WorldWideScience

Sample records for subgrade moisture conditions

  1. Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Study of Subgrade Moisture Variation and Underground Antidrainage Technique under Groundwater Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater is a main natural factor impacting the subgrade structure, and it plays a significant role in the stability of the subgrade. In this paper, the analytical solution of the subgrade moisture variations considering groundwater fluctuations is derived based on Richards’ equation. Laboratory subgrade model is built, and three working cases are performed in the model to study the capillary action of groundwater at different water tables. Two types of antidrainage materials are employed in the subgrade model, and their anti-drainage effects are discussed. Moreover, numerical calculation is conducted on the basis of subgrade model, and the calculate results are compared with the experimental measurements. The study results are shown. The agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is good. Capillary action is obvious when the groundwater table is rising. As the groundwater table is falling, the moisture decreases in the position of the subgrade near the water table and has no variations in the subgrade where far above the table. The anti-drainage effect of the sand cushion is associated with its thickness and material properties. New waterproofing and drainage material can prevent groundwater entering the subgrade effectively, and its anti-drainage effect is good.

  2. FLUCTUATION EFFECT OF EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT OF LOW SUBGRADE UNDER HIGH GROUNDWATER LEVEL IN HOT AND HUMID CLIMATIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Que Yun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to reveal the fluctuation effect of equilibrium moisture content of low subgrade in hot and humid climatic regions, the effect of temperature on the fluctuation of the equilibrium moisture content of subgrade was analysed. Taking the typical climate and the subgrade soil in Fujian province as an example, three technological methods - theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and indoor simulation experiment - were adopted in the investigation of the fluctuation effect of equilibrium moisture content of subgrade. The results show that, computing results from the formula of the equilibrium moisture content of subgrade, the numerical simulation results are closer to each other in consideration of the temperature effect. The test results can not reflect the relationship between the equilibrium moisture content and the height of embankment. The maximum fluctuation range of the equilibrium moisture content of the cement concrete pavement is less than 2 percent in Fujian area, and this phenomenon presents the effect of the moist-hot climate on the equilibrium moisture content. Equilibrium moisture content presents a declining trend with the increment of the temperature and the compactness. So, if matric potential considering temperature indirectly reflects the influence of thermal potential, then the equilibrium moisture content of low subgrade under high groundwater level can be estimated approximately. The fluctuation range of equilibrium moisture content in different layers of subgrade can be reduced effectively with the increment of the roadbed compaction degree.

  3. Calibration of TDR Test Probe for Measuring Moisture in the Body of the Railway Substructure and its Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobeš Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction of the paper there is characterized a way of monitoring the moisture in the railway substructure in the experimental stand, which is a part of the experimental workplace of the Department of Railway Engineering and Track Management. A substantial part of the paper is devoted to the calibration of TDR test probe for selected rock materials as a basic prerequisite for the determination of the actual moisture in the body of the railway substructure and subgrade.

  4. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  5. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Wei; Ullidtz, Per; Macdonald, Robin

    1998-01-01

    The report describes the second test in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM) under the International Pavement Subgrade Performance Study. Pavement response was measured in different layers, and compared to different theroretical values. Performance in terms of plastic strains, rutting...

  6. Cement improved highly weathered phyllite for highway subgrades: A case study in Shaanxi province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Mao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In a cost-saving move, the soft rocks composed of highly-weathered phyllites available on-site were used to fill the subgrade in the eastern Ankang section of the expressway of Shiyan to Tianshui, China. Cement admixture was used to improve the performance of the weathered phyllites. In order to determine the best mix ratio, values corresponding to compaction performance, unconfined compressive strength, and the California bearing ratio (CBR were analyzed for variable cement content weight percentages (3%, 4%, 5%, and 6% using test subgrade plots in the field. Field measurements of resilience modulus and deflection confirmed that the strength of the subgrade increased as the cement ratio increased. In order to further evaluate the cement/phyllite mixture, the performance of the 3% cement ratio sample was evaluated under saturated conditions (with various levels of moisture addition and soaking time using both the wetting deformation and resilient modulus values. Results suggest that moisture added and soaking time are key factors that affect the seepage depth, water content, and resilient modulus. The recommend values for the cement addition and for the water content are given out. This study can aid in prevention of highway damage by improving the foundation capacity and lengthening the lifecycle of the highway in phyllite distributed region at home and abroad.

  7. Real-time measurement of quality during the compaction of subgrade soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Conventional quality control of subgrade soils during their compaction is usually performed by monitoring moisture content and dry density at a few discrete locations. However, randomly selected points do not adequately represent the entire compacted...

  8. Subgrade design models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available procedure commonly used in South Africa, namely the South African Mechanistic-Empirical Design Method (SAMDM). This was achieved through the development of a new design approach and permanent deformation model for the pavement subgrade. The new distress...

  9. Moisture Conditions in Passive House Wall Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Gullbrekken, Lars; Geving, Stig; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Buildings for the future, i.e zero emission buildings and passive houses, will need well insulated building envelopes, which includes increased insulation thicknesses for roof, wall and floor constructions. Increased insulation thicknesses may cause an increase in moisture levels and thereby increased risk of mold growth. There is need for increased knowledge about moisture levels in wood constructions of well insulated houses, to ensure robust and moisture safe solutions. Monitoring of w...

  10. Moisture Conditions in Passive House Wall Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    Gullbrekken, Lars; Geving, Stig; Time, Berit; Andresen, Inger

    2015-01-01

    - Buildings for the future, i.e zero emission buildings and passive houses, will need well insulated building envelopes, which includes increased insulation thicknesses for roof, wall and floor constructions. Increased insulation thicknesses may cause an increase in moisture levels and thereby increased risk of mold growth. There is need for increased knowledge about moisture levels in wood constructions of well insulated houses, to ensure robust and moisture safe solutions.

  11. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study in the Danish Road Testing Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Ertman Larsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Most existing pavement subgrade criteria are based on the AASHO Road Test, where only one material was tested and for only one climatic condition. To study the validity of these criteria and to refine the criteria a co-operative research program entitled the "International Pavement Subgrade...... Performance Study" was sponsored by the FHWA with American, Finnish and Danish partners. This paper describes the first test series which was carried out in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM).The first step in this program is a full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Testing Machine...... deformation of the pavement surface. A simple model describing the plastic strain has been developed.The test showed that currently used subgrade strain criteria are conservative if used with the measured strains in the subgrade. If used with strains calculated from FWD tests using linear elastic theory...

  12. Impact strength of Luehea divaricata wood on different moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Roberto Haselein

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the impact strength of Luehea divaricata wood tested under conditions of equilibrium at 12% and saturated moisture content. Trees from two different physiographic regions of Rio Grande do Sul state were used. The specimens were submitted to the impact using a pendulum of Charpy and evaluated with relationship to the resistance offered to the application of the load in the radial and tangential plans and with the positions in the log (pith - bark for the two physiographic regions at each moisture condition. Also the specific gravity at 12% moisture content and in saturated conditions, the moisture content, the work absorbed, the impact strength, coefficient of resilience and dynamic quota were determined. The results showed that the Luehea divaricata in saturated wood, presented greater strength, indicating that the specie is more resistant to the impact when it is green than when it is at 12% moisture content.

  13. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staliulionis, Ž.; Jabbari, M.; Hattel, J. H. [Process Modelling Group, Department of Mechanical engineering, Technical university of Denmark, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-06-08

    The number of electronics used in outdoor environment is constantly growing. The humidity causes about 19 % of all electronics failures and, especially, moisture increases these problems due to the ongoing process of miniaturization and lower power consumption of electronic components. Moisture loads are still not understood well by design engineers, therefore this field has become one of the bottlenecks in the electronics system design. The objective of this paper is to model moisture ingress into an electronics enclosure under isothermal conditions. The moisture diffusion model is based on a 1D quasi-steady state (QSS) approximation for Fick’s second law. This QSS approach is also described with an electrical analogy which gives a fast tool in modelling of the moisture response. The same QSS method is applied to ambient water vapour variations. The obtained results are compared to an analytical solution and very good agreement is found.

  14. Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing.; Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  15. Synoptic Conditions and Moisture Sources Actuating Extreme Precipitation in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlinger, Patrik; Sorteberg, Asgeir; Sodemann, Harald

    2017-12-01

    Despite the vast literature on heavy-precipitation events in South Asia, synoptic conditions and moisture sources related to extreme precipitation in Nepal have not been addressed systematically. We investigate two types of synoptic conditions—low-pressure systems and midlevel troughs—and moisture sources related to extreme precipitation events. To account for the high spatial variability in rainfall, we cluster station-based daily precipitation measurements resulting in three well-separated geographic regions: west, central, and east Nepal. For each region, composite analysis of extreme events shows that atmospheric circulation is directed against the Himalayas during an extreme event. The direction of the flow is regulated by midtropospheric troughs and low-pressure systems traveling toward the respective region. Extreme precipitation events feature anomalous high abundance of total column moisture. Quantitative Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic reveals that the largest direct contribution stems from land (approximately 75%), where, in particular, over the Indo-Gangetic Plain moisture uptake was increased. Precipitation events occurring in this region before the extreme event likely provided additional moisture.

  16. Thermal denaturation of sunflower globulins in low moisture conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouilly, A.; Orliac, O.; Silvestre, F.; Rigal, L

    2003-03-05

    DSC analysis in pressure resisting pans of sunflower oil cake makes appear the endothermic peak of sunflower globulins denaturation. Its temperature decreases from 189.5 to 119.9 deg. C while the corresponding enthalpy increases from 2.6 to 3.3 J/g of sample, or from 6.7 to 12.2 J/g of dry protein, when the samples moisture content varies from 0 to 30.0% of the total weight. The plot of the denaturation temperature versus the moisture content is not linear but has a rounded global shape and seems to follow the hydration behavior of the proteins, modeled with the sorption isotherm. As it can be seen on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs, protein corpuscles 'melt' after such a thermal treatment and large aggregates form by coagulation. Moisture dependence of the 'fusion' temperature of native proteic organization, in low moisture conditions, offers so a new characterization method for the use of vegetable proteins in agro-materials.

  17. Instability improvement of the subgrade soils by lime addition at Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shinawi, A.

    2017-06-01

    Subgrade soils can affect the stability of any construction elsewhere, instability problems were found at Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt. This paper investigates geoengineering properties of lime treated subgrade soils at Borg El-Arab. Basic laboratory tests, such as water content, wet and dry density, grain size, specific gravity and Atterberg limits, were performed for twenty-five samples. Moisture-density (compaction); California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS) were conducted on treated and natural soils. The measured geotechnical parameters of the treated soil shows that 6% lime is good enough to stabilize the subgrade soils. It was found that by adding lime, samples shifted to coarser side, Atterberg limits values of the treated soil samples decreased and this will improve the soil to be more stable. On the other hand, Subgrade soils improved as a result of the bonding fine particles, cemented together to form larger size and reduce the plastiCity index which increase soils strength. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is point to the presence of innovative aggregated cement materials which reduce the porosity and increase the strength as a long-term curing. Consequently, the mixture of soil with the lime has acceptable mechanical characteristics where, it composed of a high strength base or sub-base materials and this mixture considered as subgrade soil for stabilizations and mitigation the instability problems that found at Borg Al-Arab, Egypt.

  18. Soil moisture under contrasted atmospheric conditions in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azorin-Molina, César; Cerdà, Artemi; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2014-05-01

    (10), 2069-2085. Azorin-Molina, C., Vicente-Serrano, S. M., Cerdà, A. 2013. Soil moisture changes in two experimental sites in Eastern Spain. Irrigation versus rainfed orchards under organic farming. EGU, Geophysical Research Abstracts, EGU2013-13286. Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S.H. & Cerdà, A. 2011. The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relationship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn severity and total organic carbon content. Geoderma, 160, 599-607. 10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.11.009 Cerdà, A. 1995. Soil moisture regime under simulated rainfall in a three years abandoned field in Southeast Spain. Physics and Chemistry of The Earth, 20 (3-4), 271-279. Cerdà, A. 1999. Seasonal and spatial variations in infiltration rates in badland surfaces under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Water Resources Research, 35 (1) 319-328. Cerdà, A. 2002. The effect of season and parent material on water erosion on highly eroded soils in eastern Spain. Journal of Arid Environments, 52, 319-337. García-Fayos, P. García-Ventoso, B. Cerdà, A. 2000. Limitations to Plant establishment on eroded slopes in Southeastern Spain. Journal of Vegetation Science, 11- 77- 86. Ghafoor, A., Murtaza, G., Rehman, M. Z., Saifullah Sabir, M. 2012. Reclamation and salt leaching efficiency for tile drained saline-sodic soil using marginal quality water for irrigating rice and wheat crops. Land Degradation & Development, 23: 1 -9. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1033 Johnston, C. R., Vance, G. F., Ganjegunte, G. K. 2013. Soil properties changes following irrigation with coalbed natural gas water: role of water treatments, soil amendments and land suitability. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 350- 362. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1132 Qadir, M., Noble, A. D., Chartres, C. 2013. Adapting to climate change by improving water productivity of soil in dry areas. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 12- 21. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1091 Ziadat, F. M., and Taimeh, A. Y. 2013. Effect of rainfall intensity, slope

  19. Subgrade stabilization alternatives to lime and cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This project involved four distinct research activities, (1) the influence of temperature on lime-stabilized soils, (2) the influence of temperature on cement-stabilized soils (3) temperature modeling of stabilized subgrade and (4) use of calcium chl...

  20. Resilient Modulus Characterization of Compacted Cohesive Subgrade Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Sas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil investigations concerning cyclic loading focus on the evaluation, in particular, of design parameters, such as elastic modulus, Poisson’s ratio, or resilient modulus. Structures subjected to repeated loading are vulnerable to high deformations, especially when subgrade soils are composed of cohesive, fully-saturated soils. Such subgrade soils in the eastern part of Europe have a glacial genesis and are a mix of sand, silt, and clay fractions. The characteristic of, e.g., Young modulus variation and resilient modulus from repeated loading tests, is presented. Based on performed resonant column and cyclic triaxial tests, an analytical model is proposed. The model takes into consideration actual values of effective stress p′, as well as loading characteristics and the position of the effective stress path. This approach results in better characterization of pavement or industrial foundation systems based on the subgrade soil in undrained conditions. The recoverable strains characterized by the resilient modulus Mr value in the first cycle of loading was between 44 MPa and 59 MPa for confining pressure σ’3 equal to 45 kPa, and between 48 MPa and 78 MPa for σ’3 equal to 90 kPa. During cyclic loading, cohesive soil, at first, degrades. When pore pressure reaches equilibrium, the resilient modulus value starts to increase. The above-described phenomena indicate that, after the plastic deformation caused by excessive load and excess pore water pressure dissipation, the soil becomes resilient.

  1. Effect of initial conditions, boundary conditions and thickness on the moisture buffering capacity of spruce plywood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osanyintola, O. F.; Talukdar, P.; Simonson, C. J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Sask. (China)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper, the moisture buffering capacity of spruce plywood is measured by recording the change in mass of a test specimen when the air relative humidity (RH) is changed between 33% RH and 75% RH. The aim is to represent diurnal cycles in indoor humidity with 33% RH maintained for 16 h and 75% RH maintained for 8 h. Measurements are taken using two different apparatuses, which provide different convective transfer coefficients between the air and the plywood, and the results are compared to a numerical model for validation. The validated numerical model is then used to investigate the effect of initial conditions, boundary conditions and thickness on the moisture buffering capacity of plywood. The results show that the buffering capacity of plywood depends on the initial conditions and thickness of the plywood as well as the surface film coefficient and humidity cycle. (author)

  2. Dielectric Characteristics of Unsaturated Loess and the Safety Detection of the Road Subgrade Based on GPR

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    Gao Lv

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a moisture content and permittivity model to simultaneously detect and estimate defects in loess subgrade. Based on the ground-penetrating radar (GPR method, the dielectric properties of loess in the northwest of China and the imaging feature of the moisture content of different strata were studied. The relative permittivity of loess with different moisture contents was experimented in the laboratory. It was found that the relative permittivity of unsaturated loess was positively related to moisture content. The relationship between relative permittivity and moisture content in different antenna frequencies of GPR was analyzed. Electromagnetic wave reflection rules in the loess interface were studied using the numerical method with different moisture contents. With the increase in moisture content, the amplitude of GPR was increased. When the above conclusions were applied in the engineering practices, there are good effects to detect the defects of the road subgrade. It is a significant guidance for determining the qualitative research of defects in the roadbed.

  3. Study on Mud Pumping Mechanism of Subgrade Surface Layer in Slab Ballastless Track Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopei CAI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mud pumping has a significant impact on dynamic behavior of high-speed railway. An elaborate study focused on the structure characteristics of CRTS I (China Railway Track System slab ballastless track was made to explain the mechanism of mud pumping from the aspects of displacement between the base plate and subgrade, gap growing, disfunction of drainage system and dynamic load of the train. Finite element software ABAQUS was applied to simulate the dynamic responses between the base plate and the subgrade surface layer in different conditions of gap length and gap size. It has been found that the dynamic force between the base plate and the surface layer of subgrade is up to 4,576.29 kN. Suggestions have been given to the related department such as slip-casting, white-out, sealing plug to solve the problem.

  4. Moisture ingress into electronics enclosures under isothermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staliulionis, Zygimantas; Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2016-01-01

    on a 1D quasi-steady state (QSS) approximation for Fick's second law. This QSS approach is also described with an electrical analogy which gives a fast tool in modelling of the moisture response. The same QSS method is applied to ambient water vapour variations. The obtained results are compared...

  5. The effect of changing ambient humidity on moisture condition in timber elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaž; Turk, Goran; Srpcic, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the changing ambient humidity on moisture conditions in timber elements. The naturally varying humidity is possible to model as a relative combination of different harmonic cycles, with different periods and amplitudes. For the determination of the moisture field...... fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood is used. The coupled model accounts for both vapor transport in pores and bound water transport in wood tissue. Moisture state history influences relationship between moisture state of wood and air humidity...

  6. Review of in-service moisture and temperature conditions in wood-frame buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Anton TenWolde

    2007-01-01

    This literature review reports in-service moisture and temperature conditions of floor, wall, and roof members of wood-frame buildings and exposed wood decks and permanent wood foundations. A wide variation exists in reported wood moisture content, spanning a range from as low as 2% to well above 30%. Relevant studies are summarized, and measured values of wood...

  7. GPR measurements and estimation for road subgrade damage caused by neighboring train vibration load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Lu, Gang; Ge, Shuangcheng

    2015-04-01

    Generally, road can be simplified as a three-layer structure, including subgrade, subbase and pavement. Subgrade is the native material underneath a constructed road. It is commonly compacted before the road construction, and sometimes stabilized by the addition of asphalt, lime or other modifiers. As the mainly supporting structure, subgrade damage would lead in pavement settlement, displacement and crack. Assessment and monitoring of the subgrade condition currently involves trial pitting and subgrade sampling. However there is a practical limit on spatial density at which trail pits and cores can be taken. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been widely used to characterize highway pavement profiling, concrete structure inspection and railroad track ballast estimation. GPR can improve the economics of road maintenance. Long-term train vibration load might seriously influence the stability of the subgrade of neighboring road. Pavement settlement and obvious cracks have been found at a municipal road cross-under a railway with culvert box method. GPR test was conducted to estimate the subgrade and soil within 2.0 m depth for the further road maintenance. Two survey lines were designed in each lane, and total 12 GPR sections have been implemented. Considering both the penetrating range and the resolution, a antenna with a 500 MHz central frequency was chosen for on-site GPR data collection. For data acquisition, we used the default operating environment and scanning parameters for the RAMAC system: 60kHz transmission rate, 50 ns time window, 1024 samples per scan and 0.1 m step-size. Continuous operation was used; the antenna was placed on the road surface and slowly moved along the road. The strong surrounding disturbance related to railroad and attachments, might decrease the reliability of interpretation results. Some routine process methods (including the background removing, filtering) have been applied to suppress the background noise. Additionally, attribute

  8. Bond-Slip Models for FPR-Concrete Interfaces Subjected to Moisture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Shrestha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental related durability issues have been of great concerns in the structures strengthened with the fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs. In marine environment, moisture is one of the dominant factors that adversely affect the material properties and the bond interfaces. Several short-term and long-term laboratory experimental investigations have been conducted to study such behaviors but, still, there are insufficient constitutive bond models which could incorporate moisture exposure conditions. This paper proposed a very simple approach in determining the nonlinear bond-slip models for the FRP-concrete interface considering the effect of moisture conditions. The proposed models are based on the strain results of the experimental investigation conducted by the authors using 6 different commercial FRP systems exposed to the moisture conditions for the maximum period of 18 months. The exposure effect in the moisture conditions seems to have great dependency on the FRP system. Based on the contrasting differences in the results under moisture conditions, separate bond-slip models have been proposed for the wet-layup FRP and prefabricated FRP systems. As for the verification of the proposed model under moisture conditions, predicted pull-out load was compared with the experimental pull-out load. The results showed good agreement for all the FRP systems under investigation.

  9. Variation of moisture content of some varnished woods in indoor climatic conditions

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    Kemal Üçüncü

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, moisture change of varnished wood of black poplar (Populus nigra and yellow pine (Pinus silvestris L. used in indoor climate conditions with central heating in Trabzon (Turkey were investigated. 300 mm length wood specimens, with cross section of 12.5 mm in tangential and in radial and with the square sections of 25mm and 50 mm, were obtained from two species grown in Kanuni Campus of the Karadeniz Technical University. In this research, un-varnished wood samples were also used for reference. The wood moisture content was determined by the weighing method, the wood equilibrium moisture content by the Hailwood-Horrobin equation, and the relative humidity in the indoor climatic conditions by humid air thermodynamic principles. As a result; it was observed that the moisture content of varnished wood samples has a strong relationship with equilibrium moisture content, temperature and relative humidity. It was found that the moisture content of varnished woods was higher than the moisture content of un-varnished woods in the same climatic conditions. It was observed that the difference between the monthly average moisture content was lower in varnished woods in proportion to un-varnished woods. According to these results, it can be indicated that it would be more appropriate to select higher moisture content in the drying of wood than the equilibrium moisture content. Such an application would also reduce drying costs. Further, it can be recommended to use varnished wood in various applications because the low change range of average moisture content can affect the swelling or shrinking of wood.

  10. WINKLER'S SINGLE-PARAMETER SUBGRADE MODEL FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    analysis and design of beams and plates on elastic foundations. A number of both analytical and empirical relationships have been suggested in the past for estimating ...... A. New Variants of Continuum- based Models for an Elastic Subgrade. Submitted for publication in Zede, Journal of Ethiopian Engineers and Architects.

  11. SIMULATION OF SUBGRADE EMBANKMENT ON WEAK BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This article provides: the question of the sustainability of the subgrade on a weak base is considered in the paper. It is proposed to use the method of jet grouting. Investigation of the possibility of a weak base has an effect on the overall deformation of the subgrade; the identification and optimization of the parameters of subgrade based on studies using numerical simulation. Methodology. The theoretical studies of the stress-strain state of the base and subgrade embankment by modeling in the software package LIRA have been conducted to achieve this goal. Findings. After making the necessary calculations perform building fields of a subsidence, borders cramped thickness, bed’s coefficients of Pasternak and Winkler. The diagrams construction of vertical stress performs at any point of load application. Also, using the software system may perform peer review subsidence, rolls railroad tracks in natural and consolidated basis. Originality. For weak soils is the most appropriate nonlinear model of the base with the existing areas of both elastic and limit equilibrium, mixed problem of the theory of elasticity and plasticity. Practical value. By increasing the load on the weak base as a result of the second track construction, adds embankment or increasing axial load when changing the rolling stock process of sedimentation and consolidation may continue again. Therefore, one of the feasible and promising options for the design and reconstruction of embankments on weak bases is to strengthen the bases with the help of jet grouting. With the expansion of the railway infrastructure, increasing speed and weight of the rolling stock is necessary to ensure the stability of the subgrade on weak bases. LIRA software package allows you to perform all the necessary calculations for the selection of a proper way of strengthening weak bases.

  12. The importance of moisture buffering for indoor climate and energy conditions of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2007-01-01

    A new Nordic test method specifies a test protocol for determination of the so-called Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) of building materials. But how important is moisture buffering to determine the indoor humidity condition of buildings? The paper will present the new MBV-definition. Although...... buffering to save energy by reducing the requirement for ventilation in periods, and still maintain the same quality of the indoor climate? The paper will outline some possibilities for analytical/numerical calculations, and will answer some of the posed questions on the probable benefit of taking moisture...

  13. Monitoring of Double-Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double-stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double-stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double-stud assemblies were compared.

  14. Influence of Subgrade and Unbound Granular Layers Stiffness on Fatigue Life of Hot Mix Asphalts - HMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The mainly factors studied to predict fatigue life of hot mix asphalt-HMA in flexible pavements are the loading effect, type of test, compaction methods, design parameters of HMA (e.g., particle size and size distribution curve, fine content, type of bitumen and the variables associated with the environment (mainly moisture, temperature, aging. This study evaluated through a computer simulation, the influence of the granular layers and subgrade on the fatigue life of asphalt layers in flexible pavement structures. Mechanics parameters of granular layers of subgrade, base and subbase were obtained using the mathematical equations currently used for this purpose in the world. The emphasis of the study was the city of Bogotá, where the average annual temperature is 14°C and soils predominantly clay, generally experience CBR magnitudes between 1% and 4%. General conclusion: stiffness of the granular layers and subgrade significantly affect the fatigue resistance of HMA mixtures. Likewise, the use of different equations reported in reference literature in order to characterize granular layers may vary the fatigue life between 4.6 and 48.5 times, varying the thickness of the pavement layers in the design.

  15. The effect of moisture conditions on the constitution of two bioceramic-based root canal sealers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Y. Al-Haddad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: Intraradicular moisture is not standardized and alters the sealing properties and adhesion of root sealers. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of different moisture on the constitution of bioceramic sealers. Materials and methods: The sealers were evaluated before mixing, and after setting using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive Analysis (EDX and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM techniques. Twenty four extracted teeth were prepared and assigned to four groups according to the moisture conditions: (1 dry: using ethanol as final irrigation, (2 normal: using paper points until the last one appeared dry, (3 moist: using a Luer adapter for 5 s followed by 1 paper point, and (4 wet: the canals remained totally flooded. The roots were filled with MTA Fillapex® and Endosequence® BC and kept in phosphate buffer solution at 37 °C for 10 days. Each root was sectioned transversally and longitudinally. The sealers harvested from longitudinal sections were analysed using XRD. Whilst the transverse sections were analysed using SEM/EDX. Results: The XRD analysis showed MTA Fillapex composed of Bismuth trioxide, calcium silicate and tricalcium aluminate. The intensity of peaks in the wet condition was reduced. Endosequence BC contained mainly calcium silicate, calcium silicate hydrate, zirconia and calcium hydroxide. The wet condition showed a small increase in hydrated calcium silicate. The EDX analysis showed changes in the elemental concentrations with different moisture conditions. The surface morphology differed with different moisture conditions. Conclusion: Tested sealers have different constitution that not affected by the degree of moisture. However, it changed their relative quantity. Keywords: bioceramic, constitution, Endosequence BC, moisture, MTA Fillapex

  16. The effect of changing ambient humidity on moisture condition in timber elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hozjan, Tomaẑ; Turk, Goran; Srpĉiĉ, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the changing ambient humidity on moisture conditions in timber elements. The naturally varying humidity is possible to model as a relative combination of different harmonic cycles, with different periods and amplitudes. For the determination of the moisture field...... a fully coupled transport model including a model for the influential sorption hysteresis of wood is used. The coupled model accounts for both vapor transport in pores and bound water transport in wood tissue. Moisture state history influences relationship between moisture state of wood and air humidity......, it must therefore be taken into account. In order to include history dependency, a hysteresis model is used here. Results from numerical calculations for timber specimen exposed to combined daily and annually cyclic variation of outside humidity are presented. Copyright © (2012) by WCTE 2012 Committee....

  17. The sensitivity of US wildfire occurrence to pre-season soil moisture conditions across ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Daniel; Reager, John T.; Zajic, Brittany; Rousseau, Nick; Rodell, Matthew; Hinkley, Everett

    2018-01-01

    It is generally accepted that year-to-year variability in moisture conditions and drought are linked with increased wildfire occurrence. However, quantifying the sensitivity of wildfire to surface moisture state at seasonal lead-times has been challenging due to the absence of a long soil moisture record with the appropriate coverage and spatial resolution for continental-scale analysis. Here we apply model simulations of surface soil moisture that numerically assimilate observations from NASA’s Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission with the USDA Forest Service’s historical Fire-Occurrence Database over the contiguous United States. We quantify the relationships between pre-fire-season soil moisture and subsequent-year wildfire occurrence by land-cover type and produce annual probable wildfire occurrence and burned area maps at 0.25 degree resolution. Cross-validated results generally indicate a higher occurrence of smaller fires when months preceding fire season are wet, while larger fires are more frequent when soils are dry. This is consistent with the concept of increased fuel accumulation under wet conditions in the pre-season. These results demonstrate the fundamental strength of the relationship between soil moisture and fire activity at long lead-times and are indicative of that relationship’s utility for the future development of national-scale predictive capability.

  18. Pavement Subgrade Performance Study: Project Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    of profile variance (rough- ness), and the depth of the ruts formed in the wheel track . The current subgrade failure criteria, used in mechanistic...10). The pad (4 m long by 16 m wide) was constructed with crushed gravel and capped with a 125-mm-thick concrete slab . The second modification was...to 100% crushed. Influence of FERF test section walls A finite element study using ABAQUS was conducted on the FERF test sec- tion to study the

  19. Modulus of Subgrade Reaction and Deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Potts

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Differential equations govern the bending and deflection of roads under a concentrated load. Identifying critical parameters, such as the maximum deflection and maximum bending moments of a street supported by an elastic subgrade, is key to designing safe and reliable roadways. This project solves the underlying differential equation in pavement deflection and tests various parameters to highlight the importance in selecting proper foundation materials.

  20. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Havířová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty. The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on building constructions. The wood in wooden frame cladding changes its moisture content depending on temperature and moisture conditions of the environment it is built into. The water vapor condensation doesn’t necessarily have to occur right in the wooden framework of the cladding for the equilibrium moisture content to rise over the level permissible for the reliable function of a given construction. In spite of the fact that the common heat-technical assessment cannot be considered fully capable of detecting the effects of these factors on the functional reliability of wood-based constructions and buildings, an extension has been proposed of the present method of design an assessment of building constructions according to the ČSN 73 0540 standard regarding the interpretation of equilibrium moisture content in relation to the temperature/moisture conditions and their time behavior inside a construction.

  1. The effects of drying conditions on moisture transfer and quality of pomegranate fruit leather (pestil)

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Yüksekkaya, Sultan; Vardin, Hasan; KARAASLAN, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum, cabinet and open air drying of pomegranate fruit leather were carried out at various drying conditions to monitor the drying kinetics together with bionutrient degradation of the product. Drying curves exhibited first order drying kinetics and effective moisture diffusivity values varied between 3.1 × 10−9 and 52.6 × 10−9 m2/s. The temperature dependence of the effective moisture diffusivity was satisfactorily described by an Arrhenius-type relationship. Drying conditions, product thi...

  2. Evaluation of Subgrade Soils using California Bearing Ratio (Cbr) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater the resistance to deformation a subgrade is the more load it can support before reaching a critical deformation value. ... The plasticity index (PI) of the samples fall within 10 – 20%. The study has ... Keywords: Subgrade soils, California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, Plasticity Index (PI), Rivers State, Nigeria.

  3. Pore-scale investigation on the response of heterotrophic respiration to moisture conditions in heterogeneous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhifeng; Liu, Chongxuan; Todd-Brown, Katherine E.; Liu, Yuanyuan; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2016-11-15

    The relationship between microbial respiration rate and soil moisture content is an important property for understanding and predicting soil organic carbon degradation, CO2 production and emission, and their subsequent effects on climate change. This paper reports a pore-scale modeling study to investigate the response of heterotrophic respiration to moisture conditions in soils and to evaluate various factors that affect this response. X-ray computed tomography was used to derive soil pore structures, which were then used for pore-scale model investigation. The pore-scale results were then averaged to calculate the effective respiration rates as a function of water content in soils. The calculated effective respiration rate first increases and then decreases with increasing soil water content, showing a maximum respiration rate at water saturation degree of 0.75 that is consistent with field and laboratory observations. The relationship between the respiration rate and moisture content is affected by various factors, including pore-scale organic carbon bioavailability, the rate of oxygen delivery, soil pore structure and physical heterogeneity, soil clay content, and microbial drought resistivity. Simulations also illustrates that a larger fraction of CO2 produced from microbial respiration can be accumulated inside soil cores under higher saturation conditions, implying that CO2 flux measured on the top of soil cores may underestimate or overestimate true soil respiration rates under dynamic moisture conditions. Overall, this study provides mechanistic insights into the soil respiration response to the change in moisture conditions, and reveals a complex relationship between heterotrophic microbial respiration rate and moisture content in soils that is affected by various hydrological, geochemical, and biophysical factors.

  4. Topsoil moisture mapping using geostatistical techniques under different Mediterranean climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, J F; Hueso-González, P; Ruiz-Sinoga, J D

    2017-10-01

    Soil mapping has been considered as an important factor in the widening of Soil Science and giving response to many different environmental questions. Geostatistical techniques, through kriging and co-kriging techniques, have made possible to improve the understanding of eco-geomorphologic variables, e.g., soil moisture. This study is focused on mapping of topsoil moisture using geostatistical techniques under different Mediterranean climatic conditions (humid, dry and semiarid) in three small watersheds and considering topography and soil properties as key factors. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with a resolution of 1×1m was derived from a topographical survey as well as soils were sampled to analyzed soil properties controlling topsoil moisture, which was measured during 4-years. Afterwards, some topography attributes were derived from the DEM, the soil properties analyzed in laboratory, and the topsoil moisture was modeled for the entire watersheds applying three geostatistical techniques: i) ordinary kriging; ii) co-kriging considering as co-variate topography attributes; and iii) co-kriging ta considering as co-variates topography attributes and gravel content. The results indicated topsoil moisture was more accurately mapped in the dry and semiarid watersheds when co-kriging procedure was performed. The study is a contribution to improve the efficiency and accuracy of studies about the Mediterranean eco-geomorphologic system and soil hydrology in field conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of heat-moisture treatment reaction conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of maize starch: moisture and length of heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Zhongquan; Yao, Tianming; Zhao, Yue; Ye, Xiaoting; Kong, Xiangli; Ai, Lianzhong

    2015-04-15

    Changes in the properties of normal maize starch (NMS) and waxy maize starch (WMS) after heat-moisture treatment (HMT) under various reaction conditions were investigated. NMS and WMS were adjusted to moisture levels of 20%, 25% and 30% and heated at 100 °C for 2, 4, 8 and 16 h. The results showed that moisture content was the most important factor in determining pasting properties for NMS, whereas the heating length was more important for WMS. Swelling power decreased in NMS but increased in WMS, and while the solubility index decreased for both samples, the changes were largely determined by moisture content. The gelatinisation temperatures of both samples increased with increasing moisture content but remained unchanged with increasing heating length. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance ratio was affected to different extents by the moisture levels but remained constant with increasing the heating length. The X-ray intensities increased but relative crystallinity decreased to a greater extent with increasing moisture content. This study showed that the levels of moisture content and length of heating had significant impacts on the structural and physicochemical properties of normal and waxy maize starches but to different extents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influences of the Indoor Environment on Heat, Air and Moisture Conditions in The Building Component: Boundary Conditions Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Rode, Carsten; Janssen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in building components assume uniform boundary conditions, both for the temperature and relative humidity of the air in an indoor space as well as for the surface transfer coefficients. Such models cannot accurately predict the HAM...... conditions in the component and on the surface of the component with non-uniform air temperature or relative humidity distributions in an indoor space. Moreover, the heat and moisture surface transfer coefficients strongly depend on the local air velocity, local temperature, water-material interactions...... and water content at the material surface and surface texture of the material. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the influence of the non-uniform local air velocity near the surface of a building component on the HAM conditions in the component. A case study and sensitivity study have been...

  7. Influences of the Indoor Environment on Heat, Air, and Moisture Conditions in the Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Rode, Carsten; Janssen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    transfer coefficients strongly depend on the local air velocity, local temperature, water-material interactions, water content at the material surface, and the surface texture of the material. Moreover, due to local heat and moisture sources, imperfect mixing and microclimatic effects, temperature...... conditions in a building component. Building researchers and designers should be aware that the ppropriate indoor environmental conditions are applied, when performing a HAM component simulation and analysis....

  8. Screening variability and change of soil moisture under wide-ranging climate conditions: Snow dynamics effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrot, Lucile; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Soil moisture influences and is influenced by water, climate, and ecosystem conditions, affecting associated ecosystem services in the landscape. This paper couples snow storage-melting dynamics with an analytical modeling approach to screening basin-scale, long-term soil moisture variability and change in a changing climate. This coupling enables assessment of both spatial differences and temporal changes across a wide range of hydro-climatic conditions. Model application is exemplified for two major Swedish hydrological basins, Norrström and Piteälven. These are located along a steep temperature gradient and have experienced different hydro-climatic changes over the time period of study, 1950-2009. Spatially, average intra-annual variability of soil moisture differs considerably between the basins due to their temperature-related differences in snow dynamics. With regard to temporal change, the long-term average state and intra-annual variability of soil moisture have not changed much, while inter-annual variability has changed considerably in response to hydro-climatic changes experienced so far in each basin.

  9. Soil moisture variations in remotely sensed and reanalysis datasets during weak monsoon conditions over central India and central Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Sourabh; Kar, Sarat C.; Sharma, Anu Rani

    2017-07-01

    Variation of soil moisture during active and weak phases of summer monsoon JJAS (June, July, August, and September) is very important for sustenance of the crop and subsequent crop yield. As in situ observations of soil moisture are few or not available, researchers use data derived from remote sensing satellites or global reanalysis. This study documents the intercomparison of soil moisture from remotely sensed and reanalyses during dry spells within monsoon seasons in central India and central Myanmar. Soil moisture data from the European Space Agency (ESA)—Climate Change Initiative (CCI) has been treated as observed data and was compared against soil moisture data from the ECMWF reanalysis-Interim (ERA-I) and the climate forecast system reanalysis (CFSR) for the period of 2002-2011. The ESA soil moisture correlates rather well with observed gridded rainfall. The ESA data indicates that soil moisture increases over India from west to east and from north to south during monsoon season. The ERA-I overestimates the soil moisture over India, while the CFSR soil moisture agrees well with the remotely sensed observation (ESA). Over Myanmar, both the reanalysis overestimate soil moisture values and the ERA-I soil moisture does not show much variability from year to year. Day-to-day variations of soil moisture in central India and central Myanmar during weak monsoon conditions indicate that, because of the rainfall deficiency, the observed (ESA) and the CFSR soil moisture values are reduced up to 0.1 m3/m3 compared to climatological values of more than 0.35 m3/m3. This reduction is not seen in the ERA-I data. Therefore, soil moisture from the CFSR is closer to the ESA observed soil moisture than that from the ERA-I during weak phases of monsoon in the study region.

  10. The effects of drying conditions on moisture transfer and quality of pomegranate fruit leather (pestil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum, cabinet and open air drying of pomegranate fruit leather were carried out at various drying conditions to monitor the drying kinetics together with bionutrient degradation of the product. Drying curves exhibited first order drying kinetics and effective moisture diffusivity values varied between 3.1 × 10−9 and 52.6 × 10−9 m2/s. The temperature dependence of the effective moisture diffusivity was satisfactorily described by an Arrhenius-type relationship. Drying conditions, product thickness and operation temperature had various effects on drying rate and final quality of the product. In terms of drying kinetics and final quality of product, vacuum drying had higher drying rate with higher conservation of phenolic, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid that is connected to faster drying condition and oxygen deficient medium. Anthocyanin content was significantly affected by drying method, drying temperature and product thickness. Scatter plot using principle component analysis enabled better understanding of moisture transfer rate and anthocyanin change under various drying conditions.

  11. Moisture Absorption of Plant Fiber under Annealed, Bleached and Mercerized Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Dip

    2010-06-01

    The water absorptions behaviors of the okra fibers, which are available in north east India, were studied under ambient, annealed, bleached and mercerized conditions by using ordinary gravimetric absorption method. The gains in moisture content in the fibers due to water absorption as well as their capillarity at constant relative humidity were measured as a function of exposure time. In order to ascertain the environment factor of utility of the fibers, the moisture regain of the fibers were determined at different relative air humidity. The water yielding capacity of okra fibers was also determined in order to understand their drying properties. The diffusion coefficients of the sorption process of the fibers under ambient, annealed, bleached and mercerized conditions were estimated.

  12. Analysis of the Dynamic Wheel Loads in Railway Transition Zones Considering the Moisture Condition of the Ballast and Subballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoyu Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Transition zones in railway tracks are the locations with considerable changes in vertical support structures, e.g., near bridges. Due to possible water flow constrictions in transition zone structures, there is frequently an increased moisture level in the ballast/subballast layers, which is a potential source of track degradation. This paper presents results of the moisture condition measured in three transition zones using ground penetrating radar, where the ballast/subballast are analyzed. The relationship between the moisture condition and track degradation in the transition zones is studied by comparing it to the longitudinal track level that is measured by the track inspection coaches. A strong connection is found between the high moisture condition and track degradation in the transition zones. The dynamic behavior of the transition zones with high moisture condition is analyzed using the Finite Element method. Differential stiffness and settlement are taken into consideration in the transition zone model, which is also coupled with a vehicle. The ballast/subballast layers are modelled as solid elements. Increased moisture conditions are considered as a reduction of elastic modulus, according to laboratory findings. Results show that high moisture leads to an increase of dynamic wheel loads in the transition zone, which explains the connection and confirms that the high moisture condition is a source of transition zone problems.

  13. Using NASA UAVSAR Datasets to Link Soil Moisture to Crop Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitt, A. W. D.; McDonald, K. C.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Winter, J.

    2015-12-01

    California and The Central Valley are experiencing one of that region's worst, persistent droughts, which represents the continuation of a prolonged drought that started in the early 2000's. Due to the continued drought, many agricultural regions in The Central Valley have been experiencing water shortages, negatively impacting agricultural production and the socio-economics of the region. Due to these impacts, there has been an increased incentive to find new ways to conserve water for use in irrigation. Recent advances in remote sensing techniques provide the ability for end users to better understand field conditions so they may make more informed decisions on irrigation timing and amounts. However, a good understanding of soil moisture and its role in crop health and yield is lacking to support informed water management decisions. Though known to be important, a robust understanding of the role of the spatio-temporal patterns in soil moisture linked to crop health is lacking. Remote sensing platforms such as NASA's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) provide the capacity to obtain within-field measurements to estimate within-field and field-to-field variability in soil moisture. UAVSAR radar images acquired from 2010 to 2014 for Yolo County, California are being examined to determine the suitability of high resolution (field scale) multi-temporal L-band radar backscatter imagery for soil moisture assessment and crop conditions through the growing season. By using such data and linking to in-situ meteorology measurements, modeling (MIMICS), and other remote sensing derived datasets (Sentinel, Landsat, MODIS, and TOPS-SIMS), an integrated monitoring system can potentially support the assessment of agricultural field conditions. This allows growers to optimize the use of limited water supplies through informed water management practices, potentially improving crop conditions and yield in a water stressed region.

  14. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    - The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insulati...

  15. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insulation in...

  16. Disaggregation of Active/Passive Microwave Soil Moisture Under All-sky Condition Using Machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seongkyun; Kim, Hyunglok; Choi, Minha

    2017-04-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture products measured from the active/passive microwave sensors on-board satellite platforms have a great impact on many hydro-meteorological analyses at a global scale. However, its coarse spatial resolution interrupts local scale soil moisture applications. Moreover, most downscaling methods using optical and thermal dataset, are applicable only in cloud-free conditions; thus developed downscaling method under all sky condition is essential for the construction of spatio-temporal continuity of datasets at fine resolution. In present study Support Vector Machine (SVM) regression model was utilized to downscale the satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. The 12.5 km spatial resolution of active microwave soil moisture datasets from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the 40 km resolution of passive microwave soil moisture datasets from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) passive soil moisture were disaggregated to 1 km high resolution products over Northeast Asia in 2016. Optically derived estimates of surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and its cloud products were obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the purpose of downscaling soil moisture in finer resolution under all sky condition. Furthermore, a comparison analysis between in situ and downscaled soil moisture products was also conducted for quantitatively assessing its accuracy.

  17. Drying shrinkage problems in high PI subgrade soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal cracking in pavements due to drying : shrinkage of high PI subgrade soils. The study involved laboartory soil testing and modeling. The : shrinkage cracks usually occur within the v...

  18. Analysis of aggregate pier systems for stabilization of subgrade settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Every year, ODOT undertakes numerous pavement patching/resurfacing projects to repair pavement : distress and structural failure due to soft and/or organic soils constituting the subgrade. Other than the : temporary solution of patching/resurfacing, ...

  19. [CO2 response process and its simulation of Prunus sibirica photosynthesis under different soil moisture conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qin; Zhang, Guang-Can; Pei, Bin; Xu, Zhi-Qiang; Zhao, Yu; Fang, Li-Dong

    2013-06-01

    Taking the two-year old potted Prunus sibirica seedlings as test materials, and using CIRAS-2 photosynthetic system, this paper studied the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis in semi-arid loess hilly region under eight soil moisture conditions. The CO2 response data of P. sibirica were fitted and analyzed by rectangular hyperbola model, exponential equation, and modified rectangular hyperbola model. Meanwhile, the quantitative relationships between the photosynthesis and the soil moisture were discussed. The results showed that the CO2 response process of P. sibirica photosynthesis had obvious response characteristics to the soil moisture threshold. The relative soil water content (RWC) required to maintain the higher photosynthetic rate (P(n)) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) of P. sibirica was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%. In this RWC range, the photosynthesis did not appear obvious CO2 saturated inhibition phenomenon. When the RWC exceeded this range, the photosynthetic capacity (P(n max)), CE, and CO2 saturation point (CSP) decreased evidently. Under different soil moisture conditions, there existed obvious differences among the three models in simulating the CO2 response data of P. sibirica. When the RWC was in the range of 46.3%-81.9%, the CO2 response process and the characteristic parameters such as CE, CO2 compensation point (see symbol), and photorespiration rate (R(p)) could be well fitted by the three models, and the accuracy was in the order of modified rectangular hyperbola model > exponential equation > rectangular hyperbola model. When the RWC was too high or too low, namely, the RWC was > 81.9% or process and the characteristic parameters. It was suggested that when the RWC was from 46.3% to 81.9%, the photosynthetic efficiency of P. sibirica was higher, and, as compared with rectangular hyperbola model and exponential equation, modified rectangular hyperbola model had more applicability to fit the CO2 response data of P. sibirica

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    Double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. In this project, Building Science Corporation monitored moisture conditions in double-stud walls from 2011 through 2014 at a new production house located in Devens, Massachusetts. The builder, Transformations, Inc., has been using double-stud walls insulated with 12 in. of open cell polyurethane spray foam (ocSPF); however, the company has been considering a change to netted and blown cellulose insulation for cost reasons. Cellulose is a common choice for double-stud walls because of its lower cost (in most markets). However, cellulose is an air-permeable insulation, unlike spray foams, which increases interior moisture risks. The team compared three double-stud assemblies: 12 in. of ocSPF, 12 in. of cellulose, and 5-½ in. of ocSPF at the exterior of a double-stud wall (to approximate conventional 2 × 6 wall construction and insulation levels, acting as a control wall). These assemblies were repeated on the north and south orientations, for a total of six assemblies.

  1. Comparing the ensemble and extended Kalman filters for in situ soil moisture assimilation with contrasting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Fairbairn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two data assimilation (DA methods are compared for their ability to produce an accurate soil moisture analysis using the Météo-France land surface model: (i SEKF, a simplified extended Kalman filter, which uses a climatological background-error covariance, and (ii EnSRF, the ensemble square root filter, which uses an ensemble background-error covariance and approximates random rainfall errors stochastically. In situ soil moisture observations at 5 cm depth are assimilated into the surface layer and 30 cm deep observations are used to evaluate the root-zone analysis on 12 sites in south-western France (SMOSMANIA network. These sites differ in terms of climate and soil texture. The two methods perform similarly and improve on the open loop. Both methods suffer from incorrect linear assumptions which are particularly degrading to the analysis during water-stressed conditions: the EnSRF by a dry bias and the SEKF by an over-sensitivity of the model Jacobian between the surface and the root-zone layers. These problems are less severe for the sites with wetter climates. A simple bias correction technique is tested on the EnSRF. Although this reduces the bias, it modifies the soil moisture fluxes and suppresses the ensemble spread, which degrades the analysis performance. However, the EnSRF flow-dependent background-error covariance evidently captures seasonal variability in the soil moisture errors and should exploit planned improvements in the model physics. Synthetic twin experiments demonstrate that when there is only a random component in the precipitation forcing errors, the correct stochastic representation of these errors enables the EnSRF to perform better than the SEKF. It might therefore be possible for the EnSRF to perform better than the SEKF with real data, if the rainfall uncertainty was accurately captured. However, the simple rainfall error model is not advantageous in our real experiments. More realistic rainfall error models are

  2. Disaggregation of remotely sensed soil moisture under all sky condition using machine learning approach in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Kim, H.; Choi, M.; Kim, K.

    2016-12-01

    Estimating spatiotemporal variation of soil moisture is crucial to hydrological applications such as flood, drought, and near real-time climate forecasting. Recent advances in space-based passive microwave measurements allow the frequent monitoring of the surface soil moisture at a global scale and downscaling approaches have been applied to improve the spatial resolution of passive microwave products available at local scale applications. However, most downscaling methods using optical and thermal dataset, are valid only in cloud-free conditions; thus renewed downscaling method under all sky condition is necessary for the establishment of spatiotemporal continuity of datasets at fine resolution. In present study Support Vector Machine (SVM) technique was utilized to downscale a satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. The 0.1 and 0.25-degree resolution of daily Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM) L3 soil moisture datasets from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) were disaggregated over Northeast Asia in 2015. Optically derived estimates of surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and its cloud products were obtained from MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for the purpose of downscaling soil moisture in finer resolution under all sky condition. Furthermore, a comparison analysis between in situ and downscaled soil moisture products was also conducted for quantitatively assessing its accuracy. Results showed that downscaled soil moisture under all sky condition not only preserves the quality of AMSR2 LPRM soil moisture at 1km resolution, but also attains higher spatial data coverage. From this research we expect that time continuous monitoring of soil moisture at fine scale regardless of weather conditions would be available.

  3. [Spatial variation of soil moisture/salinity and the relationship with vegetation under natural conditions in Yancheng coastal wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua-Bing; Liu, Hong-Yu; Li, Yu-Feng; An, Jing; Xue, Xing-Yu; Hou, Ming-Hang

    2013-02-01

    Taking the core part of Yancheng national nature reserve as the study area, according to soil sampling analysis of coastal wetlands in April and May 2011 land the 2011 ETM + remote sensing image, the spatial difference characteristic of coastal wetlands soil moisture and salinity, and the relationship with vegetation under natural conditions, were investigated with the model of correspondence analysis (CCA), linear regression simulation and geo-statistical method. The results showed: Firstly, the average level of the soil moisture was fluctuating between 36.820% and 46.333% , and the soil salinity was between 0.347% and 1.328% , in a more detailed sense, the Spartina swamp was the highest, followed by the mudflats swamp, the Suaeda salsa swamp, and the Reed marsh. Secondly, the spatial variation of soil moisture was consistent with that of the salinity, and the degree of variation in the east-west direction was greater than that in the north-south. The maximum soil moisture and salinity were found in the southwest Spartina swamp. The minimum was in the Reed swamp. The soil moisture and salinity were divided into 5 levels, from I to V. Level IV occupied the highest proportion, which were 36.156% and 28.531% , respectively. Finally, different landscape types with the combination of soil moisture and salinity showed a common feature that the moisture and salinity were from both high to low. The soil moisture value of Reed marshes was lower than 40.116% and the salinity value was lower than 0. 676% . The soil moisture value of Suaeda salsa marshes was between 38. 162% and 46. 403% and the salinity value was between 0.417% and 1.295%. The soil moisture value of Spartina swamp was higher than 43.214% and the salinity was higher than 1.090%. The soil moisture value of beach was higher than 43.214% and the salinity was higher than 0.677%.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of 10 heat and moisture exchangers using simulated aeromedical evacuation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Huda S; Fecura, Stephen E; Baskin, Jonathan; Kalns, John E

    2011-06-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are used for airway humidification in mechanically ventilated patients and have been evaluated only under hospital conditions. U.S. Air Force aeromedical evacuation transports are performed under rugged conditions further complicated by the cold and dry environment in military aircrafts, and HMEs are used to provide airway humidification for patients. This study evaluated 10 commercial HMEs using a test system that simulated aeromedical evacuation conditions. Although the American National Standards Institute recommends inspired air to be at an absolute humidity value of > or = 30 mg/L for mechanically ventilated patients, the highest absolute humidity by any HME was approximately 20 mg/L. Although none of the HMEs were able to maintain a temperature high enough to achieve the humidity standard of the American National Standards Institute, the clinical significance of this standard may be less important than the relative humidity maintained in the respired air, especially on evacuation flights of short duration.

  5. Comparative analysis of calculation models of railway subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Sviatko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In transport engineering structures design, the primary task is to determine the parameters of foundation soil and nuances of its work under loads. It is very important to determine the parameters of shear resistance and the parameters, determining the development of deep deformations in foundation soils, while calculating the soil subgrade - upper track structure interaction. Search for generalized numerical modeling methods of embankment foundation soil work that include not only the analysis of the foundation stress state but also of its deformed one. Methodology. The analysis of existing modern and classical methods of numerical simulation of soil samples under static load was made. Findings. According to traditional methods of analysis of ground masses work, limitation and the qualitative estimation of subgrade deformations is possible only indirectly, through the estimation of stress and comparison of received values with the boundary ones. Originality. A new computational model was proposed in which it will be applied not only classical approach analysis of the soil subgrade stress state, but deformed state will be also taken into account. Practical value. The analysis showed that for accurate analysis of ground masses work it is necessary to develop a generalized methodology for analyzing of the rolling stock - railway subgrade interaction, which will use not only the classical approach of analyzing the soil subgrade stress state, but also take into account its deformed one.

  6. Downscaling near-surface soil moisture from field to plot scale: A comparative analysis under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasta, Paolo; Penna, Daniele; Brocca, Luca; Zuecco, Giulia; Romano, Nunzio

    2018-02-01

    Indirect measurements of field-scale (hectometer grid-size) spatial-average near-surface soil moisture are becoming increasingly available by exploiting new-generation ground-based and satellite sensors. Nonetheless, modeling applications for water resources management require knowledge of plot-scale (1-5 m grid-size) soil moisture by using measurements through spatially-distributed sensor network systems. Since efforts to fulfill such requirements are not always possible due to time and budget constraints, alternative approaches are desirable. In this study, we explore the feasibility of determining spatial-average soil moisture and soil moisture patterns given the knowledge of long-term records of climate forcing data and topographic attributes. A downscaling approach is proposed that couples two different models: the Eco-Hydrological Bucket and Equilibrium Moisture from Topography. This approach helps identify the relative importance of two compound topographic indexes in explaining the spatial variation of soil moisture patterns, indicating valley- and hillslope-dependence controlled by lateral flow and radiative processes, respectively. The integrated model also detects temporal instability if the dominant type of topographic dependence changes with spatial-average soil moisture. Model application was carried out at three sites in different parts of Italy, each characterized by different environmental conditions. Prior calibration was performed by using sparse and sporadic soil moisture values measured by portable time domain reflectometry devices. Cross-site comparisons offer different interpretations in the explained spatial variation of soil moisture patterns, with time-invariant valley-dependence (site in northern Italy) and hillslope-dependence (site in southern Italy). The sources of soil moisture spatial variation at the site in central Italy are time-variant within the year and the seasonal change of topographic dependence can be conveniently

  7. Effect of moisture content and storage conditions on the storability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Biochemical analysis revealed that starch, sugar, proteins and lipids were greatly reduced with time and increasing moisture content. Market survey in this study showed that garri samples sold in Ilorin generally have high moisture contents. Key words: Storage, fungi, moisture content. INTRODUCTION.

  8. Building America Case Study: Monitoring of Double Stud Wall Moisture Conditions in the Northeast, Devens, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    Double-stud walls insulated with cellulose or low-density spray foam can have R-values of 40 or higher. However, double stud walls have a higher risk of interior-sourced condensation moisture damage, when compared with high-R approaches using exterior insulating sheathing. Moisture conditions in double stud walls were monitored in Zone 5A (Massachusetts); three double stud assemblies were compared.

  9. L band microwave remote sensing and land data assimilation improve the representation of prestorm soil moisture conditions for hydrologic forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, W. T.; Chen, F.; Reichle, R. H.; Liu, Q.

    2017-06-01

    Recent advances in remote sensing and land data assimilation purport to improve the quality of antecedent soil moisture information available for operational hydrologic forecasting. We objectively validate this claim by calculating the strength of the relationship between storm-scale runoff ratio (i.e., total streamflow divided by total rainfall accumulation in depth units) and prestorm surface soil moisture estimates from a range of surface soil moisture data products. Results demonstrate that both satellite-based, L band microwave radiometry and the application of land data assimilation techniques have significantly improved the utility of surface soil moisture data sets for forecasting streamflow response to future rainfall events.Plain Language SummaryForecasting streamflow conditions is important for minimizing loss of life and property during flooding and adequately planning for low streamflow conditions accompanying drought. One way to improve these forecasts is measuring the amount of water in the soil—since soil moisture conditions determine what fraction of rainfall will run off horizontally into stream channels (versus vertically infiltrate into the soil column). Within the past 5 years, there have been important advances in our ability to monitor soil moisture over large scales using both satellite-based sensors and the application of new land data assimilation techniques. This paper illustrates that these advances have significantly improved our capacity to forecast how much streamflow will be generated by future precipitation events. These results may eventually be used by operational forecasters to improve flash flood forecasting and agricultural water use management.

  10. Differential Genotypic Responses of String Wheat Early Seedling Growth to Limited Moisture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubaker, M.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the genotypic response of spring wheat seedling growth in a range of osmotic media and to determine which genotype could be identified as drought tolerant. Six durum wheat cultivars were subjected to moisture stress using polyethylene glycol PEG-9000. Aqueous solutions of 0, -3, -6 and -9 bars were prepared. For each cultivar 20 seeds were germinated in these solutions in a growth chamber. After 2 weeks, number of roots, leaf number, coleoptile length, seedling height, root length, first and second leaf length, and dry matter weight were measured. All traits measured were significantly influenced by water stress. The water stress treatments of -6 and -9 bars gave lower rates of seedling growth than the 0 and -3 bars treatments. The results suggest that good seedling vigor under water stress condition is a useful selection criterion. An ideotype for a drought tolerant wheat genotype should have good seedling vigor.

  11. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  12. Effects of tractor loads and tyre pressures on soil compaction in Tunisia under different moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemis, Chiheb; Abrougui, Khaoula; Ren, Lidong; Mutuku, Eunice Ann; Chehaibi, Sayed; Cornelis, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Vegetables in Tunisia demand frequent tractor traffic for soil tillage, cultural operations and phytosanitary treatment, resulting in soil compaction. This study evaluates the effects of four levels of compaction by using different loads and tyre pressures of tractors, i.e., load 1 (C1) = 1460 kg, load 2 (C2) = 3100 kg, tyre pressure 1 (C3) = 800 kg cm-2, tyre pressure 2 (C4) = 1500 kg cm-2 on the hydraulic and physical properties of a sandy loam (10% clay, 20% silt, 68% sand) under three natural moisture conditions H0, H1 (15 days later), H2 (30 days later). At H0 average water content between 0 and 30 cm depth varied from 0.04 to 0.06 kg kg-1, at H1 between 0.13 and 0.07 kg kg-1, and at H2 between 0.10 and 0.09 kg kg-1. Each test run was limited to one pass. Undisturbed soil cores were collected in the topsoil (0-10 cm), at 10-20 cm and in the subsoil (20-30 cm) below the trace of the wheel at sites in the Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariam, Sousse, Tunisia. Soil compaction level was determined by penetration resistance using a penetrologger. Porosity, bulk density and permeability were then determined to evaluate the impact of the four load/tyre pressure combinations at the three moisture conditions on soil compaction. Prior to the experiment (C0), bulk density was 1.4 Mg m-3. After the tractor pass, the highest degree of compaction was observed with tractor load C2 and tyre pressure C4 which significantly changed soil bulk density resulting in values of up to 1.71 Mg m-3 in the topsoil and compacted subsoil under H2, which is significantly above the critical value of 1.6 Mg m-3 for soils with clay content below 17.5%. The high degree of compaction significantly affected penetration resistance and porosity of both topsoil and subsoil layers accordingly. Permeability was significantly reduced as a result of the induced compaction. The results demonstrate that different degrees of soil compaction under different moisture levels could greatly influence

  13. Spectral Indices to Improve Crop Residue Cover Estimation under Varying Moisture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Quemada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crop residues on the soil surface protect the soil against erosion, increase water infiltration and reduce agrochemicals in runoff water. Crop residues and soils are spectrally different in the absorption features associated with cellulose and lignin. Our objectives were to: (1 assess the impact of water on the spectral indices for estimating crop residue cover (fR; (2 evaluate spectral water indices for estimating the relative water content (RWC of crop residues and soils; and (3 propose methods that mitigate the uncertainty caused by variable moisture conditions on estimates of fR. Reflectance spectra of diverse crops and soils were acquired in the laboratory over the 400–2400-nm wavelength region. Using the laboratory data, a linear mixture model simulated the reflectance of scenes with various fR and levels of RWC. Additional reflectance spectra were acquired over agricultural fields with a wide range of crop residue covers and scene moisture conditions. Spectral indices for estimating crop residue cover that were evaluated in this study included the Normalized Difference Tillage Index (NDTI, the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI and the Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI. Multivariate linear models that used pairs of spectral indices—one for RWC and one for fR—significantly improved estimates of fR using CAI and SINDRI. For NDTI to reliably assess fR, scene RWC should be relatively dry (RWC < 0.25. These techniques provide the tools needed to monitor the spatial and temporal changes in crop residue cover and help determine where additional conservation practices may be required.

  14. Robust Initial Wetness Condition Framework of an Event-Based Rainfall–Runoff Model Using Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wooyeon Sunwoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Runoff prediction in limited-data areas is vital for hydrological applications, such as the design of infrastructure and flood defenses, runoff forecasting, and water management. Rainfall–runoff models may be useful for simulation of runoff generation, particularly event-based models, which offer a practical modeling scheme because of their simplicity. However, there is a need to reduce the uncertainties related to the estimation of the initial wetness condition (IWC prior to a rainfall event. Soil moisture is one of the most important variables in rainfall–runoff modeling, and remotely sensed soil moisture is recognized as an effective way to improve the accuracy of runoff prediction. In this study, the IWC was evaluated based on remotely sensed soil moisture by using the Soil Conservation Service-Curve Number (SCS-CN method, which is one of the representative event-based models used for reducing the uncertainty of runoff prediction. Four proxy variables for the IWC were determined from the measurements of total rainfall depth (API5, ground-based soil moisture (SSMinsitu, remotely sensed surface soil moisture (SSM, and soil water index (SWI provided by the advanced scatterometer (ASCAT. To obtain a robust IWC framework, this study consists of two main parts: the validation of remotely sensed soil moisture, and the evaluation of runoff prediction using four proxy variables with a set of rainfall–runoff events in the East Asian monsoon region. The results showed an acceptable agreement between remotely sensed soil moisture (SSM and SWI and ground based soil moisture data (SSMinsitu. In the proxy variable analysis, the SWI indicated the optimal value among the proposed proxy variables. In the runoff prediction analysis considering various infiltration conditions, the SSM and SWI proxy variables significantly reduced the runoff prediction error as compared with API5 by 60% and 66%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed IWC framework with

  15. Engineering properties of common subgrade soils below pavement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports findings of laboratory testing of common sub-grade soils in pavement structures in Kenya. The materials were collected from different parts of the country. The results are intended to form a database for use by practicing engineers and researchers in the field of pavement engineering. The investigated ...

  16. potentials of cement kiln dust in sub-grade improvement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Assessment of Road Failure in the Abakalike Area,. Southeastern Nigeria, International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Vol II, No. 2, 2011, pp, 12-24. 3. Parson, R. L. and Kneebone, E. Use of Cement Kiln. Dust For Subgrade Stabilization. Kansas Department of Transportation, Final Report ...

  17. Improvement of strength characteristics of lateritic sub-grade soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of investigation of the behavior of pavement subgrade soil stabilized with shredded polyethylene waste. Shredded high density polyethylene High Density Polyethylene Waste of maximum size 20 × 25mm was used for the improvement of lateritic soil at various percentages which are; 1%, 2%, ...

  18. Influence of Bacillus spp. strains on seedling growth and physiological parameters of sorghum under moisture stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Minakshi; Madhubala, R; Ali, Sk Z; Yadav, S K; Venkateswarlu, B

    2014-09-01

    Microorganisms isolated from stressed ecosystem may prove as ideal candidates for development of bio-inoculants for stressed agricultural production systems. In the present study, moisture stress tolerant rhizobacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of sorghum, pigeonpea, and cowpea grown under semiarid conditions in India. Four isolates KB122, KB129, KB133, and KB142 from sorghum rhizosphere exhibited plant growth promoting traits and tolerance to salinity, high temperature, and moisture stress. These isolates were identified as Bacillus spp. by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The strains were evaluated for growth promotion of sorghum seedlings under two different moisture stress conditions (set-I, continuous 50% soil water holding capacity (WHC) throughout the experiment and set-II, 75% soil WHC for 27 days followed by no irrigation for 5 days) under greenhouse conditions. Plate count and scanning electron microscope studies indicated successful root surface colonization by inoculated bacteria. Plants inoculated with Bacillus spp. strains showed better growth in terms of shoot length and root biomass with dark greenish leaves due to high chlorophyll content while un-inoculated plants showed rolling of the leaves, stunted appearance, and wilting under both stress conditions. Inoculation also improved leaf relative water content and soil moisture content. However, variation in proline and sugar content in the different treatments under two stress conditions indicated differential effect of microbial treatments on plant physiological parameters under stress conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Improvement of poor subgrade soils using cement kiln dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mancy Mosa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction of pavements layers on subgrade with excellent to good properties reduces the thickness of the layers and consequently reduces the initial and maintenance cost of highways and vice versa. However, construction of pavements on poor subgrade is unavoidable due to several constrains. Improvement of subgrade properties using traditional additives such as lime and Portland cement adds supplementary costs. Therefore, using by-products in this domain involves technical, economic, and environmental advantages. Cement kiln dust (CKD is generated in huge quantities as a by-product material in Portland cement plants. Therefore, it can be considered as an excellent alternative in this domain. In Iraq, Portland cement plants generate about 350000 tons of CKD annually which is available for free. Therefore, Iraq can be adopted as a case study. This paper covers using CKD to improve the properties of poor subgrade soils based on series of California Bearing Ration (CBR tests on sets of untreated samples and samples treated with different doses of CKD in combination with different curing periods to investigate their effects on soil properties. The results exhibited that adding 20% of CKD with curing for 14 days increases the CBR value from 3.4% for untreated soil to 48% for treated soil; it, also, decreases the swelling ratio. To determine the effects of using this dose under the mentioned curing period on the designed thicknesses of pavements layers, a case study was adopted. The case study results exhibited that treatment of the subgrade soil by 20% of CKD with curing for 14 days reduces the cost of the pavements by $25.875 per square meter.

  20. Monitoring the moisture condition in a tunnel lining with help of MREs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J.H.M.; Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2009-01-01

    A dummy segment from a bored tunnel with cast-in MREs was used to investigate if the moisture content of the concrete lining could be determined. The results were compared with two other in-situ resistivity measurements and correlated to the moisture content measured on cores drilled from the dummy

  1. The effects of silicon and titanium on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. growth under moisture deficit condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Safflower is one of important crop in semi-arid regions of the world, where the precipitations are limited. In order to investigate the effect of foliar spray of nano-silicon dioxide (10 and 20 mM and nano titanium dioxide (25 and 50 mM and water-deficit stress (irrigation after 110 mm evaporation on growth parameters and yield components of spring safflower a field experiment was carried out at the highland semi-arid region, in, North West of Iran. Water deficit stress significantly reduced morpho-physiological traits such as ground cover, canopy width, leaf fresh mass, leaf are and plant height as well as yield components (e.g. capitulum diameter, seed mass and seed number per capitulum. However, the plants grown under water deficit condition showed the higher harvest index than well irrigated plants. Comparison of the foliar treatments showed that the both nano-particles (silicon and titanium improved the plant growth and yield components over the control. However, the effect of nano-silicon was more prominent than titanium. The highest amount of seed oil was recorded under well irrigated condition (irrigation after 60 mm evaporation with foliar application of nano-titanium. The percentage of palmitic acid, arachidic acid and myristic acid in seed increased by nano-titanium application. Altogether, principal component analysis indicated that spray of 10 mM nano silicon dioxide was best foliar treatments under all moisture regimes.

  2. Mineralogical, textural and physical-mechanical study of hydraulic lime mortars cured under different moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arizzi, A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the chemical-mineralogical, textural and physical-mechanical properties of hydraulic lime mortars made with siliceous and calcareous aggregate. Mortars were cured at 60% and 90% of relative humidity, so as to assess the variability of mortar petrophysical properties in the hardened state due to the moisture conditions. The final aim was to determine the most adequate moisture conditions to be maintained during application and hardening of hydraulic mortars intended for repair interventions. We found out that using a calcareous aggregate and curing mortar at 90% of relative humidity give place to better textural and mechanical properties. However, these characteristics mostly depend on the maximum size of the aggregate grains, which should be smaller than 6 mm, in order to avoid the occurrence of mechanical discontinuities in the mortar.En este trabajo se han estudiado las propiedades químico-mineralógicas, texturales y físico-mecánicas de morteros de cal hidráulica elaborados con áridos silíceo y calcítico. Estos morteros se han curado al 60% y 90% de humedad relativa, con el fin de evaluar las eventuales diferencias en las propiedades petrofísicas de los morteros una vez endurecidos y así establecer cuál de los dos ambientes es recomendable durante la aplicación y fraguado de morteros de cal hidráulica destinados a obras de restauración. Se ha encontrado que el uso de un árido de composición calcítica y el curado al 90% de humedad relativa dan lugar a morteros hidráulicos con mejores características texturales y propiedades mecánicas. De todas formas, estas características dependen principalmente del tamaño máximo del árido empleado, que debería ser inferior a 6 mm para evitar discontinuidades mecánicas en el mortero.

  3. Efficacy of spray applications of entomopathogenic fungi against western flower thrips infesting greenhouse impatiens under variable moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efficacy tests of three entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana strain GHA, Metarhizium brunneum strain F52, and Metarhizium anisopliae s.l. strain ESC-1) were conducted against thrips infesting greenhouse crops of single impatiens under variable moisture conditions. Fungal conidia suspended in 0...

  4. [Effect of timber moisture content and terrain conditions on the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tian-yong; Wang, Li-hai; Hou, Jie-jian; Ge, Xiao-wen

    2015-02-01

    Vast loss of timber resources can be reduced by preventing and controlling the decay of standing trees in forest management. Therefore, research concerning the effect of site conditions on decay of standing trees is particularly important for decay prevention and cure. A relevant study was carried out in Xiaoxing'anling Mountains on October, 2013, and thirty decayed and ten normal mature or postmature Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) live standing trees were selected as sample trees, respectively. Two increment core samples were selected from the basal trunk of each sample tree to measure the mass loss ratio of rotted increment core samples. Meanwhile, moisture content of the soil near sample trees' roots and the gradient, exposure, slope position and elevation of the site where sample trees located were tested or measured. Analysis was made upon the relationship between factors such as sapwood and heartwood moisture contents and the decay of sample trees by correlation analysis and analysis of variance. The results indicated that moisture content of the sapwood negatively correlated with the decay degree of Korean pine live standing trees at a very significant level, so did the heartwood moisture content. Soil moisture content had a positive correlation with the decay degree at a highly significant level. Significant differences in the moisture contents of sapwood, heartwood and soils were observed between decayed and normal sample trees. Slope position was the only factor that had a significant effect on the decay degree among all the three slope factors. The decay degree of live standing trees on the middle part of slopes was significantly higher than that on the upper part of slope, mainly due to the significantly higher soil moisture content on the middle part of slope. Elevation of the site where sample trees located had no significant correlation with the decay degree of Korean pine.

  5. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture......On a Danish housing estate moisture sensors were installed in dwellings, partly in exterior walls and partly in attics. At each location sensors were installed within the insulation at two positions, one facing the outer cold side and the other facing the inner warm side. The exterior walls...... conditions in walls nor attics provide a risk or concern of mould growth in the thermal insulation....

  6. Effect of Air Relative Humidity Harvest on Soil Moisture Content under Moroccan Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Khadir Lakhal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we aim to analyse the effect of the harvest of air relative humidity on soil water content. Some experiments were conducted on hilly areas with various hypsographic and microclimatic conditions greatly affecting daily fluctuations of air relative humidity. The metrological data’s were obtained by using a Campbell Scientific equipments station recorder on data loggers every half hour. Time Domain Reflectometers (TDR is used for calculating water content at different soil layers. The effect of many parameters such as: minimal and maximal air atmospheric humidity, potential of soil water and minimal temperature of air on harvesting air relative humidity is also discussed. The experimental results indicate that soil moisture content in the upper soil layer fluctuates with the same manner to diurnal fluctuation of relative air humidity. These fluctuations due to the harvest of relative air humidity decreased with increasing soil depth and daily amplitude of relative air humidity. The water adsorbed according to this phenomenon increased with increasing maximal relative and decreasing minimal temperature. The contribution of this soil water collected is about 40% of losses due to evaporation process. The correlation between principal climatic data and soil water adsorption by harvest relative air humidity is presented in this paper in order to incorporate it in the total water balance during water infiltration.

  7. ESTIMATION OF SUBGRADE STRENGTHENING INFLUENCE USING SOILCEMENT ELEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Petrenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this work is to identify dependencies and options to strengthen the roadbed and a weak base by grouting piles. Analysis of software package SCAD to assess the effect of the selected option of strengthening the construction of spatial subgrade models. Methodology. In this paper the method of calculation of the soil mass in the software package SCAD is considered, which is a universal accounting system of finite-element analysis of structures and is focused on solving problems of designing buildings and structures rather complex structure. The finite element method is among the most modern and effective methods for the calculation of structures for various purposes. In the simulation, we get a complete picture of the stress-strain state of the study area, as well as the value of the limit load, rainfall, and so on. The spatial model based on the finite element volume, to better address the real characteristics of the soil mass, meets all the geometric characteristics of size and natural subgrade and the top structure the path that has been adopted in Ukraine. Findings. It was found that the most effective option to strengthen the roadbed, when applying grouting piles at the base of the subgrade and body, is to strengthen the five piles. At the same time there is even strengthen the soil mass at the level of 25 … 30% of the entire depth. However, even with the strengthening of the only two piles at the base of the effect of the strengthening of 14.1%. Established equation is linear and describes the decrease in strain. Taking into account the results of the research can be concluded that the consolidation is proportional to the depth with any number of piles. The dependence of the strain on the number of piles adheres to a polynomial function. Strengthening the bases of the subgrade and body depth also occurs in proportion with any number of piles. Originality. Design scheme generation algorithm for the calculation of the

  8. THE DIVERSITY OF PLANT COVER IN THE BASIN WITHOUT OUTLET IN RELATION TO THE MOISTURE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Franczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the degree of habitat moisture are one of the major factors affecting the variability of plant communities and their constituent species populations. The aim of the study was to find if the quantitative and qualitative structure of the vegetation cover exhibits variability in relation to the degree of habitat moisture. The investigations were carried out in basin without outlets, i.e. small isolated hydrogenic object located in the agricultural landscape of the Lublin Upland. In basin, a transect was established, along which floristic inventories were made. In the years 2006–2013, the level of surface water were monitored. On this basis, four areas of habitat moisture were identified. The results indicate that the flora of the analysed object is characterised by a very broad spectrum of ecological tolerance. The vegetation cover is influenced by habitat moisture whose gradient determines the occurrence range of many species.

  9. The influence of ventilation on moisture conditions in facades with wooden cladding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Brandt, Erik

    2009-01-01

    for mould growth on wood-based materials. The paper presents results from the investigation with emphasis on a discussion of the effect of cavity ventilation on moisture content in timber frame walls. In terms of moisture content behind the wind barrier, the behaviour of wood frame walls with a non......-ventilated cavity was found not to be inferior to the behaviour of wood frame walls with a ventilated cavity.......A ventilated cavity behind the cladding of timber frame walls is often considered good building practice that facilitates the removal of moisture from the construction. However, moisture will only be removed from the construction by ventilating it with dry air, whereas ventilating with humid air...

  10. Effectiveness of the GAEC cross-compliance standard Ploughing in good soil moisture conditions in soil structure protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Dell'Abate

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Researches have been carried out within the framework on the EFFICOND Project, focused at evaluating the effectiveness of the standards of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAECs established for Cross Compliance implementation under EC Regulation 1782/2003. In particular the standard 3.1b deals with soil structure protection through appropriate machinery use, with particular reference to ploughing in good soil moisture conditions. The study deals with the evaluation of soil structure after tillage in tilth and no-tilth conditions at soil moisture contents other than the optimum water content for tillage. The Mean Weight Diameter (MWD of water stable aggregates was used as an indicator of tillage effectiveness. The study was carried out in the period 2008-2009 at six experimental farms belonging to Research Centres and Units of the Italian Agricultural Research Council (CRA with different pedo-climatic and cropping conditions. Farm management and data collection in the different sites were carried out by the local CRA researchers and technicians. The comparison of MWD values in tilth and no tilth theses showed statistically significant differences in most cases, depending on topsoil texture. On clay, clay loam, silty clay, and silty clay loam topsoils a general and significant increase of MWD values under no tilth conditions were observed. No significant differences were observed in silt loam and sandy loam textures, probably due to the weak soil structure of the topsoils. Moreover, ploughing in good soil moisture condition determined higher crop production and less weed development than ploughing in high soil moisture conditions.

  11. Analysis of Embedded Retaining Wall Using the Subgrade Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasik Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the distribution of internal forces and displacements of embedded retaining wall in Quaternary deposits and Tertiary clays. Calculations have been based on the Subgrade Reaction Method (SRM for two different types of earth pressure behind the wall (active, at-rest in order to show the differences resulting from adopting the limit values. An algorithm for calculation of “cantilever wall” using the Mathematica program was proposed.

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of the Effects of 3-Chloride Compounds on the Geotechnical Properties of an Expansive Subgrade Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, G.; Anjan Kumar, M.; Raju, G. V. R. Prasada

    2017-12-01

    Expansive soils are known to be problematic due to their nature and behavior. These soils show volume changes due to changes in moisture content, which cause distortions to structures constructed on them. Relentless efforts are being made all over the world to find solution to the problems of expansive soils. In the case of flexible pavements, unless the subgrade is appropriately treated during the construction stage, the maintenance cost will increase substantially due to deterioration. There are many methods of stabilising expansive subgrade soils. Chemical stabilisation is one such technique employed in improving the engineering properties of the expansive soil. Investigations on chemical stabilization of expansive soils revealed that conventionally used lime could be replaced by the chloride compound chemicals because of their ready dissolvability in water, ease of mixing with soil and supply of sufficient cations for ready cation exchange. The main objective of this work is to study the effectiveness of three chloride compound chemicals, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on the geotechnical properties of an expansive soil. The chemicals content up to 2% were added to the soil and its effect on the index limits, swell pressure, compaction characteristics as well as California bearing ratio are studied. It was observed that aluminum chloride chemical content has a significantly higher influence than the other two chemicals and it could be recognized as an effective chemical stabilizer.

  13. Laboratory Evaluation of the Effects of 3-Chloride Compounds on the Geotechnical Properties of an Expansive Subgrade Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, G.; Anjan Kumar, M.; Raju, G. V. R. Prasada

    2017-10-01

    Expansive soils are known to be problematic due to their nature and behavior. These soils show volume changes due to changes in moisture content, which cause distortions to structures constructed on them. Relentless efforts are being made all over the world to find solution to the problems of expansive soils. In the case of flexible pavements, unless the subgrade is appropriately treated during the construction stage, the maintenance cost will increase substantially due to deterioration. There are many methods of stabilising expansive subgrade soils. Chemical stabilisation is one such technique employed in improving the engineering properties of the expansive soil. Investigations on chemical stabilization of expansive soils revealed that conventionally used lime could be replaced by the chloride compound chemicals because of their ready dissolvability in water, ease of mixing with soil and supply of sufficient cations for ready cation exchange. The main objective of this work is to study the effectiveness of three chloride compound chemicals, ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) on the geotechnical properties of an expansive soil. The chemicals content up to 2% were added to the soil and its effect on the index limits, swell pressure, compaction characteristics as well as California bearing ratio are studied. It was observed that aluminum chloride chemical content has a significantly higher influence than the other two chemicals and it could be recognized as an effective chemical stabilizer.

  14. The relationship between measured moisture conditions and fungal concentrations in water-damaged building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A L; Rautiala, S; Kasanen, J P; Raunio, P; Rantamäki, J; Kalliokoski, P

    2000-06-01

    We determined the moisture levels, relative humidity (RH) or moisture content (MC) of materials, and concentrations of culturable fungi, actinomycetes and total spores as well as a composition of fungal flora in 122 building material samples collected from 18 moisture problem buildings. The purpose of this work was to clarify if the is any correlation between the moisture parameters and microbial levels or generic composition depending on the type of materials and the time passed after a water damage. The results showed an agreement between the concentrations of total spores and culturable fungi for the wood, wood-based and gypsum board samples (r > 0.47). The concentrations of total spores and/or culturable fungi correlated with RH of materials particularly among the wood and insulation materials (r > 0.79), but not usually with MC (r fungi (r > 0.51), while such a relationship could not be observed for the samples taken from dry damage. A wide range of fungal species were found in the samples from ongoing damage, whereas Penicillia and in some cases yeasts dominated the fungal flora in the dry samples. This study indicates that fungal contamination can be evaluated on the basis of moisture measurements of constructions in ongoing damage, but the measurements are not solely adequate for estimation of possible microbial growth in dry damage.

  15. Tools for Performance Simulation of Heat, Air and Moisture Conditions of Whole Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woloszyn, Monika; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Humidity of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings as well as durability of building components. Indoor humidity depends on several factors, such as moisture sources, air change, sorption in materials and possible condensation. Since all...

  16. Effect of moisture content and storage conditions on the storability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient components and physical properties of garri also depreciated in samples stored in jute bags. Biochemical analysis revealed that starch, sugar, proteins and lipids were greatly reduced with time and increasing moisture content. Market survey in this study showed that garri samples sold in Ilorin generally have high ...

  17. Measurement and Analysis of High-speed Railway Subgrade Settlement in China: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qulin TAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Subgrade is an important component of railway engineering construction, which supports the upper loads of tracks and trains. Subgrade stability directly affects the high- speed train safety and passenger comfort. With the rapid development of China’s high-speed railway, it put a very high requirement for track smoothness, and thus the requirements of subgrade stability and deformation control become very stringent. In the paper, we studied the measurement methods, instruments, observation point set, observation frequency, precision and data prediction analysis etc. Using the subgrade settlement measured data of Beijing-Shanghai high-speed railway as a case study; we analyzed the relationship between the subgrade settlement and time, and applied hyperbolic model, exponential model and Poisson model to predict subgrade post-construction settlement. The results show that cumulative settlement of subgrade measuring point is 6.4 mm from the beginning to 118th day after roadbed filling construction, and the sedimentation rate becomes steady at 0.001 mm/d. Comparative analysis shows that the hyperbolic model has the best fitting performance among the three curve regression models. And the predicted roadbed post-construction settlement of 3.22 mm has met the subgrade requirements for ballastless-track laying.

  18. Mechanistic-empirical subgrade design model based on heavy vehicle simulator test results

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theyse, HL

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available -empirical design models. This paper presents a study on subgrade permanent deformation based on the data generated from a series of Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) tests done at the Richmond Field Station in California. The total subgrade deflection was found to be a...

  19. Comparative estimation and assessment of initial soil moisture conditions for Flash Flood warning in Saxony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, Thanh Thi; Kronenberg, Rico; Bernhofer, Christian; Janabi, Firas Al; Schütze, Niels

    2017-04-01

    Flash Floods are known as highly destructive natural hazards due to their sudden appearance and severe consequences. In Saxony/Germany flash floods occur in small and medium catchments of low mountain ranges which are typically ungauged. Besides rainfall and orography, pre-event moisture is decisive, as it determines the available natural retention in the catchment. The Flash Flood Guidance concept according to WMO and Prof. Marco Borga (University of Padua) will be adapted to incorporate pre-event moisture in real-time flood forecast within the ESF EXTRUSO project (SAB-Nr. 100270097). To arrive at pre-event moisture for the complete area of the low mountain range with flash flood potential, a widely applicable, accurate but yet simple approach is needed. Here, we use radar precipitation as input time series, detailed orographic, land-use and soil information and a lumped parameter model to estimate the overall catchment soil moisture and potential retention. When combined with rainfall forecast and its intrinsic uncertainty, the approach allows to find the point in time when precipitation exceeds the retention potential of the catchment. Then, spatially distributed and complex hydrological modeling and additional measurements can be initiated. Assuming reasonable rainfall forecasts of 24 to 48hrs, this part can start up to two days in advance of the actual event. The lumped-parameter model BROOK90 is used and tested for well observed catchments. First, physical meaningful parameters (like albedo or soil porosity) a set according to standards and second, "free" parameters (like percentage of lateral flow) were calibrated objectively by PEST (Model-Independent Parameter Estimation and Uncertainty Analysis) with the target on evapotranspiration and soil moisture which both have been measured at the study site Anchor Station Tharandt in Saxony/Germany. Finally, first results are presented for the Wernersbach catchment in Tharandt forest for main flood events in the 50

  20. Hydrogeomorphology and antecedent moisture condition controls on greenhouse gas dynamics in forested landscapes in the US Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, J. M.; Vidon, P.; Mitchell, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Measuring and modeling biogeochemical processes in forested environments is challenging particularly because small areas (hot spots) and brief periods (hot moments) of biogeochemical transformations frequently account for a high percentage of activity in terrestrial and aquatic systems. Previous research in watershed biogeochemistry has primarily focused on N, C, and S cycling; however, very little is known about the interactions between these cycles and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objectives of this research are to: (1) relate GHG emissions (N2O, CO2, CH4,) at the soil-atmosphere interface to landscape hydrogeomorphic characteristics and antecedent moisture conditions, (2) identify hot spots for GHG emissions using GIS techniques (e.g. topographic index), and (3) determine primary controls of GHG production in forested landscapes of the US Northeast (e.g. biogeochemical conditions, antecedent moisture conditions, landscape position). In 2011, water samples were collected in surface and soil water using wells and lysimeters across a range of conditions (wetlands, headwaters, hillslopes, near stream zones). Water samples were analyzed for oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved oxygen, nutrients (NO3-, NH4+, SO42-, PO42-) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Gas samples for N2O, CO2, and CH4 analysis were concomitantly collected throughout the study area to determine GHG fluxes in relation to landscape position, watershed biogeochemical conditions, and antecedent moisture conditions. Water table fluctuation is predicted to be greater on the hillslope than in wetlands or near stream zones. We hypothesize that this will generate differences in nutrient concentrations and GHG emissions between upland locations (e.g. hillslope), riparian zones, wetlands, and streams due to variations in soil redox status and water table level. We hypothesize that N2O and CH4 fluxes will be positively correlated to each other, whereas CO2 and CH4 will show a negative correlation

  1. Mesoscopic Modeling of Concrete under Different Moisture Conditions and Loading Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    We present a mesoscopic finite element model for simulating the rate- and moisture-dependent material behavior of concrete. The idealized mesostructure consists of aggregates surrounded by an interfacial transition zone embedded in the bulk material. We examine the influence of the most significa....... The results indicate that the loading rate has a stronger influence than the saturation level on fracture processes and global strength....

  2. Can crawl space temperature and moisture conditions be calculated with a whole-building hygrothermal simulation tool?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhoutteghem, Lies; Morelli, Martin; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2017-01-01

    The hygrothermal behaviour of an outdoor ventilated crawl space with two different designs of the floor structure was investigated. The first design had 250 mm insulation and visible wooden beams towards the crawl space. The second design had 300 mm insulation and no visible wooden beams. One year...... of measurements was compared with simulations of temperature and moisture condition in the floor structure and crawl space. The measurements showed that the extra 50 mm insulation placed below the beams reduced moisture content in the beams below 20 weight% all year. A reasonable agreement between...... the measurements and simulations was found; however, the evaporation from the soil was a dominant parameter affecting the hygrothermal response in the crawl space and floor structure....

  3. Deflection profile analysis of beams on two-parameter elastic subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Omolofe

    Full Text Available A procedure involving spectral Galerkin and integral transformation methods has been developed and applied to treat the problem of the dynamic deflections of beam structure resting on bi-parametric elastic subgrade and subjected to travelling loads. The case of the response to moving constant loads of this slender member is first investigated and a closed form solution in series form describing the motion of the beam while under the actions of the travelling load is obtained. The response under a variable magnitude moving load with constant velocity is finally treated and the effects of prestressed, foundation stiffness, shear modulus and damping coefficients are investigated. Results in plotted curves indicate that these structural parameters produce significant effects on the dynamic stability of the load-beam system. Conditions under which the beam-load system may experience resonance phenomenon are also established some of these findings are quite useful in practical applications.

  4. Research on filling scheme and deformation properties of wide subgrade of foamed lightweight soil on soft ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Faru; Yang, Deguang; Zhang, Liujun

    2018-01-01

    The wide subgrade on soft soil ground has the significantly different transverse settlement curve characteristics and the lacation of the maximum asymmetrical transverse settlement compared with ordinary subgrade. Especially when the subgrade filled with materials of different densities, the synergism deformation of ground-subgrade-pavement and the pavement structure stress become more complex. Combining with the engineering example, the settlement deformation characteristics of wide subgrade adopting the different filling scheme and the stress distribution of pavement structure are analyzed. Results show that the settlement curve of wide subgrade has a shape of flat middle with steep sides, and the maximum transverse asymmetrical settlement locates in close to the shoulder position. The maximum stress within the pavement structure is also in close to the shoulder position. Regarding the wide subgrade composed of main road and relief road, the post-construction settlement can be greatly reduced when both roads are filled with foamed lightweight soil.

  5. Investigation of influential factors on the tensile strength of cold recycled mixture with bitumen emulsion due to moisture conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhamed Bayane Bouraima

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to investigate the effect of moisture conditioning on the indirect tensile strength (ITS of cold recycled mixture with bitumen emulsion. Firstly, samples were prepared using a Superpave gyratory compactor. They were hence conditioned using moisture induced sensitivity tester (MIST device. Factorial design was carried out considering four factors each at two different levels. These factors were specimen thickness, air voids content, pressure and number of cycles. In the MIST device, samples are cyclically subjected to water pressure through the sample pores. The MIST conditioned samples were tested for indirect tensile strength. The analysis of two-level full-factorial designed experiments revealed that all four factors have a negative effect on tensile strength of cold recycled mixture with bitumen emulsion. Specimen thickness was the most significant factor affecting the tensile strength followed by air voids content. In two-factor interaction, specimen thickness-number of cycles, air voids content-pressure, and pressure-number of cycles were significant. The most significant three-factor interaction was specimen thickness-pressure-number of cycles. The results from the study suggest that in measuring tensile strength, the appropriate specimen thickness and air voids content should be selected to quantify the representative tensile strength for in-situ conditions.

  6. Infiltration-soil moisture redistribution under natural conditions: experimental evidence as a guideline for realizing simulation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morbidelli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The evolution in time, t, of the experimental soil moisture vertical profile under natural conditions is investigated in order to address the corresponding simulation modelling. The measurements were conducted in a plot with a bare silty loam soil. The soil water content, θ, was continuously monitored at different depths, z, using a Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR system. Four buriable three-rod waveguides were inserted horizontally at different depths (5, 15, 25 and 35 cm. In addition, we used sensors of air temperature and relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, evaporation and rain as supports for the application of selected simulation models, as well as for the detection of elements leading to their improvement. The results indicate that, under natural conditions, very different trends of the θ(z, t function can be observed in the given fine-textured soil, where the formation of a sealing layer over the parent soil requires an adjustment of the simulation modelling commonly used for hydrological applications. In particular, because of the considerable variations in the shape of the moisture content vertical profile as a function of time, a generalization of the existing models should incorporate a first approximation of the variability in time of the saturated hydraulic conductivity, K1s, of the uppermost soil. This conclusion is supported by the fact that the observed shape of θ(z, t can be appropriately reproduced by adopting the proposed approach with K1s kept constant during each rainfall event but considered variable from event to event, however the observed rainfall rate and the occurrence of freeze-thaw cycles with high soil moisture contents have to be explicitly incorporated in a functional form for K1s(t.

  7. Novel railway-subgrade vibration monitoring technology using phase-sensitive OTDR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyong; Lu, Bin; Zheng, Hanrong; Ye, Qing; Pan, Zhengqing; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui; Fang, Zujie; Zhao, Howell

    2017-04-01

    High-speed railway is being developed rapidly; its safety, including infrastructure and train operation, is vital. This paper presents a railway-subgrade vibration monitoring scheme based on phase-sensitive OTDR for railway safety. The subgrade vibration is detected and rebuilt. Multi-dimension comprehensive analysis (MDCA) is proposed to identify the running train signals and illegal constructions along railway. To our best knowledge, it is the first time that a railway-subgrade vibration monitoring scheme is proposed. This scheme is proved effective by field tests for real-time train tracking and activities monitoring along railway. It provides a new passive distributed way for all-weather railway-subgrade vibration monitoring.

  8. Measurement and Analysis of High-speed Railway Subgrade Settlement in China: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qulin Tan; Leijuan Li; Senlin Wang

    2014-01-01

    .... With the rapid development of China's high-speed railway, it puts a very high requirement for track smoothness, and thus the requirements of subgrade stability and deformation control become very stringent...

  9. Evaluating Use of Sub-Grade Drains with PFC for Stormwater Drainage : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The overarching objective of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of incorporated subgrade drain (usually called underdrain) in the permeable friction course (PFC) pavement to facilitate drainage of stormwater within and on the pavemen...

  10. Effect of spray drying and subsequent processing conditions on residual moisture content and physical/biochemical stability of protein inhalation powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, Y F; Nguyen, P A; Andya, J D; Dasovich, N; Sweeney, T D; Shire, S J; Hsu, C C

    1998-05-01

    To understand the effect of spray drying and powder processing environments on the residual moisture content and aerosol performance of inhalation protein powders. Also, the long-term effect of storage conditions on the powder's physical and biochemical stability was presented. Excipient-free as well as mannitol-formulated powders of a humanized monoclonal antibody (anti-IgE) and recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) were prepared using a Buchi 190 model spray dryer. Residual moisture content and moisture uptake behavior of the powder were measured using thermal gravimetric analysis and gravimetric moisture sorption isotherm, respectively. Protein aggregation, the primary degradation product observed upon storage, was determined by size-exclusion HPLC. Aerosol performance of the dry powders was evaluated after blending with lactose carriers using a multi-stage liquid impinger (MSLI). Spray-dried powders with a moisture level (approximately 3%) equivalent to the freeze-dried materials could only be achieved using high-temperature spray-drying conditions, which were not favorable to large-male manufacturing, or subsequent vacuum drying. These dry powders would equilibrate with the subsequent processing and storage environments regardless of the manufacturing condition. As long as the relative humidity of air during processing and storage was lower than 50%, powders maintained their aerosol performance (fine particle fraction). However, powders stored under drier conditions exhibited better long-term protein biochemical stability. Manufacturing, powder processing, and storage environments affected powder's residual moisture level in a reversible fashion. Therefore, the storage condition determined powder's overall stability, but residual moisture had a greater impact on protein chemical stability than on powder physical stability.

  11. Heat loss of heat pipelines in insulation moisture conditions with the evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov Vyacheslav Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a wet fibroporous material in conditions of evaporation and steam diffusion were obtained. Values of heat and mass fluxes were established. The contribution of evaporation effect to total heat flux and need to consider volume fractions of water and steam into the structure of fibroporous material in calculation of effective thermal conductivity were shown. Nonstationarity of heat and mass transfer in conditions of considered problem can be ignored.

  12. Seed mass, viability, and germination of Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium vimineum) under variable light and moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2011-01-01

    The success of Japanese stiltgrass as an invader may be due to its ability to respond to stochastic events (e.g., by sexual reproduction via chasmogamous [CH] flowers) and to maintain a beneficial genetic make-up (e.g., by self-fertilizing via cleistogamous [CL] flowers) when conditions are stable. This paper evaluates the importance of Japanese stiltgrass seed type (...

  13. Assessing the Impact of Changing Climatic Conditions on Soil-Moisture Dynamics Using Travel-Time Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, F.; Kumar, R.; Samaniego, L. E.; Attinger, S.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting the storage and transport of both water and solutes in the soil is hampered by the high heterogeneity that many important subsurface properties exhibit. This heterogeneity, combined with a generally limited knowledge about the subsurface makes it impossible to model any process with certainty. As a result, probabilistic methods are increasingly applied, which account for this intrinsic uncertainty of the relevant processes. To describe the combined effect of the many unknown flow paths, quantities like the travel or residence time of a water parcel are used which are defined by probability density functions (PDF). The derivation of these PDF's is typically done by using the water fluxes and states inside a given control volume. A successful application of such frameworks is therefore contingent on a good quantification of these fluxes. The objective of this study is to use the formalism of travel-time distributions to characterize the soil-moisture dynamics of the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory (CZE) located in a ca. 1000 square kilometer, humid catchment in Central Germany. To determine the states and fluxes, we apply the mesoscale Hydrological Model mHM, a spatially distributed hydrological model to the catchment. Being able to draw on detailed data for the CZE of precipitation, land cover, morphology and soil type as inputs, mHM is able todetermine fluxes like recharge and evapotranspiration and states like soil moisture as outputs.Using these data, we apply the above theoretical framework to our catchment. By virtue of the aforementioned properties of mHM, we are able to describe spatially distributed the storage and release of water. We assess the impact of changing climatic conditions by using the travel-time behavior of past years with climatic conditions similar to ones projected for the next decades. Results show a strong increase in mean travel times under dry conditions indicating longer contact times for nitrate and other anthropogenic

  14. Rainfall-induced soil aggregate breakdown in field experiments at different rainfall intensities and initial soil moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Pu; Thorlacius, Sigurdur; Keller, Thomas; Keller, Martin; Schulin, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Soil aggregate breakdown under rainfall impact is an important process in interrill erosion, but is not represented explicitly in water erosion models. Aggregate breakdown not only reduces infiltration through surface sealing during rainfall, but also determines the size distribution of the disintegrated fragments and thus their availability for size-selective sediment transport and re-deposition. An adequate representation of the temporal evolution of fragment mass size distribution (FSD) during rainfall events and the dependence of this dynamics on factors such as rainfall intensity and soil moisture content may help improve mechanistic erosion models. Yet, little is known about the role of those factors in the dynamics of aggregate breakdown under field conditions. In this study, we conducted a series of artificial rainfall experiments on a field silt loam soil to investigate aggregate breakdown dynamics at different rainfall intensity (RI) and initial soil water content (IWC). We found that the evolution of FSD in the course of a rainfall event followed a consistent two-stage pattern in all treatments. The fragment mean weight diameter (MWD) drastically decreased in an approximately exponential way at the beginning of a rainfall event, followed by a further slow linear decrease in the second stage. We proposed an empirical model that describes this temporal pattern of MWD decrease during a rainfall event and accounts for the effects of RI and IWC on the rate parameters. The model was successfully tested using an independent dataset, showing its potential to be used in erosion models for the prediction of aggregate breakdown. The FSD at the end of the experimental rainfall events differed significantly among treatments, indicating that different aggregate breakdown mechanisms responded differently to the variation in initial soil moisture and rainfall intensity. These results provide evidence that aggregate breakdown dynamics needs to be considered in a case

  15. Long-term experimental manipulation of moisture conditions and its impact on moss-living tardigrades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar K. JÖNSSON

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of long-term experimentally modified hydration conditions on populations of moss-living tardigrades were investigated in a naturally dry South-Swedish alvar environment at the Island Öland. Carbonite rocks with mosses were collected from rock fences and arranged in three experimental groups: increased dehydration, increased hydration, and control. The total experimental period was 18 months, with treatments applied during two 6 month periods. The density of tardigrade populations was recorded. The total population of tardigrades, all species included, tended to be lower under watering treatment, but the difference was only marginally significant. Populations of Richtersius coronifer and Echiniscus spiniger did not respond to the treatments, while populations of Milnesium tardigradum declined under conditions of increased hydration. The density of eggs in R. coronifer was also lower in the watering treatment. Thus, no positive response to increased hydration was recorded. These results suggest that the tardigrade populations either were not limited by the amount of hydrated periods, or that some other factor(s counteracted the expected positive response to increased hydration. All populations showed a high variability in density among different moss samples, and the rock from which a sample was taken explained a significant part of this variability. This confirms a commonly believed, but seldom quantified, high heterogeneity in density of semi-terrestrial tardigrades, also among seemingly very similar substrates.

  16. Effects of water nanodroplets on skin moisture and viscoelasticity during air-conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hideo; Nishimura, Naoki; Yamada, Kuniyuki; Shimizu, Yuuki; Iwase, Satoshi; Sugenoya, Junichi; Sato, Motohiko

    2013-11-01

    In air-conditioned rooms, dry air exacerbates some skin diseases, for example, senile xerosis, atopic dermatitis, and surface roughness. Humidifiers are used to improve air dryness, which often induces excess humidity and thermal discomfort. To address this issue, we investigated the effects of water nanodroplets (mist) on skin hydration, which may increase skin hydration by penetrating into the interstitial spaces between corneocytes of the stratum corneum (SC) without increasing air humidity. We examined biophysical parameters, including skin conductance and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and biomechanical parameters of skin distension/retraction before and after suction at the forehead, lateral canthus, and cheek, with or without mist, in a testing environment (24°C, 35% relative humidity) for 120 min. In the group without mist, TEWL values significantly decreased at all the sites after 1 h compared with the initial values. However, in the presence of mist, TEWL values were maintained at the initial values through the test, yielding significant differences vs. the group without mist. There were no significant differences between mist and mist-free groups in terms of skin conductance. Skin distension was significantly increased in the group with mist compared with that in the group without mist at the forehead and cheek, suggesting a softening effect of mist. Skin deformation of the face was improved by mist, suggesting hydration of the SC by mist. The change in TEWL was influenced by mist, suggesting supply of water to the skin, particularly the SC, by mist. These data indicated that a mist of water nanodroplets played an important role in softening skin in an air-conditioned room without increasing excess humidity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Role of climate forecasts and initial conditions in developing streamflow and soil moisture forecasts in a rainfall–runoff regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sinha

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Skillful seasonal streamflow forecasts obtained from climate and land surface conditions could significantly improve water and energy management. Since climate forecasts are updated on a monthly basis, we evaluate the potential in developing operational monthly streamflow forecasts on a continuous basis throughout the year. Further, basins in the rainfall–runoff regime critically depend on the forecasted precipitation in the upcoming months as opposed to snowmelt regimes where initial hydrological conditions (IHC play a critical role. The goal of this study is to quantify the role of updated monthly precipitation forecasts and IHC in forecasting 6-month lead monthly streamflow and soil moisture for a rainfall–runoff mechanism dominated basin – Apalachicola River at Chattahoochee, FL. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC land surface model is implemented with two forcings: (a updated monthly precipitation forecasts from ECHAM4.5 Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM forced with sea surface temperature forecasts and (b daily climatological ensembles. The difference in skill between the above two quantifies the improvements that could be attainable using the AGCM forecasts. Monthly retrospective streamflow forecasts are developed from 1981 to 2010 and streamflow forecasts estimated from the VIC model are also compared with those predicted by using the principal component regression (PCR model. The mean square error (MSE in predicting monthly streamflows, using the VIC model, are compared with the MSE of streamflow climatology under ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscilation conditions as well as under normal years. Results indicate that VIC forecasts obtained using ECHAM4.5 are significantly better than VIC forecasts obtained using climatological ensembles and PCR models over 2–6 month lead time during winter and spring seasons in capturing streamflow variability and reduced mean square errors. However, at 1-month lead time, streamflow

  18. Measured temperature and moisture conditions in the roof attic of a one-and-a-half story house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Morelli, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Temperature and moisture measurements were made in a ventilated attic on a house with 200 mm mineral wool insulation. The measurements showed that 1) solar radiation had a great effect on the temperature in the attic; 2) moisture content reached a level below the risk of mold formation – no mold...

  19. Field Measurements and Numerical Simulations of Temperature and Moisture in Highway Engineering Using a Frequency Domain Reflectometry Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong-Sheng; Zheng, Jian-Long; Chen, Zeng-Shun; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic pioneering study on the use of agricultural-purpose frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensors to monitor temperature and moisture of a subgrade in highway extension and reconstruction engineering. The principle of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors and the process for embedding this kind of sensors for subgrade engineering purposes are introduced. Based on field measured weather data, a numerical analysis model for temperature and moisture content in the subgrade’s soil is built. Comparisons of the temperature and moisture data obtained from numerical simulation and FDR-based measurements are conducted. The results show that: (1) the embedding method and process, data acquisition, and remote transmission presented are reasonable; (2) the temperature and moisture changes are coordinated with the atmospheric environment and they are also in close agreement with numerical calculations; (3) the change laws of both are consistent at positions where the subgrade is compacted uniformly. These results suggest that the data measured by the agricultural-purpose FDR sensors are reliable. The findings of this paper enable a new and effective real-time monitoring method for a subgrade’s temperature and moisture changes, and thus broaden the application of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors. PMID:27294935

  20. Field Measurements and Numerical Simulations of Temperature and Moisture in Highway Engineering Using a Frequency Domain Reflectometry Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sheng Yao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic pioneering study on the use of agricultural-purpose frequency domain reflectometry (FDR sensors to monitor temperature and moisture of a subgrade in highway extension and reconstruction engineering. The principle of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors and the process for embedding this kind of sensors for subgrade engineering purposes are introduced. Based on field measured weather data, a numerical analysis model for temperature and moisture content in the subgrade’s soil is built. Comparisons of the temperature and moisture data obtained from numerical simulation and FDR-based measurements are conducted. The results show that: (1 the embedding method and process, data acquisition, and remote transmission presented are reasonable; (2 the temperature and moisture changes are coordinated with the atmospheric environment and they are also in close agreement with numerical calculations; (3 the change laws of both are consistent at positions where the subgrade is compacted uniformly. These results suggest that the data measured by the agricultural-purpose FDR sensors are reliable. The findings of this paper enable a new and effective real-time monitoring method for a subgrade’s temperature and moisture changes, and thus broaden the application of agricultural-purpose FDR sensors.

  1. Soil mesofauna of flood plain meadows of a southeast of belarus in conditions of lack of moisture in summer as ecological model of their anthropogenous transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Veremeev

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents comparative analysis of species composition and quantitative characteristic of soil mesofauna of inundated meadows under conditions of lack of moisture. The reduction of species diversity, number and biomass of soil invertebrates on such meadows is observed.

  2. Study on the subgrade deformation under high-speed train loading and water-soil interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jian; Zhao, Guo-Tang; Sheng, Xiao-Zhen; Jin, Xue-Song

    2016-04-01

    It is important to study the subgrade characteristics of high-speed railways in consideration of the water-soil coupling dynamic problem, especially when high-speed trains operate in rainy regions. This study develops a nonlinear water-soil interaction dynamic model of slab track coupling with subgrade under high-speed train loading based on vehicle-track coupling dynamics. By using this model, the basic dynamic characteristics, including water-soil interaction and without water induced by the high-speed train loading, are studied. The main factors-the permeability coefficient and the porosity-influencing the subgrade deformation are investigated. The developed model can characterize the soil dynamic behaviour more realistically, especially when considering the influence of water-rich soil.

  3. Effect of Cement Replacement with Carbide Waste on the Strength of Stabilized Clay Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntohar A.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cement is commonly used for soil stabilization and many other ground improvement techniques. Cement is believed to be very good to improve the compressive and split-tensile strength of clay subgrades. In some application cement could be partly or fully replaced with carbide waste. This research is to study the effectiveness of the cement replacement and to find the maximum carbide waste content to be allowed for a clay subgrade. The quantities of cement replaced with the carbide waste were 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% by its mass. The results show that replacing the cement with carbide waste decreased both the compressive and split tensile strength. Replacing cement content with carbide waste reduced its ability for stabilization. The carbide waste content should be less than 70% of the cement to provide a sufficient stabilizing effect on a clay subgrade.

  4. [Performance characteristics of root zone moisture and water potential sensors for greenhouses in the conditions of extended space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolskiy, I G; Strugov, O M; Bingham, G E

    2014-01-01

    The investigation was performed using greenhouse Lada in the Russian segment of the International space station (ISS RS) as part of space experiment Plants-2 during ISS missions 5 through to 22. A set of 6 point moisture sensors embedded in the root zone (turface particles of 1-2 mm in diam.) and 4 tensiometers inside root modules (RM) were used to monitor moisture content and water potential in the root zone. The purpose was to verify functionality and to test performance of the sensors in the spacefight environment. It was shown that with the average RZ moisture content of 80% the measurement error of the sensors do not exceed ± 1.5%. Dynamic analysis of the tensiometers measurements attests that error in water potential measurements does not exceed ± 111 Pa.

  5. The impact of nitrification inhibitor DMPP on N2O, NO and N2 emissions at different soil moisture conditions in grassland soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, D.; Cardenas, L. M.; Sanz, S. C.; Brueggemann, N.; Loick, N.; Liu, S.; Bol, R.

    2016-12-01

    Emissions of gaseous forms of nitrogen from soil, such as nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), have shown great impact on global warming and atmospheric chemistry. Although in soil both nitrification and denitrification could cause N2O and NO emissions, most recent studies demonstrated that denitrification is the dominant process responsible for the increase of atmospheric N2O, while nitrification produces most of NO. The use of nitrification inhibitors (NI) has repeatedly been shown to lower both N2O and NO emissions from agricultural soils; nevertheless, the efficiency of the mitigation effect varies greatly. It is generally assumed that nitrification inhibitors have no direct effect on denitrification. However, the indirect impact, due to the reduced substrate delivery (NO3-) to microsites where denitrification occurs, may have significant effects on denitrification product stoichiometry that may significantly lower soil born N2O emissions. In the present study, soil incubation experiments were carried out in a fully automated continuous-flow incubation system under a He/O2 atmosphere. Ammonium sulfate was applied with and without NI (DMPP) to a UK grassland soil under three different soil moisture conditions (50% WFPS, 65% WFPS, 80% WFPS). With every treatment glucose was applied to supply enough carbon for denitrification. We examined the effect of DMPP on NO, N2O and N2 emissions at different soil moisture conditions which favor nitrification, a mixture of both nitrification and denitrification, or denitrification, respectively. Generally cumulative NO emissions were about 17% of cumulative N2O emissions, while N2 emissions were only detected at high soil moisture condition (80% WFPS). Higher soil moisture increased both N2O and NO emissions. DMPP application increased N2 emissions at soil moisture condition favoring denitrification. Although the application of DMPP significantly mitigated both N2O and NO emissions in all DMPP treatments, the efficiency

  6. Assessing response of local moisture conditions in central Brazil to variability in regional monsoon intensity using speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Barbara E.; Wong, Corinne I.; Silva, Lucas C. R.; McGee, David; Montañez, Isabel P.; Troy Rasbury, E.; Cooper, Kari M.; Sharp, Warren D.; Glessner, Justin J. G.; Santos, Roberto V.

    2017-04-01

    Delineating the controls on hydroclimate throughout Brazil is essential to assessing potential impact of global climate change on water resources and biogeography. An increasing number of monsoon reconstructions from δ18O records provide insight into variations in regional monsoon intensity over the last millennium. The strength, however, of δ18O as a proxy of regional climate limits its ability to reflect local conditions, highlighting the need for comparable reconstructions of local moisture conditions. Here, speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values are developed as a paleo-moisture proxy in central Brazil to complement existing δ18O-based reconstructions of regional monsoon intensity. Speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values are resolved using laser ablation and conventional solution mass spectrometry at high resolution relative to existing (non-δ18O-based) paleo-moisture reconstructions to allow comparisons of centennial variability in paleo-monsoon intensity and paleo-moisture conditions. Variations in speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values from Tamboril Cave are interpreted to reflect varying extents of water interaction with the carbonate host rock, with more interaction resulting in greater evolution of water isotope values from those initially acquired from the soil to those of the carbonate bedrock. Increasing speleothem 87Sr/86Sr values over the last millennium suggest progressively less interaction with the carbonate host rock likely resulting from higher infiltration rates, expected under wetter conditions. Increasingly wetter conditions over the last millennium are consistent with an overall trend of increasing monsoon intensity (decreasing δ18O values) preserved in many existing δ18O records from the region. Such a trend, however, is absent in δ18O records from our site (central Brazil) and Cristal Cave (southeast Brazil), suggesting the existence of divergent (relevant to δ18Oprecip) shifts in the climate patterns within and outside the core monsoon region.

  7. Simulation of boundary layer trajectory dispersion sensitivity to soil moisture conditions: MM5 and noah-based investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sensitivity of trajectories from experiments in which volumetric values of soil moisture were changed with respect to control values were analyzed during three different synoptic episodes in June 2006. The MM5 and Noah land surface models were used to simulate the response of the planetary boun...

  8. Evaluation of thermal and moisture management properties on knitted fabrics and comparison with a physiological model in warm conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedek, Gauthier; Salaün, Fabien; Martinkovska, Zuzana; Devaux, Eric; Dupont, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    This study reports on an experimental investigation of physical properties on the textile thermal comfort. Textile properties, such as thickness, relative porosity, air permeability, moisture regain, thermal conductivity, drying time and water-vapour transmission rate have been considered and correlated to the thermal and vapour resistance, permeability index, thermal effusivity and moisture management capability in order to determine the overall comfort performance of underwear fabrics. The results suggested that the fibre type, together with moisture regain and knitted structure characteristics appeared to affect some comfort-related properties of the fabrics. Additionally, thermal sensations, temperature and skin wetness predicted by Caseto® software for three distinct activity levels were investigated. Results show that the data obtained from this model in transient state are correlated to the thermal conductivity for the temperature and to Ret, moisture regain and drying time for the skin wetness. This provides potential information to determine the end uses of these fabrics according to the selected activity level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and the Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Mercury critical concentrations to Enchytraeus crypticus (Annelida: Oligochaeta) under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils - Reproduction and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, Andressa Cristhy; Schmelz, Rüdiger M; Niva, Cintia Carla; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes; Silva-Filho, Emmanoel Vieira

    2017-05-01

    Soil provides many ecosystem services that are essential to maintain its quality and healthy development of the flora, fauna and human well-being. Environmental mercury levels may harm the survival and diversity of the soil fauna. In this respect, efforts have been made to establish limit values of mercury (Hg) in soils to terrestrial fauna. Soil organisms such as earthworms and enchytraeids have intimate contact with trace metals in soil by their oral and dermal routes, reflecting the potentially adverse effects of this contaminant. The main goal of this study was to obtain Hg critical concentrations under normal and extreme conditions of moisture in tropical soils to Enchytraeus crypticus to order to assess if climate change may potentiate their acute and chronic toxicity effects. Tropical soils were sampled from of two Forest Conservation Units of the Rio de Janeiro State - Brazil, which has been contaminated by Hg atmospheric depositions. Worms were exposed to three moisture conditions, at 20%, 50% and 80% of water holding capacity, respectively, and in combination with different Hg (HgCl2) concentrations spiked in three types of tropical soil (two natural soils and one artificial soil). The tested concentrations ranged from 0 to 512mg Hg kg-1 dry weight. Results indicate that the Hg toxicity is higher under increased conditions of moisture, significantly affecting survival and reproduction rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M

    2015-09-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict. We measured response functions linking carbon (C) assimilation and temperature- and moisture-related microclimatic factors for limber pine (Pinus flexilis) seedlings growing in a heating × watering experiment within and above the alpine treeline. We then extrapolated these response functions using observed microclimate conditions to estimate the net effects of warming and associated soil drying on C assimilation across an entire growing season. Moisture and temperature limitations were each estimated to reduce potential growing season C gain from a theoretical upper limit by 15-30% (c. 50% combined). Warming above current treeline conditions provided relatively little benefit to modeled net assimilation, whereas assimilation was sensitive to either wetter or drier conditions. Summer precipitation may be at least as important as temperature in constraining C gain by establishing subalpine trees at and above current alpine treelines as seasonally dry subalpine and alpine ecosystems continue to warm. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Spring soil moisture-precipitation feedback in the Southern Great Plains: How is it related to large-scale atmospheric conditions?

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Hua

    2014-02-22

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) has been shown as a region of significant soil moisture-precipitation (S-P) coupling. However, how strong evapotranspiration (ET) can affect regional precipitation remains largely unclear, impeding a full grasp of the S-P feedback in that area. The current study seeks to unravel, in a spring month (April), the potential role played by large-scale atmospheric conditions in shaping S (ET)-P feedback. Our regional climate modeling experiments demonstrate that the presence of anomalous low (high) pressure and cyclonic (anticyclonic) flows at the upper/middle troposphere over the relevant areas is associated with strongest (minimum) positive S-P feedback in the SGP. Their impacts are interpreted in terms of large-scale atmospheric dynamical disturbance, including the intensity and location of synoptic eddies. Further analyses of the vertical velocity fields corroborate these interpretations. In addition, the relationship between lower tropospheric moisture conditions (including winds) and feedback composites is evaluated. Key Points The S-P feedback strength in SGP in April varies inter-annually The atmospheric dynamic features affect significantly the feedback strength composite moisture conditions are related to atmospheric circulation structure ©2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Mulching type-induced soil moisture and temperature regimes and water use efficiency of soybean under rain-fed condition in central Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdul Kader

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max is a high water-demand crop and grown under moderate temperature in Japan. To protect the crop from hot summer and to utilize rainfall for its cultivation, selection of appropriate mulching material(s is crucial. For optimum production of the crop, soil moisture and temperature regimes as well as water use efficiency (WUE of the crop were investigated under straw, grass, paper, plastic and bare soil (control mulching under rain-fed condition at Gifu university farm in Japan. The mulching treatments, compared to the control, lowered soil temperature by 2 °C at 5 cm depth and 0.5 °C at 15 and 25 cm depths. The plastic and straw mulching stored the highest quantity of soil moisture at 5 and 15 cm depths; the bare soil stored the lowest quantity. At 25 cm depth, soil-moisture content was the highest under paper mulch but invariable under the other mulches. Plastic mulching reduced evaporation rate from the soil surface and, consequently, the reduced soil-water consumption (SWC from the root zone augmented WUE of soybean. The paper mulching, by conserving soil-moisture and reducing soil temperature, provided better crop growth attributes, while the plastic mulching improved WUE of green soybean. Therefore, the plastic mulch performed best in reducing soil-water consumption and increasing WUE, while the paper mulch was good for soil-moisture conservation and temperature modification that increased soybean yield. Keywords: Mulching, Soil-water consumption, Soil temperature, Water use efficiency

  13. The effects of a reduced balanced protein diet on litter moisture, pododermatitis and feather condition of female broiler breeders over three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Lesuisse, J; Schallier, S; Clímaco, W; Wang, Y; Bautil, A; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2017-11-02

    Protein content reduction in broiler breeder diets has been increasingly investigated. However, broiler breeders reared on low protein diets are characterized by a deterioration of the feather condition. Furthermore, polydipsia induced by controlled feed intake increases litter moisture and as a consequence pododermatitis. This project aimed to study the litter moisture, pododermatitis and feather condition of breeders fed with a 25% reduced balanced protein (RP) diet during the rearing and laying period over three successive generations. The experiment started with two treatments for the F0 generation: control (C) group fed with standard C diets and RP group fed with RP diets. The female F0-progeny of each treatment was divided into the two dietary treatments as well, resulting in four treatments for the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C and RP/RP (breeder feed in F0/F1 generation). The RP diet fed breeders received on average 10% more feed than C diet fed breeders to achieve the same target BW. The female F1-progeny of each treatment were all fed with C diets which resulted in four treatments for the F2 generation: C/C/C, C/RP/C, RP/C/C and RP/RP/C (breeder feed in F0/F1/F2 generation). Litter moisture, footpad and hock dermatitis were recorded at regular intervals throughout the experimental period in all three generations. For the F0 and F1 generation, the pens of breeders receiving C diets had significantly higher litter moisture than the RP diets fed groups (P<0.05), resulting in an elevated footpad dermatitis occurrence (FDO) (P<0.05). No difference was found in the F2 generation. The feather condition was scored during the laying period for each generation. F0 and F1 breeders reared on the RP diets had poorer feather condition than those receiving the C diets (P<0.05). The C/RP breeders had a significantly poorer feather condition than RP/RP breeders (P<0.05). For the F2 generation, RP/RP/C breeders had a significantly better feather condition compared with

  14. Phytoextraction of Nitrogen and Phosphorus by Crops Grown in a Heavily Manured Dark Brown Chernozem under Contrasting Soil Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agomoh, Ikechukwu; Hao, Xiying; Zvomuya, Francis

    2017-04-25

    Repeated uptake of excess nutrients by crops in soils with a long history of manure application may be a viable option for reducing the nutrient levels. In this greenhouse study, we examined the effectiveness of six 40-day cycles of barley, canola, corn, oat, pea, soybean, and triticale, all grown under two moisture regimes (100% and 50% soil field capacity, SFC), at extracting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from a Dark Brown Chernozem that had received 180 Mg ha(-1) (wet wt.) of beef cattle feedlot manure annually for 38 years. Repeated cropping resulted in an overall decrease in dry matter yield (DMY). The decrease in N and P uptake relative to Cycle 1 was fastest for the cereal grains and less pronounced for the two legumes. However, cumulative N and P uptake values were significantly greater for corn than the other crops under both moisture regimes. The reduction in soil N and P was greater under the 100% than the 50% SFC. These results indicate that repeated cropping can be a useful management practice for reducing N and P in a heavily manured soil. The extent of reduction will be greater for crops with high biomass production under adequate moisture supply.

  15. Using SMOS brightness temperature and derived surface-soil moisture to characterize surface conditions and validate land surface models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcher, Jan; Barella-Ortiz, Anaïs; Piles, Maria; Gelati, Emiliano; de Rosnay, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    The SMOS satellite, operated by ESA, observes the surface in the L-band. On continental surface these observations are sensitive to moisture and in particular surface-soil moisture (SSM). In this presentation we will explore how the observations of this satellite can be exploited over the Iberian Peninsula by comparing its results with two land surface models : ORCHIDEE and HTESSEL. Measured and modelled brightness temperatures show a good agreement in their temporal evolution, but their spatial structures are not consistent. An empirical orthogonal function analysis of the brightness temperature's error identifies a dominant structure over the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula which evolves during the year and is maximum in autumn and winter. Hypotheses concerning forcing-induced biases and assumptions made in the radiative transfer model are analysed to explain this inconsistency, but no candidate is found to be responsible for the weak spatial correlations. The analysis of spatial inconsistencies between modelled and measured TBs is important, as these can affect the estimation of geophysical variables and TB assimilation in operational models, as well as result in misleading validation studies. When comparing the surface-soil moisture of the models with the product derived operationally by ESA from SMOS observations similar results are found. The spatial correlation over the IP between SMOS and ORCHIDEE SSM estimates is poor (ρ 0.3). A single value decomposition (SVD) analysis of rainfall and SSM shows that the co-varying patterns of these variables are in reasonable agreement between both products. Moreover the first three SVD soil moisture patterns explain over 80% of the SSM variance simulated by the model while the explained fraction is only 52% of the remotely sensed values. These results suggest that the rainfall-driven soil moisture variability may not account for the poor spatial correlation between SMOS and ORCHIDEE products. Other reasons have to

  16. Vertical Random Vibration Analysis of Track-Subgrade Coupled System in High Speed Railway with Pseudoexcitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwen Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the ground-borne vibration caused by wheel/rail interaction in the ballastless track of high speed railways, viscoelastic asphalt concrete materials are filled between the track and the subgrade to attenuate wheel/rail force. A high speed train-track-subgrade vertical coupled dynamic model is developed in the frequency domain. In this model, coupling effects between the vehicle and the track and between the track and the subgrade are considered. The full vehicle is represented by some rigid body models of one body, two bogies, and four wheelsets connected to each other with springs and dampers. The track and subgrade system is considered as a multilayer beam model in which layers are connected to each other with springs and damping elements. The vertical receptance of the rail is discussed and the receptance contribution of the wheel/rail interaction is investigated. Combined with the pseudoexcitation method, a solution of the random dynamic response is presented. The random vibration responses and transfer characteristics of the ballastless track and subgrade system are obtained under track random irregularity when a high speed vehicle runs through. The influences of asphalt concrete layer’s stiffness and vehicle speed on track and subgrade coupling vibration are analyzed.

  17. Roles for RpoS in survival of Escherichia coli during protozoan predation and in reduced moisture conditions highlight its importance in soil environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somorin, Yinka; Bouchard, Guillaume; Gallagher, Joseph; Abram, Florence; Brennan, Fiona; O'Byrne, Conor

    2017-10-16

    The soil is a complex ecosystem where interactions between biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and fate of microbial inhabitants of the system. Having previously shown that Escherichia coli requires the general stress response regulator, RpoS, to survive long term in soil, it was important to determine what specific conditions in this environment necessitate a functional RpoS. This study investigated the susceptibility of soil-persistent E. coli to predation by the single-celled eukaryotes Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena pyriformis, and the role RpoS plays in resisting this predation. Strain-specific differences were observed in the predation of E. coli strains, with soil-persistent strain COB583 being the most resistant to predation by both protozoans. RpoS and curli, proteinaceous fibres used for attachment to biotic and abiotic surfaces, increased the ability of E. coli to resist predation by A. polyphaga and T. pyriformis. Furthermore, soil moisture content impacted the survival of E. coli BW25113 but wild-type COB583 had similar survival irrespective of soil moisture content. Overall, this study confirmed that RpoS contributes to the resistance of E. coli to protozoan predation and that RpoS is crucial for the increased fitness of soil-persistent E. coli against predation and reduced moisture in soil. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Impact of moisture on survival of Aedes aegypti eggs and ovicidal activity of Metarhizium anisopliae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Luz

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of relative humidity (43%, 75%, 86% and > 98% on Aedes aegypti eggs treated with Metarhizium anisopliae or water only was tested for up to a six months exposure at 25ºC. Survival of larvae inside eggs was clearly affected by the lowest humidity (43% tested, and eclosion diminished at all humidities after increasing periods of exposure. M. anisopliae showed to have a strong ovicidal activity only at humidity close to saturation. No difference of activity was found between conidia and hyphal bodies tested. This fungus affected larvae inside eggs and has potential as a control agent of this important vector in breeding sites with high moisture.

  19. Feasibility of Using Unbound Mixed Recycled Aggregates from CDW over Expansive Clay Subgrade in Unpaved Rural Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Del Rey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Social awareness aims to increase practical skills, such as sustainable development, which seeks to increase the use of different types of waste in construction activities. Although insufficient attention is sometimes given to these actions, it is essential to spread information regarding new studies in the field of waste recycling, which encourages and promotes waste use. Reusing and recycling construction waste in the creation of buildings and infrastructure are fundamental strategies to achieving sustainability in the construction and engineering sectors. In this context, the concept of waste would no longer exist, as waste would become a material resource. Therefore, this study analyses the behaviours of two unbound mixed recycled aggregates (MRA in the structural layers of an unpaved rural road with low traffic (category T43. The sections were built on inappropriate soil (A-7-6 with a high degree of free swelling. The experimental road consisted of three sections: the first was made with natural aggregates (NA that were used as a control, the second was composed of MRA in the subbase and NA in the base, and the third section was completely composed of MRA. The materials were characterised in the laboratory. The behaviours of the structural layers in the experimental road were determined by controlling compaction (“in situ” density and moisture and measuring the deflections and load capacity (deflectometer during the 18 months after construction. The results show that the sections made with recycled aggregates meet the technical specifications required by General Technical Specifications for Road and Bridge Works (PG-3. Therefore, the water-soluble sulphate content and Los Angeles abrasion coefficient limits can be increased for recycled aggregates without compromising the quality of this type of road with low traffic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the use of unbound MRA made from construction and

  20. Feasibility of Using Unbound Mixed Recycled Aggregates from CDW over Expansive Clay Subgrade in Unpaved Rural Roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rey, Isaac; Ayuso, Jesús; Galvín, Adela P; Jiménez, José R; Barbudo, Auxi

    2016-11-17

    Social awareness aims to increase practical skills, such as sustainable development, which seeks to increase the use of different types of waste in construction activities. Although insufficient attention is sometimes given to these actions, it is essential to spread information regarding new studies in the field of waste recycling, which encourages and promotes waste use. Reusing and recycling construction waste in the creation of buildings and infrastructure are fundamental strategies to achieving sustainability in the construction and engineering sectors. In this context, the concept of waste would no longer exist, as waste would become a material resource. Therefore, this study analyses the behaviours of two unbound mixed recycled aggregates (MRA) in the structural layers of an unpaved rural road with low traffic (category T43). The sections were built on inappropriate soil (A-7-6) with a high degree of free swelling. The experimental road consisted of three sections: the first was made with natural aggregates (NA) that were used as a control, the second was composed of MRA in the subbase and NA in the base, and the third section was completely composed of MRA. The materials were characterised in the laboratory. The behaviours of the structural layers in the experimental road were determined by controlling compaction ("in situ" density and moisture) and measuring the deflections and load capacity (deflectometer) during the 18 months after construction. The results show that the sections made with recycled aggregates meet the technical specifications required by General Technical Specifications for Road and Bridge Works (PG-3). Therefore, the water-soluble sulphate content and Los Angeles abrasion coefficient limits can be increased for recycled aggregates without compromising the quality of this type of road with low traffic. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study regarding the use of unbound MRA made from construction and demolition waste (CDW

  1. Influence of the individual or combined application of biochar and slurry on soil macro-aggregate formation under varying moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Michael; Grunwald, Dennis; Koch, Heinz-Josef; Rauber, Rolf; Ludwig, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    The formation of aggregates is of large importance for the structure and the storage of organic matter (OM) in soil. Although positive effects of organic soil additives on the formation of macro-aggregates (> 250 µm) have been reported, the influence of biochar especially applied in combination with other organic amendments remains unclear. Furthermore, studies on the effect of varying soil moisture conditions in form of drying-rewetting cycles on soil aggregate dynamics in the presence of biochar are almost missing. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effects of biochar and slurry applied to the soil individually or in combination on the formation of macro-aggregates under constant and under varying moisture conditions. We sampled four silty loam soils, carefully crushed the soil macro-aggregates, and incubated the soil at 15 °C for 60 days with the following additions: (i) none (control), (ii) biochar (12 % of dry soil mass), (iii) slurry (150 kg N ha-1), (iv) biochar (6 %) + slurry (75 kg N ha-1), (v) biochar (12 %) + slurry (75 kg N ha-1), (vi) biochar (6 %) + slurry (150 kg N ha-1) and (vii) biochar (12 %) + slurry (150 kg N ha-1). The samples were further subdivided into two groups that were incubated under conditions of constant soil moisture and of three drying-rewetting cycles. The CO2 fluxes were continuously measured during the incubation period and the samples were analyzed for microbial biomass C, macro-aggregate yields and macro-aggregate-associated C after finishing the experiment. We found the application of biochar to result in lower macro-aggregate yields with or without slurry compared to the control or the individual slurry application. In contrast, similar or higher C contents in the macro-aggregate fraction of the biochar treatments as compared to the control or slurry treatments were found indicating an occlusion of biochar in macro-aggregates. Due to the sorption characteristics of biochar, we assume the aggregate formation to

  2. Pembuatan Makanan Ringan Produk Ekstrusi Dari Subgrade Ubi Jalar Goreng Beku Sebagai Bahan Substitusi Serta Analisis Kelayakan Finansial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betha Ika Wilistien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine the influential proportion of sweet potato Subgrade frozen usage as the substitution material toward the production of an extract product snack by using corn grits and rice. The parameters examined were organoleptic characteristic and proper analysis of financial. The organoleptic analysis comprises taste, crispiness, appearance, color, and aroma. The chemical analysis includes sucrose, water, and essence, as well as protein content. The result of this research shows that organoleptic testing toward the taste of an extract product snack by using Beni azzuma sweet potato subgrade indicates that the combination treatments give a positive influence toward organoleptic characteristics of the product. An extract product of snack product from Beni azzuma sweet potato Subgrade as the substitution material with 95% rice formula and 5% Beni azzuma sweet potato Subgrade is chosen as the best product for having the highest weight or quality, 0.970. Proper analysis from the snack processing is shown by NPV score, Rp. 2.,016,418,748 (bigger than zero, the IRR score is 50.00% (bigger than deposit interest, 12.56%. The investment expense needed for constructing the unit of an extract product snack processing with Beni azzuma sweet potato Subgrade as the substitution material is Rp. 330,978,230. The investment will be back after 3 years 5 months, and every year the project can give the profit of 50% from the investment expense.

  3. The impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in Central Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Ioannis, Tegoulias; Ioannis, Pytharoulis; Stergios, Kartsios; Dimitrios, Bampzelis; Theodore, Karacostas

    2015-04-01

    The region of Thessaly is the second largest plain in Greece and has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The intensive and extensive cultivation of irrigated crops, in combination with the population increase and the alteration of precipitation patterns due to climate change, often leading the region to experience severe drought conditions, especially during the warm period of the year. The aim of the DAPHNE project is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification.In the framework of the project DAPHNE, the numerical weather prediction model WRF-ARW 3.5.1 is used to provide operational forecasts and hindcasts for the region of Thessaly. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of the uncertainty in the initial soil moisture condition of irrigated areas, on the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective activity in the region of interest. To this end, six cases under the six most frequent synoptic conditions, which are associated with convective activity in the region of interest, are utilized, considering six different soil moisture initialization scenarios. In the first scenario (Control Run), the model is initialized with the surface soil moisture of the ECMWF analysis data, that usually does not take into account the modification of soil moisture due to agricultural activity in the area of interest. In the other five scenarios (Experiment 1,2,3,4,5) the soil moisture in the upper soil layers of the study area are modified from -50% to 50% of field capacity (-50%FC, -25%FC, FC, 25%FC, 50%FC),for the irrigated cropland.Three model domains, covering Europe, the Mediterranean Sea and northern Africa (d01), the wider area of Greece (d02) and central Greece - Thessaly region (d03) are used at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km respectively. ECMWF operational analyses at 6-hourly intervals (0.25ox0.25o lat.-long.) are imported as initial and

  4. How crucial is it to account for the antecedent moisture conditions in flood forecasting? Comparison of event-based and continuous approaches on 178 catchments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Berthet

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares event-based and continuous hydrological modelling approaches for real-time forecasting of river flows. Both approaches are compared using a lumped hydrologic model (whose structure includes a soil moisture accounting (SMA store and a routing store on a data set of 178 French catchments. The main focus of this study was to investigate the actual impact of soil moisture initial conditions on the performance of flood forecasting models and the possible compensations with updating techniques. The rainfall-runoff model assimilation technique we used does not impact the SMA component of the model but only its routing part. Tests were made by running the SMA store continuously or on event basis, everything else being equal. The results show that the continuous approach remains the reference to ensure good forecasting performances. We show, however, that the possibility to assimilate the last observed flow considerably reduces the differences in performance. Last, we present a robust alternative to initialize the SMA store where continuous approaches are impossible because of data availability problems.

  5. A Moisture Stable 3D Microporous Co(II)-MOF with Potential for Highly Selective CO2 Separation under Ambient Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Santanu; Pal, Arun; Das, Madhab C

    2018-02-13

    Selective adsorption and separation of CO2 from flue gas and landfill gas mixtures have drawn great attention in industry. Porous MOF materials are promising alternatives to achieve such separations, however, the stability in presence of moisture must be taken into consideration. Here, we have constructed a microporous MOF {[Co(OBA)(L)0.5]·S}n (IITKGP-8), by employing a V-shaped organic linker with a azo functionalized N,N' spacer forming a 3D network with mab topology and 1D rhombus-shaped channels along crystallographic 'b' axis with void volume of 34.2 %. The activated MOF reveals moderate CO2 uptake capacity of 55.4 and 26.5 cm3g-1 at 273K/1 bar and 295 K/1 bar respectively, whereas it takes up significantly lower amount of CH4 and N2 under similar conditions and thus exhibiting its potential for highly selective sorption of CO2 with excellent IAST selectivity of CO2/N2 (106 at 273K and 43.7 at 295K) and CO2/CH4 (17.7 at 273K and 17.1 at 295K) under 1 bar. More importantly, this MOF exhibits excellent moisture stability as assessed through PXRD experiments coupled with surface area analysis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Proteomic and Physiological Analysis of the Response of Oat (Avena sativa) Seeds to Heat Stress under Different Moisture Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingling; Chen, Quanzhu; Kong, Lingqi; Xia, Fangshan; Yan, Huifang; Zhu, Yanqiao; Mao, Peisheng

    2016-01-01

    Seeds lose their viability when they are exposed to high temperature and moisture content (MC) during storage. The expression and metabolism of proteins plays a critical role in seed resistance to heat stress. However, the proteome response to heat stress in oat (Avena sativa) seeds during storage has not been revealed. To understand mechanisms of heat stress acclimation and tolerance in oat seeds, an integrated physiological and comparative proteomic analysis was performed on oat seeds with different MC during heat stress. Oat seeds with 10% and 16% MC were subjected to high temperatures (35, 45, and 50°C) for 24 and 2 days, respectively, and changes in physiological and biochemical characteristics were analyzed. The results showed that seed vigor decreased significantly with temperature increase from 35 to 50°C. Also, the proline content in 10% MC seeds decreased significantly (p < 0.05) whereas that in 16% MC seeds increased significantly (p < 0.05) during heat treatment from 35 to 50°C. There were no significant differences in malondialdehyde content in 10% MC seeds with temperature from 35 to 50°C, but a significant (p < 0.05) decline occurred in 16% MC seeds at 45°C. Proteome analysis revealed 21 significantly different proteins, including 19 down-regulated and two up-regulated proteins. The down-regulated proteins, notably six heat shock proteins and two ATP synthases, have important roles in the mobilization of carbohydrates and energy, and in the balance between synthesis and degradation of other proteins during seed deterioration. The up-regulation of argininosuccinate synthase participated in proline biosynthesis at 16% MC, which is important for maintaining reactive oxygen species homeostasis for the resistance of heat stress. In summary, heat-responsive protein species and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism were sensitive to high temperature and MC treatment. These studies provide a new insight into acclimation and tolerance to heat stress in

  7. An Optimized Elasto-Plastic Subgrade Reaction For Modeling The Response Of A Nonlinear Foundation For A Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Richard Paul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Geotechnical and structural engineers are faced with a difficult task when their designs interact with each other. For complex projects, this is more the norm than the exception. In order to help bridge that gap, a method for modeling the behavior of a foundation using a simple elasto-plastic subgrade reaction was developed. The method uses an optimization technique to position 4-6 springs along a pile foundation to produce similar load deflection characteristics that were modeled by more sophisticated geotechnical finite element software. The methodology uses an Excel spreadsheet for accepting user input and delivering an optimized subgrade spring stiffness, yield, and position along the pile. In this way, the behavior developed from the geotechnical software can be transferred to the structural analysis software. The optimization is achieved through the solver add-in within Excel. Additionally, a beam on a nonlinear elastic foundation model is used to compute deflections of the optimized subgrade reaction configuration.

  8. Ecological model of changes in complexes of soil mesofauna of the forest ecosystems in conditions of lack of moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Veremeev

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative data on the species composition and quantitative characteristic of soil mesofauna of Pinetum myrtillosum and Quercetum urticosum under condition of moisure deficiency are presented. The sharp reduction of species diversity, invertebrates’ number and biomass under condition of moisure deficiency is observed. It is particularly manifested in the oak woods.

  9. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...... the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account...

  10. Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging and multivariate analysis for prediction of the moisture content and hardness of Pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Mohammadi Moghaddam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pistachio nut is one of the most delicious and nutritious nuts in the world and it is being used as a salted and roasted product or as an ingredient in snacks, ice cream, desserts, etc. (Maghsudi, 2010; Kashaninejad et al. 2006. Roasting is one of the most important food processes which provides useful attributes to the product. One of the objectives of nut roasting is to alter and significantly enhance the flavor, texture, color and appearance of the product (Ozdemir, 2001. In recent years, spectral imaging techniques (i.e. hyperspectral and multispectral imaging have emerged as powerful tools for safequality inspection of various agricultural commodities (Gowen et al., 2007. The objectives of this study were to apply reflectance hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive determination of moisture content and hardness of pistachio kernels roasted in different conditions. Materials and methods: Dried O’hadi pistachio nuts were supplied from a local market in Mashhad. Pistachio nuts were soaked in 5L of 20% salt solution for 20min (Goktas Seyhan, 2003. For roasting process, three temperatures (90, 120 and 150°C, three times (20, 35 and 50 min and three air velocities (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m s-1 were applied. The moisture content of pistachio kernels was measured in triplicate using oven drying (3 gr samples at 105 °C for 12 hours. Uniaxial compression test by a 35mm diameter plastic cylinder, was made on the pistachio kernels, which were mounted on a platform. Samples were compressed at a depth of 2mm and speed of 30 mm min-1. A hyperspectral imaging system in the Vis-NIR range (400-1000 nm was employed. The spectral pre-processing techniques: first derivative and second derivative, median filter, Savitzkye-Golay, wavelet, multiplicative scatter correction (MSC and standard normal variate transformation (SNV were used. To make models at PLSR and ANN methods, ParLeS software and Matlab R2009a were used, respectively. The coefficient

  11. Influence of initial seed moisture and temperature conditions during germination and emergence on seedling survival and yields of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Markowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Injury to soybean seedlings caused by low temperature (5°C at the beginning of germination was greatly reduced when instead of chilling (10°C a higher temperature (20°C was applied at the end of germination and during emergence. A new interpretation of the physiological mechanism involved in this reversibility of chilling injury was proposed. Hydration in water vapour of soybean seeds with initial moisture content of from 5 to 10% to a level of 30%, dry weight basis, increased seedling survival under controlled conditions of germination and emergence at respectively 5°C and l0°C as well as under natural soil conditions in field experiments both after early and late planting dates. A modified method of seed hydration in water vapour (i.e. conditioning or hardening of seeds against cold was developed for practical application. In field experiments conditioning of seeds increased seedling survival and thus also yields per unit area of plot but had no significant effect on yield per plant. Seed conditioning may have practical significance in soybean growing and for breeding purposes when equalizing the number of plants per plot is important for comparing new varieties and breeding forms.

  12. Addition of Pullulan to Trehalose Glasses Improves the Stability of β-Galactosidase at High Moisture Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teekamp, Naomi; Tian, Yu; Visser, J. Carolina; Olinga, Peter; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2017-01-01

    Incorporation of therapeutic proteins in a matrix of sugar glass is known to enhance protein stability, yet protection is often lost when exposed to high relative humidity (RH). We hypothesized that especially in these conditions the use of binary glasses of a polysaccharide and disaccharide might

  13. Resilient modulus characteristics of soil subgrade with geopolymer additive in peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Nasuhi; Hadiwardoyo, Sigit Pranowo; Rahayu, Wiwik

    2017-06-01

    Resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil are generally very low with high potential of deformation and low bearing capacity. The efforts to improve the peat subgrade resilient modulus characteristics is required, one among them is by adding the geopolymer additive. Geopolymer was made as an alternative to replace portland cement binder in the concrete mix in order to promote environmentally friendly, low shrinkage value, low creep value, and fire resistant material. The use of geopolymer to improve the mechanical properties of peat as a road construction subgrade, hence it becomes important to identify the effect of geopolymer addition on the resilient modulus characteristics of peat soil. This study investigated the addition of 0% - 20% geopolymer content on peat soil derived from Ogan Komering Ilir, South Sumatera Province. Resilient modulus measurement was performed by using cyclic triaxial test to determine the resilience modulus model as a function of deviator stresses and radial stresses. The test results showed that an increase in radial stresses did not necessarily lead to an increase in modulus resilient, and on the contrary, an increase in deviator stresses led to a decrease in modulus resilient. The addition of geopolymer in peat soil provided an insignificant effect on the increase of resilient modulus value.

  14. Evaluation of Carbonation Effects on Cement-Solidified Contaminated Soil Used in Road Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yundong Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement solidification/stabilization is widely used towards contaminated soil since it has a low price and significant improvement for the structural capacity of soil. To increase the usage of the solidified matrix, cement-solidified contaminated soil was used as road subgrade material. In this study, carbonation effect that reflected the durability on strength characteristics of cement-solidified contaminated soil and the settlement of pavement were evaluated through experimental and numerical analysis, respectively. According to results, compressive strengths of specimens with 1% Pb(II under carbonation and standard curing range from 0.44 MPa to 1.17 MPa and 0.14 MPa to 2.67 MPa, respectively. The relatively low strengths were attributed to immobilization of heavy metal, which consumed part of SiO2, Al2O3, and CaO components in the cement or kaolin and reduced the hydration and pozzolanic reaction materials. This phenomenon further decreased the strength of solidified soils. The carbonation depth of 1% Cu(II or Zn(II contaminated soils was 18 mm, which significantly increased with the increase of curing time and contamination concentration. Furthermore, the finite element calculation results showed that surface settlements decreased with the increase of modulus of subgrade and the distance away from the center. At the center, the pavement settlement was proportional to the level of traffic load.

  15. Experimental Study on the Utilization of Fine Steel Slag on Stabilizing High Plastic Subgrade Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussien Aldeeky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three major steel manufacturing factories in Jordan dump their byproduct, steel slag, randomly in open areas, which causes many environmental hazardous problems. This study intended to explore the effectiveness of using fine steel slag aggregate (FSSA in improving the geotechnical properties of high plastic subgrade soil. First soil and fine steel slag mechanical and engineering properties were evaluating. Then 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% dry weight of soil of fine steel slag (FSSA were added and mixed into the prepared soil samples. The effectiveness of the FSSA was judged by the improvement in consistency limits, compaction, free swell, unconfined compression strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR. From the test results, it is observed that 20% FSSA additives will reduce plasticity index and free swell by 26.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Furthermore, 20% FSSA additives will increase the unconfined compressive strength, maximum dry density, and CBR value by 100%, 6.9%, and 154%. By conclusion FSSA had a positive effect on the geotechnical properties of the soil and it can be used as admixture in proving geotechnical characteristics of subgrade soil, not only solving the waste disposal problem.

  16. Nematode survival in relation to soil moisture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    Established nematode populations are very persistent in the soil. It is known that they need sufficient soil moisture for movement, feeding and reproduction (fig. 5), and that there are adverse soil moisture conditions which they cannot survive. The influence of soil moisture on survival

  17. Interior moisture design loads for residences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton TenWolde; Iain S. Walker

    2001-01-01

    This paper outlines a methodology to obtain design values for indoor boundary conditions for moisture design calculations for residences. This is part of a larger effort by ASHRAE Standard Project Committee 160P, Design Criteria for Moisture Control in Buildings, to formulate criteria for moisture design loads, analysis techniques, and material and building performance...

  18. Growth, biomass allocation and photosynthetic responses are related to intensity of root severance and soil moisture conditions in the plantation tree Cunninghamia lanceolata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingfa; Duan, Baoli; Zhang, Sheng; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ülo; Li, Chunyang

    2016-07-01

    We employed the warm temperate conifer Cunninghamia lanceolata (Lamb.) Hook. as a model of plantation forest species to investigate ecophysiological responses to root treatments (control (0%), and ∼25, 50 or 75% of the initial root mass) under well-watered and water-limited conditions. Our results indicated that total root dry mass accumulation was negatively associated with the severity of root pruning, but there was evidence of multiple compensatory responses. The plants exhibited higher instantaneous and long-term (assessed by carbon isotope composition, δ(13)C) water-use efficiency in pruning treatments, especially under low water availability. Root pruning also increased the fine root/total root mass ratio, specific root length and fine root vitality in both water availability treatments. As a result of the compensatory responses, under well-watered conditions, height, stem dry mass accumulation, leaf/fine root biomass ratio (L/FR), transpiration rate, photosynthetic capacity and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency (EN) were the highest under 25% pruning. Yet, all these traits except L/FR and foliage nitrogen content were severely reduced under 75% pruning. Drought negatively affected growth and leaf gas exchange rates, and there was a greater negative effect on growth, water potential, gas exchange and EN when >25% of total root biomass was removed. The stem/aboveground mass ratio was the highest under 25% pruning in both watering conditions. These results indicate that the responses to root severance are related to the excision intensity and soil moisture content. A moderate root pruning proved to be an effective means to improve stem dry mass accumulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Resilient modulus for unbound granular materials and subgrade soils in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Rabah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic Empirical (ME pavement design methods started to gain attention especially the last couple of years in Egypt and the Middle East. One of the challenges facing the spread of these methods in Egypt is lack of advanced properties of local soil and asphalt, which are needed as input data in ME design. Resilient modulus (Mr for example is an important engineering property that expresses the elastic behavior of soil/unbound granular materials (UGMs under cyclic traffic loading for ME design. In order to overcome the scarcity of the resilient modulus data for soil/UGMs in Egypt, a comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted to measure resilient modulus of typical UGMs and subgrade soils typically used in pavement construction in Egypt. The factors that affect the resilient modulus of soil/UGMs were reviewed, studied and discussed. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the most well-known Mr Prediction models for the locally investigated materials was investigated.

  20. Probing bias reduction to improve comparability of lint cotton water and moisture contents at moisture equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) reference method is specific for water in lint cotton and was designed for samples conditioned to moisture equilibrium, thus limiting its biases. There is a standard method for moisture content – weight loss – by oven drying (OD), just not for equilibrium moisture c...

  1. Early Soil Moisture Field Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmugge, T.

    2008-12-01

    Before the large scale field experiments described in the call for papers, there were a number of experiments devoted to a single parameter, e.g. soil moisture. In the early 1970's, before the launch of the first microwave radiometer by NASA, there were a number of aircraft experiments to determine utility of these sensors for land observations. For soil moisture, these experiments were conducted in southwestern United States over irrigated agricultural areas which could provide a wide range of moisture conditions on a given day. The radiometers covered the wavelength range from 0.8 to 21 cm. These experiments demonstrated that it is possible to observe soil moisture variations remotely using a microwave radiometer with a sensitivity of about 3 K / unit of soil moisture. The results also showed that the longer wavelengths were better, with a radiometer at the 21 cm wavelength giving the best results. These positive results led to the development of Push Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) and the Electrically Scanned Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) instruments at the 21-cm wavelength. They have been used extensively in the large-scale experiments such as HAPEX-MOBILHY, FIFE, Monsoon90, SMEX, etc. The multi-beam nature of these instruments makes it possible to obtain more extensive coverage and thus to map spatial variations of surface soil moisture. Examples of the early results along with the more recent soil moisture maps will be presented.

  2. AN APPROACH TO CHARACTERIZING & EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES FOR THE DECOMMISSIONING OF SUB-GRADE STRUCTURES AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOPKINS, A.M.; KLOS, D.B.

    2007-01-25

    In 2002, the Richland Operations Office (RL) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) developed milestones for transitioning the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) facility to a clean slab-on-grade configuration. These milestones required developing an engineering evaluation/cost analysis (EF/CA) for the facility's sub-grade structures and installations as part of a series of evaluations intended to provide for the transition of the facility to a clean slab-on-grade configuration. In addition to supporting decisions for interim actions, the analyses of sub-grade structures and installations performed through this EE/CA will contribute to the remedial investigation feasibility study(ies) and subsequently to the final records of decision for the relevant operable units responsible for site closure in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site.

  3. Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate, Cocoa, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season. ​

  4. Technology Solutions Case Study: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Space Conditioning Energy and Moisture Levels in the Hot-Humid Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  5. Moisture-induced stresses in glulam frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Gislason, Oskar V

    2016-01-01

    Wood is a hygroscopic and moisture-sensitive material that seeks to achieve equilibrium moisture content (EMC) with its surrounding environment. For softwood timber structures exposed to variations in climate throughout their service life, this behaviour results in variable moisture-content gradi......Wood is a hygroscopic and moisture-sensitive material that seeks to achieve equilibrium moisture content (EMC) with its surrounding environment. For softwood timber structures exposed to variations in climate throughout their service life, this behaviour results in variable moisture...... is presented. A two-dimensional transient, non-linear moisture transport model for wood is also developed and linked with this beam model. The combined models are used to study the long-term deformations and stresses in a curved frame structure exposed to both mechanical loading and cyclic climate conditions...

  6. L-band microwave remote sensing and land data assimilation improve the representation of pre-storm soil moisture conditions for hydrologic forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in remote sensing and land data assimilation purport to improve the quality of antecedent soil moisture information available for operational hydrologic forecasting. We objectively validate this claim by calculating the strength of the relationship between storm-scale runoff ratio (i...

  7. Moisture rivals temperature in limiting photosynthesis by trees establishing beyond their cold-edge range limit under ambient and warmed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyes, Andrew B.; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering plant species distributions globally, and warming is expected to promote uphill shifts in mountain trees. However, at many cold-edge range limits, such as alpine treelines in the western United States, tree establishment may be colimited by low temperature and low moisture, making recruitment patterns with warming difficult to predict.

  8. Effect of Initial Moisture on the Adsorption and Desorption Equilibrium Moisture Contents of Polished Rice

    OpenAIRE

    Murata, Satoshi; Amaratunga, K.S.P.; Tanaka, Fumihiko; Hori, Yoshiaki

    1993-01-01

    The moisture adsorption and desorption properties for polished rice have been measured using a dynamic ventilatory method. Air temperatures of 10,20,30 and 40℃, relative humidities of 50,60,70,80 and 90%, and five levels of initial moisture contents ranging approximately from 8% to 19% d.b. were used to obtain moisture content data. The value of equilibrium moisture content for each initial moisture content at the range of air condition was determined by a method of nonlinear least squares. R...

  9. Moisture Dynamics in Building Envelopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2003-01-01

    The overall scope of this Thesis "Moisture dynamics in building envelopes" has been to characterise how the various porous insulation materials investigated performed hygrothermally under conditions similar to those in a typical building envelope. As a result of the changing temperature...

  10. Nondestructive Moisture Measurement in Microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    moisture, bias voltage and defects in the glassivation layer. As a response to these problems most manufacturers started to improve the quality of their...package. The first experiment consisted of looking at the response of a sensor exposed to the room dew-point ( contrIled in flow conditions ’yaI

  11. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity, energy of activation and energy consumption during the thin-layer drying of berberis fruit (Berberidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Kianmehr, Mohammad H.; Samimi-Akhijahani, Hadi [Department of Agriculture Machinery, University of Tehran, Aboreyhan Campus (Iran)

    2008-10-15

    Berberis is known as a medicinal and ornamental plant in the world. Berberis fruit is used in medicine to cure liver, neck and stomach cancer, blood purification and mouth scent. Dried berberis fruit using new technology was preserved for relatively long time. Thin-layer drying simulation was used to obtain experiment data, using laboratory scale hot-air dryer of the static tray. Fick's second law was used as a major equation to calculate the moisture diffusivity with some simplification. The calculated value of moisture diffusivity varied from a minimum of 3.320 x 10{sup -10} to a maximum of 9 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s and the value of energy activation from a minimum of 110.837 to a maximum of 130.61 kJ/mol of from 50 C to 70 C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s. The high value of the energy of activation for berberis fruit probably related to the tissue of berberis fruit and high moisture content (about 74.28%w.b), and intensive changes in D{sub eff} values for a different air temperature at constant air velocity. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of berberis fruit were found to be in the range of 0.643348-35.20032 (kWh) and 20.9355-1110.0700 (kWh/kg) from 50 C to 70 C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s, respectively. (author)

  12. Moisture dependence of radon transport in concrete : Measurements and modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cozmuta, [No Value; van der Graaf, ER; de Meijer, RJ

    2003-01-01

    The moisture dependence of the radon-release rate of concrete was measured under well controlled conditions. It was found that the radon-release rate almost linearly increases up to moisture contents of 50 to 60%. At 70 to 80% a maximum was found and for higher moisture contents the radon-release

  13. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, T.; Hansen, K. K.; Hoffmeyer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  14. Further development of landfill sealing systems. Subproject 20: long-term behaviour of earthen layers in landfill liners, moisture conditions under the action of temperature; Weiterentwicklung von Deponieabdichtungssystemen. Teilvorhaben 20: Langzeitverhalten von Erdstoffschichten in Deponiebasisabdichtungen, Feuchtehaushalt unter Temperatureinwirkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzloehner, U.; Schossig, W.; Wuttke, W.; Ziegler, F.

    1996-12-31

    The sealing properties of the earthen layers in landfill liners depend on water content, which is not constant but changes according to the moisture conditions of the landfill and the adjacent soil. Earthen layers in landfill liners tend to lose water over the course of time and this may result in desiccation cracking. To study the behaviour of soils undergoing desiccation, test devices and methods were developed to evaluate the water transport characteristics of soil samples. Measurement of the temporal and spatial changes in moisture distribution within the cylindrical soil sample was accompanied by a calculation in which diffusion coefficients were iteratively varied so as to reach optimum agreement with the observed moisture distribution. Overburden pressure can to some extent prevent desiccation. Therefore test devices were developed which made it possible to load soil samples simultaneously by vertical stress and by suction. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Die Dichtigkeit von Erdstoffschichten in Deponieabdichtungen haengt vom Wassergehalt ab, der nicht konstant ist, sondern sich entsprechend dem Feuchtehaushalt von Deponie und umgebendem Boden aendert. Die Erdstoffabdichtungssschichten tendieren langfristig zum Trocknerwerden, wodurch es zu Rissen kommen kann. Um das Austrocknungsverhalten zu untersuchen, wurden Versuchsgeraete und -verfahren zur Bestimmung von Wassertransportkennwerten an Bodenproben entwickelt. Die Messung der zeitlichen und oertlichen Aenderung der Feuchteverteilung in der zylindrischen Bodenprobe wurde durch eine Rechnung begleitet, in der die eingegebenen Diffusionskoeffizienten iterativ variiert wurden, bis optimale Uebereinstimmung mit der gemessenen Feuchteverteilung erreicht war. Auflast kann Austrocknung bis zu einem gewissen Grad verhindern. Deshalb wurden Geraete entwickelt, in denen Bodenproben gleichzeitig einer Wasserspannung und einer vertikalen Spannung ausgesetzt werden koennen. (orig./SR)

  15. Resistência ao impacto da madeira de nogueira-pecã em diferentes condições de umidade Impact strength of nogueira-pecã wood on different moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Beltrame

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos de resistência da madeira ao impacto referem-se à eficiência com que este material absorve energia de um impacto e dissipa-a sem danos a sua estrutura. Dessa forma, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do teor de umidade na resistência ao impacto da madeira de nogueira-pecã (Carya illinoinensis. Para tanto, foram utilizadas árvores procedentes de duas regiões fisiográficas do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os corpos de prova, em condições de equilíbrio a 12% de umidade e saturados, foram submetidos ao impacto utilizando-se pêndulo de CHARPY, e avaliados quanto à resistência oferecida com a aplicação da carga nos planos tangencial e radial e posições de retirada (medula - casca nas toras, para as duas regiões fisiográficas em cada condição de umidade. Para auxiliar na interpretação dos dados, determinou-se a massa específica aparente a 12% e saturada, trabalho absorvido, coeficiente de resiliência e a cota dinâmica. Pôde-se verificar, por meio dos resultados, que a madeira de nogueira-pecã é mais resistente ao impacto na condição saturada.The studies of wood impact strength refers to the efficiency of this material in absorb impact energy and dissipate it without structural damages. The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of moisture content on the impact strength of nogueira-pecã (Carya illinoinensis wood. For this, trees from two physiographic regions of state of Rio Grande do Sul were used. The samples, stabilized at 12% of moisture content and in green conditions (saturated, were submitted to impact tests through a CHARPY pendulum, and were evaluated for the resistance to the application of loads in the tangential and radial sections, and in the positions of the log (pith-bark for the two physiographic regions at each moisture condition. Moreover, the apparent specific gravity at 12% and in green conditions (saturated, the absorbed work, the resilience coefficient and the

  16. Estimation of soil moisture using multispectral and FTIR techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Muhammad Zubair Younis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture is a key capricious in hydrological process, the accessibility of moisture content in soil reins the mechanism amid the land surface and atmospheric progression. Precise soil moisture determination is influential in the weather forecast, drought monitoring, hydrological modeling, agriculture management and policy making. The aims of the study were to estimate soil moisture through remotely sensed data (FTIR & optical and establishment of the results with field measured soil moisture data. The ground measurements were carried out in 0–15 cm depth. Permutation of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI and land surface temperature (LST were taken to derive temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI for assessment of surface soil moisture. Correlation and regression analysis was conceded to narrate the TVDI with in situ calculated soil moisture. The spatial pattern of TVDI shows that generally low moisture distribution over study area. A significant (p < 0.05 negative correlation of r = 0.79 was found between TVDI and in situ soil moisture. The TVDI was also found adequate in temporal variation of surface soil moisture. The triangle method (TVDI confers consistent appraisal of moisture situation and consequently can be used to evaluate the wet conditions. Furthermore, the appraisal of soil moisture using the triangular method (TVDI was possible at medium spatial resolutions because the relationship of soil moisture with LST and NDVI lends an eloquent number of representative pixels for developing a triangular scatter plot.

  17. Biocontrol of mold growth in high-moisture wheat stored under airtight conditions by Pichia anomala, Pichia guilliermondii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, S; Schnürer, J

    1995-01-01

    Pichia anomala inhibits the growth of Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus candidus on agar. In this investigation, antagonistic activity on agar against 17 mold species was determined. The abilities of Pichia anomala, Pichia guilliermondii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to inhibit the growth of the mold Penicillium roqueforti in nonsterile high-moisture wheat were compared by adding 10(3) Penicillium roqueforti spores and different amounts of yeast cells per gram of wheat. Inoculated grain was packed in glass tubes, incubated at 25 degrees C with a restricted air supply, and the numbers of yeast and mold CFU were determined on selective media after 7 and 14 days. Pichia anomala reduced growth on agar plates for all of the mold species tested in a dose-dependent manner. Aspergillus fumigatus and Eurotium amstelodami were the most sensitive, while Penicillium italicum and Penicillium digitatum were the most resistant. Pichia anomala had the strongest antagonistic activity in wheat, with 10(5) and 10(6) CFU/g completely inhibiting the growth of Penicillium roqueforti. Inhibition was least pronounced at the optimum temperature (21 degrees C) and water activity (0.95) for the growth of Penicillium roqueforti. Pichia guilliermondii slightly reduced the growth of Penicillium roqueforti in wheat inoculated with 10(5) and 10(6) yeast CFU/g. S. cerevisiae inhibited mold growth only weakly at the highest inoculum level. Pichia anomala grew from 10(3) to 10(7) CFU/g of wheat in 1 week. To reach the same level, Pichia guilliermondii had to be inoculated at 10(4) CFU while S. cerevisiae required an inoculum of 10(5) CFU to reach 10(7) CFU/g of wheat. PMID:7793907

  18. Study on moisture absorption and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Aifen; Zhang, Yongjiu

    2015-07-01

    The moisture absorption and liberation properties of honeycomb polyester fiber were studied in order to understand its moisture absorption and sweat discharge. Through testing moisture absorption and liberation regains of honeycomb polyester fiber and normal polyester fiber in standard atmospheric conditions, their moisture absorption and liberation curves were depicted, and the regression equations of moisture regains to time during their reaching the balance of moisture absorption and moisture liberation were obtained according to the curves. Their moisture absorption and liberation rate curves were analyzed and the regression equations of the rates to time were obtained. The results shows that the moisture regain of honeycomb polyester fiber is much bigger than the normal polyester fiber's, and the initial moisture absorption and moisture liberation rates of the former are much higher than the latter's, so that the moisture absorbance and sweat discharge of honeycomb polyester fiber are excellent.

  19. Respostas morfogênicas de gramíneas forrageiras tropicais sob diferentes condições hídricas do solo Morphogenic and structural responses of tropical forage grasses to different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Messias Pereira da Silva

    2005-10-01

    écies estudadas poderiam ser úteis para a escolha dos materiais de acordo com a disponibilidade de áreas sujeitas a inundações ao longo do ano.Some morphogenic and structural characteristics of four forage grasses grown under four soil moisture conditions were assessed. The forage species were: Setaria anceps Stapf., Hemarthria altissima [Poir] Stapf. & Hubbard, Acroceras macrum Stapf. and Brachiaria purpurascens [Raddi] Henr. Soil moisture level was controlled by weighing individual pots and by relative saturation of total porosity (RSTP. A randomized block design with three replications was used. Four plants of each specie were submitted to four soil moisture levels: deficit (50% RSTP(D, control (100% RSTP (C, water logging 1 (120% RSTP (W1 and water logging 2 (150% RSTP (W2. Three tillers in each plastic pot were used for morphogenic and structural characteristics measurements of the plants: leaf appearance rate (LAR, phyllochron of individual leaves (PHYL, leaf elongation rate (LER, final length of individual leaves (FL, number of expanded leaves (EL and number of individual green leaves (GL. LER and PHYL in Setariagrass varied linearly and inversely with soil moisture, while others grasses showed quadratic responses. Hemarthriagrass presented the highest LAR under water logged soil condition. FL on day 45 of regrowth followed the same pattern of LAR, with higher values in setariagrass, reaching up to 0.34 m. Hemarthriagrass presented the highest values of FL among the short grasses, in all of the soil moisture condition. Both EL and GL showed significant grasses and soil moisture levels interaction. Hemarthriagrass showed higher values of EL and GL under any moisture level, reaching 12 leaves per stem. The structural differences observed among the studied species may be useful criteria for the selection of grasses according to soil flooding condition throughout the year.

  20. Characterizing bulk modulus of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available correlation models for the soil sample tested. These models can be used for evaluating the impact of moisture on bulk modulus of fine-grained soils with similar characteristics for their sustainable use in foundation applications under off-road construction...

  1. Characterizing shear properties of fine-grained subgrade soils under large capacity construction equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available properties including friction angle and cohesion for strength properties and shear modulus of the soil at three moisture states. Mohr-Coulomb failure models were developed together with shear modulus correlations for the soil sample. These models can be used...

  2. Approaching Moisture Recycling Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line; Galaz, Victor; Ebbesson, Jonas

    2017-04-01

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of water resources are a continuous challenge for effective and sustainable national and international governance. Despite the surface watershed being the typical unit of water management, recent advances in hydrology have revealed 'atmospheric watersheds' - otherwise known as precipitationsheds. Also, recent research has demonstrated that water flowing within a precipitationshed may be modified by land-use change in one location, while the effect of this modification could be felt in a different province, nation, or continent. Notwithstanding these insights, the major legal and institutional implications of modifying moisture recycling have remained unexplored. In this presentation, we examine potential approaches to moisture recycling governance. We first identify a set of international study regions, and then develop a typology of moisture recycling relationships within these regions ranging from bilateral moisture exchange to more complex networks. This enables us to classify different types of legal and institutional governance principles. Likewise, we relate the moisture recycling types to existing land and water governance frameworks and management practices. The complexity of moisture recycling means institutional fit will be difficult to generalize for all moisture recycling relationships, but our typology allows the identification of characteristics that make effective governance of these normally ignored water flows more tenable.

  3. A soil moisture network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, N.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2012-01-01

    pixel (44 × 44 km), which is representative of the land surface conditions of the catchment and with minimal impact from open water (2) arrangement of three network clusters along the precipitation gradient, and (3) distribution of the stations according to respective fractions of classes representing......The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) acquires surface soil moisture data of global coverage every three days. Product validation for a range of climate and environmental conditions across continents is a crucial step. For this purpose, a soil moisture and soil temperature sensor...... the prevailing environmental conditions. Overall, measured moisture and temperature patterns could be related to the respective land cover and soil conditions. Texture-dependency of the 0–5 cm soil moisture measurements was demonstrated. Regional differences in 0–5 cm soil moisture, temperature and precipitation...

  4. CPC Soil Moisture

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The monthly data set consists of a file containing 1/2 degree monthly averaged soil moisture water height equivalents for the globe from 1948 onwards. Values are...

  5. The Effect of Temperature on Moisture Transport in Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Xi, Yunping

    2017-08-09

    Most concrete structures and buildings are under temperature and moisture variations simultaneously. Thus, the moisture transport in concrete is driven by the moisture gradient as well as the temperature gradient. This paper presents an experimental approach for determining the effect of different temperature gradients on moisture distribution profiles in concrete. The effect of elevated temperatures under isothermal conditions on the moisture transport was also evaluated, and found not to be significant. The non-isothermal tests show that the temperature gradient accelerates the moisture transport in concrete. The part of increased moisture transfer due to the temperature gradient can be quantified by a coupling parameter DHT, which can be determined by the present test data. The test results indicated that DHT is not a constant but increases linearly with the temperature variation. A material model was developed for DHT based on the experimental results obtained in this study.

  6. Moisture Transport Through Sprayed Concrete Tunnel Linings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holter, Karl Gunnar; Geving, Stig

    2016-01-01

    Waterproofing of permanent sprayed concrete tunnel linings with sprayed membranes in a continuous sandwich structure has been attempted since 2000 and has seen increased use in some countries. The main function of a sprayed membrane from a waterproofing perspective is to provide crack bridging and hence prevent flow of liquid water into the tunnel through cracks and imperfections in the concrete material. However, moisture can migrate through the concrete and EVA-based membrane materials by capillary and vapor diffusion mechanisms. These moisture transport mechanisms can have an influence on the degree of saturation, and may influence the pore pressures in the concrete material as well as risk of freeze-thaw damage of the concrete and membrane. The paper describes a detailed study of moisture transport material parameters, moisture condition in tunnel linings and climatic conditions tunnels in hard rock in Norway. These data have been included in a hygrothermal simulation model in the software WUFI for moisture transport to substantiate moisture transport and long-term effects on saturation of the concrete and membrane material. The findings suggest that EVA-based membranes exhibit significant water absorption and vapor transport properties although they are impermeable to liquid water flow. State-of-the-art sprayed concrete material applied with the wet mix method exhibits very low hydraulic conductivities, lower than 10-14 m/s, thus saturated conductive water flow is a very unlikely dominant transport mechanism. Moisture transport through the lining structure by capillary flow and vapor diffusion are calculated to approximately 3 cm3/m2 per day for lining thicknesses in the range of 25-35 cm and seasonal Nordic climate variations. The calculated moisture contents in the tunnel linings from the hygrothermal simulations are largely in agreement with the measured moisture contents in the tunnel linings. The findings also indicate that the concrete material exhibits

  7. Quantifying the effect of nighttime interactions between roots and canopy physiology and their control of water and carbon cycling on feedbacks between soil moisture and terrestrial climatology under variable environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Palmroth, Sari [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Oren, Ram [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); Swenson, Jennifer [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States); King, John S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Noormets, Asko [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to characterize and quantify how the temporal variability of hydraulic redistribution (HR) and its physiological regulation in unmanaged and complex forests is affecting current water and carbon exchange and predict how future climate scenarios will affect these relationships and potentially feed back to the climate. Specifically, a detailed study of ecosystem water uptake and carbon exchange in relation to root functioning was proposed in order to quantify the mechanisms controlling temporal variability of soil moisture dynamic and HR in three active AmeriFlux sites, and to use published data of two other inactive AmeriFlux sites. Furthermore, data collected by our research group at the Duke Free Air CO2 enrichment (FACE) site was also being utilized to further improve our ability to forecast future environmental impacts of elevated CO2 concentration on soil moisture dynamic and its effect on carbon sequestration and terrestrial climatology. The overarching objective being to forecast, using a soil:plant:atmosphere model coupled with a biosphere:atmosphere model, the impact of root functioning on land surface climatology. By comparing unmanaged sites to plantations, we also proposed to determine the effect of land use change on terrestrial carbon sequestration and climatology through its effect on soil moisture dynamic and HR. Our simulations of HR by roots indicated that in some systems HR is an important mechanism that buffers soil water deficit, affects energy and carbon cycling; thus having significant implications for seasonal climate. HR maintained roots alive and below 70% loss of conductivity and our simulations also showed that the increased vapor pressure deficit at night under future conditions was sufficient to drive significant nighttime transpiration at all sites, which reduced HR. This predicted reduction in HR under future climate conditions played an important regulatory role in land atmosphere interactions

  8. Conditioned medium from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells promotes skin moisturization and effacement of wrinkles in UVB-irradiated SKH-1 hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Rin; Oh, Chang Taek; Choi, Eun Ja; Kim, Soon Re; Jang, Yu-Jin; Ko, Eun Jung; Yoo, Kwang Ho; Kim, Beom Joon

    2016-05-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising therapeutic agents for various diseases. To investigate the effects of conditioned medium from human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC-CdM) on pro-collagen production and wrinkle formation, we performed in vitro and in vivo experiments. We assessed the effects of MSC-CdM on proliferation and photo-aging in human dermal fibroblasts after UVB exposure using enzyme activity assays for collagen type I secretion and MMP-1. To determine the effect of topically applied MSC-CdM on wrinkle formation, MSC-CdM (1% and 10%) and vehicle (propylene glycol: ethanol, 7 : 3) were applied to the dorsal skin of UVB-irradiated hairless mice for 8 weeks. We examined the effects on wrinkle formation by assessing visual skin grading, replica, tape stripping, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and skin hydration measurement. We also examined histology of the lesions using hematoxylin-eosin, Masson's trichrome, and immunohistochemical staining. MSC-CdM markedly reduced UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression and increased pro-collagen synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that MSC-CdM induces repair of dermal damage and effacement of wrinkles on UVB-irradiated hairless mice through protective effect of hydration. These results support an anti-wrinkle effect of MSC-CdM that involves increased collagen synthesis and suggest that MSC-CdM might be a potential candidate for preventing UV-induced skin damage. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Using lamb waves tomonitor moisture absorption thermally fatigues composite laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sun; Cho, Youn Ho [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Nondestructive evaluation for material health monitoring is important in aerospace industries. Composite laminates are exposed to heat cyclic loading and humid environment depending on flight conditions. Cyclic heat loading and moisture absorption may lead to material degradation such as matrix breaking, debonding, and delamination. In this paper, the moisture absorption ratio was investigated by measuring the Lamb wave velocity. The composite laminates were manufactured and subjected to different thermal aging cycles and moisture absorption. For various conditions of these cycles, not only changes in weight and also ultrasonic wave velocity were measured, and the Lamb wave velocity at various levels of moisture on a carbon-epoxy plate was investigated. Results from the experiment show a linear correlation between moisture absorption ratio and Lamb wave velocity at different thermal fatigue stages. The presented method can be applied as an alternative solution in the online monitoring of composite laminate moisture levels in commercial flights.

  10. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Becher

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC, where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required, while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects.

  11. Space-time modeling of soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zijuan; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2017-11-01

    A physically derived space-time mathematical representation of the soil moisture field is carried out via the soil moisture balance equation driven by stochastic rainfall forcing. The model incorporates spatial diffusion and in its original version, it is shown to be unable to reproduce the relative fast decay in the spatial correlation functions observed in empirical data. This decay resulting from variations in local topography as well as in local soil and vegetation conditions is well reproduced via a jitter process acting multiplicatively over the space-time soil moisture field. The jitter is a multiplicative noise acting on the soil moisture dynamics with the objective to deflate its correlation structure at small spatial scales which are not embedded in the probabilistic structure of the rainfall process that drives the dynamics. These scales of order of several meters to several hundred meters are of great importance in ecohydrologic dynamics. Properties of space-time correlation functions and spectral densities of the model with jitter are explored analytically, and the influence of the jitter parameters, reflecting variabilities of soil moisture at different spatial and temporal scales, is investigated. A case study fitting the derived model to a soil moisture dataset is presented in detail.

  12. Dampness and Moisture Problems in Norwegian Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becher, Rune; Høie, Anja Hortemo; Bakke, Jan Vilhelm; Holøs, Sverre Bjørn; Øvrevik, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of dampness and mold in the indoor environment is associated with respiratory-related disease outcomes. Thus, it is pertinent to know the magnitude of such indoor environment problems to be able to estimate the potential health impact in the population. In the present study, the moisture damage in 10,112 Norwegian dwellings was recorded based on building inspection reports. The levels of moisture damage were graded based on a condition class (CC), where CC0 is immaculate and CC1 acceptable (actions not required), while CC2 and CC3 indicate increased levels of damage that requires action. Of the 10,112 dwellings investigated, 3125 had verified moisture or mold damage. This amounts to 31% of the surveyed dwellings. Of these, 27% had CC2 as the worst grade, whereas 4% had CC3 as the worst grade level. The room types and building structures most prone to moisture damage were (in rank order) crawl spaces, basements, un-insulated attics, cooling rooms, and bathrooms. The high proportion of homes with moisture damage indicate a possible risk for respiratory diseases in a relatively large number of individuals, even if only the more extensive moisture damages and those located in rooms where occupants spend the majority of their time would have a significant influence on adverse health effects. PMID:29039816

  13. Moisture sorption isotherms of dehydrated whey proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rimac Brnčić

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption isotherms describe the relation between the moisture content of the dry material (food and relative humidity of the surrounding environment. The data obtained are important in modelling of drying process conditions, packaging and shelf-life stability of food that will provide maximum retaining of aroma, colour and texture as well as nutritive and biological value. The objective of this research was to establish the equilibrium moisture content and water activity, as well as monolayer value of two commercial powdered whey protein isolates before and after tribomechanical micronisation and enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. At the same time it was necessary to evaluate the best moisture sorption isotherm equation to fit the experimental data. The equilibrium moisture contents in investigated samples were determined using standard gravimetric method at 20 °C. The range of water activities was 0.11 to 0.75. The monolayer moisture content was estimated from sorption data using Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB models. The results have shown that tribomechanically treated whey protein isolates as well as protein hydrolizates had lower monolayer moisture content values as well as higher corresponding water activity. Therefore, in spite of the fact that they have lower moisture content, they can be storage at higher relative humidity compared to untreated samples. BET model gave better fit to experimental sorption data for a water activity range from 0.11-0.54, while GAB model gave the closest fit for a water activity to 0.75.

  14. Moisturizers: The slippery road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha Sethi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisturizers are an important part of a dermatologist's armamentarium although little is written and well, a less is truly known about them. There is a cornucopia of projected skin products in the market whose real scientific role is not proven. These products although at times are regarded as mere cosmetics but have a well-known role in many skin disorders. Adequate knowledge about their mechanism of action, dosage, usage, and adverse effects is must for a dermatologist in this era. This article aims to bring forth the ever hidden facts of the much-hyped moisturizers. It is probably the first of its kind covering all aspects of moisturizers ranging from basic science to clinical usage, a subject that receives a short shrift in the current dermatological text.

  15. Evaluation of Moisture Buffer Effects by Performing Whole-Building Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Mendes, Nathan; K., Grau

    2004-01-01

    The humidity of rooms and the moisture conditions of materials in the enclosure of buildings depend much on each other because of the moisture exchange that takes place over the interior surfaces. These moisture influences also depend strongly on the thermal conditions of indoor spaces and enclos...

  16. The urban moisture climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas L. Sisterson

    1977-01-01

    Data collected on 26 July 1974 as a part of project METROMEX in St. Louis show the three-dimensional structure of the urban moisture field. Mesoscale dry regions at the urban surface, corresponding to large residential and light industrial land-use characterization, were responsible for a reduction in specific humidity in the urban mixing layer. Anthropogenic sources...

  17. Multivariate analysis of soil moisture and runoff dynamics for better understanding of catchment moisture state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeff, Thomas; Bronstert, Axel; Cunha Costa, Alexandre; Zehe, Erwin

    2010-05-01

    technique to explore the soil moisture control on runoff generation and can be an important link between the scales. Long term monitoring of such sites could yield valuable information for flood warning and forecasting by identifying critical soil moisture conditions for the former and a better representation of the initial moisture conditions for the further.

  18. Numerical Investigation of a Moisture Evaporation Model in Building Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Amirkhanov, I V; Pavlish, M; Puzynina, T P; Puzynin, I V; Sarhadov, I

    2005-01-01

    The properties of a model of moisture evaporation in a porous building material of a rectangular form proposed in [1] are investigated. Algorithms of solving a nonlinear diffusion equation with initial and boundary conditions simulating the dynamic distribution of moisture concentration, calculation of coefficients of a polynomial describing transport of moisture with usage of experimental measurement of moisture concentration in a sample are developed and investigated. Research on the properties of the model is carried out depending on the degree of the polynomial, a set of its coefficients, and the quantity of the used experimental data.

  19. Workshop on moisture buffer capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003......Summary report of a Nordtest workshop on moisture buffer capacity held at Copenhagen August 21-22 2003...

  20. Effect of Moisture Sorption State on Vibrational Properties of Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianxiong Lu; Jiali Jiang; Yiqiang Wu; Xianjun Li; Zhiyong Cai

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the vibrational properties and corresponding anisotropicity in wood during different states of moisture sorption. Samples of maple (Acer spp.) and red oak (Quercus rubra Michx.f.) were moisture conditioned by the adsorption process from an ovendried state and by the desorption process...

  1. Hysteresis of soil temperature under different soil moisture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in a solar greenhouse. The objective of this study was to find a simple method to estimate the hysteresis of soil temperature under three soil moisture and two fertilizer levels in solar greenhouse conditions with tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). The results show that the soil moisture had no significant effects on ...

  2. A novel approach to determine moisture migration through pressboard insulation using FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Sruti; Vashishtha, Manish

    2017-07-01

    Moisture measurement in transformer pressboard is an integral part of monitoring mechanical and dielectric strength of insulation. The existing correlations for pressboard moisture mostly considers non-impregnated and steady state (equilibrium) conditions at oil and pressboard interface. In this paper, we discuss the transient moisture migration in oil impregnated pressboard insulation between two consecutive equilibrium conditions with due emphasis on insulation properties. This study is helpful in determining the insulation drying time and moisture retention in impregnated pressboards without conducting extensive experimentation.

  3. Temporal transferability of soil moisture calibration equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlandson, Tracy L.; Berg, Aaron A.; Bullock, Paul R.; Hanis-Gervais, Krista; Ojo, E. RoTimi; Cosh, Michael H.; Powers, Jarrett; McNairn, Heather

    2018-01-01

    Several large-scale field campaigns have been conducted over the last 20 years that require accurate measurements of soil moisture conditions. These measurements are manually conducted using soil moisture probes which require calibration. The calibration process involves the collection of hundreds of soil moisture cores, which is extremely labor intensive. In 2012, a field campaign was conducted in southern Manitoba in which 55 fields were sampled and calibration equations were derived for each field. The Soil Moisture Active Passive Experiment 2016 (SMAPVEX16) was conducted in this same region, and 21 of the same fields were resampled. This study examines the temporal transferability of calibration equations between these two field campaigns. It was found that the larger range in soil moisture over which samples were collected in 2012 (average range 0.11-0.41 m3 m-3) generally resulted in lower errors when used in 2016 (average range 0.24-0.44 m3 m-3) than the equations derived in 2016 when used with data collected in 2012. Combining the data collected in 2012 and 2016 did not improve the errors, overall. These results suggest that the transfer of calibration equations from one year to the next is not recommended.

  4. Moisture Metrics Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchmann, Mark

    2011-08-31

    the goal of this project was to determine the optimum moisture levels for biomass processing for pellets commercially, by correlating data taken from numerous points in the process, and across several different feedstock materials produced and harvested using a variety of different management practices. This was to be done by correlating energy consumption and material through put rates with the moisture content of incoming biomass ( corn & wheat stubble, native grasses, weeds, & grass straws), and the quality of the final pellet product.This project disseminated the data through a public website, and answering questions form universities across Missouri that are engaged in biomass conversion technologies. Student interns from a local university were employed to help collect data, which enabled them to learn firsthand about biomass processing.

  5. Moisture index for Iran: Spatial and temporal analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Hossein; Hosseinzadeh Talaee, P.

    2013-01-01

    Moisture indices, which account the balance between inputs and outputs of water, are typically used to determine the moisture conditions and the magnitude of water deficiency in a given area. This work studies the moisture conditions of Iran using the revised Thornthwaite moisture index, a ratio of evapotranspiration to precipitation, over the period of 1966-2005. Long-term trends in the moisture index were assessed by the Mann-Kendall test, the Sen's slope estimator and the Mann-Kendall rank statistic. According to the moisture index, arid and semiarid environmental conditions where the demand for water exceeds the water supply are dominant over the country. The results conclusively show that the significant trends in the moisture index are infrequent and found only at 8 out of the 41 study stations. The significant downward trends of the moisture index at Gorgan, Kermanshah, Khorram-Abad, Khoy, Sanandaj, Tabriz and Zanjan stations located in the north, northwest and west regions of Iran began in 1995, 1996, 1996, 1989, 1997, 1988 and 1986, respectively. Contrary to that, the significant upward trend at Dezful station started in 1973.

  6. Moisture content effect on ultrasonic velocity in Goupia glabra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Goia Rosa de Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of ultrasound waves on a Brazilian hardwood, Goupia glabra, to evaluate the sensitivity of the ultrasonic technique to the moisture content in wood. The velocity of ultrasonic wave is sensitive to the material's quality-determining factors; hence, this technique is an important industrial tool to improve the quality control of processes. The nature of the response of velocity of sound to changes in moisture content led us to conclude that moisture gradients during drying exert a dominating effect. The ultrasonic velocity was measured both parallel and perpendicular to the fibers of Goupia glabra during drying from green to 6% moisture content. The results of this study showed that velocity of ultrasonic waves is sensitive to changes in moisture content of lumber during drying. The velocity under dry conditions was always higher than the velocity under more humid conditions, in both directions of propagation.

  7. On-line moisture analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cutmore, N G

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the moisture content of iron ore has become a key issue for controlling moisture additions for dust suppression. In most cases moisture content is still determined by manual or automatic sampling of the ore stream, followed by conventional laboratory analysis by oven drying. Although this procedure enables the moisture content to be routinely monitored, it is too slow for control purposes. This has generated renewed interest in on-line techniques for the accurate and rapid measurement of moisture in iron ore on conveyors. Microwave transmission techniques have emerged over the past 40 years as the dominant technology for on-line measurement of moisture in bulk materials, including iron ores. Alternative technologies have their limitations. Infra-red analysers are used in a variety of process industries, but rely on the measurement of absorption by moisture in a very thin surface layer. Consequently such probes may be compromised by particle size effects and biased presentation of the bulk mater...

  8. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  9. Moisture adsorption and desorption behavior of sludge powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, F B; Bentes Freire, F; Pires, E C; Freire, J T

    2007-11-01

    In this work, the moisture adsorption and desorption isotherms were determined with the aim of defining the range of moisture content for storage of sludge powder. Equilibrium moisture content provides the basis for information not only on how much water has been taken out of a system but also on how fast drying is taking place (drying rate). Once the drying process is accomplished, the main concern rests on the storage of the dried final product. Still, the equilibrium moisture content is valuable information in that it has a major effect on the product physical and chemical properties. The present work also addresses the problem of selecting the best fit for equilibrium moisture content of sludge powder out of six well-known correlations for moisture sorption isotherms of solids: Henderson, Henderson-Thompson, Chung-Pfost, Chen-Clayton, Modified Halsey and Oswin. The equilibrium moisture content was determined by the static method (saturated salt solutions), in which the atmosphere surrounding the product is in equilibrium with the product without mechanical movement of the air or the product. Experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions at 20 and 40 degrees C. By calculating the regression coefficient, the residuals and the bias measure of Box for the equilibrium moisture content, the study showed that the Oswin Model was the most suitable. The range enclosed within the adsorption isotherm at 40 degrees C and the desorption isotherm at 20 degrees C defines the moisture extremes for storage in most tropical areas of the world.

  10. Analysis of Joint Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Adding insulation to the interior side of walls of masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw, have known solutions, but wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated versus non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  11. On the combined effect of moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation in asphalt concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varveri, A.; Scarpas, A.; Collop, A.; Erkens, S.M.J.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new moisture conditioning protocol which attempts to distinguish the contributions of long- and short-term moisture damage, i.e. moisture diffusion and cyclic pore pressure generation, in asphalt mixtures is presented. The capability of the proposed protocol to rank various asphalt

  12. Assessment of Errors in AMSR-E Derived Soil Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, C.; McNairn, H.; Berg, A.; de Jeu, R. A.

    2009-05-01

    Soil moisture derived from passive microwave satellites provides information at a coarse spatial scale, but with temporally frequent, global coverage that can be used for monitoring applications over agricultural regions. Passive microwave satellites measure surface brightness temperature, which is largely a function of vegetation water content (which is directly related to the vegetation optical depth), surface temperature and surface soil moisture at low frequencies. Retrieval algorithms for global soil moisture data sets by necessity require limited site-specific information to derive these parameters, and as such may show variations in local accuracy. The objective of this study is to examine the errors in passive microwave soil moisture data over agricultural sites in Canada to provide guidelines on data quality assessment for using these data sets in monitoring applications. Global gridded soil moisture was acquired from the AMSR-E satellite using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model, LPRM (Owe et al., 2008). The LPRM model derives surface soil moisture through an iterative optimization procedure using a polarization difference index to estimate vegetation optical depth and surface dielectric constant using frequencies at 6.9 and 10.7 GHz. The LPRM model requires no a-priori information on surface conditions, but retrieval errors are expected to increase as the amount of open water and dense vegetation within each pixel increases (Owe et al., 2008) Satellite-derived LPRM soil moisture values were used to assess changes in soil moisture retrieval accuracy over the 2007 growing season for a largely agricultural site near Guelph (Ontario), Canada. Accuracy was determined by validating LPRM soil moisture against a network of 16 in-situ monitoring sites distributed at the pixel scale for AMSR-E. Changes in squared error, and pairwise correlation coefficient between satellite and in-situ surface soil moisture were assessed against changes in satellite orbit and

  13. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  14. Moisture content measurement in paddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomklao, P.; Kuntinugunetanon, S.; Wongkokua, W.

    2017-09-01

    Moisture content is an important quantity for agriculture product, especially in paddy. In principle, the moisture content can be measured by a gravimetric method which is a direct method. However, the gravimetric method is time-consuming. There are indirect methods such as resistance and capacitance methods. In this work, we developed an indirect method based on a 555 integrated circuit timer. The moisture content sensor was capacitive parallel plates using the dielectric constant property of the moisture. The instrument generated the output frequency that depended on the capacitance of the sensor. We fitted a linear relation between periods and moisture contents. The measurement results have a standard uncertainty of 1.23 % of the moisture content in the range of 14 % to 20 %.

  15. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  16. Soil Moisture Monitoring at Watershed Scale in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the spatio-temporal variation of soil moisture on time scales that range from minute to decades on the watershed scale is important for the hydrological, meteorological and agricultural communities. Lack of reliable, longterm soil moisture datasets in developing countries like India, is a bottleneck for soil moisture analysis and prediction. Recognizing the need of continuous, automated in-situ soil moisture observations, three in-situ soil moisture test-beds have been established in an agricultural watershed of the Eastern India. Test-beds have been specifically designed to capture the root zone soil moisture dynamic at different crop fields under both surplus and water deficit conditions in low, medium and up-lands of the study region. Both volumetric and tensiometric method based sensors, Campbell Scientific soil water content reflectometer (CS650) and matric potential sensor (CS229) are installed at depths of 5, 15, 30, 60 and 100 cm below the surface. GPRS communication modems were installed at each station for remote communication from the data loggers (Campbell Scientific, CR1000) for automatic data collection. To achieve a better understanding of the spatial variation of the soil moisture on watershed scale, the strategic ground-based surface measurements were made in diverse landscape using portable impedance probe. The primary aim of spatial and temporal scale soil moisture measurement is to validate current remote sensing products of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP). In order to improve validation procedure, the soil texture and soil hydraulic parameters are also estimated across the spatial scales to develop dynamic relationship between these parameters. Herein, the strategies for the site selection, calibration of the soil moisture sensors, ground-based soil moisture monitoring, hydraulic properties estimation at spatial scale and the quality assurance techniques applied to the observations are provided.

  17. Soil moisture content estimation from passive temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, Landon JS; Roshan, Hamid; Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; Andersen, Martin S.; Acworth, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Natural temperature variations have increasingly been used to study shallow groundwater; however, the vast majority of studies are limited to saturated conditions. Despite the greater complexity of the unsaturated zone due to the non-linear relationships between moisture content and other physical properties (such as effective thermal conductivity and heat capacity), estimating soil moisture from measurements of natural temperature variations is possible. We have developed fundamental relationships between soil moisture and the diel temperature amplitude ratio and phase-shift. Additionally, we have developed fully coupled thermodynamic and hydraulic finite element (FE) models of temperature and soil moisture response to various boundary conditions. The performance of novel inversion techniques based on existing empirical thermal conductivity models has been evaluated with these results. Two significant empirical models of thermal conductivity of unsaturated sediments were integrated into the approach and compared. We performed a sensitivity analysis of our soil moisture model and determined the feasibility of deriving moisture estimates from temperature data by analysing the required measurement precision for the involved parameters. Inversion of the temperature output from the FE models demonstrates the factors, such as homogeneity and rapidly changing boundary conditions, which may limit the performance of unsaturated zone heat tracing, as well as the benefits of the approach. The use of heat to determine soil moisture content offers the advantages of lower cost; applicability to zones of high pore-water salinity, where inductive electromagnetic measurement methods fail; and the option of high spatial resolution or wide coverage when combined with fibre optic temperature sensing.

  18. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  19. Evaluating ESA CCI Soil Moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-01-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASAs Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP), however these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we use East Africa as a case study to evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM). Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we found substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies were well correlated (R greater than 0.5) with modeled, seasonal soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons at seasonal time scales to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can add information to a convergence of evidence framework that traditionally relies on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  20. Moisture Management for High R-Value Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepage, R.; Schumacher, C.; Lukachko, A.

    2013-11-01

    The following report explains the moisture-related concerns for High R-value wall assemblies and discusses past Building America research work that informs this study. Hygrothermal simulations were prepared for several common approaches to High R-value wall construction in six cities (Houston, Atlanta, Seattle, St. Louis, Chicago, and International Falls) representing a range of climate zones (2, 3, 4C, 4, 5A, and 7, respectively). The simulations are informed by experience gained from past research in this area and validated by field measurement and forensic experience. The modeling program was developed to assess the moisture durability of the wall assemblies based on three primary sources of moisture: construction moisture, air leakage condensation, and bulk water leakage. The peak annual moisture content of the wood based exterior sheathing was used to comparatively analyze the response to the moisture loads for each of the walls in each given city. Walls which experienced sheathing moisture contents between 20% and 28% were identified as risky, whereas those exceeding 28% were identified as very high risk. All of the wall assemblies perform well under idealized conditions. However, only the walls with exterior insulation, or cavity insulation which provides a hygrothermal function similar to exterior insulation, perform adequately when exposed to moisture loads. Walls with only cavity insulation are particularly susceptible to air leakage condensation. None of the walls performed well when a precipitation based bulk water leak was introduced to the backside of the sheathing, emphasizing the importance of proper flashing details.

  1. Model of moisture absorption by adhesive joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla Mora, Veronica; Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2018-01-01

    Adhesive joints offer many advantages over traditional mechanical joining systems. Nonetheless, their use is limited since they can be adversely affected by extreme temperatures and humidity conditions. Moisture contamination (even 1-3% of the sample weight) in an adhesive can alter its tensile strength and compromise the structural integrity of the joint. Moisture absorption processes can be monitored using methods based on fibre Bragg grating sensors embedded in the adhesive material. In the present paper, a finite element model of an adhesive joint between composite elements was analysed using the commercial code Abaqus™. The investigation contains two main parts: a thermal analysis and a hygro-mechanical analysis. The achieved results were verified using experimental investigation results for a sample with embedded fibre Bragg grating sensors that were applied to monitor the moisture-induced strains in the adhesive joint. The achieved numerical results show good agreement with the experimental ones for all considered analyses. The presented models can also be used for the determination of moisture content in an adhesive layer especially in a range of 1.5-2.5% of the water content.

  2. Modeling temperature and moisture fields in conditioned spaces using zonal approach, including sorption phenomena in buildings materials; Modelisation thermo-hydro-aeraulique des locaux climatises selon l'approche zonale (prise en compte des phenomenes de sorption d'humidite)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordeiro Mendoca, K.

    2004-05-15

    Building simulation models represent in our days an important tool for building conception and performance analysis. Although moisture interacts in many ways with the whole building affecting therefore its behavior, frequently these models neglects the interactions between them. In addition, in most of them, indoor air conditions are considered uniform, which is a non-realistic assumption in conditioned spaces. In this work, a model to predict temperature and moisture fields in conditioned spaces, using zonal approach, is proposed. This method is based in dividing spatially a room in a relative small number of zones, typically on the order of tens to hundreds, where the state variables of air are considered uniform, with the exception of pressure that varies hydrostatically. While not as fine-grained as CFD simulation, zonal models do give useful information about temperature and moisture distributions that is important in comfort analysis. The proposed model was structured in three groups of sub-models representing the three building domains: indoor air, envelope and HVAC system. The indoor air sub-model is related to the indoor air space, where airflow speed can be considered weak. The envelope sub-model is related to the radiation exchanges between envelope and its neighborhood, and to the simultaneous heat and mass transfers across the envelope material. This latest can be represented by four sub-models of different complexity levels, with two of them taking into account moisture adsorption and desorption by building materials. Concerning to the HVAC system model, it refers to the whole system that means equipment, control and specific airflow from equipment. All sub-models were coupled into a modular simulation environment, SPARK, well-adapted to compare different models. The applicability of the proposed model is shown by two examples. The first one shows the importance of considering moisture sorption phenomena in the prediction of indoor air conditions

  3. Soil moisture responses to vapour pressure deficit in polytunnel-grown tomato under soil moisture triggered irrigation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Martin; Kühn, Karl; Jenkins, Dick

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work has been to investigate soil-to-atmosphere water transport in potted tomato plants by measuring and processing high-resolution soil moisture data against the environmental driver of vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Whilst many researchers have successfully employed sap flow sensors to determine water uptake by roots and transport through the canopy, the installation of sap flow sensors is non-trivial. This work presents an alternative method that can be integrated with irrigation controllers and data loggers that employ soil moisture feedback which can allow water uptake to be evaluated against environmental drivers such as VPD between irrigation events. In order to investigate water uptake against VPD, soil moisture measurements were taken with a resolution of 2 decimal places - and soil moisture, air temperature and relative humidity measurements were logged every 2 minutes. Data processing of the soil moisture was performed in an Excel spread sheet where changes in water transport were derived from the rate of change of soil moisture using the Slope function over 5 soil moisture readings. Results are presented from a small scale experiment using a GP2-based irrigation controller and data logger. Soil moisture feedback is provided from a single SM300 soil moisture sensor in order to regulate the soil moisture level and to assess the water flow from potted tomato plants between irrigation events. Soil moisture levels were set to avoid drainage water losses. By determining the rate of change in soil moisture between irrigation events, over a 16 day period whilst the tomato plant was in flower, it has been possible to observe very good correlation between soil water uptake and VPD - illustrating the link between plant physiology and environmental conditions. Further data is presented for a second potted tomato plant where the soil moisture level is switched between the level that avoids drainage losses and a significantly lower level. This data

  4. Moisture relationships in composting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richard, T.L.; Veeken, A.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Moisture is a key environmental factor that affects many aspects of the composting process. Biodegradation kinetics are affected by moisture through changes in oxygen diffusion, water potential and water activity, and microbial growth rates. These relationships are made more complex by the dynamic

  5. Mode Decomposition Methods for Soil Moisture Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, R. B.; Efendiev, Y. R.; Mohanty, B.

    2014-12-01

    Lack of reliable, well-distributed, long-term datasets for model validation is a bottle-neck for most exercises in soil moisture analysis and prediction. Understanding what factors drive soil hydrological processes at different scales and their variability is very critical to further our ability to model the various components of the hydrologic cycle more accurately. For this, a comprehensive dataset with measurements across scales is very necessary. Intensive fine-resolution sampling of soil moisture over extended periods of time is financially and logistically prohibitive. Installation of a few long term monitoring stations is also expensive, and needs to be situated at critical locations. The concept of Time Stable Locations has been in use for some time now to find locations that reflect the mean values for the soil moisture across the watershed under all wetness conditions. However, the soil moisture variability across the watershed is lost when measuring at only time stable locations. We present here a study using techniques such as Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) and Discrete Empirical Interpolation Method (DEIM) that extends the concept of time stable locations to arrive at locations that provide not simply the average soil moisture values for the watershed, but also those that can help re-capture the dynamics across all locations in the watershed. As with the time stability, the initial analysis is dependent on an intensive sampling history. The DMD/DEIM method is an application of model reduction techniques for non-linearly related measurements. Using this technique, we are able to determine the number of sampling points that would be required for a given accuracy of prediction across the watershed, and the location of those points. Locations with higher energetics in the basis domain are chosen first. We present case studies across watersheds in the US and India. The technique can be applied to other hydro-climates easily.

  6. Landslide susceptibility mapping using downscaled AMSR-E soil moisture: A case study from Cleveland Corral, California, US

    Science.gov (United States)

    As soil moisture increases, slope stability decreases. Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide routine updates of slope conditions necessary for landslide predictions. For regional scale landslide investigations, only remote sensing methods have the spatial and temporal resolution required to...

  7. Laboratory evaluation of resistance to moisture damage in asphalt mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ebrahim Abu El-Maaty Behiry

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Moisture damage in asphalt mixtures refers to loss in strength and durability due to the presence of water. Egypt road network is showing severe deterioration such as raveling and stripping because the bond between aggregates and asphalt film is broken due to water intrusion. To minimize moisture damage, asphalt mixes are investigated to evaluate the effect of air voids, degree of saturation, media of attack and the conditioning period. Two medias of attack are considered and two anti-stripping additives are used (hydrated lime and Portland cement. The retained Marshall stability and tensile strength ratio are calculated to determine the resistance to moisture damage. The results showed that both lime and cement could increase Marshall stability, resilient modulus, tensile strength and resistance to moisture damage of mixtures especially at higher condition periods. Use of hydrated lime had better results than Portland cement.

  8. Soil Moisture Mapping from ASAR Imagery of the Mulargia basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fois, L.; Montaldo, N.

    2016-12-01

    The state of the soil moisture is a key variable controlling surface water and energy balances. High resolution data of the ASAR (advanced synthetic aperture radar) sensor aboard European Space Agency's Envisat satellite offers the opportunity for monitoring surface soil moisture at high resolution (up to 30 m), which is suitable for distributed mapping within the small scales of typical Mediterranean basins. These basins are characterized by strong topography and high spatial variability of physiographic properties, and only high spatial resolution satellite images allow to estimate adequately soil moisture spatial variability. ASAR-based soil moisture mapping of the Mulargia basin (area of about 65 sq.km) are collected for 2003-2006 years. In Mediterranean basins, such as the Mulargia basin, characterized by water-limited conditions, even though there is no universal relationship between vegetation and soil patterns in water-limited conditions some relationship between soil water storage capacity and vegetation type and density can be found: for instance, typically an increase of woody vegetation dimension and canopy density when moving from uplands of a hillslope (with thin coarse textured soils) to alluvial fans (with deep soils of finer texture). We investigated the relationships between soil moisture spatial variability, soil depth and vegetation distribution, which impact strongly soil, vegetation and atmosphere interactions. For the case study ASAR products at single and double polarization are tested and validated. For validating radar soil moisture estimates, spatially distributed soil moisture ground-truth data have also been collected over the whole basin through the TDR technique and the gravimetric method, in days with available radar images. Results shows: 1) the high resolution ASAR imagery accuracy for producing maps of surface soil moisture patterns at the catchment scale and their reliability for different seasons (wet vs dry), and 2) a

  9. Measuring Moisture Levels in Graphite Epoxy Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley

    2011-01-01

    Graphite epoxy composite (GEC) materials are used in the construction of rocket fairings, nose cones, interstage adapters, and heat shields due to their high strength and light weight. However, they absorb moisture depending on the environmental conditions they are exposed to prior to launch. Too much moisture absorption can become a problem when temperature and pressure changes experienced during launch cause the water to vaporize. The rapid state change of the water can result in structural failure of the material. In addition, heat and moisture combine to weaken GEC structures. Diffusion models that predict the total accumulated moisture content based on the environmental conditions are one accepted method of determining if the material strength has been reduced to an unacceptable level. However, there currently doesn t exist any field measurement technique to estimate the actual moisture content of a composite structure. A multi-layer diffusion model was constructed with Mathematica to predict moisture absorption and desorption from the GEC sandwich structure. This model is used in conjunction with relative humidity/temperature sensors both on the inside and outside of the material to determine the moisture levels in the structure. Because the core materials have much higher diffusivity than the face sheets, a single relative humidity measurement will accurately reflect the moisture levels in the core. When combined with an external relative humidity measurement, the model can be used to determine the moisture levels in the face sheets. Since diffusion is temperaturedependent, the temperature measurements are used to determine the diffusivity of the face sheets for the model computations.

  10. A soil moisture and temperature network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bircher, Simone; Skou, Niels; Jensen, K. H.

    2011-01-01

    SMOS pixel (44 × 44 km), which is representative of the land surface conditions of the catchment and with minimal impact from open water (2) arrangement of three network clusters along the precipitation gradient, and (3) distribution of the stations according to respective fractions of classes......The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS) acquires surface soil moisture data globally, and thus product validation for a range of climate and environmental conditions across continents is a crucial step. For this purpose, a soil moisture and temperature network of Decagon ECH2O 5TE...... representing the prevailing environmental conditions. Overall, measured moisture and temperature patterns could be related to the respective land cover and soil conditions. Texture-dependency of the 0–5 cm soil moisture measurements was demonstrated. Regional differences in 0–5 cm soil moisture, temperature...

  11. The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Nijoku, Eni G.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Kellogg, Kent H.; Crow, Wade T.; Edelstein, Wendy N.; Entin, Jared K.; Goodman, Shawn D.; Jackson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Joel; hide

    2009-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being developed by NASA in response to the National Research Council s Decadal Survey. SMAP will make global measurements of the moisture present at Earth's land surface and will distinguish frozen from thawed land surfaces. Direct observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space will allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between land and atmosphere. Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing flooding and monitoring drought. SMAP observations can help mitigate these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and social benefits. SMAP soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing observations will also reduce a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance by helping to resolve an apparent missing carbon sink on land over the boreal latitudes. The SMAP mission concept would utilize an L-band radar and radiometer. These instruments will share a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state every two to three days. The SMAP instruments provide direct measurements of surface conditions. In addition, the SMAP project will use these observations with advanced modeling and data assimilation to provide deeper root-zone soil moisture and estimates of land surface-atmosphere exchanges of water, energy and carbon. SMAP is scheduled for a 2014 launch date

  12. Moisture-Mediated Interactions Between Amorphous Maltodextrins and Crystalline Fructose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorat, Alpana; Marrs, Krystin N; Ghorab, Mohamed K; Meunier, Vincent; Forny, Laurent; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2017-05-01

    The effects of coformulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and crystalline fructose, a deliquescent solid, on the moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0 ), and glass transition temperature (Tg ) behaviors were determined. Moisture sorption profiles of binary fructose:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators and by dynamic vapor sorption techniques. Blends exhibited synergistic moisture uptake at RHs below the RH0 of fructose, attributed to partial dissolution of fructose in plasticized MD matrices without a significant reduction in the RH0 of the undissolved fructose. Increasing storage temperature decreased the onset RH for moisture sorption synergy. At all storage RHs, the measured Tg (2nd scan) was significantly reduced in fructose:MD mixtures compared to individual MDs, and was related to both the synergistic moisture uptake in the blends and heat-induced ternary fructose-MD-water interactions in the differential scanning calorimeter. Differences were found between the behavior of fructose:MD blends and previous reports of sucrose:MD and NaCl:MD blends, caused in part by the lower RH0 of fructose. The enhanced moisture sorption in blends of deliquescent and amorphous ingredients could lead to problematic moisture-induced changes if storage conditions are not controlled. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Analysis of Joist Masonry Moisture Content Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Kohta [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-10-08

    There are many existing buildings with load-bearing mass masonry walls, whose energy performance could be improved with the retrofit of insulation. However, adding insulation to the interior side of walls of such masonry buildings in cold (and wet) climates may cause performance and durability problems. Some concerns, such as condensation and freeze-thaw have known solutions. But wood members embedded in the masonry structure will be colder (and potentially wetter) after an interior insulation retrofit. Moisture content & relative humidity were monitored at joist ends in historic mass brick masonry walls retrofitted with interior insulation in a cold climate (Zone 5A); data were collected from 2012-2015. Eleven joist ends were monitored in all four orientations. One limitation of these results is that the renovation is still ongoing, with limited wintertime construction heating and no permanent occupancy to date. Measurements show that many joists ends remain at high moisture contents, especially at north- and east-facing orientations, with constant 100% RH conditions at the worst cases. These high moisture levels are not conducive for wood durability, but no evidence for actual structural damage has been observed. Insulated vs. non-insulated joist pockets do not show large differences. South facing joists have safe (10-15%) moisture contents. Given the uncertainty pointed out by research, definitive guidance on the vulnerability of embedded wood members is difficult to formulate. In high-risk situations, or when a very conservative approach is warranted, the embedded wood member condition can be eliminated entirely, supporting the joist ends outside of the masonry pocket.

  14. Moisture transport properties of mortar and mortar joint: a NMR study

    OpenAIRE

    Brocken, HJP Harold; Adan, OCG Olaf; Pel, Leo, L

    1997-01-01

    The moisture transport in mortar and mortar joint often is an important parameter in degeneration of brick masonry and other block constructions. In this study, the influence of single additives on the moisture transport properties of mortar is investigated. Due to water extraction during brick laying, curing conditions of mortar in mortar joint differ from curing conditions of separately cured mortar. Consequently, the moisture transport properties of mortar joint differ. In addition to the ...

  15. Moisturizers: Options for Softer Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... producing glands become less active. To keep your skin soft and well-hydrated, choose an oil-based moisturizer that contains petrolatum as the base, along with antioxidants or alpha hydroxy acids to combat wrinkles. These ...

  16. Compact RFID Enabled Moisture Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. H. Khan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research proposes a novel, low-cost RFID tag sensor antenna implemented using commercially available Kodak photo-paper. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility of stable, RFID centric communication under varying moisture levels. Variation in the frequency response of the RFID tag in presence of moisture is used to detect different moisture levels. Combination of unique jaw shaped contours and T-matching network is used for impedance matching which results in compact size and minimal ink consumption. Proposed tag is 1.4 × 9.4 cm2 in size and shows optimum results for various moisture levels upto 45% in FCC band with a bore sight read range of 12.1 m.

  17. The Murrumbidgee soil moisture monitoring network data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. B.; Walker, J. P.; Western, A. W.; Young, R. I.; Ellett, K. M.; Pipunic, R. C.; Grayson, R. B.; Siriwardena, L.; Chiew, F. H. S.; Richter, H.

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes a soil moisture data set from the 82,000 km2 Murrumbidgee River Catchment in southern New South Wales, Australia. Data have been archived from the Murrumbidgee Soil Moisture Monitoring Network (MSMMN) since its inception in September 2001. The Murrumbidgee Catchment represents a range of conditions typical of much of temperate Australia, with climate ranging from semiarid to humid and land use including dry land and irrigated agriculture, remnant native vegetation, and urban areas. There are a total of 38 soil moisture-monitoring sites across the Murrumbidgee Catchment, with a concentration of sites in three subareas. The data set is composed of 0-5 (or 0-8), 0-30, 30-60, and 60-90 cm average soil moisture, soil temperature, precipitation, and other land surface model forcing at all sites, together with other ancillary data. These data are available on the World Wide Web at http://www.oznet.org.au.

  18. Effect of Root-Zone Moisture Variations on Growth of Lettuce and Pea Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania

    2008-06-01

    Variations in substrate moisture lead to changes in water and oxygen availability to plant roots. Ground experiments were carried out in the laboratory prototype of SVET-2 Space Greenhouse to study the effect of variation of root-zone moisture conditions on growth of lettuce and pea plants. The effect of transient increase (for 1 day) and drastic increase (waterlogging for 10 days) of substrate moisture was studied with 16-day old pea and 21-day old lettuce plants respectively. Pea height and fresh biomass accumulation were not affected by transient substrate moisture increase. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of pea plants showed fast response to substrate moisture variation, while chlorophyll content did not change. Drastic change of substrate moisture suppressed lettuce Pn, chlorophyll biosynthesis and plant growth. These parameters slowly recovered after termination of waterlogging treatment but lettuce yield was greatly affected. The results showed that the most sensitive physiological parameter to substrate moisture variations is photosynthesis.

  19. Does Greenland need a guideline on how to deal with moisture in the construction phase?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2012-01-01

    and gives examples of moisture-related problems in buildings in Greenland. Requirements and guidelines are needed in Greenland in order to deal with moisture in the construction phase, but as the conditions for constructing houses and the way that houses are used in Greenland are different from Denmark......, an adaptation to the specific conditions in Greenland is needed....

  20. Response of grassland ecosystems to prolonged soil moisture deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Morgan A.; Ponce-Campos, Guillermo E.; Barnes, Mallory L.; Hottenstein, John D.; Moran, M. Susan

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is commonly used for predictions of plant response and productivity. Climate change is predicted to cause an increase in the frequency and duration of droughts over the next century, which will result in prolonged periods of below-normal soil moisture. This, in turn, is expected to impact regional plant production, erosion and air quality. In fact, the number of consecutive months of soil moisture content below the drought-period mean has recently been linked to regional tree and shrub mortality in the southwest United States. This study investigated the effects of extended periods of below average soil moisture on the response of grassland ANPP to precipitation. Grassland ecosystems were selected for this study because of their ecological sensitivity to precipitation patterns. It has been postulated that the quick ecological response of grasslands to droughts can provide insight to large scale functional responses of regions to predicted climate change. The study sites included 21 grassland biomes throughout arid-to-humid climates in the United States with continuous surface soil moisture records for 2-13 years during the drought period from 2000-2013. Annual net primary production (ANPP) was estimated from the 13-year record of NASA MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index extracted for each site. Prolonged soil moisture deficit was defined as a period of at least 10 consecutive months during which soil moisture was below the drought-period mean. ANPP was monitored before, during and after prolonged soil moisture deficit to quantify shifts in the functional response of grasslands to precipitation, and in some cases, new species assemblages that included invasive species. Preliminary results indicated that when altered climatic conditions on grasslands led to an increase in the duration of soil water deficit, then the precipitation-to-ANPP relation became non-linear. Non-linearity was associated with extreme grassland dieback and changes in the historic

  1. Effect of Moisture Cycling on Mechanical Response of Metal-Plate Connector Joints With and Without an Adhesive Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie H. Groom

    1995-01-01

    Wood trusses are frequently located in light-frame structures where they are subjected to significant shifts in moisture conditions. However, little is known about the effects of moisture cycling of the wood members on the mechanical behavior of metal-plate connector (MPC) joints. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to quantify the effect of wood moisture...

  2. A new data assimilation approach for improving runoff prediction using remotely-sensed soil moisture retrievals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. T. Crow

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of recent studies have focused on enhancing runoff prediction via the assimilation of remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals into a hydrologic model. The majority of these approaches have viewed the problem from purely a state or parameter estimation perspective in which remotely-sensed soil moisture estimates are assimilated to improve the characterization of pre-storm soil moisture conditions in a hydrologic model, and consequently, its simulation of runoff response to subsequent rainfall. However, recent work has demonstrated that soil moisture retrievals can also be used to filter errors present in satellite-based rainfall accumulation products. This result implies that soil moisture retrievals have potential benefit for characterizing both antecedent moisture conditions (required to estimate sub-surface flow intensities and subsequent surface runoff efficiencies and storm-scale rainfall totals (required to estimate the total surface runoff volume. In response, this work presents a new sequential data assimilation system that exploits remotely-sensed surface soil moisture retrievals to simultaneously improve estimates of both pre-storm soil moisture conditions and storm-scale rainfall accumulations. Preliminary testing of the system, via a synthetic twin data assimilation experiment based on the Sacramento hydrologic model and data collected from the Model Parameterization Experiment, suggests that the new approach is more efficient at improving stream flow predictions than data assimilation techniques focusing solely on the constraint of antecedent soil moisture conditions.

  3. Sensitivity of seasonal weather prediction and extreme precipitation events to soil moisture initialization uncertainty using SMOS soil moisture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayar-Pardo, Samiro; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo

    Sensitivity of seasonal weather prediction and extreme precipitation events to soil moisture initialization uncertainty using SMOS soil moisture products (1) S. Khodayar, (2) A. Coll, (2) E. Lopez-Baeza (1) Institute for Meteorology and Climate Research, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe Germany (2) University of Valencia. Earth Physics and Thermodynamics Department. Climatology from Satellites Group Soil moisture is an important variable in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology and related disciplines. Despite its importance, it is complicated to obtain an appropriate representation of this variable, mainly because of its high temporal and spatial variability. SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer) models can be used to simulate the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of soil moisture in a given area and/or state of the art products such as the soil moisture measurements from the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) space mission may be also convenient. The potential role of soil moisture initialization and associated uncertainty in numerical weather prediction is illustrated in this study through sensitivity numerical experiments using the SVAT SURFEX model and the non-hydrostatic COSMO model. The aim of this investigation is twofold, (a) to demonstrate the sensitivity of model simulations of convective precipitation to soil moisture initial uncertainty, as well as the impact on the representation of extreme precipitation events, and (b) to assess the usefulness of SMOS soil moisture products to improve the simulation of water cycle components and heavy precipitation events. Simulated soil moisture and precipitation fields are compared with observations and with level-1(~1km), level-2(~15 km) and level-3(~35 km) soil moisture maps generated from SMOS over the Iberian Peninsula, the SMOS validation area (50 km x 50 km, eastern Spain) and selected stations, where in situ measurements are available covering different vegetation cover

  4. Galvanic Cell Type Sensor for Soil Moisture Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikwad, Pramod; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Paswan, Bhuneshwar; Raja Kottaichamy, Alagar; Makri Nimbegondi Kotresh, Harish; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2015-07-21

    Here we report the first potentiometric sensor for soil moisture analysis by bringing in the concept of Galvanic cells wherein the redox energies of Al and conducting polyaniline are exploited to design a battery type sensor. The sensor consists of only simple architectural components, and as such they are inexpensive and lightweight, making it suitable for on-site analysis. The sensing mechanism is proved to be identical to a battery type discharge reaction wherein polyaniline redox energy changes from the conducting to the nonconducting state with a resulting voltage shift in the presence of soil moisture. Unlike the state of the art soil moisture sensors, a signal derived from the proposed moisture sensor is probe size independent, as it is potentiometric in nature and, hence, can be fabricated in any shape or size and can provide a consistent output signal under the strong aberration conditions often encountered in soil moisture analysis. The sensor is regenerable by treating with 1 M HCl and can be used for multiple analysis with little read out hysteresis. Further, a portable sensor is fabricated which can provide warning signals to the end user when the moisture levels in the soil go below critically low levels, thereby functioning as a smart device. As the sensor is inexpensive, portable, and potentiometric, it opens up avenues for developing effective and energy efficient irrigation strategies, understanding the heat and water transfer at the atmosphere-land interface, understanding soil mechanics, forecasting the risk of natural calamities, and so on.

  5. Potential of ASCAT Soil Moisture Product to Improve Runoff Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Bartalis, Z.; Hasenauer, S.

    2009-11-01

    The role and the importance of soil moisture for meteorological, agricultural and hydrological applications is widely known. Remote sensing offers the unique capability to monitor soil moisture over large areas (catchment scale) with, nowadays, a temporal resolution suitable for hydrological purposes. However, the accuracy of the remotely sensed soil moisture estimates have to be carefully checked. Therefore, the assessment of the effects of assimilating satellite- derived soil moisture estimates into rainfall-runoff models at different scales and over different regions represents an important scientific and operational issue. In this context, the soil wetness index (SWI) product derived from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) sensor was tested in this study. The SWI was firstly compared with the soil moisture temporal pattern derived from a continuous rainfall-runoff model (MISDc). Then, by using a simple data assimilation technique, the SWI was assimilated into MISDc and the model performance on flood estimation was analyzed. Moreover, three synthetic experiments considering errors on rainfall, model parameters and initial soil wetness conditions were carried out. These experiments allowed to further investigate the SWI potential when uncertain conditions take place.The most significant flood events, which occurred in the period 2000-2009 for five subcatchments of the Upper Tiber River in central Italy, ranging in extension between 100 and 650 km2, were used as case studies. Results reveal that the SWI derived from the ASCAT sensor can be conveniently used to improve runoff prediction in the study area, mainly if the initial soil wetness conditions are unknown.

  6. Development and evaluation of the MTVDI for soil moisture monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenbin; Lv, Aifeng; Jia, Shaofeng; Sun, Liang

    2017-06-01

    Several parameterization schemes have been developed to retrieve the soil moisture information involved in the remotely sensed surface temperature-vegetation index (Ts - VI) space. However, most of them are performed with the constraint of the dry edge of the Ts - VI space to define the maximum water stressed conditions. In view of the subjectivity and uncertainty involved in the determination of the dry edge, a new index termed as the Modified Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (MTVDI) was developed in this paper to reduce the reliance of the parameterization scheme on the dry edge. In the parameterization scheme of MTVDI, isopleth lines of soil moisture involved in the feature space were retrieved by the temperature-vegetation index method, and only the maximum surface temperature of bare soil (Tsmax) was indispensable in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions. For evaluation purpose, the MTVDI was demonstrated in the Southern Great Plains region of the U.S. and was compared with two other traditional soil moisture indexes developed under the constraint of dry edge. The comparison confirmed the effectivity of the MTVDI in monitoring the spatial pattern and seasonal variation of soil moisture. Our analyses also suggest that Tsmax, the only parameter needed in the definition of maximum water stressed conditions, can be retrieved directly from the parameterization scheme itself. Therefore, the retrieval of MTVDI can be performed independent of the dry edge, which is a significant improvement to the traditional parameterization schemes of soil moisture from the Ts - VI feature space.

  7. Summer moisture availability across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schrier, G.; Briffa, K. R.; Osborn, T. J.; Cook, E. R.

    2006-06-01

    Maps of the monthly self-calibrating Palmer drought severity index (SCPDSI) have been calculated for the period 1901-2002 for the contiguous United States (20°-50°N and 130°-60°W) with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5°. The recently introduced SCPDSI improves upon the more common Palmer drought severity index by maintaining a more consistent behavior of the index and hence comparability over diverse climatological regions. Although the self-calibrating PDSI and the "traditional" PDSI averaged over the contiguous United States correlate well, large differences were found for extensive areas. Over the area as whole the 1930s and 1950s stand out as times of persistent and exceptionally dry conditions, whereas the 1970s and the 1990s were generally wet. Over 55% of the Untied States saw moderate to extreme drought in 1934 and over 40% of the area was affected during the 1954-1956 drought. The wettest year, 1983, saw over 45% of the contiguous United States affected by moderate to extreme wet conditions. Three leading modes of coherent summer moisture variability are identified, and they have their largest loading over the northwestern United States, the southern plains, and the southwestern United States, respectively. No evidence is found for a statistically significant trend in the percentage area of the contiguous United States experiencing either moderate or extreme moisture availability conditions for the 1901-2002 period.

  8. New calculation method to solve moisture balance in the room with regenerator heat recovery and infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Heiselberg, Per; Drivsholm, Christian

    2017-01-01

    time of the regenerator and consequently might be evaporated in the next cycle back to the building and cause elevated humidity conditions in the indoor spaces. Due to the fact that the traditionally used dilution equation must not be used to solve moisture balance in the room with regenerator heat....... Theoretical calculations indicate that the ability of a ventilation system with regenerator to remove moisture from the room is very dependent on moisture loads in the room, air change rate, and infiltration rate....

  9. Moisture measurements in building materials with microwaves; Rakennusmateriaalien kosteusmittauksia mikroaalloilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, H.; Rudolph, M.; Schaurich, D.; Wiggenhauser, H. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Construction and Facility Management

    1998-12-01

    In order to assess the condition and evaluate the reliability of buildings and structures, it is essential to establish the moisture condition of the floor and other structural elements of the building. NDT-methods are increasingly being used for such moisture measurements because they do not cause any damage to the building under investigation. Microwave transmission is one of the NDT-methods and has been in use for several years. In this report, the applicability of the microwave method for measuring moisture in different building materials was investigated. This method has been successfully used at BAM for repeated moisture measurements in brick and sandstone material. This project also included other materials, such as concrete, sand, gravel, insulation and wood. At the same time, information was gathered about in situ moisture determination of building materials with a microwave moisture measuring system. The equipment used in this research has been developed at BAM over the last few years. The method requires two parallel boreholes in the specimen in which two microwave antennae can be moved. The moisture content in the material can be calculated from the microwave intensity transmitted between the two boreholes. Moisture profiles along the boreholes can be obtained by moving the antennae in steps along the length of the boreholes and taking measurements at each step. Special care must be taken while drilling the holes for the antennae, as this process must not affect the moisture condition in the specimen, and the boreholes must be made as parallel to each other as possible. The microwave frequencies used in the laboratory measurements ranged from 8 to 16,5 GHz in steps of 0,5 GHz. The diameters of the antennae were between 7 and 9 mm, and of the boreholes between 8 and 12 mm. Except for the concrete specimen, all the specimens were measured using plastic tubes in the boreholes. The moisture content measured by the microwave technique was verified by the

  10. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showed that the magnitude of the convective surface transfer coefficients have a relatively large...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  11. Sources of glacial moisture in Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    Paleoclimatic records from Mesoamerica document the interplay between Atlantic and Pacific sources of precipitation during the last glacial stage and Holocene. Today, and throughout much of the Holocene, the entire region receives its principal moisture in the summer from an interaction of easterly trade winds with the equatorial calms. Glacial records from sites east of 95?? W in Guatemala, Florida, northern Venezuela and Colombia record dry conditions before 12 ka, however. West of 95?? W, glacial conditions were moister than in the Holocene. For example, pollen and diatom data show that Lake Pa??tzcuaro in the central Mexican highlands was cool, deep and fresh during this time and fossil pinyon needles in packrat middens in Chihuahua, Sonora, Arizona, and Texas indicate cooler glacial climates with increased winter precipitation. Cold Gulf of Mexico sea-surface temperatures and reduced strength of the equatorial calms can explain arid full and late glacial environments east of 95?? W whereas an intensified pattern of winter, westerly air flow dominated hydrologic balances as far south as 20?? N. Overall cooler temperatures may have increased effective moisture levels during dry summer months in both areas. ?? 1997 INQUA/ Elsevier Science Ltd.

  12. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Mantha, P.

    2013-05-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls.

  13. Soil Moisture and Agromet Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    decade of each month also produces monthly summaries. The Soil Moisture program covers two geographical areas. Area 1, the " Europea |," or "Soviet...American Geophysical Union , 25, 683-693. Thornthwaite, C. W. and J. R. Mather, 1955: The Water Balance. Publicatiuns in Climatology, Drexel Inst. of

  14. Moisture transport in coated plaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, E.L.J.; Van der Spoel, W.H.; Bancken, E.L.J.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of the research project: 'Water balance of water-borne paint systems on plaster substrates in relation to fungal growth', a study is carried out to moisture transport mechanisms in coated gypsum plaster. In this contribution, the set-up of the study is described. Besides a

  15. Soil Moisture Retrieval from Aquarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquarius observations over land offer an unprecedented opportunity to provide a value-added product, land surface soil moisture, which will contribute to a better understanding of the Earth’s climate and water cycle. Additionally, Aquarius will provide the first spaceborne data that can be used to a...

  16. Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Information on pore geometry is very important in any study of the mechanical and physical behavior of porous materials. Unfortunately pores are not very accessible for direct measurements. Indirect methods have to be used which involve impregnation (sorption) experiments from which...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....

  17. A microfabricated amperometric moisture sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Li; Xingguo, Xiong; Dallas, Tim; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra; Temkin, Henryk; Wang, Xuejun; Walulu, Richard; Li, Jianzhong; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2002-02-11

    We describe a microfabricated moisture sensor with interdigitated Au or Pt electrodes on a silicon substrate. The sensor active area is covered with a spin-coated, baked-on layer of Nafion(R) perfluorosulfonate ionomer of submicron thickness. The sensor responds to moisture with a 10-90% rise time of 50-100 ms and a 90-10% fall time of 20-30 ms, faster than any other presently available sensor. The logarithm of the sensor current is related to the cube root of the moisture level at a given temperature. At 23 degrees C, the sensor easily measures relative humidities as low as 10%. The sensor response at a given absolute humidity level decreases exponentially with increasing temperature. The film is stable up to a temperature of 150 degrees C, permitting elevated temperature moisture measurement. Since sorbed water is actively decomposed electrolytically, the sensors exhibit negligible hysteresis. Response reproducibility of an individual sensor is <1%, that between identically made sensors is <5%, suggesting mass production techniques without individual calibration will be acceptable for all but the most demanding situation.

  18. SMAP/Sentinel-1 L2 Radiometer/Radar 30-Second Scene 3 km EASE-Grid Soil Moisture V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Level-2 (L2) soil moisture product provides estimates of land surface conditions retrieved by both the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) radiometer during...

  19. Spatiotemporal analysis of soil moisture in using active and passive remotely sensed data and ground observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Soil moisture plays a vital role in ecosystem, biological processes, climate, weather and agriculture. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) improves data by combining the advantages and avoiding the limitation of passive microwave remote sensing (low resolution), and active microwave (challenge of soil moisture retrieval). This study will advance the knowledge of the application of soil moisture by using the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) data as well as data collected at Walnut Gulch Arizona in August 2015 during SMAPVEX15. Specifically, we will analyze the 5m radar data from Unmanned Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) to study spatial variability within the PALS radiometer pixel. SMAPVEX12/15 and SMAP data will also be analyzed to evaluate disaggregation algorithms. The analytical findings will provide valuable information for policy-makers to initiate and adjust protocols and regulations for protecting land resources and improving environmental conditions. Keywords: soil moisture, Remote Sensing (RS), spatial statistic

  20. Predicting root zone soil moisture using surface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfreda, S.; Brocca, L.; Moramarco, T.; Melone, F.; Sheffield, J.; Fiorentino, M.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, much effort has been given to monitoring of soil moisture from satellite remote sensing. These tools represent an extraordinary source of information for hydrological applications, but they only provide information on near-surface soil moisture. In the present work, we developed a new formulation for the estimation of the soil moisture in the root zone based on the measured value of soil moisture at the surface. The method derives from a simplified form of the soil water balance equation and for this reason all parameters adopted are physically consistent. The formulation provides a closed form of the relationship between the root zone soil moisture and the surface soil moisture with a limited number of parameters, such as: the ratio between the depth of the surface layer and the deeper layer, the water loss coefficient, and the field capacity. The method has been tested using modeled soil moisture obtained from the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). The NLDAS is a multi-institution partnership aimed at developing a retrospective data set, using available atmospheric and land surface meteorological observations to compute the land surface hydrological budget. The NLDAS database was extremely useful for the scope of the present research since it provides simulated data over an extended area with different climatic and physical condition and moreover it provides soil moisture data averaged over different depths. In particular, we used values in the top 10 cm and 100 cm layers. One year of simulation was used to test the ability of the developed method to describe soil moisture fluctuation in the 100cm layer over the entire NLDAS domain. The method was adopted by calibrating one of its three parameters and defining the remaining two based on physical characteristics of the site (using the potential evapotranspiration and ratio between the first and the second soil layer depth). In general, the method performed better than

  1. The impact of assumed error variances on surface soil moisture and snow depth hydrologic data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate knowledge of antecedent soil moisture and snow depth conditions is often important for obtaining reliable hydrological simulations of stream flow. Data assimilation (DA) methods can be used to integrate remotely-sensed (RS) soil moisture and snow depth retrievals into a hydrology model and...

  2. Assimilation of Satellite-Based Soil Moisture into the USDA Global Crop Production Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    The timely and accurate monitoring of climate conditions is essential for assessing agriculture efficiency and managing natural resources. Of particular importance is the estimation of near-surface soil moisture, which influences many aspects of local weather and global climate. Soil moisture is als...

  3. Investigation of Historic Equilibrium Moisture Content Data from the Forest Products Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka; Jay A. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) has provided equilibrium moisture content (EMC) values of wood for given temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions in various forms over the course of its history, primarily for practical purposes related to drying lumber and controlling moisture content. The FPL EMC data have been widely cited and reprinted, not only in...

  4. Effect of moisture cycling on truss-plate joint behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie H. Groom

    1994-01-01

    The structural performance of wood trusses, which are now commonplace in light-frame construction, is dictated in part by the mechanical properties of the truss-plate joints. However, little information exists quantifying the effect of environmental conditions on truss-plate joint properties. The main objective of this paper was to quantify the effect of moisture...

  5. Moisture relations and physical properties of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2010-01-01

    Wood, like many natural materials, is hygroscopic; it takes on moisture from the surrounding environment. Moisture exchange between wood and air depends on the relative humidity and temperature of the air and the current amount of water in the wood. This moisture relationship has an important influence on wood properties and performance. Many of the challenges of using...

  6. Absolute moisture sensing for cotton bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the recent prevalence of moisture restoration systems in cotton gins, more and more gins are putting moisture back into the bales immediately before the packaging operation. There are two main reasons for this recent trend, the first is that it has been found that added moisture at the bale pre...

  7. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The absolute and relative expansion rates of the improved soil are both lower than those of the untreated soil. With the same number of dry and wet cycles, the decreased degrees of cohesion and internal friction angle of the improved soil are, respectively, one-half and one-third of those of the untreated soil. After three dry and wet cycles, the California bearing ratio (CBR of the untreated soil does not meet the requirements of specifications. However, after being cured for seven days and being subjected to three dry and wet cycles, the CBR of the improved soil, with 4% water glass solution and 0.4% aluminum sulfate, meets the requirements of specifications.

  8. Moisture effect on mechanical properties of polymeric composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airale, A. G.; Carello, M.; Ferraris, A.; Sisca, L.

    2016-05-01

    The influence of moisture on the mechanical properties of fibre-reinforced polymer matrix composites (PMCs) was investigated. Four materials had been take into account considering: both 2×2-Twill woven carbon fibre or glass fibre, thermosetting matrix (Epoxy Resin) or thermoplastic matrix (Polyphenylene Sulfide). The specimens were submitted for 1800 hours to a hygrothermic test to evaluate moisture absorption on the basis of the Fick's law and finally tested to verify the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength). The results showed that the absorbed moisture decreases those properties of composites which were dominated by the matrix or the interface, while was not detectable the influence of water on the considered fibre. An important result is that the diffusion coefficient is highest for glass/PPS and lowest for carbon/epoxy composite material. The results give useful suggestions for the design of vehicle components that are exposed to environmental conditions (rain, snow and humidity).

  9. Effect of temperature on moisture sorption phenomena in agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Štencl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates importance of temperature influence on dehydration processes using drying model equations in introductory part and further presents results of water sorption tests of parsley leaves. Measurements were carried out under laboratory conditions in the temperature range of 10–40 °C and relative air humidity from 30 to 100%. Moisture sorption isotherms were tested using a gravimetric dynamic method with continuous recording of changes in sample weight. Five mathematical models available in the literature (Chung-Pfost, GAB, Halsey, Henderson, and Oswin were statistical evaluated. The Henderson equation was found to be a good model both for moisture adsorption and desorption. Part of the sorption isotherms measured in parsley leaves show the type II BET classification shape. An increase in temperature causes an increase in water activity for the same moisture content and, if water activity is kept constant, an increase in temperature causes a decrease in the amount of absorbed water.

  10. NORDTEST Project on Moisture Buffer Value of Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2005-01-01

    possibly be used as a passive means of establishing indoor climatic conditions, which are comfortable for human occupancy. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized figure to characterize the moisture buffering ability of materials. It has been the objective of a Nordic project, which is currently...... being completed, to develop a definition, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. Apart from the definition of the term Moisture Buffer Value, the project also declares a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested. Finally as a part of the project, some Round Robin Tests...... have been carried out on various typical building materials. The paper gives an account on the definition of the Moisture Buffer Value, it outlines the content of the test protocol, and it gives some examples of results from the Round Robin Tests....

  11. Use of digital images to estimate soil moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João F. C. dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the relation between the moisture and the spectral response of the soil to generate prediction models. Samples with different moisture contents were prepared and photographed. The photographs were taken under homogeneous light condition and with previous correction for the white balance of the digital photograph camera. The images were processed for extraction of the median values in the Red, Green and Blue bands of the RGB color space; Hue, Saturation and Value of the HSV color space; and values of the digital numbers of a panchromatic image obtained from the RGB bands. The moisture of the samples was determined with the thermogravimetric method. Regression models were evaluated for each image type: RGB, HSV and panchromatic. It was observed the darkening of the soil with the increase of moisture. For each type of soil, a model with best fit was observed and to use these models for prediction purposes, it is necessary to choose the model with best fit in advance, according to the soil characteristics. Soil moisture estimation as a function of its spectral response by digital image processing proves promising.

  12. Observer Based Fault Detection and Moisture Estimating in Coal Mill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2008-01-01

     requirements to the general performance of power plants. Detection  of faults and moisture content estimation are consequently of high interest in the handling of the problems caused by faults and moisture content. The coal flow out of the mill is the obvious variable to monitor, when detecting non-intended drops in the coal......In this paper an observer-based method for detecting faults and estimating moisture content in the coal in coal mills is presented. Handling of faults and operation under special conditions, such as high moisture content in the coal, are of growing importance due to the increasing...... flow out of the coal mill. However, this variable is not measurable. Another estimated variable is the moisture content, which is only "measurable" during steady-state operations of the coal mill. Instead, this paper suggests a method where these unknown variables are estimated based on a simple energy...

  13. The soil moisture velocity equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Fred L.; Allen, Myron B.; Lai, Wencong; Zhu, Jianting; Seo, Mookwon; Douglas, Craig C.; Talbot, Cary A.

    2017-06-01

    Numerical solution of the one-dimensional Richards' equation is the recommended method for coupling groundwater to the atmosphere through the vadose zone in hyperresolution Earth system models, but requires fine spatial discretization, is computationally expensive, and may not converge due to mathematical degeneracy or when sharp wetting fronts occur. We transformed the one-dimensional Richards' equation into a new equation that describes the velocity of moisture content values in an unsaturated soil under the actions of capillarity and gravity. We call this new equation the Soil Moisture Velocity Equation (SMVE). The SMVE consists of two terms: an advection-like term that accounts for gravity and the integrated capillary drive of the wetting front, and a diffusion-like term that describes the flux due to the shape of the wetting front capillarity profile divided by the vertical gradient of the capillary pressure head. The SMVE advection-like term can be converted to a relatively easy to solve ordinary differential equation (ODE) using the method of lines and solved using a finite moisture-content discretization. Comparing against analytical solutions of Richards' equation shows that the SMVE advection-like term is >99% accurate for calculating infiltration fluxes neglecting the diffusion-like term. The ODE solution of the SMVE advection-like term is accurate, computationally efficient and reliable for calculating one-dimensional vadose zone fluxes in Earth system and large-scale coupled models of land-atmosphere interaction. It is also well suited for use in inverse problems such as when repeat remote sensing observations are used to infer soil hydraulic properties or soil moisture.Plain Language SummarySince its original publication in 1922, the so-called Richards' equation has been the only rigorous way to couple groundwater to the land surface through the unsaturated zone that lies between the water table and land surface. The soil moisture distribution and

  14. Evaluation of Assimilated SMOS Soil Moisture Data for US Cropland Soil Moisture Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhengwei; Sherstha, Ranjay; Crow, Wade; Bolten, John; Mladenova, Iva; Yu, Genong; Di, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed soil moisture data can provide timely, objective and quantitative crop soil moisture information with broad geospatial coverage and sufficiently high resolution observations collected throughout the growing season. This paper evaluates the feasibility of using the assimilated ESA Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS)Mission L-band passive microwave data for operational US cropland soil surface moisture monitoring. The assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are first categorized to match with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) survey based weekly soil moisture observation data, which are ordinal. The categorized assimilated SMOS soil moisture data are compared with NASSs survey-based weekly soil moisture data for consistency and robustness using visual assessment and rank correlation. Preliminary results indicate that the assimilated SMOS soil moisture data highly co-vary with NASS field observations across a large geographic area. Therefore, SMOS data have great potential for US operational cropland soil moisture monitoring.

  15. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  16. Soil Moisture Experiments 2004 and 2005 Results and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, T. J.

    2005-05-01

    The Soil Moisture Experiments (SMEX) series of field campaigns was designed to address research priorities of several programs involving satellite remote sensing of surface soil moisture. These include the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer (AMSR) on Aqua, the Windsat on Coriolis, and future missions that include NASAs Hydros, the European Space Agency Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and NPOESS. Algorithms, scaling, technology and land-atmosphere studies have all been addressed in each experiment. Scaling is a key aspect of experiment design because of the spatial differences between ground point observations and satellite footprints. In all of the campaigns aircraft sensors have provided the critical link between these. Different geographic domains have been used to provide diverse conditions for algorithm development and validation and a variety of aircraft instruments have been used to support specific objectives. SMEX04 was conducted in August 2004 in the southwestern U.S. and northern Mexico. It was designed to address satellite footprint heterogeneity. The region has the diverse topography, vegetation and rainfall patterns necessary to address this issue. In addition, SMEX04 was timed to coincide with North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME). A working hypothesis of NAME is that among the land surface antecedent boundary conditions that control the onset and intensity of the precipitation is soil moisture. Surface soil moisture can change dramatically after rain events. A review of SMEX04 and preliminary results will be presented. SMEX05 is being planned to understand what contributions to soil moisture retrieval and mapping may be achieved by using fully polarimetric passive microwave observations. This has not been a focus of land parameter investigations in the past. The Windsat instrument provides these measurements at several frequencies. For SMEX05 an aircraft simulator of Windsat will also be employed. The field campaign will be

  17. Numerical and experimental study of moisture-induced stress and strain field developments in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2013-01-01

    When solid wood dries from a green condition to a moisture content used for further processing, moisture-induced fracture and stresses can occur. The drying stresses arise because of internal deformation constraints that are strongly affected by the cross-sectional moisture gradient differential...... shrinkage and the inhomogeneity of the material. To obtain a better understanding of how stresses develop during climatic variations, the field histories of stresses (and strains) in cross sections in their entirety need to be studied. The present paper reports on experiments and numerical simulations...... concerned with analysing the development of strains and stresses during the drying of 15-mm-thick discs of Norway spruce timber log. The samples were dried at 23 °C and relative humidity of 64 % from a green condition to equilibrium moisture content. The moisture gradient in the longitudinal direction...

  18. SoilNet - A Zigbee based soil moisture sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogena, H. R.; Weuthen, A.; Rosenbaum, U.; Huisman, J. A.; Vereecken, H.

    2007-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role in partitioning water and energy fluxes, in providing moisture to the atmosphere for precipitation, and controlling the pattern of groundwater recharge. Large-scale soil moisture variability is driven by variation of precipitation and radiation in space and time. At local scales, land cover, soil conditions, and topography act to redistribute soil moisture. Despite the importance of soil moisture, it is not yet measured in an operational way, e.g. for a better prediction of hydrological and surface energy fluxes (e.g. runoff, latent heat) at larger scales and in the framework of the development of early warning systems (e.g. flood forecasting) and the management of irrigation systems. The SoilNet project aims to develop a sensor network for the near real-time monitoring of soil moisture changes at high spatial and temporal resolution on the basis of the new low-cost ZigBee radio network that operates on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The sensor network consists of soil moisture sensors attached to end devices by cables, router devices and a coordinator device. The end devices are buried in the soil and linked wirelessly with nearby aboveground router devices. This ZigBee wireless sensor network design considers channel errors, delays, packet losses, and power and topology constraints. In order to conserve battery power, a reactive routing protocol is used that determines a new route only when it is required. The sensor network is also able to react to external influences, e.g. such as rainfall occurrences. The SoilNet communicator, routing and end devices have been developed by the Forschungszentrum Juelich and will be marketed through external companies. We will present first results of experiments to verify network stability and the accuracy of the soil moisture sensors. Simultaneously, we have developed a data management and visualisation system. We tested the wireless network on a 100 by 100 meter forest plot equipped with 25

  19. Global Soil Moisture from the Aquarius/SAC-D Satellite: Description and Initial Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Thomas; Cosh, Michael; Zhao, Tianjie; O'Neil, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius satellite observations over land offer a new resource for measuring soil moisture from space. Although Aquarius was designed for ocean salinity mapping, our objective in this investigation is to exploit the large amount of land observations that Aquarius acquires and extend the mission scope to include the retrieval of surface soil moisture. The soil moisture retrieval algorithm development focused on using only the radiometer data because of the extensive heritage of passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture. The single channel algorithm (SCA) was implemented using the Aquarius observations to estimate surface soil moisture. Aquarius radiometer observations from three beams (after bias/gain modification) along with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction model forecast surface temperatures were then used to retrieve soil moisture. Ancillary data inputs required for using the SCA are vegetation water content, land surface temperature, and several soil and vegetation parameters based on land cover classes. The resulting global spatial patterns of soil moisture were consistent with the precipitation climatology and with soil moisture from other satellite missions (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System and Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity). Initial assessments were performed using in situ observations from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Little Washita and Little River watershed soil moisture networks. Results showed good performance by the algorithm for these land surface conditions for the period of August 2011-June 2013 (rmse = 0.031 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), Bias = -0.007 m(exp 3)/m(exp 3), and R = 0.855). This radiometer-only soil moisture product will serve as a baseline for continuing research on both active and combined passive-active soil moisture algorithms. The products are routinely available through the National Aeronautics and Space Administration data archive at the National Snow and Ice Data Center.

  20. McMaster Mesonet soil moisture dataset: description and spatio-temporal variability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Kornelsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces and describes the hourly, high-resolution soil moisture dataset continuously recorded by the McMaster Mesonet located in the Hamilton-Halton Watershed in Southern Ontario, Canada. The McMaster Mesonet consists of a network of time domain reflectometer (TDR probes collecting hourly soil moisture data at six depths between 10 cm and 100 cm at nine locations per site, spread across four sites in the 1250 km2 watershed. The sites for the soil moisture arrays are designed to further improve understanding of soil moisture dynamics in a seasonal climate and to capture soil moisture transitions in areas that have different topography, soil and land cover. The McMaster Mesonet soil moisture constitutes a unique database in Canada because of its high spatio-temporal resolution. In order to provide some insight into the dominant processes at the McMaster Mesonet sites, a spatio-temporal and temporal stability analysis were conducted to identify spatio-temporal patterns in the data and to suggest some physical interpretation of soil moisture variability. It was found that the seasonal climate of the Great Lakes Basin causes a transition in soil moisture patterns at seasonal timescales. During winter and early spring months, and at the meadow sites, soil moisture distribution is governed by topographic redistribution, whereas following efflorescence in the spring and summer, soil moisture spatial distribution at the forested site was also controlled by vegetation canopy. Analysis of short-term temporal stability revealed that the relative difference between sites was maintained unless there was significant rainfall (> 20 mm or wet conditions a priori. Following a disturbance in the spatial soil moisture distribution due to wetting, the relative soil moisture pattern re-emerged in 18 to 24 h. Access to the McMaster Mesonet data can be provided by visiting www.hydrology.mcmaster.ca/mesonet.

  1. Moisture movements in render on brick wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Munch, Thomas Astrup; Thorsen, Peter Schjørmann

    2003-01-01

    A three-layer render on brick wall used for building facades is studied in the laboratory. The vertical render surface is held in contact with water for 24 hours simulating driving rain while it is measured with non-destructive X-ray equipment every hour in order to follow the moisture front...... through the render and into the brick. The test specimen is placed between the source and the detector. The test specimens are all scanned before they are exposed to water. In that way the loss of counts from the dry scan to the wet scan qualitatively shows the presence of water. The results show nearly...... no penetration of water through the render and into the brick, and the results are independent of the start condition of the test specimens. Also drying experiments are performed. The results show a small difference in the rate of drying, in favour of the bricks without render....

  2. Evaluating humidity recovery efficiency of currently available heat and moisture exchangers: a respiratory system model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucato, Jeanette Janaina Jaber; Adams, Alexander Bernard; Souza, Rogério; Torquato, Jamili Anbar; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Marini, John J

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the efficiency of humidification in available heat and moisture exchanger models under conditions of varying tidal volume, respiratory rate, and flow rate. Inspired gases are routinely preconditioned by heat and moisture exchangers to provide a heat and water content similar to that provided normally by the nose and upper airways. The absolute humidity of air retrieved from and returned to the ventilated patient is an important measurable outcome of the heat and moisture exchangers' humidifying performance. Eight different heat and moisture exchangers were studied using a respiratory system analog. The system included a heated chamber (acrylic glass, maintained at 37 degrees C), a preserved swine lung, a hygrometer, circuitry and a ventilator. Humidity and temperature levels were measured using eight distinct interposed heat and moisture exchangers given different tidal volumes, respiratory frequencies and flow-rate conditions. Recovery of absolute humidity (%RAH) was calculated for each setting. Increasing tidal volumes led to a reduction in %RAH for all heat and moisture exchangers while no significant effect was demonstrated in the context of varying respiratory rate or inspiratory flow. Our data indicate that heat and moisture exchangers are more efficient when used with low tidal volume ventilation. The roles of flow and respiratory rate were of lesser importance, suggesting that their adjustment has a less significant effect on the performance of heat and moisture exchangers.

  3. Analysis of Moisture Evaporation from Underwear Designed for Fire-Fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Onofrei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analysed the effect of moisture on the thermal protective performance of fire-fighter clothing in case of routine fire-fighting conditions. In the first stage of this research we investigated simultaneous heat and moisture transfer through a single-layer fabric, used as underwear for fire-fighters, at different moisture conditions. In the second stage of the study, the underwear in dry and wet state was tested together with protective clothing systems for fire-fighter consisting of three or four layers. It was found that during the evaporation of the moisture, a temperature plateau appeared during which temperatures hardly rose. The energy consumption used for the phase change of moisture located in the assembly dominated the heat transfer process as long as there was moisture present. As soon as all water had evaporated, the temperatures approached the temperatures measured for dry samples. The moisture within the clothing assembly did not lead to increased temperatures compared with the measurements with dry samples. This research has confirmed that moisture can positively affect the thermal protection of a clothing system.

  4. Moisture-induced caking of beverage powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Edgar; Santamaría, Nadia Ardila; Gumy, Jean-Claude; Marchal, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    Beverage powders can exhibit caking during storage due to high temperature and moisture conditions, leading to consumer dissatisfaction. Caking problems can be aggravated by the presence of sensitive ingredients. The caking behaviour of cocoa beverage powders, with varying amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient, as affected by climate conditions was studied in this work. Sorption isotherms of beverage powders were determined at water activities (a(w) ) ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 in a moisture sorption analyser by gravimetry and fitted to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) or the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equation. Glass transition temperatures (T(g) ) at several a(w) were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry and fitted to the Gordon-Taylor equation. Deduced T(g) = f(a(w) ) functions helped to identify stability or caking zones. Specific experimental methods, based on the analysis of mechanical properties of powder cakes formed under compression, were used to quantify the degree of caking. Pantry tests complemented this study to put in evidence the visual perception of powder caking with increasing a(w) . The glass transition approach was useful to predict the risks of caking but was limited to products where T(g) can be measured. On the other hand, quantification of the caking degree by analysis of mechanical properties allowed estimation of the extent of degradation for each product. This work demonstrated that increasing amounts of a carbohydrate sensitive ingredient in cocoa beverages negatively affected their storage stability. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. High resolution change estimation of soil moisture and its assimilation into a land surface model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Ujjwal

    Near surface soil moisture plays an important role in hydrological processes including infiltration, evapotranspiration and runoff. These processes depend non-linearly on soil moisture and hence sub-pixel scale soil moisture variability characterization is important for accurate modeling of water and energy fluxes at the pixel scale. Microwave remote sensing has evolved as an attractive technique for global monitoring of near surface soil moisture. A radiative transfer model has been tested and validated for soil moisture retrieval from passive microwave remote sensing data under a full range of vegetation water content conditions. It was demonstrated that soil moisture retrieval errors of approximately 0.04 g/g gravimetric soil moisture are attainable with vegetation water content as high as 5 kg/m2. Recognizing the limitation of low spatial resolution associated with passive sensors, an algorithm that uses low resolution passive microwave (radiometer) and high resolution active microwave (radar) data to estimate soil moisture change at the spatial resolution of radar operation has been developed and applied to coincident Passive and Active L and S band (PALS) and Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) datasets acquired during the Soil Moisture Experiments in 2002 (SMEX02) campaign with root mean square error of 10% and a 4 times enhancement in spatial resolution. The change estimation algorithm has also been used to estimate soil moisture change at 5 km resolution using AMSR-E soil moisture product (50 km) in conjunction with the TRMM-PR data (5 km) for a 3 month period demonstrating the possibility of high resolution soil moisture change estimation using satellite based data. Soil moisture change is closely related to precipitation and soil hydraulic properties. A simple assimilation framework has been implemented to investigate whether assimilation of surface layer soil moisture change observations into a hydrologic model will potentially improve it

  6. NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entekhabi, Dara; Njoku, Eni; ONeill, Peggy; Kellogg, Kent; Entin, Jared

    2011-01-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is one of the first Earth observation satellites being formulated by NASA in response to the 2007 National Research Council s Earth Science Decadal Survey [1]. SMAP s measurement objectives are high-resolution global measurements of near-surface soil moisture and its freeze-thaw state. These measurements would allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and atmosphere. The soil moisture control of these fluxes is a key factor in the performance of atmospheric models used for weather forecasts and climate projections. Soil moisture measurements are also of great importance in assessing flooding and monitoring drought. Knowledge gained from SMAP s planned observations can help mitigate these natural hazards, resulting in potentially great economic and societal benefits. SMAP measurements would also yield high resolution spatial and temporal mapping of the frozen or thawed condition of the surface soil and vegetation. Observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing over the boreal latitudes will contribute to reducing a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon balance and help resolve an apparent missing carbon sink over land. The SMAP mission would utilize an L-band radar and radiometer sharing a rotating 6-meter mesh reflector antenna (see Figure 1) [2]. The radar and radiometer instruments would be carried onboard a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft in a 680 km polar orbit with an 8-day repeating ground track. The instruments are planned to provide high-resolution and high-accuracy global maps of soil moisture at 10 km resolution and freeze/thaw at 3 km resolution, every two to three days (see Table 1 for a list of science data products). The mission is adopting a number of approaches to identify and mitigate potential terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI). These approaches are being incorporated into the radiometer and radar flight hardware and

  7. Moisture Research - Optimizing Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, Pallavi [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this project, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) team evaluated several different configurations of wall assemblies to determine the accuracy of moisture modeling and make recommendations to ensure durable, efficient assemblies. WUFI and THERM were used to model the hygrothermal and heat transfer characteristics of these walls. Wall assemblies evaluated included code minimum walls using spray foam insulation and fiberglass batts, high R-value walls at least 12 in. thick (R-40 and R-60 assemblies), and brick walls with interior insulation.

  8. Effect of the moisture content in aerosol on the spray performance of Stmerin ® D hydrofluoroalkane preparations (2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Saburo; Izumi, Takashi; Ito, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    The spray performance of the new Stmerin® D pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs), prescribed for asthma treatment, was previously reported to be sensitive to moisture content in the canister. In this formulation, active ingredients were suspended in hydrofluoroalkanes (HFA-134a and HFA-227). Here, we report on the critical moisture content of a new MDI formulation using HFA-227. We prepared MDIs with different moisture contents (107-331 ppm) and investigated the effect of moisture content on the fine particle dose (FPD). When the moisture content exceeded 280 ppm, FPD was reduced by 20%. The moisture content can be kept below this level by controlling moisture ingress with selected sealing gasket materials and by controlling the manufacturing conditions. The long-term stability and moisture penetration rate at 25°C and 60% relative humidity (RH) of the new HFA-227 formulation were tested over 36 months. Moisture content increased to approximately 210 ppm after 24 months and 230 ppm after 36 months storage; the drug content did not change over 24 months; FPD was slightly reduced by 24 months but still complied with the product specification. These results demonstrate that the critical moisture content of the Stmerin® D HFA-227 MDI formulation to meet required spray performance is between 280 and 330 ppm, and this formulation (at moisture level) is stable over 24 months.

  9. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2007-01-01

    While the transfer equations for moisture and heat in building components are currently undergoing standardisation, atmospheric boundary conditions, conservative modelling and numerical efficiency are not addressed. In a first part, this paper adds a comprehensive description of those boundary...... conditions, emphasising wind-driven rain and vapour exchange, the main moisture supply and removal mechanism, respectively. In the second part the numerical implementation is tackled, with specific attention to the monotony of the spatial discretisation, and to the mass and energy conservation...

  10. Soil Moisture Retrieval with Airborne PALS Instrument over Agricultural Areas in SMAPVEX16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; Jackson, Thomas J.; Cosh, Mike; Misra, Sidharth; Bindlish, Rajat; Powers, Jarrett; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, P.; Berg, A.; Magagi, A.; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) calibration and validation program revealed that the soil moisture products are experiencing difficulties in meeting the mission requirements in certain agricultural areas. Therefore, the mission organized airborne field experiments at two core validation sites to investigate these anomalies. The SMAP Validation Experiment 2016 included airborne observations with the PALS (Passive Active L-band Sensor) instrument and intensive ground sampling. The goal of the PALS measurements are to investigate the soil moisture retrieval algorithm formulation and parameterization under the varying (spatially and temporally) conditions of the agricultural domains and to obtain high resolution soil moisture maps within the SMAP pixels. In this paper the soil moisture retrieval using the PALS brightness temperature observations in SMAPVEX16 is presented.

  11. Copula-based Probabilistic Estimation of Soil Moisture and its Potential Application in Air Pollution Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.; Maity, R.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture at monthly to weekly scale for point locations can be simulated using climate inputs for different soil texture or hydrologic soil groups, based on the association between soil moisture and Combined Hydro-Meteorological (CHM) index. The use of Supervised PCA (SPCA) is found suitable for reducing the dimension of input matrix by deriving the CHM index and Archimedean copula as a tool to derive conditional joint distribution of soil moisture and climate inputs. While static copula is sufficient to capture the association at monthly scale, dynamic copula is appropriate for finer temporal scale, e.g. weekly. The simulated soil moisture both at monthly and weekly scale found to perform reasonably well compared to the existing soil moisture data sets. The simulated soil moisture at point location can be utilized to produce simulated soil moisture maps for a region based on results of cross-validation techniques, e.g. Leave One-station Out Cross-Validation (LOOCV). The gridded climate input data sets can be used for such mapping after treating the missing data points with interpolation techniques, like spring metaphor. Using such meteorologiac inputs, typical high resolution soil moisture maps are generated based on the proposed hydrometeorological approach. Such gridded soil moisture data/map are potentially useful in various fields including the assessment of air pollution meteorology as the mixing height directly depends on the rigional soil moisture content through intial spin-up of convective movement in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). Keywords: Soil Moisture; Climate; Probabilistic Modelling; Copula; Hydrometeorology

  12. The modulation of oceanic moisture transport by the hemispheric annular modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel eNieto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaving aside the contribution made by recycling, it is the main oceanic moisture sources that are responsible for most of the precipitation that falls on the continents. The transport of moisture from these sources can be affected by large-scale variability according to the hemispheric annular modes. The influence of the two dominant modes of extratropical winter climate: the Northern and the Southern Annular Modes (NAM and SAM are herein investigated to assess how they affect the transport of moisture from the major oceanic moisture sources. A Lagrangian model was used, together with ERA-Interim reanalysis data (1979-2012, and differences between the composites of the six strongest higher and lower events observed for both phases of the two modes for the period were analysed. The method is able to reproduce the general pattern of known variations for both annular patterns. Lower values of the NAM Index are associated with the displacement of the storm track towards tropical latitudes. Thus, moisture transport is enhanced from the Northern Pacific towards the northeastern basin and from the Northern Atlantic and Mediterranean towards southern Europe. On the other hand, during higher values of NAM, moisture transport is favoured from the Northern Pacific towards eastern Asia, and moisture transport is enhanced from the Northern Atlantic towards the Caribbean Sea. In the Southern Hemisphere, during higher values of SAM more moisture is transported from the Atlantic and Indian oceanic sources southwards and eastwards than during the opposite phase. In this SAM phase it is also noted by an enhancement of moisture transport from the Coral Sea and Southern Pacific sources towards the Indian Ocean/West Pacific Warm Pool. Southeastern South America received more moisture from the Pacific and Atlantic sources during years with a lower SAM, episodes which also favoured the influx of moisture from the Southern Atlantic towards Africa, causing monsoon

  13. Automated general temperature correction method for dielectric soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilaratne, R. G. C. Jeewantinie; Lu, Minjiao

    2017-08-01

    An effective temperature correction method for dielectric sensors is important to ensure the accuracy of soil water content (SWC) measurements of local to regional-scale soil moisture monitoring networks. These networks are extensively using highly temperature sensitive dielectric sensors due to their low cost, ease of use and less power consumption. Yet there is no general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors, instead sensor or site dependent correction algorithms are employed. Such methods become ineffective at soil moisture monitoring networks with different sensor setups and those that cover diverse climatic conditions and soil types. This study attempted to develop a general temperature correction method for dielectric sensors which can be commonly used regardless of the differences in sensor type, climatic conditions and soil type without rainfall data. In this work an automated general temperature correction method was developed by adopting previously developed temperature correction algorithms using time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements to ThetaProbe ML2X, Stevens Hydra probe II and Decagon Devices EC-TM sensor measurements. The rainy day effects removal procedure from SWC data was automated by incorporating a statistical inference technique with temperature correction algorithms. The temperature correction method was evaluated using 34 stations from the International Soil Moisture Monitoring Network and another nine stations from a local soil moisture monitoring network in Mongolia. Soil moisture monitoring networks used in this study cover four major climates and six major soil types. Results indicated that the automated temperature correction algorithms developed in this study can eliminate temperature effects from dielectric sensor measurements successfully even without on-site rainfall data. Furthermore, it has been found that actual daily average of SWC has been changed due to temperature effects of dielectric sensors with a

  14. Hydrologic responses to restored wildfire regimes revealed by soil moisture-vegetation relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisramé, Gabrielle; Thompson, Sally; Stephens, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Many forested mountain watersheds worldwide evolved with frequent fire, which Twentieth Century fire suppression activities eliminated, resulting in unnaturally dense forests with high water demand. Restoration of pre-suppression forest composition and structure through a variety of management activities could improve forest resilience and water yields. This study explores the potential for "managed wildfire", whereby naturally ignited fires are allowed to burn, to alter the water balance. Interest in this type of managed wildfire is increasing, yet its long-term effects on water balance are uncertain. We use soil moisture as a spatially-distributed hydrologic indicator to assess the influence of vegetation, fire history and landscape position on water availability in the Illilouette Creek Basin in Yosemite National Park. Over 6000 manual surface soil moisture measurements were made over a period of three years, and supplemented with continuous soil moisture measurements over the top 1m of soil in three sites. Random forest and linear mixed effects models showed a dominant effect of vegetation type and history of vegetation change on measured soil moisture. Contemporary and historical vegetation maps were used to upscale the soil moisture observations to the basin and infer soil moisture under fire-suppressed conditions. Little change in basin-averaged soil moisture was inferred due to managed wildfire, but the results indicated that large localized increases in soil moisture had occurred, which could have important impacts on local ecology or downstream flows.

  15. Moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Meng-jie; Chen, Guang-ming; Fan, Ju-li; Liu, Jin-hui; Xu, Xian-guo; Zhang, Shao-zhi

    2011-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a promising method for a long-term storage of human platelets. The moisture sorption characteristics of freeze-dried human platelets (FDHPs) were studied in this paper. The moisture sorption isotherms of FDHPs and freeze-dried lyophilization buffer (FDLB) were measured at 4, 25, and 37 °C. The experimental data were fitted to Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer (GAB) equations. There were no significant statistical differences (P>0.05) between the sorption characteristics of FDHPs and FDLB at 4 and 25 °C, while FDHPs absorbed more water at 37 °C. The net isosteric heat of sorption was derived. The heat for FDHPs showed an abnormal negative value at low moisture contents when 25 and 37 °C data were used. Dynamic sorption experiments were carried out at 25 °C with environmental water activity controlled at 0.75, 0.85, and 0.90. The moisture diffusion coefficient was fitted to be 8.24×10−12 m2/s when experimental data at initial time were used. These results would be helpful in choosing prehydration and storage condition for FDHPs. PMID:21370506

  16. Effects of moisture on glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    Glass fiber polymer composites are used in wind turbine blades because of their high-specific strength and stiffness, good fatigue properties, and low cost. The wind industry is moving offshore to satisfy economies of scale with larger turbines. High humidity in this environment degrades mechanical...... performance of wind turbine blades over their lifetime. Here, environmental moisture conditions were simulated by immersing glass fiber-reinforced polymer specimens in salt water for a period of up to 8 years. The mechanical properties of specimens were analyzed before and after immersion to evaluate...... the degradation mechanisms. Single-fiber tensile testing was also performed at different moisture conditions. The water-diffusion mechanism was studied to quantify the diffusion coefficients as a function of salt concentration, sample geometry, and fiber direction. Three degradation mechanisms were observed...

  17. The international soil moisture network: A data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land co...

  18. Measuring and modeling the effect of surface moisture on the spectral reflectance of coastal beach sand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corjan Nolet

    Full Text Available Surface moisture is an important supply limiting factor for aeolian sand transport, which is the primary driver of coastal dune development. As such, it is critical to account for the control of surface moisture on available sand for dune building. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure surface moisture at a high spatio-temporal resolution. It is based on the principle that wet sand appears darker than dry sand: it is less reflective. The goals of this study are (1 to measure and model reflectance under controlled laboratory conditions as function of wavelength (λ and surface moisture (θ over the optical domain of 350-2500 nm, and (2 to explore the implications of our laboratory findings for accurately mapping the distribution of surface moisture under natural conditions. A laboratory spectroscopy experiment was conducted to measure spectral reflectance (1 nm interval under different surface moisture conditions using beach sand. A non-linear increase of reflectance upon drying was observed over the full range of wavelengths. Two models were developed and tested. The first model is grounded in optics and describes the proportional contribution of scattering and absorption of light by pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix. The second model is grounded in soil physics and links the hydraulic behaviour of pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix to its optical properties. The optical model performed well for volumetric moisture content θ 0.97, but underestimated reflectance for θ between 24-30% (R2 > 0.92, most notable around the 1940 nm water absorption peak. The soil-physical model performed very well (R2 > 0.99 but is limited to 4% > θ < 24%. Results from a field experiment show that a short-wave infrared terrestrial laser scanner (λ = 1550 nm can accurately relate surface moisture to reflectance (standard error 2.6%, demonstrating its potential to derive spatially extensive surface moisture maps of a natural coastal beach.

  19. Measuring and Modeling the Effect of Surface Moisture on the Spectral Reflectance of Coastal Beach Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolet, Corjan; Poortinga, Ate; Roosjen, Peter; Bartholomeus, Harm; Ruessink, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Surface moisture is an important supply limiting factor for aeolian sand transport, which is the primary driver of coastal dune development. As such, it is critical to account for the control of surface moisture on available sand for dune building. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure surface moisture at a high spatio-temporal resolution. It is based on the principle that wet sand appears darker than dry sand: it is less reflective. The goals of this study are (1) to measure and model reflectance under controlled laboratory conditions as function of wavelength () and surface moisture () over the optical domain of 350–2500 nm, and (2) to explore the implications of our laboratory findings for accurately mapping the distribution of surface moisture under natural conditions. A laboratory spectroscopy experiment was conducted to measure spectral reflectance (1 nm interval) under different surface moisture conditions using beach sand. A non-linear increase of reflectance upon drying was observed over the full range of wavelengths. Two models were developed and tested. The first model is grounded in optics and describes the proportional contribution of scattering and absorption of light by pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix. The second model is grounded in soil physics and links the hydraulic behaviour of pore water in an unsaturated sand matrix to its optical properties. The optical model performed well for volumetric moisture content 24% ( 0.97), but underestimated reflectance for between 24–30% ( 0.92), most notable around the 1940 nm water absorption peak. The soil-physical model performed very well ( 0.99) but is limited to 4% 24%. Results from a field experiment show that a short-wave infrared terrestrial laser scanner ( = 1550 nm) can accurately relate surface moisture to reflectance (standard error 2.6%), demonstrating its potential to derive spatially extensive surface moisture maps of a natural coastal beach. PMID:25383709

  20. Estimation of soil moisture and its effect on soil thermal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soil moisture is an important parameter of the earth's climate system. Regression model for estimation of soil moisture at various depths has been developed using the amount of moisture near the surface layer. The estimated values of soil moisture are tested with the measured moisture values and it is found that the ...

  1. Moisture detection in composites by terahertz spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Paweł; Pałka, Norbert; Opoka, Szymon; Wandowski, Tomasz; Ostachowicz, Wiesław

    2015-07-01

    The application of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers (GFRP) in many branches of industry has been increasing steadily. Many research works focus on damage identification for structures made out of such materials. However, not only delaminations, cracks or other damage can have a negative influence of GFRP parts performance. Previous research proved that fluid absorption influences the mechanical performance of composites. GFRP parts can be contaminated by moisture or release agent during manufacturing, while fuel, hydraulic fluid and moisture ingression into the composite can be the in-service treats. In the reported research authors focus on moisture detection. There are numerous sources of moisture such as post manufacturing NDT inspection with ultrasonics coupled by water or exposition to moisture during transportation and in service. An NDT tool used for the research is a terahertz (THz) spectrometer. The device uses an electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range (0.1-3 THz) and allows for reflection and transmission measurements. The spectrometer is equipped with moving table that allows for XY scanning of large objects such as GFRP panels. In the conducted research refractive indices were experimentally extracted from the materials of interest (water and GFRP). Time signals as well as C-scans were analysed for samples with moisture contamination. In order to be sure that the observed effects are related to moisture contamination reference measurements were conducted. The obtained results showed that the THz NDT technique can detect moisture hidden under a GFRP with multiple layers.

  2. Comparison of moisture management methods for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different moisture management methods were compared for biodegradation efficiency in sandy and organic soils. The conventional method consisted in maintaining the soil moisture at approximately 50 to 75% field capacity accompanied by daily aeration and mixing. In the test method, the soil was allowed to dry out ...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1715 - Moisture control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Moisture control. 154.1715 Section 154.1715 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... § 154.1715 Moisture control. When a vessel is carrying sulfur dioxide, the master shall ensure that: (a...

  4. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This research conducted a field trial to test the sensor in a commercial...

  5. Microwave moisture sensing of wet bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensing of moisture in very wet lint bales is unique due to the fact that moisture distribution is typically non-uniform and can in some instances be highly localized. This issue is even further complicated by the use of a sensor that reads only a portion of the bale and/or with a sensor that provid...

  6. Microwave bale moisture sensing: Field trial continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microwave moisture measurement technique was developed at the USDA, ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit for moisture sensing of cotton bales after the bale press. The technique measures the propagation delay of a microwave signal that is transmitted through the cotton bale. This res...

  7. Soil moisture from operational meteorological satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W; Naeimi, V.; Scipal, K.; De Jeu, R.A.M.; Fernandez, M.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, unforeseen advances in monitoring soil moisture from operational satellite platforms have been made, mainly due to improved geophysical retrieval methods. In this study, four recently published soil-moisture datasets are compared with in-situ observations from the REMEDHUS

  8. Soil moisture from Operational Meteorological Satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Scipal, K.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, unforeseen advances in monitoring soil moisture from operational satellite platforms have been made, mainly due to improved geophysical retrieval methods. In this study, four recently published soil-moisture datasets are compared with in-situ observations from the REMEDHUS

  9. Water activity of poultry litter: Relationship to moisture content during a grow-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; McAuley, Jim; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Poultry grown on litter floors are in contact with their own waste products. The waste material needs to be carefully managed to reduce food safety risks and to provide conditions that are comfortable and safe for the birds. Water activity (Aw) is an important thermodynamic property that has been shown to be more closely related to microbial, chemical and physical properties of natural products than moisture content. In poultry litter, Aw is relevant for understanding microbial activity; litter handling and rheological properties; and relationships between in-shed relative humidity and litter moisture content. We measured the Aw of poultry litter collected throughout a meat chicken grow-out (from fresh pine shavings bedding material to day 52) and over a range of litter moisture content (10-60%). The Aw increased non-linearly from 0.71 to 1.0, and reached a value of 0.95 when litter moisture content was only 22-33%. Accumulation of manure during the grow-out reduced Aw for the same moisture content. These results are relevant for making decisions regarding litter re-use in multiple grow-outs as well as setting targets for litter moisture content to minimise odour, microbial risks and to ensure necessary litter physical conditions are maintained during a grow-out. Methods to predict Aw in poultry litter from moisture content are proposed. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Multiscale soil moisture estimates using static and roving cosmic-ray soil moisture sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJannet, David; Hawdon, Aaron; Baker, Brett; Renzullo, Luigi; Searle, Ross

    2017-12-01

    Soil moisture plays a critical role in land surface processes and as such there has been a recent increase in the number and resolution of satellite soil moisture observations and the development of land surface process models with ever increasing resolution. Despite these developments, validation and calibration of these products has been limited because of a lack of observations on corresponding scales. A recently developed mobile soil moisture monitoring platform, known as the rover, offers opportunities to overcome this scale issue. This paper describes methods, results and testing of soil moisture estimates produced using rover surveys on a range of scales that are commensurate with model and satellite retrievals. Our investigation involved static cosmic-ray neutron sensors and rover surveys across both broad (36 × 36 km at 9 km resolution) and intensive (10 × 10 km at 1 km resolution) scales in a cropping district in the Mallee region of Victoria, Australia. We describe approaches for converting rover survey neutron counts to soil moisture and discuss the factors controlling soil moisture variability. We use independent gravimetric and modelled soil moisture estimates collected across both space and time to validate rover soil moisture products. Measurements revealed that temporal patterns in soil moisture were preserved through time and regression modelling approaches were utilised to produce time series of property-scale soil moisture which may also have applications in calibration and validation studies or local farm management. Intensive-scale rover surveys produced reliable soil moisture estimates at 1 km resolution while broad-scale surveys produced soil moisture estimates at 9 km resolution. We conclude that the multiscale soil moisture products produced in this study are well suited to future analysis of satellite soil moisture retrievals and finer-scale soil moisture models.

  11. Moisture-induced aggregation of lyophilized insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, H R; Langer, R; Klibanov, A M

    1994-01-01

    A critical problem in the storage and delivery of pharmaceutical proteins is aggregation in the solid state induced by elevated temperature and moisture. These conditions are particularly relevant for studies of protein stability during accelerated storage or for proteins loaded in polymeric delivery devices in vivo. In the present investigation, we have found that, when exposed to an environment simulating these conditions, lyophilized insulin undergoes both covalent and noncovalent aggregation. The covalent process has been elucidated to be intermolecular thiol-catalyzed disulfide interchange following beta-elimination of an intact disulfide bridge in the insulin molecule. This process is accelerated by increasing the temperature and water content of the insulin powder or by performing lyophilization and/or dissolution of insulin in alkaline media. The aggregation can be ameliorated by the presence of Cu2+, which presumably catalyzes the oxidization of free thiols. The water sorption isotherm for insulin reveals that the extent of aggregation directly correlates with the water uptake by the lyophilized insulin powder, thus pointing to the critical role of protein conformational mobility in the aggregation process.

  12. High Spatial Resolution Soil Moisture with Passive Active Sensors Using a Change Detection Approach: Studies Using SMAPVEX12 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.; Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable in many areas of geosciences. The passive microwave sensors have been providing soil moisture of various spatial resolutions and are available for all-weather conditions. However, restricted by the antenna diameter of microwave radiometer, the spatial resolution of passive microwave soil moisture product is at tens of kilometers and needs to be improved for many applications. The SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive) is set to be launched in late 2014 and will be the first mission to provide L-band radar/radiometer soil moisture retrievals at three resolutions. The SMAPVEX12 is a pre-launch field validation experiment for evaluating and testing the soil moisture retrievals acquired from SMAP satellite. Airborne data using PALS (Passive/Active L-band Sensor) at two along-track resolutions (650 m and 1590 m) and UAVSAR (Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar) at 5 m spatial resolution as well as in-situ measurements were collected during the campaign. The study will implement a Single Channel Algorithm (SCA) to retrieve soil moisture from high/low altitude PALS L-band radiometer observations, as well as produce downscaled soil moisture change by combining low spatial resolution soil moisture retrievals and high spatial resolution PALS L-band radar observations through a change-detection algorithm, which models the relationship between change in radar backscatter and the change in soil moisture.

  13. Multidimensional HAM-conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    Heat, Air and Moisture (HAM) conditions, experimental data are needed. Tests were performed in the large climate simulator at SBi involving full-scale wall elements. The elements were exposed for steady-state conditions, and temperature cycles simulating April and September climate in Denmark...

  14. Soil Moisture Monitorization Using GNSS Reflected Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Egido, Alejandro; Caparrini, Marco; Martin, Cristina; Farres, Esteve; Banque, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    The use of GNSS signals as a source of opportunity for remote sensing applications, GNSS-R, has been a research area of interest for more than a decade. One of the possible applications of this technique is soil moisture monitoring. The retrieval of soil moisture with GNSS-R systems is based on the variability of the ground dielectric properties associated to soil moisture. Higher concentrations of water in the soil yield a higher dielectric constant and reflectivity, which incurs in signals that reflect from the Earth surface with higher peak power. Previous investigations have demonstrated the capability of GPS bistatic scatterometers to obtain high enough signal to noise ratios in order to sense small changes in surface reflectivity. Furthermore, these systems present some advantages with respect to others currently used to retrieve soil moisture. Upcoming satellite navigation systems, such as the European Galileo, will represent an excellent source of opportunity for soil moisture remote sensing for vario...

  15. MOISTURE-BUFFERING CHARACTERISTICS OF BUILDING MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Cheol Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The humidity level of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings, as well as the durability of building components. Indoor humidity levels depend on several factors, such as moisture sources, air flow, and the adsorption/desorption properties of materials. The moisture-buffering characteristics of building materials that are in contact with indoor air may help moderate the variations of indoor humidity, especially in the summer and winter. In this study, the moisture adsorption/desorption properties of building materials were investigated experimentally and numerically. These properties can be used to characterize the ability of building materials to exchange moisture with the indoor environment. This study indicates that a building material surface resistivity was the main factor creating variations of moisture buffering.

  16. Moisture management properties of Cupro knitted fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durur, G.; Oner, E.; Gunduz, G.

    2017-10-01

    On the purpose of analysing the moisture management behaviour of Cupro blend knitted fabrics made of Ne 40/1 and Ne 56/1 cotton/Cupro blend yarns, which have single jersey, 1x1 rib and interlock knitting types were systematically produced. Multi-dimensional liquid transport properties of the produced fabric were measured on the Moisture Management Tester (MMT). The air permeability and some structural properties of the fabrics were also measured, and the results were evaluated taking into account moisture management properties. According to results, it is observed that moisture management capacity and permeability of Cupro blends produced from finer yarns were higher than those of fabrics from coarse count yarns. Generally, Cupro blend knitted fabrics showed good moisture management properties.

  17. Calibration of Soil Moisture Measurement Using Pr2 Moisture Meter and Gravimetric-Based Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olotu Yahaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The research study strongly focused on creating strong mechanism for measuring and evaluating soil moisture content comparing PR2 capacitance moisture meter and gravimetric approach. PR2 moisture meter shows a better performance accuracy of ± 6%; 0.06 m 3 /m 3 and intercept a0 =1.8; indicating the field is heavy clay. It measures to 1000 mm depth with high precision; while realistic result could not be obtained from gravimetric method at this measuring depth. Therefore, effective soil moisture measuring, monitoring and evaluation can be achieved with PR2 moisture meter.

  18. A coupled road dust and surface moisture model to predict non-exhaust road traffic induced particle emissions (NORTRIP). Part 2: Surface moisture and salt impact modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denby, B. R.; Sundvor, I.; Johansson, C.; Pirjola, L.; Ketzel, M.; Norman, M.; Kupiainen, K.; Gustafsson, M.; Blomqvist, G.; Kauhaniemi, M.; Omstedt, G.

    2013-12-01

    Non-exhaust traffic induced emissions are a major source of airborne particulate matter in most European countries. This is particularly important in Nordic and Alpine countries where winter time road traction maintenance occurs, e.g. salting and sanding, and where studded tyres are used. Though the total mass generated by wear sources is a key factor in non-exhaust emissions, these emissions are also strongly controlled by surface moisture conditions. In this paper, Part 2, the road surface moisture sub-model of a coupled road dust and surface moisture model (NORTRIP) is described. We present a description of the road surface moisture part of the model and apply the coupled model to seven sites in Stockholm, Oslo, Helsinki and Copenhagen over 18 separate periods, ranging from 3.5 to 24 months. At two sites surface moisture measurements are available and the moisture sub-model is compared directly to these observations. The model predicts the frequency of wet roads well at both sites, with an average fractional bias of -2.6%. The model is found to correctly predict the hourly surface state, wet or dry, 85% of the time. From the 18 periods modelled using the coupled model an average absolute fractional bias of 15% for PM10 concentrations was found. Similarly the model predicts the 90'th daily mean percentiles of PM10 with an average absolute bias of 19% and an average correlation (R2) of 0.49. When surface moisture is not included in the modelling then this average correlation is reduced to 0.16, demonstrating the importance of the surface moisture conditions. Tests have been carried out to assess the sensitivity of the model to model parameters and input data. The model provides a useful tool for air quality management and for improving our understanding of non-exhaust traffic emissions.

  19. Dynamic Moisture Sorption and Desorption in Fumed Silica-filled Silicone Foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautschold, Olivia Carol [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    Characterizing dynamic moisture sorption and desorption in fumed silica-filled silicone foam is necessary for determining material compatibilities and life predictions, particularly in sealed environments that may be exposed to a range of environmental conditions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) were performed on S5470 fumed silica-filled silicone foam to determine the weight percent of moisture at saturation. Additionally, TGA was used to determine the time, temperature, and relative humidity levels required for sorption and desorption of physisorbed moisture in S5470.

  20. Experimental investigation on the short-term impact of temperature and moisture on reinforcement corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, A.; Nygaard, P.V.; Geiker, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, reinforced concrete specimens with and without mixed-in chlorides were conditioned at different relative humidities and subsequently subjected to varying temperatures. Results of the study confirmed that neither temperature nor moisture content have a major impact on the corrosion...... state and rate of passively corroding reinforcement. For actively corroding reinforcement, a temperature and moisture dependent corrosion rate was observed. The temperature dependency could be described by the Arrhenius equation with moisture dependent activation energies of approximately 10kJ/mol at 75...

  1. Evaluation of a Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Crow, W.; Zhan, X.; Jackson, T.; Reynolds, C.

    2009-05-01

    A crucial requirement of global crop yield forecasts by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) International Production Assessment Division (IPAD) is the regional characterization of surface and sub-surface soil moisture. However, due to the spatial heterogeneity and dynamic nature of precipitation events and resulting soil moisture, accurate estimation of regional land surface-atmosphere interactions based sparse ground measurements is difficult. IPAD estimates global soil moisture using daily estimates of minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation applied to a modified Palmer two-layer soil moisture model which calculates the daily amount of soil moisture withdrawn by evapotranspiration and replenished by precipitation. We attempt to improve upon the existing system by applying an Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation system to integrate surface soil moisture retrievals from the NASA Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) into the USDA soil moisture model. This work aims at evaluating the utility of merging satellite-retrieved soil moisture estimates with the IPAD two-layer soil moisture model used within the DBMS. We present a quantitative analysis of the assimilated soil moisture product over West Africa (9°N- 20°N; 20°W-20°E). This region contains many key agricultural areas and has a high agro- meteorological gradient from desert and semi-arid vegetation in the North, to grassland, trees and crops in the South, thus providing an ideal location for evaluating the assimilated soil moisture product over multiple land cover types and conditions. A data denial experimental approach is utilized to isolate the added utility of integrating remotely-sensed soil moisture by comparing assimilated soil moisture results obtained using (relatively) low-quality precipitation products obtained from real-time satellite imagery to baseline model runs forced with higher quality rainfall. An analysis of root-zone anomalies for each model

  2. Propagation of soil moisture memory to streamflow and evapotranspiration in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Orth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a key variable of the land-climate system soil moisture is a main driver of streamflow and evapotranspiration under certain conditions. Soil moisture furthermore exhibits outstanding memory (persistence characteristics. Many studies also report distinct low frequency variations for streamflow, which are likely related to soil moisture memory. Using data from over 100 near-natural catchments located across Europe, we investigate in this study the connection between soil moisture memory and the respective memory of streamflow and evapotranspiration on different time scales. For this purpose we use a simple water balance model in which dependencies of runoff (normalised by precipitation and evapotranspiration (normalised by radiation on soil moisture are fitted using streamflow observations. The model therefore allows us to compute the memory characteristics of soil moisture, streamflow and evapotranspiration on the catchment scale. We find considerable memory in soil moisture and streamflow in many parts of the continent, and evapotranspiration also displays some memory at monthly time scale in some catchments. We show that the memory of streamflow and evapotranspiration jointly depend on soil moisture memory and on the strength of the coupling of streamflow and evapotranspiration to soil moisture. Furthermore, we find that the coupling strengths of streamflow and evapotranspiration to soil moisture depend on the shape of the fitted dependencies and on the variance of the meteorological forcing. To better interpret the magnitude of the respective memories across Europe, we finally provide a new perspective on hydrological memory by relating it to the mean duration required to recover from anomalies exceeding a certain threshold.

  3. Effects of soil moisture on the temperature sensitivity of soil heterotrophic respiration: a laboratory incubation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Zhou

    Full Text Available The temperature sensitivity (Q10 of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity--WHC and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C. Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC, microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC than at higher moisture level (80% WHC during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming's impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration.

  4. Spatial patterns of soil moisture from two regional monitoring networks in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiejun; Liu, Qin; Franz, Trenton E.; Li, Ruopu; Lang, Yunchao; Fiebrich, Christopher A.

    2017-09-01

    Understanding soil moisture spatial variability (SMSV) at regional scales is of great value for various purposes; however, relevant studies are still limited and have yielded inconsistent findings about the primary controls on regional SMSV. To further address this issue, long-term soil moisture data were retrieved from two large scale monitoring networks located in the continental United States, including the Michigan Automated Weather Network and the Oklahoma Mesonet. To evaluate different controls on SMSV, supporting datasets, which contained data on climate, soil, topography, and vegetation, were also compiled from various sources. Based on temporal stability analysis, the results showed that the mean relative difference (MRD) of soil moisture was more correlated with soil texture (e.g., negative correlations between MRD and sand fraction, and positive ones between MRD and silt and clay fractions) than with meteorological forcings in both regions, which differed from the traditional notion that meteorological forcings were the dominant controls on regional SMSV. Moreover, the results revealed that contrary to the previous conjecture, the use of soil moisture temporal anomaly did not reduce the impacts of static properties (e.g., soil properties) on soil moisture temporal dynamics. Instead, it was found that the magnitude of soil moisture temporal anomaly was mainly negatively correlated with sand fraction and positively with silt and clay fractions in both regions. Finally, the relationship between the spatial average and standard deviation of soil moisture as well as soil moisture temporal anomaly was investigated using the data from both networks. The field data showed that the relationship for both soil moisture and soil moisture temporal anomaly was more affected by soil texture than by climatic conditions (e.g., precipitation). The results of this study provided strong field evidence that local factors (e.g., soil properties) might outweigh regional

  5. The interactive effects of temperature and moisture on nitrogen fixation in two temperate-arctic mosses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousk, Kathrin; Pedersen, Pia Agerlund; Dyrnum, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fixation in moss-cyanobacteria associations is one of the main sources of ‘new’ N in pristine ecosystems like subarctic and arctic tundra. This fundamental ecosystem process is driven by temperature as well as by moisture. Yet, the effects of temperature and moisture stress on N2...... fixation in mosses under controlled conditions have rarely been investigated separately, rendering the interactive effects of the two climatic factors on N2 fixation unknown. Here, we tested the interactive effects of temperature and moisture on N2 fixation in the two most dominant moss species...... in a temperate heath, subarctic tundra and arctic tundra: Pleurozium schreberi and Tomentypnum nitens. Mosses with different moisture levels (25, 50, 100%) were kept at different temperatures (10, 20, 30 °C) and N2 fixation was measured at different times after exposure to these conditions. T. nitens had...

  6. Retrieving soil moisture for non-forested areas using PALS radiometer measurements in SMAPVEX12 field campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper we investigate retrieval of soil moisture based on L-band brightness temperature under diverse conditions and land cover types. We apply the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) radiometer data collected in the SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) field ex...

  7. Preliminary evaluation of feeder and lint slide moisture addition on ginning, fiber quality, and textile processing of western cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture addition at the gin stand feeder conditioning hopper and/or the battery condenser slide on gin performance and Western cotton fiber quality and textile processing. The test treatments included no moisture addition, feeder hopper hum...

  8. Limiting conditions for decay in wood systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul I. Morris; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    Hygrothermal models can predict temperature and moisture conditions in wall components subjected to real weather data, but specific data and a fundamental understanding of how temperature and wood moisture content dictate the progression of decay under these conditions is required for modellers to predict consequences of decay on building performance. It is well...

  9. A randomized controlled clinical study to evaluate the effectiveness of an active moisturizing lotion with colloidal oatmeal skin protectant versus its vehicle for the relief of xerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaaji, Amer N; Wallo, Warren

    2014-10-01

    Xerosis is a common skin condition, occurring most often in the winter and in low relative humidity, which results in loss of moisture, cracking, and desquamation. Many emollient creams and lotions are available for use as preventive moisturizers. However, few controlled experiments have been published comparing the efficacy of active moisturizing products versus the vehicle used to deliver the products to the skin. Therefore, we conducted this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical study to objectively compare a commercially available moisturizing product against its own vehicle. The active colloidal oatmeal moisturizer used in this study showed significant benefits versus its vehicle control in several dermatological parameters used to measure skin dryness.

  10. Impact of soil moisture on extreme maximum temperatures in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirien Whan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Land-atmosphere interactions play an important role for hot temperature extremes in Europe. Dry soils may amplify such extremes through feedbacks with evapotranspiration. While previous observational studies generally focused on the relationship between precipitation deficits and the number of hot days, we investigate here the influence of soil moisture (SM on summer monthly maximum temperatures (TXx using water balance model-based SM estimates (driven with observations and temperature observations. Generalized extreme value distributions are fitted to TXx using SM as a covariate. We identify a negative relationship between SM and TXx, whereby a 100 mm decrease in model-based SM is associated with a 1.6 °C increase in TXx in Southern-Central and Southeastern Europe. Dry SM conditions result in a 2–4 °C increase in the 20-year return value of TXx compared to wet conditions in these two regions. In contrast with SM impacts on the number of hot days (NHD, where low and high surface-moisture conditions lead to different variability, we find a mostly linear dependency of the 20-year return value on surface-moisture conditions. We attribute this difference to the non-linear relationship between TXx and NHD that stems from the threshold-based calculation of NHD. Furthermore the employed SM data and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI are only weakly correlated in the investigated regions, highlighting the importance of evapotranspiration and runoff for resulting SM. Finally, in a case study for the hot 2003 summer we illustrate that if 2003 spring conditions in Southern-Central Europe had been as dry as in the more recent 2011 event, temperature extremes in summer would have been higher by about 1 °C, further enhancing the already extreme conditions which prevailed in that year.

  11. Effect of moisture on polyvinylpyrrolidone in accelerated stability testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Shaun; McCabe, James F; Petts, Catherine R; Booth, Steven W

    2002-10-10

    Accelerated stability studies are a common approach for predicting the long-term stability of pharmaceutical formulations. However, in this study, a slowing of dissolution was observed for a formulation following storage at elevated temperature and humidity. The moisture sorption isotherm for the binder, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), shows absorption of a significant quantity of water on exposure to elevated humidity. Modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) has been used to demonstrate that moisture uptake will depress the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PVP to the conditions used in accelerated stability studies. Exposure to elevated temperature and humidity resulted in a change in the PVP from the glassy to the rubbery state. This conversion produces a change in the dissolution profile. Long-term stability studies conducted at temperatures and humidities below the Tg, would not have induced this change.

  12. Kinematic Models for Soil Moisture and Solute Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.

    1984-06-01

    The kinematic theory of soil moisture and solute transport in the vertical direction for unsaturated groundwater recharge is considered. The general theory of kinematic models is reviewed and applied for an isolated wetting event wherein the soil starts at and eventually drains to field capacity. Analytical expressions are developed for the water content and moisture flux as a function of depth and time. The approach is extended for an arbitrary sequence of surface flux or water content boundary conditions. The transport of a solute with a general nonlinear sorption isotherm is also considered. It is shown that for the general isotherm the vertical displacement of a solute isochore during an arbitrary wetting sequence depends only on the total depth of water infiltrated and not on how the infiltration rate varies with time.

  13. SMEX03 Little Washita Micronet Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains volumetric soil moisture, soil temperature, soil conductivity, soil salinity, and surface temperature data collected during the Soil Moisture...

  14. Moisture-driven fracture in solid wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2011-01-01

    process, suggesting that sealing the ends of timber logs while in the green moisture state could considerably reduce the development of end-cracks. The initial moisture content and the shrinkage properties of the wood varied markedly from pith to bark. The importance of taking material inhomogeneities......Moisture-induced fractures in solid timber create considerable problems for both building industries and sawmills. Cracks caused by kiln-drying of solid timber are extremely difficult to predict. This paper reports on experiments concerned with methods of reducing cracks in wood...... into account when modelling crack propagation in solid wood is emphasized. © 2011 Taylor & Francis....

  15. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  16. Using the internal stress concept to assess the importance of moisture sorption-induced swelling on the moisture transport through the glassy HPMC films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laksmana, Fesia L; Kok, Paul J A Hartman; Frijlink, Henderik W; Vromans, Herman; Van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to elucidate the significance of the changes in the mechanical and the volumetric properties on the moisture diffusivity through the polymer films. The internal stress concept was adapted and applied to estimate the relative impact of these property changes on the total stress experienced by a polymer film during storage. Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose free films were used as a model material prepared at various conditions and stored at different relative humidities. The changes in the internal stress of these films due to the moisture sorption were studied. It was demonstrated that the stress-relaxation of the films increases at increasing moisture content. At the point when there is a definite loss of stress in the film, which is at moisture content higher than 6%, was shown to correlate with the significant increase of the moisture diffusivity. Further investigations revealed that the loss of stress is especially due to the swelling of the polymer rather than the changes in the inherent strain (the quotient between the tensile strength and the modulus of elasticity) of the HPMC films. This implies that the impact of the moisture sorption on the diffusivity is predominantly via volume addition rather than via altering the mechanical properties. Additionally, the approach presented here also brings up a new application of the internal stress concept, which in essence suggests the possibility to estimate the diffusion coefficient from the sorption isotherm and the mechanical analysis data.

  17. Moisture ingress prediction in polyisobutylene-based edge seal with molecular sieve desiccant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, Michael D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Nobles, Dylan L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden CO 80401 USA; Postak, Lori [Quanex IG Systems, Inc., Cambridge OH 43725 USA; Calderon, Jose Alonzo [First Solar, Inc., Perrysburg OH 43551 USA

    2017-10-26

    Often photovoltaic modules are constructed with materials that are sensitive to water. This is most often the case with thin film technologies, including perovskite cells, where the active layers are a few microns thick and can be sensitive to moisture, liquid water or both. When moisture or liquid water can ingress, a small amount of water can lead to corrosion and depending on the resulting reactions, a larger local detrimental effect is possible. To prevent moisture from contacting photovoltaic components, impermeable frontsheets and backsheets are used with a polyisobutylene (PIB)-based edge seal material around the perimeter. Here, we evaluate the ability of a PIB-based edge seal using a molecular sieve desiccant to keep moisture out for the expected module lifetime. Moisture ingress is evaluated using test coupons where the edge seal is placed between 2 pieces of glass, one of which has a metallic calcium film on it, and monitoring the moisture ingress distance as a function of time. We expose samples to different temperature and humidity conditions to create permeation models useful for extrapolation to field use. This extrapolation indicates that this PIB material is capable of keeping moisture out of a module for the desired lifetime.

  18. Equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels produced with veneer inclusion and different types of adhesive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Marin Mendes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate different statistical models to estimate the equilibrium moisture content of OSB panels exposed to different conditions of air temperature and relative humidity, And also to evaluate the influence of the adhesive and veneer inclusion in the equilibrium moisture content. The panels were produced with three different adhesive types (phenol-formaldehyde - FF, melamine-urea-formaldehyde - MUF, and phenol-melamine-urea-formaldehyde - PMUF and with and without veneer inclusion. The evaluation of the equilibrium moisture content of the panels was carried out at temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C and relative humidity of 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%. The modeling of equilibrium moisture content was performed using the statistical non-linear and polynomial models. In general, the polynomial models are most indicated for determining the equilibrium moisture content of OSB. The models adjusted only with air relative humidity presented the best precision measurements. The type of adhesive affected the equilibrium moisture content of the panels, being observed for adhesives PMUF and FF the same trend of variation, and the highest values obtained for the panels produced with adhesive MUF. The veneer inclusion decreased the equilibrium moisture content only in the panels with MUF adhesive.

  19. Predicting the potential moisture ingress characteristics of polyisobutylene based edge seals (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Michael D.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic devices are often sensitive to moisture and must be packaged in such a way as to limit moisture ingress for 25 years or more. Typically, this is accomplished through the use of impermeable front and backsheets (e.g., glass sheets or metal foils). However, this will still allow moisture ingress between the sheets from the edges. Attempts to hermetically seal with a glass frit or similarly welded bonds at the edge have had problems with costs and mechanical strength. Because of this, low diffusivity polyisobutylene materials filled with desiccant are typically used. Although it is well known that these materials will substantially delay moisture ingress, correlating that to outdoor exposure has been difficult. Here, we use moisture ingress measurements at different temperatures and relative humidities to find fit parameters for a moisture ingress model for an edge-seal material. Then, using meteorological data, a finite element model is used to predict the moisture ingress profiles for hypothetical modules deployed in different climates and mounting conditions, assuming no change in properties of the edge-seal as a function of aging.

  20. Heat and moisture transfer in gaps between sweating imitation skin and nonwoven cloth: effect of gap space and alignment of skin and clothing on the moisture transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Yoshio; Akaki, Kenichi; Tanabe, Naomasa

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates heat and moisture transfer between a sweating film and a nonwoven sheet both experimentally and numerically. A mathematical model based on heat conduction and moisture diffusion in both the air gap and cloth is presented. The evaporation rate and surface temperature of the sweating film are well predicted under various conditions such as air gap height, heating conditions, and sweating film orientation by evaluating the effective thermal conductivity and diffusion coefficient from the empirical equations of the Nusselt number for a fluid layer, even though the air gap height is sufficiently large to cause natural convections.

  1. Sweat as an Efficient Natural Moisturizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Tetsuo; Sato, Yohei; Komatsu, Yurie; Ushigome, Yukiko; Mizukawa, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    Although recent research on the pathogenesis of allergic skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis has focused on defects in skin genes important for maintaining skin barrier function, the fact that excreted sweat has an overwhelmingly great capacity to increase skin surface hydration and contains moisturizing factors has long been ignored: the increase in water loss induced by these gene defects could theoretically be compensated fully by a significant increase in sweating. In this review, the dogma postulating the detrimental role of sweat in these diseases has been challenged on the basis of recent findings on the physiological functions of sweat, newly recognized sweat gland-/duct-related skin diseases, and therapeutic approaches to the management of these diseases. We are now beginning to appreciate that sweat glands/ducts are a sophisticated regulatory system. Furthermore, depending on their anatomical location and the degree of the impairment, this system might have a different function: sweating responses in sweat glands/ducts located at the folds in hairy skin such as on the trunk and extremities could function as natural regulators that maintain skin hydration under quiescent basal conditions, in addition to the better-studied thermoregulatory functions, which can be mainly mediated by those at the ridges. The normal functioning of sweat could be disturbed in various inflammatory skin diseases. Thus, we should recognize sweating disturbance as an etiologic factor in the development of these diseases. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Soil moisture calibration of TDR multilevel probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serrarens Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Time domain reflectometry (TDR probes are increasingly used for field estimation of soil water content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the multilevel TDR probe under field conditions. For this purpose, eight such TDR probes were installed in small plots that were seeded with beans and sorghum. Data collection from the probes was such that soil moisture readings were automated and logged using a standalone field unit. Neutron probe measurements were used to calibrate the TDR probes. Soil-probe contact and soil compaction were critical to the accuracy of the TDR, especially when a number of TDR probes are combined for a single calibration curve. If each probe is calibrated individually, approximate measurement errors were between 0.005 and 0.015 m³ m-3. However, measurement errors doubled to approximately 0.025 to 0.03 m³ m-3, when TDR probes were combined to yield a single calibration curve.

  3. Surface-Atmosphere Moisture Coupling in Eurasian Frozen Ground Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauenfeld, O. W.; Ford, T.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost represents an impermeable barrier to moisture, resulting in a saturated or near-saturated surface layer during the warm season in many continuous and discontinuous permafrost zones. These surface conditions could lead to enhanced convection and precipitation during the warm season, and significant local recycling of moisture. In areas underlain by sporadic or isolated permafrost, or in seasonally frozen areas, the moisture can drain away more readily, resulting in much drier soil conditions. As climate change causes frozen ground degradation, this will thus also alter the patterns of atmospheric convection, moisture recycling, and the hydrologic cycle in high-latitude land areas. In this study, we analyze evaporative fraction (EF) as a proxy for evapotranspiration, and precipitation from the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-land) reanalysis dataset. We focus on 1979-2012 and document patterns and changes in EF over the Eurasian high latitudes. We find strong, positive April EF trends over the study period, particularly in the Lena River Basin, 80% of which is underlain by continuous permafrost. In fact, these significant positive trends in spring EF are strongest over continuous permafrost across the Eurasian high latitudes, but negative for sporadic and isolated permafrost. In addition, we find a strong, statistically significant relationship between EF anomalies and the probability of subsequent precipitation over the Lena Basin during April. This association therefore suggests a potential land-atmosphere coupling between frozen ground and precipitation. As the permafrost and seasonally frozen ground distribution changes in the future, this will likely have repercussions for the Arctic hydrologic cycle.

  4. Investigation of (de)coupling between surface and subsurface soil moisture using a Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DNLM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Coleen; van der Ploeg, Martine

    2017-04-01

    Accurate estimates of water content in the soil profile are essential for environmental and climate modeling studies. Current trends for estimating profile soil moisture incorporate remote sensing methods for mapping soil moisture at greater spatial coverage but is limited to the upper soil layers (e.g. 5cm for radar satellites). Data assimilation methods offer promising computational techniques to translate mapped surface soil moisture to estimates of profile soil moisture, in conjunction with physical models. However, a variety of factors, such as differences in the drying rates, can lead to "decoupling" (Capehart and Carlson, 1997) of surface and subsurface soil moisture. In other words, surface soil moisture conditions no longer reflect or represent subsurface conditions. In this study, we investigated the relation and observed decoupling between surface and subsurface soil moisture from 15-minute interval time series datasets in four selected Dutch agricultural fields (SM_05, SM_09, SM_13, SM_20) from the soil moisture network in Twente region. The idea is that surface soil moisture conditions will be reflected in the subsurface after a certain time lag because of its movement or flow from the surface. These lagged associations were analysed using distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM). This statistical technique provides a framework to simultaneously represent non-linear exposure-response dependencies and delayed effects. DNLM was applied to elucidate which surface soil moisture conditions resulted in a high association to subsurface values, indicating good correlation between the two zones. For example, initial results for this ongoing study from SM_13 show an overall low but increasing association from dry to intermediate soil moisture values (0 to 25%). At this range of values, we say that the two zones are decoupled. Above these values towards near saturated conditions ( 40%), associations between the two zones remain high. For predictor

  5. Practical identification of moisture sources in building assemblies using infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Gregory B.; Colantonio, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Water, in its various phases, in any environment other than desert (hot or cold) conditions, is the single most destructive element that causes deterioration of materials and failure of building assemblies. It is the key element present in the formation of mold and fungi that lead to indoor air quality problems. Water is the primary element that needs to be managed in buildings to ensure human comfort, health and safety. Under the right thermodynamic conditions the detection of moisture in its various states is possible through the use of infrared thermography for a large variety of building assemblies and materials. The difficulty is that moisture is transient and mobile from one environment to another via air movement, vapor pressure or phase change. Building materials and enclosures provide both repositories and barriers to this moisture movement. In real life steady state conditions do not exist for moisture within building materials and enclosures. Thus the detection of moisture is in a constant state of transition. Sometimes you will see it and sometimes you will not. Understanding the limitations at the time of inspection will go a long way to mitigating unsatisfied clients or difficult litigation. Moisture detection can be observed by IRT via three physical mechanisms; latent heat absorption or release during phase change; a change in conductive heat transfer; and a change in thermal capacitance. Complicating the three methodologies is the factor of variable temperature differentials and variable mass air flow on, through and around surfaces being inspected. Building enclosures come in variable assembly types and are designed to perform differently in different environmental regions. Sources for moisture accumulation will vary for different environmental conditions. Detection methodologies will change for each assembly type in different ambient environments. This paper will look at the issue of the methodologies for detection of the presence of moisture and

  6. Soil Moisture and Turgidity of Selected Robusta Coffee Clones on Alluvial Plain with Seasonal Rainfall Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyono

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Observation on the seasonal variations of hydrological condition and turgidity of selected Robusta coffee clones has been carried out in Kaliwining Experimental Station, Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute in Jember. The aim was to evaluate the effect of hydrological variation on the coffee plants and the degree of soil moisture effect on plant performance. Experimental site overlays on alluvial plain, + 45 m a.s.l., 8o 15’ South with D rainfall type. Observation was conducted by survey method at the experimental plots of organic fertilizer and nitogen treatments on selected Robusta coffee clones derived from rooted cuttings, i.e. BP 436, BP 42, BP 936 and BP 358. Observation was only conducted at the experimental blocks of organic matter trials of 20 l/tree/year at nitrogen (Urea application of locally recommanded rate during the subsequent years of 1999 to 2001. Parameters observed included plant turgidity and soil moisture content of three different depths, i.e. 0—20, 20—40 and 40—60 cm and the weather. Observation was carried out in five replicates designed as blocks of barn manure treatment and N-fertilizer of recommended rate as basal fertilizer. The results showed that meteorological condition and soil moisture of experimental site through the years have seasonal patterns following the seasonal pattern of rainfall. Compared to other meteorological characteristics, relative humidity dominantly determined evaporation and plant turgidity. Plant turgi-dity was not only determined by soil moisture condition, but also atmospheric demand. When relative humidity (RH was relatively high, plant turgidity was relatively stable although soil moisture of surface layers was very low, and the reversal when soil moisture content was high plant turgidity was controlled by atmospheric demand (relative humidity. With a 3—4 dry month period, relative turgidity of the coffee plants was relatively stable above 82%, except when soil

  7. A soil moisture and temperature network for SMOS validation in Western Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bircher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission (SMOS acquires surface soil moisture data of global coverage every three days. Product validation for a range of climate and environmental conditions across continents is a crucial step. For this purpose, a soil moisture and soil temperature sensor network was established in the Skjern River Catchment, Denmark. The objectives of this article are to describe a method to implement a network suited for SMOS validation, and to present sample data collected by the network to verify the approach. The design phase included (1 selection of a single SMOS pixel (44 × 44 km, which is representative of the land surface conditions of the catchment and with minimal impact from open water (2 arrangement of three network clusters along the precipitation gradient, and (3 distribution of the stations according to respective fractions of classes representing the prevailing environmental conditions. Overall, measured moisture and temperature patterns could be related to the respective land cover and soil conditions. Texture-dependency of the 0–5 cm soil moisture measurements was demonstrated. Regional differences in 0–5 cm soil moisture, temperature and precipitation between the north-east and south-west were found to be small. A first comparison between the 0–5 cm network averages and the SMOS soil moisture (level 2 product is in range with worldwide validation results, showing comparable trends for SMOS retrieved soil moisture (R2 of 0.49 as well as initial soil moisture and temperature from ECMWF used in the retrieval algorithm (R2 of 0.67 and 0.97, respectively. While retrieved/initial SMOS soil moisture indicate significant under-/overestimation of the network data (biases of −0.092/0.057 m3 m−3, the initial temperature is in good agreement (bias of −0.2 °C. Based on these findings, the network performs according to expectations and proves to be

  8. How ecosystems organize their moisture storage requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, H.

    2014-12-01

    The moisture storage capacity in the root zone of ecosystems acts as a buffer against climatic variability and is a critical factor controlling many physical, biogeochemical and biological processes including land-atmosphere exchanges, rainfall-runoff generation, carbon cycling and nutrient dynamics. Notwithstanding its importance this storage capacity cannot be directly observed at catchment scale. Approaching this problem from a different angle, we can try to understand how adaptive systems cope with the variability of essential inputs through the creation of buffers. Surprisingly, there appears to be a strong correspondence between how societies and ecosystems try to safeguard their water supply. People build reservoirs to buffer against periods of water shortage; ecosystems essentially do the same by creating sufficient moisture storage in their root zone. Both try to do this at minimum expense: people by optimizing the amount of storage at minimum costs; and ecosystems by creating an optimum root zone buffer at minimum biomass investment. A classical engineering way for designing the size of a reservoir is the Rippl (1883) diagram, where tangents to the accumulated inflow determine the required storage. It is a logical method for people to size the storage required to satisfy the long-term water demand. Using this principle, over time, many societies have tried to regulate their rivers, leveling out the natural dynamics of the system. But are people unique in trying to even out unwanted fluctuations or to bridge periods of water shortage? Like societies, ecosystems adjust their storage buffer to climatic variability. Similar to the way in which engineers design reservoirs, we can estimate the root zone storage capacity at catchment scale on the basis of observed climate and hydrological data. This approach was proven to be remarkably accurate not only in 11 catchments of the Ping river in Thailand but also in 413 catchments across the USA, with diverse climate

  9. The impact of land surface temperature on soil moisture anomaly detection from passive microwave observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Parinussa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available For several years passive microwave observations have been used to retrieve soil moisture from the Earth's surface. Low frequency observations have the most sensitivity to soil moisture, therefore the current Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS and future Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP satellite missions observe the Earth's surface in the L-band frequency. In the past, several satellite sensors such as the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-EOS (AMSR-E and WindSat have been used to retrieve surface soil moisture using multi-channel observations obtained at higher microwave frequencies. While AMSR-E and WindSat lack an L-band channel, they are able to leverage multi-channel microwave observations to estimate additional land surface parameters. In particular, the availability of Ka-band observations allows AMSR-E and WindSat to obtain coincident surface temperature estimates required for the retrieval of surface soil moisture. In contrast, SMOS and SMAP carry only a single frequency radiometer and therefore lack an instrument suited to estimate the physical temperature of the Earth. Instead, soil moisture algorithms from these new generation satellites rely on ancillary sources of surface temperature (e.g. re-analysis or near real time data from weather prediction centres. A consequence of relying on such ancillary data is the need for temporal and spatial interpolation, which may introduce uncertainties. Here, two newly-developed, large-scale soil moisture evaluation techniques, the triple collocation (TC approach and the Rvalue data assimilation approach, are applied to quantify the global-scale impact of replacing Ka-band based surface temperature retrievals with Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA surface temperature output on the accuracy of WindSat and AMSR-E based surface soil moisture retrievals. Results demonstrate that under sparsely vegetated conditions, the use of

  10. CLPX-Ground: ISA Soil Moisture Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of in-situ point measurements of soil moisture within three 25-km by 25-km Meso-cell Study Areas (MSAs) in northern Colorado (Fraser, North...

  11. Site Averaged Neutron Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the neutron probe soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  12. Heat and Moisture transport of socks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komárková, P.; Glombíková, V.; Havelka, A.

    2017-10-01

    Investigating the liquid moisture transport and thermal properties is essential for understanding physiological comfort of clothes. This study reports on an experimental investigation of moisture management transport and thermal transport on the physiological comfort of commercially available socks. There are subjective evaluation and objective measurements. Subjective evaluation of the physiological comfort of socks is based on individual sensory perception of probands during and after physical exertion. Objective measurements were performed according to standardized methods using Moisture Management tester for measuring the humidity parameters and C-term TCi analyzer for thermal conductivity and thermal effusivity. The obtained values of liquid moisture transport and thermal properties were related to the material composition and structure of the tested socks. In summary, these results show that objective measurement corresponds with probands feelings.

  13. NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Kent; Thurman, Sam; Edelstein, Wendy; Spencer, Michael; Chen, Gun-Shing; Underwood, Mark; Njoku, Eni; Goodman, Shawn; Jai, Benhan

    2013-01-01

    The SMAP mission will produce high-resolution and accurate global maps of soil moisture and its freeze/thaw state using data from a non-imaging synthetic aperture radar and a radiometer, both operating at L-band.

  14. Effect of Pyrodextrinization, Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Pyrodextrinization, Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture Treatment on In vitro Formation and Digestibility of Resistant Starch from African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa). A Sankhon, W-R Yao, I Amadou, H Wang, H Qian, M Sangare ...

  15. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1989 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  16. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1988 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  17. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged...

  18. Site Averaged Gravimetric Soil Moisture: 1987 (Betts)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Site averaged product of the gravimetric soil moisture collected during the 1987-1989 FIFE experiment. Samples were averaged for each site, then averaged for each...

  19. Advanced moisture modeling of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Long term moisture exposure has been shown to affect the mechanical performance of polymeric composite structures. This reduction : in mechanical performance must be considered during product design in order to ensure long term structure survival. In...

  20. Moisture related test protocols for HVS testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide guidance on the possible methodologies for evaluating specifically moisture related pavement response using the Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS), this paper describes the objectives, potential effects and available methods...

  1. Soil moisture determinations using capacitance probe methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Atkins, Ronald T

    1998-01-01

    ...) systems is a relatively new approach to soil moisture measurements. A unique probe assembly and a readout device that measures voltage drop and phase shift were developed and used for direct capacitance measurements...

  2. Global characterization of surface soil moisture drydowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, Kaighin A.; Wang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Akbar, Ruzbeh; Short Gianotti, Daniel J.; Lu, Hui; Pan, Ming; Entekhabi, Dara

    2017-04-01

    Loss terms in the land water budget (including drainage, runoff, and evapotranspiration) are encoded in the shape of soil moisture "drydowns": the soil moisture time series directly following a precipitation event, during which the infiltration input is zero. The rate at which drydowns occur—here characterized by the exponential decay time scale τ—is directly related to the shape of the loss function and is a key characteristic of global weather and climate models. In this study, we use 1 year of surface soil moisture observations from NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive mission to characterize τ globally. Consistent with physical reasoning, the observations show that τ is lower in regions with sandier soils, and in regions that are more arid. To our knowledge, these are the first global estimates of τ—based on observations alone—at scales relevant to weather and climate models.

  3. Moisture Buffer Value of Building Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut; Time, Berit

    2007-01-01

    When building materials are in contact with indoor air they have some effect to moderate the variations of indoor humidity in occupied buildings. But so far there has been a lack of a standardized quantity to characterize the moisture buffering capability of materials. It has been the objective...... of a recent Nordic project to define such a quantity, and to declare it in the form of a NORDTEST method. The Moisture Buffer Value is the figure that has been developed in the project as a way to appraise the moisture buffer effect of materials, and the value is described in the paper. Also explained...... is a test protocol which expresses how materials should be tested for determination of their Moisture Buffer Value. Finally, the paper presents some of the results of a Round Robin Test on various typical building materials that has been carried out in the project....

  4. Moisture buffer capacity of different insulation materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele; Rode, Carsten; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2004-01-01

    lead to more durable constructions. In this paper, a large range of very different thermal insulation materials have been tested in specially constructed laboratory facilities to determine their moisture buffer capacity. Both isothermal and nonisothermal experimental set-ups have been used...... are discussed, and different ways are presented how to determine the moisture buffer capacity of the materials using partly standard material parameters and partly parameters determined from the actual measurements. The results so far show that the determination of moisture buffer capacity is very sensitive...... to the used analysis method and therefore great care has to be taken when comparing results of different experiments. This paper discusses this issue and will come with a recommendation of a simple and consistent way to present the moisture buffer capacity of the materials in contact with the indoor air...

  5. Soil moisture data for the validation of permafrost models using direct and indirect measurement approaches at three alpine sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile ePellet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In regions affected by seasonal and permanently frozen conditions soil moisture influences the thermal regime of the ground as well as its ice content, which is one of the main factors controlling the sensitivity of mountain permafrost to climate changes. In this study, several well established soil moisture monitoring techniques were combined with data from geophysical measurements to assess the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of soil moisture at three high elevation sites with different ground properties and thermal regimes. The observed temporal evolution of measured soil moisture is characteristic for sites with seasonal freeze/thaw cycles and consistent with the respective site-specific properties, demonstrating the general applicability of continuous monitoring of soil moisture at high elevation areas. The obtained soil moisture data were then used for the calibration and validation of two different model approaches in permafrost research in order to characterize the lateral and vertical distribution of ice content in the ground. Calibration of the geophysically based four-phase model (4PM with spatially distributed soil moisture data yielded satisfactory two dimensional distributions of water-, ice- and air content. Similarly, soil moisture time series significantly improved the calibration of the one-dimensional heat and mass transfer model COUP, yielding physically consistent soil moisture and temperature data matching observations at different depths.

  6. Monitoring soil moisture through assimilation of active microwave remote sensing observation into a hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Zhao, Yingshi

    2015-08-01

    Soil moisture can be estimated from point measurements, hydrologic models, and remote sensing. Many researches indicated that the most promising approach for soil moisture is the integration of remote sensing surface soil moisture data and computational modeling. Although many researches were conducted using passive microwave remote sensing data in soil moisture assimilation with coarse spatial resolution, few researches were carried out using active microwave remote sensing observation. This research developed and tested an operational approach of assimilation for soil moisture prediction using active microwave remote sensing data ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) in Heihe Watershed. The assimilation was based on ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), a forward radiative transfer model and the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM). The forward radiative transfer model, as a semi-empirical backscattering model, was used to eliminate the effect of surface roughness and vegetation cover on the backscatter coefficient. The impact of topography on soil water movement and the vertical and lateral exchange of soil water were considered. We conducted experiments to assimilate active microwave remote sensing data (ASAR) observation into a hydrologic model at two field sites, which had different underlying conditions. The soil moisture ground-truth data were collected through the field Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) tools, and were used to assess the assimilation method. The temporal evolution of soil moisture measured at point-based monitoring locations were compared with EnKF based model predictions. The results indicated that the estimate of soil moisture was improved through assimilation with ASAR observation and the soil moisture based on data assimilation can be monitored in moderate spatial resolution.

  7. Effect of moisture content on some physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Moisture content of rubberwood is an important factor influencing its physical and mechanical behaviours. This research aimed at quantifying effect of moisture content on physical and mechanical properties of juvenile rubberwood core. The specimens at various moisture contents were tested in compression and shear parallel to grain. Information was gathered to determine shrinkage, density and specific gravity of specimens. The equilibrium moisture content determined from desorption experiment, was well described by the Hailwood-Horrobin solution theory. Moisture content of 23+4% best represented the value of apparent fiber saturation point, Mp, determined from physical and mechanical properties data. Above Mp, values of all physical and mechanical properties examined were fairly constant. Maximum volumetric shrinkage from moisture content above Mp to an oven-dry condition was 8.2+1.8%. Specific gravity and density were 0.55+0.03 and 614+30 kg/m3 at 12% moisture content. Below Mp, ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain, ultimate shear stress parallel to grain, modulus of elasticity (MOE for compression parallel to grain, and shear modulus parallel to grain increased exponentially with decreasing moisture content. Shear strain at fracture and work to fracture of shear parallel to grain were found to increase as moisture content decreased below Mp and attained the maximum values at 20% and 12% moisture content, respectively. The values decreased with further lowering of the level of moisture content. Ultimate compressive stress (UCS parallel to grain was closely correlated with specific gravity and was more sensitive to changes in moisture content at higher specific gravity level.

  8. Measurement of heat and moisture exchanger efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M

    2013-09-01

    Deciding between a passive heat and moisture exchanger or active humidification depends upon the level of humidification that either will deliver. Published international standards dictate that active humidifiers should deliver a minimum humidity of 33 mg.l(-1); however, no such requirement exists, for heat and moisture exchangers. Anaesthetists instead have to rely on information provided by manufacturers, which may not allow comparison of different devices and their clinical effectiveness. I suggest that measurement of humidification efficiency, being the percentage moisture returned and determined by measuring the temperature of the respired gases, should be mandated, and report a modification of the standard method that will allow this to be easily measured. In this study, different types of heat and moisture exchangers for adults, children and patients with a tracheostomy were tested. Adult and paediatric models lost between 6.5 mg.l(-1) and 8.5 mg.l(-1) moisture (corresponding to an efficiency of around 80%); however, the models designed for patients with a tracheostomy lost between 16 mg.l(-1) and 18 mg.l(-1) (60% efficiency). I propose that all heat and moisture exchangers should be tested in this manner and percentage efficiency reported to allow an informed choice between different types and models. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. On the influence of moisture and load variations on the strength behavior of wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: It is demonstrated in this paper that the influence of moisture- and load variations on lifetime and residual strength (re-cycle strength) of wood can be considered by theories previously developed by the author. The common, controlling factor is creep, which can be modified very easily...... by introducing a special moisture dependent relaxation time in the well-known Power-Law creep expression. Because basic failure mechanisms in wood are invariant with respect to loading modes, it is suggested that a number of methods used in design of wood structures can be generalized/simplified to apply...... irrespective of loading modes and moisture conditions. Reliability studies may become more ‘reliable’ as the result of recognizing property distributions to be related. Keywords: Moisture variation, load variation, Power-Law creep, lifetime, fatigue, residual strength (re-cycle strength)....

  10. Polarimetric Decompositions for Soil Moisture Retrieval from Vegetated Soils in TERENO Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagdhuber, Thomas; Hajnsek, Irena; Papathanassiou, Konstantinos P.

    2013-08-01

    A refined hybrid polarimetric decomposition and inversion method for soil moisture estimation under vegetation is investigated for its potential to retrieve soil moisture from vegetated soils in TERENO observatories. The refined algorithm is applied on L- band fully polarimetric data acquired by DLR's novel F-SAR sensor. Two flight and field measurement campaigns were conducted in 2011 and 2012 for the TERENO Harz, Eifel and DEMMIN observatories, located all across Germany. The applied algorithm reveals distinct potential to invert soil moisture with inversion rates higher than >98% for a variety of crop types, phenological conditions and for pronounced topography. A quality assessment is conducted by validation with FDR, TDR and a wireless soil moisture network. The RMSE stays below 6.1vol.% for the different test sites and data takes including a variety of vegetation types in different phenological stages.

  11. Moisture transport properties of brick – comparison of exposed, impregnated and rendered brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2016-01-01

    In regards to internal insulation of preservation worthy brick façades, external moisture sources, such as wind-driven rain exposure, inevitably has an impact on moisture conditions within the masonry construction. Surface treatments, such as hydrophobation or render, may remedy the impacts...... of external moisture. In the present paper the surface absorption of liquid water on masonry façades of untreated, hydrophobated and rendered brick, are determined experimentally and compared. The experimental work focuses on methods that can be Applied on-site, Karsten tube measurements. These measurements...... results showed a very clear reduction of the liquid water uptake for hydrophobated cases. However, hygrothermal simulations demonstrated clear differences in the effect of the surface treatments on the moisture content of brick depending on the brick type....

  12. Moisture transport properties of brick – comparison of exposed, impregnated and rendered brick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tessa Kvist; Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2016-01-01

    In regards to internal insulation of preservation worthy brick façades, external moisture sources, such as wind-driven rain exposure, inevitably has an impact on moisture conditions within the masonry construction. Surface treatments, such as hydrophobation or render, may remedy the impacts...... of external moisture. In the present paper the surface absorption of liquid water on masonry façades of untreated, hydrophobated and rendered brick, are determined experimentally and compared. The experimental work focuses on methods that can be applied on-site, Karsten tube measurements. These measurements...... results showed a very clear reduction of the liquid water uptake for hydrophobated cases. However, hygrothermal simulations demonstrated clear differences in the effect of the surface treatments on the moisture content of brick depending on the brick type....

  13. Bending behaviour of insulated ribbed plywood plate during drying of accumulated moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukule, A.; Rocens, K.

    2017-10-01

    The current paper presents the results of an experimental verification of the methodology to evaluate lasting moisture impact on ribbed plates. Conditions of building envelope for ribbed plywood plate with polystyrene insulation were simulated. Internal moisture due the surface exposure to different temperatures and ambient air humidity was accumulated. Within ten months the total mass of the plate increased by 9.7%. After that the plate was dried until its initial mass was reached. Within these three months the plate was loaded in 4 point bending to evaluate its deflection depending on accumulated moisture. After the experiment it was found that the methodology is applicable to assess the effects of lasting moisture impact.

  14. A novel optical technique to characterize fiberization of textured vegetable proteins under high-moisture extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Gang; Liu, Keshun; Hsieh, Fu-Hung

    2004-11-01

    There have been great interests in using twin-screw extruders under high moisture conditions to produce textured vegetable proteins. Unlike the low moisture extrusion counterpart, a product extruded under high moisture can have well-defined fiber orientation and bears a strong resemblance to muscle meat. The textural properties of such extruded products are important for consumer acceptance. In this study, we developed a novel fluorescence polarization based technique that measures the fiber formation of extruded protein products. The experimental results using our new technique showed good agreements with results obtained from visual inspection and digital imaging of the dissected samples. The new technique provides an in vivo and noninvasive approach to characterize the fiber formation of textured vegetable proteins under high moisture extrusion. It has a potential to be used as a real time monitoring tool in food extrusion studies.

  15. Development of membrane moisture separator for BWR off-gas system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, H.; Kawamura, S. [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Kumasaka, M. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan); Nishikubo, M. [Toshiba Corp., Yokohama (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    In BWR plant off-gas treatment systems, dehumidifiers are used to maintain noble gas adsorption efficiency in the first half of the charcoal hold-up units. From the perspective of simplifying and reducing the cost of such a dehumidification system, Japanese BWR utilities and plant fabricators have been developing a dehumidification system employing moisture separation membrane of the type already proven in fields such as medical instrumentation and precision measuring apparatus. The first part of this development involved laboratory testing to simulate the conditions found in an actual off-gas system, the results of which demonstrated satisfactory results in terms of moisture separation capability and membrane durability, and suggested favorable prospects for application in actual off-gas systems. Further, in-plant testing to verify moisture separation capability and membrane durability in the presence of actual gases is currently underway, with results so far suggesting that the system is capable of obtaining good moisture separation capability. (author)

  16. On the Synergy of Airborne GNSS-R and Landsat 8 for Soil Moisture Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilda Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available While the synergy between thermal, optical, and passive microwave observations is well known for the estimation of soil moisture and vegetation parameters, the use of remote sensing sources based on the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS remains unexplored. During an airborne campaign performed in August 2014, over an agricultural area in the Duero basin (Spain, an innovative sensor developed by the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya-Barcelona Tech based on GNSS Reflectometry (GNSS-R was tested for soil moisture estimation. The objective was to evaluate the combined use of GNSS-R observations with a time-collocated Landsat 8 image for soil moisture retrieval under semi-arid climate conditions. As a ground reference dataset, an intensive field campaign was carried out. The Light Airborne Reflectometer for GNSS-R Observations (LARGO observations, together with optical, infrared, and thermal bands from Landsat 8, were linked through a semi-empirical model to field soil moisture. Different combinations of vegetation and water indices with LARGO subsets were tested and compared to the in situ measurements. Results showed that the joint use of GNSS-R reflectivity, water/vegetation indices and thermal maps from Landsat 8 not only allows capturing soil moisture spatial gradients under very dry soil conditions, but also holds great promise for accurate soil moisture estimation (correlation coefficients greater than 0.5 were obtained from comparison with in situ data.

  17. Continuous data assimilation for downscaling large-footprint soil moisture retrievals

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Soil moisture is a key component of the hydrologic cycle, influencing processes leading to runoff generation, infiltration and groundwater recharge, evaporation and transpiration. Generally, the measurement scale for soil moisture is found to be different from the modeling scales for these processes. Reducing this mismatch between observation and model scales in necessary for improved hydrological modeling. An innovative approach to downscaling coarse resolution soil moisture data by combining continuous data assimilation and physically based modeling is presented. In this approach, we exploit the features of Continuous Data Assimilation (CDA) which was initially designed for general dissipative dynamical systems and later tested numerically on the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation, and the Benard equation. A nudging term, estimated as the misfit between interpolants of the assimilated coarse grid measurements and the fine grid model solution, is added to the model equations to constrain the model\\'s large scale variability by available measurements. Soil moisture fields generated at a fine resolution by a physically-based vadose zone model (HYDRUS) are subjected to data assimilation conditioned upon coarse resolution observations. This enables nudging of the model outputs towards values that honor the coarse resolution dynamics while still being generated at the fine scale. Results show that the approach is feasible to generate fine scale soil moisture fields across large extents, based on coarse scale observations. Application of this approach is likely in generating fine and intermediate resolution soil moisture fields conditioned on the radiometerbased, coarse resolution products from remote sensing satellites.

  18. Continuous data assimilation for downscaling large-footprint soil moisture retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, Muhammad U.; Jana, Raghavendra B.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; McCabe, Matthew F.

    2016-10-01

    Soil moisture is a key component of the hydrologic cycle, influencing processes leading to runoff generation, infiltration and groundwater recharge, evaporation and transpiration. Generally, the measurement scale for soil moisture is found to be different from the modeling scales for these processes. Reducing this mismatch between observation and model scales in necessary for improved hydrological modeling. An innovative approach to downscaling coarse resolution soil moisture data by combining continuous data assimilation and physically based modeling is presented. In this approach, we exploit the features of Continuous Data Assimilation (CDA) which was initially designed for general dissipative dynamical systems and later tested numerically on the incompressible Navier-Stokes equation, and the Benard equation. A nudging term, estimated as the misfit between interpolants of the assimilated coarse grid measurements and the fine grid model solution, is added to the model equations to constrain the model's large scale variability by available measurements. Soil moisture fields generated at a fine resolution by a physically-based vadose zone model (HYDRUS) are subjected to data assimilation conditioned upon coarse resolution observations. This enables nudging of the model outputs towards values that honor the coarse resolution dynamics while still being generated at the fine scale. Results show that the approach is feasible to generate fine scale soil moisture fields across large extents, based on coarse scale observations. Application of this approach is likely in generating fine and intermediate resolution soil moisture fields conditioned on the radiometerbased, coarse resolution products from remote sensing satellites.

  19. Winter soil respiration in a humid temperate forest: The roles of moisture, temperature, and snowpack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contosta, Alexandra R.; Burakowski, Elizabeth A.; Varner, Ruth K.; Frey, Serita D.

    2016-12-01

    Winter soil respiration at midlatitudes can comprise a substantial portion of annual ecosystem carbon loss. However, winter soil carbon dynamics in these areas, which are often characterized by shallow snow cover, are poorly understood due to infrequent sampling at the soil surface. Our objectives were to continuously measure winter CO2 flux from soils and the overlying snowpack while also monitoring drivers of winter soil respiration in a humid temperate forest. We show that the relative roles of soil temperature and moisture in driving winter CO2 flux differed within a single soil-to-snow profile. Surface soil temperatures had a strong, positive influence on CO2 flux from the snowpack, while soil moisture exerted a negative control on soil CO2 flux within the soil profile. Rapid fluctuations in snow depth throughout the winter likely created the dynamic soil temperature and moisture conditions that drove divergent patterns in soil respiration at different depths. Such dynamic conditions differ from many previous studies of winter soil microclimate and respiration, where soil temperature and moisture are relatively stable until snowmelt. The differential response of soil respiration to temperature and moisture across depths was also a unique finding as previous work has not simultaneously quantified CO2 flux from soils and the snowpack. The complex interplay we observed among snow depth, soil temperature, soil moisture, and CO2 flux suggests that winter soil respiration in areas with shallow seasonal snow cover is more variable than previously understood and may fluctuate considerably in the future given winter climate change.

  20. Continuous data assimilation for downscaling large-footprint soil moisture retrievals

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, M. U.

    2016-09-01

    Soil moisture is a crucial component of the hydrologic cycle, significantly influencing runoff, infiltration, recharge, evaporation and transpiration processes. Models characterizing these processes require soil moisture as an input, either directly or indirectly. Better characterization of the spatial variability of soil moisture leads to better predictions from hydrologic/climate models. In-situ measurements have fine resolution, but become impractical in terms of coverage over large extents. Remotely sensed data have excellent spatial coverage extents, but suffer from poorer spatial and temporal resolution. We present here an innovative approach to downscaling coarse resolution soil moisture data by combining data assimilation and physically based modeling. In this approach, we exploit the features of Continuous Data Assimilation (CDA). A nudging term, estimated as the misfit between interpolants of the assimilated coarse grid measurements and the fine grid model solution, is added to the model equations to constrain the model’s large scale variability by available measurements. Soil moisture fields generated at a fine resolution by a physically-based vadose zone model (e.g., HYDRUS) are subjected to data assimilation conditioned upon the coarse resolution observations. This enables nudging of the model outputs towards values that honor the coarse resolution dynamics while still being generated at the fine scale. The large scale features of the model output are constrained to the observations, and as a consequence, the misfit at the fine scale is reduced. The advantage of this approach is that fine resolution soil moisture maps can be generated across large spatial extents, given the coarse resolution data. The data assimilation approach also enables multi-scale data generation which is helpful to match the soil moisture input data to the corresponding modeling scale. Application of this approach is likely in generating fine and intermediate resolution soil

  1. A study on gelatin capsule brittleness: moisture tranfer between the capsule shell and its content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, R K; Raghavan, K S; Hussain, M A

    1998-05-01

    Variation in moisture content of the capsule shells either due to the change of storage conditions or the moisture transfer between the capsule shell and its contents may lead to undesired physical properties, such as capsule brittleness and stickiness. DMP 504, a developmental bile-acid sequestrant, is a strongly basic anion-exchange polymer which contains randomly distributed primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amine groups in their hydrochoride salt form. The alkylammonium groups which comprise this polymer form a random network containing a high level of branching and a low level of cross-linking. DMP 504 is very hygroscopic and has a tendency to gain or lose moisture with ease. The transfer of moisture from the capsule shell to DMP 504 powder contained in a hard gelatin capsule can be expected, and if a low water content of the capsule shell is achieved, the capsules become brittle and fracture easily. The sorption isotherm for DMP 504 was generated by storing the drug substance under various relative humidity conditions. After equilibrium, the moisture contents for the samples of individual isotherm points were measured by thermogravimetric analyses. This report applies the sorption-desorption moisture transfer (SDMT) model to predict the equilibrium relative humidity in a system containing DMP 504 in hard gelatin capsules and to establish target loss on drying values for DMP 504 and the capsule shell. Application of this SDMT model resulted in finding a solution to the brittleness problem. The moisture levels of capsule shells and contents for two formulations in a 12-month stability program are also reported here. Results of this study further demonstrate that the SDMT model can be used as a tool to guide the formulator to select optimal initial moisture contents for the empty capsule shell and the formulation to avoid the incidence of brittle capsule problems.

  2. Moisture and shelf life in sugar confections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, R; Lietha, R; Hartel, R W

    2010-02-01

    From hardening of marshmallow to graining of hard candies, moisture plays a critical role in determining the quality and shelf life of sugar-based confections. Water is important during the manufacturing of confections, is an important factor in governing texture, and is often the limiting parameter during storage that controls shelf life. Thus, an understanding of water relations in confections is critical to controlling quality. Water content, which is controlled during candy manufacturing through an understanding of boiling point elevation, is one of the most important parameters that governs the texture of candies. For example, the texture of caramel progresses from soft and runny to hard and brittle as the moisture content decreases. However, knowledge of water content by itself is insufficient to controlling stability and shelf life. Understanding water activity, or the ratio of vapor pressures, is necessary to control shelf life. A difference in water activity, either between candy and air or between two domains within the candy, is the driving force for moisture migration in confections. When the difference in water activity is large, moisture migration is rapid, although the rate of moisture migration depends on the nature of resistances to water diffusion. Barrier packaging films protect the candy from air whereas edible films inhibit moisture migration between different moisture domains within a confection. More recently, the concept of glass transition, or the polymer science approach, has supplemented water activity as a critical parameter related to candy stability. Confections with low moisture content, such as hard candy, cotton candy, and some caramels and toffees, may contain sugars in the amorphous or glassy state. As long as these products remain below their glass transition temperature, they remain stable for very long times. However, certain glassy sugars tend to be hygroscopic, rapidly picking up moisture from the air, which causes

  3. A population-based study of the stratum corneum moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires TF

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thiago de Farias Pires,1 Ana Paula Azambuja,2 Andrea Roseli Vançan Russo Horimoto,1 Mary Sanae Nakamura,2 Rafael de Oliveira Alvim,1 José Eduardo Krieger,1 Alexandre Costa Pereira1 1Laboratory of Genetics and Molecular Cardiology, Heart Institute, University of São Paulo Medical School, 2Natura Innovation and Product Technology Ltd., Cajamar, SP, Brazil Background: The stratum corneum (SC has important functions as a bound-water modulator and a primary barrier of the human skin from the external environment. However, no large epidemiological study has quantified the relative importance of different exposures with regard to these functional properties. In this study, we have studied a large sample of individuals from the Brazilian population in order to understand the different relationships between the properties of SC and a number of demographic and self-perceived variables. Methods: One thousand three hundred and thirty-nine individuals from a rural Brazilian population, who were participants of a family-based study, were submitted to a cross-sectional examination of the SC moisture by capacitance using the Corneometer® CM820 and investigated regarding environmental exposures, cosmetic use, and other physiological and epidemiological measurements. Self-perception-scaled questions about skin conditions were also applied. Results: We found significant associations between SC moisture and sex, age, high sun exposure, and sunscreen use frequency (P<0.025. In specific studied sites, self-reported race and obesity were also found to show significant effects. Dry skin self-perception was also found to be highly correlated with the objective measurement of the skin. Other environmental effects on SC moisture are also reported. Keywords: investigative dermatology, stratum corneum moisture, Corneometer, sun exposure, familial data modeling

  4. Drying and control of moisture content and dimensional changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard Bergman

    2010-01-01

    The discussion in this chapter is concerned with moisture content determination, recommended moisture content values, drying methods, methods of calculating dimensional changes, design factors affecting such changes in structures, and moisture content control during transit, storage, and construction. Data on green moisture content, fiber saturation point, shrinkage,...

  5. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digital soil moisture meter developed was compared with gravimetric method for soil moisture determination on fifteen soil samples added different level of water during calibration process. The results revealed a relatively linear relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter.

  6. development and testing of a capacitive digital soil moisture metre

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    moisture meter developed was compared with gravimetric method for soil moisture determination on fifteen soil samples added different level of water during calibration process. The results revealed a relatively linear relationship between the moisture content process and the digital soil moisture meter. The regression ...

  7. Using Whole-House Field Tests to Empirically Derive Moisture Buffering Model Inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, J.; Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Hancock, E.

    2014-08-01

    Building energy simulations can be used to predict a building's interior conditions, along with the energy use associated with keeping these conditions comfortable. These models simulate the loads on the building (e.g., internal gains, envelope heat transfer), determine the operation of the space conditioning equipment, and then calculate the building's temperature and humidity throughout the year. The indoor temperature and humidity are affected not only by the loads and the space conditioning equipment, but also by the capacitance of the building materials, which buffer changes in temperature and humidity. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for use with a more accurate moisture capacitance model (the effective moisture penetration depth model). The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative humidity profile, measure all of the moisture transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air conditioner condensate) and calculate the only unmeasured term: the moisture absorption into the materials. After validating the method with laboratory measurements, we performed the tests in a field house. A least-squares fit of an analytical solution to the measured moisture absorption curves was used to determine the three independent model parameters representing the moisture buffering potential of this house and its furnishings. Follow on tests with realistic latent and sensible loads showed good agreement with the derived parameters, especially compared to the commonly-used effective capacitance approach. These results show that the EMPD model, once the inputs are known, is an accurate moisture buffering model.

  8. Transient soil moisture profile of a water-shedding soil cover in north Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Christopher; Baumgartl, Thomas; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    In current agricultural and industrial applications, soil moisture determination is limited to point-wise measurements and remote sensing technologies. The former has limitations on spatial resolution while the latter, although has greater coverage in three dimensions, but may not be representative of real-time hydrologic conditions of the substrate. This conference paper discusses the use of elongated soil moisture probes to describe the transient soil moisture profile of water-shedding soil cover trial plots in north Queensland, Australia. Three-metre long flat ribbon cables were installed at designed depths across a soil cover with substrate materials from mining activities comprising of waste rocks and blended tailings. The soil moisture measurement is analysed using spatial time domain reflectometry (STDR) (Scheuermann et al., 2009) Calibration of the flat ribbon cable's soil moisture measurement in waste rocks is undertaken in a glasshouse setting. Soil moisture retention and outflows are monitored at specific time interval by mass balance and water potential measurements. These data sets together with the soil hydrologic properties derived from laboratory and field measurements are used as input in the numerical code on unsaturated flow, Hydrus2D. The soil moisture calculations of the glasshouse calibration using this numerical method are compared with results from the STDR soil moisture data sets. In context, the purpose of the soil cover is to isolate sulphide-rich mine wastes from atmospheric interaction as oxidation and leaching of these materials may result to acid and metalliferous drainage. The long term performance of a soil cover will be described in terms of the quantities and physico-chemical characteristics of its outflows. With the soil moisture probes set at automated and pre-determined measurement time intervals, it is expected to distinguish between macropore and soil moisture flows during high intensity rainfall events and, also continuously

  9. Sensitivity of convective precipitation to soil moisture and vegetation during break spell of Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Govindan; Sandeep, S.; Vinodkumar; Nhaloor, Sreejith

    2017-07-01

    Indian summer monsoon rainfall is characterized by large intra-seasonal fluctuations in the form of active and break spells in rainfall. This study investigates the role of soil moisture and vegetation on 30-h precipitation forecasts during the break monsoon period using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model. The working hypothesis is that reduced rainfall, clear skies, and wet soil condition during the break monsoon period enhance land-atmosphere coupling over central India. Sensitivity experiments are conducted with modified initial soil moisture and vegetation. The results suggest that an increase in antecedent soil moisture would lead to an increase in precipitation, in general. The precipitation over the core monsoon region has increased by enhancing forest cover in the model simulations. Parameters such as Lifting Condensation Level, Level of Free Convection, and Convective Available Potential Energy indicate favorable atmospheric conditions for convection over forests, when wet soil conditions prevail. On spatial scales, the precipitation is more sensitive to soil moisture conditions over northeastern parts of India. Strong horizontal gradient in soil moisture and orographic uplift along the upslopes of Himalaya enhanced rainfall over the east of Indian subcontinent.

  10. Relative performance evaluation of a custom-made near infrared reflectance instrument and two commercial instruments (Foss and ASD) in the nondestructive moisture content measurement of in-shell peanuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    A custom made Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) spectroscope was used to determine the moisture content of in-shell peanuts of Virginia type peanuts. Peanuts were conditioned to different moisture levels between 6 and 26 % (wet basis) and samples from different moisture levels were separated into two...

  11. Soil moisture variability across different scales in an Indian watershed for satellite soil moisture product validation

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Gurjeet

    2016-05-05

    Strategic ground-based sampling of soil moisture across multiple scales is necessary to validate remotely sensed quantities such as NASA’s Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) product. In the present study, in-situ soil moisture data were collected at two nested scale extents (0.5 km and 3 km) to understand the trend of soil moisture variability across these scales. This ground-based soil moisture sampling was conducted in the 500 km2 Rana watershed situated in eastern India. The study area is characterized as sub-humid, sub-tropical climate with average annual rainfall of about 1456 mm. Three 3x3 km square grids were sampled intensively once a day at 49 locations each, at a spacing of 0.5 km. These intensive sampling locations were selected on the basis of different topography, soil properties and vegetation characteristics. In addition, measurements were also made at 9 locations around each intensive sampling grid at 3 km spacing to cover a 9x9 km square grid. Intensive fine scale soil moisture sampling as well as coarser scale samplings were made using both impedance probes and gravimetric analyses in the study watershed. The ground-based soil moisture samplings were conducted during the day, concurrent with the SMAP descending overpass. Analysis of soil moisture spatial variability in terms of areal mean soil moisture and the statistics of higher-order moments, i.e., the standard deviation, and the coefficient of variation are presented. Results showed that the standard deviation and coefficient of variation of measured soil moisture decreased with extent scale by increasing mean soil moisture. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  12. Equilibrium moisture content of radiata pine at elevated temperature and pressure reveals measurement challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearson, Hamish; Gabbitas, Brian; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2012-01-01

    Relatively few studies have been performed on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood under conditions of elevated temperature and pressure. Eight studies indicated that EMC near saturation decreased between 100 and 150 °C, whilst five studies indicated that EMC increased. The aim...... of this study was to identify the likely source of the disagreement using radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) sapwood which was conditioned to a moisture content of around 3 % and then exposed for 1 h at 150 °C and relative humidities of either 50, 70 or 90 %. Mean values of EMC, obtained through in situ...... conditions with minimal standard error, (2) specimens with low initial moisture content to avoid unwanted wood mass loss over time, (3) a relative humidity upper limit that avoids drift above 95 %, and (4) extrapolation of data to humidity approaching 100 %....

  13. Characteristics and performance of L-band radar-based soil moisture retrievals using Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) synthetic aperture radar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Johnson, J. T.; Moghaddam, M.; Tsang, L.; Colliander, A.

    2016-12-01

    Surface soil moisture of the top 5-cm was estimated at 3-km spatial resolution using L-band dual-copolarized Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data that mapped the globe every three days from mid-April to early July, 2015. Radar observations of soil moisture offer the advantage of high spatial resolution, but have been challenging in the past due to the complicating factors of surface roughness and vegetation scattering. In this work, physically-based forward models of radar scattering for individual vegetation types are inverted using a time-series approach to retrieve soil moisture while correcting for the effects of roughness and dynamic vegetation. The predictions of the forward models used agree with SMAP measurements to within 0.5 dB unbiased-RMSE (root mean square error, ubRMSE) and -0.05 dB (bias). The forward models further allow the mechanisms of radar scattering to be examined to identify the sensitivity of radar scattering to soil moisture. Global patterns of the soil moistures retrieved by the algorithm generally match well with those from other satellite sensors. However biases exist in dry regions, and discrepancies are found in thick vegetation areas. The retrievals are compared with in situ measurements of soil moisture in locations characterized as cropland, grassland, and woody vegetation. Terrain slopes, subpixel heterogeneity, tillage practices, and vegetation growth influence the retrievals, but are largely corrected by the retrieval processes. Soil moisture retrievals agree with the in-situ measurements at 0.052 m3/m3 ubRMSE, -0.015 m3/m3 bias, and a correlation of 0.50. These encouraging retrieval results demonstrate the feasibility of a physically-based time-series retrieval with L-band SAR data for characterizing soil moisture over diverse conditions of soil moisture, surface roughness, and vegetation types. The findings are important for future L-band radar missions with frequent revisits that permit time

  14. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) Product Specification Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project. The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission will enhance the accuracy and the resolution of space-based measurements of terrestrial soil moisture and freeze-thaw state. SMAP data products will have a noteworthy impact on multiple relevant and current Earth Science endeavors. These include: Understanding of the processes that link the terrestrial water, the energy and the carbon cycles, Estimations of global water and energy fluxes over the land surfaces, Quantification of the net carbon flux in boreal landscapes Forecast skill of both weather and climate, Predictions and monitoring of natural disasters including floods, landslides and droughts, and Predictions of agricultural productivity. To provide these data, the SMAP mission will deploy a satellite observatory in a near polar, sun synchronous orbit. The observatory will house an L-band radiometer that operates at 1.40 GHz and an L-band radar that operates at 1.26 GHz. The instruments will share a rotating reflector antenna with a 6 meter aperture that scans over a 1000 km swath.

  15. Field testing a microwave moisture sensor for real-time kernel moisture content monitoring during peanut drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present peanut drying process lacks the capability of kernel moisture content determination in real-time. A microwave moisture sensor, developed within USDA ARS, affords the capability of in-shell kernel moisture content determination; thus, providing a means for monitoring kernel moisture conte...

  16. MARKETING OF WHEAT ON A CONSTANT AND NIL MOISTURE BASIS

    OpenAIRE

    William W. WILSON; Dahl, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined moisture specification practices in the United States and for major exporters and assessed impacts of changes to a nil or constant moisture basis on prices and revenue. These were examined under scenarios where information on moisture in current prices is limited and under a scenario where current prices reflect Full Knowledge of moisture advantages. Results indicate that changing to a nil moisture basis (which requires a subsequent adjustment in volumes to reflect the sub...

  17. Uncertainty in SMAP Soil Moisture Measurements Caused by Dew

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, B. K.; Kruger, A.; Rowlandson, T. L.; Logsdon, S. D.; Kaleita, A.; Yueh, S. H.

    2009-12-01

    Soil moisture is an important reservoir of the hydrologic cycle that regulates the exchange of moisture and energy between the land surface the atmosphere. Two satellite missions will soon make the first global measurements of soil moisture at the optimal microwave wavelength within L-band: ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission; and NASA's Soil Moisture Active-Passive (SMAP) mission. SMAP is unique in that it will measure both L-band brightness temperature and backscatter. Changes in the water content of vegetation tissue, as well as transient liquid water within the vegetation canopy such as dew or intercepted precipitation, all affect the L-band terrestrial brightness temperature and backscatter. Although dew will often be present during the planned SMAP overpass at 6 AM, the effect of dew on the L-band brightness temperature and backscatter is not completely understood. Some progress has been made in terms of the effect of dew on the L-band brightness temperature. For example, it is known that dew can either increase or decrease the L-band terrestrial brightness temperature (by up to 10 K) depending on the type of vegetation. This effect is significant but relatively small when compared to the sensitivity of L-band brightness temperature to soil moisture. On the other hand, NO measurements of the effect of dew on L-band backscatter have been reported. Considering the effect of dew on the backscatter at slightly shorter microwave wavelengths (X- and C-band) we hypothesize that there is the potential for an error of more the 5% in the estimate of soil moisture from the L-band backscatter when dew is present, which is unacceptable. We will present the first case study of the effect of dew on the L-band backscatter. We will use data collected by NASA's Passive and Active L-band System (PALS) over corn and soybean fields at the Iowa Validation Site on September 23 and 25, 2008. The conditions during this three-day experiment were ideal for deducing

  18. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  19. Collective Impacts of Orography and Soil Moisture on the Soil Moisture-Precipitation Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamovic, Adel; Schlemmer, Linda; Schär, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    Ensembles of convection-resolving simulations with a simplified land surface are conducted to dissect the isolated and combined impacts of soil moisture and orography on deep-convective precipitation under weak synoptic forcing. In particular, the deep-convective precipitation response to a uniform and a nonuniform soil moisture perturbation is investigated both in settings with and without orography. In the case of horizontally uniform perturbations, we find a consistently positive soil moisture-precipitation feedback, irrespective of the presence of low orography. On the other hand, a negative feedback emerges with localized perturbations: a dry soil heterogeneity substantially enhances rain amounts that scale linearly with the dryness of the soil, while a moist heterogeneity suppresses rain amounts. If the heterogeneity is located in a mountainous region, the relative importance of soil moisture heterogeneity decreases with increasing mountain height: A mountain 500 m in height is sufficient to neutralize the local soil moisture-precipitation feedback.

  20. Western US high June 2015 temperatures and their relation to global warming and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Sjoukje Y.; Kew, Sarah F.; Hauser, Mathias; Guillod, Benoit P.; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Whan, Kirien; Uhe, Peter; Oldenborgh, Geert Jan van

    2017-06-01

    The Western US states Washington (WA), Oregon (OR) and California (CA) experienced extremely high temperatures in June 2015. The temperature anomalies were so extreme that they cannot be explained with global warming alone. We investigate the hypothesis that soil moisture played an important role as well. We use a land surface model and a large ensemble from the weather@home modelling effort to investigate the coupling between soil moisture and temperature in a warming world. Both models show that May was anomalously dry, satisfying a prerequisite for the extreme heat wave, and they indicate that WA and OR are in a wet-to-dry transitional soil moisture regime. We use two different land surface-atmosphere coupling metrics to show that there was strong coupling between temperature, latent heat flux and the effect of soil moisture deficits on the energy balance in June 2015 in WA and OR. June temperature anomalies conditioned on wet/dry conditions show that both the mean and extreme temperatures become hotter for dry soils, especially in WA and OR. Fitting a Gaussian model to temperatures using soil moisture as a covariate shows that the June 2015 temperature values fit well in the extrapolated empirical temperature/drought lines. The high temperature anomalies in WA and OR are thus to be expected, given the dry soil moisture conditions and that those regions are in the transition from a wet to a dry regime. CA is already in the dry regime and therefore the necessity of taking soil moisture into account is of lower importance.

  1. Spatial-temporal management zones for biomass moisture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fountas, Spyros; Bochtis, Dionysis; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    georeferenced biomass samples were collected when the forage was cut and left in the ground.  The samples were weighed and dried and then weighed again, thereby determining the water content in the specific sample. For the prediction of the time-evolution of biomass moisture content as a function of the local...... weather forecast information a model based on Fluid Computational Dynamics (CFD), was developed. The use of a CFD model provides for the consideration of factors such as field topology, geometrical features and local weather conditions.     Management zones were created for the specific field based...

  2. Study of the Impact of Initial Moisture Content in Oil Impregnated Insulation Paper on Thermal Aging Rate of Condenser Bushing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyuan Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studied the impact of moisture on the correlated characteristics of the condenser bushings oil-paper insulation system. The oil-impregnated paper samples underwent accelerated thermal aging at 130 °C after preparation at different initial moisture contents (1%, 3%, 5% and 7%. All the samples were extracted periodically for the measurement of the moisture content, the degree of polymerization (DP and frequency domain dielectric spectroscopy (FDS. Next, the measurement results of samples were compared to the related research results of transformer oil-paper insulation, offering a theoretical basis of the parameter analysis. The obtained results show that the moisture fluctuation amplitude can reflect the different initial moisture contents of insulating paper and the mass ratio of oil and paper has little impact on the moisture content fluctuation pattern in oil-paper but has a great impact on moisture fluctuation amplitude; reduction of DP presents an accelerating trend with the increase of initial moisture content, and the aging rate of test samples is higher under low moisture content but lower under high moisture content compared to the insulation paper in transformers. Two obvious “deceleration zones” appeared in the dielectric spectrum with the decrease of frequency, and not only does the integral value of dielectric dissipation factor (tan δ reflect the aging degree, but it reflects the moisture content in solid insulation. These types of research in this paper can be applied to evaluate the condition of humidified insulation and the aging state of solid insulation for condenser bushings.

  3. Lactose and galactose content in cheese results in overestimation of moisture by vacuum oven and microwave methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H; Rankin, S A; Fonseca, L M; Milani, F X

    2014-05-01

    Moisture determination in cheese is a critical test for regulatory compliance, functionality, and economic reasons. Common methods for moisture determination in cheese rely upon the thermal volatilization of water from cheese and calculation of moisture content based on the resulting loss of mass. Residual sugars, such as lactose and galactose, are commonly present in cheeses at levels ranging from trace amounts to 5%. These sugars are capable of reacting with other compounds in cheese, especially under the thermal conditions required for moisture determination, to yield volatile reaction products. The hypothesis of this work is that residual sugars in cheese will be converted into volatile compounds over the course of moisture determination at a level sufficient to result in overestimated cheese moisture. A full-factorial statistical design was used to evaluate the effects of cheese type, sugar type, sugar level, method type, and all interactions. Cheddar and low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella cheeses were prepared with 1, 3, and 5% added lactose or galactose, and subjected to either vacuum oven or microwave-based moisture determination methods. Browning index and colorimetry were measured to characterize the color and extent of browning. Volatile analyses were performed to provide chemical evidence of the reactions proposed. The presence of residual sugars altered moisture calculations as a function of cheese type, sugar type, sugar level, method type, and numerous interactions. At higher concentrations of residual sugar, the percentage moisture determinations were increased by values of up to 1.8. Measures of browning reactions, including browning index, colorimetry, and volatile profiles demonstrate that the proposed browning reactions played a causative role. This work establishes the need to consider cheese type, sugar type, sugar levels, and method type as a means of more accurately determining moisture levels. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  4. On the "well-mixed" assumption and numerical 2-D tracing of atmospheric moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Goessling

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric water vapour tracers (WVTs are an elegant tool to determine source–sink relations of moisture "online" in atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs. However, it is sometimes desirable to establish such relations "offline" based on already existing atmospheric data (e.g. reanalysis data. One simple and frequently applied offline method is 2-D moisture tracing. It makes use of the "well-mixed" assumption, which allows for treating the vertical dimension integratively. Here we scrutinise the "well-mixed" assumption and 2-D moisture tracing by means of analytical considerations in combination with AGCM-WVT simulations. We find that vertically well-mixed conditions are seldom met. Due to the presence of vertical inhomogeneities, 2-D moisture tracing (i neglects a significant degree of fast-recycling, and (ii results in erroneous advection where the direction of the horizontal winds varies vertically. The latter is not so much the case in the extratropics, but in the tropics this can lead to large errors. For example, computed by 2-D moisture tracing, the fraction of precipitation in the western Sahel that originates from beyond the Sahara is ~40%, whereas the fraction that originates from the tropical and Southern Atlantic is only ~4%. According to full (i.e. 3-D moisture tracing, however, both regions contribute roughly equally, showing that the errors introduced by the 2-D approximation can be substantial.

  5. Automated moisture monitoring systems to manage the structural and IAQ performance of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vokey, D. [Detec Systems, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Glassco, M. [Theodor Sterling Associates Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Although significant effort has been made to improve the performance of building envelopes, water-related problems continue to exist. New technology such as permanently installed monitoring systems that monitor, detect and locate moisture intrusion during and after building construction can help to resolve these problems. Several important variables must be measured, assessed, and combined to develop a risk exposure level (REL) estimate in assessing the moisture performance of a building envelope. Some of these key parameters include moisture level; duration of moisture event; number of simultaneous events; and surface area involved. This paper presented a case study that examined and estimated the structural integrity REL and mould related indoor air quality exposure levels for a timber-framed monitored building. Damage and mould growth rates were calculated using moisture content measurements. The paper also discussed the modification of mathematical models of wood decay fungi and surface mould growth. In this case study, the high moisture content readings were concentrated primarily in the area around the floor plate and in the sheathing inside the wall cavity. It was concluded that mould growth conditions existed for extended periods in some zones. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  6. SMAP Soil Moisture Data To Improve Remotely Sensed Global Estimates of Evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, A. J.; Fisher, J.; Goulden, M.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Surface water availability limits plant productivity and the ability to transport water from the soil to the atmosphere in over 1/3rd of earth's vegetated land. Quantifying evapotranspiration (ET) across large areas requires the integration of satellite-observed land surface variables into physical or empirical equations that govern the transfer of mass and energy from land to the atmosphere. Many satellite ET algorithms have been developed to compute ET globally, but the current methods of two widely-used ET algorithms rely on implicit representation of soil moisture, limiting their capacity to impose proper physical constraints on ET under water limiting conditions. The successful launch of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite provides the first space-based soil moisture observations with the fidelity and the necessary spatio-temporal resolution to integrate directly into remote sensing ET algorithms and compare to in situ observations. Here we incorporate SMAP soil moisture observations into two widely used ET algorithms, the Priestley Taylor Jet Propulsion Laboratory (PT-JPL) ET model and the Penman Monteith MOD16. We present new soil moisture stress formulation and parameterization for each algorithm and evaluate model performance before and after soil moisture integration across a suite of in situ observations spanning a range of plant functional types and climates.

  7. SMAP Soil Moisture Disaggregation using Land Surface Temperature and Vegetation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, B.; Lakshmi, V.

    2016-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) is a key parameter in agriculture, hydrology and ecology studies. The global SM retrievals have been providing by microwave remote sensing technology since late 1970s and many SM retrieval algorithms have been developed, calibrated and applied on satellite sensors such as AMSR-E (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for the Earth Observing System), AMSR-2 (Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2) and SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity). Particularly, SMAP (Soil Moisture Active/Passive) satellite, which was developed by NASA, was launched in January 2015. SMAP provides soil moisture products of 9 km and 36 km spatial resolutions which are not capable for research and applications of finer scale. Toward this issue, this study applied a SM disaggregation algorithm to disaggregate SMAP passive microwave soil moisture 36 km product. This algorithm was developed based on the thermal inertial relationship between daily surface temperature variation and daily average soil moisture which is modulated by vegetation condition, by using remote sensing retrievals from AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer), SPOT (Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre), as well as Land Surface Model (LSM) output from NLDAS (North American Land Data Assimilation System). The disaggregation model was built at 1/8o spatial resolution on monthly basis and was implemented to calculate and disaggregate SMAP 36 km SM retrievals to 1 km resolution in Oklahoma. The SM disaggregation results were also validated using MESONET (Mesoscale Network) and MICRONET (Microscale Network) ground SM measurements.

  8. Efficient low-power wireless communication setup for an autonomous soil moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surducan, Vasile; Surducan, Emanoil

    2017-12-01

    During July 2016 - September 2017, a micro-irrigation system was set up and tested in field and greenhouse-like conditions, using eight inexpensive soil moisture sensors designed and manufactured in our institute. Each sensor was powered by accumulators charged by an (8 × 14) cm2 solar panel. The energy budget was carefully managed to allow long operating time for both the moisture sensor and the irrigation automation. We present here the hardware-software setup implemented in our proprietary moisture sensor for wireless communication, using Bluetooth Low Energy modules (BLE). The autonomy of the system may reach 4-5 cloudy days without the need of recharging the accumulators from the sun. Over the entire operating period, the moisture sensors send data wirelessly every sampling time (15 to 30 minutes) following water drips on the soil for the next 30 seconds, pushed by a low power micro pump. The micro-irrigation process is repeated every sampling time, until the soil moisture threshold is reached. In between the operating states, the sensor and watering automation go to sleep. The software algorithm ensures low energy (max. 2.8 mWh) consumption for the moisture sensor and 20 mWh for the irrigation automation, substantially increasing the accumulators discharge cycle.

  9. Estimating tallgrass prairie soil moisture using active satellite microwave imagery and optical sensor inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, James Michael Shawn

    2000-10-01

    Recent advances in active microwave remote sensing techniques provide the potential for monitoring soil moisture conditions at the spatial and temporal scales required for detailed local modeling efforts. The goal of this research was to produce accurate and spatially distributed estimates of soil moisture using a time series of ERS-2 images for the Konza Prairie, a tallgrass environment in northeast Kansas. The methods used in this research involve field data collection of soil moisture, digital image interpretation of optical (NOAA AVHRR and LANDSAT TM) and radar (ERS-2) imagery, and environmental modeling in a raster GIS environment. To accomplish the research goals, the effect of variable terrain on radar image backscatter values was quantified and reduced. Next, the scattering behavior of the overlying vegetation canopy was simulated using a water cloud model that estimated the contribution of vegetation backscatter (sigma oveg) to the total backscatter coefficient (sigma ototal). Critical to this process were estimates of aboveground primary production made using the normalized difference vegetation index from a combination of AVHRR and LANDSAT TM images. With sigmao veg removed from the amount of backscatter contributed by the soil surface (sigmaosoil) was calculated and the linear relationship between sigmaosoil and volumetric soil moisture was determined. This regression model was then inverted and solved for volumetric soil moisture to quantify near surface soil moisture conditions across the study area. Local incidence angle had the strongest relationship on SAR image backscatter values (r = -0.35) and when used in an empirical correction function reduced image variance by at least 8%. Backscatter modeling to separate the vegetation and soil components of the radar signal performed worse than expected, resulting in a weak correlation between composite sigmao soil and volumetric soil water content (r = 0.21) and different values for burned and unburned

  10. Impact of microwave derived soil moisture on hydrologic simulations using a spatially distributed water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, D. S.; Wood, E. F.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Mancini, M.

    1994-01-01

    Spatial distributions of soil moisture over an agricultural watershed with a drainage area of 60 ha were derived from two NASA microwave remote sensors, and then used as a feedback to determine the initial condition for a distributed water balance model. Simulated hydrologic fluxes over a period of twelve days were compared with field observations and with model predictions based on a streamflow derived initial condition. The results indicated that even the low resolution remotely sensed data can improve the hydrologic model's performance in simulating the dynamics of unsaturated zone soil moisture. For the particular watershed under study, the simulated water budget was not sensitive to the resolutions of the microwave sensors.

  11. Assessing artificial neural networks and statistical methods for infilling missing soil moisture records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumedah, Gift; Walker, Jeffrey P.; Chik, Li

    2014-07-01

    Soil moisture information is critically important for water management operations including flood forecasting, drought monitoring, and groundwater recharge estimation. While an accurate and continuous record of soil moisture is required for these applications, the available soil moisture data, in practice, is typically fraught with missing values. There are a wide range of methods available to infilling hydrologic variables, but a thorough inter-comparison between statistical methods and artificial neural networks has not been made. This study examines 5 statistical methods including monthly averages, weighted Pearson correlation coefficient, a method based on temporal stability of soil moisture, and a weighted merging of the three methods, together with a method based on the concept of rough sets. Additionally, 9 artificial neural networks are examined, broadly categorized into feedforward, dynamic, and radial basis networks. These 14 infilling methods were used to estimate missing soil moisture records and subsequently validated against known values for 13 soil moisture monitoring stations for three different soil layer depths in the Yanco region in southeast Australia. The evaluation results show that the top three highest performing methods are the nonlinear autoregressive neural network, rough sets method, and monthly replacement. A high estimation accuracy (root mean square error (RMSE) of about 0.03 m/m) was found in the nonlinear autoregressive network, due to its regression based dynamic network which allows feedback connections through discrete-time estimation. An equally high accuracy (0.05 m/m RMSE) in the rough sets procedure illustrates the important role of temporal persistence of soil moisture, with the capability to account for different soil moisture conditions.

  12. Moisture removal of paddy by agricultural residues: basic physical parameters and drying kinetics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniso, E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study basic physical parameters of three agricultural residues that could be used for prediction of paddy drying kinetics using desiccants, to investigate a suitable methodfor moisture reduction of fresh paddy using 3 absorbents, and to modify the drying model of Inoue et al. for determining the evolution of moisture transfer during the drying period. Rice husk, sago palm rachis andcoconut husk were used as moisture desiccants in these experiments. From the results, it was concluded that the apparent density of all adsorbents was a linear function of moisture content whilst an equilibriummoisture content equation following Hendersonís model gave the best fit to the experimental results. From studying the relationship between moisture ratio and drying time under the condition of drying temperaturesof 30, 50 and 70oC, air flow rate of 1.6 m/s and initial moisture content of absorbents of 15, 20 and 27% dry-basis, it was shown that the moisture ratio decreased when drying time increased. In addition, thethin-layer desiccant drying equation following of the Page model can appropriately explain the evolution of moisture content of paddy over the drying time. The diffusion coefficient of all absorbents, which was in therange of 1x10-8 to 6x10-8 m2/h, was relatively dependent on drying temperature and inversely related to drying time. The diffusivity of coconut husk had the highest value compared to the other absorbents.The simulating modified mathematical model to determine drying kinetics of paddy using absorption technique and the simulated results had good relation to the experimental results for all adsorbents.

  13. SCAT/ASCAT Soil Moisture Data: Enhancements in the TU Wien Method for Soil Moisture Retrieval From ERS and METOP Scatterometer Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, V.; Wagner, W.; Bartalis, Z.

    2009-05-01

    Active microwave remote sensing observations of the scatterometers onboard the European Remote Sensing (ERS) and METeorological OPerational (METOP) satellites have been proven to be valuable for monitoring surface soil moisture globally using the so-called TU Wien change detection method. The METOP satellite series carrying ASCAT (Advanced Scatteromer) instrument for the next 15 years will ensure the continuity of soil moisture retrieval from scatterometers' data for more than 30 years considering the available ERS-1&2 Scatterometer (SCAT) observations dataset. With the aim of implementing a near real-time system for operational soil moisture remote sensing at EUMETSAT, the Institute of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing at Vienna University of Technology (TU Wien) has developed an improved soil moisture retrieval algorithm to cope with some of the limitations found in the earlier method. The new algorithm has been implemented on a discrete global grid with 12.5 km quasi-equal grid spacing and includes a correction method to reduce azimuthal anisotropy of backscatter signal, new techniques for calculation of the model parameters and incorporates a comprehensive error modeling. The error analysis provides not only the quality information about the product but also facilitates accurate determination of historically driest/wettest conditions during the retrieval process. Enhancements made in the TU Wien retrieval algorithm result in a more uniform performance of the model and, consequently, a spatially consistent soil moisture product with a better spatial resolution.

  14. Soil moisture needs in earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1992-01-01

    The author reviews the development of passive and active microwave techniques for measuring soil moisture with respect to how the data may be used. New science programs such as the EOS, the GEWEX Continental-Scale International Project (GCIP) and STORM, a mesoscale meteorology and hydrology project, will have to account for soil moisture either as a storage in water balance computations or as a state variable in-process modeling. The author discusses future soil moisture needs such as frequency of measurement, accuracy, depth, and spatial resolution, as well as the concomitant model development that must proceed concurrently if the development in microwave technology is to have a major impact in these areas.

  15. Control of Moisture Ingress into Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M. D.

    2005-02-01

    During long-term exposure of photovoltaic modules to environmental stress, the ingress of water into the module is correlated with decreased performance. By using diffusivity measurements for water through encapsulants such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), we have modeled moisture ingress using a finite-element analysis with atmospheric data from various locations such as Miami, Florida. This analysis shows that because of the high diffusivity of EVA, even an impermeable glass back-sheet alone is incapable of preventing significant moisture ingress from the edges for a 20-year lifecycle. This result has led us to investigate ways to protect modules from moisture through the use of different encapsulating chemistries and materials.

  16. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  17. Disaggregation Of Passive Microwave Soil Moisture For Use In Watershed Hydrology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bin

    In recent years the passive microwave remote sensing has been providing soil moisture products using instruments on board satellite/airborne platforms. Spatial resolution has been restricted by the diameter of antenna which is inversely proportional to resolution. As a result, typical products have a spatial resolution of tens of kilometers, which is not compatible for some hydrological research applications. For this reason, the dissertation explores three disaggregation algorithms that estimate L-band passive microwave soil moisture at the subpixel level by using high spatial resolution remote sensing products from other optical and radar instruments were proposed and implemented in this investigation. The first technique utilized a thermal inertia theory to establish a relationship between daily temperature change and average soil moisture modulated by the vegetation condition was developed by using NLDAS, AVHRR, SPOT and MODIS data were applied to disaggregate the 25 km AMSR-E soil moisture to 1 km in Oklahoma. The second algorithm was built on semi empirical physical models (NP89 and LP92) derived from numerical experiments between soil evaporation efficiency and soil moisture over the surface skin sensing depth (a few millimeters) by using simulated soil temperature derived from MODIS and NLDAS as well as AMSR-E soil moisture at 25 km to disaggregate the coarse resolution soil moisture to 1 km in Oklahoma. The third algorithm modeled the relationship between the change in co-polarized radar backscatter and the remotely sensed microwave change in soil moisture retrievals and assumed that change in soil moisture was a function of only the canopy opacity. The change detection algorithm was implemented using aircraft based the remote sensing data from PALS and UAVSAR that were collected in SMPAVEX12 in southern Manitoba, Canada. The PALS L-band h-polarization radiometer soil moisture retrievals were disaggregated by combining them with the PALS and UAVSAR L

  18. Gravity changes, soil moisture and data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J.; Grayson, R.; Rodell, M.; Ellet, K.

    2003-04-01

    Remote sensing holds promise for near-surface soil moisture and snow mapping, but current techniques do not directly resolve the deeper soil moisture or groundwater. The benefits that would arise from improved monitoring of variations in terrestrial water storage are numerous. The year 2002 saw the launch of NASA's Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which are mapping the Earth's gravity field at such a high level of precision that we expect to be able to infer changes in terrestrial water storage (soil moisture, groundwater, snow, ice, lake, river and vegetation). The project described here has three distinct yet inter-linked components that all leverage off the same ground-based monitoring and land surface modelling framework. These components are: (i) field validation of a relationship between soil moisture and changes in the Earth's gravity field, from ground- and satellite-based measurements of changes in gravity; (ii) development of a modelling framework for the assimilation of gravity data to constrain land surface model predictions of soil moisture content (such a framework enables the downscaling and disaggregation of low spatial (500 km) and temporal (monthly) resolution measurements of gravity change to finer spatial and temporal resolutions); and (iii) further refining the downscaling and disaggregation of space-borne gravity measurements by making use of other remotely sensed information, such as the higher spatial (25 km) and temporal (daily) resolution remotely sensed near-surface soil moisture measurements from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) instruments on Aqua and ADEOS II. The important field work required by this project will be in the Murrumbidgee Catchment, Australia, where an extensive soil moisture monitoring program by the University of Melbourne is already in place. We will further enhance the current monitoring network by the addition of groundwater wells and additional soil moisture sites. Ground

  19. Calculate the moisture content of steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. (ABCO Industries, Inc., Abilene, TX (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Water droplets in steam can create serious problems. For example, if the steam is being used to drive turbines, droplets can damage the turbine blades. It is important, therefore, for an engineer to know if steam contains moisture, especially if the steam is generated in low-pressure boilers (under 500 psia). Unlike larger boilers, these units don't have internal separation devices such as cyclones. Calculating the steam's moisture content, or quality, can be complicated procedure. Now, a simple chart can be used to get the data from one temperature reading. The paper explains the procedure.

  20. Moisture sorption in naturally coloured cotton fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Ö.; De Clerck, K.

    2017-10-01

    Increasing environmental concerns have stimulated an interest in naturally coloured cottons. As many commercial and technical performance aspects of cotton fibres are influenced by their response towards atmospheric humidity, an in-depth research on moisture sorption behaviour of these fibres using dynamic vapour sorption is carried out. Significant differences were observed in sorption capacity and hysteresis behaviour of brown and green cotton fibres. These differences are mainly attributed to the variations in maturity and crystallinity index of the fibres. This study provides valuable insights into the moisture sorption behaviour of naturally coloured cotton fibres.

  1. Experimental study on moisture transfer through firefighters' protective fabrics in radiant heat exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Meng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of absorbed moisture on thermal protective performance of fire-fighters’ clothing materials under radiant heat flux conditions were analyzed in this paper. A thermal protective performance tester and temperature sensor were used to measure the temperature variations for the facecloth side of four kinds of commonly used flame retardant fabrics in several radiant heat exposures, which varied in moisture content. Experimental results showed that, all of the temperature profiles of these four kinds of moistened fabrics under different radiant heat flux conditions presented the same variation trend. The addition of moisture had a positive influence on the thermal protective performance during the constant temperature period when heat radiation time was more than 60 seconds. As the heat radiation time increased beyond 500 seconds, the thermal protective performance of moistened fabrics became worse than that of dried fabrics in general.

  2. Molecular Modeling for Calculation of Mechanical Properties of Epoxies with Moisture Ingress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Thomas C.; Frankland, Sarah J.; Hinkley, J. A.; Gates, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomistic models of epoxy structures were built in order to assess the effect of crosslink degree, moisture content and temperature on the calculated properties of a typical representative generic epoxy. Each atomistic model had approximately 7000 atoms and was contained within a periodic boundary condition cell with edge lengths of about 4 nm. Four atomistic models were built with a range of crosslink degree and moisture content. Each of these structures was simulated at three temperatures: 300 K, 350 K, and 400 K. Elastic constants were calculated for these structures by monitoring the stress tensor as a function of applied strain deformations to the periodic boundary conditions. The mechanical properties showed reasonably consistent behavior with respect to these parameters. The moduli decreased with decreasing crosslink degree with increasing temperature. The moduli generally decreased with increasing moisture content, although this effect was not as consistent as that seen for temperature and crosslink degree.

  3. Prediction of clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of the clothed body walking in wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoming; Fan, Jintu

    2006-11-01

    Clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance are the two most important parameters in thermal environmental engineering, functional clothing design and end use of clothing ensembles. In this study, clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance of various types of clothing ensembles were measured using the walking-able sweating manikin, Walter, under various environmental conditions and walking speeds. Based on an extensive experimental investigation and an improved understanding of the effects of body activities and environmental conditions, a simple but effective direct regression model has been established, for predicting the clothing thermal insulation and moisture vapour resistance under wind and walking motion, from those when the manikin was standing in still air. The model has been validated by using experimental data reported in the previous literature. It has shown that the new models have advantages and provide very accurate prediction.

  4. Moisture and temperature controls on nitrification differ among ammonia oxidizer communities from three alpine soil habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Brooke B; Baron, Jill S.; Wallenstein, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is altering the timing and magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes in many high elevation ecosystems. The consequent changes in alpine nitrification rates have the potential to influence ecosystem scale responses. In order to better understand how changing temperature and moisture conditions may influence ammonia oxidizers and nitrification activity, we conducted laboratory incubations on soils collected in a Colorado watershed from three alpine habitats (glacial outwash, talus, and meadow). We found that bacteria, not archaea, dominated all ammonia oxidizer communities. Nitrification increased with moisture in all soils and under all temperature treatments. However, temperature was not correlated with nitrification rates in all soils. Site-specific temperature trends suggest the development of generalist ammonia oxidizer communities in soils with greater in situ temperature fluctuations and specialists in soils with more steady temperature regimes. Rapidly increasing temperatures and changing soil moisture conditions could explain recent observations of increased nitrate production in some alpine soils.

  5. FINAL REPORT FOR MOISTURE EFFECTS ON COMPACTION OF FIBERBOARD IN A 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Estochen, E.

    2013-09-17

    Compaction of lower layers in the fiberboard assembly has been observed in 9975 packages that contain elevated moisture. Lab testing has resulted in a better understanding of the relationship between the fiberboard moisture level and compaction of the lower fiberboard assembly, and the behavior of the fiberboard during transport. In laboratory tests of cane fiberboard, higher moisture content has been shown to correspond to higher total compaction, greater rate of compaction, and continued compaction over a longer period of time. In addition, laboratory tests have shown that the application of a dynamic load results in higher fiberboard compaction compared to a static load. The test conditions and sample geometric/loading configurations were chosen to simulate the regulatory requirements for 9975 package input dynamic loading. Dynamic testing was conducted to acquire immediate and cumulative changes in geometric data for various moisture levels. Two sample sets have undergone a complete dynamic test regimen, one set for 27 weeks, and the second set for 47 weeks. The dynamic input, data acquisition, test effects on sample dynamic parameters, and results from this test program are summarized and compared to regulatory specifications for dynamic loading. Compaction of the bottom fiberboard layers due to the accumulation of moisture is one possible cause of an increase in the axial gap at the top of the package. The net compaction of the bottom layers will directly add to the axial gap. The moisture which caused this compaction migrated from the middle region of the fiberboard assembly (which is typically the hottest). This will cause the middle region to shrink axially, which will also contribute directly to the axial gap. Measurement of the axial gap provides a screening tool for identifying significant change in the fiberboard condition. The data in this report provide a basis to evaluate the impact of moisture and fiberboard compaction on 9975 package performance

  6. The International Soil Moisture Network: a data hosting facility for global in situ soil moisture measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorigo, W. A.; Wagner, W.; Hohensinn, R.; Hahn, S.; Paulik, C.; Xaver, A.; Gruber, A.; Drusch, M.; Mecklenburg, S.; van Oevelen, P.; Robock, A.; Jackson, T.

    2011-05-01

    In situ measurements of soil moisture are invaluable for calibrating and validating land surface models and satellite-based soil moisture retrievals. In addition, long-term time series of in situ soil moisture measurements themselves can reveal trends in the water cycle related to climate or land cover change. Nevertheless, on a worldwide basis the number of meteorological networks and stations measuring soil moisture, in particular on a continuous basis, is still limited and the data they provide lack standardization of technique and protocol. To overcome many of these limitations, the International Soil Moisture Network (ISMN; http://www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/insitu) was initiated to serve as a centralized data hosting facility where globally available in situ soil moisture measurements from operational networks and validation campaigns are collected, harmonized, and made available to users. Data collecting networks share their soil moisture datasets with the ISMN on a voluntary and no-cost basis. Incoming soil moisture data are automatically transformed into common volumetric soil moisture units and checked for outliers and implausible values. Apart from soil water measurements from different depths, important metadata and meteorological variables (e.g., precipitation and soil temperature) are stored in the database. These will assist the user in correctly interpreting the soil moisture data. The database is queried through a graphical user interface while output of data selected for download is provided according to common standards for data and metadata. Currently (status May 2011), the ISMN contains data of 19 networks and more than 500 stations located in North America, Europe, Asia, and Australia. The time period spanned by the entire database runs from 1952 until the present, although most datasets have originated during the last decade. The database is rapidly expanding, which means that both the number of stations and the time period covered by the existing

  7. Moisture diffusion parameter characteristics for epoxy composites and neat resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, E. R., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The moisture absorption characteristics of two graphite/epoxy composites and their corresponding cured neat resins were studied in high humidity and water immersion environments at elevated temperatures. Moisture absorption parameters, such as equilibrium moisture content and diffusion coefficient derived from data taken on samples exposed to high humidity and water soak environments, were compared. Composite swelling in a water immersion environment was measured. Tensile strengths of cured neat resin were measured as a function of their equilibrium moisture content after exposure to different moisture environments. The effects of intermittent moderate tensile loads on the moisture absorption parameters of composite and cured neat resin samples were determined.

  8. Moisture Observations in Sealed Tunnels at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, N. M.; Winterle, J.; Arlt, H.; Dinwiddie, C.; Fedors, R.

    2002-12-01

    The Topopah Spring Tuff is the host rock for a proposed repository for high-level nuclear waste. Underground tunnels and alcoves in this tuff that have been sealed from ventilation provide potentially useful data on natural moisture conditions and can help address the question of whether significant amounts of percolating groundwater drip into tunnels under present-day conditions. Given the low infiltration rates in the region, natural seepage and dripping in the sealed tunnels would provide evidence of focused flow within fracture networks that could be used to help calibrate seepage models for present-day conditions. These observations can then be used to estimate seepage fluxes during future, wetter climates. In 1999 the Department of Energy (DOE) sealed a nearly 1-km long tunnel bored near the proposed repository area. Four bulkheads isolate four sections of this tunnel, commonly called the Cross Drift, to allow a return to natural, ambient moisture conditions. Alcove 7, which crosses the Ghost Dance Fault, is a niche that has also been sealed with a bulkhead. Observations made in the sealed tunnels under unventilated conditions help to ensure that moisture observations will be little affected by the rapid drying effects of ventilation. Evidence of humid conditions has been seen during such unventilated entries, including small puddles apparently produced by condensation dripping. DOE is attempting to systematically collect drips in sample bottles and in plastic sheets so that chemical analyses can be used to identify sources of the water (i.e., natural seepage, condensation, or a mixture). To date two locations of possible natural seepage have been observed: one in Alcove 7 and the other in a sealed section of the Cross Drift. Both of these drip zones occur outside the proposed repository footprint. DOE is continuing work in the sealed drifts to address agreements with NRC. Hydrologic data from the sealed tunnels provide a reference point for DOE's performance

  9. Operational ability of road transport structures in complex hydro geological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukina, Valentina; Lukin, Aleksei; Lukinov, Vitaly; Snigireva, Galina

    2017-10-01

    Working capacity of traffic facilities in the northern European part of Russia depends on difficult natural climatic conditions. It means deep frost penetration and high ground-water level. Both two factors considerably impact on the amount of frost boil of soils in the roadbed. Because of the analysis of a water-and-thermal regime of soil it is possible to detect it’s characteristic, to adjust initial and boundary conditions in the performance of theoretical tasks based on laws of thermodynamics for description of migration process of heat and damp in the road bed. A solution was found with a numerical inversion of Laplace transformation. Realization of that task makes possible to forecast dampness to the end of winter period and to determine the amount of frost boil of soils. To avoid subgrade deterioration in this period the temporary axle load limitations on public roads are imposed.

  10. TAKING VARIOUS AGRO-TECHNICAL MEASURES FOR THE PRESERVATION AND ACCUMULATION OF MOISTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Khalilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ARTICLE RETRACTEDAim. The aim is to conduct a theoretical study of the conditions of occurrence of surface runoff and take technical measures for its prevention.Discussion. The occurrence of surface runoff is possible on condition that the intensity of moisture entry per time unit is greater than the intensity of its absorption and passage through the topsoil. Conditions of surface runoff occur at high intensity of moisture entering the soil surface which can be in the case of heavy rainfall, low water permeability of topsoil as a result of the increased density. The upper topsoil not affected by loosening passes moisture worse than loosened. Low water conductivity of the arable layer may be due to the fact that it is saturated with moisture up to the limit, and the underlying subsoil layers do not absorb or absorb not enough water, pass water less than enters through the upper topsoil. This phenomenon leads to oversaturation of the top plowed layer by water, which can lead to water erosion and landslide.Conclusion. We obtained analytical expressions describing the process of accumulation of moisture in the soil and the formation of surface runoff, which also allow to theoretically justify the need for different agronomic techniques impact on soil. We should select tools and soil impact techniques in order to preserve and accumulate moisture with account of the certain agrolandscape conditions specific to these fields.

  11. A global validation of the ASCAT Soil Water Index (SWI) with in situ data from the International Soil Moisture Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulik, C.; Naeimi, V.; Dorigo, W.; Wagner, W.; Kidd, R.

    2012-04-01

    Soil Moisture is an Essential Climate Variable and a key parameter in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. Surface Soil Moisture (SSM) can be estimated from measurements taken by ASCAT onboard Metop-A and have been successfully validated by several studies (C. Albergel et.al. 2009 and 2012, M.Parrens et.al. 2012). Profile soil moisture, while equally important, can not be measured directly by remote sensing. The near real-time Soil Water Index (SWI) product, developed within the framework of the GMES project geoland2 aims to close this gap. It is produced from ASCAT SSM estimates using a two-layer water balance model which describes the relationship between surface and profile soil moisture as a function of time. It provides daily global data about moisture conditions for 8 characteristic time lengths representing different depths. The objective of this work was to assess the quality of the SWI data for different measurement depths. SWI data from January 1st 2007 until the end of 2010 was compared to in situ soil moisture data from 420 stations belonging to 22 observation networks which are available through the International Soil Moisture Network. These stations delivered 1331 station/depth combinations which were compared to the SWI values. After excluding observations made during frozen conditions the average significant correlation coefficients were 0.564 (min -0.684, max 0.955) while being greater than 0.3 for 88% of all station/depth combinations.

  12. Moisture content effect in the relationship between apparent electrical conductivity and soil attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marques Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available To map the spatial variability of a field to define the variable rate application, an intensive sampling of the soil-plant system is necessary. The apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa has been used for soil mapping because it correlates well with soil attributes, allows for dense sampling and can be obtained at low cost. However, ECa is influenced by soil moisture content, and the variability of this attribute can reduce the reliability of the ECa maps to explain the physical and chemical soil attributes. The objective of this study was to identify conditions that maximize the correlations between the ECa and the soil attributes. The results show that the mean soil moisture content of soil sampled on different dates was correlated with the mean of the ECa. The ideal time for measuring ECa occurred when the mean moisture content of the soil was higher. In this condition, the coefficient of variation for the soil moisture content was lower, there was no correlation between ECa and soil moisture content, and ECa was more correlated with other soil attributes evaluated in this work.

  13. A moisture and electric coupling stimulated ionic polymer-metal composite actuator with controllable deformation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Jie; Zhu, Zicai; Wang, Yanjie; Chen, Hualing; Bian, Changsheng; Luo, Bin; Li, Dichen

    2018-02-01

    Ionic polymer-metal composite (IPMC) actuator can generate large and rapid deformation based on ion migration under a relatively low driving voltage. Under full hydrated conditions, the deformation is always prone to relaxation. At room humidity conditions, the deformation increases substantially at the early stage of actuation, and then decreases gradually. Generally, most researchers considered that the change of water content or relative humidity mainly leads to the deformation instabilities, which severely limits the practical applications of IPMC. In this Letter, a novel actuation mode is proposed to control the deformation behavior of IPMC by employing moisture as an independent or collaborative incentive source together with the electric field. The deformation response is continuously measured under electric field, electric field-moisture coupling stimulus and moisture stimulus. The result shows that moisture can be a favorable driving factor for IPMC actuation. Such an electric field-moisture coupling stimulus can avoid the occurrence of deformation instabilities and guarantee a superior controllable deformation in IPMC actuation. This research provides a new method to obtain stable and large deformation of IPMC, which is of great significance for the guidance of material design and application for IPMC and IPMC-type iEAP materials.

  14. Resistant Starch Contents of Native and Heat-Moisture Treated Jackfruit Seed Starch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ornanong S. Kittipongpatana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Native jackfruit seed starch (JFS contains 30% w/w type II resistant starch (RS2 and can potentially be developed as a new commercial source of RS for food and pharmaceutical application. Heat-moisture treatment (HMT was explored as a mean to increase RS content of native JFS. The effect of the conditions was tested at varied moisture contents (MC, temperatures, and times. Moisture levels of 20–25%, together with temperatures 80–110°C, generally resulted in increases of RS amount. The highest amount of RS (52.2% was achieved under treatment conditions of 25% MC and 80°C, for 16 h (JF-25-80-16. FT-IR peak ratio at 1047/1022 cm−1 suggested increases in ordered structure in several HMT-JFS samples with increased RS. SEM showed no significant change in the granule appearance, except at high moisture/temperature treatment. XRD revealed no significant change in peaks intensities, suggesting the crystallinity within the granule was mostly retained. DSC showed increases in Tg and, in most cases, ΔT, as the MC was increased in the samples. Slight but significant decreases in ΔH were observed in samples with low RS, indicating that a combination of high moisture and temperature might cause partial gelatinization. HMT-JFS with higher RS exhibited less swelling, while the solubility remained mostly unchanged.

  15. Assessment of NGNP Moisture Ingress Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Landman

    2011-04-01

    An assessment of modular HTGR moisture ingress events, making use of a phenomena identification and ranking process, was conducted by a panel of experts in the related areas for the U.S. next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) design. Consideration was given mainly to the prismatic core gas-cooled reactor configurations incorporating a steam generator within the primary circuit.

  16. Moisture barrier properties of xylan composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit Saxena; Thomas J. Elder; Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2011-01-01

    Moisture barrier properties of films based on xylan reinforced with several cellulosic resources including nanocrystalline cellulose, acacia bleached kraft pulp fibers and softwood kraft fibers have been evaluated. Measurements of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) were performed by a modification of the wet cup method described by ASTM E 96-95, indicating that...

  17. Moisture in organic coatings - a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, G.K. van der; Adan, O.C.G.

    1999-01-01

    A review is given on transport and equilibrium sorption of moisture in polymer films and organic coatings. Polymeric material forms the continuous phase of a coating and is therefore important for transport properties. Besides polymer, coatings consist of pigments and fillers and various additives,

  18. SOME MOISTURE DEPENDENT THERMAL PROPERTIES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermal heat conductivity, specific heat capacity, thermal heat diffusivity and bulk density of Prosopis africana seeds were determined as a function of moisture content. Specific heat capacity was measured by the method of mixture while the thermal heat conductivity was measured by the guarded hot plate method.

  19. Seedling quality tests: plant moisture stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary Ritchie; Thomas D. Landis

    2005-01-01

    This is the fifth installment in our review of seedling quality tests. Here we focus on what is commonly known as "plant moisture stress" or PMS. Although PMS is not routinely used for seedling quality testing per se, it is nevertheless the most common physiological measurement made on reforestation stock. This is because the measurement itself is simple and...

  20. Soil Moisture Remote Sensing: Status and Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based passive microwave sensors have been available for thirty years and provide the basis for soil moisture monitoring and mapping. The approach has reached a level of maturity that is now limited primarily by technology and funding. This is a result of extensive research and development ...

  1. Moisture Retention Characteristics of Soils of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Least total available water was found in soils over alluvium (4.03). Total available water had a significant relationship with total sand (R2 = 0.56, P=0.01). Soil moisture retention characteristic dependent variable was highly predicted by independent variables of total sand, clay content and organic carbon at various tension ...

  2. Effect of Pyrodextrinization, Crosslinking and Heat- Moisture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    starch prior to modification by pyrodextrinization, cross-linking and heat-moisture treatment. Solubility, swelling power, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal properties of the native and modified starches were ... the chemical and nutritional composition of P. biglobosa seeds revealed that it is rich ...

  3. Lagrangian tracing of Sahelian Sudan moisture sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Abubakr A. M.; Zhang, Qiong; Tjernström, Michael

    2015-07-01

    The Sahelian Sudan is an arid to semiarid region that depends on the seasonal rainfall as the main source of water, but its rainfall has large interannual variability. Such dry regions usually have their main moisture sources elsewhere; thus, the rainfall variability is directly related to the moisture transport. This study seeks to identify source regions of water vapor for Sahelian Sudan during the monsoon period, from July to September. We have used the Lagrangian trajectory model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis for the time period 1998 to 2008. The results show that most of the air masses that reach this region during the monsoon period have their major origins over the Arabian Peninsula, Central Africa, or are associated with the tropical easterly jet. Flow associated with Intertropical Convergence Zone contributes almost half of the total precipitated water; most of it comes from Central Africa. This suggests that moisture recycling is the major contributor, compared to Oceanic sources. The flows from the northeast (Arabian Peninsula and north Asia) and east (Horn of Africa and north Indian Ocean) contribute about one third of the precipitated water. The rest of precipitated water comes from the Mediterranean, subtropical Atlantic, and western Sahel, all with smaller contribution. Our results also indicate that different subregions of Sahelian Sudan have different moisture sources. Such result needs to be taken into account in seasonal forecasting practices.

  4. AMSR2 Soil Moisture Product Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindlish, R.; Jackson, T.; Cosh, M.; Koike, T.; Fuiji, X.; de Jeu, R.; Chan, S.; Asanuma, J.; Berg, A.; Bosch, D.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) is part of the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W) mission. AMSR2 fills the void left by the loss of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) after almost 10 years. Both missions provide brightness temperature observations that are used to retrieve soil moisture. Merging AMSR-E and AMSR2 will help build a consistent long-term dataset. Before tackling the integration of AMSR-E and AMSR2 it is necessary to conduct a thorough validation and assessment of the AMSR2 soil moisture products. This study focuses on validation of the AMSR2 soil moisture products by comparison with in situ reference data from a set of core validation sites. Three products that rely on different algorithms were evaluated; the JAXA Soil Moisture Algorithm (JAXA), the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM), and the Single Channel Algorithm (SCA). Results indicate that overall the SCA has the best performance based upon the metrics considered.

  5. Plan of research for integrated soil moisture studies. Recommendations of the Soil Moisture Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Soil moisture information is a potentially powerful tool for applications in agriculture, water resources, and climate. At present, it is difficult for users of this information to clearly define their needs in terms of accuracy, resolution and frequency because of the current sparsity of data. A plan is described for defining and conducting an integrated and coordinated research effort to develop and refine remote sensing techniques which will determine spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture and to utilize soil moisture information in support of agricultural, water resources, and climate applications. The soil moisture requirements of these three different application areas were reviewed in relation to each other so that one plan covering the three areas could be formulated. Four subgroups were established to write and compile the plan, namely models, ground-based studies, aircraft experiments, and spacecraft missions.

  6. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Georgia, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Georgia study...

  7. SMEX02 Iowa Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric and volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and soil temperature. This data set is part of the Soil Moisture...

  8. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Alabama, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set comprises gravimetric soil moisture and soil bulk density data collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03), which was conducted during...

  9. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set comprises gravimetric soil moisture and soil bulk density data collected during the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03), which was conducted during...

  10. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Oklahoma

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Oklahoma study...

  11. SMEX03 Regional Ground Soil Moisture Data: Georgia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The parameters for this data set include gravimetric soil moisture, volumetric soil moisture, bulk density, and surface and soil temperature for the Georgia study...

  12. Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge : Soil and Moisture Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Soil and Moisture Plan for Benton Lake NWR explains how the Soil and Moisture Program relates to Refuge objectives, outlines Program policies, and presents...

  13. Terrestrial Ecosystems - Topographic Moisture Potential of the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has generated topographic moisture potential classes for the contiguous United States. These topographic moisture potential classes...

  14. SMEX02 Soil Moisture and Temperature Profiles, Walnut Creek, Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains rainfall, soil moisture, and soil temperature data collected for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2002 (SMEX02). The parameters measured are soil...

  15. SMEX03 ThetaProbe Soil Moisture Data: Alabama

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set includes soil moisture data measured with Delta-T Devices’ ThetaProbe ML2 sensors for the Soil Moisture Experiment 2003 (SMEX03), conducted during June...

  16. The Raam regional soil moisture monitoring network in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninga, Harm-Jan F.; Carranza, Coleen D. U.; Pezij, Michiel; van Santen, Pim; van der Ploeg, Martine J.; Augustijn, Denie C. M.; van der Velde, Rogier

    2018-01-01

    We have established a soil moisture profile monitoring network in the Raam region in the Netherlands. This region faces water shortages during summers and excess of water during winters and after extreme precipitation events. Water management can benefit from reliable information on the soil water availability and water storing capacity in the unsaturated zone. In situ measurements provide a direct source of information on which water managers can base their decisions. Moreover, these measurements are commonly used as a reference for the calibration and validation of soil moisture content products derived from earth observations or obtained by model simulations. Distributed over the Raam region, we have equipped 14 agricultural fields and 1 natural grass field with soil moisture and soil temperature monitoring instrumentation, consisting of Decagon 5TM sensors installed at depths of 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 cm. In total, 12 stations are located within the Raam catchment (catchment area of 223 km2), and 5 of these stations are located within the closed sub-catchment Hooge Raam (catchment area of 41 km2). Soil-specific calibration functions that have been developed for the 5TM sensors under laboratory conditions lead to an accuracy of 0.02 m3 m-3. The first set of measurements has been retrieved for the period 5 April 2016-4 April 2017. In this paper, we describe the Raam monitoring network and instrumentation, the soil-specific calibration of the sensors, the first year of measurements, and additional measurements (soil temperature, phreatic groundwater levels and meteorological data) and information (elevation, soil physical characteristics, land cover and a geohydrological model) available for performing scientific research. The data are available at https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:dc364e97-d44a-403f-82a7-121902deeb56" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.4121/uuid:dc364e97-d44a-403f-82a7-121902deeb56.

  17. Moisture Durability Assessment of Selected Well-insulated Wall Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Boudreaux, Philip R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Desjarlais, Andre Omer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This report presents the results from studying the hygrothermal performance of two well-insulated wall assemblies, both complying with and exceeding international building codes (IECC 2015 2014, IRC 2015). The hygrothermal performance of walls is affected by a large number of influential parameters (e.g., outdoor and indoor climates, workmanship, material properties). This study was based on a probabilistic risk assessment in which a number of these influential parameters were simulated with their natural variability. The purpose of this approach was to generate simulation results based on laboratory chamber measurements that represent a variety of performances and thus better mimic realistic conditions. In total, laboratory measurements and 6,000 simulations were completed for five different US climate zones. A mold growth indicator (MGI) was used to estimate the risk of mold which potentially can cause moisture durability problems in the selected wall assemblies. Analyzing the possible impact on the indoor climate due to mold was not part of this study. The following conclusions can be reached from analyzing the simulation results. In a hot-humid climate, a higher R-value increases the importance of the airtightness because interior wall materials are at lower temperatures. In a cold climate, indoor humidity levels increase with increased airtightness. Air leakage must be considered in a hygrothermal risk assessment, since air efficiently brings moisture into buildings from either the interior or exterior environment. The sensitivity analysis of this study identifies mitigation strategies. Again, it is important to remark that MGI is an indicator of mold, not an indicator of indoor air quality and that mold is the most conservative indicator for moisture durability issues.

  18. Laboratory spectroscopy experiment : Spectral reflectance of beach sand as function of surface moisture content with sample of beach sand collected from the Sand Motor, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolet, C.; Roosjen, P.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Spectral reflectance of beach sand (350-2500 nm) under different moisture conditions at 1 nm interval, obtained by a laboratory spectroscopy experiment. Optical remote sensing has the potential to measure surface moisture at a high spatio-temporal resolution. It is based on the principle that wet

  19. Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Heat and Moisture Transfer in Firefighters’ Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for heat and moisture transfer through firefighters’ protective clothing (FPC during radiation exposure. The model, which accounts for air gaps in the FPC as well as heat transfer through human skin, investigates the effect of different initial moisture contents on the thermal insulation performance of FPC. Temperature, water vapor density, and the volume fraction of liquid water profiles were monitored during the simulation, and the heat quantity absorbed by water evaporation was calculated. Then the maximum durations of heat before the wearer acquires first- and second-degree burns were calculated based on the bioheat transfer equation and the Henriques equation. The results show that both the moisture weight in each layer and the total moisture weight increase linearly within a given environmental humidity level. The initial moisture content in FPC samples significantly influenced the maximum water vapor density. The first- and second-degree burn injury time increase 16 sec and 18 sec when the RH increases from 0% to 90%. The total quantity of heat accounted for by water evaporation was about 10% when the relative humidity (RH is 80%. Finally, a linear relationship was identified between initial moisture content and the human skin burn injury time before suffering first- and second-degree burn injuries.

  20. Influence of Initial Moisture Content on Heat and Moisture Transfer in Firefighters' Protective Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dongmei; He, Song

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model for heat and moisture transfer through firefighters' protective clothing (FPC) during radiation exposure. The model, which accounts for air gaps in the FPC as well as heat transfer through human skin, investigates the effect of different initial moisture contents on the thermal insulation performance of FPC. Temperature, water vapor density, and the volume fraction of liquid water profiles were monitored during the simulation, and the heat quantity absorbed by water evaporation was calculated. Then the maximum durations of heat before the wearer acquires first- and second-degree burns were calculated based on the bioheat transfer equation and the Henriques equation. The results show that both the moisture weight in each layer and the total moisture weight increase linearly within a given environmental humidity level. The initial moisture content in FPC samples significantly influenced the maximum water vapor density. The first- and second-degree burn injury time increase 16 sec and 18 sec when the RH increases from 0% to 90%. The total quantity of heat accounted for by water evaporation was about 10% when the relative humidity (RH) is 80%. Finally, a linear relationship was identified between initial moisture content and the human skin burn injury time before suffering first- and second-degree burn injuries.

  1. Surface Soil Moisture Estimates Across China Based on Multi-satellite Observations and A Soil Moisture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ke; Yang, Tao; Ye, Jinyin; Li, Zhijia; Yu, Zhongbo

    2017-04-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable that regulates exchanges of water and energy between land surface and atmosphere. Soil moisture retrievals based on microwave satellite remote sensing have made it possible to estimate global surface (up to about 10 cm in depth) soil moisture routinely. Although there are many satellites operating, including NASA's Soil Moisture Acitive Passive mission (SMAP), ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission (SMOS), JAXA's Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 mission (AMSR2), and China's Fengyun (FY) missions, key differences exist between different satellite-based soil moisture products. In this study, we applied a single-channel soil moisture retrieval model forced by multiple sources of satellite brightness temperature observations to estimate consistent daily surface soil moisture across China at a spatial resolution of 25 km. By utilizing observations from multiple satellites, we are able to estimate daily soil moisture across the whole domain of China. We further developed a daily soil moisture accounting model and applied it to downscale the 25-km satellite-based soil moisture to 5 km. By comparing our estimated soil moisture with observations from a dense observation network implemented in Anhui Province, China, our estimated soil moisture results show a reasonably good agreement with the observations (RMSE 0.8).

  2. Improving runoff prediction through the assimilation of the ASCAT soil moisture product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocca, L.; Melone, F.; Moramarco, T.; Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Bartalis, Z.; Hasenauer, S.

    2010-10-01

    The role and the importance of soil moisture for meteorological, agricultural and hydrological applications is widely known. Remote sensing offers the unique capability to monitor soil moisture over large areas (catchment scale) with, nowadays, a temporal resolution suitable for hydrological purposes. However, the accuracy of the remotely sensed soil moisture estimates has to be carefully checked. The validation of these estimates with in-situ measurements is not straightforward due the well-known problems related to the spatial mismatch and the measurement accuracy. The analysis of the effects deriving from assimilating remotely sensed soil moisture data into hydrological or meteorological models could represent a more valuable method to test their reliability. In particular, the assimilation of satellite-derived soil moisture estimates into rainfall-runoff models at different scales and over different regions represents an important scientific and operational issue. In this study, the soil wetness index (SWI) product derived from the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT) sensor onboard of the Metop satellite was tested. The SWI was firstly compared with the soil moisture temporal pattern derived from a continuous rainfall-runoff model (MISDc) to assess its relationship with modeled data. Then, by using a simple data assimilation technique, the linearly rescaled SWI that matches the range of variability of modelled data (denoted as SWI*) was assimilated into MISDc and the model performance on flood estimation was analyzed. Moreover, three synthetic experiments considering errors on rainfall, model parameters and initial soil wetness conditions were carried out. These experiments allowed to further investigate the SWI potential when uncertain conditions take place. The most significant flood events, which occurred in the period 2000-2009 on five subcatchments of the Upper Tiber River in central Italy, ranging in extension between 100 and 650 km2, were used as case studies

  3. Effects of moisture stress on growth and nutrient uptake in cacao ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of four moisture stress regimes on plant growth and uptake of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca) were studied in 3- month-old seedlings of three cacao cultivars grown in plastic pots under glass-house conditions. The objective was to determine watering regimes that ...

  4. A Possible Solution for the Problem of Estimating the Error Structure of Global Soil Moisture Datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scipal, K.; Holmes, T.R.H.; de Jeu, R.A.M.; Naeimi, V.; Wagner, W.W.

    2008-01-01

    In the last few years, research made significant progress towards operational soil moisture remote sensing which lead to the availability of several global data sets. For an optimal use of these data, an accurate estimation of the error structure is an important condition. To solve for the

  5. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerdt, ter Gerard N.J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; Putten, van der Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  6. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heerdt, Gerard N.J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Abstract Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in

  7. Effects of temperature, moisture and soil type on seedling emergence and mortality of riparian plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Heerdt, Gerard N. J.; Veen, Ciska G.F.; van der Putten, Wim H.; Bakker, Jan P.

    Restoration of riparian plant communities on bare soil requires germination of seeds and establishment of seedlings. However, species that are present in the soil seed bank do not always establish in the vegetation. Temperature, moisture conditions and soil type could play a major role in the

  8. Field performance of three real-time moisture sensors in sandy loam and clay loam soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study was conducted to evaluate HydraProbe (HyP), Campbell Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) and Watermarks (WM) moisture sensors for their ability to estimate water content based on calibrated neutron probe measurements. The three sensors were in-situ tested under natural weather conditions over ...

  9. Role of temperature and moisture in the survival and seedling physiology of a Great Basin perennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga A. Kildisheva; Anthony S. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Munro's globemallow (Sphaeralcea munroana) is an important constituent of Great Basin communities and is commonly used in restoration; however, little is known about the influence of environmental conditions on early plant establishment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of Munro's globemallow to a suite of temperature and moisture...

  10. Stress Wave E-Rating of Structural Timber—Size and Moisture Content Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of cross sectional size and moisture content on stress wave properties of structural timber in various sizes and evaluate the feasibility of using stress wave method to E-rate timber in green conditions. Four different sizes of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) square timbers were...

  11. Analyses of moisture deficit grain yield loss in drought tolerant maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of drought tolerant maize cultivars is prerequisite to achieving stable grain yield in drought–prone ecologies of Nigeria's Guinea savanna. However, success has been limited mainly due to lack of maize genotypes that show clear differences in response to well defined moisture deficit condition. Two sets of ...

  12. Effect of airflow velocity on moisture exchange at surfaces of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2006-01-01

    The moisture transfer between air and construction are affected of the boundary layer conditions close to the surface, which is influenced by the airflow patterns in the room. Therefore an investigation of the relation be-tween the surface resistance and the airflow velocity above a material samp...

  13. In situ measurement of soil moisture and pore-water pressures in an 'incipient' landslide: Lake Tutira, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Richard; McConchie, Jack

    2011-02-01

    The immediate cost of shallow regolith landslides in New Zealand has been estimated to exceed US$33M annually. Since the majority of these landslides occur during prolonged wet conditions, or intense rainstorms, moisture conditions are a critical control. The nature, dynamics, and character of soil moisture conditions, and the piezometric response to rainfall, have been recorded within an 'incipient' landslide for more than 5 years. The study site, on pastoral hill country within the Lake Tutira catchment in northern Hawkes Bay, is typical of large areas of New Zealand episodically affected by extensive landsliding. Detailed continuous measurements show that both the soil moisture and piezometric response within the regolith are highly storm- and site-specific. The development of positive pore pressures is infrequent; they form only during intense rainstorms, and persist for a short time. The hydraulic response of the soil is primarily a function of storm characteristics, but this response can be modified by antecedent moisture conditions, topographic position, and heterogeneity of soil properties. Stability analysis shows that most slopes in the study area are significantly steeper than can be explained by the frictional strength of the regolith. Measured hydraulic conditions also show that positive pore-water pressures alone do not trigger slope instability. A recent slope failure followed a period of extremely high antecedent moisture conditions, and occurred when maximum soil moisture conditions, though not pore-water pressures, were recorded. Increased moisture content of the regolith reduces matric tension, and therefore effective cohesion of the soil. This cohesion is critical to maintaining stability of the regolith on these slopes. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A biomimic thermal fabric with high moisture permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Jie; Cheng Qian; Zhao Lian-Ying; Liu Yong; Ma Chong-Qi

    2013-01-01

    Moisture comfort is an essential factor for functional property of thermal cloth, especially for thick thermal cloth, since thick cloth may hinder effective moisture permeation, and high moisture concentration in the micro-climate between skin and fabric would cause cold feeling. Here, we report a biomimic thermal fabric with excellent warm retention and moisture management properties. In this fabric, the warp yarn system constructs many tree-shaped channel...

  15. Data Assimilation to Extract Soil Moisture Information from SMAP Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Kolassa; Rolf H. Reichle; Qing Liu; Michael Cosh; David D. Bosch; Todd G. Caldwell; Andreas Colliander; Chandra Holifield Collins; Thomas J. Jackson; Stan J. Livingston; Mahta Moghaddam; Patrick J. Starks

    2017-01-01

    This study compares different methods to extract soil moisture information through the assimilation of Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) observations. Neural network (NN) and physically-based SMAP soil moisture retrievals were assimilated into the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Catchment model over the contiguous United States for April 2015 to March 2017. By construction, the NN retrievals are consistent with the global climatology of the Catchment model soil moisture...

  16. Disaggregation of SMOS soil moisture in southeastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin, Olivier; Rüdiger, Christoph; Al Bitar, Ahmad; Richaume, Philippe; Walker, Jeffrey,; Kerr, Yann

    2012-01-01

    DisPATCh (Disaggregation based on Physical And Theoretical scale Change) is an algorithm dedicated to the disaggregation of soil moisture observations using high-resolution soil temperature data. DisPATCh converts soil temperature fields into soil moisture fields given a semi-empirical soil evaporative efficiency model, and a first order Taylor series expansion around the field-mean soil moisture. In this study, the disaggregation approach is applied to SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity)...

  17. Improving Fire Risk Estimation through Investigating Fire Intensity, Moisture and Temperature Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, A.; Rudiger, C.; Tapper, N. J.; Dharssi, I.

    2016-12-01

    Australia has recently experienced large scale severe droughts, driven by prolonged rainfall decits and high temperatures. These conditions provide for a greater risk of forest fires leading to events such as the severe forest fires in Victoria in 2009 and Tasmania in 2012. The McAuthur Fire Danger Index (FFDI; McArthur, 1957) is used operationally in Australia to quantify fire danger. The FFDI is calculated using the maximum daily temperature, the mean daily wind speed, the mid-day relative humidity, and a Drought Factor (DF), which quantifies the soil moisture decit. This DF is calculated either using the Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI; Keetch and Byram, 1968) in Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland or Mounts Soil Dryness Index (MSDI; Mount, 1972) in South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia, with both primarily based on precipitation. Similarly, the Antecedent Precipitation Index (API) and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) have been used in the past to quantify soil moisture decits in lieu of high resolution soil moisture data. Recent studies indicate that the occurrence of large fires are correlated to soil moisture deficits and suggest that the formulation of the FFDI is largely dependent on how this is calculated. This study compares API, SPI, KBDI and MSDI across observational in situ sites from the OzNet Hydrological monitoring network (OzNet; Smith, 2012) and the Australian Cosmic ray soil moisture monitoring facility (CosmOz; Howdon et al, 2014). The averaged correlation coefficient across all sites is 0.77, 0.69, 0.60 and 0.57 for API, MSDI, SPI and KBDI respectively, indicating that API best represents soil moisture at the surface layer depth. From this, a daily FFDI is calculated between 2000 and 2014, simply substituting the various moisture indices in place of the DF. The accuracy of these calculated FFDI's are then compared against MODIS derived fire "hotspots" and also Fire Radiative Power, an indication of fire intensity.

  18. Evaluation of a Soil Moisture Data Assimilation System Over the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, J. D.; Crow, W. T.; Zhan, X.; Reynolds, C. A.; Jackson, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    A data assimilation system has been designed to integrate surface soil moisture estimates from the EOS Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) with an online soil moisture model used by the USDA Foreign Agriculture Service for global crop estimation. USDA's International Production Assessment Division (IPAD) of the Office of Global Analysis (OGA) ingests global soil moisture within a Crop Assessment Data Retrieval and Evaluation (CADRE) Decision Support System (DSS) to provide nowcasts of crop conditions and agricultural-drought. This information is primarily used to derive mid-season crop yield estimates for the improvement of foreign market access for U.S. agricultural products. The CADRE is forced by daily meteorological observations (precipitation and temperature) provided by the Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) and World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The integration of AMSR-E observations into the two-layer soil moisture model employed by IPAD can potentially enhance the reliability of the CADRE soil moisture estimates due to AMSR-E's improved repeat time and greater spatial coverage. Assimilation of the AMSR-E soil moisture estimates is accomplished using a 1-D Ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) at daily time steps. A diagnostic calibration of the filter is performed using innovation statistics by accurately weighting the filter observation and modeling errors for three ranges of vegetation biomass density estimated using historical data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). Assessment of the AMSR-E assimilation has been completed for a five year duration over the conterminous United States. To evaluate the ability of the filter to compensate for incorrect precipitation forcing into the model, a data denial approach is employed by comparing soil moisture results obtained from separate model simulations forced with precipitation products of varying uncertainty. An analysis of surface and root-zone anomalies is presented for each

  19. Investigating the moisture sorption behavior of amorphous sucrose using a dynamic humidity generating instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X; Kappes, S M; Bello-Perez, L A; Schmidt, S J

    2008-01-01

    The moisture sorption behavior of freeze-dried amorphous sucrose was investigated using a dynamic humidity generating instrument, the Dynamic Vapor Sorption (DVS) instrument. The kinetic moisture sorption profiles of freeze-dried amorphous sucrose samples with 29% crystalline content were obtained using the DVS instrument at 9 relative humidity (RH) values, ranging from 10% to 90%, at 25 degrees C. Moisture-induced crystallization was observed for %RH values between 40% and 80%, where the crystallization onset time decreased as %RH increased. The moisture sorption behavior of freeze-dried amorphous sucrose with 3 crystalline contents, 23%, 29%, and 80%, was also compared, revealing that the crystalline content had a significant impact on the pseudo-sorption isotherm of freeze-dried amorphous sucrose. In general, for %RH values below 90%, samples that had a lower percent crystalline content had a higher pseudo-equilibrium moisture content, with the difference becoming most pronounced for the 60% to 80% RH values. The moisture-induced crystallization results as a function of %RH obtained in this study were compared to those previously reported in the literature, leading to an extensive discussion of both the experimental protocols used and the hypothesized mechanisms governing the long-term stability of amorphous materials. The hypothesized mechanisms discussed included the glass transition temperature boundary, the zero mobility temperature, and the hydration limit. Based on the dissimilarity in these hypothesized mechanisms, additional theoretical and experimental exploration is still merited in order to adequately predict the conditions (for example, moisture content, %RH, and temperature) required to ensure long-term stability of amorphous solids.

  20. Microwave Soil Moisture Retrieval Under Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, P.; Lang, R.; Kurum, M.; Joseph, A.; Jackson, T.; Cosh, M.

    2008-01-01

    Soil moisture is recognized as an important component of the water, energy, and carbon cycles at the interface between the Earth's surface and atmosphere. Current baseline soil moisture retrieval algorithms for microwave space missions have been developed and validated only over grasslands, agricultural crops, and generally light to moderate vegetation. Tree areas have commonly been excluded from operational soil moisture retrieval plans due to the large expected impact of trees on masking the microwave response to the underlying soil moisture. Our understanding of the microwave properties of trees of various sizes and their effect on soil moisture retrieval algorithms at L band is presently limited, although research efforts are ongoing in Europe, the United States, and elsewhere to remedy this situation. As part of this research, a coordinated sequence of field measurements involving the ComRAD (for Combined Radar/Radiometer) active/passive microwave truck instrument system has been undertaken. Jointly developed and operated by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and George Washington University, ComRAD consists of dual-polarized 1.4 GHz total-power radiometers (LH, LV) and a quad-polarized 1.25 GHz L band radar sharing a single parabolic dish antenna with a novel broadband stacked patch dual-polarized feed, a quad-polarized 4.75 GHz C band radar, and a single channel 10 GHz XHH radar. The instruments are deployed on a mobile truck with an 19-m hydraulic boom and share common control software; real-time calibrated signals, and the capability for automated data collection for unattended operation. Most microwave soil moisture retrieval algorithms developed for use at L band frequencies are based on the tau-omega model, a simplified zero-order radiative transfer approach where scattering is largely ignored and vegetation canopies are generally treated as a bulk attenuating layer. In this approach, vegetation effects are parameterized by tau and omega, the microwave

  1. Relationship between Depth of Soil Moisture Assessment and Turgidity of Coffee Plant in Selected Agroclimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Erwiyono

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Observation on the relationship between the depth of soil moisture assessment and turgidity of coffee plant has been carried out at 3 different agroclimates by survey method, i.e. Andungsari experimental station (Andosol soil type, >1.000 m asl. high, and rainfall type of C, Sumberasin experimental station (yellowish-red Mediterranean soil type, 450-500 m asl. high, and rainfall type of C, and Kaliwining experimental station (low humic glei soil type, 45 m asl. high, and rainfall type of D in order to assess the depth of soil moisture through soil profile influencing turgidity of coffee plants at three different agroclimates. The method of assessment is by fitting the relationship between the depth of soil moisture assessment and turgidity of coffee plant and their determination coefficients through the period of dry season up to early rainy season. Plant turgidity is evaluated from its relative water contents of the leaves sampled periodically at the same time as observation of soil moisture content. Plant turgidity is affected by soil moisture condition up to a certain depth which looks to be typical of the agroclimates. At Andungsari experimental station (high land it is necessary to assess soil moisture through the soil profile up to 100 cm deep in order to evaluate water stress of the plants; inversely, at Kaliwining experimental station in order to evaluate water stress of the plants it is just justified from the soil moisture condition of the soil surface layers (0-25 cm. Whereas at Sumberasin experimental station water stress of the plants could be predicted from soil moisture assessment of the surface layer depth or through the deeper layers of the soil profile either. Andungsari-1 and Lini S-795 clones are more resistant to drought than Kartika-2 clone at Andisol soil type with C rainfall type and elevation > 1000 m asl. BP-308 clone showed its response as relatively resistant to drought at yellowish red Mediterranean soil type with C

  2. Sensitivity of Active and Passive Microwave Observations to Soil Moisture during Growing Corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, J.; Monsivais-Huertero, A.; Liu, P.; De Roo, R. D.; England, A. W.; Nagarajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Soil moisture (SM) in the root zone is a key factor governing water and energy fluxes at the land surface and its accurate knowledge is critical to predictions of weather and near-term climate, nutrient cycles, crop-yield, and ecosystem productivity. Microwave observations, such as those at L-band, are highly sensitive to soil moisture in the upper few centimeters (near-surface). The two satellite-based missions dedicated to soil moisture estimation include, the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission and the planned NASA Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) [4] mission. The SMAP mission will include active and passive sensors at L-band to provide global observations of SM, with a repeat coverage of every 2-3 days. These observations can significantly improve root zone soil moisture estimates through data assimilation into land surface models (LSMs). Both the active (radar) and passive (radiometer) microwave sensors measure radiation quantities that are functions of soil dielectric constant and exhibit similar sensitivities to SM. In addition to the SM sensitivity, radar backscatter is highly sensitive to roughness of soil surface and scattering within the vegetation. These effects may produce a much larger dynamic range in backscatter than that produced due to SM changes alone. In this study, we discuss the field observations of active and passive signatures of growing corn at L-band from several seasons during the tenth Microwave, Water and Energy Balance Experiment (MicroWEX-10) conducted in North Central Florida, and to understand the sensitivity of these signatures to soil moisture under dynamic vegetation conditions. The MicroWEXs are a series of season-long field experiments conducted during the growing seasons of sweet corn, cotton, and energy cane over the past six years (for example, [22]). The corn was planted on July 5 and harvested on September 23, 2011 during MicroWEX-10. The size of the field was 0.04 km2 and the soils

  3. Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission Level 4 Carbon (L4_C) Product Specification Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassy, Joe; Kimball, John S.; Jones, Lucas; Reichle, Rolf H.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Kim, Gi-Kong; Lucchesi, Robert A.; Smith, Edmond B.; Weiss, Barry H.

    2015-01-01

    This is the Product Specification Document (PSD) for Level 4 Surface and Root Zone Soil Moisture (L4_SM) data for the Science Data System (SDS) of the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) project. The L4_SM data product provides estimates of land surface conditions based on the assimilation of SMAP observations into a customized version of the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, Version 5 (GEOS-5) land data assimilation system (LDAS). This document applies to any standard L4_SM data product generated by the SMAP Project.

  4. Effectiveness of Protective Action of Coatings from Moisture Sorption into Surface Layer of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the sorption process of surface layers of sand moulds covered by zirconium and zirconium - graphite alcohol coatings are presented in the paper. Investigations comprised two kinds of sand grains (silica sand and reclaimed sand of moulding sand with furan resin. Tests were performed under conditions of a high relative air humidity 75 - 85% and a constant temperature within the range 28 – 33°C. To evaluate the effectiveness of coatings protective action from moisture penetration into surface layers of sand moulds gravimetric method of quantitavie moisture sorption and ultrasonic method were applied in measurements.

  5. Dry-end surface soil moisture variability during NAFE'06

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.; Hurkmans, R.T.W.L.; Merlin, O.; Panciera, R.; Walker, J.P.; Troch, P.A.

    2007-01-01

    Characterization of the space-time variability of soil moisture is important for land surface and climate studies. Here we develop an analytical model to investigate how, at the dry-end of the soil moisture range, the main characteristics of the soil moisture field (spatial mean and variability,

  6. 21 CFR 133.154 - High-moisture jack cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High-moisture jack cheese. 133.154 Section 133.154... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.154 High-moisture jack cheese. High-moisture jack cheese conforms to...

  7. CFD modelling of moisture interactions between air and constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Woloszyn, Monika; Hohota, Raluca

    2005-01-01

    There is a strong demand for accurate moisture modelling since moisture poses a risk for both the constructions and the indoor climate. Thus, in this investigation there is special focus on moisture modelling. The paper describes a new model based on a CFD tool that is enhanced to include both...

  8. Dielectric properties for prediction of moisture content in Vidalia onions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microwave Sensing provides a means for nondestructively determining the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. In this study, dielectric properties of Vidalia onions were analyzed for moisture dependence at 13.36 GHz and 23°C for moisture content betwee...

  9. Foundation products have a measureable impact on moisturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Bowles, Tricia; Liguori, Jillian; Razuri, Farrah; Hubschmitt, Amber; Litchauer, Jill; Aucar, Betty; De Mul, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Multifunctional products are becoming more prevalent in the color cosmetics market. We evaluated four foundation products for in vivo moisturizing benefits using the mini-regression test method. We found that statistically significant long-lasting moisturization was provided by the foundations tested, but only if hygroscopic moisturizing ingredients were present.

  10. Measurement of the moisture content of the granulated sugar by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    Jan 18, 2007 ... p=5%) with other known classical, but laborious and expensive methods of moisture determination. Key words: Sugar ... Darkness. Day light. Moisture content (%). Output signal. (Volt). Figure 1. Response of the IR transphotometer in function of the moisture content (ultrafiltered water) of sugar: influence of.

  11. Origin and fate of atmospheric moisture over continents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Ent, R.J.; Savenije, H.H.G.; Schaefli, B.; Steele-Dunne, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a long debate on the extent to which precipitation relies on terrestrial evaporation (moisture recycling). In the past, most research focused on moisture recycling within a certain region only. This study makes use of new definitions of moisture recycling to study the complete process

  12. [Prediction of litter moisture content in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China based on FWI moisture codes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Jin, Sen; Di, Xue-Ying

    2014-07-01

    Canadian fire weather index system (FWI) is the most widely used fire weather index system in the world. Its fuel moisture prediction is also a very important research method. In this paper, litter moisture contents of typical forest types in Tahe Forestry Bureau of Northeast China were successively observed and the relationships between FWI codes (fine fuel moisture code FFMC, duff moisture code DMC and drought code DC) and fuel moisture were analyzed. Results showed that the mean absolute error and the mean relative error of models.established using FWI moisture code FFMC was 14.9% and 70.7%, respectively, being lower than those of meteorological elements regression model, which indicated that FWI codes had some advantage in predicting litter moisture contents and could be used to predict fuel moisture contents. But the advantage was limited, and further calibration was still needed, especially in modification of FWI codes after rainfall.

  13. Wood moisture monitoring during log house thermal insulation mounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Kotásková

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current designs of thermal insulation for buildings concentrate on the achievement of the required heat transmission coefficient. However, another factor that cannot be neglected is the assessment of the possible water vapour condensation inside the construction. The aim of the study was to find out whether the designed modification of the cladding structure of an existing log house will or will not lead to a risk of possible water vapour condensation in the walls after an additional thermal insulation mounting. The condensation could result in the increase in moisture of the walls and consequently the constructional timber, which would lead to the reduction of the timber construction strength, wood degradation by biotic factors – wood-destroying insects, mildew or wood-destroying fungi. The main task was to compare the theoretically established values of moisture of the constructional timber with the values measured inside the construction using a specific example of a thermal insulated log house. Three versions of thermal insulation were explored to find the solution of a log house reconstruction which would be the optimum for living purposes. Two versions deal with the cladding structure with the insulation from the interior, the third version deals with an external insulation.In a calculation model the results can be affected to a great degree by input values (boundary conditions. This especially concerns the factor of vapour barrier diffusion resistance, which is entered in accordance with the producer’s specifications; however, its real value can be lower as it depends on the perfectness and correctness of the technological procedure. That is why the study also includes thermal technical calculations of all designed insulation versions in the most unfavourable situation, which includes the degradation of the vapour barrier down to 10% efficiency, i.e. the reduction of the diffusion resistance factor to 10% of the original value

  14. Radar-guided radiometer downscaling for combined soil moisture retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulis, D.; Haddad, Z. S.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2013-12-01

    Combining the advantages of both active and passive microwave measurements in a soil moisture-retrieval can dramatically increase resolution and sensitivity. Simultaneous remote sensing observations of the normalized radar cross section (σ0) and emissivity (ɛ) will be jointly used to ultimately achieve an improved soil moisture-retrieval algorithm. The σ0 values are derived from the Precipitation Radar (PR) from TRMM (product 2A21 V7) while the ɛ values are derived from the brightness temperatures (BTs) measured by the passive microwave radiometric system TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) (product 1B11 V7). Emissivity values are used instead of BTs because they are more directly related to water content. The coarse-resolution passive measurements (TMI) are first downscaled to match the finer resolution of the active ones (PR) via a Kalman filter, with which the error of the TMI instrument in terms of emissivity is parameterized so that different weights will be given to the PR and TMI measurements. The downscaling is performed over the state of Oklahoma, for 'no-rain' conditions (indicated by PR), for high PR incidence angles, in order to obtain simultaneous measurements of the two instruments (because of different scanning geometries, synchronized measurements of both instruments can only be achieved at high PR incidence angles), for each TMI channel separately (not including the two high-resolution ones and the 21.3 GHz), for the early morning hours only (active and passive sensors retrieve information on soil moisture at different depths and this discrepancy becomes even greater in the late afternoon hours of the day, therefore selecting only the early-morning overpasses will mitigate this effect), and for different regions within Oklahoma. The regions are selected based on land class. Regions with homogeneous vegetation cover are examined separately from regions characterized by heterogeneous vegetation cover. Oklahoma was selected as the area of study, because

  15. The Use of Sentinel-1 for Monitoring of Soil Moisture within the Copernicus Global Land Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubkova, M.; Wagner, W.; Naeimi, V.; Cao, S.; Bauer-Marschallinger, B.; Kidd, R.; Hasenauer, Stefan; Dostalova, A.; Paulik, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Within the Copernicus Global Land Service (CGLS), a global Soil Water Index (SWI) product is available on an operational basis, derived from the Metop Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) with a spatial sampling of 0.1°. The SWI quantifies the moisture condition at various depths in the soil. To match the spatial resolution of the SWI data with the rest of the CGLS data products, the 1 km Sentinel-1 (S-1) surface soil moisture (SSM) product can be used. The S-1 SSM is retrieved by inverting a backscatter model trained using historic SAR observations. Here, the progress made in delivering the 1 km fused SWI as well as the 1 km S-1 SSM products at the Earth Observation Data Centre for Water Resources Monitoring (https://www.eodc.eu/) is reported. The first validation results of the 1 km fused SWI are satisfying demonstrating well the added fine- scale spatial soil moisture signal.

  16. Improvement of antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities of Sargassum horneri polysaccharide enzymatic hydrolyzates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Ping; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Sun, Peilong

    2015-03-01

    In the previous study, we have found that polysaccharides isolated from Sargassum horneri exhibited bioactivities. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant and moisture-preserving activities of molecular weight alteration of Sargassum horneri polysaccharide in vitro. For this purpose, the homogeneous active polysaccharide SHP was isolated from Sargassum horneri, and response surface methodology was employed to optimize the enzymatic degradation conditions to get SHP-derived fragments with different molecular weight. Results proved that the polysaccharide is capable of scavenging both ABTS and DPPH radicals in vitro. The study revealed that the polysaccharides had strong moisture-absorption and -retention capacities as compared to propanediol and glycerin. Furthermore, these data demonstrated that molecular weight had a certain effect on antioxidant activities and strong moisture-retention capacities of the polysaccharide from Sargassum horneri. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous VOC reduction and moisture leveling in veneer with microwave energy during early stage of drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedi, Jalal [Department of Chemical & amp; Petroleum Engineering, niversity of Calgary, 2500 University Dr., NW, Calgary, Alberta (Canada T2N N4); Banerjee, Sujit [School of Chemical & amp; Biomedical Engineering, eorgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2007-01-15

    The main objective of this investigation was to quantitatively determine the ability of a microwave energy to level the moisture content of veneers using infrared thermography system. It is believed that the proper use of RF drying may reduce the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the sheets of plywood veneer as they are dried. Currently, the RF units are used after the drying, for the purpose of distributing the moisture that may be left in the pieces of veneer in some places (wet spot). Microwaving green veneer briefly under low headspace conditions evens out the moisture distribution for both softwood and hardwood, with the effect being more pronounced for softwood. The drying rate is unaffected. If successful, this could lead to significant cost savings for plywood producers. (author)

  18. Time and moisture effects on total and bioavailable copper in soil water extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tom-Petersen, Andreas; Hansen, H.C.B.; Nybroe, O.

    2004-01-01

    between total metal content and metal toxicity calls for integrated chemical and biological analysis. The aim of this work was to determine time- and moisture-dependent changes in total water-extractable Cu as well as bioavailable Cu in soil water extracts. Measurements of total water-extractable copper...... to increase with time. The moisture content of the soil was important for Cu retention. Dry soil had higher [Cu](tot) concentrations than humid soil, but the [Cu](bio) to [Cu](tot) ratio was lower in the dry soil. Alternating drying and wetting did not lead to a more rapid Cu retention than observed under...... constant humid conditions. Our observations underline the need for considering both time and moisture effects when interpreting short-term toxicity studies and when making predictions concerning possible long-term effects of Cu in the soil environment....

  19. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 2: Large scale moisture and passive microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. The research program consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components are explained in general and activities performed within the passive microwave research component are summarized. The microwave theory is discussed taking into account: soil dielectric constant, emissivity, soil roughness effects, vegetation effects, optical depth, single scattering albedo, and wavelength effects. The study site is described. The soil moisture data and its processing are considered. The relation between observed large scale soil moisture and normalized brightness temperatures is discussed. Vegetation characteristics and inverse modeling of soil emissivity is considered.

  20. Potential impacts of invasive European earthworms and soil moisture on herbaceous species richness within the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, C.; Top, S. M.; Filley, T. R.; Jourdain, J.; Zurn-Birkhimer, S.; Kroeger, T.; Welle, P.; Jenkins, M.; Johnson, A.; Gemscholars

    2010-12-01

    Throughout many northern North American forests invasive earthworms have caused significant ecological alteration to soil structure and chemistry, fine root distributions, duff and litter layer thickness, and soil moisture. Additionally, this phenomenon has been implicated in shifts in herbaceous-layer vegetation. Over the past 4 years, we have established research plots in forests on the Ojibwa Red Lake Reservation (Minnesota) to study the impact of exotic earthworms on forest ecosystem structure and functions. To examine herbaceous-layer response to potential gradients in earthworm abundance and soil moisture, we conducted surveys of herbaceous-layer species cover, earthworm abundance, and soil moisture across six plot dispersed along a previously identified gradient of earthworm activity. Our initial results have shown that the earthworms abundance is positively related to soil moisture (R2 = 0.76, P = 0.023). Herbaceous species richness displayed a strong negative relationship to soil moisture (R2 = 0.91, P < 0.001) and a weak negative relationship to earthworm abundance (R2 =0.51, P = 0.113). On average, the number of earthworms is increasing and the sites with more earthworms typically have less leaf litter. Additional work is needed to determine if earthworms are influencing site moisture conditions, or if moisture availability is a driver of earthworm abundance.