates the number of children a group of 1,000 women will have in their lifetime, ranged in 2000 from 1,616.5 in New York to 2,403.0 in Pennsylvania.

  8. Promoter DNA methylation pattern identifies prognostic subgroups in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Borssén

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment of pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL has improved, but there is a considerable fraction of patients experiencing a poor outcome. There is a need for better prognostic markers and aberrant DNA methylation is a candidate in other malignancies, but its potential prognostic significance in T-ALL is hitherto undecided. DESIGN AND METHODS: Genome wide promoter DNA methylation analysis was performed in pediatric T-ALL samples (n = 43 using arrays covering >27000 CpG sites. Clinical outcome was evaluated in relation to methylation status and compared with a contemporary T-ALL group not tested for methylation (n = 32. RESULTS: Based on CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP, T-ALL samples were subgrouped as CIMP+ (high methylation and CIMP- (low methylation. CIMP- T-ALL patients had significantly worse overall and event free survival (p = 0.02 and p = 0.001, respectively compared to CIMP+ cases. CIMP status was an independent factor for survival in multivariate analysis including age, gender and white blood cell count. Analysis of differently methylated genes in the CIMP subgroups showed an overrepresentation of transcription factors, ligands and polycomb target genes. CONCLUSIONS: We identified global promoter methylation profiling as being of relevance for subgrouping and prognostication of pediatric T-ALL.

  9. A 6-gene signature identifies four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abel, Frida

    2011-04-14

    Abstract Background There are currently three postulated genomic subtypes of the childhood tumour neuroblastoma (NB); Type 1, Type 2A, and Type 2B. The most aggressive forms of NB are characterized by amplification of the oncogene MYCN (MNA) and low expression of the favourable marker NTRK1. Recently, mutations or high expression of the familial predisposition gene Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) was associated to unfavourable biology of sporadic NB. Also, various other genes have been linked to NB pathogenesis. Results The present study explores subgroup discrimination by gene expression profiling using three published microarray studies on NB (47 samples). Four distinct clusters were identified by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) in two separate data sets, which could be verified by an unsupervised hierarchical clustering in a third independent data set (101 NB samples) using a set of 74 discriminative genes. The expression signature of six NB-associated genes ALK, BIRC5, CCND1, MYCN, NTRK1, and PHOX2B, significantly discriminated the four clusters (p < 0.05, one-way ANOVA test). PCA clusters p1, p2, and p3 were found to correspond well to the postulated subtypes 1, 2A, and 2B, respectively. Remarkably, a fourth novel cluster was detected in all three independent data sets. This cluster comprised mainly 11q-deleted MNA-negative tumours with low expression of ALK, BIRC5, and PHOX2B, and was significantly associated with higher tumour stage, poor outcome and poor survival compared to the Type 1-corresponding favourable group (INSS stage 4 and\\/or dead of disease, p < 0.05, Fisher\\'s exact test). Conclusions Based on expression profiling we have identified four molecular subgroups of neuroblastoma, which can be distinguished by a 6-gene signature. The fourth subgroup has not been described elsewhere, and efforts are currently made to further investigate this group\\'s specific characteristics.

  10. Gender wage gap : Discrimination or Human Capital? A subgroup approach

    OpenAIRE

    Etoundi Atenga, Eric Martial; Chameni Nembua, Célestin; Meva Avoulou, Henri Joel

    2013-01-01

    The working population is becoming more and more feminized from 2000 to 2008 in Cameroon. Women receive on average a salary lower than that of the men and the sex remains a significant determiner of the professional position in Cameroon. From Oaxaca-Blinder(1973)decomposition, this work suggests studying gender wage gap composition in private and para public sectors by using subgroup approach. Results show that wage gap is estimated to 8.8% in favor of men. This gap is higher for employees ag...

  11. Infinite families of superintegrable systems separable in subgroup coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lévesque, Daniel; Post, Sarah; Winternitz, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    A method is presented that makes it possible to embed a subgroup separable superintegrable system into an infinite family of systems that are integrable and exactly-solvable. It is shown that in two dimensional Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean spaces the method also preserves superintegrability. Two infinite families of classical and quantum superintegrable systems are obtained in two-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean space whose classical trajectories and quantum eigenfunctions are investigated. In particular, the wave-functions are expressed in terms of Laguerre and generalized Bessel polynomials. (paper)

  12. Practical Algorithms for Subgroup Detection in Covert Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock; Qureshi, Pir Abdul Rasool

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present algorithms for subgroup detection and demonstrated them with a real-time case study of USS Cole bombing terrorist network. The algorithms are demonstrated in an application by a prototype system. The system finds associations between terrorist and terrorist organisations...... and is capable of determining links between terrorism plots occurred in the past, their affiliation with terrorist camps, travel record, funds transfer, etc. The findings are represented by a network in the form of an Attributed Relational Graph (ARG). Paths from a node to any other node in the network indicate...

  13. Thiocarbomide coordination compounds of yttrium subgroup rare earth chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakharova, Yu.G.; Perov, V.N.; Loginov, V.I.

    1978-01-01

    Thiocarbamide coordination compounds of chlorides of elements of the yttrium subgroup 4MeCl 3 x5Cs(NH 2 ) 2 x2OH 2 O (where Me stands for Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu, Y) were produced for the first time. The compounds obtained are stable in air, have definite melting points, are highly soluble in methyl and ethyl alcohols, and are unstable in water. They recrystallize from ethyl alcohol without changing their chemical composition. The identity of these compounds was confirmed by X-ray analysis

  14. The effect of active video games by ethnicity, sex and fitness: subgroup analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Louise; Jiang, Yannan; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Prapavessis, Harry; Rodgers, Anthony; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-04-03

    The prevention and treatment of childhood obesity is a key public health challenge. However, certain groups within populations have markedly different risk profiles for obesity and related health behaviours. Well-designed subgroup analysis can identify potential differential effects of obesity interventions, which may be important for reducing health inequalities. The study aim was to evaluate the consistency of the effects of active video games across important subgroups in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). A two-arm, parallel RCT was conducted in overweight or obese children (n=322; aged 10-14 years) to determine the effect of active video games on body composition. Statistically significant overall treatment effects favouring the intervention group were found for body mass index, body mass index z-score and percentage body fat at 24 weeks. For these outcomes, pre-specified subgroup analyses were conducted among important baseline demographic (ethnicity, sex) and prognostic (cardiovascular fitness) groups. No statistically significant interaction effects were found between the treatment and subgroup terms in the main regression model (p=0.36 to 0.93), indicating a consistent treatment effect across these groups. Preliminary evidence suggests an active video games intervention had a consistent positive effect on body composition among important subgroups. This may support the use of these games as a pragmatic public health intervention to displace sedentary behaviour with physical activity in young people.

  15. Clinico-Epidemiological Comparison of Delusion-Prominent and Hallucination-Prominent Clinical Subgroups of Paranoid Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreinin, Anatoly; Krishtul, Vladimir; Kirsh, Zvi; Menuchin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Though hallucinations and delusions are prominent basic impairments in schizophrenia, reports of the relationship between hallucinatory and delusional symptoms among schizophrenia patients are scant. To examine the epidemiological and clinical differences between mainly hallucinatory and mainly delusional subgroups of paranoid schizophrenia patients. One hundred schizophrenia patients, paranoid type, were recruited. In a cross-sectional study, participants were divided into Mainly Hallucinatory (H) and Mainly Delusional (D) subgroups. Demographic variables were compared and clinical characteristics were evaluated using the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms, and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. The Quality-of-Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-18 was used to assess quality of life. Clinically, the H group was more heterogeneous as expressed by the broader range of scores that described the clinical picture of patients in that subgroup (in 43 of 78 variables, 55.13%) and similar ranges of scores (31 of 78 variables, 39.74%) for patients in the D group. Duration of hospitalization was significantly longer in group H than in group D (p=0.047). There was no statistically significant difference between the H and D subgroups in demographic characteristics. There are distinct epidemiological and clinical differences between the H and D subgroups, with more severe positive and negative symptoms and greater functional impairment in the H group. Paranoid schizophrenia patients with prominent hallucinations have poorer prognosis and need intensive therapeutic rehabilitation beginning with onset-of-illness. Further genetic studies and comparisons of fMRI and/or PET findings are warranted to investigate additional distinctive characteristics of these subgroups.

  16. Patient characteristics in low back pain subgroups based on an existing classification system. A descriptive cohort study in chiropractic practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eirikstoft, Heidi; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-01-01

    reducible disc syndromes followed by facet joint pain, dysfunction and sacroiliac (SI)-joint pain. Classification was inconclusive in 5% of the patients. Differences in pain, activity limitation, and psychological factors were small across subgroups. Within 10 days, 82% were reported to belong to the same......Sub-grouping of low back pain (LBP) is believed to improve prediction of prognosis and treatment effects. The objectives of this study were: (1) to examine whether chiropractic patients could be sub-grouped according to an existing pathoanatomically-based classification system, (2) to describe...... patient characteristics within each subgroup, and (3) to determine the proportion of patients in whom clinicians considered the classification to be unchanged after approximately 10 days. A cohort of 923 LBP patients was included during their first consultation. Patients completed an extensive...

  17. K-theory for discrete subgroups of the Lorentz groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the thesis, a conjecture on the structure of the topological K theory groups associated to an action of a discrete group on a manifold is verified in the special case when the group is a closed discrete subgroup of a Lorentz group. The K theory is the topological K theory of the reduced crossed product C algebra arising from the action of a countable discrete group acting by diffeomorphisms on a smooth, Hausdorf, and second and countable manifold. The proof uses the geometric K theory of Baum and Connes. In this situation, they have developed a geometrically realized K theory which they conjecture to be isomorphic to the analytic K theory. Work of Kasparov is used to show the geometric K groups and the analytic K groups are isomorphic for actions of the Lorentz groups on a manifold. Work of Marc Rieffel on Morita equivalence of C/sup */ algebras, shows the analytic K theory for a closed discrete subgroup of a Lie group acting on a manifold is isomorphic to the K theory of the Lie group itself, acting on an induced manifold

  18. Identifying and Assessing Interesting Subgroups in a Heterogeneous Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woojoo; Alexeyenko, Andrey; Pernemalm, Maria; Guegan, Justine; Dessen, Philippe; Lazar, Vladimir; Lehtiö, Janne; Pawitan, Yudi

    2015-01-01

    Biological heterogeneity is common in many diseases and it is often the reason for therapeutic failures. Thus, there is great interest in classifying a disease into subtypes that have clinical significance in terms of prognosis or therapy response. One of the most popular methods to uncover unrecognized subtypes is cluster analysis. However, classical clustering methods such as k-means clustering or hierarchical clustering are not guaranteed to produce clinically interesting subtypes. This could be because the main statistical variability--the basis of cluster generation--is dominated by genes not associated with the clinical phenotype of interest. Furthermore, a strong prognostic factor might be relevant for a certain subgroup but not for the whole population; thus an analysis of the whole sample may not reveal this prognostic factor. To address these problems we investigate methods to identify and assess clinically interesting subgroups in a heterogeneous population. The identification step uses a clustering algorithm and to assess significance we use a false discovery rate- (FDR-) based measure. Under the heterogeneity condition the standard FDR estimate is shown to overestimate the true FDR value, but this is remedied by an improved FDR estimation procedure. As illustrations, two real data examples from gene expression studies of lung cancer are provided.

  19. Tephrostratigraphy and geochemical fingerprinting of the Mangaone Subgroup tephra beds, Okataina Volcanic Centre, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.C.; Shane, P.; Smith, I.E.M.

    2002-01-01

    The Mangaone Subgroup is a sequence of 14 plinian tephra beds erupted from the Okataina Volcanic Centre in North Island, New Zealand, that are bracketed between the regional marker beds of Rotoehu Tephra (50-60 ka) and Oruanui Tephra (26 ka). The Mangaone Subgroup tephra beds are separated by thin paleosols in ascending stratigraphic order: unit A, unit B, unit C, Pupuwharau Tephra (new), Pongakawa Tephra (new), Maketu, Te Mahoe, Hauparu, unit G, unit H, Mangaone, Awakeri, Omataroa, and unit L. Geochemical fingerprinting of the glass and phenocryst phases allows clear subdivision of the Mangaone Subgroup into two stratigraphic intervals. Units A-G are rhyodacites and low-SiO 2 rhyolites (71-75.5 wt% SiO 2 glass; 68-71 wt% SiO 2 whole rock), clinopyroxene bearing, with calcic plagioclase (An 40-60 ) and magnesian orthopyroxene (En 60-70 ), and they display high eruption temperatures (870-940 degrees C) and oxygen fugacities (-log f O 2 11.66-10.40). Some of these units are compositionally heterogeneous in the glass phase (SiO 2 range up to 8 wt%), especially unit A, Ngamotu, Te Mahoe, and Hauparu tephra beds. Units A-G can easily be distinguished from other Taupo Volcanic Zone tephra erupted in the last c. 60 000 yr. Units H-L are high SiO 2 rhyolites (76-78 wt% SiO 2 glass; 71.5-75 wt% SiO 2 whole rock), which contain sodic plagioclase (An 30-40 ), low-Mg orthopyroxene (En 50-60 ), and display lower eruption temperatures (755-830 degrees C) and oxygen fugacities (-log f O 2 = 14.7-12.93). Compositional differences in titanomagnetite and ilmenite can also be used to distinguish them from older units. The two compositional groups also form distinct T-f O 2 trends. The shift in chemical affinity follows the large volume Hauparu eruption, and coincides with the likely geographic shift in vent location to the eastern margin of the caldera complex. Tephra beds that both predate and postdate the Mangaone Subgroup also reflect changes in magma type and vent location. The

  20. Identification of Subgroups of Women with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome with Central Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Muñoz, Juan J; Navarro-Pardo, Esperanza; da-Silva-Pocinho, Ricardo F; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Pareja, Juan A

    2016-09-01

    Identification of subjects with different sensitization mechanisms can help to identify better therapeutic strategies for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The aim of the current study was to identify subgroups of women with CTS with different levels of sensitization. A total of 223 women with CTS were recruited. Self-reported variables included pain intensity, function, disability, and depression. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerves, C5-C6 joint, carpal tunnel, and tibialis anterior to assess widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia. Heat (HPT) and cold (CPT) pain thresholds were also bilaterally assessed over the carpal tunnel and the thenar eminence to determine thermal pain hyperalgesia. Pinch grip force between the thumb and the remaining fingers was calculated to determine motor assessment. Subgroups were determined according to the status on a previous clinical prediction rule: PPT over the affected C5-C6 joint 66 points. The ANOVA showed that women within group 1 (positive rule, n = 60) exhibited bilateral widespread pressure hyperalgesia (P < 0.001) and bilateral thermal thresholds (P < 0.001) than those within group 2 (negative rule, n = 162). Women in group 1 also exhibited higher depression than those in group 2 (P = 0.023). No differences in self-reported variables were observed. This study showed that a clinical prediction rule originally developed for identifying women with CTS who are likely to respond favorably to manual physical therapy was able to identify women exhibiting higher widespread pressure hyper-sensitivity and thermal hyperalgesia. This subgroup of women with CTS exhibiting higher sensitization may need specific therapeutic programs. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Study of microflora status of radiation-induced peripheral blood T cell and its subgroup changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Hao; Wang Shengzi; Wang Shuyi; Lu Shenbin; Guo Ming; Tian Jie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the differences of the radiation-induced peripheral blood T cell and its subgroup changes between SPF and CV rats after nasopharyngeal radiation with gradient doses and explore the microflora factors in the pathogenesis of abnormal radiation-induced immunity status. Methods: 8 from each SPF and CV rats were chosen for oropharyngeal bacteria cultivation and determination and the spleen organ coefficients. The rest were irradiated with 6MX linear accelerator in the nasopharyngeal fields at dose of 0, 10, 20, 30 Gy, 5 in each group. 24 ∼ 36 h later, blood T lymphocytes and their subgroups were detected by FCM. Results: The bacteria of CV rats were pathogen mostly and the one from SPF rats was Proteus mirabilis uniquely. Spleen organ coefficients between two groups showed no statistical difference. CD + 3 , CD + 4 lymphocytes and the ratio of CD + 4 / CD + 8 of CV rats decreased dramatically after radiation is in close relation with radiation doses while The CD + 8 lymphocyte increased a bit. The CD + 3 , CD + 4 , CD + 8 lymphocytes and the ratio of CD + 4 / CD + 8 of SPF rats remained in a stable level. Conclusions: There exists the difference of radiation-induced injuries of immune system in relation with different microflora status. Micro-flora plays an important role in the radiation-induced immune system abnormity. (authors)

  2. Upgrading the safety toolkit: Initiatives of the accident analysis subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Chung, D.Y.

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception, the Accident Analysis Subgroup (AAS) of the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG) has been a leading organization promoting development and application of appropriate methodologies for safety analysis of US Department of Energy (DOE) installations. The AAS, one of seven chartered by the EFCOG Safety Analysis Working Group, has performed an oversight function and provided direction to several technical groups. These efforts have been instrumental toward formal evaluation of computer models, improving the pedigree on high-use computer models, and development of the user-friendly Accident Analysis Guidebook (AAG). All of these improvements have improved the analytical toolkit for best complying with DOE orders and standards shaping safety analysis reports (SARs) and related documentation. Major support for these objectives has been through DOE/DP-45

  3. Report of the subgroup on experimental area upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, S.; Gollon, P.; Kantardjian, G.; Lanou, R.; Miller, D.; Pope, B.; Theriot, D.; Walker, W.

    1981-01-01

    This subgroup has been charged with the task of reconsidering these areas from the point of view of useability in the ISABELLE experimental program. As a result we have developed an ordered list of suggested improvements to each of the areas. The list is presented area-by-area, after some introductory remarks on the design considerations behind the present areas. The purpose of the list is to indicate the eventual scope of ISABELLE experimental areas, not to suggest that these upgrades should be put in place now. Indeed, although most of these additions will be needed regardless of which experiments are carried out, we think it prudent to wait for experiment approvals before the final design and installation of the suggested improvements

  4. Qualitative interaction trees: A tool to identify qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusseldorp, E.; Mechelen, I. van

    2014-01-01

    When two alternative treatments (A and B) are available, some subgroup of patients may display a better outcome with treatment A than with B, whereas for another subgroup, the reverse may be true. If this is the case, a qualitative (i.e., disordinal) treatment-subgroup interaction is present. Such

  5. Latent class analysis derived subgroups of low back pain patients - do they have prognostic capacity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard Nielsen, Anne; Hestbaek, Lise; Vach, Werner

    2017-01-01

    . Previously, we developed two novel suggestions for subgrouping patients with low back pain based on Latent Class Analysis of patient baseline characteristics (patient history and physical examination), which resulted in 7 subgroups when using a single-stage analysis, and 9 subgroups when using a two...

  6. QUINT : A tool to detect qualitative treatment-subgroup interactions in randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doove, L.L.; Van Deun, K.; Dusseldorp, E.; van Mechelen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The detection of subgroups involved in qualitative treatment–subgroup interactions (i.e., for one subgroup of clients treatment A outperforms treatment B, whereas for another the reverse holds true) is crucial for personalized health. In typical Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs), the

  7. Medulloblastoma subgroup-specific outcomes in irradiated children: who are the true high-risk patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Vijay; Remke, Marc; Adamski, Jennifer; Bartels, Ute; Tabori, Uri; Wang, Xin; Huang, Annie; Hawkins, Cynthia; Mabbott, Donald; Laperriere, Normand; Taylor, Michael D; Bouffet, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The advent of integrated genomics has fundamentally changed our understanding of medulloblastoma. Although survival differences exist among the 4 principal subgroups, this has yet to be elucidated in a North American cohort of irradiated patients. Ninety-two consecutive patients between the ages of 3 and 17 treated with surgery, craniospinal irradiation, and chemotherapy were identified at the Hospital for Sick Children. Molecular subgrouping was performed using nanoString. Two treatment periods were identified: prior to 2006 as per the protocols of the Children's Oncology Group, and after 2006 per the St Jude Medulloblastoma 03 protocol. Five-year progression-free survival (PFS) over the entire cohort was 0.801 (95% CI: 0.692-0.875) with no significant difference between treatment protocols. Strikingly, we found that Group 4 patients had excellent 5-year PFS of 0.959 (95% CI: 0.744-0.994) for average risk and 0.887 (95% CI: 0.727-0.956) across all Group 4 patients. Group 3 patients had 5-year PFS of 0.733 (95% CI: 0.436-0.891). Sonic hedgehog patients did poorly across both treatment protocols, with 5-year PFS of 0.613 (95% CI: 0.333-0.804), likely owing to a high proportion of TP53 mutated patients in this age group. In a cohort of irradiated patients over 3 years of age, PFS for Group 4 patients was significantly improved compared with initial reports. The impact of subgroup affiliation in these children needs to be assessed in large prospectively treated cooperative protocols to determine if more than just WNT patients can be safely selected for de-escalation of therapy. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Medical specialty selection criteria of Israeli medical students early in their clinical experience: subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alexander; Weissman, Charles; Elchalal, Uriel; Tandeter, Howard; Zisk-Rony, Rachel Yaffa

    2018-04-18

    Israeli medical school classes include a number of student subgroups. Therefore, interventions aimed at recruiting medical students to the various specialties should to be tailored to each subgroup. Questionnaires, distributed to 6 consecutive 5th-year classes of the Hebrew University - Hadassah School of Medicine, elicited information on criteria for choosing a career specialty, criteria for choosing a residency program and the importance of finding a specialty interesting and challenging when choosing a residency. Completed questionnaires were returned by 540 of 769 (70%) students. The decision processes for choosing a medical specialty and choosing a residency program were different. Family and colleagues had minimal influence on choosing a specialty, while family and their residential locality had much influence on choosing a residency, especially among women. Older age, marriage, and spousal influence were positively associated with choice of a specialty. Two-thirds of the students had completed military service, 20% were attending medical school prior to military service, 5% had completed national service and 9% had entered medical school without serving. Despite the pre-military subgroup being younger and having another 7 years of medical school, internship and military service before residency, they had begun thinking about which specialty to choose, just like the post-military students. When choosing a residency program, post-military women were more influenced by their families and family residential locality than their pre-military counterparts; differences ascribed to the older and often married post-military women having or wanting to begin families. This difference was reinforced by fewer post- than pre-military women willing to wait 2-3 years for a residency in the specialty that interested them most and were willing to begin residency immediately after internship in a specialty that interested them less. Medical school classes are composed of

  9. 1H MR spectroscopy in histopathological subgroups of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, Milan; Dezortova, Monika; Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir; Marusic, Petr; Tomasek, Martin; Krijtova, Hana; Zamecnik, Josef; Kyncl, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the lateralizing value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) in histopathologically different subgroups of mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE) and to correlate results with clinical, MRI and seizure outcome data. A group of 35 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery was retrospectively studied. Hippocampal 1 H MR spectra were evaluated. Metabolite concentrations were obtained using LCModel and NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, NAA/(Cr+Cho), Cho/Cr ratios and coefficients of asymmetry were calculated. MRI correctly lateralized 89% of subjects and 1 H MRS 83%. MRI together with 1 H MRS correctly lateralized 100% of patients. Nineteen subjects had ''classical'' hippocampal sclerosis (HS), whereas the remaining 16 patients had ''mild'' HS. Nineteen patients had histopathologically proven malformation of cortical development (MCD) in the temporal pole; 16 subjects had only HS. No difference in 1 H MRS findings was found between patients in different histopathological subgroups of MTLE. Our results support the hypothesis that 1 H MRS abnormalities do not directly reflect histopathological changes in MTLE patients. Subjects with non-lateralized 1 H MRS abnormalities did not have a worse postoperative seizure outcome. We found no significant impact of contralateral 1 H MRS abnormality on post-surgical seizure outcome. (orig.)

  10. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy in histopathological subgroups of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajek, Milan; Dezortova, Monika [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, MR Unit, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic); Krsek, Pavel; Komarek, Vladimir [Charles University, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Prague 5 (Czech Republic); Marusic, Petr; Tomasek, Martin; Krijtova, Hana [Charles University, Department of Neurology, Prague (Czech Republic); Zamecnik, Josef [Charles University, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, Prague (Czech Republic); Kyncl, Martin [Charles University, Department of Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the study was to analyze the lateralizing value of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) in histopathologically different subgroups of mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE) and to correlate results with clinical, MRI and seizure outcome data. A group of 35 patients who underwent resective epilepsy surgery was retrospectively studied. Hippocampal {sup 1}H MR spectra were evaluated. Metabolite concentrations were obtained using LCModel and NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho, NAA/(Cr+Cho), Cho/Cr ratios and coefficients of asymmetry were calculated. MRI correctly lateralized 89% of subjects and {sup 1}H MRS 83%. MRI together with {sup 1}H MRS correctly lateralized 100% of patients. Nineteen subjects had 'classical' hippocampal sclerosis (HS), whereas the remaining 16 patients had 'mild' HS. Nineteen patients had histopathologically proven malformation of cortical development (MCD) in the temporal pole; 16 subjects had only HS. No difference in {sup 1}H MRS findings was found between patients in different histopathological subgroups of MTLE. Our results support the hypothesis that {sup 1}H MRS abnormalities do not directly reflect histopathological changes in MTLE patients. Subjects with non-lateralized {sup 1}H MRS abnormalities did not have a worse postoperative seizure outcome. We found no significant impact of contralateral {sup 1}H MRS abnormality on post-surgical seizure outcome. (orig.)

  11. Extended phenotype and clinical subgroups in unilateral Meniere disease: A cross-sectional study with cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frejo, L; Martin-Sanz, E; Teggi, R; Trinidad, G; Soto-Varela, A; Santos-Perez, S; Manrique, R; Perez, N; Aran, I; Almeida-Branco, M S; Batuecas-Caletrio, A; Fraile, J; Espinosa-Sanchez, J M; Perez-Guillen, V; Perez-Garrigues, H; Oliva-Dominguez, M; Aleman, O; Benitez, J; Perez, P; Lopez-Escamez, J A

    2017-12-01

    To define clinical subgroups by cluster analysis in patients with unilateral Meniere disease (MD) and to compare them with the clinical subgroups found in bilateral MD. A cross-sectional study with a two-step cluster analysis. A tertiary referral multicenter study. Nine hundred and eighty-eight adult patients with unilateral MD. best predictors to define clinical subgroups with potential different aetiologies. We established five clusters in unilateral MD. Group 1 is the most frequently found, includes 53% of patients, and it is defined as the sporadic, classic MD without migraine and without autoimmune disorder (AD). Group 2 is found in 8% of patients, and it is defined by hearing loss, which antedates the vertigo episodes by months or years (delayed MD), without migraine or AD in most of cases. Group 3 involves 13% of patients, and it is considered familial MD, while group 4, which includes 15% of patients, is linked to the presence of migraine in all cases. Group 5 is found in 11% of patients and is defined by a comorbid AD. We found significant differences in the distribution of AD in clusters 3, 4 and 5 between patients with uni- and bilateral MD. Cluster analysis defines clinical subgroups in MD, and it extends the phenotype beyond audiovestibular symptoms. This classification will help to improve the phenotyping in MD and facilitate the selection of patients for randomised clinical trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Subgroups of musculoskeletal pain patients and their psychobiological patterns – The LOGIN study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhardt Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain conditions of the musculoskeletal system are very common and have tremendous socioeconomic impact. Despite its high prevalence, musculoskeletal pain remains poorly understood and predominantly non-specifically and insufficiently treated. The group of chronic musculoskeletal pain patients is supposed to be heterogeneous, due to a multitude of mechanisms involved in chronic pain. Psychological variables, psychophysiological processes, and neuroendocrine alterations are expected to be involved. Thus far, studies on musculoskeletal pain have predominantly focused on the general aspects of pain processing, thus neglecting the heterogeneity of patients with musculoskeletal pain. Consequently, there is a need for studies that comprise a multitude of mechanisms that are potentially involved in the chronicity and spread of pain. This need might foster research and facilitate a better pathophysiological understanding of the condition, thereby promoting the development of specific mechanism-based treatments for chronic pain. Therefore, the objectives of this study are as follows: 1 identify and describe subgroups of patients with musculoskeletal pain with regard to clinical manifestations (including mental co-morbidity and 2 investigate whether distinct sensory profiles or 3 distinct plasma levels of pain-related parameters due to different underlying mechanisms can be distinguished in various subgroups of pain patients. Methods/Design We will examine a population-based chronic pain sample (n = 100, a clinical tertiary care sample (n = 100 and pain-free patients with depression or post-traumatic stress disorder and pain-free healthy controls (each n = 30, respectively. The samples will be pain localisation matched by sex and age to the population-based sample. Patients will undergo physical examination and thorough assessments of mental co-morbidity (including psychological trauma, perceptual and central sensitisation

  13. Subgroups of musculoskeletal pain patients and their psychobiological patterns - the LOGIN study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Andreas; Hartmann, Mechthild; Tesarz, Jonas; Janke, Susanne; Leisner, Sabine; Seidler, Günter; Eich, Wolfgang

    2012-08-03

    Pain conditions of the musculoskeletal system are very common and have tremendous socioeconomic impact. Despite its high prevalence, musculoskeletal pain remains poorly understood and predominantly non-specifically and insufficiently treated.The group of chronic musculoskeletal pain patients is supposed to be heterogeneous, due to a multitude of mechanisms involved in chronic pain. Psychological variables, psychophysiological processes, and neuroendocrine alterations are expected to be involved. Thus far, studies on musculoskeletal pain have predominantly focused on the general aspects of pain processing, thus neglecting the heterogeneity of patients with musculoskeletal pain. Consequently, there is a need for studies that comprise a multitude of mechanisms that are potentially involved in the chronicity and spread of pain. This need might foster research and facilitate a better pathophysiological understanding of the condition, thereby promoting the development of specific mechanism-based treatments for chronic pain. Therefore, the objectives of this study are as follows: 1) identify and describe subgroups of patients with musculoskeletal pain with regard to clinical manifestations (including mental co-morbidity) and 2) investigate whether distinct sensory profiles or 3) distinct plasma levels of pain-related parameters due to different underlying mechanisms can be distinguished in various subgroups of pain patients. We will examine a population-based chronic pain sample (n = 100), a clinical tertiary care sample (n = 100) and pain-free patients with depression or post-traumatic stress disorder and pain-free healthy controls (each n = 30, respectively). The samples will be pain localisation matched by sex and age to the population-based sample. Patients will undergo physical examination and thorough assessments of mental co-morbidity (including psychological trauma), perceptual and central sensitisation (quantitative sensory testing), descending

  14. Subgrouping of risky behaviors among Iranian college students: a latent class analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiri, Saeid; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Yunesian, Masud; Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Shamsipour, Mansour; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background Risky behaviors may interrupt development or cause considerable morbidity or mortality. This study’s purpose was to determine subgroups of students based on risky behaviors and assess the prevalence of risky behaviors in each of the subgroups. Participants and methods This anonymous cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2015 and November 2015, with 1,777 students from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, through multistage random sampling method. The data were analyzed by latent class analysis. Results The prevalence rates of cigarette smoking (more than or equal to ten cigarettes), hookah use (≥1 time/month), and alcohol consumption (≥1 time/month) during the last year were 12.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10.9–14.0), 11.6% (95% CI: 10.0–13.1), and 4.9% (95% CI: 3.8–5.9), respectively. The prevalence rates of illicit opioids (1.8%, 95% CI: 1.2–2.5), cannabis (1.2%, 95% CI: 0.7–1.7), methamphetamine (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–1.6), methylphenidate (2.5%, 95% CI: 1.7–3.2), and extramarital sex (5.5%, 95% CI: 4.5–6.6) over the last year were also estimated. Three latent classes were determined: 1) low risk; 2) cigarette and hookah smoker; and 3) high risk. It is worth mentioning that 3.7% of males and 0.4% of females were in the high risk group. Conclusion Subgrouping of college students showed that a considerable percentage of them, especially males, were classified into the high risk and cigarette and hookah smoker groups. Appropriate preventive measures that consider multiple different risky behaviors simultaneously are needed for this part of the population. PMID:27524898

  15. An observation on inappropriate probiotic subgroup classifications in the meta-analysis by Lau and Chamberlain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McFarl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lynne V McFarland Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA I read with great interest the systematic review of meta-analysis assessing probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD published in the International Journal of General Medicine. These authors pooled 26 randomized controlled trials (RCTs and concluded that Lactobacilli, mixtures, and Saccharomyces probiotics were effective in preventing CDAD. However, the meta-analysis by Lau and Chamberlain is flawed due to improper classification by the types of probiotics. It is important to recognize that the efficacy of probiotics for various diseases has been shown to be strain specific for each probiotic product, and thus the data should only be pooled for probiotics that are of the identical type. In their analysis of probiotic subgroups by various species, the authors have inappropriately merged different types of Lactobacilli into one subgroup “Lactobacilli” and different types of mixtures into one group classified as “Mix”.View the original paper by Lau and Chamberlain. 

  16. Anatomic and Physiologic Heterogeneity of Subgroup-A Auditory Sensory Neurons in Fruit Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yuki; Okamoto, Natsuki; Nakamura, Mizuki; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kamikouchi, Azusa

    2017-01-01

    The antennal ear of the fruit fly detects acoustic signals in intraspecific communication, such as the courtship song and agonistic sounds. Among the five subgroups of mechanosensory neurons in the fly ear, subgroup-A neurons respond maximally to vibrations over a wide frequency range between 100 and 1,200 Hz. The functional organization of the neural circuit comprised of subgroup-A neurons, however, remains largely unknown. In the present study, we used 11 GAL4 strains that selectively label subgroup-A neurons and explored the diversity of subgroup-A neurons by combining single-cell anatomic analysis and Ca 2+ imaging. Our findings indicate that the subgroup-A neurons that project into various combinations of subareas in the brain are more anatomically diverse than previously described. Subgroup-A neurons were also physiologically diverse, and some types were tuned to a narrow frequency range, suggesting that the response of subgroup-A neurons to sounds of a wide frequency range is due to the existence of several types of subgroup-A neurons. Further, we found that an auditory behavioral response to the courtship song of flies was attenuated when most subgroup-A neurons were silenced. Together, these findings characterize the heterogeneous functional organization of subgroup-A neurons, which might facilitate species-specific acoustic signal detection.

  17. Subgroup analyses in randomised controlled trials: cohort study on trial protocols and journal publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasenda, Benjamin; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Sun, Xin; von Elm, Erik; You, John; Blümle, Anette; Tomonaga, Yuki; Saccilotto, Ramon; Amstutz, Alain; Bengough, Theresa; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Stegert, Mihaela; Olu, Kelechi K; Tikkinen, Kari A O; Neumann, Ignacio; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Faulhaber, Markus; Mulla, Sohail M; Mertz, Dominik; Akl, Elie A; Bassler, Dirk; Busse, Jason W; Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Lamontagne, Francois; Nordmann, Alain; Gloy, Viktoria; Raatz, Heike; Moja, Lorenzo; Rosenthal, Rachel; Ebrahim, Shanil; Vandvik, Per O; Johnston, Bradley C; Walter, Martin A; Burnand, Bernard; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Hemkens, Lars G; Bucher, Heiner C; Guyatt, Gordon H; Briel, Matthias

    2014-07-16

    To investigate the planning of subgroup analyses in protocols of randomised controlled trials and the agreement with corresponding full journal publications. Cohort of protocols of randomised controlled trial and subsequent full journal publications. Six research ethics committees in Switzerland, Germany, and Canada. 894 protocols of randomised controlled trial involving patients approved by participating research ethics committees between 2000 and 2003 and 515 subsequent full journal publications. Of 894 protocols of randomised controlled trials, 252 (28.2%) included one or more planned subgroup analyses. Of those, 17 (6.7%) provided a clear hypothesis for at least one subgroup analysis, 10 (4.0%) anticipated the direction of a subgroup effect, and 87 (34.5%) planned a statistical test for interaction. Industry sponsored trials more often planned subgroup analyses compared with investigator sponsored trials (195/551 (35.4%) v 57/343 (16.6%), P<0.001). Of 515 identified journal publications, 246 (47.8%) reported at least one subgroup analysis. In 81 (32.9%) of the 246 publications reporting subgroup analyses, authors stated that subgroup analyses were prespecified, but this was not supported by 28 (34.6%) corresponding protocols. In 86 publications, authors claimed a subgroup effect, but only 36 (41.9%) corresponding protocols reported a planned subgroup analysis. Subgroup analyses are insufficiently described in the protocols of randomised controlled trials submitted to research ethics committees, and investigators rarely specify the anticipated direction of subgroup effects. More than one third of statements in publications of randomised controlled trials about subgroup prespecification had no documentation in the corresponding protocols. Definitive judgments regarding credibility of claimed subgroup effects are not possible without access to protocols and analysis plans of randomised controlled trials. © The DISCO study group 2014.

  18. Fecal metagenomic profiles in subgroups of patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy-Szakal, Dorottya; Williams, Brent L; Mishra, Nischay; Che, Xiaoyu; Lee, Bohyun; Bateman, Lucinda; Klimas, Nancy G; Komaroff, Anthony L; Levine, Susan; Montoya, Jose G; Peterson, Daniel L; Ramanan, Devi; Jain, Komal; Eddy, Meredith L; Hornig, Mady; Lipkin, W Ian

    2017-04-26

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is characterized by unexplained persistent fatigue, commonly accompanied by cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disturbances, orthostatic intolerance, fever, lymphadenopathy, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The extent to which the gastrointestinal microbiome and peripheral inflammation are associated with ME/CFS remains unclear. We pursued rigorous clinical characterization, fecal bacterial metagenomics, and plasma immune molecule analyses in 50 ME/CFS patients and 50 healthy controls frequency-matched for age, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic site, and season of sampling. Topological analysis revealed associations between IBS co-morbidity, body mass index, fecal bacterial composition, and bacterial metabolic pathways but not plasma immune molecules. IBS co-morbidity was the strongest driving factor in the separation of topological networks based on bacterial profiles and metabolic pathways. Predictive selection models based on bacterial profiles supported findings from topological analyses indicating that ME/CFS subgroups, defined by IBS status, could be distinguished from control subjects with high predictive accuracy. Bacterial taxa predictive of ME/CFS patients with IBS were distinct from taxa associated with ME/CFS patients without IBS. Increased abundance of unclassified Alistipes and decreased Faecalibacterium emerged as the top biomarkers of ME/CFS with IBS; while increased unclassified Bacteroides abundance and decreased Bacteroides vulgatus were the top biomarkers of ME/CFS without IBS. Despite findings of differences in bacterial taxa and metabolic pathways defining ME/CFS subgroups, decreased metabolic pathways associated with unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and increased atrazine degradation pathways were independent of IBS co-morbidity. Increased vitamin B6 biosynthesis/salvage and pyrimidine ribonucleoside degradation were the top metabolic pathways in ME/CFS without IBS as well as in the

  19. Discriminative validity of the Scoliosis Research Society 22 questionnaire among five curve-severity subgroups of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berliner, Jonathan L; Verma, Kushagra; Lonner, Baron S; Penn, Phedra U; Bharucha, Neil J

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) 22 discriminative validity have lacked sufficiently matched study groups and were limited to a comparison with three or fewer subgroups of disease severity. To evaluate the discriminative validity of SRS-22 by assessing the questionnaire's ability to discriminate among five groups of pretreatment adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients with increasing curve severity. Retrospective review of prospectively administered surveys. Two hundred eighty-six SRS-22 questionnaires were issued to two AIS pretreatment patient populations: 67 nonoperative and 219 preoperative. Study subjects were separated into five subgroups depending on the major Cobb angle (nonoperative 0°-19° and 20°-40° and preoperative 41°-50°, 51°-60°, and >60°). Each group (n=31) was matched for age (within 1 year) and sex (23 females and 8 males), resulting in a total of 155 study subjects. Analysis of variance was used to determine statistically significant differences (pself-image than all three preoperative groups. Both nonoperative groups' total scores were significantly higher than all three preoperative groups' scores, with the exception of the 20° to 40° subgroup versus the >60° subgroup. No significant differences were found between groups within the same planned treatment category. The SRS-22 questionnaire demonstrated good discriminative validity between small nonoperative curves and larger surgical curves within the pain, image, and total domains. However, SRS-22 lacked the ability to differentiate between small intervals of curve magnitude, suggesting a limitation to the questionnaire's discriminative capacity. The discriminative validity of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) 22 has not been clearly defined. Our analysis of 155 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients evaluates the instrument's discriminative validity among five age- and sex-matched curve-severity subgroups. The SRS-22 questionnaire lacked the

  20. Using a psychosocial subgroup assignment to predict sickness absence in a working population with neck and back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Irene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The overall objective was to evaluate the predictive validity of a subgroup classification based on the Swedish version of the MPI, the MPI-S, among gainfully employed workers with neck pain (NP and/or low back pain (LBP during a follow-up period of 18 and 36 months. Methods This is a prospective cohort study that is part of a larger longitudinal multi-centre study entitled Work and Health in the Process and Engineering Industries (AHA. The attempt was to classify individuals at risk for developing chronic disabling NP and LBP. This is the first study using the MPI-questionnaire in a working population with NP and LBP. Results Dysfunctional individuals (DYS demonstrated more statistically significant sickness absence compared to adaptive copers (AC after 36 months. DYS also had a threefold increase in the risk ratio of long-term sickness absence at 18 months. Interpersonally distressed (ID subgroup showed overall more sickness absence compared to the AC subgroup at the 36-month follow-up and had a twofold increase in the risk ratio of long-term sickness absence at 18 months. There was a significant difference in bodily pain, mental and physical health for ID and DYS subgroups compared to the AC group at both follow-ups. Conclusions The present study shows that this multidimensional approach to the classification of individuals based on psychological and psychosocial characteristics can distinguish different groups in gainfully employed working population with NP/LBP. The results in this study confirm the predictive validity of the MPI-S subgroup classification system.

  1. Topography and Volcanology of the Huangtsuishan Volcano Subgroup, Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ming Lai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the shaded relief topography model and the slope map from the Digital Terrain Model (DTM images, toporaphical map, field occurrences and petrography, the volcanic sequences of the Huangtsuishan Volcano Subgroup (HVS can be constructed. Two types of volcanic centers can be identified in this area. One is the Tachienhou volcanic dome, which may be located in the center of an older caldera. The other is the Huangtsui composite volcano, which is composed of interbedding lava flows and pyroclastic deposits with a volcanic crater named the Huangtsui pond at the summit. Eight lava plateaus radiated from Mts. Huangtsui and Tachienhou to the north and the east can be distinguished based on the DTM images. The volcanic deposits are comprised of four lithofacies, the lava flows, pyroclastic breccias, tuffs and lahars on the base of field occurrences. At least thirteen layers of lava flow, named the H1 to H13 can be recognized in the HVS and can be reconstructed and categorized into four stages. An old and large volcano erupted lava flows to form the products of stages one and two, then collapsed to form a caldera with a dome for the third stage. The latest stage of lava flow was poured out from the Huangtsui volcano, which formed a crater at the summit.

  2. Characterization of courtship sounds of species of the subgroup fasciola (Diptera, Drosophilidae, Drosophila repleta group: interspecific and interpopulational analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. A. COSTA

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the male courtship song pattern of various species of the fasciola subgroup and to determine the level of variation both within and among species. The parameters analyzed were intrapulse interval (PI, interpulse interval (IPI, and intrapulse frequency (IF. Six different species were analyzed: D. coroica (three populations, D. ellisoni, D. fascioloides, D. moju, D. onca, and D. rosinae (one population each. There were significant differences among the six species for these three courtship song parameters. The IPI was the most variable parameter among these species, suggesting that this parameter is important for female discrimination. Four different hypotheses could explain this variation: 1. different selection pressures with absence of flow gene; 2. intraspecific sexual selection; 3. sympatric effects on song evolution; and 4. genetic drift. The PI was the only parameter that was significantly different among the three population of D. coroica. Low variability among populations within the same species was already observed for other subgroups and could be explained by the following hypotheses: strong selection acting on the song parameters, gene flow, or recent colonization from a common source. Additional studies of the courtship song of other species of the fasciola subgroup, as well as for other subgroups of the repleta group, and studies, using molecular makers, that focus on the genetic basis of the differences among these species in courtship song would allow us to evaluate the association of courtship song and sexual isolation in these species, and would also help us to understand the evolution of these behavioural differences.

  3. Discriminative and predictive validity of the scoliosis research society-22 questionnaire in management and curve-severity subgroups of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Eric C; Hill, Doug; Mahood, Jim; Moreau, Marc; Raso, Jim; Lou, Edmond

    2009-10-15

    Prospective cross-sectional measurement study. To determine the ability of the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 questionnaire to discriminate among management and scoliosis severity subgroups and to correlate with internal and external measures of curve severity. In earlier studies of the SRS-22 discriminative ability, age was not a controlled factor. The ability of the SRS-22 to predict curve severity has not been thoroughly examined. The SRS-22 was completed by 227 females with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Using Analysis of covariance analyses controlling for age, the SRS-22 scores were compared among management subgroups (observation, brace, presurgery, and postsurgery) and curve-severity subgroups (in nonoperated subjects: Cobb angles of 50 degrees). A stepwise discriminant analysis was used to identify the SRS-22 domains most discriminative for curve-severity categories. Correlation between SRS-22 scores and radiographic or surface topography measurements was used to determine the predictive ability of the questionnaire. Pain was better for subjects treated with braces than for those planning surgery. Self-image was better for subjects under observation or postsurgery than for those planning surgery. Satisfaction was better for the brace and postsurgery subgroups than for the observation or presurgery subgroups. Statistically significant mean differences between subgroups were all larger than 0.5, which is within the range of minimal clinically important differences recommended for each of the 5-point SRS-22 domain scoring scales. Pain and mental health were worse for those with Cobb angles of >50 degrees than with Cobb angles of 30 degrees to 50 degrees. Self-image and total scores were worse for those with Cobb angles of >50 degrees than both other subgroups. Using discriminant analysis, self-image was the only SRS-22 domain score selected to classify subjects within curve severity subgroups. The percentage of patients accurately classified was 54

  4. Subgroup report on hard x-ray microprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.; Barbee, T.; Bionta, R.; Howells, M.; Thompson, A.C.; Yun, W.

    1994-01-01

    The increasing availability of synchrotron x-ray sources has stimulated the development of advanced hard x-ray (E≥5 keV) microprobes. New x-ray optics have been demonstrated which show promise for achieving intense submicron hard x-ray probes. These probes will be used for extraordinary elemental detection by x-ray fluorescence/absorption and for microdiffraction to identify phase and strain. The inherent elemental and crystallographic sensitivity of an x-ray microprobe and its inherently nondestructive and penetrating nature makes the development of an advanced hard x-ray microprobe an important national goal. In this workshop state-of-the-art hard x-ray microprobe optics were described and future directions were discussed. Gene Ice, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), presented an overview of the current status of hard x-ray microprobe optics and described the use of crystal spectrometers to improve minimum detectable limits in fluorescent microprobe experiments. Al Thompson, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), described work at the Center for X-ray Optics to develop a hard x-ray microprobe based on Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) optics. Al Thompson also showed the results of some experimental measurements with their KB optics. Malcolm Howells presented a method for bending elliptical mirrors and Troy Barbee commented on the use of graded d spacings to achieve highest efficiency in KB multilayer microfocusing. Richard Bionta, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), described the development of the first hard x-ray zone plates and future promise of so called open-quotes jelly rollclose quotes or sputter slice zone plates. Wenbing Yun, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), described characterization of jelly roll and lithographically produced zone plates and described the application of zone plates to focus extremely narrow bandwidths by nuclear resonance. This report summarizes the presentations of the workshop subgroup on hard x-ray microprobes

  5. Identification of subgroups of patients with low back pain using Latent Class Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Mølgaard

    questionnaire and the clinicians’ findings on a standardised examination of the low back. By using pattern recognition, subgroups of patients were identified within which their responses and scores are similar, and therefore the patients are more alike within the subgroups than across the subgroups. Latent......, the optimal application of the LCA method in this context is unknown and therefore, two methodological considerations were addressed during the process. Firstly, when using existing questionnaire data, whether using each single item or the summary scores would provide better subgroup information. Secondly...... the questionnaires was preferred, due to the more nuanced description available within the resulting subgroups. Therefore, the single‐item strategy was used in the subsequent single‐stage and two‐stage LCA, which identified seven and nine patient subgroups, respectively, with similar face validity and adequate...

  6. Subgroup-specific intrinsic disorder profiles of arabidopsis NAC transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Emil G.; O'Shea, Charlotte; Skriver, Karen

    2015-01-01

    disordered but contain short, functionally important regions with structure propensities known as molecular recognition features. Here, we analyze for NAC subgroup-specific ID patterns. Some subgroups, such as the VND subgroup implicated in secondary cell wall biosynthesis, and the NAP/SHYG subgroup have...... highly conserved ID profiles. For the stress-associated ATAF1 subgroup and the CUC/ORE1 subgroup involved in development, only sub clades have similar ID patterns. For similar ID profiles, conserved molecular recognition features and sequence motifs represent likely functional determinants of e.......g. transcriptional activation and interactions. Based on our analysis, we suggest that ID profiling of regulatory proteins in general can be used to guide identification of interaction partners of network proteins....

  7. Laboratory evaluation of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay for the detection and identification of the four subgroups of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guionie, O; Toquin, D; Sellal, E; Bouley, S; Zwingelstein, F; Allée, C; Bougeard, S; Lemière, S; Eterradossi, N

    2007-02-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is an important pathogen causing respiratory diseases and egg drops in several avian species. Four AMPV subgroups have been identified. The laboratory diagnosis of AMPV infections relies on serological methods, on labour-intensive virus isolation procedures, and on recently developed subgroup specific reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) protocols. In the present study, both the specificity and sensitivity of a commercial real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) for the detection and identification of the four AMPV subgroups were evaluated. Fifteen non-AMPV avian viruses belonging to 7 genera and 32 AMPV belonging to the 4 subgroups were tested. No non-AMPV virus was detected, whereas all AMPV viruses were identified in agreement with their previous molecular and antigenic subgroup assignment. The sensitivity and quantitating ability of the RRT-PCR assay were determined using serial dilutions of RNA derived either from AMPV virus stocks or from runoff transcripts. In all cases, linear dose/responses were observed. The detection limits of the different subgroups ranged from 500 to 5000 RNA copies and from 0.03 to 3.16TCID50/ml. The results were reproducible under laboratory conditions, thus showing that quantitative RRT-PCR is a new and powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection, identification and quantitation of AMPVs.

  8. Requirements for a new nuclear data structure. Part 2: Implementation Plan Prepared by WPEC Subgroup No.38 (subgroup title: 'A modern nuclear database structure beyond the ENDF format')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the implementation plan developed during the second meeting of the WPEC Subgroup 38 (SG38), which was organized to develop a new evaluated nuclear data structure 1 and then oversee the transition from the current standard (ENDF-6) to the new structure. Part 1 of this document, adopted by WPEC in May 2013, lays out the vision and goals for the new structure. In this second step, SG38 develops a community plan to address these needs and requirements. The plan laid out here represents a consensus on how to execute the project, what work will be done, and to some degree how it will be done and the people involved. During the development of the vision and goals for the new format it was recognized that the application of modern programming and database practices will have significant benefits for nuclear reaction databases, both for those of us engaged in producing this data and those who utilize the data for applications. It was also appreciated that additional benefits would be realized if the low-level data containers used for storing reaction data were general enough to be shared with other nuclear data products, such as EXFOR, RIPL, and ENSDF, so that codes interfacing with these different databases could share the same set of routines for reading and writing data structures. However, it was also acknowledged that adoption of these new tools and capabilities will be difficult without some supporting infrastructure in place to use the new data structure, specifically open source codes to manipulate, search, plot, and process the data, as well as tools to translate data to other formats in current use and to check the data for quality. In order to address this broad set of goals, the SG38 project decided to organize the work around seven different products: 1. Low-level data structures; 2. Top-level reaction hierarchy; 3. Particle properties hierarchy; 4. Visualization, manipulation, and processing tools; 5. API for reading and writing data

  9. A comparison of three clustering methods for finding subgroups in MRI, SMS or clinical data: SPSS TwoStep Cluster analysis, Latent Gold and SNOB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter; Jensen, Rikke K; Kongsted, Alice

    2014-10-02

    indicated that all three clustering methods showed a near-perfect ability to detect known subgroups and correctly classify individuals into those subgroups. Our subjective judgement was that Latent Gold offered the best balance of sensitivity to subgroups, ease of use and presentation of results with these datasets but we recognise that different clustering methods may suit other types of data and clinical research questions.

  10. Baicalin is an inhibitor of subgroup J avian leukosis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Kong, Zheng-Ru; Zhang, Jie; Cheng, Xiao-Wei; Wu, Zong-Yi; Gu, Cheng-Xi; Shao, Hong-Xia; Qin, Ai-Jian

    2018-03-15

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) can cause great economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Baicalin, one of the flavonoids present in S.baicalensis Georgi, has been shown to have antiviral activities. To investigate whether baicalin has antiviral effects on the infection of ALV-J in DF-1 cells, the cells were treated with baicalin at different time points. We found that baicalin could inhibit viral mRNA, protein levels and overall virus infection in a dose- and time-dependent manner using a variety of assays. Baicalin specifically targeted virus internalization and reduced the infectivity of ALV-J particles, but had no effect on the levels of major ALV-J receptor and virus binding to DF-1 cells. Collectively, these results suggest that baicalin might have potential to be developed as a novel antiviral agent for ALV-J infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Light wavelength dependency of mating activity in the drosophila melanogaster species subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takaomi; Tomaru, Masatoshi; Oguma, Yuzuru; Isono, Kunio; Fukatami, Akishi

    2002-01-01

    The action spectra of mating activity among the six species of the Drosophila melanogaster species subgroup were compared to understand how light wavelength affects mating activity. The species fell into three groups with respect to the action spectrum of mating activity. We chose one representative species from each of the three types for detailed study: D. melanogaster, D. sechellia and D. yakuba. The mating activities were investigated under three different light intensities of three monochromatic lights stimulus. Each species showed a unique spectral and intensity response. To know the evolutionary meaning of the light wavelength dependency of mating activity, we superimposed the type of action spectrum of mating activity in these six species on a cladogram. Mating inhibition under UV was conserved in evolution among these species. Furthermore we clarified that D. melanogaster showed low mating activity under UV because males courted less under UV. (author)

  12. TIA, RIND, minor stroke: a continuum, or different subgroups? Dutch TIA Study Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudstaal, P. J.; van Gijn, J.; Frenken, C. W.; Hijdra, A.; Lodder, J.; Vermeulen, M.; Bulens, C.; Franke, C. L.

    1992-01-01

    The results of CT were studied prospectively in 606 patients with a transient ischaemic attack (TIA), 422 patients with a reversible ischaemic neurological deficit (RIND), and 1054 patients with a minor stroke, were all entered into a multi-centre clinical trial. CT scanning showed a relevant

  13. Peer Rejection in Middle School: Subgroup Differences in Behavior, Loneliness, and Interpersonal Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Jennifer T.; Asher, Steven R.

    1992-01-01

    Studied patterns of behavior and emotional response associated with peer rejection in early adolescence. Obtained data on seventh and eighth graders' loneliness, social dissatisfaction, and concerns. The combination of aggressiveness and submissiveness with low levels of prosocial behavior was associated with peer rejection. (GLR)

  14. Defective Number Sense or Impaired Access? Differential Impairments in Different Subgroups of Children with Mathematics Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terry T.-Y.; Ho, Connie S.-H.; Tang, Joey

    2017-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a specific learning disability in mathematics that affects around 6% of the population. Currently, the core deficit of DD remains unknown. While the number sense deficit hypothesis suggests that the core deficit of DD lies in the inability to represent nonsymbolic numerosity, the access deficit hypothesis suggests…

  15. Functional Status, Quality of Life, and Costs Associated With Fibromyalgia Subgroups: A Latent Profile Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, Juan V; Forero, Carlos G; Cerdà-Lafont, Marta; Peñarrubia-María, María Teresa; Fernández-Vergel, Rita; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Ruíz, José M; Rozadilla-Sacanell, Antoni; Sirvent-Alierta, Elena; Santo-Panero, Pilar; García-Campayo, Javier; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Pérez-Aranda, Adrián; Rubio-Valera, María

    2016-10-01

    Although fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is considered a heterogeneous condition, there is no generally accepted subgroup typology. We used hierarchical cluster analysis and latent profile analysis to replicate Giesecke's classification in Spanish FM patients. The second aim was to examine whether the subgroups differed in sociodemographic characteristics, functional status, quality of life, and in direct and indirect costs. A total of 160 FM patients completed the following measures for cluster derivation: the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, and the Control over Pain subscale. Pain threshold was measured with a sphygmomanometer. In addition, the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised, the EuroQoL-5D-3L, and the Client Service Receipt Inventory were administered for cluster validation. Two distinct clusters were identified using hierarchical cluster analysis ("hypersensitive" group, 69.8% and "functional" group, 30.2%). In contrast, the latent profile analysis goodness-of-fit indices supported the existence of 3 FM patient profiles: (1) a "functional" profile (28.1%) defined as moderate tenderness, distress, and pain catastrophizing; (2) a "dysfunctional" profile (45.6%) defined by elevated tenderness, distress, and pain catastrophizing; and (3) a "highly dysfunctional and distressed" profile (26.3%) characterized by elevated tenderness and extremely high distress and catastrophizing. We did not find significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics between the 2 clusters or among the 3 profiles. The functional profile was associated with less impairment, greater quality of life, and lower health care costs. We identified 3 distinct profiles which accounted for the heterogeneity of FM patients. Our findings might help to design tailored interventions for FM patients.

  16. Exacerbation heterogeneity in COPD: subgroup analyses from the FLAME study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelmeier CF

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Claus F Vogelmeier,1 Kenneth R Chapman,2 Marc Miravitlles,3 Nicolas Roche,4 Jørgen Vestbo,5 Chau Thach,6 Donald Banerji,6 Robert Fogel,6 Francesco Patalano,7 Petter Olsson,8 Konstantinos Kostikas,7 Jadwiga A Wedzicha9 1Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany; 2Asthma and Airway Centre, University Health Network and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Pneumology Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, CIBER de Enfermedades Respiratorias (CIBERES, Barcelona, Spain; 4Service de Pneumologie AP-HP, Cochin Hospital, University Paris Descartes (EA2511, Paris, France; 5Institute of Infection, Immunity and Respiratory Medicine, The University of Manchester and Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, UK; 6Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA; 7Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 8Novartis Sverige AB, Täby, Sweden; 9National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, UK Background: The FLAME study compared once-daily indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY 110/50 µg with twice-daily salmeterol/fluticasone (SFC 50/500 µg in symptomatic patients with moderate to very severe COPD and a history of exacerbations in the previous year. Methods: This prespecified and post hoc subgroup analysis evaluated treatment efficacy on 1 moderate/severe exacerbations according to prior exacerbation history and treatment, and 2 types of exacerbations according to health care resource utilization (HCRU during 1-year follow-up. Results: IND/GLY reduced the rate of moderate/severe exacerbations versus SFC in patients with a history of 1 exacerbation (rate ratio [RR]: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.75–0.93, ≥2 exacerbations (RR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.70–1.03 and ≥2 exacerbations or ≥1 hospitalization in the previous year (RR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.74

  17. Are estimates of meaningful decline in mobility performance consistent among clinically important subgroups? (Health ABC Study).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perera, S.; Studenski, S.; Newman, A.; Simonsick, E.; Harris, T.; Schwartz, A.; Visser, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Meaningful change criteria help determine if function has improved or declined, but their magnitudes may vary across clinically relevant subgroups. We estimate meaningful decline in four common measures of physical performance in subgroups of older adults based on initial performance,

  18. Cohesive subgroup formation : enabling and constraining effects of social capital in strategic technology alliance networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duysters, G.M.; Lemmens, C.E.A.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we will examine the role of embeddedness and social capital in the process of cohesive subgroup formation in strategic technology alliance networks. More in particular, we will investigate the social mechanisms that enable and enforce cohesive subgroup formation. We will argue that the

  19. Conditions for Effective Application of Analysis of Symmetrically-Predicted Endogenous Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Laura R.

    2015-01-01

    Several analytic strategies exist for opening up the "black box" to reveal more about what drives policy and program impacts. This article focuses on one of these strategies: the Analysis of Symmetrically-Predicted Endogenous Subgroups (ASPES). ASPES uses exogenous baseline data to identify endogenously-defined subgroups, keeping the…

  20. Finite groups with the set of the number of subgroups of possible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Finite group; the number of subgroups of possible order. 1. Introduction. Throughout this paper, groups mentioned are finite and p is a prime. An important topic in the group theory is to investigate the number of subgroups of possible order, and con- versely it is also an important subject to determine the structure of a finite ...

  1. Life of Pizza Pie: The Implications of Sub-Group Comparisons in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tara N.

    2013-01-01

    Current educational statistics have pitted subgroups against one another without consideration of the actual population sizes of each group. This paper is intended to provided a clearer understanding of the current usage of sub-group comparisons in American education. (Contains 4 figures.)

  2. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens in Hawaiian waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Bradford

    Full Text Available For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ: an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5 and NWHI (n = 1 false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000 of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030 and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97

  3. Performance of the international physical activity questionnaire (short form) in subgroups of the Hong Kong chinese population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) has been validated and recommended as an efficient method to assess physical activity, but its validity has not been investigated in different population subgroups. We examined variations in IPAQ validity in the Hong Kong Chinese population by six factors: sex, age, job status, educational level, body mass index (BMI), and visceral fat level (VFL). Methods A total of 1,270 adults (aged 42.9 ± SD 14.4 years, 46.1% male) completed the Chinese version of IPAQ (IPAQ-C) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph) for four days afterwards. The IPAQ-C and the ActiGraph were compared in terms of estimated Metabolic Equivalent Task minutes per week (MET-min/wk), minutes spent in activity of moderate or vigorous intensity (MVPA), and agreement in the classification of physical activity. Results The overall Spearman correlation (ρ) of between the IPAQ-C and ActiGraph was low (0.11 ± 0.03; range in subgroups 0.06-0.24) and was the highest among high VFL participants (0.24 ± 0.05). Difference between self-reported and ActiGraph-derived MET-min/wk (overall 2966 ± 140) was the smallest among participants with tertiary education (1804 ± 208). When physical activity was categorized into over or under 150 min/wk, overall agreement between self-report and accelerometer was 81.3% (± 1.1%; subgroup range: 77.2%-91.4%); agreement was the highest among those who were employed full-time in physically demanding jobs (91.4% ± 2.7%). Conclusions Sex, age, job status, educational level, and obesity were found to influence the criterion validity of IPAQ-C, yet none of the subgroups showed good validity (ρ = 0.06 to 0.24). IPAQ-SF validity is questionable in our Chinese population. PMID:21801461

  4. Is the performance of MRI in preoperative staging of breast cancer independent of clinical and histological factors? A subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira Gómez, C; Zamora Romero, J; Gil de Miguel, A; Chiva de Agustín, M; Plana Farrás, M N; Martínez González, J

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether preoperative breast MRI is more useful in patients according to their breast density, age, menopausal status, and biopsy findings of carcinoma in situ. We retrospectively studied 264 patients treated for breast cancer who had undergone mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI. We compared the size of the tumor on the three techniques and the sensitivity of the techniques for detecting additional lesions both in the overall group and in subgroups of patients classified according to their breast density, age, menopausal status, and histological findings of intraductal carcinoma. The definitive histological diagnosis was used as the gold standard. MRI was the technique that was most concordant with the histological findings for the size of the lesion, and it was also the technique that detected the most additional lesions. With MRI, we observed no differences in lesion size between the overall group and the subgroups in which MRI provided added value. Likewise, we observed no differences in the number of additional lesions detected in the overall group except for multicentric lesions, which was larger in older patients (P=.02). In the subgroup of patients in which MRI provided added value, the sensitivity for bilateral lesions was higher in patients with fatty breasts (P=.04). Multifocal lesions were detected significantly better in premenopausal patients (P=.03). MRI is better than mammography and better than ultrasonography for establishing the size of the tumor and for detecting additional lesions. Our results did not identify any subgroups in which the technique was more useful. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. A Newborn Case of “c” Subgroup Mismatch Presenting with Severe Hemolysis and Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Yangın Ergon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemolysis and jaundice related to Rh incompatibility in the neonatal period has decreased substantially due to the widespread use of anti-D gammaglobulin in recent years. Nevertheless, the rate of subgroup mismatch in the etiology of hemolytic diseases of the newborn has increased significantly. In this article an 8-day-old newborn infant with “c” subgroup incompatibility and presenting with severe anemia, in whom hemolysis could be controlled with intravenous immunoglobulin infusion and subgroup appropriate blood transfusion, has been presented. Scientific studies have demonstrated that the hemolytic disease of patients who don’t have major blood group incompatibility but carry anti-C antibodies can be rather serious. Therefore, subgroup mismatch should always be kept in mind for newborns presenting with severe hemolytic anemia, and transfusion or if necessary exchange transfusion should be provided with subgroup matched blood products.

  6. On the growth of rank for subgroups of finitely generated groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osin, D V

    1999-01-01

    In [1] and [2] the functions of rank growth were independently introduced and investigated for subgroups of a finitely generated free group. In the present paper the concept of growth of rank is extended to subgroups of an arbitrary finitely generated group G, and the dependence of the asymptotic behaviour of the above functions on the choice of a finite generating set in G is studied. For a broad class of groups (which includes, in particular, the free polynilpotent groups) estimates for the growth of rank for subgroups are obtained that generalize the wellknown Baumslag-Eidel'kind result on finitely generated normal subgroups. Some problems related to the realization of arbitrary functions as functions of rank growth for subgroups of soluble groups are treated

  7. Differential diagnosis of feline leukemia virus subgroups using pseudotype viruses expressing green fluorescent protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Megumi; Sato, Eiji; Miura, Tomoyuki; Baba, Kenji; Shimoda, Tetsuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2010-06-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is classified into three receptor interference subgroups, A, B and C. In this study, to differentiate FeLV subgroups, we developed a simple assay system using pseudotype viruses expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP). We prepared gfp pseudotype viruses, named gfp(FeLV-A), gfp(FeLV-B) and gfp(FeLV-C) harboring envelopes of FeLV-A, B and C, respectively. The gfp pseudotype viruses completely interfered with the same subgroups of FeLV reference strains on FEA cells (a feline embryonic fibroblast cell line). We also confirmed that the pseudotype viruses could differentiate FeLV subgroups in field isolates. The assay will be useful for differential diagnosis of FeLV subgroups in veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the future.

  8. Prevention of falls in nursing homes: subgroup analyses of a randomized fall prevention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Kilian; Lamb, Sarah E; Büchele, Gisela; Lall, Ranjit; Lindemann, Ulrich; Becker, Clemens

    2008-06-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a multifactorial fall prevention program in prespecified subgroups of nursing home residents. Secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized, controlled trial. Six nursing homes in Germany. Seven hundred twenty-five long-stay residents; median age 86; 80% female. Staff and resident education on fall prevention, advice on environmental adaptations, recommendation to wear hip protectors, and progressive balance and resistance training. Time to first fall and the number of falls. Falls were assessed during the 12-month intervention period. Univariate regression analyses were performed, including a confirmatory test of interaction. The intervention was more effective in people with cognitive impairment (hazard ratio (HR)=0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.35-0.69) than in those who were cognitively intact (HR=0.91, 95% CI=0.68-1.22), in people with a prior history of falls (HR=0.47, 95% CI=0.33-0.67) than in those with no prior fall history (HR=0.77, 95% CI=0.58-1.01), in people with urinary incontinence (HR=0.59, 95% CI=0.45-0.77) than in those with no urinary incontinence (HR=0.98, 95% CI=0.68-1.42), and in people with no mood problems (incidence rate ratio (IRR)=0.41, 95% CI=0.27-0.61) than in those with mood problems (IRR=0.74, 95% CI=0.51-1.09). The effectiveness of a multifactorial fall prevention program differed between subgroups of nursing home residents. Cognitive impairment, a history of falls, urinary incontinence, and depressed mood were important in determining response.

  9. Sub-grouping and sub-functionalization of the RIFIN multi-copy protein family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnhammer Erik L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasitic protozoans possess many multicopy gene families which have central roles in parasite survival and virulence. The number and variability of members of these gene families often make it difficult to predict possible functions of the encoded proteins. The families of extra-cellular proteins that are exposed to a host immune response have been driven via immune selection to become antigenically variant, and thereby avoid immune recognition while maintaining protein function to establish a chronic infection. Results We have combined phylogenetic and function shift analyses to study the evolution of the RIFIN proteins, which are antigenically variant and are encoded by the largest multicopy gene family in Plasmodium falciparum. We show that this family can be subdivided into two major groups that we named A- and B-RIFIN proteins. This suggested sub-grouping is supported by a recently published study that showed that, despite the presence of the Plasmodium export (PEXEL motif in all RIFIN variants, proteins from each group have different cellular localizations during the intraerythrocytic life cycle of the parasite. In the present study we show that function shift analysis, a novel technique to predict functional divergence between sub-groups of a protein family, indicates that RIFINs have undergone neo- or sub-functionalization. Conclusion These results question the general trend of clustering large antigenically variant protein groups into homogenous families. Assigning functions to protein families requires their subdivision into meaningful groups such as we have shown for the RIFIN protein family. Using phylogenetic and function shift analysis methods, we identify new directions for the investigation of this broad and complex group of proteins.

  10. Gene expression analyses of the spatio-temporal relationships of human medulloblastoma subgroups during early human neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia M Hooper

    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is the most common form of malignant paediatric brain tumour and is the leading cause of childhood cancer related mortality. The four molecular subgroups of medulloblastoma that have been identified - WNT, SHH, Group 3 and Group 4 - have molecular and topographical characteristics suggestive of different cells of origin. Definitive identification of the cell(s of origin of the medulloblastoma subgroups, particularly the poorer prognosis Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastoma, is critical to understand the pathogenesis of the disease, and ultimately for the development of more effective treatment options. To address this issue, the gene expression profiles of normal human neural tissues and cell types representing a broad neuro-developmental continuum, were compared to those of two independent cohorts of primary human medulloblastoma specimens. Clustering, co-expression network, and gene expression analyses revealed that WNT and SHH medulloblastoma may be derived from distinct neural stem cell populations during early embryonic development, while the transcriptional profiles of Group 3 and Group 4 medulloblastoma resemble cerebellar granule neuron precursors at weeks 10-15 and 20-30 of embryogenesis, respectively. Our data indicate that Group 3 medulloblastoma may arise through abnormal neuronal differentiation, whereas deregulation of synaptic pruning-associated apoptosis may be driving Group 4 tumorigenesis. Overall, these data provide significant new insight into the spatio-temporal relationships and molecular pathogenesis of the human medulloblastoma subgroups, and provide an important framework for the development of more refined model systems, and ultimately improved therapeutic strategies.

  11. Low birthweight among US Hispanic/Latino subgroups: the effect of maternal foreign-born status and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Soobader, Mah-J; Berkman, Lisa F

    2007-12-01

    We investigated whether maternal foreign-born status confers a protective effect against low birthweight (LBW) across US Hispanic/Latino subgroups (i.e., Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans and Central/South Americans) in the USA, and whether the association between maternal education and LBW varies by Hispanic/Latino subgroup and by foreign-born status. We conducted logistic regression analyses of the 2002 US Natality Detail Data (n=634,797). Overall, foreign-born Latino women are less likely to have LBW infants than US-born Latino women. The protective effect of foreign-born status is stronger among Latino women with less than high school education. The maternal education gradient is significantly flatter among foreign-born Latino women than among their US-born counterparts (peducation (i.e., 0-11 and 12 years) than among women with more education (i.e., 13-15 and 16+ years). The educational gradient in LBW is less pronounced among foreign-born Mexicans and Central/South Americans than among their US-born counterparts. As such, maternal foreign-born status and education are associated with LBW, though the direction and strength of these associations vary across Latino subgroups. A "health paradox" is apparent for foreign-born Mexican and Central/South American women among whom there is a weak maternal educational gradient in LBW. Future research may test hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying these variations in LBW among Latino subgroups, i.e., different gradients in sending countries, health selection of immigrants, cultural factors, and social support.

  12. Debate: Subgroup analyses in clinical trials: fun to look at - but don't believe them!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleight Peter

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Analysis of subgroup results in a clinical trial is surprisingly unreliable, even in a large trial. This is the result of a combination of reduced statistical power, increased variance and the play of chance. Reliance on such analyses is likely to be more erroneous, and hence harmful, than application of the overall proportional (or relative result in the whole trial to the estimate of absolute risk in that subgroup. Plausible explanations can usually be found for effects that are, in reality, simply due to the play of chance. When clinicians believe such subgroup analyses, there is a real danger of harm to the individual patient.

  13. The infiltration, and prognostic importance, of Th1 lymphocytes vary in molecular subgroups of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Agnes; Lundberg, Ida V; Eklöf, Vincy; Wikberg, Maria L; Öberg, Åke; Edin, Sofia; Palmqvist, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Giving strong prognostic information, T-cell infiltration is on the verge of becoming an additional component in the routine clinical setting for classification of colorectal cancer (CRC). With a view to further improving the tools for prognostic evaluation, we have studied how Th1 lymphocyte infiltration correlates with prognosis not only by quantity, but also by subsite, within CRCs with different molecular characteristics (microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype status, and BRAF and KRAS mutational status). We evaluated the Th1 marker T-bet by immunohistochemistry in 418 archival tumour tissue samples from patients who underwent surgical resection for CRC. We found that a high number of infiltrating Th1 lymphocytes is strongly associated with an improved prognosis in patients with CRC, irrespective of intratumoural subsite, and that both extent of infiltration and patient outcome differ according to molecular subgroup. In brief, microsatellite instability, CpG island methylator phenotype-high and BRAF mutated tumours showed increased infiltration of Th1 lymphocytes, and the most pronounced prognostic effect of Th1 infiltration was found in these tumours. Interestingly, BRAF mutated tumours were found to be more highly infiltrated by Th1 lymphocytes than BRAF wild-type tumours whereas the opposite was seen for KRAS mutated tumours. These differences could be explained at least partly by our finding that BRAF mutated, in contrast to KRAS mutated, CRC cell lines and tumour specimens expressed higher levels of the Th1-attracting chemokine CXCL10, and reduced levels of CCL22 and TGFB1, stimulating Th2/Treg recruitment and polarisation. In conclusion, the strong prognostic importance of Th1 lymphocyte infiltration in CRC was found at all subsites evaluated, and it remained significant in multivariable analyses, indicating that T-bet may be a valuable marker in the clinical setting. Our results also indicate that T-bet is of value when analysed in

  14. Phylogeny and molecular signatures for the phylum Thermotogae and its subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S; Bhandari, Vaibhav

    2011-06-01

    Thermotogae species are currently identified mainly on the basis of their unique toga and distinct branching in the rRNA and other phylogenetic trees. No biochemical or molecular markers are known that clearly distinguish the species from this phylum from all other bacteria. The taxonomic/evolutionary relationships within this phylum, which consists of a single family, are also unclear. We report detailed phylogenetic analyses on Thermotogae species based on concatenated sequences for many ribosomal as well as other conserved proteins that identify a number of distinct clades within this phylum. Additionally, comprehensive analyses of protein sequences from Thermotogae genomes have identified >60 Conserved Signature Indels (CSI) that are specific for the Thermotogae phylum or its different subgroups. Eighteen CSIs in important proteins such as PolI, RecA, TrpRS and ribosomal proteins L4, L7/L12, S8, S9, etc. are uniquely present in various Thermotogae species and provide molecular markers for the phylum. Many CSIs were specific for a number of Thermotogae subgroups. Twelve of these CSIs were specific for a clade consisting of various Thermotoga species except Tt. lettingae, which was separated from other Thermotoga species by a long branch in phylogenetic trees; Fourteen CSIs were specific for a clade consisting of the Fervidobacterium and Thermosipho genera and eight additional CSIs were specific for the genus Thermosipho. In addition, the existence of a clade consisting of the deep branching species Petrotoga mobilis, Kosmotoga olearia and Thermotogales bacterium mesG1 was supported by seven CSIs. The deep branching of this clade was also supported by a number of CSIs that were present in various Thermotogae species, but absent in this clade and all other bacteria. Most of these clades were strongly supported by phylogenetic analyses based on two datasets of protein sequences and they identify potential higher taxonomic grouping (viz. families) within this phylum

  15. The Impact of Low-Level Lead Toxicity on School Performance among Hispanic Subgroups in the Chicago Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackowicz, Michael J; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O; Rankin, Kristin M; Lewis, Dan A; Haider, Danish; Lanphear, Bruce P; Evens, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Environmental lead exposure detrimentally affects children's educational performance, even at very low blood lead levels (BLLs). Among children in Chicago Public Schools (CPS), the severity of the effects of BLL on reading and math vary by racial subgroup (White vs. Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic Black). We investigated the impact of BLL on standardized test performance by Hispanic subgroup (Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic). We examined 12,319 Hispanic children born in Chicago between 1994 and 1998 who were tested for BLL between birth and 2006 and enrolled in the 3rd grade at a CPS school between 2003 and 2006. We linked the Chicago birth registry, the Chicago Blood Lead Registry, and 3rd grade Illinois Standard Achievement Test (ISAT) scores to examine associations between BLL and school performance. Primary analyses were restricted to children with BLL below 10 µg/dL (0.483 µmol/L). BLLs below 10 µg/dL (0.483 µmol/L) were inversely associated with reading and math scores in all Hispanic subgroups. Adjusted Relative Risks (RRadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for reading and math failure were 1.34 (95% CI = 1.25, 1.63) and 1.53 (95% CI = 1.32, 1.78), respectively, per each additional 5 µg/dL of lead exposure for Hispanic children; RRadj did not differ across subgroups. We estimate that 7.0% (95% CI = 1.8, 11.9) of reading and 13.6% (95% CI = 7.7, 19.2) of math failure among Hispanic children can be attributed to exposure to BLLs of 5-9 µg/dL (0.242 to 0.435 µmol/L) vs. 0-4 µg/dL (0-0.193 µmol/L). The RRadj of math failure for each 5 µg/dL (0.242 µmol/L) increase in BLL was notably (p = 0.074) stronger among black Puerto Rican children (RRadj = 5.14; 95% CI = 1.65-15.94) compared to white Puerto Rican children (RRadj = 1.50; 95% CI = 1.12-2.02). Early childhood lead exposure is associated with poorer achievement on standardized reading and math tests in the 3rd grade for Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Hispanic children enrolled in Chicago

  16. General considerations for SSC scintillator calorimeters (For the scintillator general subgroup)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nodulman, L.

    1989-01-01

    The Scintillator Calorimetry group divided into three subgroups: a conventional uranium and plate design ala ZEUS, fiber design, and a group on general considerations. The considerations of the third group are reported here on geometrical and technical issues. 1 fig

  17. Discrete subgroups of adolescents diagnosed with borderline personality disorder: a latent class analysis of personality features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vera; Canta, Guilherme; de Castro, Filipa; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    Research suggests that borderline personality disorder (BPD) can be diagnosed in adolescents and is marked by considerable heterogeneity. This study aimed to identify personality features characterizing adolescents with BPD and possible meaningful patterns of heterogeneity that could lead to personality subgroups. The authors analyzed data on 60 adolescents, ages 15 to 18 years, who met DSM criteria for a BPD diagnosis. The authors used latent class analysis (LCA) to identify subgroups based on the personality pattern scales from the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI). LCA indicated that the best-fitting solution was a two-class model, identifying two discrete subgroups of BPD adolescents that were described as internalizing and externalizing. The subgroups were then compared on clinical and sociodemographic variables, measures of personality dimensions, DSM BPD criteria, and perception of attachment styles. Adolescents with a BPD diagnosis constitute a heterogeneous group and vary meaningfully on personality features that can have clinical implications for treatment.

  18. High utilizers of medical care: a crucial subgroup among somatizing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Wolfgang; Fichter, Manfred M

    2004-04-01

    Patients with somatoform disorders (SFD) are likely to overutilize healthcare services. This study investigates (a) whether extraordinarily high medical costs can be predicted from patient characteristics or psychopathology, and (b) whether high-utilizing patients respond differently to cognitive-behavioral treatment. We compared 42 SFD high utilizers with 53 SFD average utilizers and 29 patients suffering from other than SFD mental disorders. High utilization was defined by healthcare expenditures of > or = 2500 euros during the past 2 years. Costs were computed from medical and billing records of health insurance companies. Somatization distress, hypochondriasis, depression, dysfunctional cognitions related to bodily symptoms, general psychopathology, personality profiles, and psychosocial disabilities were assessed before treatment. High utilizers had higher levels of self- and observer-rated illness behavior, self-perceived bodily weakness, and psychosocial disabilities. Although they did not report more somatization symptoms, their subjective symptom distress was higher. There were no differences between high and average utilizers concerning general psychopathology, DSM-IV comorbidity, and personality profiles. Treatment improvements were similar. High- and average-utilizing somatizers represent distinguishable subgroups. The results emphasize the importance of mechanisms specifically related to SFD and may enhance the early detection of patients who are likely to develop overutilization. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Recovery of motor deficit accompanying sciatica--subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdevest, Gijsbert M; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L A M; Jacobs, Wilco C H; Brand, Ronald; Koes, Bart W; Peul, Wilco C

    2014-09-01

    In patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation, it is generally recommended to reserve surgical treatment for those who suffer from intolerable pain or those who demonstrate persistent symptoms after conservative management. Controversy exists about the necessity of early surgical intervention for those patients that have an additional motor deficit. The aim of this study was to compare the recovery of motor deficit among patients receiving early surgery to those receiving prolonged conservative treatment. Subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. This subgroup analysis focuses on 150 (53%) of 283 patients with sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms at baseline (before randomization) were accompanied by a motor deficit. Motor deficit was assessed through manual muscle testing and graded according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. In total, 150 patients with 6 to 12 weeks of sciatica due to a lumbar disc herniation and whose symptoms were accompanied by a moderate (MRC Grade 4) or severe (MRC Grade 3) motor deficit were randomly allocated to early surgery or prolonged conservative treatment. Repeated standardized neurologic examinations were performed at baseline and at 8, 26, and 52 weeks after randomization. This study was supported by a grant from the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (ZonMW) and the Hoelen Foundation The Hague. Sciatica recovered among seven (10%) of the 70 patients assigned to early surgery before surgery could be performed, and of the 80 patients assigned to conservative treatment, 32 patients (40%) were treated surgically because of intolerable pain. Baseline severity of motor deficit was graded moderate in 84% of patients and severe in 16% of patients. Motor deficit recovered significantly faster among patients allocated to early surgery (p=.01), but the difference was no longer significant at 26 (p=.21) or 52 weeks (p=.92). At 1 year, complete recovery of motor

  20. Cost-effectiveness of aspirin treatment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease events in subgroups based on age, gender, and varying cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greving, Jacoba P.; Buskens, Erik; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Algra, Ale

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND - Aspirin is effective for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, but it remains unclear for which subgroups of individuals aspirin is beneficial. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of aspirin separately for men and women of different ages with various levels of cardiovascular

  1. Prediction of an excessive response in in vitro fertilization from patient characteristics and ovarian reserve tests and comparison in subgroups: an individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Simone L.; Dólleman, Madeleine; van Disseldorp, Jeroen; Broeze, Kimiko A.; Opmeer, Brent C.; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Eijkemans, Martinus J. C.; Mol, Ben Willem; Broekmans, Frank J. M.; Broer, S. L.; Dólleman, M.; van Disseldorp, J.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Broekmans, F. J. M.; Aflatoonian, A.; Anderson, R. A.; Ashrafi, M.; Bancsi, L.; Caroppo, E.; Copperman, A. B.; Ebner, T.; Eldar-Geva, T.; Erdem, M.; Freour, T.; Gnoth, C.; Greenblatt, E. M.; Jayaprakasan, K.; Raine-Fenning, N.; Klinkert, E.; Kwee, J.; La Marca, A.; Lambalk, C. B.; McIlveen, M.; Mohiyiddeen, L.; Merce, L. T.; Muttukrishna, S.; Nardo, L. G.; Nelson, S. M.; Ng, H. Y.; Popovic-Todorovic, B.; Smeenk, J. M. J.; Tomás, C.; van der Linden, P. J. Q.; van Rooij, I. A.; Vladimirov, I. K.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether ovarian reserve tests (ORTs) add prognostic value to patient characteristics, such as female age, in the prediction of excessive response to ovarian hyperstimulation in patients undergoing IVF, and whether their performance differs across clinical subgroups. Authors of studies

  2. Subgroup approximation in Monte Carlo neutron transport calculation in resonance region; Primena podgrupe aproksimacije u Monte Carlo proracunima transporta neutrona u rezonantnoj oblasti energije

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belicev, P [Vojnotehnicki Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1988-07-01

    An outline of the problems encountered in the multigroup calculations of the neutron transport in the resonance region is given. The difference between subgroup and multigroup approximation is described briefly. The features of the Monte Carlo code SUBGR are presented. The results of the calculations of the neutron transmission and albedo for infinite iron slabs are given. (author)

  3. Cost-effectiveness of aspirin treatment in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease events in subgroups based on age, gender, and varying cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greving, J.P.; Buskens, E.; Koffijberg, H.; Algra, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background-Aspirin is effective for the primary prevention of cardiovascular events, but it remains unclear for which subgroups of individuals aspirin is beneficial. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of aspirin separately for men and women of different ages with various levels of cardiovascular

  4. Conclusions from the engineering subgroup of the SSC liquid argon calorimeter working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bederede, D.; Cooper, W.; Mulholland, G.; Kroon, P.; Guryn, W.; Lobkowicz, F.; Mason, I.; Pohlen, J.; Schindler, R.H.; Scholle, E.A.; Watanabe, Y.; Watt, R.

    1990-01-01

    The SSC Calorimeter Workshop was organized to explore the feasibility of each calorimeter technology for use in a 4π detector at the SSC. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter group further subdivided into four subgroups; Hermeticity, Engineering, Module Details, and Electronics. This is the report of the Engineering Subgroup whose charge was to evaluate the cost, schedule, manpower, safety, and facilities requirements for the construction of a large liquid argon calorimeter for the SSC

  5. A Newborn Case of “c” Subgroup Mismatch Presenting with Severe Hemolysis and Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Ezgi Yangın Ergon; Senem Alkan Özdemir; Rüya Çolak; Kıymet Çelik; Özgür Olukman; Şebnem Çalkavur

    2017-01-01

    Hemolysis and jaundice related to Rh incompatibility in the neonatal period has decreased substantially due to the widespread use of anti-D gammaglobulin in recent years. Nevertheless, the rate of subgroup mismatch in the etiology of hemolytic diseases of the newborn has increased significantly. In this article an 8-day-old newborn infant with “c” subgroup incompatibility and presenting with severe anemia, in whom hemolysis could be controlled with intravenous immunoglobulin infusion and subg...

  6. Effects of hydroxyethyl starch in subgroups of patients with severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Rasmus G; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    It has been speculated that certain subgroups of sepsis patients may benefit from treatment with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.42, specifically in the earlier resuscitation of patients with more severely impaired circulation.......It has been speculated that certain subgroups of sepsis patients may benefit from treatment with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.42, specifically in the earlier resuscitation of patients with more severely impaired circulation....

  7. The value of heterogeneity for cost-effectiveness subgroup analysis: conceptual framework and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Manuel A; Manca, Andrea; Claxton, Karl; Sculpher, Mark J

    2014-11-01

    This article develops a general framework to guide the use of subgroup cost-effectiveness analysis for decision making in a collectively funded health system. In doing so, it addresses 2 key policy questions, namely, the identification and selection of subgroups, while distinguishing 2 sources of potential value associated with heterogeneity. These are 1) the value of revealing the factors associated with heterogeneity in costs and outcomes using existing evidence (static value) and 2) the value of acquiring further subgroup-related evidence to resolve the uncertainty given the current understanding of heterogeneity (dynamic value). Consideration of these 2 sources of value can guide subgroup-specific treatment decisions and inform whether further research should be conducted to resolve uncertainty to explain variability in costs and outcomes. We apply the proposed methods to a cost-effectiveness analysis for the management of patients with acute coronary syndrome. This study presents the expected net benefits under current and perfect information when subgroups are defined based on the use and combination of 6 binary covariates. The results of the case study confirm the theoretical expectations. As more subgroups are considered, the marginal net benefit gains obtained under the current information show diminishing marginal returns, and the expected value of perfect information shows a decreasing trend. We present a suggested algorithm that synthesizes the results to guide policy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Discovering subgroups using descriptive models of adverse outcomes in medical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiglic, Gregor; Kokol, P

    2012-01-01

    Hospital discharge databases store hundreds of thousands of patients. These datasets are usually used by health insurance companies to process claims from hospitals, but they also represent a rich source of information about the patterns of medical care. The proposed subgroup discovery method aims to improve the efficiency of detecting interpretable subgroups in data. Supervised descriptive rule discovery techniques can prove inefficient in cases when target class samples represent only an extremely small amount of all available samples. Our approach aims to balance the number of samples in target and control groups prior to subgroup discovery process. Additionally, we introduce some improvements to an existing subgroup discovery algorithm enhancing the user experience and making the descriptive data mining process and visualization of rules more user friendly. Instance-based subspace subgroup discovery introduced in this paper is demonstrated on hospital discharge data with focus on medical errors. In general, the number of patients with a recorded diagnosis related to a medical error is relatively small in comparison to patients where medical errors did not occur. The ability to produce comprehensible and simple models with high degree of confidence, support, and predictive power using the proposed method is demonstrated. This paper introduces a subspace subgroup discovery process that can be applied in all settings where a large number of samples with relatively small number of target class samples are present. The proposed method is implemented in Weka machine learning environment and is available at http://ri.fzv.uni-mb.si/ssd.

  9. Progressive Amalgamation of Building Clusters for Map Generalization Based on Scaling Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjin He

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Map generalization utilizes transformation operations to derive smaller-scale maps from larger-scale maps, and is a key procedure for the modelling and understanding of geographic space. Studies to date have largely applied a fixed tolerance to aggregate clustered buildings into a single object, resulting in the loss of details that meet cartographic constraints and may be of importance for users. This study aims to develop a method that amalgamates clustered buildings gradually without significant modification of geometry, while preserving the map details as much as possible under cartographic constraints. The amalgamation process consists of three key steps. First, individual buildings are grouped into distinct clusters by using the graph-based spatial clustering application with random forest (GSCARF method. Second, building clusters are decomposed into scaling subgroups according to homogeneity with regard to the mean distance of subgroups. Thus, hierarchies of building clusters can be derived based on scaling subgroups. Finally, an amalgamation operation is progressively performed from the bottom-level subgroups to the top-level subgroups using the maximum distance of each subgroup as the amalgamating tolerance instead of using a fixed tolerance. As a consequence of this step, generalized intermediate scaling results are available, which can form the multi-scale representation of buildings. The experimental results show that the proposed method can generate amalgams with correct details, statistical area balance and orthogonal shape while satisfying cartographic constraints (e.g., minimum distance and minimum area.

  10. Subgrouping of risky behaviors among Iranian college students: a latent class analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiri S

    2016-07-01

    also estimated. Three latent classes were determined: 1 low risk; 2 cigarette and hookah smoker; and 3 high risk. It is worth mentioning that 3.7% of males and 0.4% of females were in the high risk group.Conclusion: Subgrouping of college students showed that a considerable percentage of them, especially males, were classified into the high risk and cigarette and hookah smoker groups. Appropriate preventive measures that consider multiple different risky behaviors simultaneously are needed for this part of the population. Keywords: alcohol drinking, sexual behavior, latent class analysis, risk behaviors, drug abuse, substance abuse

  11. WPEC Subgroup Meetings. Joint SG38/SG39/SG40-CIELO meeting, 20 May 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Dave; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, M.; Chadwick, M.; Mattoon, Caleb; Yokoyama, K.; Leal, L.; Diez, C.J.; Hill, I.; Ignatyuk, A.

    2015-05-01

    WPEC subgroup 38 (SG38) was formed to develop a new structure for storing nuclear reaction data, that is meant to eventually replace ENDF-6 as the standard way to store and share evaluations. The work of SG38 covers the following tasks: Designing flexible, general-purpose data containers; Determining a logical and easy-to-understand top-level hierarchy for storing evaluated nuclear reaction data; Creating a particle database for storing particles, masses and level schemes; Specifying the infrastructure (plotting, processing, etc.) that must accompany the new structure; Developing an Application Programming Interface or API to allow other codes to access data stored in the new structure; Specifying what tests need to be implemented for quality assurance of the new structure and associated infrastructure; Ensuring documentation and governance of the structure and associated infrastructure. The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. WPEC subgroup 40-CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. SG40-CIELO focusses on 6 important isotopes: "1H, "1"6O, "5"6Fe, "2"3"5","2"3"8U, "2"3"9Pu. This

  12. Healthcare costs in psoriasis and psoriasis sub-groups over time following psoriasis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sawah, Sarah; Foster, Shonda A; Goldblum, Orin M; Malatestinic, William N; Zhu, Baojin; Shi, Nianwen; Song, Xue; Feldman, Steven R

    2017-09-01

    To quantify healthcare costs in patients with psoriasis overall and in psoriasis patient sub-groups, by level of disease severity, presence or absence of psoriatic arthritis, or use of biologics. Administrative data from Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Research Database were used to select adult patients with psoriasis from January 2009 to January 2014. The first psoriasis diagnosis was set as the index date. Patients were required to have ≥6 months of continuous enrollment with medical and pharmacy benefits pre-index and ≥12 months post-index. Patients were followed from index until the earliest of loss to follow-up or study end. All-cause healthcare costs and outpatient pharmacy costs were calculated for the overall psoriasis cohort and for the six different psoriasis patient sub-groups: (a) patients with moderate-to-severe disease and mild disease, (b) patients with psoriatic arthritis and those without, and (c) patients on biologics and those who are not. Costs are presented per-patient-per-year (PPPY) and by years 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of follow-up, expressed in 2014 US dollars. A total of 108,790 psoriasis patients were selected, with a mean age of 46.0 years (52.7% females). Average follow-up was 962 days. All-cause healthcare costs were $12,523 PPPY. Outpatient pharmacy costs accounted for 38.6% of total costs. All-cause healthcare costs were highest for patients on biologics ($29,832), then for patients with psoriatic arthritis ($23,427) and those with moderate-to-severe disease ($21,481). Overall, all-cause healthcare costs and outpatient pharmacy costs presented an upward trend over a 5-year period. Psoriasis is associated with significant economic burden, which increases over time as the disease progresses. Patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis, those with psoriatic arthritis, or use of biologics contributes to higher healthcare costs. Psoriasis-related pharmacy expenditure is the largest driver of healthcare costs in patients with psoriasis.

  13. “Real-life” inhaled corticosteroid withdrawal in COPD: a subgroup analysis of DACCORD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogelmeier C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Claus Vogelmeier,1 Heinrich Worth,2 Roland Buhl,3 Carl-Peter Criée,4 Nadine S Lossi,5 Claudia Mailänder,5 Peter Kardos6 1Department of Medicine, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, University Medical Center Giessen and Marburg, Philipps-University Marburg, Member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Marburg, 2Facharzt Forum Fürth, Fürth, 3Pulmonary Department, Mainz University Hospital, Mainz, 4Department of Sleep and Respiratory Medicine, Evangelical Hospital Göttingen-Weende, Bovenden, 5Clinical Research, Respiratory, Novartis Pharma GmbH, Nürnberg, 6Group Practice and Centre for Allergy, Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Red Cross Maingau Hospital, Frankfurt am Main, Germany Abstract: Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD receive inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs without a clear indication, and thus, the impact of ICS withdrawal on disease control is of great interest. DACCORD is a prospective, noninterventional 2-year study in the primary and secondary care throughout Germany. A subgroup of patients were taking ICS prior to entry – 1,022 patients continued to receive ICS for 2 years; physicians withdrew ICS on entry in 236 patients. Data from these two subgroups were analyzed to evaluate the impact of ICS withdrawal. Patients aged ≥40 years with COPD, initiating or changing COPD maintenance medication were recruited, excluding patients with asthma. Demographic and disease characteristics, prescribed COPD medication, COPD Assessment Test, exacerbations, and lung function were recorded. There were few differences in baseline characteristics; ICS withdrawn patients had shorter disease duration and better lung function, with 74.2% of ICS withdrawn patients not exacerbating, compared with 70.7% ICS-continued patients. During Year 1, exacerbation rates were 0.414 in the withdrawn group and 0.433 in the continued group. COPD Assessment Test total score improved from baseline in both groups. These data suggest

  14. Account for Clinical Heterogeneity in Assessment of Catheter-based Renal Denervation among Resistant Hypertension Patients: Subgroup Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Han; Kim, Sehee; Zeng, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Zhi-Bing; Cui, Tian-Lei; Hu, Zhang-Xue; Li, Yi; Fu, Ping

    2017-07-05

    Catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) is a novel treatment for resistant hypertension (RH). A recent meta-analysis reported that RDN did not significantly reduce blood pressure (BP) based on the pooled effects with mild to severe heterogeneity. The aim of the present study was to identify and reduce clinical sources of heterogeneity and reassess the safety and efficacy of RDN within the identified homogeneous subpopulations. This was a meta-analysis of 9 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) among patients with RH up to June 2016. Sensitivity analyses and subgroup analyses were extensively conducted by baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) level, antihypertensive medication change rates, and coronary heart disease (CHD). In all patients with RH, no statistical differences were found in mortality, severe cardiovascular events rate, and changes in 24-h SBP and office SBP at 6 and 12 months. However, subgroup analyses showed significant differences between the RDN and control groups. In the subpopulations with baseline 24-h SBP ≥155 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) and the infrequently changed medication, the use of RDN resulted in a significant reduction in 24-h SBP level at 6 months (P = 0.100 and P= 0.009, respectively). Subgrouping RCTs with a higher prevalent CHD in control showed that the control treatment was significantly better than RDN in office SBP reduction at 6 months (P < 0.001). In all patients with RH, the catheter-based RDN is not more effective in lowering ambulatory or office BP than an optimized antihypertensive drug treatment at 6 and 12 months. However, among RH patients with higher baseline SBP, RDN might be more effective in reducing SBP.

  15. Substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Daniel B; Laursen, Anne Sofie D; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations for specified substitutions between different subgroups of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes. We used data from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort including 54 277 men and women aged 50-64 years at baseline. Information...... regarding intake of dairy products was obtained from a validated FFQ, and cases of type 2 diabetes were identified through the Danish National Diabetes Register. Cox proportional hazards regressions were used to estimate associations. During a median follow-up of 15·3 years, 7137 cases were identified. Low......-fat yogurt products in place of whole-fat yogurt products were associated with a higher rate of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio (HR) 1·17; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·29) per serving/d substituted. Whole-fat yogurt products in place of low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate of type 2...

  16. Detection and molecular characterization of J subgroup avian leukosis virus in wild ducks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangwei; Liu, Lanlan; Hao, Ruijun; Han, Chunyan

    2014-01-01

    To assess the status of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in wild ducks in China, we examined samples from 528 wild ducks, representing 17 species, which were collected in China over the past 3 years. Virus isolation and PCR showed that 7 ALV-J strains were isolated from wild ducks. The env genes and the 3'UTRs from these isolates were cloned and sequenced. The env genes of all 7 wild duck isolates were significantly different from those in the prototype strain HPRS-103, American strains, broiler ALV-J isolates and Chinese local chicken isolates, but showed close homology with those found in some layer chicken ALV-J isolates and belonged to the same group. The 3'UTRs of 7 ALV-J wild ducks isolates showed close homology with the prototype strain HPRS-103 and no obvious deletion was found in the 3'UTR except for a 1 bp deletion in the E element that introduced a binding site for c-Ets-1. Our study demonstrated the presence of ALV-J in wild ducks and investigated the molecular characterization of ALV-J in wild ducks isolates.

  17. Rapid identification of the genus Dekkera/Brettanomyces, the Dekkera subgroup and all individual species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulin, M; Harrison, E; Stratford, M; Wheals, A E

    2014-09-18

    The genus Dekkera/Brettanomyces comprises five described species: Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Brettanomyces custersianus, B. naardenensis and B. nanus. Some of them, especially D. bruxellensis, are important spoilage organisms, particularly in the wine and beverage industries. Because of their economic importance many different methods have been developed to identify members of the genus in general and D. bruxellensis in particular. These methods vary in their rapidity, complexity and cost but, partly because of confidentiality issues, it is unclear which methods are used, or how widely, in the relevant industries. Building on previous work with the genera Saccharomyces and Zygosaccharomyces, a suite of eight PCR primer pairs has been designed either on the D1-D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene or translation elongation factor TEF1-α. These primers can specifically identify the genus as a whole, only Dekkera species, each one of the five recognised species as well as a significant subgroup of D. bruxellensis represented by NCYC 3426. Multiplexing has also been tried and it has been shown to be possible with some combinations of genus or Dekkera-level and species-specific primers. Using direct colony PCR amplification followed by gel electrophoresis, a clear positive result can be obtained in less than 3h, thus providing a quick, reliable and inexpensive way to identify target species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Medulloblastoma. The identification of prognostic subgroups and implications for multimodality management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopelson, G.; Linggood, R.M.; Kleinman, G.M.

    1983-01-01

    For 43 medulloblatoma patients who had five-and ten-year actuarial survival rates of 56%, prognostic factors of statistical significance included: T-stage, M-stage and histopathologic tumor score. Posterior fossa local control rates were also function of T-stage and TS. Combining TS with T-stage, patients fell into three prognostic and local control groups, which may have different future management implications: Small (T1,2) tumors of favorable (TS less than or equal to 5) histology had a 92% ten-year actuarial survival rate with 100% (8/8) local control; no change from current management is suggested. For the intermediate prognosis group, increasing the irradiation dose alone may improve survival because these tumors exhibited an irradiation dose-response relationship. However, it is the poor prognosis group which might be suitable for future adjuvant chemotherapy or radiosensitizer trials since there is no evidence that higher irradiation doses improve local control. This article identifies prognostic subgroups based on histologic type and TM staging in medulloblastoma patients which potentially may be utilized to improve therapeutic results, and confirms the value of staging patients with central nervous system malignancies

  19. Spectrophotometric determination of elements of yttrium subgroup in the presence of cerium subgroup with xylenol orange and cetyl pyridinium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belousova, V.V.; Chernova, R.K.; Sukhova, L.K.

    1978-01-01

    An effect of 17 cation surfactants of various types on optical properties of complexes of rare earth elements with xylenol orange (XO) has been studied. The ratio between the components in different-ligand complexes of r.e.e. with XO and cetylpyridinium is 1:1:3. The procedure of determining holmium in the presence of cerium and of ytterbium in the presence of praseodymium has been developed. Sodium fluoride has been used as a masking agent. pH value has been maintained equal to 4 (acetate-ammonium buffer). Standard deviation is, on the average, 0.87 for the case of determining Ho and 0.65 for Yb

  20. Acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders across US Latino subgroups in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, R Lewis; Morcillo, C; Wang, S; Duarte, C S; Aggarwal, N K; Sánchez-Lacay, J A; Blanco, C

    2016-07-01

    Individual-level measures of acculturation (e.g. age of immigration) have a complex relationship with psychiatric disorders. Fine-grained analyses that tap various acculturation dimensions and population subgroups are needed to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of action for the association between acculturation and mental health. Study participants were US Latinos (N = 6359) from Wave 2 of the 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34 653). We used linear χ2 tests and logistic regression models to analyze the association between five acculturation dimensions and presence of 12-month DSM-IV mood/anxiety disorders across Latino subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, 'Other Latinos'). Acculturation dimensions associated linearly with past-year presence of mood/anxiety disorders among Mexicans were: (1) younger age of immigration (linear χ2 1 = 11.04, p acculturation were found among Puerto Ricans. The relationship between different acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood/anxiety disorder varies across ethnic subgroups characterized by cultural and historical differences. The association between acculturation measures and disorder may depend on the extent to which they index protective or pathogenic adaptation pathways (e.g. loss of family support) across population subgroups preceding and/or following immigration. Future research should incorporate direct measures of maladaptive pathways and their relationship to various acculturation dimensions.

  1. Physiotherapy movement based classification approaches to low back pain: comparison of subgroups through review and developer/expert survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karayannis Nicholas V

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several classification schemes, each with its own philosophy and categorizing method, subgroup low back pain (LBP patients with the intent to guide treatment. Physiotherapy derived schemes usually have a movement impairment focus, but the extent to which other biological, psychological, and social factors of pain are encompassed requires exploration. Furthermore, within the prevailing 'biological' domain, the overlap of subgrouping strategies within the orthopaedic examination remains unexplored. The aim of this study was "to review and clarify through developer/expert survey, the theoretical basis and content of physical movement classification schemes, determine their relative reliability and similarities/differences, and to consider the extent of incorporation of the bio-psycho-social framework within the schemes". Methods A database search for relevant articles related to LBP and subgrouping or classification was conducted. Five dominant movement-based schemes were identified: Mechanical Diagnosis and Treatment (MDT, Treatment Based Classification (TBC, Pathoanatomic Based Classification (PBC, Movement System Impairment Classification (MSI, and O'Sullivan Classification System (OCS schemes. Data were extracted and a survey sent to the classification scheme developers/experts to clarify operational criteria, reliability, decision-making, and converging/diverging elements between schemes. Survey results were integrated into the review and approval obtained for accuracy. Results Considerable diversity exists between schemes in how movement informs subgrouping and in the consideration of broader neurosensory, cognitive, emotional, and behavioural dimensions of LBP. Despite differences in assessment philosophy, a common element lies in their objective to identify a movement pattern related to a pain reduction strategy. Two dominant movement paradigms emerge: (i loading strategies (MDT, TBC, PBC aimed at eliciting a phenomenon

  2. The subgroups in the special linear group over a skew field that contain the group of diagonal matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Xuan Hai.

    1990-05-01

    For an arbitrary skew field T we study the lattice of subgroups of the special linear group Γ=SL(n,T) that contain the subgroup Δ-SD(n,T) of diagonal matrices with Dieudonne's determinant equal to 1. We show that the description of these subgroups is standard in the following sense: For any subgroup H,Δ≤H≤Γ there exists a unique unital net such that Γ(σ) ≤H≤N(σ), where Γ(σ) is the net subgroup that corresponds to the net σ and N(σ) is the normalizer of Γ(σ) in Γ. (author). 11 refs

  3. Detecting treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered data with generalized linear mixed-effects model trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokkema, M; Smits, N; Zeileis, A; Hothorn, T; Kelderman, H

    2017-10-25

    Identification of subgroups of patients for whom treatment A is more effective than treatment B, and vice versa, is of key importance to the development of personalized medicine. Tree-based algorithms are helpful tools for the detection of such interactions, but none of the available algorithms allow for taking into account clustered or nested dataset structures, which are particularly common in psychological research. Therefore, we propose the generalized linear mixed-effects model tree (GLMM tree) algorithm, which allows for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions, while accounting for the clustered structure of a dataset. The algorithm uses model-based recursive partitioning to detect treatment-subgroup interactions, and a GLMM to estimate the random-effects parameters. In a simulation study, GLMM trees show higher accuracy in recovering treatment-subgroup interactions, higher predictive accuracy, and lower type II error rates than linear-model-based recursive partitioning and mixed-effects regression trees. Also, GLMM trees show somewhat higher predictive accuracy than linear mixed-effects models with pre-specified interaction effects, on average. We illustrate the application of GLMM trees on an individual patient-level data meta-analysis on treatments for depression. We conclude that GLMM trees are a promising exploratory tool for the detection of treatment-subgroup interactions in clustered datasets.

  4. Four Distinct Subgroups of Self-Injurious Behavior among Chinese Adolescents: Findings from a Latent Class Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhong Xin

    Full Text Available Self-injurious behavior (SIB among adolescents is an important public health issue worldwide. It is still uncertain whether homogeneous subgroups of SIB can be identified and whether constellations of SIBs can co-occur due to the high heterogeneity of these behaviors. In this study, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a large school-based sample and latent class analysis was performed (n = 10,069, mean age = 15 years to identify SIB classes based on 11 indicators falling under direct SIB (DSIB, indirect SIB (ISIB, and suicide attempts (SAs. Social and psychological characteristics of each subgroup were examined after controlling for age and gender. Results showed that a four-class model best fit the data and each class had a distinct pattern of co-occurrence of SIBs and external measures. Class 4 (the baseline/normative group, 65.3% had a low probability of SIB. Class 3 (severe SIB group, 3.9% had a high probability of SIB and the poorest social and psychological status. Class 1 (DSIB+SA group, 14.2% had similar scores for external variables compared to class 3, and included a majority of girls [odds ratio (OR = 1.94]. Class 2 (ISIB group, 16.6% displayed moderate endorsement of ISIB items, and had a majority of boys and older adolescents (OR = 1.51. These findings suggest that SIB is a heterogeneous entity, but it may be best explained by four homogenous subgroups that display quantitative and qualitative differences. Findings in this study will improve our understanding on SIB and may facilitate the prevention and treatment of SIB.

  5. MLH1-Silenced and Non-Silenced Subgroups of Hypermutated Colorectal Carcinomas Have Distinct Mutational Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donehower, Lawrence A.; Creighton, Chad J.; Schultz, Nikolaus; Shinbrot, Eve; Chang, Kyle; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Muzny, Donna; Sander, Chris; Hamilton, Stanley R.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Wheeler, David

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 15% of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) exhibit a hypermutated genotype accompanied by high levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) and defects in DNA mismatch repair. These tumors, unlike the majority of colorectal carcinomas, are often diploid, exhibit frequent epigenetic silencing of the MLH1 DNA mismatch repair gene, and have a better clinical prognosis. As an adjunct study to The Cancer Genome Atlas consortium that recently analyzed 224 colorectal cancers by whole exome sequencing, we compared the 35 CRC (15.6%) with a hypermutated genotype to those with a non-hypermutated genotype. We found that 22 (63%) of hypermutated CRC exhibited transcriptional silencing of the MLH1 gene, a high frequency of BRAF V600E gene mutations and infrequent APC and KRAS mutations, a mutational pattern significantly different from their non-hypermutated counterparts. However, the remaining 13 (37%) hypermutated CRC lacked MLH1 silencing, contained tumors with the highest mutation rates (“ultramutated” CRC), and exhibited higher incidences of APC and KRAS mutations, but infrequent BRAF mutations. These patterns were confirmed in an independent validation set of 250 exome-sequenced CRC. Analysis of mRNA and microRNA expression signatures revealed that hypermutated CRC with MLH1 silencing had greatly reduced levels of WNT signaling and increased BRAF signaling relative non-hypermutated CRC. Our findings suggest that hypermutated CRC include one subgroup with fundamentally different pathways to malignancy than the majority of CRC. Examination of MLH1 expression status and frequencies of APC, KRAS, and BRAF mutation in CRC may provide a useful diagnostic tool that could supplement the standard microsatellite instability assays and influence therapeutic decisions. PMID:22899370

  6. Early antihypertensive treatment and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke: subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, William J; Zhong, Chongke; Xu, Tan; Wang, Dali; Sun, Yingxian; Bu, Xiaoqing; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Wang, Jinchao; Ju, Zhong; Li, Qunwei; Zhang, Jintao; Geng, Deqin; Zhang, Jianhui; Li, Dong; Li, Yongqiu; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhang, Yonghong; Kelly, Tanika N

    2018-06-01

    We studied the effect of early antihypertensive treatment on death, major disability, and vascular events among patients with acute ischemic stroke according to their baseline SBP. We randomly assigned 4071 acute ischemic stroke patients with SBP between 140 and less than 220 mmHg to receive antihypertensive treatment or to discontinue all antihypertensive medications during hospitalization. A composite primary outcome of death and major disability and secondary outcomes were compared between treatment and control stratified by baseline SBP levels of less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg. At 24 h after randomization, differences in SBP reductions were 8.8, 8.6 and 7.8 mmHg between the antihypertensive treatment and control groups among patients with baseline SBP less than 160, 160-179, and at least 180 mmHg, respectively (P baseline SBP subgroups on death (P = 0.02): odds ratio (95% CI) of 2.42 (0.74-7.89) in patients with baseline SBP less than 60 mmHg and 0.34 (0.11-1.09) in those with baseline SBP at least 180 mmHg. At the 3-month follow-up, the primary and secondary clinical outcomes were not significantly different between the treatment and control groups by baseline SBP levels. Early antihypertensive treatment had a neutral effect on clinical outcomes among acute ischemic stroke patients with various baseline SBP levels. Future clinical trials are warranted to test BP-lowering effects in acute ischemic stroke patients by baseline SBP levels. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01840072.

  7. Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS): Latent subgroups detected by k-means clustering analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyejoo; Malaspina, Dolores; Ahn, Hongshik; Perrin, Mary; Opler, Mark G; Kleinhaus, Karine; Harlap, Susan; Goetz, Raymond; Antonius, Daniel

    2011-05-01

    Paternal age related schizophrenia (PARS) has been proposed as a subgroup of schizophrenia with distinct etiology, pathophysiology and symptoms. This study uses a k-means clustering analysis approach to generate hypotheses about differences between PARS and other cases of schizophrenia. We studied PARS (operationally defined as not having any family history of schizophrenia among first and second-degree relatives and fathers' age at birth ≥ 35 years) in a series of schizophrenia cases recruited from a research unit. Data were available on demographic variables, symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale; PANSS), cognitive tests (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised; WAIS-R) and olfaction (University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test; UPSIT). We conducted a series of k-means clustering analyses to identify clusters of cases containing high concentrations of PARS. Two analyses generated clusters with high concentrations of PARS cases. The first analysis (N=136; PARS=34) revealed a cluster containing 83% PARS cases, in which the patients showed a significant discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence. The mean paternal and maternal ages were 41 and 33, respectively. The second analysis (N=123; PARS=30) revealed a cluster containing 71% PARS cases, of which 93% were females; the mean age of onset of psychosis, at 17.2, was significantly early. These results strengthen the evidence that PARS cases differ from other patients with schizophrenia. Hypothesis-generating findings suggest that features of PARS may include a discrepancy between verbal and performance intelligence, and in females, an early age of onset. These findings provide a rationale for separating these phenotypes from others in future clinical, genetic and pathophysiologic studies of schizophrenia and in considering responses to treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The structure of EAP-groups and self-autopermutable subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housieni, Shima; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Rajabzadeh

    2014-01-01

    A subgroup H of a given group G is said to be autopermutable, if HH(α) = H(α)H for all α ∈ Aut(G). We also call H a self-autopermutable subgroup of G, when HH(α) = H(α)H implies that H(α) = H. Moreover, G is said to be EAP-group, if every subgroup of G is autopermutable. One notes that if α runs over the inner automorphisms of the group, one obtains the notions of conjugate-permutability, self-conjugate-permutability, and ECP-groups, which were studied by Foguel in 1997, Li and Meng in 2007, and Xu and Zhang in 2005, respectively. In the present paper, we determine the structure of a finite EAP-group when its centre is of index 4 in G. We also show that self-autopermutability and characteristic properties are equivalent for nilpotent groups.

  9. Extraction-differential-photometric method to determine rare earths of cerium subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askerov, D.N.; Gusejnov, I.K.; Melikov, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    The extraction - photometric method to determine great quantities of rare earths of the cerium subgroup as a complex with antipyrine A and diphenylguanidine is developed. Isobutyl and n-butyl alcohols are used as extractants. It is established that proportional dependence between relative optical density and concentration of rare earths of the cerium subgroup in the solution takes place in the concentration interval of 10.3-14.7 μg of rare earths in 1 ml of the solution. Determination error is+-1.12%. The technique is used to determine rare earths of the cerium subgroup in rare earth oxides of a mixed composition, as well as in monozite and loparite

  10. No improvement in the reporting of clinical trial subgroup effects in high-impact general medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Nicole B; Duan, Naihua; Raneses, Eli; Suttner, Leah; Ciarametaro, Michael; Cooney, Elizabeth; Dubois, Robert W; Halpern, Scott D; Kravitz, Richard L

    2016-07-16

    When subgroup analyses are not correctly analyzed and reported, incorrect conclusions may be drawn, and inappropriate treatments provided. Despite the increased recognition of the importance of subgroup analysis, little information exists regarding the prevalence, appropriateness, and study characteristics that influence subgroup analysis. The objective of this study is to determine (1) if the use of subgroup analyses and multivariable risk indices has increased, (2) whether statistical methodology has improved over time, and (3) which study characteristics predict subgroup analysis. We randomly selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from five high-impact general medical journals during three time periods. Data from these articles were abstracted in duplicate using standard forms and a standard protocol. Subgroup analysis was defined as reporting any subgroup effect. Appropriate methods for subgroup analysis included a formal test for heterogeneity or interaction across treatment-by-covariate groups. We used logistic regression to determine the variables significantly associated with any subgroup analysis or, among RCTs reporting subgroup analyses, using appropriate methodology. The final sample of 416 articles reported 437 RCTs, of which 270 (62 %) reported subgroup analysis. Among these, 185 (69 %) used appropriate methods to conduct such analyses. Subgroup analysis was reported in 62, 55, and 67 % of the articles from 2007, 2010, and 2013, respectively. The percentage using appropriate methods decreased over the three time points from 77 % in 2007 to 63 % in 2013 (p < 0.05). Significant predictors of reporting subgroup analysis included industry funding (OR 1.94 (95 % CI 1.17, 3.21)), sample size (OR 1.98 per quintile (1.64, 2.40), and a significant primary outcome (OR 0.55 (0.33, 0.92)). The use of appropriate methods to conduct subgroup analysis decreased by year (OR 0.88 (0.76, 1.00)) and was less common with industry funding (OR 0.35 (0.18, 0

  11. Identification of Patient Benefit From Proton Therapy for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients Based on Individual and Subgroup Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobi, Annika, E-mail: Annika.Jakobi@OncoRay.de [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Bandurska-Luque, Anna [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Stützer, Kristin; Haase, Robert; Löck, Steffen [OncoRay-National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Wack, Linda-Jacqueline [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls Universät Tübingen (Germany); Mönnich, David [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls Universät Tübingen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium, Tübingen (Germany); Thorwarth, Daniela [Section for Biomedical Physics, University Hospital for Radiation Oncology, Eberhard Karls Universät Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine, by treatment plan comparison along with normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling, whether a subpopulation of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) could be identified that would gain substantial benefit from proton therapy in terms of NTCP. Methods and Materials: For 45 HNSCC patients, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was compared to intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Physical dose distributions were evaluated as well as the resulting NTCP values, using modern models for acute mucositis, xerostomia, aspiration, dysphagia, laryngeal edema, and trismus. Patient subgroups were defined based on primary tumor location. Results: Generally, IMPT reduced the NTCP values while keeping similar target coverage for all patients. Subgroup analyses revealed a higher individual reduction of swallowing-related side effects by IMPT for patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area, whereas the risk reduction of acute mucositis was more pronounced in patients with tumors in the larynx region. More patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area had a reduction in NTCP of more than 10%. Conclusions: Subgrouping can help to identify patients who may benefit more than others from the use of IMPT and, thus, can be a useful tool for a preselection of patients in the clinic where there are limited PT resources. Because the individual benefit differs within a subgroup, the relative merits should additionally be evaluated by individual treatment plan comparisons.

  12. Identification of Patient Benefit From Proton Therapy for Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients Based on Individual and Subgroup Normal Tissue Complication Probability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobi, Annika; Bandurska-Luque, Anna; Stützer, Kristin; Haase, Robert; Löck, Steffen; Wack, Linda-Jacqueline; Mönnich, David; Thorwarth, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine, by treatment plan comparison along with normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) modeling, whether a subpopulation of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) could be identified that would gain substantial benefit from proton therapy in terms of NTCP. Methods and Materials: For 45 HNSCC patients, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was compared to intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Physical dose distributions were evaluated as well as the resulting NTCP values, using modern models for acute mucositis, xerostomia, aspiration, dysphagia, laryngeal edema, and trismus. Patient subgroups were defined based on primary tumor location. Results: Generally, IMPT reduced the NTCP values while keeping similar target coverage for all patients. Subgroup analyses revealed a higher individual reduction of swallowing-related side effects by IMPT for patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area, whereas the risk reduction of acute mucositis was more pronounced in patients with tumors in the larynx region. More patients with tumors in the upper head and neck area had a reduction in NTCP of more than 10%. Conclusions: Subgrouping can help to identify patients who may benefit more than others from the use of IMPT and, thus, can be a useful tool for a preselection of patients in the clinic where there are limited PT resources. Because the individual benefit differs within a subgroup, the relative merits should additionally be evaluated by individual treatment plan comparisons

  13. Efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg for weight management are similar across races: subgroup analysis across the SCALE and phase II randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, J; Cannon, A; Lewis, C E; Lofton, H; Vang Skjøth, T; Stevenin, B; Pi-Sunyer, X

    2016-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, as adjunct to diet and exercise, was evaluated in racial subgroups. This post hoc analysis of pooled data from five double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trials was conducted in 5325 adults with either a body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m(2) plus ≥1 comorbidity or a BMI ≥30 kg/m(2). Statistical interaction tests evaluated possible treatment effect differences between racial subgroups: white (4496, 84.4%), black/African-American (550, 10.3%), Asian (168, 3.2%) and other (111, 2.1%). Effects of liraglutide 3.0 mg on weight loss, associated metabolic effects and safety profile were generally consistent across racial subgroups. All achieved statistically significant mean weight loss at end-of-treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo: white 7.7% versus 2.3%, black/African-American 6.3% versus 1.4%, Asian 6.3% versus 2.5%, other 7.3% versus 0.49%. Treatment effects on weight and cardiovascular risk markers generally showed no dependence on race (interaction test p > 0.05). Adverse events were similar across racial subgroups. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Objectives and tasks for sub-group B: Plutonium management and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The paper restates the prime objectives of Working Group 4 and explains that in order to accomplish their objectives two sub-groups (A and B) have been established. The Co-Chairmen suggested that sub group B take as their terms of reference those tasks remitted to them by Working Group 4 as a whole. The paper identifies and comments on 11 tasks into which the work of the sub-group is divided. The paper also includes a number of annexes giving the guidelines for data input to each task

  15. Data on subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate concentrations in the Study of Health in Pomerania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Moritz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this data article, we provide subgroup specific baseline characteristics and serum sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P concentrations for healthy individuals within the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-TREND cohort. After exclusion of subjects with cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, elevated liver enzymes and/or chronic kidney disease stadium III or IV, four subgroups were defined according to different limits for body mass index (BMI, alterations in blood lipid levels and smoking status. Tables show respective clinical and laboratory parameters stratified by gender. Serum S1P concentrations are also stratified by age groups. The data presented herein is related to the research article entitled “Reference intervals for serum sphingosine-1-phosphate in the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania” (E. Moritz, D. Wegner, S. Groß, M. Bahls, M. Dörr, S.B. Felix, T. Ittermann, S. Oswald, M. Nauck, N. Friedrich, R.H. Böger, G. Daum, E. Schwedhelm, B.H. Rauch, Clin Chim Acta. 468 (2017 25–31 [1].

  16. Characterization of a Novel Subgroup of Extracellular Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Depolymerases from Actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoiti, Joana; Santos, Marta; Prieto, María Auxiliadora; de la Mata, Isabel; Llama, María J.

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen medium-chain-length (mcl) poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA)-degrading microorganisms were isolated from natural sources. From them, seven Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria were identified. The ability of these microorganisms to hydrolyze other biodegradable plastics, such as short-chain-length (scl) PHA, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), and poly(l-lactide) (PLA), has been studied. On the basis of the great ability to degrade different polyesters, Streptomyces roseolus SL3 was selected, and its extracellular depolymerase was biochemically characterized. The enzyme consisted of one polypeptide chain of 28 kDa with a pI value of 5.2. Its maximum activity was observed at pH 9.5 with chromogenic substrates. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed mcl PHA and PCL but not scl PHA, PES, and PLA. Moreover, the mcl PHA depolymerase can hydrolyze various substrates for esterases, such as tributyrin and p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-alkanoates, with its maximum activity being measured with pNP-octanoate. Interestingly, when poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [11%]) was used as the substrate, the main hydrolysis product was the monomer (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoate. In addition, the genes of several Actinobacteria strains, including S. roseolus SL3, were identified on the basis of the peptide de novo sequencing of the Streptomyces venezuelae SO1 mcl PHA depolymerase by tandem mass spectrometry. These enzymes did not show significant similarity to mcl PHA depolymerases characterized previously. Our results suggest that these distinct enzymes might represent a new subgroup of mcl PHA depolymerases. PMID:22865072

  17. Cysteine Supplementation May be Beneficial in a Subgroup of Mitochondrial Translation Deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsakoulia, Marina; Mϋller, Juliane S; Gomez-Duran, Aurora; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick; Boczonadi, Veronika; Horvath, Rita

    2016-08-30

    Mitochondrial encephalomyopathies are severe, relentlessly progressive conditions and there are very few effective therapies available to date. We have previously suggested that in two rare forms of reversible mitochondrial disease (reversible infantile respiratory chain deficiency and reversible infantile hepatopathy) supplementation with L-cysteine can improve mitochondrial protein synthesis, since cysteine is required for the 2-thiomodification of mitochondrial tRNAs. We studied whether supplementation with L-cysteine or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) results in any improvement of the mitochondrial function in vitro in fibroblasts of patients with different genetic forms of abnormal mitochondrial translation. We studied in vitro in fibroblasts of patients carrying the common m.3243A>G and m.8344A>G mutations or autosomal recessive mutations in genes affecting mitochondrial translation, whether L-cysteine or N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation have an effect on mitochondrial respiratory chain function. Here we show that supplementation with L-cysteine, but not with N-acetyl-cysteine partially rescues the mitochondrial translation defect in vitro in fibroblasts of patients carrying the m.3243A>G and m.8344A>G mutations. In contrast, N-acetyl-cysteine had a beneficial effect on mitochondrial translation in TRMU and MTO1 deficient fibroblasts. Our results suggest that L-cysteine or N-acetyl-cysteine supplementation may be a potential treatment for selected subgroups of patients with mitochondrial translation deficiencies. Further studies are needed to explore the full potential of cysteine supplementation as a treatment for patients with mitochondrial disease.

  18. A novel multi-variant epitope ensemble vaccine against avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Defang; Wang, Guihua; Huang, Libo; Zheng, Qiankun; Li, Chengui; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2017-12-04

    The hypervariable antigenicity and immunosuppressive features of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) has led to great challenges to develop effective vaccines. Epitope vaccine will be a perspective trend. Previously, we identified a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope in hypervariable region 1 (hr1) of ALV-J, N-LRDFIA/E/TKWKS/GDDL/HLIRPYVNQS-C. BLAST analysis showed that the mutation of A, E, T and H in this epitope cover 79% of all ALV-J strains. Base on this data, we designed a multi-variant epitope ensemble vaccine comprising the four mutation variants linked with glycine and serine. The recombinant multi-variant epitope gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The expressed protein of the variant multi-variant epitope gene can react with positive sera and monoclonal antibodies of ALV-J, while cannot react with ALV-J negative sera. The multi-variant epitope vaccine that conjugated Freund's adjuvant complete/incomplete showed high immunogenicity that reached the titer of 1:64,000 at 42 days post immunization and maintained the immune period for at least 126 days in SPF chickens. Further, we demonstrated that the antibody induced by the variant multi-variant ensemble epitope vaccine recognized and neutralized different ALV-J strains (NX0101, TA1, WS1, BZ1224 and BZ4). Protection experiment that was evaluated by clinical symptom, viral shedding, weight gain, gross and histopathology showed 100% chickens that inoculated the multi-epitope vaccine were well protected against ALV-J challenge. The result shows a promising multi-variant epitope ensemble vaccine against hypervariable viruses in animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antisocial Behavior and Victimization Over 2-Year Follow-Up in Subgroups of Childhood Arrestees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Domburgh, Lieke; Geluk, Charlotte; Jansen, Lucres; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo

    2016-10-01

    Not only are childhood onset offenders at high risk of becoming serious persistent offenders, they are also at high risk of becoming victimized themselves. Furthermore, studies in the general population suggest that a combined perpetrator-victim group can be distinguished from a perpetrator-only and a victim-only group on individual and family risk factors. The current study investigated the co-occurrence of offending and victimization among first-time arrestees and the 2-year predictive value of previously found clusters of dynamic risk factors of offending. Childhood first-time arrestees ( N = 308; M age = 10.3, SD = 1.45) were clustered into three groups based on dynamic risk factors of offending in the individual, peer, school, and family domains: a pervasive high, an externalizing intermediate, and a low problem group. Police records and self-report data on re-offending and victimization of these children were collected over a 2-year follow-up period. Compared with the low problem group, the prevalence of re-offending was higher in both the externalizing intermediate group and the pervasive high group. The pervasive high group was most likely to display co-occurring future antisocial behavior and victimization. These findings emphasize that attention should be paid to victimization in addition to future antisocial behavior, especially if additional internalizing and family problems are present. Furthermore, the differences in re-offending and victimization between subgroups of childhood onset offenders stress the need for specific interventions tailored to the risk profile of a child.

  20. MicroRNAs sequencing unveils distinct molecular subgroups of plasmablastic lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Mundo, Lucia; Gazaneo, Sara; Picciolini, Matteo; Vara, Prasad Satya; Sayed, Shaheen; Ginori, Alessandro; Lo Bello, Giuseppe; Del Porro, Leonardo; Navari, Mohsen; Ascani, Stefano; Yonis, Amhed; Leoncini, Lorenzo; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Lazzi, Stefano

    2017-12-08

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive lymphoma, often arising in the context of immunodeficiency and associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. The most frequently detected genetic alteration is the deregulation of MYC gene through the translocation - t(8;14)(q24;q32). The diagnosis of PBL is often challenging because it has an overlap in morphology, immunophenotype, cytogenetics and virus association with other lymphomas and plasma cell neoplasms; further, its molecular basis remains elusive. In the present study we aimed to better define the possible contribution of EBV infection as well as miRNA deregulation in PBL pathogenesis. We studied 23 cases of PBL, 19 Burkitt lymphomas (BL), and 17 extra-medullary plasmacytoma (EMPC). We used qPCR and immunohistochemistry to assess EBV latency patterns, while micro-RNA (miRNA) profiling was performed by next generation sequencing (Illumina) and validated by qPCR. Our analysis revealed a non-canonical EBV latency program with the partial expression of some proteins characterizing latency II and the activation of an abortive lytic cycle. Moreover, we identified miRNA signatures discriminating PBL from BL and EMPC. Interestingly, based on the miRNA profile, PBL appeared constituted by two discrete subgroups more similar to either BL or EMPC, respectively. This pattern was confirmed in an independent set of cases studied by qPCR and corresponded to different clinico-pathological features in the two groups, including HIV infection, MYC rearrangement and disease localization. In conclusion, we uncovered for the first time 1) an atypical EBV latency program in PBL; 2) a miRNA signature distinguishing PBL from the closest malignant counterparts; 3) the molecular basis of PBL heterogeneity.

  1. Structural Mobility, Exchange Mobility and Subgroup Consistent Mobility Measurement – US–German Mobility Measurements Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    C. SCHLUTER; D. VAN DE GAER

    2008-01-01

    We formalize the concept of structural mobility and use the framework of subgroup consistent mobility measurement to derive a relative and an absolute measure of mobility that is increasing both in upward structural mobility and exchange mobility. In our empirical illustration, we contribute substantively to the ongoing debate about mobility rankings between the USA and Germany.

  2. Psychosocial and Friendship Characteristics of Bully/Victim Subgroups in Korean Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoolim

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial and friendship characteristics of Korean children who engaged in bully/victim subgroups among their peer groups. The participants were 605 elementary school students in Bucheon City, Korea. The participants completed a peer nomination inventory as well as loneliness and social anxiety scales. Friendship quality…

  3. Symmetries of quantum spaces. Subgroups and quotient spaces of quantum SU(2) and SO(3) groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podles, P.

    1995-01-01

    We prove that each action of a compact matrix quantum group on a compact quantum space can be decomposed into irreducible representations of the group. We give the formula for the corresponding multiplicities in the case of the quotient quantum spaces. We describe the subgroups and the quotient spaces of quantum SU(2) and SO(3) groups. (orig.)

  4. Subgroup analyses in confirmatory clinical trials: time to be specific about their purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanniou, J.; Tweel, I. van der; Teerenstra, S.; Roes, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is well recognized that treatment effects may not be homogeneous across the study population. Subgroup analyses constitute a fundamental step in the assessment of evidence from confirmatory (Phase III) clinical trials, where conclusions for the overall study population might not hold.

  5. Principal Stratification: A Tool for Understanding Variation in Program Effects across Endogenous Subgroups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Lindsay C.; Feller, Avi; Grindal, Todd; Miratrix, Luke; Somers, Marie-Andree

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are interested in questions regarding treatment-effect variation across partially or fully latent subgroups defined not by pretreatment characteristics but by postrandomization actions. One promising approach to address such questions is principal stratification. Under this framework, a researcher defines endogenous…

  6. Summary of the Very Large Hadron Collider Physics and Detector subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.; Keller, S.

    1996-01-01

    We summarize the activity of the Very Large Hadron Collider Physics and Detector subgroup during Snowmass 96. Members of the group: M. Albrow, R. Diebold, S. Feher, L. Jones, R. Harris, D. Hedin, W. Kilgore, J. Lykken, F. Olness, T. Rizzo, V. Sirotenko, and J. Womersley. 9 refs

  7. Testing Measurement Invariance of the Students' Affective Characteristics Model across Gender Sub-Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ergül

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to construct a significant structural measurement model comparing students' affective characteristics with their mathematic achievement. According to this model, the aim was to test the measurement invariances between gender sub-groups hierarchically. This study was conducted as basic and descriptive research. Secondary…

  8. Superstring motivated gauge models based on a rank six subgroup of E6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarides, G.; Panagiotakopoulos, C.; Shafi, Q.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss gauge models based on a superstring motivated rank six subgroup of E 6 . Lepton number is an accidental unbroken symmetry of the models which leads to an essential stable proton. One of the neutral gauge bosons couples to B-L and may have mass below a TeV. (orig.)

  9. Manual therapy in osteoarthritis of the hip: outcome in specific subgroups of patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, H.L.; Dekker, J.; Ronday, H.K.; Breedveld, F.C.; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether manual therapy has particular benefit in subgroups of patients defined on the basis of hip function, range of joint motion, pain and radiological deterioration. METHODS: The study was performed in the out-patient clinic of physical therapy of a large hospital. Data

  10. Contents of Stereotypes toward Woman Subgroups: An Investigation in the Framework of Stereotype Content Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timucin Aktan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the stereotype contents toward woman subgroups and relate these contents to social-structural predictors and sexism. In this respect, 119 university students were recruited for the first study and they were asked to rate 10 woman subgroups in terms of their competence and warmth, and their status and competitiveness. Participants' level of sexism was also measured using ambivalent sexism scale. The findings of the first study revealed that competence and warmth were the two fundamental dimensions of the stereotype contents, these stereotypes could be depicted in three clusters, the content of many women stereotypes were mixed, and status was linked to competence and competition was related to lack of warmth. Besides replicating the main hypotheses of stereotype content model, the findings supported its two basic assumptions, i.e. negative stereotypes are not necessary to reveal stereotype clusters and personal stereotypes are more open to motivational concerns. Finally, sexism was related only with competition, but not with stereotype contents. Since, high competent / high warm cluster was not observed in the first study, the number of woman subgroups was increased in the second study. Thus, 86 university students were asked to rate 18 women subgroups on the scales used in the first study. Results replicated the findings of the first study, supporting the main hypothesis of stereotype content model. The findings of the studies were discussed in the light of relevant literature.

  11. Patterns of alcohol use and consequences among empirically derived sexual minority subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Amelia E; Sher, Kenneth J; Steinley, Douglas; Wood, Phillip K; Littlefield, Andrew K

    2012-03-01

    The current study develops an empirically determined classification of sexual orientation developmental patterns based on participants' annual reports of self-identifications, sexual attractions, and sexual behaviors during the first 4 years of college. A secondary aim of the current work was to examine trajectories of alcohol involvement among identified subgroups. Data were drawn from a subsample of a longitudinal study of incoming first-time college students at a large, public university (n = 2,068). Longitudinal latent class analysis was used to classify sexual minority participants into empirically derived subgroups based on three self-reported facets of sexual orientation. Multivariate repeated-measures analyses were conducted to examine how trajectories of alcohol involvement varied by sexual orientation class membership. Four unique subclasses of sexual orientation developmental patterns were identified for males and females: one consistently exclusively heterosexual group and three sexual minority groups. Despite generally similar alcohol use patterns among subclasses, certain sexual minority subgroups reported elevated levels of alcohol-related negative consequences and maladaptive motivations for use throughout college compared with their exclusively heterosexual counterparts. Elevations in coping and conformity motivations for alcohol use were seen among those subgroups that also evidenced heightened negative alcohol-related consequences. Implications and limitations of the current work are discussed.

  12. Commognitive Analysis of Undergraduate Mathematics Students' First Encounter with the Subgroup Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Marios

    2018-01-01

    This study analyses learning aspects of undergraduate mathematics students' first encounter with the subgroup test, using the commognitive theoretical framework. It focuses on students' difficulties as these are related to the object-level and metalevel mathematical learning in group theory, and, when possible, highlights any commognitive…

  13. Phase structure of lattice gauge theories for non-abelian subgroups of SU(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Kuehnelt, H.

    1981-01-01

    The authors study the phase structure of Euclidean lattice gauge theories in four dimensions for certain non-abelian subgroups of SU(3) by using Monte-Carlo simulations and strong coupling expansions. As the order of the group increases a splitting of one phase transition into two is observed. (Auth.)

  14. Fit genotypes and escape variants of subgroup III Neisseria meningitidis during three pandemics of epidemic meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, P.; van der Ende, A.; Falush, D.; Brieske, N.; Morelli, G.; Linz, B.; Popovic, T.; Schuurman, I. G.; Adegbola, R. A.; Zurth, K.; Gagneux, S.; Platonov, A. E.; Riou, J. Y.; Caugant, D. A.; Nicolas, P.; Achtman, M.

    2001-01-01

    The genetic variability at six polymorphic loci was examined within a global collection of 502 isolates of subgroup III, serogroup A Neisseria meningitidis. Nine "genoclouds" were identified, consisting of genotypes that were isolated repeatedly plus 48 descendent genotypes that were isolated

  15. Specific autoantibody profiles and disease subgroups correlate with circulating micro-RNA in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuttge, D. M.; Carlsen, A. L.; Teku, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the expression profiles of cell-free plasma miRNAs in SSc and to characterize their correlation with disease subgroups (lcSSc and dcSSc) and with autoantibody profiles. Methods. Using quantitative RT-PCR, the abundance of 45 mature miRNAs in plasma was determined in 95 pati...

  16. Incidence and follow-up of Braunwald subgroups in unstable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Miltenburg-van Zijl, A. J.; Simoons, M. L.; Veerhoek, R. J.; Bossuyt, P. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was performed to establish the prognosis of patients with unstable angina within the subgroups of the Braunwald classification. BACKGROUND. Among many classifications of unstable angina, the Braunwald classification is frequently used. However, the incidence and risk for each

  17. Does mortality vary between Asian subgroups in New Zealand: an application of hierarchical Bayesian modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Jatrana

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to see whether all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates vary between Asian ethnic subgroups, and whether overseas born Asian subgroup mortality rate ratios varied by nativity and duration of residence. We used hierarchical Bayesian methods to allow for sparse data in the analysis of linked census-mortality data for 25-75 year old New Zealanders. We found directly standardised posterior all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates were highest for the Indian ethnic group, significantly so when compared with those of Chinese ethnicity. In contrast, cancer mortality rates were lowest for ethnic Indians. Asian overseas born subgroups have about 70% of the mortality rate of their New Zealand born Asian counterparts, a result that showed little variation by Asian subgroup or cause of death. Within the overseas born population, all-cause mortality rates for migrants living 0-9 years in New Zealand were about 60% of the mortality rate of those living more than 25 years in New Zealand regardless of ethnicity. The corresponding figure for cardiovascular mortality rates was 50%. However, while Chinese cancer mortality rates increased with duration of residence, Indian and Other Asian cancer mortality rates did not. Future research on the mechanisms of worsening of health with increased time spent in the host country is required to improve the understanding of the process, and would assist the policy-makers and health planners.

  18. Weinberg Angle Derivation from Discrete Subgroups of SU(2 and All That

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Weinberg angle W of the Standard Model of leptons and quarks is derived from specific discrete (i.e., finite subgroups of the electroweak local gauge group SU(2 L U(1 Y . In addition, the cancellation of the triangle anomaly is achieved even when there are four quark families and three lepton families!

  19. Subgroup analyses of maraviroc in previously treated R5 HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Nelson, Mark; Lazzarin, Adriano; Konourina, Irina; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Lampiris, Harry; Hirschel, Bernard; Tebas, Pablo; Raffi, François; Trottier, Benoit; Bellos, Nicholaos; Saag, Michael; Cooper, David A.; Westby, Mike; Tawadrous, Margaret; Sullivan, John F.; Ridgway, Caroline; Dunne, Michael W.; Felstead, Steve; Mayer, Howard; van der Ryst, Elna; Angel, Jonathan; Conway, Brian; Gough, Kevin A.; Lalonde, Richard G.; Laplante, Francois; Leblanc, Roger P.; Montaner, Julio S. G.; Rachlis, Anita R.; Romanowski, Barbara; Rosser, Stuart J.; Rubinstein, Ethan; Shafran, Stephen David; Smaill, Fiona; Tremblay, Cecile; Trottier, Sylvie; Tsoukas, Christos; Walmsley, Sharon Lynn; Voskanian, Alen; Akil, Bisher; Arduino, Roberto Claudio; Asmuth, David; Beatty, George William; Becker, Stephen Lawrence; Bellos, Nicholaos C.; Blue, Sky Robert; Bolan, Robert Key; Brand, John D.; Burnazian, George Ghazaros; Prins, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted subanalyses of the combined results of the Maraviroc versus Optimized Therapy in Viremic Antiretroviral Treatment-Experienced Patients (MOTIVATE) 1 and MOTIVATE 2 studies to better characterize the efficacy and safety of maraviroc in key subgroups of patients. METHODS: We

  20. Are there distinct cognitive and motivational sub-groups of children with ADHD?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambek, Rikke; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Tannock, Rosemary

    2017-01-01

    of scores on EF and DA tests were contrasted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). LPA was carried out based on factor scores from the CFA and sub-groups were compared in terms of odor identification and behavior. A model with one DA and two EF factors best fit the data. LPA resulted in four sub...

  1. Subgrouping of patients with oral lichen planus according to cytochrome P450 enzyme phenotype and genotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Jensen, Siri Beier; Hansen, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to determine if the activity of the environmentally influenced cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1A2, alone or in combination with CYP2D6*4 genotype, discriminates subgroups of oral lichen planus (OLP) according to lifestyle factors and clinical manifestations. Study Design...

  2. Divide and Conquer: Sub-Grouping of ASD Improves ASD Detection Based on Brain Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Stefi A.; Cahill, Nathan D.; Michael, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Low success (ASD) classification using brain morphometry from the large multi-site ABIDE dataset and inconsistent findings on brain morphometric abnormalities in ASD can be attributed to the ASD heterogeneity. In this study, we show that ASD brain morphometry is highly heterogeneous, and demonstrate that the heterogeneity can be mitigated and classification improved if autism severity (AS), verbal IQ (VIQ) and age are used with morphometric features. Morphometric features from structural MRIs (sMRIs) of 734 males (ASD: 361, controls: 373) of ABIDE were derived using FreeSurfer. Applying the Random Forest classifier, an AUC of 0.61 was achieved. Adding VIQ and age to morphometric features, AUC improved to 0.68. Sub-grouping the subjects by AS, VIQ and age improved the classification with the highest AUC of 0.8 in the moderate-AS sub-group (AS = 7–8). Matching subjects on age and/or VIQ in each sub-group further improved the classification with the highest AUC of 0.92 in the low AS sub-group (AS = 4–5). AUC decreased with AS and VIQ, and was the lowest in the mid-age sub-group (13–18 years). The important features were mainly from the frontal, temporal, ventricular, right hippocampal and left amygdala regions. However, they highly varied with AS, VIQ and age. The curvature and folding index features from frontal, temporal, lingual and insular regions were dominant in younger subjects suggesting their importance for early detection. When the experiments were repeated using the Gradient Boosting classifier similar results were obtained. Our findings suggest that identifying brain biomarkers in sub-groups of ASD can yield more robust and insightful results than searching across the whole spectrum. Further, it may allow identification of sub-group specific brain biomarkers that are optimized for early detection and monitoring, increasing the utility of sMRI as an important tool for early detection of ASD. PMID:27065101

  3. The efficacy of natalizumab in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis: subgroup analyses of AFFIRM and SENTINEL.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hutchinson, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The AFFIRM and SENTINEL studies showed that natalizumab was effective both as monotherapy and in combination with interferon beta (IFNbeta)-1a in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). Further analyses of AFFIRM and SENTINEL data were conducted to determine the efficacy of natalizumab in prespecified patient subgroups according to baseline characteristics: relapse history 1 year before randomization (1, 2, > or = 3), Expanded Disability Status Scale score (< or = 3.5, > 3.5), number of T2 lesions (< 9, > or = 9), presence of gadolinium-enhancing (Gd+) lesions (0, > or = 1), age (< 40, > or = 40) and gender (male, female). A post hoc analysis was conducted to determine the efficacy of natalizumab in patients with highly active disease (i. e., > or = 2 relapses in the year before study entry and > or = 1 Gd+ lesion at study entry). In both AFFIRM and SENTINEL studies natalizumab reduced the annualized relapse rates across all subgroups (except the small subgroups with < 9 baseline T2 lesions) over 2 years. In AFFIRM, natalizumab significantly reduced the risk of sustained disability progression in most subgroups. In SENTINEL, natalizumab significantly reduced the risk of sustained disability progression in the following subgroups: > or = 9 T2 lesions at baseline, > or = 1 Gd+ lesions at baseline, female patients and patients < 40 years of age. Natalizumab reduced the risk of disability progression by 64 % and relapse rate by 81 % in treatment- naive patients with highly active disease and by 58 % and 76 %, respectively, in patients with highly active disease despite IFNbeta-1a treatment. These results indicate that natalizumab is effective in reducing disability progression and relapses in patients with relapsing MS, particularly in patients with highly active disease.

  4. Comprehensive profiling of DNA methylation in colorectal cancer reveals subgroups with distinct clinicopathological and molecular features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Pei Woon; Soong, Richie; Loh, Marie; Liem, Natalia; Lim, Pei Li; Grieu, Fabienne; Vaithilingam, Aparna; Platell, Cameron; Yong, Wei Peng; Iacopetta, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Most previous studies of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer (CRC) have been conducted on a relatively small numbers of CpG sites. In the present study we performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of CRC with the aim of characterizing CIMP subgroups. DNA methylation at 1,505 CpG sites in 807 cancer-related genes was evaluated using the Illumina GoldenGate ® methylation array in 28 normal colonic mucosa and 91 consecutive CRC samples. Methylation data was analyzed using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. CIMP subgroups were compared for various clinicopathological and molecular features including patient age, tumor site, microsatellite instability (MSI), methylation at a consensus panel of CpG islands and mutations in BRAF and KRAS. A total of 202 CpG sites were differentially methylated between tumor and normal tissue. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of methylation data from these sites revealed the existence of three CRC subgroups referred to as CIMP-low (CIMP-L, 21% of cases), CIMP-mid (CIMP-M, 14%) and CIMP-high (CIMP-H, 65%). In comparison to CIMP-L tumors, CIMP-H tumors were more often located in the proximal colon and showed more frequent mutation of KRAS and BRAF (P < 0.001). Comprehensive DNA methylation profiling identified three CRC subgroups with distinctive clinicopathological and molecular features. This study suggests that both KRAS and BRAF mutations are involved with the CIMP-H pathway of CRC rather than with distinct CIMP subgroups

  5. Comprehensive profiling of DNA methylation in colorectal cancer reveals subgroups with distinct clinicopathological and molecular features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaithilingam Aparna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most previous studies of the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP in colorectal cancer (CRC have been conducted on a relatively small numbers of CpG sites. In the present study we performed comprehensive DNA methylation profiling of CRC with the aim of characterizing CIMP subgroups. Methods DNA methylation at 1,505 CpG sites in 807 cancer-related genes was evaluated using the Illumina GoldenGate® methylation array in 28 normal colonic mucosa and 91 consecutive CRC samples. Methylation data was analyzed using unsupervised hierarchical clustering. CIMP subgroups were compared for various clinicopathological and molecular features including patient age, tumor site, microsatellite instability (MSI, methylation at a consensus panel of CpG islands and mutations in BRAF and KRAS. Results A total of 202 CpG sites were differentially methylated between tumor and normal tissue. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of methylation data from these sites revealed the existence of three CRC subgroups referred to as CIMP-low (CIMP-L, 21% of cases, CIMP-mid (CIMP-M, 14% and CIMP-high (CIMP-H, 65%. In comparison to CIMP-L tumors, CIMP-H tumors were more often located in the proximal colon and showed more frequent mutation of KRAS and BRAF (P Conclusions Comprehensive DNA methylation profiling identified three CRC subgroups with distinctive clinicopathological and molecular features. This study suggests that both KRAS and BRAF mutations are involved with the CIMP-H pathway of CRC rather than with distinct CIMP subgroups.

  6. Petrography and geochemistry of iron formations of the Paleoproterozoic Koegas Subgroup, Transvaal Supergroup, Griqualand West, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    M.Sc. (Geology) Nel, B.P. (2013). Petrography and geochemistry of iron formations of the Paleoproterozoic Koegas Subgroup, Transvaal Supergroup, Griqualand West, South Africa. MSc thesis (unpublished), University of Johannesburg, Aucklandpark, pp. 133. The Early Paleoproterozoic Koegas Subgroup comprises a succession of siltstone, mudstone, iron-­‐formation, chert and carbonate rocks that overlies the iron-­‐formations of the Asbestos Hills Subgroup with sharp contact. It is overlain with ...

  7. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Rudisill, Toni M.; Zhu, Motao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16–24, 25–59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Methods Data from the...

  8. LITHIUM IN THE UPPER CENTAURUS LUPUS AND LOWER CENTAURUS CRUX SUBGROUPS OF SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bubar, Eric J. [Department of Biology and Physical Sciences, Marymount University, Arlington, VA 22207 (United States); Schaeuble, Marc; King, Jeremy R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29630-0978 (United States); Mamajek, Eric E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States); Stauffer, John R. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We utilize spectroscopically derived model atmosphere parameters and the Li I {lambda}6104 subordinate line and the {lambda}6708 doublet to derive lithium abundances for 12 members of the Upper Centaurus Lupus and Lower Centaurus Crux subgroups of the Scorpius-Centaurus OB Association. The results indicate any intrinsic Li scatter in our 0.9-1.4 M{sub Sun} stars is limited to {approx}0.15 dex, consistent with the lack of dispersion in {>=}1.0 M{sub Sun} stars in the 100 Myr Pleiades and 30-50 Myr IC 2391 and 2602 clusters. Both ab initio uncertainty estimates and the derived abundances themselves indicate that the {lambda}6104 line yields abundances with equivalent or less scatter than is found from the {lambda}6708 doublet as a result of lower uncertainties for the subordinate feature, a result of low sensitivity to broadening in the subordinate feature. Because non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) corrections are less susceptible to changes in surface gravity and/or metallicity for the 6104 A line, the subordinate Li feature is preferred for deriving lithium abundances in young Li-rich stellar association stars with T{sub eff} {>=} 5200 K. At these temperatures, we find no difference between the Li abundances derived from the two Li I lines. For cooler stars, having temperatures at which main-sequence dwarfs show abundance patterns indicating overexcitation and overionization, the {lambda}6104-based Li abundances are {approx}0.4 dex lower than those derived from the {lambda}6708 doublet. The trends of the abundances from each feature with T{sub eff} suggest that this difference is due to (near)UV photoionization, which in NLTE preferentially ionizes Li atoms in the subordinate 2p state relative to the 2s resonance line state due to opacity effects. Consequently, this overionization of Li in the 2p state, apparently not adequately accounted for in NLTE corrections, weakens the {lambda}6104 feature in cooler stars. Accordingly, the {lambda}6708-based

  9. Facilitating improved road safety based on increased knowledge about driving behaviour and profiling sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne

    The aim of the Ph.D. study presented in this thesis was to facilitate improved road safety through increased understanding of methods used to measure driving behaviour, and through increased knowledge about driving behaviour in sub-groups of drivers. More specifically, the usefulness of the Driver...... with underlying mechanisms of lack of focus, emotional stress, recklessness and confusion, and hence it is highly important to further explore means to making drivers become more focused or attentive when driving, and to deal with emotional responses in traffic like impatience and frustration (Article 1). 2......, indicating that the problem lies in the drivers’ attitudes towards safety (Article 3). 6. It is indicated that rather than viewing safety and risk as two ends of a continuum, safety and risk should be understood as two separate constructs, with different underlying motives. Therefore it is suggested...

  10. EFFECTS OF LIRAGLUTIDE 3.0 MG ON WEIGHT AND RISK FACTORS IN HISPANIC VERSUS NON-HIPANIC POPULATIONS: SUBGROUP ANALYSIS FROM SCALE RANDOMIZED TRIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick M; Garvey, W Timothy; Gonzalez-Campoy, J Michael; Mora, Pablo; Ortiz, Rafael Violante; Guerrero, German; Claudius, Birgitte; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    Scarce data exist on pharmacotherapy for obesity in Hispanic individuals. This post hoc analysis of pooled data from 4 phase 3a trials compared the efficacy and safety of liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo, as adjunct to a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity, in Hispanic versus non-Hispanic subgroups. We conducted the double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trials in adults with a minimum body mass index (BMI) of 27 kg/m 2 with at least 1 comorbidity, or a minimum BMI of 30 kg/m 2 , at clinical research sites worldwide. In this analysis, we investigated possible differences in treatment effects between 534 Hispanics (10.4% of the population) and 4,597 non-Hispanics (89.6%) through statistical tests of interaction between subgroups and treatment. Variables examined included mean and categorical weight change, cardiovascular risk markers, and safety data. Both subgroups achieved clinically significant mean weight loss at end-of-treatment with liraglutide 3.0 mg versus placebo: Hispanics 7.0% versus 1.5%, treatment difference -5.1% (95% CI, -6.2 to -4.0); non-Hispanics 7.5% versus 2.3%, -5.2% (95% CI, -5.5 to -4.8). More individuals in both subgroups lost ≥5%, >10%, and >15% of their baseline weight with liraglutide 3.0 mg than with placebo. Efficacy endpoints generally did not vary with ethnicity (P>.05). Adverse events were comparable between ethnic subgroups, with more gastrointestinal disorders reported with liraglutide 3.0 mg than placebo. Efficacy and safety were largely similar between Hispanic and non-Hispanic subgroups. Results support that liraglutide 3.0 mg, used with a reduced-calorie diet and physical activity, can facilitate weight loss in Hispanic individuals. A1c = glycated hemoglobin BMI = body mass index CI = confidence interval FPG = fasting plasma glucose GLP-1 = glucagon-like peptide-1 hsCRP = high-sensitivity C-reactive protein SCALE = Satiety and Clinical Adiposity - Liraglutide Evidence in individuals with and without diabetes T2DM

  11. Evaluation of a compliance device in a subgroup of adult patients receiving specific immunotherapy with grass allergen tablets (GRAZAX) in a randomized, open-label, controlled study: an a priori subgroup analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.H.; Andersen, K.F.; Bruning, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This a priori subgroup analysis was conducted to assess patients' experience with a compliance device for the administration of sublingual specific immunotherapy for grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. METHODS: The present paper reports the results of a subgroup analysis of a

  12. Epigenetic subgroups of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinoma with differential GATA5 DNA methylation associated with clinical and lifestyle factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhui Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adenocarcinomas located near the gastroesophageal junction have unclear etiology and are difficult to classify. We used DNA methylation analysis to identify subtype-specific markers and new subgroups of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas, and studied their association with epidemiological risk factors and clinical outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used logistic regression models and unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of 74 DNA methylation markers on 45 tumor samples (44 patients of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas obtained from a population-based case-control study to uncover epigenetic markers and cluster groups of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. No distinct epigenetic differences were evident between subtypes of gastric and esophageal cancers. However, we identified two gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma subclusters based on DNA methylation profiles. Group membership was best predicted by GATA5 DNA methylation status. We analyzed the associations between these two epigenetic groups and exposure using logistic regression, and the associations with survival time using Cox regression in a larger set of 317 tumor samples (278 patients. There were more males with esophageal and gastric cardia cancers in Cluster Group 1 characterized by higher GATA5 DNA methylation values (all p<0.05. This group also showed associations of borderline statistical significance with having ever smoked (p-value = 0.07, high body mass index (p-value = 0.06, and symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (p-value = 0.07. Subjects in cluster Group 1 showed better survival than those in Group 2 after adjusting for tumor differentiation grade, but this was not found to be independent of tumor stage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: DNA methylation profiling can be used in population-based studies to identify epigenetic subclasses of gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas and class-specific DNA methylation markers that can be linked to

  13. Subgrouping of A and AB blood groups in Indian blood centres: is it required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Ranjita; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Paramjit

    2011-08-01

    Anti A1 antibody in the serum of A2 and A2B individuals is rare but when present can have laboratory and clinical significance. Routine subgrouping of all A and AB blood groups in blood centres in India is difficult due to economic constraints and has always been a point of debate. This study thus brings out the prevalence of anti A1 antibody and the clinical significance related to its presence. The results of the study showed a low prevalence of anti A1 antibody and when present, it had a low thermal amplitude and titre. Further, no blood group discrepancy or problems during compatibility testing were encountered with these (A1 antibody positive) blood units. Thus, it may be concluded that in India and other developing countries where resources are scarce, routine subgrouping of A and AB may not be really worthwhile unless there is a group discrepancy, problem during compatibility testing or history of a transfusion reaction.

  14. The influence of working memory on reading growth in subgroups of children with reading disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H Lee; Jerman, Olga

    2007-04-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study determined whether (a) subgroups of children with reading disabilities (RD) (children with RD only, children with both reading and arithmetic deficits, and low verbal IQ readers) and skilled readers varied in working memory (WM) and short-term memory (STM) growth and (b) whether growth in an executive system and/or a phonological storage system mediated growth in reading performance. A battery of memory and reading measures was administered to 84 children (11-17 years of age) across three testing waves spaced 1 year apart. The results showed that skilled readers yielded higher WM growth estimates than did the RD groups. No significant differentiation among subgroups of children with RD on growth measures emerged. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that WM (controlled attention), rather than STM (phonological loop), was related to growth in reading comprehension and reading fluency. The results support the notion that deficient growth in the executive component of WM underlies RD.

  15. Autoimmune-autoinflammatory rheumatoid arthritis overlaps: a rare but potentially important subgroup of diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Sinisa; Mistry, Anoop; Wilson, Anthony G; Barcenas-Morales, Gabriela; Doffinger, Rainer; Emery, Paul; McGonagle, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    At the population level, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is generally viewed as autoimmune in nature with a small subgroup of cases having a palindromic form or systemic autoinflammatory disorder (SAID) phenotype. Herein, we describe resistant cases of classical autoantibody associated RA that had clinical, genetic and therapeutic responses indicative of coexistent autoinflammatory disease. Five patients with clinically overlapping features between RA and SAID including polysynovitis and autoantibody/shared epitope positivity, and who had abrupt severe self-limiting attacks including fevers and serositis, are described. Mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms in recognised autoinflammatory pathways were evident. Generally, these cases responded poorly to conventional Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) treatment with some excellent responses to colchicine or interleukin 1 pathway blockade. A subgroup of RA cases have a mixed autoimmune-autoinflammatory phenotype and genotype with therapeutic implications.

  16. Multimodality Management of Spetzler-Martin Grade 3 Brain Arteriovenous Malformations with Subgroup Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecassis, Isaac Josh; Nerva, John D; Feroze, Abdullah; Barber, Jason; Ghodke, Basavaraj V; Kim, Louis J; Sekhar, Laligam N

    2017-06-01

    Spetzler-Martin grade 3 (SM3) lesions entail 4 distinct subtypes described based on size, eloquence, and deep venous drainage (3A-3D). The ideal management of each is contentious, and the results of A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain AVMs (ARUBA) introduced additional controversy and attention toward management strategies of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). We retrospectively reviewed 114 patients with treated SM3 bAVMs, including both ruptured and unruptured lesions. Primary outcomes included modified Rankin score at most recent follow-up, angiographic cure, and permanent treatment-related complications (morbidity). Other outcomes included mortality, bAVM recurrence or rebleed, and transient treatment-related complications. We used univariate and multivariate modeling to determine whether any specific features were predictive of outcomes. For unruptured bAVMs, an "ARUBA eligible" subgroup analysis was performed. We also reviewed the literature on management of ruptured and unruptured SM3 bAVMs. Of the 114 identified SM3 bAVMs, 40% were unruptured. Most (43.5%) lesions in the unruptured group were type 3C, whereas most ruptured bAVMs (66.2%) were type 3A. Unruptured lesions were mostly managed with radiosurgery (47.8%) and ruptured ones with preoperative embolization and surgery (36.7%). Surgical intervention was predictive of angiographic cure in multivariate modeling, even after controlling for ≥2 years of follow-up, although associated with a slightly higher rate of morbidity. Focal neurological deficit was the only predictor of a worse (modified Rankin score ≥2) functional outcome in follow-up for unruptured bAVMs. For ruptured bAVMs, superficial and cerebellar locations were predictive of better outcomes in multivariate models, in the absence of a focal neurological deficit at presentation and new after surgery deficit. ARUBA SM3 bAVMs specifically underwent more embolization as a monotherapy and less microsurgical resection than

  17. Exceptional quantum subgroups for the rank two Lie algebras B2 and G2

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, R.; Tahri, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Exceptional modular invariants for the Lie algebras B2 (at levels 2,3,7,12) and G2 (at levels 3,4) can be obtained from conformal embeddings. We determine the associated alge bras of quantum symmetries and discover or recover, as a by-product, the graphs describing exceptional quantum subgroups of type B2 or G2 which encode their module structure over the associated fusion category. Global dimensions are given.

  18. Mining geriatric assessment data for in-patient fall prediction models and high-risk subgroups

    OpenAIRE

    Marschollek, Michael; Gövercin, Mehmet; Rust, Stefan; Gietzelt, Matthias; Schulze, Mareike; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hospital in-patient falls constitute a prominent problem in terms of costs and consequences. Geriatric institutions are most often affected, and common screening tools cannot predict in-patient falls consistently. Our objectives are to derive comprehensible fall risk classification models from a large data set of geriatric in-patients' assessment data and to evaluate their predictive performance (aim#1), and to identify high-risk subgroups from the data (aim#2). Methods A ...

  19. Centralizers of maximal regular subgroups in simple Lie groups and relative congruence classes of representations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larouche, M [Departement de Mathematiques et Statistique, Universite de Montreal, 2920 chemin de la Tour, Montreal, Quebec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Lemire, F W [Department of Mathematics, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario (Canada); Patera, J, E-mail: larouche@dms.umontreal.ca, E-mail: lemire@uwindsor.ca, E-mail: patera@crm.umontreal.ca [Centre de Recherches Mathematiques, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128-Centre ville, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2011-10-14

    In this paper, we present a new, uniform and comprehensive description of centralizers of the maximal regular subgroups in compact simple Lie groups of all types and ranks. The centralizer is either a direct product of finite cyclic groups, a continuous group of rank 1, or a product, not necessarily direct, of a continuous group of rank 1 with a finite cyclic group. Explicit formulas for the action of such centralizers on irreducible representations of the simple Lie algebras are given. (paper)

  20. On the Set of the Numbers of Conjugates of Noncyclic Proper Subgroups of Finite Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Jiangtao; Zhang, Cui

    2013-01-01

    Let G be a finite group and (G) the set of the numbers of conjugates of noncyclic proper subgroups of G. We prove that (1) if |(G)| ≤ 2, then G is solvable, and (2) G is a nonsolvable group with |(G)| = 3 if and only if G≅PSL(2,5) or PSL(2,13) or SL(2,5) or SL(2,13)....

  1. Extended gauge sectors at future colliders: Report of the New Gauge Boson Subgroup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzo, T.G.

    1996-12-01

    The author summarizes the results of the New Gauge Boson Subgroup on the physics of extended gauge sectors at future colliders as presented at the 1996 Snowmass workshop. He discusses the direct and indirect search reaches for new gauge bosons at both hadron and lepton colliders as well as the ability of such machines to extract detailed information on the couplings of these particles to the fermions and gauge bosons of the Standard Model. 41 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  2. On finite groups whose every proper normal subgroup is a union of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    ... and |N|(|N| − 1) divides |G| and in particular, |G| is even. Shi [14] proved some deep results about finite group G of order paqb containing a 2- decomposable normal subgroup N. He proved that for such a group |N| = 2, 3, 2 b1 or. 2 a1 +1, where 2b1 −1 is a Mersenne prime and 2a1 +1 is a Fermat prime. Moreover, we have.

  3. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups.

  4. A flexible Bayesian hierarchical model of preterm birth risk among US Hispanic subgroups in relation to maternal nativity and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Jay S; MacLehose, Richard F; Torrone, Elizabeth A; Savitz, David A

    2011-04-19

    Previous research has documented heterogeneity in the effects of maternal education on adverse birth outcomes by nativity and Hispanic subgroup in the United States. In this article, we considered the risk of preterm birth (PTB) using 9 years of vital statistics birth data from New York City. We employed finer categorizations of exposure than used previously and estimated the risk dose-response across the range of education by nativity and ethnicity. Using Bayesian random effects logistic regression models with restricted quadratic spline terms for years of completed maternal education, we calculated and plotted the estimated posterior probabilities of PTB (gestational age education by ethnic and nativity subgroups adjusted for only maternal age, as well as with more extensive covariate adjustments. We then estimated the posterior risk difference between native and foreign born mothers by ethnicity over the continuous range of education exposures. The risk of PTB varied substantially by education, nativity and ethnicity. Native born groups showed higher absolute risk of PTB and declining risk associated with higher levels of education beyond about 10 years, as did foreign-born Puerto Ricans. For most other foreign born groups, however, risk of PTB was flatter across the education range. For Mexicans, Central Americans, Dominicans, South Americans and "Others", the protective effect of foreign birth diminished progressively across the educational range. Only for Puerto Ricans was there no nativity advantage for the foreign born, although small numbers of foreign born Cubans limited precision of estimates for that group. Using flexible Bayesian regression models with random effects allowed us to estimate absolute risks without strong modeling assumptions. Risk comparisons for any sub-groups at any exposure level were simple to calculate. Shrinkage of posterior estimates through the use of random effects allowed for finer categorization of exposures without

  5. Interparental Conflict, Parenting Behavior, and Children's Friendship Quality as Correlates of Peer Aggression and Peer Victimization Among Aggressor/Victim Subgroups in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung-Hee; Hong, Jun Sung; Yoon, Jina; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2014-07-01

    The focus of this study was to examine whether interparental conflict, maternal parenting behaviors, and children's friendship quality varied as a function of peer aggression/victim subgroups among a sample of 227 elementary school children and their mothers in South Korea. Both self-report and peer-report data indicated that the majority of the students were uninvolved in peer aggression situations, and the number of participants in the subgroups (aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims) varied depending on the source of report. According to the self-report data, victims and aggressor-victims reported a higher level of maternal rejection than uninvolved youth. Aggressors, victims, and aggressor-victims reported higher maternal neglect than uninvolved youth. The highest level of interparental conflict was reported by victims, followed by aggressors. Interestingly, no significant differences were found in positive functioning of friendship quality among the subgroups, although results indicated a significant difference among groups in negative friendship quality. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Cluster analysis reveals subclinical subgroups with shared autistic and schizotypal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Talitha C; Apputhurai, Pragalathan; Meyer, Denny; Crewther, David P

    2018-07-01

    Autism and schizophrenia spectrum research is typically based on coarse diagnostic classification, which overlooks individual variation within clinical groups. This method limits the identification of underlying cognitive, genetic and neural correlates of specific symptom dimensions. This study, therefore, aimed to identify homogenous subclinical subgroups of specific autistic and schizotypal traits dimensions, that may be utilised to establish more effective diagnostic and treatment practices. Latent profile analysis of subscale scores derived from an autism-schizotypy questionnaire, completed by 1678 subclinical adults aged 18-40 years (1250 females), identified a local optimum of eight population clusters: High, Moderate and Low Psychosocial Difficulties; High, Moderate and Low Autism-Schizotypy; High Psychosis-Proneness; and Moderate Schizotypy. These subgroups represent the convergent and discriminant dimensions of autism and schizotypy in the subclinical population, and highlight the importance of examining subgroups of specific symptom characteristics across these spectra in order to identify the underlying genetic and neural correlates that can be utilised to advance diagnostic and treatment practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Minimal unitary realizations of exceptional U-duality groups and their subgroups as quasiconformal groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunaydin, Murat; Pavlyk, Oleksandr

    2005-01-01

    We study the minimal unitary representations of noncompact exceptional groups that arise as U-duality groups in extended supergravity theories. First we give the unitary realizations of the exceptional group E 8(-24) in SU*(8) as well as SU(6,2) covariant bases. E 8(-24) has E 7 x SU(2) as its maximal compact subgroup and is the U-duality group of the exceptional supergravity theory in d=3. For the corresponding U-duality group E 8(8) of the maximal supergravity theory the minimal realization was given. The minimal unitary realizations of all the lower rank noncompact exceptional groups can be obtained by truncation of those of E 8(-24) and E 8(8) . By further truncation one can obtain the minimal unitary realizations of all the groups of the 'Magic Triangle'. We give explicitly the minimal unitary realizations of the exceptional subgroups of E 8(-24) as well as other physically interesting subgroups. These minimal unitary realizations correspond, in general, to the quantization of their geometric actions as quasi-conformal groups. (author)

  8. Patterns and Risk Factors of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis among Orang Asli Subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Aziz, Shafie; Chua, Kek Heng; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Lee, Soo Ching; Tan, Tiong Kai; Sani, Mistam Mohd; Arine, Ahmad Fadzlun; Rohela, Mahmud; Lim, Yvonne A. L.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to provide comprehensive data on the patterns and associated risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among five Orang Asli subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall prevalence of STH infections was 59.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1–63.7%). Trichuris trichiura (54.3%; 95% CI = 50.4–58.2%) was the predominant species followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.7%; 95% CI = 23.3–30.1%) and hookworm (9.1%; 95% CI = 6.9–11.3%). This study showed diversity for STH infections by subgroup with poverty and personal sanitary behavior as important risk factors for infection. Risk profile analyses indicating that Orang Kuala subgroup who has a generally well-developed infrastructure and better quality of life had a low rate of infection. There is a need for poverty reduction and promotion of deworming programs along with mass scale campaigns to create awareness about health and hygiene to reduce STH infections. PMID:26055746

  9. Patterns and Risk Factors of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis Among Orang Asli Subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, Romano; Aziz, Shafie; Chua, Kek Heng; Aidil, Roslan Muhammad; Lee, Soo Ching; Tan, Tiong Kai; Sani, Mistam Mohd; Arine, Ahmad Fadzlun; Rohela, Mahmud; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-08-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to provide comprehensive data on the patterns and associated risk factors of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections among five Orang Asli subgroups in Peninsular Malaysia. The overall prevalence of STH infections was 59.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 56.1-63.7%). Trichuris trichiura (54.3%; 95% CI = 50.4-58.2%) was the predominant species followed by Ascaris lumbricoides (26.7%; 95% CI = 23.3-30.1%) and hookworm (9.1%; 95% CI = 6.9-11.3%). This study showed diversity for STH infections by subgroup with poverty and personal sanitary behavior as important risk factors for infection. Risk profile analyses indicating that Orang Kuala subgroup who has a generally well-developed infrastructure and better quality of life had a low rate of infection. There is a need for poverty reduction and promotion of deworming programs along with mass scale campaigns to create awareness about health and hygiene to reduce STH infections. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  10. Summary of the activities of the subgroup on data acquisition and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connolly, P.L.; Doughty, D.C.; Elias, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    A data acquisition and handling subgroup consisting of approximately 20 members met during the 1981 ISABELLE summer study. Discussions were led by members of the BNL ISABELLE Data Acquisition Group (DAG) with lively participation from outside users. Particularly large contributions were made by representatives of BNL experiments 734, 735, and the MPS, as well as the Fermilab Colliding Detector Facility and the SLAC LASS Facility. In contrast to the 1978 study, the subgroup did not divide its activities into investigations of various individual detectors, but instead attempted to review the current state-of-the-art in the data acquisition, trigger processing, and data handling fields. A series of meetings first reviewed individual pieces of the problem, including status of the Fastbus Project, the Nevis trigger processor, the SLAC 168/E and 3081/E emulators, and efforts within DAG. Additional meetings dealt with the question involving specifying and building complete data acquisition systems. For any given problem, a series of possible solutions was proposed by the members of the subgroup. In general, any given solution had both advantages and disadvantages, and there was never any consensus on which approach was best. However, there was agreement that certain problems could only be handled by systems of a given power or greater. what will be given here is a review of various solutions with associated powers, costs, advantages, and disadvantages

  11. The ubiquitin-proteasome system and chromosome 17 in cerebellar granule cells and medulloblastoma subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Jerry; Marzban, Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Chromosome 17 abnormalities are often observed in medulloblastomas (MBs), particularly those classified in the consensus Groups 3 and 4. Herein we review MB signature genes associated with chromosome 17 and the relationship of these signature genes to the ubiquitin-proteasome system. While clinical investigators have not focused on the ubiquitin-proteasome system in relation to MB, a substantial amount of data on the topic has been hidden in the form of supplemental datasets of gene expression. A supplemental dataset associated with the Thompson classification of MBs shows that a subgroup of MB with 17p deletions is characterized by reduced expression of genes for several core particle subunits of the beta ring of the proteasome (β1, β4, β5, β7). One of these genes (PSMB6, the gene for the β1 subunit) is located on chromosome 17, near the telomeric end of 17p. By comparison, in the WNT group of MBs only one core proteasome subunit, β6, associated with loss of a gene (PSMB1) on chromosome 6, was down-regulated in this dataset. The MB subgroups with the worst prognosis have a significant association with chromosome 17 abnormalities and irregularities of APC/C cyclosome genes. We conclude that the expression of proteasome subunit genes and genes for ubiquitin ligases can contribute to prognostic classification of MBs. The therapeutic value of targeting proteasome subunits and ubiquitin ligases in the various subgroups of MB remains to be determined separately for each classification of MB.

  12. Subgroup A: nuclear model codes report to the Sixteenth Meeting of the WPEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Dietrich, F.S.; Herman, M.; Kawano, T.; Konig, A.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Subgroup A activities focus on the development of nuclear reaction models and codes, used in evaluation work for nuclear reactions from the unresolved energy region up to the pion threshold production limit, and for target nuclides from the low teens and heavier. Much of the efforts are devoted by each participant to the continuing development of their own Institution codes. Progresses in this arena are reported in detail for each code in the present document. EMPIRE-II is of public access. The release of the TALYS code has been announced for the ND2004 Conference in Santa Fe, NM, October 2004. McGNASH is still under development and is not expected to be released in the very near future. In addition, Subgroup A members have demonstrated a growing interest in working on common modeling and codes capabilities, which would significantly reduce the amount of duplicate work, help manage efficiently the growing lines of existing codes, and render codes inter-comparison much easier. A recent and important activity of the Subgroup A has therefore been to develop the framework and the first bricks of the ModLib library, which is constituted of mostly independent pieces of codes written in Fortran 90 (and above) to be used in existing and future nuclear reaction codes. Significant progresses in the development of ModLib have been made during the past year. Several physics modules have been added to the library, and a few more have been planned in detail for the coming year.

  13. Quantum algorithms for the hidden subgroup problem on some semi-direct product groups by reduction to Abelian cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Dong Pyo; Kim, Jeong San; Lee, Soojoon

    2006-01-01

    We consider the hidden subgroup problem on the semi-direct product of cyclic groups Z N -bar Z p , where p is a prime that does not divide p j -1 for any of the prime factors p j of N, and show that the hidden subgroup problem can be reduced to other ones for which solutions are already known

  14. Characterization of toxin complex gene clusters and insect toxicity of bacteria representing four subgroups of Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten strains representing four lineages of Pseudomonas (P. chlororaphis, P. corrugata, P. koreensis, and P. fluorescens subgroups) were evaluated for toxicity to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The three strains within the P. chlororaphis subgroup exhibi...

  15. Prevalence and Profile of Phonological and Surface Subgroups in College Students with a History of Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Stacy L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify and characterize surface and phonological subgroups of readers among college students with a prior diagnosis of developmental reading disability (RD). Using a speeded naming task derived from Castles and Coltheart's subtyping study, we identified subgroups of readers from among college students with…

  16. Ethnic Identity and Major Depression in Asian American Subgroups Nationwide: Differential Findings in Relation to Subcultural Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L; Nicdao, Ethel G; Appel, Hoa B; Lee, Daniel Hyung Jik

    2015-12-01

    Asian Americans (AA) are the fastest growing minority population in the United States. Leading AA scholars have highlighted the unmet service needs and the necessity to investigate subgroup variations in the mental health of AAs. This study addressed a research gap of whether racial and ethnic identity (REI) in three AA subgroups (Chinese, Filipino, and Vietnamese) consistently protects against major depressive disorder (MDD), counteracting the deleterious role of discrimination. Using the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), we explored the varying and incremental predictive values of REI, above and beyond the effects of known demographic and acculturation predictors, alongside other potentially protective factors. In three sets of two-step logistic regressions, REI had an inverse relationship with MDD in the Filipino subgroup only but a positive association in the Chinese subgroup. The damaging role of negative REI moderated the effect of discrimination. The longest stay in the United States and discrimination predicted a higher likelihood of a MDD diagnosis in the Filipino subgroup. Social support contributed to the lower odds of MDD in Chinese and Vietnamese subgroups, had lower odds of having MDD, and religious attendance may act as a protective factor in the Vietnamese subgroup. Our findings do not reinforce uniform protection of REI but lend partial support for two underlying rationales. Based on cultural psychologists' framework, inconsistent findings are interpreted within the sociocultural contexts of the 3 subgroups. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Do mood symptoms subdivide the schizophrenia phenotype? : Association of the GMP6A gene with a depression subgroup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boks, Marco P M; Hoogendoorn, Mechteld; Jungerius, Bart J; Bakker, Steven C; Sommer, Iris E; Sinke, Richard J; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S

    2008-01-01

    Genetic studies of clinically defined subgroups of schizophrenia patients may reduce the phenotypic heterogeneity of schizophrenia and thus facilitate the identification of genes that confer risk to this disorder. Several latent class analyses have provided subgroups of psychotic disorders that show

  18. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in bulk milk: Prevalence, distribution, and associated subgroup- and species-specific risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visscher, A; Piepers, S; Haesebrouck, F; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S

    2017-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) have become the main pathogens causing bovine mastitis in recent years. A huge variation in species distribution among herds has been observed in several studies, emphasizing the need to identify subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors to improve our understanding of the differences in ecological and epidemiological nature between species. The use of bulk milk samples enables the inclusion of a large(r) number of herds needed to identify herd-level risk factors and increases the likelihood of recovering enough isolates per species needed for conducting subgroup- and, eventually, species-specific analyses at the same time. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of CNS species in bulk milk samples and to identify associated subgroup- and species-specific herd-level factors. Ninety percent of all bulk milk samples yielded CNS. Staphylococcus equorum was the predominant species, followed by Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. A seasonal effect was observed for several CNS species. Bulk milk samples from herds with a loose-pack or a tiestall housing system were more likely to yield CNS species compared with herds with a freestall barn, except for S. epidermidis, Staphylococcus simulans, and Staphylococcus cohnii. In September, herds in which udders were clipped had lower odds of yielding Staphylococcus chromogenes, S. simulans, and Staphylococcus xylosus, the CNS species assumed to be most relevant for udder health, in their bulk milk than herds in which udder clipping was not practiced. Bulk milk of herds participating in a monthly veterinary udder health-monitoring program was more likely to yield these 3 CNS species. Herds always receiving their milk quality premium or predisinfecting teats before attachment of the milking cluster had lower odds of having S. equorum in their bulk milk. Herds not using a single dry cotton or paper towel for each cow during premilking udder

  19. Mining geriatric assessment data for in-patient fall prediction models and high-risk subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschollek, Michael; Gövercin, Mehmet; Rust, Stefan; Gietzelt, Matthias; Schulze, Mareike; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

    2012-03-14

    Hospital in-patient falls constitute a prominent problem in terms of costs and consequences. Geriatric institutions are most often affected, and common screening tools cannot predict in-patient falls consistently. Our objectives are to derive comprehensible fall risk classification models from a large data set of geriatric in-patients' assessment data and to evaluate their predictive performance (aim#1), and to identify high-risk subgroups from the data (aim#2). A data set of n = 5,176 single in-patient episodes covering 1.5 years of admissions to a geriatric hospital were extracted from the hospital's data base and matched with fall incident reports (n = 493). A classification tree model was induced using the C4.5 algorithm as well as a logistic regression model, and their predictive performance was evaluated. Furthermore, high-risk subgroups were identified from extracted classification rules with a support of more than 100 instances. The classification tree model showed an overall classification accuracy of 66%, with a sensitivity of 55.4%, a specificity of 67.1%, positive and negative predictive values of 15% resp. 93.5%. Five high-risk groups were identified, defined by high age, low Barthel index, cognitive impairment, multi-medication and co-morbidity. Our results show that a little more than half of the fallers may be identified correctly by our model, but the positive predictive value is too low to be applicable. Non-fallers, on the other hand, may be sorted out with the model quite well. The high-risk subgroups and the risk factors identified (age, low ADL score, cognitive impairment, institutionalization, polypharmacy and co-morbidity) reflect domain knowledge and may be used to screen certain subgroups of patients with a high risk of falling. Classification models derived from a large data set using data mining methods can compete with current dedicated fall risk screening tools, yet lack diagnostic precision. High-risk subgroups may be identified

  20. Mining geriatric assessment data for in-patient fall prediction models and high-risk subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marschollek Michael

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital in-patient falls constitute a prominent problem in terms of costs and consequences. Geriatric institutions are most often affected, and common screening tools cannot predict in-patient falls consistently. Our objectives are to derive comprehensible fall risk classification models from a large data set of geriatric in-patients' assessment data and to evaluate their predictive performance (aim#1, and to identify high-risk subgroups from the data (aim#2. Methods A data set of n = 5,176 single in-patient episodes covering 1.5 years of admissions to a geriatric hospital were extracted from the hospital's data base and matched with fall incident reports (n = 493. A classification tree model was induced using the C4.5 algorithm as well as a logistic regression model, and their predictive performance was evaluated. Furthermore, high-risk subgroups were identified from extracted classification rules with a support of more than 100 instances. Results The classification tree model showed an overall classification accuracy of 66%, with a sensitivity of 55.4%, a specificity of 67.1%, positive and negative predictive values of 15% resp. 93.5%. Five high-risk groups were identified, defined by high age, low Barthel index, cognitive impairment, multi-medication and co-morbidity. Conclusions Our results show that a little more than half of the fallers may be identified correctly by our model, but the positive predictive value is too low to be applicable. Non-fallers, on the other hand, may be sorted out with the model quite well. The high-risk subgroups and the risk factors identified (age, low ADL score, cognitive impairment, institutionalization, polypharmacy and co-morbidity reflect domain knowledge and may be used to screen certain subgroups of patients with a high risk of falling. Classification models derived from a large data set using data mining methods can compete with current dedicated fall risk screening tools, yet lack

  1. Disparate rates of acute rejection and donor-specific antibodies among high-immunologic risk renal transplant subgroups receiving antithymocyte globulin induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Samir J; Suki, Wadi N; Loucks-DeVos, Jennifer; Graviss, Edward A; Nguyen, Duc T; Knight, Richard J; Kuten, Samantha A; Moore, Linda W; Teeter, Larry D; Gaber, Lillian W; Gaber, A Osama

    2016-08-01

    Lymphocyte-depleting induction lowers acute rejection (AR) rates among high-immunologic risk (HIR) renal transplant recipients, including African Americans (AAs), retransplants, and the sensitized. It is unclear whether different HIR subgroups experience similarly low rates of AR. We aimed to describe the incidence of AR and de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) among HIR recipients categorized by age, race, or donor type. All received antithymocyte globulin (ATG) induction and triple maintenance immunosuppression. A total of 464 HIR recipients from 2007 to 2014 were reviewed. AR and dnDSA rates at 1 year for the entire population were 14% and 27%, respectively. AR ranged from 6.7% among living donor (LD) recipients to 30% in younger AA deceased donor (DD) recipients. De novo donor-specific antibody at 1 year ranged from 7% in older non-AA LD recipients to 32% in AAs. AA race remained as an independent risk factor for AR among DD recipients and for dnDSA among all HIR recipients. Development of both AR and dnDSA within the first year was associated with a 54% graft survival at 5 years and was an independent risk factor for graft loss. Despite utilization of recommended immunosuppression for HIR recipients, substantial disparities exist among subgroups, warranting further consideration of individualized immunosuppression in certain HIR subgroups. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  2. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2017-05-12

    Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Data from the 2008-2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states' cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55) for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38) for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72) in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66) in the South. The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  3. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni M. Rudisill

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16–24, 25–59, ≥60 years, sexes, races (White, African American, or other, ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban, and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Methods Data from the 2008–2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states’ cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. Results When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, <0.0001 and regions (p-value, 0.0003. Compared to states without universal hand-held cell phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55 for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38 for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72 in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66 in the South. Conclusions The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  4. A post-hoc subgroup analysis of outcomes in the first phase III clinical study of edaravone (MCI-186) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Our first phase III study failed to demonstrate efficacy of edaravone for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared to placebo. Here, we performed post-hoc subgroup analysis to identify a subgroup in which edaravone might be expected to show efficacy. We focussed on two newly defined subgroups, EESP and dpEESP2y. The EESP was defined as the efficacy-expected subpopulation with % forced vital capacity of ≥80%, and ≥2 points for all item scores in the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) score before treatment. The dpEESP2y was defined as the greater-efficacy-expected subpopulation within EESP having a diagnosis of 'definite' or 'probable' ALS according to the El Escorial revised Airlie House diagnostic criteria and onset of disease within two years. The primary endpoint of the post-hoc analysis was the change in the ALSFRS-R score during the 24-week treatment period. The intergroup differences of the least-squares mean change in the ALSFRS-R score ± standard error during treatment were 0.65 ± 0.78 (p = 0.4108) in the full analysis set, 2.20 ± 1.03 (p = 0.0360) in the EESP, and 3.01 ± 1.33 (p = 0.0270) in the dpEESP2y. Edaravone exhibited efficacy in the dpEESP2y subgroup. A further clinical study in patients meeting dpEESP2y criteria is warranted.

  5. Three-dimensional Cervical Movement Characteristics in Healthy Subjects and Subgroups of Chronic Neck Pain Patients Based on Their Pain Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeyaert, Patirck; Jansen, Daniel; Bastiaansen, Marco; Scafoglieri, Aldo; Buyl, Ronald; Schmitt, Maarten; Cattrysse, Erik

    2016-08-01

    A cross-sectional observational study of three-dimensional (3D) cervical kinematics in 41 chronic neck pain (CNPs) patients and 156 asymptomatic controls. The objective was to investigate 3D cervical kinematics by analyzing and comparing quantitative and qualitative parameters in healthy subjects and CNPs. Furthermore, subgroups were formed to explore the influence of pain-location on cervical kinematics. The possible correlation of kinematic parameters with the degree of functional disability was examined as well. In patients with chronic neck pain, a clear pathological cause is frequently not identifiable. Therefore, the need to assess neck pain with a broader view than structure or anatomical-based divergences is desirable. Movements of the cervical spine were registered using an electromagnetic tracking system. Quantitative and qualitative kinematics were analyzed for active axial rotation, lateral bending, and flexion-extension motion components. During lateral bending, the range of the main motion demonstrated significant higher values (P = 0.001) in the controls (mean: 68.67° ± 15.17°) than patients (mean: 59.28° ± 15.41°). Significant differences were demonstrated between subgroups for several kinematic parameters (P pain group, some parameters also distinguished subgroups from controls. On average, the symmetrical group showed significant less harmonic movement patterns, expressed by qualitative parameters, in comparison with the "asymmetrical" group and controls. Furthermore, the "asymmetrical" group showed significant lower scores on quantitative parameters than the "symmetrical" group and controls. The degree of functional disability correlated moderately with changes in qualitative parameters. In this study, chronic neck pain patients with a symmetrical pain pattern showed significant poorer quality of movement, while those with asymmetrical pain showed a significant reduction in quantitative measures. Subgrouping of neck patients

  6. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  7. Subgroup analyses on return to work in sick-listed employees with low back pain in a randomised trial comparing brief and multidisciplinary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersen Karin D

    2011-05-01

    study group. Results The multidisciplinary intervention group ensured a quicker RTW than the brief intervention group in a subgroup with low job satisfaction, notably when claimants were excluded. The opposite effect was seen in the subgroup with high job satisfaction. When claimants were excluded, the effect was also in favour of the multidisciplinary intervention in subgroups characterised by no influence on work planning and groups at risk of losing their job. Inversely, the effect was in favour of the brief intervention in the subgroups who were able to influence the planning of their work and who had no risk of losing their job due to current sick leave. Interaction analysis of the data in the new study displayed similar or even more pronounced differences between subgroups in relation to intervention type. Conclusions Multidisciplinary intervention seemed more effective than brief intervention in subgroups of patients with low job satisfaction, no influence on work planning and feeling at risk of losing their jobs due to their sick leave as compared with subgroups not fulfilling these criteria.

  8. Association between dietary pattern scores and the prevalence of colorectal adenoma considering population subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Alyson; Wagner Robb, Sara; Hébert, James R; Huang, Hanwen; Ebell, Mark H

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the dietary patterns in a diverse cohort of individuals and to see if the identified dietary patterns predict the prevalence of adenoma in a cross-sectional study. Factor analysis was used to derive both sex- and population subgroup-specific dietary patterns among participants in the screening arm of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Logistic regression was used to assess associations between identified factor scores and colorectal adenoma (CRA) in sex-specific subgroups. Three diet patterns were observed in this cohort: 'Fruits and vegetables', 'Western' and 'Sweet and salty'. Foods that loaded on each factor were similar between the racial subgroups. In men, being in the highest quintile of 'Western' dietary scores was associated with higher odds of any (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.42), advanced (aOR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.07-1.63) or multiple (>1; aOR = 1.51; 95% CI = 1.17-1.94) adenoma, compared to those in the lowest quintile. These results were most notably seen in Caucasian men. In women, having a 'Fruits and vegetable' score in the highest quintile was associated with lower odds of multiple adenoma (>1; aOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.28-1.00). Of the three dietary factors, the 'Western' diet pattern was most strongly associated with prevalent CRA in Caucasian men. Further research is needed to examine the association between dietary factor scores and adenomas in the proximal colon, where there are larger racial disparities in prevalence. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  9. A reconstructed melanoma data set for evaluating differential treatment benefit according to biomarker subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya M. Satagopan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Measuring differential treatment benefit across marker specific subgroups: the choice of outcome scale” (Satagopan and Iasonos, 2015 [1]. These data were digitally reconstructed from figures published in Larkin et al. (2015 [2]. This article describes the steps to digitally reconstruct patient-level data on time-to-event outcome and treatment and biomarker groups using published Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The reconstructed data set and the corresponding computer programs are made publicly available to enable further statistical methodology research.

  10. Exhaled nitric oxide measure using multiple flows in clinically relevant subgroups of COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Nassim Bazeghi; Gerds, Thomas A; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2011-01-01

    Although there is widespread interest in fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) as a non-invasive, time and cost effective biomarker for assessing airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), its usefulness is still controversial. We examined the FeNO levels in clinically...... (Caw). All patients had spirometry, assessment of symptoms with questionnaires and low-dose CT scan as well as assessment of weight and body composition. We examined the following subgroups of COPD: Patients with 1) Severe emphysema, 2) Chronic bronchitis, 3) Frequent exacerbations, 4) Loss of lean...

  11. Tailoring the implementation of new biomarkers based on their added predictive value in subgroups of individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A van Giessen

    Full Text Available The value of new biomarkers or imaging tests, when added to a prediction model, is currently evaluated using reclassification measures, such as the net reclassification improvement (NRI. However, these measures only provide an estimate of improved reclassification at population level. We present a straightforward approach to characterize subgroups of reclassified individuals in order to tailor implementation of a new prediction model to individuals expected to benefit from it.In a large Dutch population cohort (n = 21,992 we classified individuals to low (< 5% and high (≥ 5% fatal cardiovascular disease risk by the Framingham risk score (FRS and reclassified them based on the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE. Subsequently, we characterized the reclassified individuals and, in case of heterogeneity, applied cluster analysis to identify and characterize subgroups. These characterizations were used to select individuals expected to benefit from implementation of SCORE.Reclassification after applying SCORE in all individuals resulted in an NRI of 5.00% (95% CI [-0.53%; 11.50%] within the events, 0.06% (95% CI [-0.08%; 0.22%] within the nonevents, and a total NRI of 0.051 (95% CI [-0.004; 0.116]. Among the correctly downward reclassified individuals cluster analysis identified three subgroups. Using the characterizations of the typically correctly reclassified individuals, implementing SCORE only in individuals expected to benefit (n = 2,707,12.3% improved the NRI to 5.32% (95% CI [-0.13%; 12.06%] within the events, 0.24% (95% CI [0.10%; 0.36%] within the nonevents, and a total NRI of 0.055 (95% CI [0.001; 0.123]. Overall, the risk levels for individuals reclassified by tailored implementation of SCORE were more accurate.In our empirical example the presented approach successfully characterized subgroups of reclassified individuals that could be used to improve reclassification and reduce implementation burden. In particular when newly

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Endovascular Stroke Therapy: A Patient Subgroup Analysis From a US Healthcare Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Wolfgang G; Hunink, M G Myriam; Sommer, Wieland H; Beyer, Sebastian E; Meinel, Felix G; Dorn, Franziska; Wirth, Stefan; Reiser, Maximilian F; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Thierfelder, Kolja M

    2016-11-01

    Endovascular therapy in addition to standard care (EVT+SC) has been demonstrated to be more effective than SC in acute ischemic large vessel occlusion stroke. Our aim was to determine the cost-effectiveness of EVT+SC depending on patients' initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, time from symptom onset, Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS), and occlusion location. A decision model based on Markov simulations estimated lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with both strategies applied in a US setting. Model input parameters were obtained from the literature, including recently pooled outcome data of 5 randomized controlled trials (ESCAPE [Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Proximal Occlusion Ischemic Stroke], EXTEND-IA [Extending the Time for Thrombolysis in Emergency Neurological Deficits-Intra-Arterial], MR CLEAN [Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands], REVASCAT [Randomized Trial of Revascularization With Solitaire FR Device Versus Best Medical Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Stroke Due to Anterior Circulation Large Vessel Occlusion Presenting Within 8 Hours of Symptom Onset], and SWIFT PRIME [Solitaire With the Intention for Thrombectomy as Primary Endovascular Treatment]). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to estimate uncertainty of the model results. Net monetary benefits, incremental costs, incremental effectiveness, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were derived from the probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The willingness-to-pay was set to $50 000/QALY. Overall, EVT+SC was cost-effective compared with SC (incremental cost: $4938, incremental effectiveness: 1.59 QALYs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio: $3110/QALY) in 100% of simulations. In all patient subgroups, EVT+SC led to gained QALYs (range: 0.47-2.12), and mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were considered cost

  13. Clustering Multiple Sclerosis Subgroups with Multifractal Methods and Self-Organizing Map Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, Yeliz; Cattani, Carlo

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most sensitive method to detect chronic nervous system diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this paper, Brownian motion Hölder regularity functions (polynomial, periodic (sine), exponential) for 2D image, such as multifractal methods were applied to MR brain images, aiming to easily identify distressed regions, in MS patients. With these regions, we have proposed an MS classification based on the multifractal method by using the Self-Organizing Map (SOM) algorithm. Thus, we obtained a cluster analysis by identifying pixels from distressed regions in MR images through multifractal methods and by diagnosing subgroups of MS patients through artificial neural networks.

  14. Palivizumab for immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis in high-risk infants and young children: a systematic review and additional economic modelling of subgroup analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Bayliss, S; Meads, C

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a seasonal infectious disease, with epidemics occurring annually from October to March in the UK. It is a very common infection in infants and young children and can lead to hospitalisation, particularly in those who are premature or who have chronic lung disease (CLD) or congenital heart disease (CHD). Palivizumab (Synagis®, MedImmune) is a monoclonal antibody designed to provide passive immunity against RSV and thereby prevent or reduce the severity of RSV infection. It is licensed for the prevention of serious lower respiratory tract infection caused by RSV in children at high risk. While it is recognised that a policy of using palivizumab for all children who meet the licensed indication does not meet conventional UK standards of cost-effectiveness, most clinicians feel that its use is justified in some children. To use systematic review evidence to estimate the cost-effectiveness of immunoprophylaxis of RSV using palivizumab in different subgroups of children with or without CLD or CHD who are at high risk of serious morbidity from RSV infection. A systematic review of the literature and an economic evaluation was carried out. The bibliographic databases included the Cochrane Library [Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment (HTA)] and five other databases, from inception to 2009. Research registries of ongoing trials including Current Controlled Trials metaRegister, Clinical Trials.gov and the National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network Portfolio were also searched. Searches were conducted for prognostic and hospitalisation studies covering 1950-2009 (the original report searches conducted in 2007 covering the period 1950-2007 were rerun in August 2009 to cover the period 2007-9) and the database of all references from the original report was sifted to

  15. Recombination in the evolution of enterovirus C species sub-group that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Smura

    Full Text Available Genetic recombination is considered to be a very frequent phenomenon among enteroviruses (Family Picornaviridae, Genus Enterovirus. However, the recombination patterns may differ between enterovirus species and between types within species. Enterovirus C (EV-C species contains 21 types. In the capsid coding P1 region, the types of EV-C species cluster further into three sub-groups (designated here as A-C. In this study, the recombination pattern of EV-C species sub-group B that contains types CVA-21, CVA-24, EV-C95, EV-C96 and EV-C99 was determined using partial 5'UTR and VP1 sequences of enterovirus strains isolated during poliovirus surveillance and previously published complete genome sequences. Several inter-typic recombination events were detected. Furthermore, the analyses suggested that inter-typic recombination events have occurred mainly within the distinct sub-groups of EV-C species. Only sporadic recombination events between EV-C species sub-group B and other EV-C sub-groups were detected. In addition, strict recombination barriers were inferred for CVA-21 genotype C and CVA-24 variant strains. These results suggest that the frequency of inter-typic recombinations, even within species, may depend on the phylogenetic position of the given viruses.

  16. Mineralogy and Petrography of MIL 090001, a Highly Altered CV Chondrite from the Reduced Sub-Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Lindsay P.

    2011-01-01

    MIL 090001 is a large (greater than 6 kg) CV chondrite from the reduced subgroup (CV(sub red)) that was recovered during the 2009-2010 ANSMET field season [1]. The CV(sub red) subgroup meteorites retain primitive characteristics and have escaped the Na and Fe meta-somatism that affected the oxidized (CV(sub ox)) subgroups. MIL 090001 is, however, reported to be altered [1], and thus a major objective of this study is to characterize its mineralogy and petrography and the extent of the alteration.

  17. Ethnic and Gender Subgroup Differences in Education, Employment, and Incarceration in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The stratification of opportunities and disparate outcomes for Black and Latino boys and men has been well documented. However, there remains a lack of awareness about the extent to which these issues are relevant for the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) community. This brief focuses on key status and leading indicators for the mobility…

  18. Escitalopram in the treatment of social anxiety disorder: analysis of efficacy for different clinical subgroups and symptom dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Dan J; Kasper, Siegfried; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford

    2004-01-01

    Escitalopram has demonstrated efficacy for the acute treatment of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in two placebo-controlled trials and for long-term treatment in a relapse-prevention study. Social anxiety disorder is a heterogeneous disorder. This study questions whether this new selective serotonin...

  19. On kinetics of carbothermal reduction of subgroup 2A elements of the Periodic chart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodop'yanov, A.G.; AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Metallurgii)

    1984-01-01

    An attempt was made on the basis of a new version of Periodical system to clarify the general regularities of kinetics and transformation mechanism of metal oxides of 2nd A subgroup during their interaction with carbon (in furnaces at approximately 1700-2300 K). According to a new version of Periodic system Ca, Sr, Ba represent both type- and shell-analogs and Ra-shrink-analog of barium. Their full-valent cations in corresponding oxides possess similar structure corresponding to external electronic shells of inert gases with vacant α-shells. Be and Mg represent only type-analogs. Their full-valent cations in corresponding oxides possess ionic electronic structure corresponding to external S 2 - and S 2 p 6 -shells. It is shown that during interaction of solid oxides of 2nd A subgroup elements with carbon similarity of physicochemical properties of type-analog elements is manifested by the presence of common reduction mechanism - interaction proceeds through the gaseous phase with participation of CO as reducer, carbon regenerates CO and forms carbides of corresponding elements. The expected close similarity of properties for oxides of shell-analog elements s manifested additionally in the form of common dependence of change of rate constant of oxide transformation on the value of Gibbs free energy of reduction by carbon up to the vapor of correspondng metal

  20. Bayesian additive decision trees of biomarker by treatment interactions for predictive biomarker detection and subgroup identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Zheng, Wei; Zhuo, Daisy Y; Lu, Yuefeng; Ma, Xiwen; Liu, Hengchang; Zeng, Zhen; Laird, Glen

    2017-10-11

    Personalized medicine, or tailored therapy, has been an active and important topic in recent medical research. Many methods have been proposed in the literature for predictive biomarker detection and subgroup identification. In this article, we propose a novel decision tree-based approach applicable in randomized clinical trials. We model the prognostic effects of the biomarkers using additive regression trees and the biomarker-by-treatment effect using a single regression tree. Bayesian approach is utilized to periodically revise the split variables and the split rules of the decision trees, which provides a better overall fitting. Gibbs sampler is implemented in the MCMC procedure, which updates the prognostic trees and the interaction tree separately. We use the posterior distribution of the interaction tree to construct the predictive scores of the biomarkers and to identify the subgroup where the treatment is superior to the control. Numerical simulations show that our proposed method performs well under various settings comparing to existing methods. We also demonstrate an application of our method in a real clinical trial.

  1. CKM and PMNS Mixing Matrices from Discrete Subgroups of SU(2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in particle physics is to determine the first principles origin of the quark and lepton mixing matrices CKM and PMNS that relate the flavor states to the mass states. This first principles derivation of both the PMNS and CKM matrices utilizes quaternion generators of the three discrete (i.e., finite binary rotational subgroups of SU(2 called [3,3,2], [4,3,2], and [5,3,2] for three lepton families in R 3 and four related discrete binary rotational subgroups [3,3,3], [4,3,3], [3,4,3], and [5,3,3] represented by four quark families in R 4 . The traditional 3 3 CKM matrix is extracted as a submatrix of the 4 4 CKM4 matrix. The predicted fourth family of quarks has not been discovered yet. If these two additional quarks exist, there is the possibility that the Standard Model lagrangian may apply all the way down to the Planck scale.

  2. Molecular characterization of subgenotype A1 (subgroup Aa) of hepatitis B virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramvis, Anna; Kew, Michael C

    2007-07-01

    Subgenotypes of hepatitis B virus (HBV) were first recognized after a unique segment of genotype A was identified when sequencing the preS2/S region of southern African HBV isolates. Originally named subgroup A', subsequently called subgroup Aa (for Africa) or subgenotype A1, this subgenotype is found in South Africa, Malawi, Uganda, Tanzania, Somalia, Yemen, India, Nepal, the Philippines and Brazil. The relatively higher mean nucleotide divergence of subgenotype A1 suggests that it has been endemic and has a long evolutionary history in the populations where it prevails. Distinctive sequence characteristics could account for the high hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) negativity and low HBV DNA levels in carriers of this subgenotype. Substitutions or mutations can reduce HBeAg expression at three levels: (i) 1762T1764A atthe transcriptional level; (ii) substitutions at nt 1809-1812 at the translational level; and (iii) 1862T at the post-translational level. Co-existence of 1762T1764A and nt 1809-1812 mutations reduces HBeAg expression in an additive manner. In addition, subgenotype A1 has unique sequence alterations in the transcriptional regulatory elements and the polymerase coding region. The distinct sequence characteristics of subgenotype A1 may contribute to the 4.5-fold increased risk of heptocellular carcinoma in HBV carriers infected with genotype A, which is entirely attributable to subgenotype A1.

  3. The Importance of Risk and Subgroup Analysis of Nonparticipants in a Geriatric Intervention Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosted, Elizabeth; Poulsen, Ingrid; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Background: A major concern in intervention studies is the generalizability of the findings due to refusal of intended participants to actually take part. In studies including ill older people the number of those declining to participate may be large and the concern is therefore relevant.  Object...... recommend that intervention studies among older people or other fragile patient groups include analysis of relevant risk and subgroup analyses of refusers........  Objectives: To compare patients characteristics, rates of acute readmission, and mortality after one and six months among older persons who agreed and those who declined to participate in a randomized controlled trial and to describe subgroups of nonparticipants.  Design: Comparative study based...... on a randomized controlled trial.  Setting: University hospital in the Capital Region of Denmark.  Participants: Patients ≥70 years discharged home after a short Emergency Department stay. 399 were requested to participate; 271 consented, whereas 128 refused.  Results: Refusers were more likely to be readmitted...

  4. Subgrouping siblings of people with autism: Identifying the broader autism phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Carrie; Smith, Paula; Watson, Peter; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ring, Howard; Baron‐Cohen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in siblings of individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Autistic traits were measured in typical controls (n = 2,000), siblings (n = 496), and volunteers with ASC (n = 2,322) using the Autism‐Spectrum Quotient (AQ), both self‐report and parent‐report versions. Using cluster analysis of AQ subscale scores, two sibling subgroups were identified for both males and females: a cluster of low‐scorers and a cluster of high‐scorers. Results show that while siblings as a group have intermediate levels of autistic traits compared to control individuals and participants with ASC, when examined on a cluster level, the low‐scoring sibling group is more similar to typical controls while the high‐scoring group is more similar to the ASC clinical group. Further investigation into the underlying genetic and epigenetic characteristics of these two subgroups will be informative in understanding autistic traits, both within the general population and in relation to those with a clinical diagnosis. Autism Res 2016, 9: 658–665. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research PMID:26332889

  5. Commognitive analysis of undergraduate mathematics students' first encounter with the subgroup test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Marios

    2018-06-01

    This study analyses learning aspects of undergraduate mathematics students' first encounter with the subgroup test, using the commognitive theoretical framework. It focuses on students' difficulties as these are related to the object-level and metalevel mathematical learning in group theory, and, when possible, highlights any commognitive conflicts. In the data analysis, one can identify three types of difficulties, relevant to object-level learning: namely regarding the frequently observed confusion between groups and sets, the object-level rules of visual mediators, and the object-level rules of contextual notions, such as permutations, exponentials, sets and matrices. In addition, data analysis suggests two types of difficulties, relevant to metalevel learning. The first refers to the actual proof that the three conditions of subgroup test hold, and the second is related to syntactic inaccuracies, incomplete argumentation and problematic use of visual mediators. Finally, this study suggests that there are clear links between object-level and metalevel learning, mainly due to the fact that objectification of the various relevant mathematical notions influences the endorsement of the governing metarules.

  6. Intense imagery movements: a common and distinct paediatric subgroup of motor stereotypies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Woods, Martin; Cardona, Francesco; Baglioni, Valentina; Hedderly, Tammy

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a subgroup of children who presented with stereotyped movements in the context of episodes of intense imagery. This is of relevance to current discussions regarding the clinical usefulness of diagnosing motor stereotypies during development. The sample consisted of 10 children (nine males, one female; mean age 8y 6mo [SD 2y 5mo], range 6-15y). Referrals were from acute paediatricians, neurologists, and tertiary epilepsy services. Children were assessed by multidisciplinary teams with expertise in paediatric movement disorders. Stereotypies presented as paroxysmal complex movements involving upper and lower limbs. Imagery themes typically included computer games (60%), cartoons/films (40%), and fantasy scenes (30%). Comorbid developmental difficulties were reported for 80% of children. Brain imaging and electrophysiological investigations had been conducted for 50% of the children before referral to the clinic. The descriptive term 'intense imagery movements' (IIM) was applied if (after interview) the children reported engaging in acts of imagery while performing stereotyped movements. We believe these children may form a common and discrete stereotypy subgroup, with the concept of IIM being clinically useful to ensure the accurate diagnosis and clinical management of this paediatric movement disorder. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  7. Characterization of phytoplasmas related to 'Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris' subgroup rpI-L in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vali-Sichani Fereshteh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In two of Iran's central provinces, several herbaceous plants showing phytoplasma disease symptoms were collected to detect 'Canididatus Phytoplasma asteris'-related phytoplasmas. Confirmation of an association of phytoplasmas with diseased plants was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays having the phytoplasma universal primer pairs P1/P7 followed by R16F2n/ R16R2 in nested PCR. Then, for detection of 'Ca. P. asteris', DNA samples were subjected to amplification of rp and tuf genes using specific primer pairs rp(IF1A/rp(IR1A and fTufAy/rTufAy, respectively. Restriction fragment length polymorphism or RFLP analyses of rp gene fragments using Tsp509I restriction enzyme as well as sequence analyses indicated that 'Ca. P. asteris'-related phytoplasmas associated with carrot, niger seed and scallion plants in these regions, belong to the rpI-L subgroup. This research is the first report of carrot, niger seed, and scallion infection with phytoplasmas belonging to the rpI-L subgroup.

  8. Advances in the development of a subgroup method for the self-shielding of resonant isotopes in arbitrary geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, A.

    1997-01-01

    The subgroup method is used to compute self-shielded cross sections defined over coarse energy groups in the resolved energy domain. The validity of the subgroup approach was extended beyond the unresolved energy domain by partially taking into account correlation effects between the slowing-down source with the collision probability terms of the transport equation. This approach enables one to obtain a pure subgroup solution of the self-shielding problem without relying on any form of equivalence in dilution. Specific improvements are presented on existing subgroup methods: an N-term rational approximation for the fuel-to-fuel collision probability, a new Pade deflation technique for computing probability tables, and the introduction of a superhomogenization correction. The absorption rates obtained after self-shielding are compared with exact values obtained using an elastic slowing-down calculation where each resonance is modeled individually in the resolved energy domain

  9. A Low-Complexity Subgroup Formation with QoS-Aware for Enhancing Multicast Services in LTE Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algharem, M.; Omar, M. H.; Rahmat, R. F.; Budiarto, R.

    2018-03-01

    The high demand of Multimedia services on in Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond networks forces the networks operators to find a solution that can handle the huge traffic. Along with this, subgroup formation techniques are introduced to overcome the limitations of the Conventional Multicast Scheme (CMS) by splitting the multicast users into several subgroups based on the users’ channels quality signal. However, finding the best subgroup configuration with low complexity is need more investigations. In this paper, an efficient and simple subgroup formation mechanisms are proposed. The proposed mechanisms take the transmitter MAC queue in account. The effectiveness of the proposed mechanisms is evaluated and compared with CMS in terms of throughput, fairness, delay, Block Error Rate (BLER).

  10. The association between subgroups of MRI findings identified with latent class analysis and low back pain in 40-year-old Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rikke K; Kent, Peter; Jensen, Tue S

    2018-01-01

    for identifying latent classes (subgroups) of MRI findings within multivariable datasets. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between subgroups of MRI findings and the presence of LBP in people from the general population. METHODS: To identify subgroups of lumbar MRI findings...... regression. RESULTS: Six subgroups were identified in the clinical dataset and the data from the general population cohort fitted the subgroups well, with a median posterior probability of 93%-100%. These six subgroups described two pathways of increasing degeneration on upper (L1-L3) and lower (L4-L5......) lumbar levels. An association with LBP was found for the subgroups describing severe and multiple degenerative MRI findings at the lower lumbar levels but none of the other subgroups were associated with LBP. CONCLUSION: Although MRI findings are common in asymptomatic people and the association between...

  11. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe and Explain Differences Between Intact Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a

  12. A prospective examination of circulating tumor cell profiles in non-small-cell lung cancer molecular subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, C R; Faugeroux, V; Michiels, S; Pailler, E; Facchinetti, F; Ou, D; Bluthgen, M V; Pannet, C; Ngo-Camus, M; Bescher, G; Caramella, C; Billiot, F; Remon, J; Planchard, D; Soria, J-C; Besse, B; Farace, F

    2017-07-01

    We report the first study examining the clinical, numerical and biological properties of circulating tumor cells according to molecular subtypes of non-small-cell lung cancer. 125 patients with treatment-naïve stage IIIb-IV NSCLC were prospectively recruited for CellSearch analysis. Anti-vimentin antibody was included for examination of CTCs to assess their mesenchymal character. Associations of total CTCs and vimentin-positive (vim +) CTCs with clinical characteristics, tumor genotype, and survival were assessed. 51/125 patients (40.8%) were total CTC+ and 26/125 (20.8%) were vim CTC+ at baseline. Multivariate analysis showed patients with ≥5 total CTCs had significantly reduced OS (HR 0.55, 95% CI 0.33-0.92, P = 0.022) but not PFS (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.42-1.1, P = 0.118) compared to patients with <5 total CTCs. No OS difference was evident between vim+ CTC and vim-negative CTC patients overall (HR 1.24, 95% CI 0.67-2.28, P = 0.494), but after subdivision according to NSCLC driver mutation, we found an increase of vim+ CTCs in the EGFR-mutated subgroup (N = 21/94 patients; mean 1.24 vs 1.22 vim+ CTCs, P = 0.013), a reduction of total CTCs in the ALK-rearranged subgroup (N = 13/90 patients; mean 1.69 vs 5.82 total CTCs, P = 0.029), and a total absence of vim+ CTCs in KRAS-mutated adenocarcinomas (N = 19/78 patients; mean 0 vs 1.4 vim+ CTCs, P = 0.006). We validate that the baseline presence of ≥5 total CTCs in advanced NSCLC confers a poor prognosis. CTCs from EGFR-mutant NSCLC express epithelial-mesenchymal transition characteristics, not seen in CTCs from patients with KRAS-mutant adenocarcinoma. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. IQ subgroups in relation to neurocognitive profiles, psychopathology and brain volume in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Maria Høj; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    . low) using the healthy controls as reference. The IQ subgroups were compared using psychopathology ratings (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale), neuropsychological assessments (Brief Assessment of Cognition in schizophrenia and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery) and a combined 3T......Background and Aim: Approximately half of patients with schizophrenia experience a deterioration in IQ before or around illness onset and recent studies have found apositive association between IQ and brain volume in first episode schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to examine the combined...... impact of estimated IQ trajectory and IQ level at illness onset on psychopathology, neurocognitive profiles and brain volume. Materials and methods: The design is a cross-sectional, case-control study of 60 first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients and 60 matched healthy controls...

  14. The Moderating Effects of Ethnicity and Employment Type on Insurance Coverage: Four Asian Subgroups in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy; Choi, Sunha; Park, So Young

    2015-10-01

    Despite nearly universal insurance coverage for older Americans over the age of 65, the preretirement age cohort is susceptible to gaps in coverage. Related to the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), this study investigated heterogeneity in insurance status for preretirement Asian immigrants by examining the interacting effects of Asian ethnicity and employment type, which is a major factor that determines an individual's insurance status in the U.S. Data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, which included 1,024 Asians between the ages of 50 and 64, were analyzed. Our findings indicate significant moderating effects of employment type and Asian ethnicity. However, regardless of employment type, Koreans had the highest rate of being uninsured. To effectively reach the ACA's goal of reducing the number of uninsured individuals, targeted interventions specific to Asian subgroups are essential. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Standard model group, QCD subgroup - dynamics isolating and testing the elementary QCD subprocess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    QCD to an experimentalist is the theory of interactions of quarks and gluons. Experimentalists like QCD because QCD is analogous to QED. Thus, following Drell and others who have for many years studied the validity of QED, one has a ready-made menu for tests of QCD. There are the static and long distance tests. These topics are covered by Peter LePage in the static properties group. In this report, dynamic and short distance tests of QCD will be discussed, primarily via reactions with large transverse momenta. This report is an introduction and overview of the subject, to serve as a framework for other reports from the subgroup. In the last two sections, the author has taken the opportunity to discuss his own ideas and opinions

  16. Progress report: The Energy and Industry Subgroup of IPCC Working Group III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokobori, Keiichi

    1990-01-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in November 1988 under the joint auspices of UNEP and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Working Group III, or the Response Strategies Working Group (RSWG), was established to formulate strategies to respond to challenges arising from global climate warming. The Energy and Industry Subgroup (EIS) was created by the RSWG at its meeting in January-February 1989 to facilitate the formulation of strategies to control, i.e. prevent or reduce, the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as CO 2 , CFCs, NO 2 , CH, etc. The following article gives a brief summary of EIS activities, based mainly on records of discussion at the relevant meetings. (author). 1 tab

  17. Electrochemistry of chromium subgroup transition metal ions in an ambient temperature chloroaluminate molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffler, T.B.

    1984-01-01

    The electrochemistry of several chromium subgroup transition metal solutes was studied in the basic AlCl 3 -1-methyl-3-ethylimidazolium chloride (MEIC) ionic liquid at 40.0 0 C by using stationary and rotating disk electrode voltametry, chronoamperometry, coulometry, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Chromium(III) was present in the melt as the chloro complex [CrCl 6 ] 3- . This complex underwent as essentially irreversible reduction, apparently as a result of slow charge-transfer, to a chromium(II) species at ca. -1.08 V versus an aluminum wire immersed in 66.7 mol % melt. Similar investigations of molybdenum and tungsten were also conducted. Mechanisms are proposed to account for the results

  18. Household food insecurity as a determinant of overweight and obesity among low-income Hispanic subgroups: Data from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Teresa M; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Pinard, Courtney A; Yaroch, Amy L

    2016-02-01

    An estimated 78% of Hispanics in the United States (US) are overweight or obese. Household food insecurity, a condition of limited or uncertain access to adequate food, has been associated with obesity rates among Hispanic adults in the US. However, the Hispanic group is multi-ethnic and therefore associations between obesity and food insecurity may not be constant across Hispanic country of origin subgroups. This study sought to determine if the association between obesity and food insecurity among Hispanics is modified by Hispanic ancestry across low-income (≤200% of poverty level) adults living in California. Data are from the cross-sectional 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (n = 5498). Rates of overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25), Calfresh receipt (California's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program), and acculturation were examined for differences across subgroups. Weighted multiple logistic regressions examined if household food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity and modified by country of origin after controlling for age, education, marital status, country of birth (US vs. outside of US), language spoken at home, and Calfresh receipt (P obesity, food security, Calfresh receipt, country of birth, and language spoken at home. Results from the adjusted logistic regression models found that food insecurity was significantly associated with overweight or obesity among Mexican-American women (β (SE) = 0.22 (0.09), p = .014), but not Mexican-American men or Non-Mexican groups, suggesting Hispanic subgroups behave differently in their association between food insecurity and obesity. By highlighting these factors, we can promote targeted obesity prevention interventions, which may contribute to more effective behavior change and reduced chronic disease risk in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The E1A proteins of all six human adenovirus subgroups target the p300/CBP acetyltransferases and the SAGA transcriptional regulatory complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuen, Michael; Avvakumov, Nikita; Torchia, Joe; Mymryk, Joe S.

    2003-01-01

    The N-terminal/conserved region 1 (CR1) portion of the human adenovirus (Ad) 5 E1A protein was previously shown to inhibit growth in the simple eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We now demonstrate that the corresponding regions of the E1A proteins of Ad3,-4,-9,-12, and -40, which represent the remaining five Ad subgroups, also inhibit yeast growth. These results suggest that the E1A proteins of all six human Ad subgroups share a common cellular target(s) conserved in yeast. Growth inhibition induced by either full-length or the N-terminal/CR1 portion of Ad5 E1A was relieved by coexpression of the E1A binding portions of the mammalian p300, CBP, and pCAF acetyltransferases. Similarly, growth inhibition by the N-terminal/CR1 portions of the other Ad E1A proteins was suppressed by expression of the same regions of CBP or pCAF known to bind Ad5 E1A. The physical interaction of each of the different Ad E1A proteins with CBP, p300, and pCAF was confirmed in vitro. Furthermore, deletion of the gene encoding yGcn5, the yeast homolog of pCAF and a subunit of the SAGA transcriptional regulatory complex, restored growth in yeast expressing each of the different Ad E1A proteins. This indicates that the SAGA complex is a conserved target of all Ad E1A proteins. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the p300, CBP, and pCAF acetyltransferases are common targets for the E1A proteins of all six human Ad subgroups, highlighting the importance of these interactions for E1A function

  20. School-based early childhood education and age-28 well-being: effects by timing, dosage, and subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Temple, Judy A; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Arteaga, Irma A; White, Barry A B

    2011-07-15

    Advances in understanding the effects of early education have benefited public policy and developmental science. Although preschool has demonstrated positive effects on life-course outcomes, limitations in knowledge on program scale, subgroup differences, and dosage levels have hindered understanding. We report the effects of the Child-Parent Center Education Program on indicators of well-being up to 25 years later for more than 1400 participants. This established, publicly funded intervention begins in preschool and provides up to 6 years of service in inner-city Chicago schools. Relative to the comparison group receiving the usual services, program participation was independently linked to higher educational attainment, income, socioeconomic status (SES), and health insurance coverage, as well as lower rates of justice-system involvement and substance abuse. Evidence of enduring effects was strongest for preschool, especially for males and children of high school dropouts. The positive influence of four or more years of service was limited primarily to education and SES. Dosage within program components was mostly unrelated to outcomes. Findings demonstrate support for the enduring effects of sustained school-based early education to the end of the third decade of life.

  1. Effects of multiple low dose radiation on spleen T lymphocyte subgroups in eight-week diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Feng; Li Yanbo; Zhao Hongguang; Guo Wei; Wang Zhicheng; Gong Shouliang; Guo Caixia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of spleen lymphocyte subgroups in diabetic rats after multiple low dose radiation (LDR). Methods: The experiment was divided into normal control group, pure diabetes mellitus (DM) group, and DM plus different doses of irradiation groups (the irradiation doses were 0.025, 0.050 and 0.075 Gy, respectively). The diabetic rat model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After the diabetic rats were irradiated 15 times, the percentages of spleen CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and ratio of CD4 + /CD8 + T cells were detected with flow cytometry on the fourth weekend. Results: The diabetic rats manifested obvious polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria and weight loss. On the fourth weekend after irradiation, as compared with normal control group, the percentage of spleen CD4 + T cells increased significantly (P + T cells decreased significantly (P + /CD8 + T cells was increased significantly (P + T cells were declined markedly in both 0.050 and 0.075 Gy plus DM groups (P + T cells increased significantly in LDR plus DM groups (P + /CD8 + T cells was declined obviously (P<0.01). Conclusion: The multiple LDR could regulate the immune function in diabetic rats, and rectificate the immunological imbalance in order to protect body. (authors)

  2. CKM and PMNS mixing matrices from discrete subgroups of SU(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Remaining within the realm of the Standard Model(SM) local gauge group, this first principles derivation of both the PMNS and CKM matrices utilizes quaternion generators of the three discrete (i.e., finite) binary rotational subgroups of SU(2) called [3,3,2], [4,3,2], and [5,3,2] for three lepton families in R 3 and four related discrete binary rotational subgroups [3,3,3], [4,3,3], [3,4,3], and [5,3,3] represented by four quark families in R 4 . The traditional 3x3 CKM matrix is extracted as a submatrix of the 4x4 CKM4 matrix. If these two additional quarks b' and t' of a 4th quark family exist, there is the possibility that the SM lagrangian may apply all the way down to the Planck scale. There are then numerous other important consequences. The Weinberg angle is derived using these same quaternion generators, and the triangle anomaly cancellation is satisfied even though there is an obvious mismatch of three lepton families to four quark families. In a discrete space, one can also use these generators to derive a unique connection from the electroweak local gauge group SU(2) L x U(1) Y acting in R 4 to the discrete group Weyl E 8 in R 8 . By considering Lorentz transformations in discrete (3,1)-D spacetime, one obtains another Weyl E 8 discrete symmetry group in R 8 , so that the combined symmetry is Weyl E 8 x Weyl E 8 = 'discrete' SO(9,1) in 10-D spacetime. This unique connection is in direct contrast to the 10 500 possible connections for superstring theory! (paper)

  3. A Data-Driven Approach to Responder Subgroup Identification after Paired Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonio Heidegger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modulation of cortical excitability by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is used for investigating human brain functions. A common observation is the high variability of long-term depression (LTD-like changes in human (motor cortex excitability. This study aimed at analyzing the response subgroup distribution after paired continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS as a basis for subject selection.Methods: The effects of paired cTBS using 80% active motor threshold (AMT in 31 healthy volunteers were assessed at the primary motor cortex (M1 corresponding to the representation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI muscle of the left hand, before and up to 50 min after plasticity induction. The changes in motor evoked potentials (MEPs were analyzed using machine-learning derived methods implemented as Gaussian mixture modeling (GMM and computed ABC analysis.Results: The probability density distribution of the MEP changes from baseline was tri-modal, showing a clear separation at 80.9%. Subjects displaying at least this degree of LTD-like changes were n = 6 responders. By contrast, n = 7 subjects displayed a paradox response with increase in MEP. Reassessment using ABC analysis as alternative approach led to the same n = 6 subjects as a distinct category.Conclusion: Depressive effects of paired cTBS using 80% AMT endure at least 50 min, however, only in a small subgroup of healthy subjects. Hence, plasticity induction by paired cTBS might not reflect a general mechanism in human motor cortex excitability. A mathematically supported criterion is proposed to select responders for enrolment in assessments of human brain functional networks using virtual brain lesions.

  4. Disruption of thiamine uptake and growth of cells by feline leukemia virus subgroup A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Ramon; Miller, A Dusty; Overbaugh, Julie

    2013-03-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in domestic cats and some wild cats despite the availability of relatively effective vaccines against the virus. FeLV subgroup A (FeLV-A) is transmitted in natural infections, and FeLV subgroups B, C, and T can evolve directly from FeLV-A by mutation and/or recombination with endogenous retroviruses in domestic cats, resulting in a variety of pathogenic outcomes. The cell surface entry receptor for FeLV-A is a putative thiamine transporter (THTR1). Here, we have addressed whether FeLV-A infection might disrupt thiamine uptake into cells and, because thiamine is an essential nutrient, whether this disruption might have pathological consequences. First, we cloned the cat ortholog of the other of the two known thiamine transporters in mammals, THTR2, and we show that feline THTR1 (feTHTR1) and feTHTR2 both mediate thiamine uptake, but feTHTR2 does not function as a receptor for FeLV-A. We found that feTHTR1 is widely expressed in cat tissues and in cell lines, while expression of feTHTR2 is restricted. Thiamine uptake mediated by feTHTR1 was indeed blocked by FeLV-A infection, and in feline fibroblasts that naturally express feTHTR1 and not feTHTR2, this blockade resulted in a growth arrest at physiological concentrations of extracellular thiamine. The growth arrest was reversed at high extracellular concentrations of thiamine. Our results show that FeLV-A infection can indeed disrupt thiamine uptake with pathological consequences. A prediction of these experiments is that raising the plasma levels of thiamine in FeLV-infected cats may ameliorate the pathogenic effects of infection.

  5. A systematic review of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among Asian American subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staimez, Lisa R; Weber, Mary Beth; Narayan, K M Venkat; Oza-Frank, Reena

    2013-07-01

    This systematic review synthesizes data published between 1988 and 2009 on mean BMI and prevalence of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among Asian subgroups in the U.S. We conducted systematic searches in Pub- Med for peer-reviewed, English-language citations that reported mean BMI and percent overweight, obesity, and diabetes among South Asians/Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We identified 647 database citations and 23 additional citations from hand-searching. After screening titles, abstracts, and full-text publications, 97 citations remained. None were published between 1988 and 1992, 28 between 1993 and 2003, and 69 between 2004 and 2009. Publications were identified for the following Asian subgroups: South Asian (n=8), Asian Indian (n=20), Chinese (n=44), Filipino (n=22), Korean (n= 8), and Vietnamese (n=3). The observed sample sizes ranged from 32 to 4245 subjects with mean ages from 24 to 78 years. Among samples of men and women, the lowest reported mean BMI was in South Asians (22.1 kg/m(2)), and the highest was in Filipinos (26.8 kg/m(2)). Estimates for overweight (12.8-46.7%) and obesity (2.1-59.0%) were variable. Among men and women, the highest rate of diabetes was reported in Asian Indians with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) (32.9%, age and sex standardized). This review suggests heterogeneity among U.S. Asian populations in cardiometabolic risk factors, yet comparisons are limited due to variability in study populations, methods, and definitions used in published reports. Future efforts should adopt standardized methods to understand overweight, obesity and diabetes in this growing U.S. ethnic population.

  6. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF OVERWEIGHT, OBESITY, AND TYPE 2 DIABETES AMONG ASIAN AMERICAN SUBGROUPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    STAIMEZ, LISA R.; WEBER, MARY BETH; NARAYAN, K.M. VENKAT; OZA-FRANK, REENA

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review synthesizes data published between 1988 and 2009 on mean BMI and prevalence of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes among Asian subgroups in the U.S. We conducted systematic searches in PubMed for peer-reviewed, English-language citations that reported mean BMI and percent overweight, obesity, and diabetes among South Asians/Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We identified 647 database citations and 23 additional citations from hand-searching. After screening titles, abstracts, and full-text publications, 97 citations remained. None were published between 1988 and 1992, 28 between 1993 and 2003, and 69 between 2004 and 2009. Publications were identified for the following Asian subgroups: South Asian (n=8), Asian Indian (n=20), Chinese (n=44), Filipino (n=22), Korean (n= 8), and Vietnamese (n=3). The observed sample sizes ranged from 32 to 4245 subjects with mean ages from 24 to 78 years. Among samples of men and women, the lowest reported mean BMI was in South Asians (22.1 kg/m2), and the highest was in Filipinos (26.8 kg/m2). Estimates for overweight (12.8 - 46.7%) and obesity (2.1 – 59.0%) were variable. Among men and women, the highest rate of diabetes was reported in Asian Indians with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 (32.9%, age and sex standardized). This review suggests heterogeneity among U.S. Asian populations in cardiometabolic risk factors, yet comparisons are limited due to variability in study populations, methods, and definitions used in published reports. Future efforts should adopt standardized methods to understand overweight, obesity and diabetes in this growing U.S. ethnic population. PMID:23590534

  7. Cross-species epigenetics identifies a critical role for VAV1 in SHH subgroup medulloblastoma maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, J C; Kawauchi, D; Schwalbe, E C; Solecki, D J; Selby, M P; McKinnon, P J; Olson, J M; Hayden, J T; Grundy, R G; Ellison, D W; Williamson, D; Bailey, S; Roussel, M F; Clifford, S C

    2015-09-03

    The identification of key tumorigenic events in Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) subgroup medulloblastomas (MBSHH) will be essential for the development of individualized therapies and improved outcomes. However, beyond confirmation of characteristic SHH pathway mutations, recent genome-wide sequencing studies have not revealed commonly mutated genes with widespread relevance as potential therapeutic targets. We therefore examined any role for epigenetic DNA methylation events in MBSHH using a cross-species approach to candidate identification, prioritization and validation. MBSHH-associated DNA methylation events were first identified in 216 subgrouped human medulloblastomas (50 MBSHH, 28 Wnt/Wingless, 44 Group 3 and 94 Group 4) and their conservation then assessed in tumors arising from four independent murine models of Shh medulloblastoma, alongside any role in tumorigenesis using functional assessments in mouse and human models. This strategy identified widespread regional CpG hypo-methylation of VAV1, leading to its elevated expression, as a conserved aberrant epigenetic event, which characterizes the majority of MBSHH tumors in both species, and is associated with a poor outcome in MBSHH patients. Moreover, direct modulation of VAV1 in mouse and human models revealed a critical role in tumor maintenance, and its abrogation markedly reduced medulloblastoma growth. Further, Vav1 activity regulated granule neuron precursor germinal zone exit and migration initiation in an ex vivo model of early postnatal cerebellar development. These findings establish VAV1 as a critical epigenetically regulated oncogene with a key role in MBSHH maintenance, and highlight its potential as a validated therapeutic target and prognostic biomarker for the improved therapy of medulloblastoma.

  8. WPEC Subgroup Meetings. Joint SG39/SG40-CIELO meeting, 14 May 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, M.; Yokoyama, Kenji; Ishikawa, M.; Archier, P.; Palmiotti, G.; Salvatores, Massimo; Dupont, E.; ); Leal, L.

    2014-05-01

    The aim of WPEC subgroup 39 'Methods and approaches to provide feedback from nuclear and covariance data adjustment for improvement of nuclear data files' is to provide criteria and practical approaches to use effectively the results of sensitivity analyses and cross section adjustments for feedback to evaluators and differential measurement experimentalists in order to improve the knowledge of neutron cross sections, uncertainties, and correlations to be used in a wide range of applications. WPEC subgroup 40-CIELO (Collaborative International Evaluated Library Organization) provides a new working paradigm to facilitate evaluated nuclear reaction data advances. It brings together experts from across the international nuclear reaction data community to identify and document discrepancies among existing evaluated data libraries, measured data, and model calculation interpretations, and aims to make progress in reconciling these discrepancies to create more accurate ENDF-formatted files. SG40-CIELO focusses on 6 important isotopes: "1H, "1"6O, "5"6Fe, "2"3"5","2"3"8U, "2"3"9Pu. This document is the proceedings of the Joint SG39/SG40-CIELO meeting, held at the NEA, Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, on 19-20 May 2015. It comprises all the available presentations (slides) given by the participants: 1 - CIELO Progress (M. Chadwick); 2 - Revised Recommendations from ADJ2010 Adjustment (K. Yokoyama); 3 - Comparisons and Discussions on Adjustment trends from JEFF (CEA) (P. Archier); 4 - Feedback on CIELO Isotopes from ENDF/B-VII.0 Adjustment (G. Palmiotti); 5 - Demonstration - Plot comparisons of participants' results (E. Dupont); 6 - Some very preliminary indications from recent adjustment studies intercomparison (M. Salvatores); 7 - Resonance Region of "5"6Fe for the CIELO Project (L. Leal); 8 - A-priori and a-posteriori covariance data in nuclear cross section adjustments: issues and challenges (G. Palmiotti); 9 - Comments on Covariance Data of JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1 (K

  9. The large soybean (Glycine max) WRKY TF family expanded by segmental duplication events and subsequent divergent selection among subgroups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guangjun; Xu, Hongliang; Xiao, Shuyang; Qin, Yajuan; Li, Yaxuan; Yan, Yueming; Hu, Yingkao

    2013-10-03

    WRKY genes encode one of the most abundant groups of transcription factors in higher plants, and its members regulate important biological process such as growth, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Although the soybean genome sequence has been published, functional studies on soybean genes still lag behind those of other species. We identified a total of 133 WRKY members in the soybean genome. According to structural features of their encoded proteins and to the phylogenetic tree, the soybean WRKY family could be classified into three groups (groups I, II, and III). A majority of WRKY genes (76.7%; 102 of 133) were segmentally duplicated and 13.5% (18 of 133) of the genes were tandemly duplicated. This pattern was not apparent in Arabidopsis or rice. The transcriptome atlas revealed notable differential expression in either transcript abundance or in expression patterns under normal growth conditions, which indicated wide functional divergence in this family. Furthermore, some critical amino acids were detected using DIVERGE v2.0 in specific comparisons, suggesting that these sites have contributed to functional divergence among groups or subgroups. In addition, site model and branch-site model analyses of positive Darwinian selection (PDS) showed that different selection regimes could have affected the evolution of these groups. Sites with high probabilities of having been under PDS were found in groups I, II c, II e, and III. Together, these results contribute to a detailed understanding of the molecular evolution of the WRKY gene family in soybean. In this work, all the WRKY genes, which were generated mainly through segmental duplication, were identified in the soybean genome. Moreover, differential expression and functional divergence of the duplicated WRKY genes were two major features of this family throughout their evolutionary history. Positive selection analysis revealed that the different groups have different evolutionary rates

  10. Are de novo acute heart failure and acutely worsened chronic heart failure two subgroups of the same syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banović Marko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute heart failure (AHF is one of the most common diseases in emergency medicine, associated with poor prognosis and high in-hospital and long-term mortality. Objective. To investigate clinical presentation of patients with de novo AHF and acute worsening of chronic heart failure (CHF and to identify differences in blood levels of biomarkers and echocardiography findings. Methods. This prospective study comprised 64 consecutive patients being grouped according to the onset of the disease into patients with the de novo AHF (45.3%, and patients with acute worsening of CHF (54.7%. Results. Acute congestion (60% was the most common manifestation of de novo AHF, whereas pulmonary oedema (43.1% was the most common manifestation of acutely decompensated CHF. Patients with acutely decompensated CHF had significantly higher blood values of creatinine (147.10 vs 113.16 μmol/l; p<0.05, urea (12.63 vs 7.82 mmol/l; p<0.05, BNP (1440.11 vs 712.24 pg/ml; p<001 and NTproBNP (9097.00 vs 2827.70 pg/ml; p<0.01 on admission, and lower values of M-mode left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF during hospitalization (49.44% vs 42.94%; p<0.05. The follow-up after one year revealed still significantly higher BNP (365.49 vs 164.02 pg/ ml; p<0.05 and lower average values of both LVEF in patients with acutely worsened CHF (46.62% vs 54.41% and 39.52% vs 47.88%; p<0.05. Conclusion. Considering differences in clinical severity on admission, echocardiography and natriuretic peptide values during hospitalization and after one year follow-up, de novo AHF and acutely worsened CHF are two different subgroups of the same syndrome.

  11. Going flat: examining heterogeneity in the soda-obesity relationship by subgroup and place of birth among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Z

    2017-06-01

    To determine if the association between soda consumption and obesity is uniform among Asian-American population subgroups. We conducted multivariate logistic regression analyses on odds of being obese among seven Asian subgroups and by place of birth using data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey. An omnibus population-based health survey. Non-institutionalized adults, aged 18 years or over, residing in California (n 36 271). Despite low levels of soda consumption in several Asian-American ethnic groups, soda consumption increased the odds of being obese among Chinese, Koreans and Other Asians but not for Whites. Obesity risk varied across Asian subgroups and by place of birth within these subgroups. More public health efforts addressing soda consumption in Asian-American communities are needed as a strategy for not only preventing chronic diseases but also disparities, considering the varying levels of soda intake across subgroups. Results support the growing body of literature critiquing acculturation theory in immigrant health research by documenting inconsistent findings by place of birth. Future research should take into account the heterogeneity among Asian Americans to advance our understanding of health outcomes and disparities.

  12. Does Kinesiophobia Modify the Effects of Physical Therapy on Outcomes in Patients With Sciatica in Primary Care? Subgroup Analysis From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd, Annemieke J H; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Koes, Bart W; el Barzouhi, Abdelilah; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2015-09-01

    A higher level of kinesiophobia appears to be associated with poor recovery in patients with sciatica. The aim of this study was to investigate whether kinesiophobia modifies the effect of physical therapy on outcomes in patients with sciatica. This was a subgroup analysis from a randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in a primary care setting. A total of 135 patients with acute sciatica participated. Patients were randomly assigned to groups that received (1) physical therapy plus general practitioners' care (intervention group) or (2) general practitioners' care alone (control group). Kinesiophobia at baseline was measured with the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) and a single substitute question for kinesiophobia (SQK). Pain and recovery were assessed at 3- and 12-month follow-ups. Regression analysis was used to test for interaction between the level of kinesiophobia at baseline and treatment allocation. Subgroup results were calculated for patients classified with high fear of movement and for those classified with low fear of movement. Kinesiophobia at baseline interacted with physical therapy in the analysis with leg pain intensity at 12-month follow-up. Kinesiophobia at baseline did not interact with physical therapy regarding any outcome at 3-month follow-up or recovery at 12-month follow-up. When comparing both treatment groups in the subgroup of patients with high fear of movement (n=73), the only significant result was found for leg pain intensity difference from baseline at 12-month follow-up (intervention group: X̅=-5.0, SD=2.6; control group: X̅=-3.6, SD=2.7). The post hoc study design and relatively small sample size were limitations of the study. In 135 patients with sciatica, evidence shows that patients with a higher level of kinesiophobia at baseline may particularly benefit from physical therapy with regard to decreasing leg pain intensity at 12-month follow-up. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  13. 4G/5G Variant of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Gene and Severe Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension: Subgroup Analyses of Variants of Angiotensinogen and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobashi, Gen; Ohta, Kaori; Yamada, Hideto; Hata, Akira; Minakami, Hisanori; Sakuragi, Noriaki; Tamashiro, Hiko; Fujimoto, Seiichiro

    2009-01-01

    Background Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is a common cause of perinatal mortality. It is believed to result from the interaction of several factors, including those related to the blood coagulation system. We performed genotyping and subgroup analyses to determine if the 4G/5G genotypes of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene (PAI-1) play a role in the pathogenesis of PIH, and to evaluate possible interactions of the PAI-1 polymorphisms with those of the angiotensinogen gene (AGT) and the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (NOS3). Methods An association study of PAI-1 polymorphism, and subgroup analyses of common variants of AGT and NOS3, among 128 patients with PIH and 376 healthy pregnant controls. Results No significant differences were found between the cases and controls in the frequencies of allele 4G or the 4G/4G genotype. In subgroup analyses, after adjustment for multiple comparison, a significant association with the AGT TT genotype was found among women with the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype, and an association with the NOS3 GA+AA genotype was found among women with the 5G/5G or 4G/5G genotypes. Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are at least 2 pathways in the pathogenesis of severe PIH. However, with respect to early prediction and prevention of severe PIH, although the PAI-1 4G/4G genotype alone was not a risk factor for severe PIH, the fact that PAI-1 genotypes are associated with varying risks for severe PIH suggests that PAI-1 genotyping of pregnant women, in combination with other tests, may be useful in the development of individualized measures that may prevent severe PIH. PMID:19838007

  14. Religious subgroups influencing vaccination coverage in the Dutch Bible belt: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruijs, Wilhelmina L M; Hautvast, Jeannine L A; van der Velden, Koos; de Vos, Sjoerd; Knippenberg, Hans; Hulscher, Marlies E J L

    2011-02-14

    The Netherlands has experienced epidemics of vaccine preventable diseases largely confined to the Bible belt, an area where -among others- orthodox protestant groups are living. Lacking information on the vaccination coverage in this minority, and its various subgroups, control of vaccine preventable diseases is focused on the geographical area of the Bible belt. However, the adequacy of this strategy is questionable. This study assesses the influence of presence of various orthodox protestant subgroups (orthodox protestant denominations, OPDs) on municipal vaccination coverage in the Bible belt. We performed an ecological study at municipality level. Data on number of inhabitants, urbanization level, socio-economical status, immigration and vaccination coverage were obtained from national databases. As religion is not registered in the Netherlands, membership numbers of the OPDs had to be obtained from church year books and via church offices. For all municipalities in the Netherlands, the effect of presence or absence of OPDs on vaccination coverage was assessed by comparing mean vaccination coverage. For municipalities where OPDs were present, the effect of each of them (measured as membership ratio, the number of members proportional to total number of inhabitants) on vaccination coverage was assessed by bivariate correlation and multiple regression analysis in a model containing the determinants immigration, socio-economical status and urbanization as well. Mean vaccination coverage (93.5% ± 4.7) in municipalities with OPDs (n = 135) was significantly lower (p < 0.001) than in 297 municipalities without OPDs (96.9% ± 2.1). Multiple regression analyses showed that in municipalities with OPDs 84% of the variance in vaccination coverage was explained by the presence of these OPDs. Immigration had a significant, but small explanatory effect as well. Membership ratios of all OPDs were negatively related to vaccination coverage; this relationship was strongest for

  15. Prognostic significance of P2RY8-CRLF2 and CRLF2 overexpression may vary across risk subgroups of childhood B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Hu; Chen, Xi; Huang, Yi; Su, Yongchun; Lu, Ling; Yu, Jie; Yin, Yibing; Bao, Liming

    2017-02-01

    The cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2) gene plays an important role in early B-cell development. Aberrations in CRLF2 activate the JAK-STAT signaling pathway that contributes to B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The prognostic significance of CRLF2 overexpression and P2RY8-CRLF2 fusion in various B-ALL risk subgroups has not been well established. Two hundred seventy-one patients with newly diagnosed childhood B-ALL were enrolled from a Chinese population. The prevalence of CRLF2 overexpression, CRLF2-P2RY8 fusion, CRLF2 F232C mutation, and JAK2 and IL7R mutational status were analyzed, and the prognostic impact of CRLF2 overexpression and P2RY8-CRLF2 on B-ALL was evaluated by assessing their influence on overall survival and event-free survival. CRLF2 overexpression and P2RY8-CRLF2 were found in 19% and 10%, respectively, in the whole cohort. No correlation between CRLF2 overexpression and P2RY8-CRLF2 was observed. CRLF2 F322C and IL7R mutations were not detected in B-ALL cases overexpressing CRLF2, and no JAK2 mutations were found in the whole cohort either. The results showed that CRLF2 overexpression and P2RY8-CRLF2 were associated with a poor outcome in unselected B-ALL. Moreover, in an intermediate risk B-ALL subgroup P2RY8-CRLF2 was correlated with worse survival, whereas in high- and low-risk subgroups, CRLF2 overexpression predicted a poor outcome. Our findings suggest that P2RY8-CRLF2 is an independent prognostic indicator in intermediate risk B-ALL, while CRLF2 overexpression is correlated with an inferior outcome in high- or low-risk B-ALL. Our study demonstrates that the impact of P2RY8-CRLF2 and CRLF2 overexpression on B-ALL survival may differ across risk subgroups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The one-parameter subgroup of rotations generated by spin transformations in three-dimensional real space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazoya, E.D.K.; Prempeh, E.; Banini, G.K.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between the spin transformations of the special linear group of order 2, SL (2, C) and the aggregate SO(3) of the three-dimensional pure rotations when considered as a group in itself (and not as a subgroup of the Lorentz group), is investigated. It is shown, by the spinor map X - → AXA ct which is all action of SL(2. C) on the space of Hermitian matrices, that the one- parameter subgroup of rotations generated are precisely those of angles which are multiples 2π. (au)

  17. Reporting on methods of subgroup analysis in clinical trials: a survey of four scientific journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.D. Moreira Jr.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of subgroup analysis (SA reported in randomized clinical trials (RCT cannot be adequately interpreted without information about the methods used in the study design and the data analysis. Our aim was to show how often inaccurate or incomplete reports occur. First, we selected eight methodological aspects of SA on the basis of their importance to a reader in determining the confidence that should be placed in the author's conclusions regarding such analysis. Then, we reviewed the current practice of reporting these methodological aspects of SA in clinical trials in four leading journals, i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine, the Journal of the American Medical Association, the Lancet, and the American Journal of Public Health. Eight consecutive reports from each journal published after July 1, 1998 were included. Of the 32 trials surveyed, 17 (53% had at least one SA. Overall, the proportion of RCT reporting a particular methodological aspect ranged from 23 to 94%. Information on whether the SA preceded/followed the analysis was reported in only 7 (41% of the studies. Of the total possible number of items to be reported, NEJM, JAMA, Lancet and AJPH clearly mentioned 59, 67, 58 and 72%, respectively. We conclude that current reporting of SA in RCT is incomplete and inaccurate. The results of such SA may have harmful effects on treatment recommendations if accepted without judicious scrutiny. We recommend that editors improve the reporting of SA in RCT by giving authors a list of the important items to be reported.

  18. Pleomorphic Malignant Mesothelioma in a Broiler Breeder Infected with Avian Leucosis Virus Subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, T; Sassa, Y

    2018-04-01

    Avian leucosis virus (ALV) is an oncogenic retrovirus that induces tumours including lymphoid leucosis and myeloid leucosis. Pleomorphic malignant mesothelioma and myelocytoma, which were thought to be induced by ALV subgroup J (ALV-J) infection, were identified in a 432-day-old broiler breeder. The bird showed no clinical signs; however, at necropsy examination there were multiple nodules in the alimentary tract. Microscopical analysis showed that these consisted of pleomorphic cells and myelocyte-like cells. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the pleomorphic cells were atypical and expressed cytokeratin, vimentin, c-kit, calretinin and ALV. The myelocyte-like cells were also positive for ALV. Retroviral type C particles were observed by electron microscopy. ALV-E and ALV-J nucleotide sequences were detected in DNA extracted from formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded small intestinal tissue. Based on these results, the tumours were diagnosed as pleomorphic malignant mesothelioma and myelocytoma and were thought to have been induced by ALV-J infection. This is the first report of malignant mesothelioma associated with naturally acquired ALV-J infection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme Based on Cyclic Automorphism Subgroups of Random Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Group-based cryptography is viewed as a modern cryptographic candidate solution to blocking quantum computer attacks, and key exchange protocols on the Internet are one of the primitives to ensure the security of communication. In 2016 Habeeb et al proposed a “textbook” key exchange protocol based on the semidirect product of two groups, which is insecure for use in real-world applications. In this paper, after discarding the unnecessary disguising notion of semidirect product in the protocol, we establish a simplified yet enhanced authenticated key agreement scheme based on cyclic automorphism subgroups of random orders by making hybrid use of certificates and symmetric-key encryption as challenge-and-responses in the public-key setting. Its passive security is formally analyzed, which is relative to the cryptographic hardness assumption of a computational number-theoretic problem. Cryptanalysis of this scheme shows that it is secure against the intruder-in-the-middle attack even in the worst case of compromising the signatures, and provides explicit key confirmation to both parties.

  20. Hybrid subgroup decomposition method for solving fine-group eigenvalue transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasseri, Saam; Rahnema, Farzad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An acceleration technique for solving fine-group eigenvalue transport problems. • Coarse-group quasi transport theory to solve coarse-group eigenvalue transport problems. • Consistent and inconsistent formulations for coarse-group quasi transport theory. • Computational efficiency amplified by a factor of 2 using hybrid SGD for 1D BWR problem. - Abstract: In this paper, a new hybrid method for solving fine-group eigenvalue transport problems is developed. This method extends the subgroup decomposition method to efficiently couple a new coarse-group quasi transport theory with a set of fixed-source transport decomposition sweeps to obtain the fine-group transport solution. The advantages of the quasi transport theory are its high accuracy, straight-forward implementation and numerical stability. The hybrid method is analyzed for a 1D benchmark problem characteristic of boiling water reactors (BWR). It is shown that the method reproduces the fine-group transport solution with high accuracy while increasing the computational efficiency up to 12 times compared to direct fine-group transport calculations

  1. Consultation on the implementation of Engineering Recommendation ER G77. Volume 2: Subgroup report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornycroft, J.; Cotterell, M.; Crabtree, J.

    2002-07-01

    A Sub-Group report of a project whose main objective is to develop Engineering Recommendation ER G77/1 'Connection of Single-Phase Inverter Connected Photovoltaic (PV) Generating Equipment of up to 5kVA in Parallel with a Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) Distribution System' is presented. The paper specifically addresses the testing of inverters, including small integrated systems called 'AC Modules'. The report is linked to Volume 1 of report ETSU/P2/00400 'Research into Aspects of PV Inverters and Engineering Recommendation ER G77'. The sub-group's objectives were: (i) to develop a safety assessment and accreditation strategy for PV inverter topologies incorporating solid-state switched protection systems; (ii) develop strategies for safe and cost-effective installation of PV systems utilising AC Modules; (iii) consult with the main ER G77 Group on what to include in ER G77/1 and (iv) obtain independent views.

  2. VEGFR-1 Overexpression Identifies a Small Subgroup of Aggressive Prostate Cancers in Patients Treated by Prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina Tsourlakis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The VEGFR-1 is suggested to promote tumor progression. In the current study we analyzed prevalence and prognostic impact of the VEGFR-1 by immunohistochemistry on a tissue microarray containing more than 3000 prostate cancer specimens. Results were compared to tumor phenotype, ETS-related gene (ERG status, and biochemical recurrence. Membranous VEGFR-1 expression was detectable in 32.6% of 2669 interpretable cancers and considered strong in 1.7%, moderate in 6.7% and weak in 24.2% of cases. Strong VEGFR-1 expression was associated with TMPRSS2:ERG fusion status as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and immunohistochemistry (p < 0.0001 each. Elevated VEGFR-1 expression was linked to high Gleason grade and advanced pT stage in TMPRSS2:ERG negative cancers (p = 0.0008 and p = 0.001, while these associations were absent in TMPRSS2:ERG positive cancers. VEGFR-1 expression was also linked to phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN deletions. A comparison with prostate specific antigen (PSA recurrence revealed that the 1.7% of prostate cancers with the highest VEGFR-1 levels had a strikingly unfavorable prognosis. This could be seen in all cancers, in the subsets of TMPRSS2:ERG positive or negative, PTEN deleted or undeleted carcinomas (p < 0.0001 each. High level VEGFR-1 expression is infrequent in prostate cancer, but identifies a subgroup of aggressive cancers, which may be candidates for anti-VEGFR-1 targeted therapy.

  3. Novel approach to predict the azeotropy at any pressure using classification by subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehyung Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Distillation is one of the dominating separation processes, but there are some problems as inseparable mixtures areformed in some cases. This phenomenon is called as azeotropy. It is essential to understand azeotropy in any distillationprocesses since azeotropes, i.e. inseparable mixtures, cannot be separated by ordinary distillation. In this study, to constructa model which predicts the azeotropic formation at any pressure, a novel approach using support vector machine (SVM ispresented. The SVM method is used to classify data in the two classes, that is, azeotropes and non-azeotropes. 13 variables,including pressure, were used as explanatory variables in this model. From the result of the SVM models which were constructed with data measured at 1 atm and data measured at all pressures, the 1 atm model showed a higher prediction performance to the data measured at 1 atm than the all pressure model. Thus, for improving the performance of the all pressuremodel, we focused on intermolecular forces of solvents. The SVM models were constructed with only data of the solventshaving same subgroups. The accuracy of the model increased and it is expected that this proposed method will be used topredict azeotropic formation at any pressure with high accuracy.

  4. Widespread Positive Selection Drives Differentiation of Centromeric Proteins in the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Emily A; Llopart, Ana

    2015-11-25

    Rapid evolution of centromeric satellite repeats is thought to cause compensatory amino acid evolution in interacting centromere-associated kinetochore proteins. Cid, a protein that mediates kinetochore/centromere interactions, displays particularly high amino acid turnover. Rapid evolution of both Cid and centromeric satellite repeats led us to hypothesize that the apparent compensatory evolution may extend to interacting partners in the Condensin I complex (i.e., SMC2, SMC4, Cap-H, Cap-D2, and Cap-G) and HP1s. Missense mutations in these proteins often result in improper centromere formation and aberrant chromosome segregation, thus selection for maintained function and coevolution among proteins of the complex is likely strong. Here, we report evidence of rapid evolution and recurrent positive selection in seven centromere-associated proteins in species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup, and further postulate that positive selection on these proteins could be a result of centromere drive and compensatory changes, with kinetochore proteins competing for optimal spindle attachment.

  5. Avian metapneumovirus subgroup C induces autophagy through the ATF6 UPR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Wei, Li; Zhu, Shanshan; Wang, Jing; Quan, Rong; Li, Zixuan; Liu, Jue

    2017-10-03

    An increasing number of studies have demonstrated that macroautophagy/autophagy plays an important role in the infectious processes of diverse pathogens. However, it remains unknown whether autophagy is induced in avian metapneumovirus (aMPV)-infected host cells, and, if so, how this occurs. Here, we report that aMPV subgroup C (aMPV/C) induces autophagy in cultured cells. We demonstrated this relationship by detecting classical autophagic features, including the formation of autophagsomes, the presence of GFP-LC3 puncta and the conversation of LC3-I into LC3-II. Also, we used pharmacological regulators and siRNAs targeting ATG7 or LC3 to examine the role of autophagy in aMPV/C replication. The results showed that autophagy is required for efficient replication of aMPV/C. Moreover, infection with aMPV/C promotes autophagosome maturation and induces a complete autophagic process. Finally, the ATF6 pathway, of which one component is the unfolded protein response (UPR), becomes activated in aMPV/C-infected cells. Knockdown of ATF6 inhibited aMPV/C-induced autophagy and viral replication. Collectively, these results not only show that autophagy promotes aMPV/C replication in the cultured cells, but also reveal that the molecular mechanisms underlying aMPV/C-induced autophagy depends on regulation of the ER stress-related UPR pathway.

  6. Sample size and classification error for Bayesian change-point models with unlabelled sub-groups and incomplete follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon R; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Matthews, Fiona E

    2018-05-01

    Many medical (and ecological) processes involve the change of shape, whereby one trajectory changes into another trajectory at a specific time point. There has been little investigation into the study design needed to investigate these models. We consider the class of fixed effect change-point models with an underlying shape comprised two joined linear segments, also known as broken-stick models. We extend this model to include two sub-groups with different trajectories at the change-point, a change and no change class, and also include a missingness model to account for individuals with incomplete follow-up. Through a simulation study, we consider the relationship of sample size to the estimates of the underlying shape, the existence of a change-point, and the classification-error of sub-group labels. We use a Bayesian framework to account for the missing labels, and the analysis of each simulation is performed using standard Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques. Our simulation study is inspired by cognitive decline as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination, where our extended model is appropriate due to the commonly observed mixture of individuals within studies who do or do not exhibit accelerated decline. We find that even for studies of modest size ( n = 500, with 50 individuals observed past the change-point) in the fixed effect setting, a change-point can be detected and reliably estimated across a range of observation-errors.

  7. Identification of a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope in hypervariable region 1 of avian leukosis virus subgroup J.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Minbo; Zhou, Defang; Li, Gen; Guo, Huijun; Liu, Jianzhu; Wang, Guihua; Zheng, Qiankun; Cheng, Ziqiang

    2016-03-08

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a hypervariable oncogenic retrovirus that causes great economic loss in poultry. Antigenic variations in the variable regions make the development of an effective vaccine a challenging task. In the present study, we identified a variant antigenic neutralizing epitope using reverse vaccinology methods. First, we predicted the B-cell epitopes in gp85 gene of ALV-J strains by DNAman and bioinformatics. Fourteen candidate epitopes were selected and linked in tandem with glycines or serines as a multi-epitope gene. The expressed protein of multi-epitope gene can induce high-titer antibody that can recognize nature ALV-J and neutralize the infectivity of ALV-J strains. Next, we identified a high effective epitope using eight overlapping fragments of gp85 gene reacting with mAb 2D5 and anti-multi-epitope sera. The identified epitope contained one of the predicted epitopes and localized in hyervariable region 1 (hr1), indicating a variant epitope. To better understand if the variants of the epitope have a good antigenicity, we synthesized four variants to react with mAb 2D5 and anti-ALV-J sera. The result showed that all variants could react with the two kinds of antibodies though they showed different antigenicity, while could not react with ALV-J negative sera. Thus, the variant antigenic neutralizing epitope was determined as 137-LRDFIA/E/TKWKS/GDDL/HLIRPYVNQS-158. The result shows a potential use of this variant epitopes as a novel multi-epitope vaccine against ALV-J in poultry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-cell quantitative HER2 measurement identifies heterogeneity and distinct subgroups within traditionally defined HER2-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsum, Matthew D; Geretti, Elena; Paragas, Violette; Kudla, Arthur J; Moulis, Sharon P; Luus, Lia; Wickham, Thomas J; McDonagh, Charlotte F; MacBeath, Gavin; Hendriks, Bart S

    2013-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important biomarker for breast and gastric cancer prognosis and patient treatment decisions. HER2 positivity, as defined by IHC or fluorescent in situ hybridization testing, remains an imprecise predictor of patient response to HER2-targeted therapies. Challenges to correct HER2 assessment and patient stratification include intratumoral heterogeneity, lack of quantitative and/or objective assays, and differences between measuring HER2 amplification at the protein versus gene level. We developed a novel immunofluorescence method for quantitation of HER2 protein expression at the single-cell level on FFPE patient samples. Our assay uses automated image analysis to identify and classify tumor versus non-tumor cells, as well as quantitate the HER2 staining for each tumor cell. The HER2 staining level is converted to HER2 protein expression using a standard cell pellet array stained in parallel with the tissue sample. This approach allows assessment of HER2 expression and heterogeneity within a tissue section at the single-cell level. By using this assay, we identified distinct subgroups of HER2 heterogeneity within traditional definitions of HER2 positivity in both breast and gastric cancers. Quantitative assessment of intratumoral HER2 heterogeneity may offer an opportunity to improve the identification of patients likely to respond to HER2-targeted therapies. The broad applicability of the assay was demonstrated by measuring HER2 expression profiles on multiple tumor types, and on normal and diseased heart tissues. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A prospective study of brain natriuretic peptide levels in three subgroups: Stroke with hypertension, stroke without hypertension, and hypertension alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakir Zeynep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study brain natriuretic peptide (BNP levels in three subgroups: patients having stroke with hypertension (HT, those having stroke without HT, and those with HT alone. We also tried to identify whether BNP levels predict the length of stay in hospital and mortality. Materials and Methods: The groups were formed by patients who had been admitted to the emergency department in the first 4-12 h after the onset of symptoms. There were 30 stroke patients with a history of HT (group I, 30 stroke patients without a history of HT (group II, and 20 HT patients without stroke (group III. Patients with congestive heart failure, chronic cor pulmonale, severe valvular heart disease, chronic renal failure, liver insufficiency, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and those with a history of stroke were excluded from the study since these diseases can affect the plasma BNP levels. Results: The demographic characteristics, except the age distribution, were similar among the groups. The mean BNP levels in the three groups were 168.8 ± 223.9 pg/ml, 85.0 ± 75.1 pg/ml, and 84.8 ± 178.3 pg/ml, respectively. The differences between the groups were statistically significant. Conclusion: The mean BNP levels were affected by HT and/or stroke. The simultaneous presence of HT and stroke results in a more significant increase BNP than the presence of either stroke or HT alone. When diseases that can affect the plasma BNP levels are excluded, the BNP levels in stroke patients without a history of HT are similar to the levels seen in patients with only HT.

  10. EULAR/ACR classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and their major subgroups: a methodology report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottai, Matteo; Tjärnlund, Anna; Santoni, Giola; Werth, Victoria P.; Pilkington, Clarissa; de Visser, Marianne; Alfredsson, Lars; Amato, Anthony A.; Barohn, Richard J.; Liang, Matthew H.; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Aggarwal, Rohit; Arnardottir, Snjolaug; Chinoy, Hector; Cooper, Robert G.; Danko, Katalin; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Feldman, Brian M.; García-de la Torre, Ignacio; Gordon, Patrick; Hayashi, Taichi; Katz, James D.; Kohsaka, Hitoshi; Lachenbruch, Peter A.; Lang, Bianca A.; Li, Yuhui; Oddis, Chester V.; Olesinka, Marzena; Reed, Ann M.; Rutkowska-Sak, Lidia; Sanner, Helga; Selva-O'Callaghan, Albert; Wook Song, Yeong; Vencovsky, Jiri; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Amoruso, Maria; Andersson, Helena; Bayat, Nastaran; Bhansing, Kavish J.; Bucher, Sara; Champbell, Richard; Charles-Schoeman, Christina; Chaudhry, Vinay; Christopher-Stine, Lisa; Chung, Lorinda; Cronin, Mary; Curry, Theresa; Dahlbom, Kathe; Distler, Oliver; Efthimiou, Petros; van Engelen, Baziel G. M.; Faiq, Abdullah; Farhadi, Payam Noroozi; Fiorentino, David; Hengstman, Gerald; Hoogendijk, Jessica; Huber, Adam; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Katsumata, Yasuhiro; Kim, Susan; Kong-Rosario, Michelle; Kontzias, Apostolos; Krol, Petra; Kurita, Takashi; Li, Zhan-Guo; Lindvall, Björn; Linklater, Helen; Maillard, Sue; Mamyrova, Gulnara; Mantegazza, Renato; Marder, Galina S.; Nagahashi Marie, Suely Kazue; Mathiesen, Pernille; Mavragani, Clio P.; McHugh, Neil J.; Michaels, Mimi; Mohammed, Reem; Morgan, Gabrielle; Moser, David W.; Moutsopoulos, Haralampos M.

    2017-01-01

    To describe the methodology used to develop new classification criteria for adult and juvenile idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and their major subgroups. An international, multidisciplinary group of myositis experts produced a set of 93 potentially relevant variables to be tested for

  11. Exploring subgroup effects by socioeconomic position of three effective school-based dietary interventions: the European TEENAGE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lien, N.; Haerens, L.; te Velde, S.J.; Mercken, L.; Klepp, K.I.; Moore, L.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Faggiano, F.; Lenthe, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore subgroup effects by high and low socioeconomic position (SEP) of three previously conducted, effective European interventions. Methods: Reanalyses stratified by SEP were conducted by the research groups of each study. All studies were school-based:

  12. GADD45ß, an anti-tumor gene, inhibits avian leukosis virus subgroup J replication in chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is a retrovirus that induces neoplasia, hepatomegaly, immunosuppression and poor performance in chickens. The tumorigenic and pathogenic mechanisms of ALV-J remain a hot topic. To explore anti-tumor genes that confer genetic resistance to ALV-J infection in ch...

  13. Phenetic distances in the Drosophila melanogaster-subgroup species and oviposition-site preference for food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.; Boerema, A.

    1981-01-01

    Oviposition-site preferences (O.S.P.) have been investigated in females of six sibling species of the Drosophila melanogaster subgroup. O.S.P. were determined for standard food components and yeast genotypes. Females of all species showed a strong preference for complete medium and avoidance of pure

  14. Can Failure Succeed? Using Racial Subgroup Rules to Analyze the Effect of School Accountability Failure on Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Many school accountability programs are built on the premise that the sanctions attached to failure will produce higher future student achievement. Furthermore, such programs often include subgroup achievement rules that attempt to hold schools accountable for the performance of all demographic classes of students. This paper looks at two issues:…

  15. Suicide Risk across Latent Class Subgroups: A Test of the Generalizability of the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jennifer S; Batterham, Philip J; Calear, Alison L; Han, Jin

    2018-01-06

    It remains unclear whether the Interpersonal Psychological Theory of Suicide (IPTS; Joiner, ) is generalizable to the population or holds more explanatory power for certain subgroups compared to others. The aim of this study was to (1) identify subgroups of individuals who endorsed suicide ideation in the past month based on a range of mental health and demographic variables, (2) compare levels of the IPTS constructs within these subgroups, and (3) test the IPTS predictions for suicide ideation and suicide attempt for each group. Latent class, negative binomial, linear, and logistic regression analyses were conducted on population-based data obtained from 1,321 adults recruited from Facebook. Among participants reporting suicide ideation, four distinct patterns of risk factors emerged based on age and severity of mental health symptoms. Groups with highly elevated mental health symptoms reported the highest levels of thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness. Tests of the IPTS interactions provided partial support for the theory, primarily in young adults with elevated mental health symptoms. Lack of support found for the IPTS predictions across the subgroups and full sample in this study raise some questions around the broad applicability of the theory. © 2018 The American Association of Suicidology.

  16. 26 CFR 1.1502-95 - Rules on ceasing to be a member of a consolidated group (or loss subgroup).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (other than the L1 and L2 stock), asset 1 with an adjusted basis of $40 and a fair market value of $15... of the L2 stock to M. At that time, asset 5, which has appreciated in value, has a fair market value... reference to a subgroup section 382 limitation. (2) Election by common parent. Only the common parent (not...

  17. Disagreement in physical activity assessed by accelerometer and self-report in subgroups of age, gender, education and weight status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootmaker, S.M.; Schuit, A.J.; Chin A Paw, J.M.M.; Seidell, J.C.; van Mechelen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to compare self-reported time (by questionnaire) and objectively measured time (by accelerometer) spent on physical activity at moderate (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) in subgroups of age, gender, education and weight status. Methods: In total, 236

  18. Suppression of the Second Harmonic Subgroup Injected by an AC EAF: Design Considerations and Performance Estimation of a Shunt APF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Durna

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design methodology for an active power filter (APF system to suppress the second harmonic subgroup injected by an AC electric arc furnace (EAF to the utility grid. The APF system is composed of identical parallel units connected to the utility grid via a specially-designed coupling transformer. Each APF converter is a three-phase three-wire two-level voltage source converter (VSC. The number of parallel APF units, coupling transformer MVA rating, and turns ratio are optimized in the view of the ratings of commercially-available high voltage (HV IGBTs. In this research work, line current waveforms sampled at 25.6-kS/s on the medium voltage (MV side of a 65-MVA EAF transformer are then used to extract the second harmonic subgroup, 95-, 100-, and 105-Hz current components, by multiple synchronous reference frame (MSRF analysis, which was previously proposed to decompose EAF current interharmonics and harmonics in real-time. By summing up this digital data of the second harmonic subgroup, the reference current signal for the APF system is produced in real-time. A detailed model of the APF system is then run on EMTDC/PSCAD to follow the produced reference current signal according to hysteresis band control philosophy. The simulation results show that the proposed APF system can successfully suppress the second harmonic subgroup of an AC EAF.

  19. Cauliflower is a new host of a subgroup 16SrVII-B phytoplasma associated with stunting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauliflower stunt has occurred with high levels of incidence and provoked significant yield reduction in Brazilian crops. Phytoplasmas belonging to the subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrXV-A were previously reported in association with the disease. In 2014, plants with typical symptoms of the disease were...

  20. Eleventh ITER negotiations meeting (N-11) and twelfth negotiators' standing sub-group meeting (NSSG-12)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Delong

    2005-01-01

    The Eleventh ITER Negotiations Meeting (N-11) and the Twelfth Negotiators' Standing Sub-Group (NSSG-12 convened on October 19-25, 2005 at the Kempinski Hotel Chengdu, Sichuan Province. China was the host of this meeting. Delegations from China, the European Union, Japan, the Republic of Korea, the Russian Federation and the United States of America, as well as members from the International Team, met there to continue their work to reach agreement on the joint implementation of the ITER international fusion energy R and D project. The delegations accepted the Vice Minister of Science and Technology, Mr. LIU Yanhua, and State Councillor, Mr. SHI Dinghuan as Moderators for N-11 and NSSG-12, respectively, and Mr. LUO Delong as Secretary for both meetings. At the Meeting, delegates discussed and made substantial progress on a full range of legal, technical, and administrative topics, including staffing for ITER, policies for managing the project and its procurements, and the continuing joint drafting of the agreement on establishing the international ITER Organization to implement the project. Delegates also explored the possibility of India joining the Negotiations. In the light of the reports presented to the Meeting from the recent joint exploratory mission to India, delegates identified a series of steps for the near future leading towards a possible agreement among all the Parties to India's accession. The Negotiations Meeting also discussed the progress report of NSSG and forward planning and future tasks. The Negotiators agreed that substantial progress was made on all topics, and delegations are optimistic that the Joint Implementation Agreement and related Annexes and instruments could be initialed in spring of 2006. As decided by all delegations, the next Twelfth ITER Negotiations Meeting will be held in Korea on 6 December, 2005