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Sample records for subgingival dental plaque

  1. Evaluation of Subgingival Dental Plaque Microbiota Changes In Fixed Orthodontic Patients with Syber Green Real Time PCR

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    Naser Sargolzaie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common problems we confront in orthodontic therapy is periodontal diseases. Initial factor which causes these diseases is colonization of anaerobic microorganisms in subgingival plaque. Technically, local environmental changes related to orthodontic band and brackets may influence the bacterial species in periodontal plaque. However, it seems necessary to assess variations in subgingival plaque caused by orthodontic appliances. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in subgingival microbiota and clinical parameters before and after bracket placement. Methods: Clinical parameters including probing depth (PD, plaque index (PI, clinical attachment level (CAL, bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival index (GI were recorded and subgingival microbial samples were collected in 30 people aged between 13 and 25. As a control group, 15 persons getting matched as to their age and sex with no need to orthodontic treatment were opted using specific primers, SYBER Green Real-Time PCR was carried out in order to determine bacterial flora in stored samples. All mentioned procedures were reassessed in experimental group and in control group three months after band and bracket bonding. A descriptive analysis was conducted, and paired t test and Wilcoxon test were used for differences between groups (P

  2. The Effect of Pistacia atlantica Var. mutica Mouthwash on Dental Plaque Bacteria and Subgingival Microorganisms: a Randomized and Controlled Triple-blind Study.

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    Arami, S; Mojaddadi, M A; Pourabbas, R; Chitsaz, M T; Delazar, A; Mobayen, H

    2015-09-01

    Dental plaque is a well-documented etiologic factor for periodontal diseases. While chlorhexidine (CHX) is the gold-standard agent for treating dental plaques, undesirable side effects are often found after continuous use of the mouthwash. Therefore, this single-center, randomized, triple-blinded and clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Pistacia atlantica Var. mutica extract mouthwash on de novo dental plaque bacteria and subgingival microorganisms compared to CHX on a total of 28 patients. The mean aerobic plaque bacterial count of patients at baseline was 2.17 × 10(6). After 4 days of treatment, there were statistically significant decreases in the mean aerobic bacteria in the patients who received P. atlantica and/or CHX (7.25 × 10(4), p = 0.006) and (9.91 × 10(3), p = 0.002), respectively, compared to the patients who received the placebo (6.26 × 10(5)). This study showed that P. atlantica mouthwash is effective against gingival microorganisms. Because of its reduced side effects, P. atlantica mouthwash may be a good alternative choice for patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide production from subgingival plaque samples.

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    Basic, A; Dahlén, G

    2015-10-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial anaerobe infection. Little is known about the dysbiotic microbiota and the role of bacterial metabolites in the disease process. It is suggested that the production of certain waste products in the proteolytic metabolism may work as markers for disease severity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gas produced by degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. It is highly toxic and believed to have pro-inflammatory properties. We aimed to study H2S production from subgingival plaque samples in relation to disease severity in subjects with natural development of the disease, using a colorimetric method based on bismuth precipitation. In remote areas of northern Thailand, adults with poor oral hygiene habits and a natural development of periodontal disease were examined for their oral health status. H2S production was measured with the bismuth method and subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of 20 bacterial species with the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. In total, 43 subjects were examined (age 40-60 years, mean PI 95 ± 6.6%). Fifty-six percent had moderate periodontal breakdown (CAL > 3  7 mm) on at least one site. Parvimonas micra, Filifactor alocis, Porphyromonas endodontalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were frequently detected. H2S production could not be correlated to periodontal disease severity (PPD or CAL at sampled sites) or to a specific bacterial composition. Site 21 had statistically lower production of H2S (p = 0.02) compared to 16 and 46. Betel nut chewers had statistically significant lower H2S production (p = 0.01) than non-chewers. Rapid detection and estimation of subgingival H2S production capacity was easily and reliably tested by the colorimetric bismuth sulfide precipitation method. H2S may be a valuable clinical marker for degradation of proteins in the subgingival pocket. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental plaque identification at home

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003426.htm Dental plaque identification at home To use the sharing ... a sticky substance that collects around and between teeth. The home dental plaque identification test shows where ...

  5. Subgingival Microbiome Colonization and Cytokine Production during Early Dental Implant Healing.

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    Payne, Jeffrey B; Johnson, Paul G; Kok, Car Reen; Gomes-Neto, João C; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Schmid, Marian J; Hutkins, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about longitudinal development of the peri-implant subgingival microbiome and cytokine production as a new sulcus forms after dental implant placement. Therefore, the purpose of this observational study was to evaluate simultaneous longitudinal changes in the oral microbiome and cytokine production in the developing peri-implant sulcus compared to control natural teeth. Four and 12 weeks after implant placement and abutment connection, a dental implant and a natural tooth were sampled in 25 patients for subgingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF [around teeth] and peri-implant crevicular fluid [PICF] around implants). DNA from plaque samples was extracted and sequenced using Illumina-based 16S rRNA sequencing. GCF and PICF samples were analyzed using a customized Milliplex human cytokine and chemokine magnetic bead panel. Beta diversity analysis revealed that natural teeth and implants had similar subgingival microbiomes, while teeth had greater alpha diversity than implants. At the genus level, however, few differences were noted between teeth and dental implants over 12 weeks. Specifically, Actinomyces and Selenomonas were significantly elevated around teeth versus dental implants at both 4 weeks and 12 weeks, while Corynebacterium and Campylobacter were significantly elevated only at 4 weeks around teeth. The only difference between PICF and GCF biomarkers was significantly elevated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels around teeth versus dental implants at the 4-week visit. The subgingival microbiome and cytokine production were similar between teeth and implants during early healing, suggesting that these profiles are driven by the patient following dental implant placement and are not determined by anatomical niche. IMPORTANCE Dental implants are a common treatment option offered to patients for tooth replacement. However, little is known regarding initial colonization of the subgingival microbiome and

  6. Early supra- and subgingival plaque formation in experimental gingivitis in smokers and never-smokers.

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    Branco, Paula; Weidlich, Patricia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate supragingival and subgingival plaque formation on the dentogingival area in smokers and never smokers using the experimental gingivitis model and a plaque scoring system that considers the presence of an area free of plaque between plaque and the gingival sulcus called the plaque free zone (PFZ). Male volunteers, 9 current smokers and 10 never-smokers, refrained from oral hygiene procedures in the maxillary incisors and canines (test teeth) for 25 days. Under conditions of clinically healthy gingiva (phase 1) and gingival inflammation (phase 2), the supragingival plaque formation pattern was observed for 4 days in the dentogingival area. Gingival crevicular fluid was also measured. Plaque was dyed with fucsine and its presence was recorded by a calibrated examiner based on a 3-criteria scoring system: 0 - absence of stained plaque; 1 - presence of stained plaque and supragingival PFZ; 2 - presence of stained plaque and absence of PFZ, indicating that subgingival plaque formation has taken place. In both phases, smokers presented a significantly lower relative frequency of sites with subgingival plaque compared to never-smokers (P smokers demonstrated a significantly lower frequency of gingival bleeding than did non-smokers (23.6% vs 66.1%; P Smokers presented significantly lower percentages of sites with subgingival plaque in all experimental periods and presented less gingival inflammation as shown by GBI and gingival crevicular fluid quantification.

  7. Periodontopathogens in the saliva and subgingival dental plaque of a group of mothers Periodontopatógenos na saliva e placa subgengival de um grupo de mães

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    Odila Pereira da Silva Rosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal condition and the presence of putative periodontal pathogens in 30 Brazilian mothers, aging 21-40 years (28.4 ± 4.49 years, and in their children, aging 5-6 years, since mothers can be a source of pathogens and, thus, influence their children's bacteriological and clinical condition. Besides assessing the plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI and pocket probing depth (PD, the survey analyzed four subgingival dental plaque samples from mothers and children, as well as a sample of stimulated saliva from mothers. Those samples were analyzed by means of the slot immunoblot (SIB technique, in order to determine the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, Prevotella nigrescens (Pn, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg and Treponema denticola (Td. The mean values and standard deviations of the evaluated clinical variables for mothers and children were, respectively: 1.86 ± 0.67 and 1.64 ± 0.68 for PI, and 1.24 ± 0.67 and 0.82 ± 0.37, for GI. Only for mothers, the total PD was 1.81 ± 0.69 mm, and the PD of four sites was 4.03 ± 1.40 mm. The Wilcoxon test revealed significant difference (p Procurou-se avaliar a condição periodontal e a presença de periodontopatógenos em 30 mães brasileiras, com idades entre 21-40 anos (28,4 ± 4,49 anos e seus filhos, com 5-6 anos de idade, considerando que elas possam ser fonte de transmissão para seus filhos e influenciar suas condições clínicas e bacteriológicas. Além de determinar o índice de placa (IP, índice gengival (IG de mães e filhos, e a profundidade de sondagem periodontal (PS, apenas das mães, avaliaram-se quatro amostras de placa dental subgengival de mães e filhos e uma amostra de saliva total estimulada das mães para a presença de Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, Prevotella nigrescens (Pn, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg e Treponema denticola (Td, pela técnica de "slot immunoblot" (SIB. As médias e desvios

  8. Simultaneous detection of periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque and placenta of women with hypertension in pregnancy.

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    Swati, P; Thomas, Betsy; Vahab, Saadi Abdul; Kapaettu, Satyamoorthy; Kushtagi, Pralhad

    2012-03-01

    There are many studies documenting increased prevalence of periodontal infection in women with preeclampsia. But, very few studies have attempted to establish causal relationship between the two. To find out causal circumstantial evidence by isolating specific periodontal pathogens in oral and placental samples. Antenatal periodontal screening and subgingival plaque collection was carried out in ten women with hypertension in pregnancy and ten normotensive controls on their hospital admission at term for cesarean delivery. Placental biopsy was obtained after aseptic placental collection at the time of elective cesarean delivery. Subgingival plaque and placental biopsy were studied for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans using quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique. Periodontist and laboratory personnel were unaware of case or control status. Periodontal status was not informed to the obstetrician recruiting the cases and laboratory. Microbiology report was not revealed till end of the study. Periodontal pathogens were found to be high in the group with hypertension than the controls. P gingivalis was found in all the samples from subgingival plaque and placenta, irrespective of the periodontal disease status. In cases with hypertension, periodontal pathogens are present in higher proportion in subgingival plaque and placenta.

  9. [Comparative analysis of 6 kinds of bacteria in the subgingival plaque in different types of patients with periodontal diseases].

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    Ma, Ying-ying; Zhang, Tao-wen; Jiang, Yu-xi; Liu, Shu-tai

    2015-10-01

    To detect the existence of Aa,Pg,Tf,Cr,Ec and Pn in the subgingival plaque, and determine their relationships among different types of periodontal diseases. Dental plaques from 120 subjects were sampled, including 40 volunteers with health periodontal status(Group A) , forty patients with dental plaque-induced gingival diseases(Group B) and 40 patients with moderate or severe chronic periodontitis (Group C) . These samples were detected based on bacterial composition using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA genes by multiple-polymerase chain reaction. The data was analysed with SPSS 13.0 software package for Chi-square test. The detection rate of Pn, Cr and Pg had significant differences between group A and B. The detection rate of Ec, Cr, Pg, Aa and Tf had significant differences between group C and B. The detection rate of Ec, Pn, Cr, Pg, Aa and Tf had significant differences between group A and C. The rate of Ec, Pn, Cr, Pg and Tf detected in moderate or patients with moderate or severe chronic periodontitis are significantly higher than that in healthy subjects, indicating that these bacteria have certain correlation with chronic periodontitis. The rate of Ec, Cr, Pg and Tf detected in severe chronic periodontitis are significantly higher than that in dental-induced gingivitis, suggesting their close relationship with the progress of periodontal disease.

  10. Denitrification in human dental plaque

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    Verstraete Willy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial denitrification is not considered important in human-associated microbial communities. Accordingly, metabolic investigations of the microbial biofilm communities of human dental plaque have focused on aerobic respiration and acid fermentation of carbohydrates, even though it is known that the oral habitat is constantly exposed to nitrate (NO3- concentrations in the millimolar range and that dental plaque houses bacteria that can reduce this NO3- to nitrite (NO2-. Results We show that dental plaque mediates denitrification of NO3- to nitric oxide (NO, nitrous oxide (N2O, and dinitrogen (N2 using microsensor measurements, 15N isotopic labelling and molecular detection of denitrification genes. In vivo N2O accumulation rates in the mouth depended on the presence of dental plaque and on salivary NO3- concentrations. NO and N2O production by denitrification occurred under aerobic conditions and was regulated by plaque pH. Conclusions Increases of NO concentrations were in the range of effective concentrations for NO signalling to human host cells and, thus, may locally affect blood flow, signalling between nerves and inflammatory processes in the gum. This is specifically significant for the understanding of periodontal diseases, where NO has been shown to play a key role, but where gingival cells are believed to be the only source of NO. More generally, this study establishes denitrification by human-associated microbial communities as a significant metabolic pathway which, due to concurrent NO formation, provides a basis for symbiotic interactions.

  11. Tracking of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival plaque of aggressive periodontitis patients

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    Supriya Kheur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is thought to be one of the etiological agents in aggressive periodontitis as well as indicated in various systemic diseases. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival plaque of aggressive periodontitis patients. Study Design: Initially, under the selective growth conditions, the isolates were picked from the plaques and their identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for A. actinomycetemcomitans subgingival plaque of 15 patients diagnosed clinically and on radiographic criteria as aggressive periodontitis was inoculated on the Tryptic Soy agar with Bacitracin and Vancomycin culture media for 3-5 days under microaerophilic conditions. The positive colonies were selected based on biochemical tests for further analysis using reported primers for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Results: The results showed that 66.67% of aggressive periodontitis patients and 6.67% of control group of normal patients showed evidence of presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival microflora. Conclusion: This is the first study of its kind in an Indian population whereby almost all aggressive periodontitis patients showed evidence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  12. Relative abundance of total subgingival plaque-specific bacteria in salivary microbiota reflects the overall periodontal condition in patients with periodontitis.

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    Kageyama, Shinya; Takeshita, Toru; Asakawa, Mikari; Shibata, Yukie; Takeuchi, Kenji; Yamanaka, Wataru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2017-01-01

    Increasing attention is being focused on evaluating the salivary microbiota as a promising method for monitoring oral health; however, its bacterial composition greatly differs from that of dental plaque microbiota, which is a dominant etiologic factor of oral diseases. This study evaluated the relative abundance of subgingival plaque-specific bacteria in the salivary microbiota and examined a relationship between the abundance and severity of periodontal condition in patients with periodontitis. Four samples (subgingival and supragingival plaques, saliva, and tongue coating) per each subject were collected from 14 patients with a broad range of severity of periodontitis before periodontal therapy. The bacterial composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using Ion PGM. Of the 66 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing the mean relative abundance of ≥ 1% in any of the four niches, 12 OTUs corresponding to known periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, were characteristically predominant in the subgingival plaque and constituted 37.3 ± 22.9% of the microbiota. The total relative abundance of these OTUs occupied only 1.6 ± 1.2% of the salivary microbiota, but significantly correlated with the percentage of diseased sites (periodontal pocket depth ≥ 4 mm; r = 0.78, P periodontal therapy, the total relative abundance of these 12 OTUs was evaluated as well as before periodontal therapy and reductions of the abundance through periodontal therapy were strongly correlated in saliva and subgingival plaque (r = 0.81, P bacteria representing the present condition of periodontal health.

  13. Microbial Profile of Supragingival and Subgingival Plaque of Patients With Glycogen Storage Disease

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    Chealsea E. Garcia DDS, MS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD are either orally fed (ORF or gastronomy-tube fed (GTF with cornstarch to maintain normal glucose levels. It is not known whether the use of cornstarch affects the microbiological oral profile of patients with GSD. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare supragingival and subgingival plaque samples collected from 53 participants with GSD (2-56 years—29 ORF and 24 GTF. The 16S sequence bacterial profiles of plaque DNA were obtained and a total of 768 probes were detected across the plaque groups. Orally fed patients showed higher means of cariogenic species and periodontal health-associated species, whereas GTF patients showed higher means of periopathogenic species ( P < .05. Orally fed patients exhibited high levels of caries pathogens and lower levels of periodontal pathogens possibly due to the acidic environment created by their cornstarch diet, when compared to GTF patients.

  14. Bacterial sex in dental plaque.

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    Olsen, Ingar; Tribble, Gena D; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  15. Bacterial sex in dental plaque

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    Ingar Olsen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes are transferred between bacteria in dental plaque by transduction, conjugation, and transformation. Membrane vesicles can also provide a mechanism for horizontal gene transfer. DNA transfer is considered bacterial sex, but the transfer is not parallel to processes that we associate with sex in higher organisms. Several examples of bacterial gene transfer in the oral cavity are given in this review. How frequently this occurs in dental plaque is not clear, but evidence suggests that it affects a number of the major genera present. It has been estimated that new sequences in genomes established through horizontal gene transfer can constitute up to 30% of bacterial genomes. Gene transfer can be both inter- and intrageneric, and it can also affect transient organisms. The transferred DNA can be integrated or recombined in the recipient's chromosome or remain as an extrachromosomal inheritable element. This can make dental plaque a reservoir for antimicrobial resistance genes. The ability to transfer DNA is important for bacteria, making them better adapted to the harsh environment of the human mouth, and promoting their survival, virulence, and pathogenicity.

  16. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

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    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  17. Relationship of periodontal clinical parameters with bacterial composition in human dental plaque.

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    Fujinaka, Hidetake; Takeshita, Toru; Sato, Hirayuki; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Nakamura, Junji; Hase, Tadashi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-06-01

    More than 600 bacterial species have been identified in the oral cavity, but only a limited number of species show a strong association with periodontitis. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive outline of the microbiota in dental plaque related to periodontal status. Dental plaque from 90 subjects was sampled, and the subjects were clustered based on bacterial composition using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA genes. Here, we evaluated (1) periodontal clinical parameters between clusters; (2) the correlation of subgingival bacterial composition with supragingival bacterial composition; and (3) the association between bacterial interspecies in dental plaque using a graphical Gaussian model. Cluster 1 (C1) having high prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in subgingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The values of the parameters in Cluster 2a (C2a) having high prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria were markedly lower than those in C1. A cluster having low prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria in supragingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The bacterial patterns between subgingival plaque and supragingival plaque were significantly correlated. Chief pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, formed a network with other pathogenic species in C1, whereas a network of non-pathogenic species, such as Rothia sp. and Lautropia sp., tended to compete with a network of pathogenic species in C2a. Periodontal status relates to non-pathogenic species as well as to pathogenic species, suggesting that the bacterial interspecies connection affects dental plaque virulence.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-FREE ENERGY ON SUPRAGINGIVAL AND SUBGINGIVAL PLAQUE MICROBIOLOGY - AN IN-VIVO STUDY ON IMPLANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    QUIRYNEN, M; VANDERMEI, HC; BOLLEN, CML; VANDENBOSSCHE, LH; DOORNBUSCH, GI; VANSTEENBERGHE, D; BUSSCHER, HJ

    THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE FREE ENERGY on supra- and subgingival plaque microbiology was examined in 9 patients with functional fixed prostheses supported by endosseous titanium implants. Two abutments (trans-mucosal part of the 2 stage implant) were replaced by either a new titanium abutment or a

  19. The microbial changes in subgingival plaques of orthodontic patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials.

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    Guo, Runzhi; Lin, Yifan; Zheng, Yunfei; Li, Weiran

    2017-06-02

    Orthodontic treatment was found to have an impact on the quantity and constitution of subgingival microbiota. However, contradictory findings regarding the effects of fixed appliances on microbial changes were reported. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the microbial changes in subgingival plaques of orthodontic patients. The PubMed, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE databases were searched up to November 20, 2016. Longitudinal studies observing microbial changes in subgingival plaques at different time points of orthodontic treatment are included. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed by Methodological index for non-randomized studies (MINORS). The studies that reported the frequency of subgingival periodontopathogens were used for quantitative analysis. Other studies were analysed qualitatively to describe the microbial changes during orthodontic treatment. Thirteen studies were selected, including two controlled clinical trials, three cohort studies and eight self-controlled studies. Four periodontopathogens, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi) and Tannerella forsythia (Tf), were analysed. Following orthodontic appliance placement, the frequencies of Pg and Aa showed no significant change (P = 0.97 and P = 0.77), whereas the frequency of Tf significantly increased (P  = 6 months), two studies reported that the levels of subgingival periodontopathogens exhibited a transient increase but decreased to the pretreatment levels afterwards. After removal of the orthodontic appliance, the four periodontopathogens showed no significant difference compared with before removal. The levels of subgingival pathogens presented temporary increases after orthodontic appliance placement, and appeared to return to pretreatment levels several months later. This indicates that orthodontic treatment might not permanently induce periodontal disease by

  20. Characteristics of subgingival calculus detection by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy

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    Tung, Oi-Hong; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin; Chen, How-Foo

    2011-06-01

    Subgingival calculus has been recognized as a major cause of periodontitis, which is one of the main chronic infectious diseases of oral cavities and a principal cause of tooth loss in humans. Bacteria deposited in subgingival calculus or plaque cause gingival inflammation, function deterioration, and then periodontitis. However, subgingival calculus within the periodontal pocket is a complicated and potentially delicate structure to be detected with current dental armamentaria, namely dental x-rays and dental probes. Consequently, complete removal of subgingival calculus remains a challenge to periodontal therapies. In this study, the detection of subgingival calculus employing a multiphoton autofluorescence imaging method was characterized in comparison with a one-photon confocal fluorescence imaging technique. Feasibility of such a system was studied based on fluorescence response of gingiva, healthy teeth, and calculus with and without gingiva covered. The multiphoton fluorescence technology perceived the tissue-covered subgingival calculus that cannot be observed by the one-photon confocal fluorescence method.

  1. The effectiveness of 0.5–0.7% tetracycline gel to reduced subgingival plaque bacteria

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    Ernie Maduratna Setiawati

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The tetracycline was an antimicrobial agent, that a broad spectrum. In addition to the antimicrobial effects, their efficacy was also anticollagenase and removal of the smear layer on the root surface. Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness tetracycline gel 0.5–0.7% to reduction subgingival plaque bacteria. Method: A laboratory experimental study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness tetracycline gel 0.5–0.7%. Samples were divided into 5 groups with different concentration. The antimicrobial effect was performed using spectrophotometer. The statistical test was used One-Way ANOVA with significant difference 5% and subsequently Tukey-HSD test. Result: The study showed that tetracycline gel 0.5% has the highest antimicrobial has the highest antimicrobial effect. Conclusion: Tetracycline gel with 0.5% concentration is effective in inhibiting the growth of subgingival plaque bacteria.

  2. The presence of Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque of children and their parents: is it related to their periodontal status and oral hygiene?

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    Tsami, A; Petropoulou, P; Kafritsa, Y; Mentis, Y A; Roma-Giannikou, E

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the possible presence of H. pylori in subgingival dental plaque of children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, as well as of their parents' and to detect any association between the presence of H. pylori and oral hygiene together with the periodontal status of children and their parents. The study comprised of 35 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms, aged 4 to 14 years and 45 family members (mothers and/or fathers). Gastric biopsies were collected from all children for CLO-test, histology and culture. Serology was used to assess the H. pylori infection status of their parents. Before endoscopy, subgingival dental plaque from children and their parents were collected from 4 healthy and 4 diseased sites, and the clinical indices (gingival index, plaque index, bleeding on probing, pocket depth, loss of clinical attachment) after plaque collection were recorded. The Chi-square test was performed to investigate possible differences between children and their parents and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the association of parental infection status with that of children. 15 out of 35 children (42.86%) were found H. pylori-positive. In 6 out of the 15 infected children (40%) H. pylori was also identified in their subgingival plaque samples, as well as in one among the 20 non infected children. The presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was significantly associated with its presence in the gastric antrum (p=0.0274). H. pylori was identified in the dental plaque of 7 mothers corresponding to children with positive PCR in their dental plaque and of 4 fathers (one corresponding with his child found H. pylori positive in dental plaque). Children who had H. pylori identified in their dental plaque belonged to families with members also having H. pylori in dental plaque. No significant relationship between periodontal clinical parameters and detection of H. pylori in dental plaque in both children and their parents was found. However

  3. Removal and prevention of dental plaque with d-tagatose.

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    Lu, Y; Levin, G V

    2002-08-01

    Dental plaque develops when early bacterial colonizers adhere to the acquired pellicle (saliva-derived proteinous coating on the tooth surface) followed by adhesion of late interspecies colonizers to form this type of biofilm (coaggregation). In developing a d-tagatose-based toothpaste, we examined 15 oral isolates, including both early colonizers (Streptococcus and Actinomyces) and late colonizers (Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Veillonella, Capnocytophaga, and Actinobacillus), and tested them for their ability to coaggregate with each other. We then tested the ability of d-tagatose to reverse any such coaggregations. Coaggregation was examined visually and scored by using a system ranging from 0, for no visible coaggregation to 4, for maximum coaggregation. d-Tagatose, at a concentration of less than 750 mm, completely reversed the coaggregation of 17 (60%) of 28 strongly coaggregating pairs (coaggregation score = 2 or higher) tested. In contrast, d-sorbitol had little reversal effect. d-Tagatose-sensitive coaggregations were d-galactose-reversible as well. d-Tagatose acted on both early and late colonizers; both groups, especially the late colonizers, were frequently involved in periodontal diseases. Thus, d-tagatose has the potential for preventing and removing plaque development and for altering the subgingival microbiota. These effective qualities offer conservative control of gingival and periodontal disease.

  4. Profiling of subgingival plaque biofilm microbiota in female adult patients with clear aligners: a three-month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Runzhi; Zheng, Yunfei; Liu, Hao; Li, Xiaobei; Jia, Lingfei; Li, Weiran

    2018-01-01

    Clear aligners are well known for facilitating oral hygiene maintenance and decreasing susceptibility to periodontal diseases as compared to conventional fixed appliances. However, few research studies focus on the subgingival microbial community during clear aligner treatment (CAT). Hence, this study investigates changes of the subgingival microbial community and its association with clinical characteristics during the first three months of CAT. Ten female patients with clear aligners were enrolled in this study. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained at three time points: before orthodontic treatment (T0), one month after orthodontic treatment (T1) and three months after orthodontic treatment (T2). DNA was then extracted from plaque samples and analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Periodontal examinations, including plaque index (PI) and gingival bleeding index (GBI) measurements were also recorded. The plaque indices (PIs) and gingival bleeding indices (GBIs) were slightly increased at T1 and T2, but no statistically significant difference was found. The alpha diversity indices, including the ACE, Chao1, Shannon indices, all showed a declining trend without significance, and a rising trend in the Simpson diversity index was observed. The weighted UniFrac distance was significantly higher at T1 and T2 compared with T0. Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA) demonstrated that the communities at T0 tended to cluster apart from the communities at T1 and T2. The relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes and genus Mycoplasma was significantly increased at T0 compared with T2. There was no significant difference in the relative abundance of periodontal pathogens at the genus and species levels or core microorganisms at the genus level. A slightly decreasing microbial diversity with a significant change of microbial structure was found during the first three-month clear aligner treatment (CAT). However, subjects receiving clear aligner treatment were free from

  5. Profiling of subgingival plaque biofilm microbiota in female adult patients with clear aligners: a three-month prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runzhi Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Clear aligners are well known for facilitating oral hygiene maintenance and decreasing susceptibility to periodontal diseases as compared to conventional fixed appliances. However, few research studies focus on the subgingival microbial community during clear aligner treatment (CAT. Hence, this study investigates changes of the subgingival microbial community and its association with clinical characteristics during the first three months of CAT. Methods Ten female patients with clear aligners were enrolled in this study. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained at three time points: before orthodontic treatment (T0, one month after orthodontic treatment (T1 and three months after orthodontic treatment (T2. DNA was then extracted from plaque samples and analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Periodontal examinations, including plaque index (PI and gingival bleeding index (GBI measurements were also recorded. Results The plaque indices (PIs and gingival bleeding indices (GBIs were slightly increased at T1 and T2, but no statistically significant difference was found. The alpha diversity indices, including the ACE, Chao1, Shannon indices, all showed a declining trend without significance, and a rising trend in the Simpson diversity index was observed. The weighted UniFrac distance was significantly higher at T1 and T2 compared with T0. Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA demonstrated that the communities at T0 tended to cluster apart from the communities at T1 and T2. The relative abundance of the phylum Firmicutes and genus Mycoplasma was significantly increased at T0 compared with T2. There was no significant difference in the relative abundance of periodontal pathogens at the genus and species levels or core microorganisms at the genus level. Conclusion A slightly decreasing microbial diversity with a significant change of microbial structure was found during the first three-month clear aligner treatment (CAT. However, subjects

  6. Near-ultraviolet removal rates for subgingival dental calculus at different irradiation angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, Joshua E.; Seka, Wolf D.; Rechmann, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The laser ablation rate of subgingival dental calculus irradiated at a 400-nm-wavelength, 7.4-mJ pulse energy, and 85- and 20-deg irradiation angles is measured using laser triangulation. Three-dimensional images taken before and after irradiation create a removal map with 6-μm axial resolution. Fifteen human teeth with subgingival calculus are irradiated in vitro under a cooling water spray with an ~300-μm-diam, tenth-order super-Gaussian beam. The average subgingival calculus removal rates for irradiation at 85 and 20 deg are 11.1+/-3.6 and 11.5+/-5.9 μm/pulse, respectively, for depth removal and 4.5+/-1.7×105 and 4.8+/-2.3×105 μm3/pulse, respectively, for volume removal. The ablation rate is constant at each irradiation site but varies between sites because of the large differences in the physical and optical properties of calculus. Comparison of the average depth- and volume-removal rates does not reveal any dependence on the irradiation angle and is likely due to the surface topology of subgingival calculus samples that overshadows any expected angular dependence.

  7. PCR detection of Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in dental plaque samples from Haitian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psoter, Walter J; Ge, Yao; Russell, Stefanie L; Chen, Zhou; Katz, Ralph V; Jean-Charles, Germain; Li, Yihong

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans are oral pathogens associated with dental caries and periodontitis, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the colonization of these two microorganisms in the dental plaque of a group of Haitian adolescents using two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, standard PCR, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays. Fifty-four pooled supra-gingival plaque samples and 98 pooled sub-gingival plaque samples were obtained from 104 12- to19-year-old rural-dwelling Haitians. The total genomic DNA of bacteria was isolated from these samples, and all participants also received caries and periodontal examinations. Caries prevalence was 42.2%, and the mean decayed, missing, and filled surface (DMFS) was 2.67 ± 5.3. More than half of the adolescents (53.3%) experienced periodontal pockets (Community Periodontal Index score ≥3). S. mutans was detected in 67.3% by qPCR and 38.8% by PCR of the supra-gingival plaque samples (p plaque samples. Neither age nor gender was significantly correlated to the bacterial colonization. The results demonstrated a moderate-to-high prevalence of S. mutans and A. actinomycetemcomitans in the Haitian adolescent population, and qPCR is more sensitive than standard PCR in field conditions. These findings suggest that qPCR should be considered for field oral epidemiologic studies and may be necessary in investigations having major logistic challenges.

  8. Prophylaxis for infective endocarditis: antibiotic sensitivity of dental plaque.

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, T W; McGowan, D A; Hunter, K; MacKenzie, D

    1983-01-01

    The antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacteria isolated from bacteraemia after dental extraction was compared with that of bacteria isolated from dental plaque samples from the same patient. The results supported the current practice of using penicillin and erythromycin empirically for prophylaxis. The prediction of the most appropriate antibiotic for prophylaxis using dental plaque samples was most accurate when the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of plaque isolates were used. It appe...

  9. 16S rDNA-based metagenomic analysis of dental plaque and lung bacteria in patients with severe acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L; Wang, H; Li, C; Pan, Y

    2014-12-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD) are leading causes of mortality in hospital intensive care units. We sought to determine whether dental plaque biofilms might harbor pathogenic bacteria that can eventually cause lung infections in patients with severe AE-COPD. Paired samples of subgingival plaque biofilm and tracheal aspirate were collected from 53 patients with severe AE-COPD. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from each sample individually for polymerase chain reaction amplification and/or generation of bacterial 16S rDNA sequences and cDNA libraries. We used a metagenomic approach, based on bacterial 16S rDNA sequences, to compare the distribution of species present in dental plaque and lung. Analysis of 1060 sequences (20 clones per patient) revealed a wide range of aerobic, anaerobic, pathogenic, opportunistic, novel and uncultivable bacterial species. Species indistinguishable between the paired subgingival plaque and tracheal aspirate samples (97-100% similarity in 16S rDNA sequence) were dental plaque pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola) and lung pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Real-time polymerase chain reaction of 16S rDNA indicated lower levels of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Porphyromonas gingivalis colonizing the dental plaques compared with the paired tracheal aspirate samples. These results support the hypothesis that dental bacteria may contribute to the pathology of severe AE-COPD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Microbiologic aspects of dental plaque and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P D

    1999-10-01

    Dental plaque is an example of a microbial biofilm with a diverse microbial composition; it is found naturally on teeth and confers advantages to the host, for example, by preventing colonization by exogenous, and often pathogenic, micro-organisms. In individuals with a high frequency sugar diet, or with a severely compromised saliva flow, the levels of potentially cariogenic bacteria (acid-producing and acid-tolerating species) can increase beyond those compatible with enamel health. This article discusses antimicrobial strategies to control dental caries, including; reducing plaque levels, in general or specific cariogenic bacteria in particular, by antiplaque or antimicrobial agents; reducing bacterial acid production by replacing fermentable carbohydrates in the diet with sugar substitutes, or by interfering with bacterial metabolism with fluoride or antimicrobial agents.

  11. Urease and Dental Plaque Microbial Profiles in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou-Bermudez, Evangelia; Rodriguez, Selena; Bello, Angel S; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2015-01-01

    Urease enzymes produced by oral bacteria generate ammonia, which can have a significant impact on the oral ecology and, consequently, on oral health. To evaluate the relationship of urease with dental plaque microbial profiles in children as it relates to dental caries, and to identify the main contributors to this activity. 82 supragingival plaque samples were collected from 44 children at baseline and one year later, as part of a longitudinal study on urease and caries in children. DNA was extracted; the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. Urease activity was measured using a spectrophotometric assay. Data were analyzed with Qiime. Plaque urease activity was significantly associated with the composition of the microbial communities of the dental plaque (Baseline P = 0.027, One Year P = 0.012). The bacterial taxa whose proportion in dental plaque exhibited significant variation by plaque urease levels in both visits were the family Pasteurellaceae (Baseline Purease and positively associated with dental caries (Bonferroni Purease enzymes primarily from species in the family Pasteurellaceae can be an important ecological determinant in children's dental plaque. Further studies are needed to establish the role of urease-associated bacteria in the acid/base homeostasis of the dental plaque, and in the development and prediction of dental caries in children.

  12. Cell surface hydrophobicity of dental plaque microorganisms in situ.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, M; Judes, H; Weiss, E

    1983-01-01

    The cell surface hydrophobicity of bacteria obtained directly from human tooth surfaces was assayed by measuring their adherence to liquid hydrocarbons. Fresh samples of supragingival dental plaque were washed and dispersed in buffer. Adherence of the plaque microorganisms to hexadecane, octane, and xylene was tested turbidimetrically and by direct microscopic observation. The results clearly show that the vast majority of bacteria comprising dental plaque exhibit pronounced cell surface hydr...

  13. Matrix-Gla Protein rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism and serum and GCF levels of MGP in patients with subgingival dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Gülnihal Emrem; Demir, Turgut; Aksoy, Hülya; Sağlam, Ebru; Laloğlu, Esra; Yildirim, Abdulkadir

    2016-10-01

    Matrix-Gla Protein (MGP) is one of the major Gla-containing protein associated with calcification process. It also has a high affinity for Ca 2+ and hydroxyapatite. In this study we aimed to evaluate the MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism in association with subgingival dental calculus. Also a possible relationship between MGP gene polymorphism and serum and GCF levels of MGP were examined. MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism was investigated in 110 patients with or without subgingival dental calculus, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques. Additionally, serum and GCF levels of MGP of the patients were compared according to subgingival dental calculus. Comparison of patients with and without subgingival dental calculus showed no statistically significant difference in MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism (p=0.368). MGP concentrations in GCF of patients with subgingival dental calculus were statistically higher than those without subgingival dental calculus (p=0.032). However, a significant association was not observed between the genotypes of AA, AG and GG of the MGP rs4236 gene and the serum and GCF concentrations of MGP in subjects. In this study, it was found that MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism was not to be associated with subgingival dental calculus. Also, that GCF MGP levels were detected higher in patients with subgingival dental calculus than those without subgingival dental calculus independently of polymorphism, may be the effect of adaptive mechanism to inhibit calculus formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective near-UV ablation of subgingival dental calculus: measurement of removal rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, J. E.; Seka, W.; Rechmann, P.

    2010-02-01

    A noncontact profilometer (laser triangulation) was used to measure the removal rates of subgingival dental calculus irradiated with a frequency-doubled Ti:sapphire laser (60-ns pulse duration, 400-nm wavelength, 10-Hz repetition rate, 7-mJ pulse energy). Profilometer traces before and after irradiation were used to create a removal map with 4-μm axial and 15-μm transverse resolution. Twenty-three teeth (15 with calculus and 8 pristine) were irradiated at 90° and 45° under a cooling water spray with a super-Gaussian beam (~300-μm diameter). Subgingival calculus was selectively removed at 5.6 and 4.0 J/cm2 for 90° and 45°, respecetively, within a range of rates, between 2 to 9 μm/pulse. These ablation rates were constant during these exposures. For comparison, pristine cementum irradiated for 10 min at the same peak fluence and pulse repetition rate showed only craters, 15 to 50 μm deep, corresponding to an equivalent removal rate three orders of magnitude smaller than that obtained for calculus. Pristine enamel was not removed under the same irradiation conditions.

  15. Reliability and discriminatory power of methods for dental plaque quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Prócida Raggio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the discriminatory power and reliability of methods of dental plaque quantification and the relationship between visual indices (VI and fluorescence camera (FC to detect plaque. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six volunteers used palatal appliances with six bovine enamel blocks presenting different stages of plaque accumulation. The presence of plaque with and without disclosing was assessed using VI. Images were obtained with FC and digital camera in both conditions. The area covered by plaque was assessed. Examinations were done by two independent examiners. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kappa tests to compare different conditions of samples and to assess the inter-examiner reproducibility. RESULTS: Some methods presented adequate reproducibility. The Turesky index and the assessment of area covered by disclosed plaque in the FC images presented the highest discriminatory powers. CONCLUSION: The Turesky index and images with FC with disclosing present good reliability and discriminatory power in quantifying dental plaque.

  16. [Evaluation of dental plaque by quantitative digital image analysis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Luan, Q X

    2016-04-18

    To analyze the plaque staining image by using image analysis software, to verify the maneuverability, practicability and repeatability of this technique, and to evaluate the influence of different plaque stains. In the study, 30 volunteers were enrolled from the new dental students of Peking University Health Science Center in accordance with the inclusion criteria. The digital images of the anterior teeth were acquired after plaque stained according to filming standardization.The image analysis was performed using Image Pro Plus 7.0, and the Quigley-Hein plaque indexes of the anterior teeth were evaluated. The plaque stain area percentage and the corresponding dental plaque index were highly correlated,and the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.776 (Pchart showed only a few spots outside the 95% consistency boundaries. The different plaque stains image analysis results showed that the difference of the tooth area measurements was not significant, while the difference of the plaque area measurements significant (P<0.01). This method is easy in operation and control,highly related to the calculated percentage of plaque area and traditional plaque index, and has good reproducibility.The different plaque staining method has little effect on image segmentation results.The sensitive plaque stain for image analysis is suggested.

  17. Relationship between quantitative measurement of Porphyromonas gingivalis on dental plaque with periodontal status of patients with coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwiyanti, Stephani; Soeroso, Yuniarti; Sunarto, Hari; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease is a narrowing of coronary artery due to plaque build-up. [1] Chronic periodontitis increases risk of cardiovascular disease. P.gingivalis is linked to both diseases. Objective: to analyse quantitative difference of P.gingivalis on dental plaque and its relationship with periodontal status of CHD patient and control. Methods: Periodontal status of 66 CHD patient and 40 control was checked. Subgingival plaque was isolated and P.gingivalis was measured using real-time PCR. Result: P.gingivalis of CHD patient differs from control. P.gingivalis is linked to pocket depth of CHD patient. Conclusion: P.gingivalis count of CHD patient is higher than control. P.gingivalis count is not linked to any periodontal status, except for pocket depth of CHD patient.

  18. Dental root elevator embedded into a subgingival caries: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Mrina, Ombeni; Ramírez-Rámiz, Albert

    2015-02-28

    Breakage of surgical instruments is a rare complication. A mistake in operator technique or sub-standard/aged tools could lead to this type of accident. A tooth elevator is an instrument used in minor oral surgical procedures to luxate the tooth or fractured root from its socket. The authors have not found any previously published cases reporting the breakage of a tooth elevator tip which then remained as a foreign body in a hidden caries cavity. A 28-year-old African black male was referred to a hospital in Tanzania for an intraoral radiography. The patient explained that six months previously his mandibular left third molar had been extracted. Whilst the healing process had been satisfactory, he had recently experienced acute oral pain in this region. The dental X-ray showed an image consistent with a piece of broken metal embedded in a distal subgingival caries at the mandibular left second molar. Oral and dental surgeons should take particular care when employing metal instruments with strong force in poorly visible areas. A radiographic study should be carried out when instrument breakage occurs. If an unexpected accident takes place during a surgical procedure, the patient must be informed in accordance with ethical codes, and suitable measures adopted to resolve the issue.

  19. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waaler, S.M. (Department of Preclinical Techniques and Material Sciences and Department of Pedodontics, Dental Faculty, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway))

    1992-01-01

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au).

  20. Evidence for xylitol 5-P production in human dental plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaler, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Turku sugar studies indicated that xylitol may possess a caries-therapeutic effect. More recent data show that xylotol exhibits a bacteriostatic activity on a wide range of bacteria based on uptake and expulsion of xylitol. Intracellular xylitol 5-P appears to be a key substance associated with inhibition of bacterial metabolism by xylitol. This has been shown in studies with pure strains of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans. The aim of the present study was to examine if production of xylitol 5-P occurs in freshly collected dental plaque which is exposed to labeled xylitol. Plaque extracts were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography combined with autoradiography and high performance liquid chromatography. Strong indications were obtained that xylitol 5-P is readily produced by dental plaque. No other significant xylitol metabolites were identified. The bacteriostatic properties of xylitol in plaque are a mechanism which may well account for the caries-therapeutic effect of xylitol. (au)

  1. Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque; is it related to brushing frequency, plaque load and oral health status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Saima; Khan, Ayyaz Ali; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Idrees, Muhammad; Izhar, Mateen; Iqbal, Hafiz Aamer

    2011-10-01

    To determine the relation between presence of H. pylori in supra-gingival dental plaque with oral hygiene habits and oral health status of patients suffering from symptomatic dyspepsia. Descriptive study. The Department of Oral Health Sciences, Shaikh Zayed FPGMI, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. One hundred and fifty dyspeptic subjects with dental plaque were enrolled. After recording brushing frequency, oral health status and plaque load, the supra-gingival dental plaque samples were collected by sterile curettes. Helicobacter pylori were detected in dental plaque samples through PCR assay. Presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was found to be 37.5% in the sample. Most of the subjects brushed once daily, had plaque index score of 1 and had fair to poor oral hygiene status. Approximately 35% of the individuals who brushed once or twice a day harbored the bacterium in their dental plaque. There was no difference between bacterial detection rates among different categories of plaque index and oral health status of the study subjects. Presence of H. pylori in dental plaque was found to be associated with neither brushing frequency nor with the plaque load nor with the oral health status of individuals suffering from symptomatic dyspepsia.

  2. Is self interdental cleaning associated with dental plaque levels, dental calculus, gingivitis and periodontal disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocombe, L A; Brennan, D S; Slade, G D; Loc, D O

    2012-04-01

    To ascertain whether interdental cleaning behaviours of Australian adults were associated with lower levels of plaque, gingivitis and periodontal disease. Data were obtained from the National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-06. Outcome variables were three indicators of oral hygiene outcomes (the presence or not of dental plaque, dental calculus and gingivitis) and two of periodontal disease (the presence or not of at least one tooth with a periodontal pocket or clinical attachment loss of ≥ 4 mm). The independent variable was classified into the following three groups: regularly clean interproximally 'at least daily' (daily+); 'less than daily' (dental plaque (dental calculus (dental plaque and gingivitis, although there was no significant association between regular interdental cleaning and clinical attachment loss. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Microbial profiling of dental plaque from mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Kirsty M; Twigg, Joshua A; Lewis, Michael A O; Wise, Matt P; Marchesi, Julian R; Smith, Ann; Wilson, Melanie J; Williams, David W

    2016-02-01

    Micro-organisms isolated from the oral cavity may translocate to the lower airways during mechanical ventilation (MV) leading to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Changes within the dental plaque microbiome during MV have been documented previously, primarily using culture-based techniques. The aim of this study was to use community profiling by high throughput sequencing to comprehensively analyse suggested microbial changes within dental plaque during MV. Bacterial 16S rDNA gene sequences were obtained from 38 samples of dental plaque sampled from 13 mechanically ventilated patients and sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequences were processed using Mothur, applying a 97% gene similarity cut-off for bacterial species level identifications. A significant 'microbial shift' occurred in the microbial community of dental plaque during MV for nine out of 13 patients. Following extubation, or removal of the endotracheal tube that facilitates ventilation, sampling revealed a decrease in the relative abundance of potential respiratory pathogens and a compositional change towards a more predominantly (in terms of abundance) oral microbiota including Prevotella spp., and streptococci. The results highlight the need to better understand microbial shifts in the oral microbiome in the development of strategies to reduce VAP, and may have implications for the development of other forms of pneumonia such as community-acquired infection.

  4. Paraclinical Effects of Miswak Extract on Dental Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Poureslami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Persian toothbrush tree or Miswak (Salvadora Persica L. has been used as a brushing stick for more than 1,300 years. Pharmacological studies indicated antibacterial and antiinflammatory activities of Miswak extract. The present study was performed to determine antibacterial effects of Miswak extract.Material and Methods: The present experimental research involved three in vitro studies including: 1 in vitro testing of the effect of Miswak extract on selected bacteria; 2 comparing the paraclinical effects of Iranian toothpaste containing Miswak extract and placebo toothpaste on dental plaque; and 3 comparing the antibacterial effect of Iranian toothpaste with Swiss toothpaste(Quail Miswak on dental plaque. The disc diffusion method was used to test bacterial sensitivity of toothpastes. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and ANOVA.Results: In the first study, Miswak extract inhibited the growth of some dental plaque bacteria. In the second study, antibacterial effect of the herbal toothpaste was significantly greater than that of the placebo (P =0.002. In the third study, four samples of dental plaque bacteria were used and there was no difference between the antibacterial effects of Swiss and Iranian herbal toothpastes (P =0.66.Conclusion: Due to antimicrobial effects of Miswak extract, its use in mouth rinses and toothpastes is highly recommended.

  5. Antimicrobial action of minocycline microspheres versus 810-nm diode laser on human dental plaque microcosm biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoqing; Yaskell, Tina; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Lynch, Michael C; Soukos, Nikolaos S

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the antimicrobial effects of minocycline hydrochloride microspheres versus infrared light at 810 nm from a diode laser on multispecies oral biofilms in vitro. These biofilms were grown from dental plaque inoculum (oral microcosms) and were obtained from six systemically healthy individuals with generalized chronic periodontitis. Multispecies biofilms were derived using supra- and subgingival plaque samples from mesio-buccal aspects of premolars and molars exhibiting probing depths in the 4- to 5-mm range and 1- to 2-mm attachment loss. Biofilms were developed anaerobically on blood agar surfaces in 96-well plates using a growth medium of prereduced, anaerobically sterilized brain-heart infusion with 2% horse serum. Minocycline HCl 1 mg microspheres were applied on biofilms on days 2 and 5 of their development. Biofilms were also exposed on days 2 and 5 of their growth to 810-nm light for 30 seconds using a power of 0.8 W in a continuous-wave mode. The susceptibility of microorganisms to minocycline or infrared light was evaluated by a colony-forming assay and DNA probe analysis at different time points. At all time points of survival assessment, minocycline was more effective (>2 log10 colony-forming unit reduction) than light treatment (P plaque pathogens to light, and it was not possible after treatment with minocycline due to lack of bacterial growth. The cumulative action of minocycline microspheres on multispecies oral biofilms in vitro led to enhanced killing of microorganisms, whereas a single exposure of light at 810 nm exhibited minimal and non-selective antimicrobial effects.

  6. Acid production in dental plaque after exposure to probiotic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Mette K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing interest in probiotic lactobacilli in health maintenance has raised the question of potential risks. One possible side effect could be an increased acidogenicity in dental plaque. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of probiotic lactobacilli on plaque lactic acid (LA production in vitro and in vivo. Methods In the first part (A, suspensions of two lactobacilli strains (L. reuteri DSM 17938, L. plantarum 299v were added to suspensions of supragingival dental plaque collected from healthy young adults (n=25. LA production after fermentation with either xylitol or fructose was analyzed. In the second part (B, subjects (n=18 were given lozenges with probiotic lactobacilli (L. reuteri DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289 or placebo for two weeks in a double-blinded, randomized cross-over trial. The concentration of LA in supragingival plaque samples was determined at baseline and after 2 weeks. Salivary counts of mutans streptococci (MS and lactobacilli were estimated with chair-side methods. Results Plaque suspensions with L. reuteri DSM 17938 produced significantly less LA compared with L. plantarum 299v or controls (p Conclusion Lactic acid production in suspensions of plaque and probiotic lactobacilli was strain-dependant and the present study provides no evidence of an increase in plaque acidity by the supply of selected probiotic lactobacilli when challenged by fructose or xylitol. The study protocol was approved by The Danish National Committee on Biomedical Research Ethics (protocol no H-2-2010-112. Trial registration NCT01700712

  7. [Influence of the fluoride releasing dental materials on the bacterial flora of dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płuciennik, Małgorzata; Sakowska, Danuta; Krzemiński, Zbigniew; Piatowska, Danuta

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of influence of silver-free, fluor releasing dental materials on dental plaque bacteria quantity. 17 patients were included into the study. 51 restorations were placed following manufacturers recommendations. Following materials were used: conventional glassionomer Ketac-Molar ESPE, resin modified glassionomer Fuji II LC GC and fluor containing composite Charisma Heraeus Kulzer Class V restorations were placed in following teeth of upper and lower jaw: canines, first bicuspids, second bicuspids. Sound enamel was a control. After 10 weeks the 72 hours old dental plaque was collected from surface of restorations and control using sterile probe. Total amount of 68 dental plaques were investigated. Each plaque was placed on scaled and sterile aluminum foil. The moist weight of dental plaque was scaled. Dental plaque was moved into 7 ml 0.85% NaCl solution reduced by cystein chlorine hydrogen and disintegrated by ultrasounds (power:100 Watt, wave amplitude: 5 micorm). The suspension of dental plaque was serially diluted from 10(-4) to 10(-5) in sterile 0,85% NaCl solution, and seeded with amount of 0.1 ml on appropriate base. In dental plaque trials the amount of cariogenic bacteria was calculated--Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Neisseria, and also total amount of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria was measured. Microbiologic studies were performed in Institute of Microbiology, Medical University, Łódź. Statistical analysis of collected data was accomplished. In 72 hours old dental plaques collected from the surfaces of Ketac -Molar, Fuji II LC, Charisma after 10 weeks since being placed into the class V cavity, results show no statistically significant differences in the amount of Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp., Veillonella spp., Neisseria spp, in total amount of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and in the quantity proportion of Streptococcus mutans versus Streptococcus spp. in comparison

  8. 21 CFR 872.5580 - Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5580 Oral rinse to reduce the adhesion of dental plaque. (a) Identification. The device is assigned the generic name oral rinse to reduce...

  9. Inhibition of dental plaque formation by toothpaste containing propolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurin Aisyiyah Listyasari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plaque is the main cause of caries and periodontal disease. Caries and periodontal disease can be prevented by inhibiting dental plaque formation. To inhibit the formation of plaque, teeth must be brushed with toothpaste. According to previous studies, propolis contains apigenin and tt-farnesol classified as flavonoid that can inhibit the formation of dental plaque by inhibiting glucosyltransferase enzym and membrane integrity of Streptococcus mutans. Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of toothpaste containing propolis on the formation of dental plaque. Methods: Post test with only control group design was used. The subjects of this study were 30 boarding school students of Hidayatullah, Yayasan Al-Burhan, Gedawang, Semarang, divided into two groups, randomized control group and treatment group. Control group was not treated with toothpaste contanining propolis. Meanwhile, treatment group was treated with toothpaste containing propolis. Plaque then was measured by using plaque index of Sillness and Loe method after using toothpaste containing propolis for four hours. Afterwards, the data was analyzed by a computer program, Mann-Whitney test, with its significance p < 0.05. Results: The result of Mann-Whitney test showed a significant difference, 0.002 (p < 0.05, between the control group and the treatment group. The median of the control group was about 3.41, while that of the treatment group was about 0.58. Conclusion: The use of toothpaste contaning propolis can prevent dental plaque formation.Latar belakang: Plak merupakan penyebab utama terjadinya karies dan penyakit periodontal. Karies dan penyakit periodontal dapat dicegah dengan menghambat pembentukan plak gigi. Untuk mencegah terbentuknya plak, gigi harus digosok menggunakan pasta gigi. Penelitian terdahulu menyebutkan bahwa propolis mengandung flavonoid apigenin dan tt-farnesol yang mampu menghambat aktivitas enzim glukosiltransferase dan menghambat

  10. Optical measurement of acidification of human dental plaque in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jasmine Y.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2018-02-01

    A pH measurement of oral biofilms is helpful for monitoring the impact of acidogenic bacteria in the caries process. Demineralization of dental enamel is closely related to the time dependent pH of human plaque. Therefore, providing a means to easily measure the local pH of biofilms is a useful clinical diagnostic in the arsenal of caries prevention tools. Optical measurement methods of plaque metabolism can use intrinsic fluorescence or extrinsic fluorescence from added dyes. Autofluorescence spectral features of human oral biofilms at green (500 nm) and red (634 nm) fluorescence wavelengths using 405 nm excitation did not demonstrate a spectral or intensity shift between neutral and acidic conditions. Chlorin e6, an ingredient in chlorophyllin food supplement, exhibited a spectral and intensity shift of fluorescence emission in buffered solutions, but this quantitative pH-dependence was not transferable to a human plaque environment. Finally, a ratiometric quantitative pH measure was achieved by exciting (405 nm laser) a mixture of two dyes, fluorescein and rhodamine B. This two-dye mixture produced two strong fluorescent bands centered at 515 nm (fluorescein) and 580 nm (rhodamine B), where the 515 nm band was pH sensitive and the 580 nm band served as a pH insensitive reference. This dual-dye fluorescence ratio exhibited a linear response over pH 7 to 5 in human oral biofilms during a sugar challenge. We have explored methods to use non-contact, optical measures of local acidity levels in difficult to access dental locations such as occlusal fissures using various pH sensitive fluorescent dye systems.

  11. Subgingival temperature and microbiota in initial periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiden, M F; Tanner, A C; Macuch, P J; Murray, L; Kent, R L

    1998-10-01

    The association between subgingival temperature, other clinical characteristics, and the subgingival microbiota was examined in adult subjects with initial periodontitis and differing levels of gingival inflammation. 43 subjects were measured at 6 sites per tooth for pocket depth, attachment level, presence of plaque, gingival redness, bleeding on probing and subgingival temperature at 3-month intervals for 1 year. Subgingival plaque was sampled from 15 initial active periodontitis sites (10 subjects), 121 gingivitis, sites (20 subjects) and 202 healthy sites (13 subjects), and included the 5 hottest and 5 coldest sites in each subject. Plaque samples were analyzed for 13 subgingival species using whole-genomic DNA probes. The major influences on the subgingival microbiota were the clinical status of sites, pocket depth, and the presence of supragingival plaque. No significant association between species and site temperature was observed. Initial active sites were associated with Bacteroides forsythus and Campylobacter rectus, and had a higher mean subgingival temperature and deeper mean pocket depth than inactive sites. A weak association between pocket depth and site temperature was noted. The major influence on subgingival temperature of sites was the anterior to posterior anatomical temperature gradient in the mandible and maxilla.

  12. Natural history of dental plaque accumulation in mechanically ventilated adults: a descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J; Munro, Cindy L; Grap, Mary Jo

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of dental plaque accumulation in mechanically ventilated adults. Accumulation of dental plaque and bacterial colonisation of the oropharynx is associated with a number of systemic diseases including ventilator associated pneumonia. Data were collected from mechanically ventilated critically ill adults (n=137), enrolled within 24 hours of intubation. Dental plaque, counts of decayed, missing and filled teeth and systemic antibiotic use was assessed on study days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Dental plaque averages per study day, tooth type and tooth location were analysed. Medical respiratory, surgical trauma and neuroscience ICU's of a large tertiary care centre in the southeast United States. Plaque: all surfaces >60% plaque coverage from day 1 to day 7; molars and premolars contained greatest plaque average >70%. Systemic antibiotic use on day 1 had no significant effect on plaque accumulation on day 3 (p=0.73). Patients arrive in critical care units with preexisting oral hygiene issues. Dental plaque tends to accumulate in the posterior teeth (molars and premolars) that may be hard for nurses to visualise and reach; this problem may be exacerbated by endotracheal tubes and other equipment. Knowing accumulation trends of plaque will guide the development of effective oral care protocols. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Preliminary Study of In Vivo Formed Dental Plaque Using Confocal Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KA. Al-Salihi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM is relatively a new light microscopical imaging technique with a wide range of applications in biological sciences. The primary value of CLSM for the biologist is its ability to provide optical sections from athree-dimensional specimen. The present study was designed to assess the thickness and content of in vivo accumulated dental plaque using CLSM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM.Materials and Methods: Acroflat lower arch splints (acrylic appliance were worn by five participants for three days without any disturbance. The formed plaques were assessed using CLSM combined with vital fluorescence technique and SEM.Results: In this study accumulated dental plaque revealed varied plaque microflora vitality and thickness according to participant’s oral hygiene. The thickness of plaque smears ranged from 40.32 to 140.72 μm and 65.00 to 128.88 μm for live (vital and dead accumulated microorganisms, respectively. Meanwhile, the thickness of plaque on the appliance ranged from 101 μm to 653 μm. CLSM revealed both dead and vital bacteria on the surface of the dental plaque. In addition, SEM revealed layers of various bacterial aggregations in all dental plaques.Conclusion: This study offers a potent non-invasive tool to evaluate and assess the dental plaque biofilm, which is a very important factor in the development of dental caries.

  14. Efficacy of inter-dental mechanical plaque control in managing gingivitis--a meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sälzer, Sonja; Slot, Dagmar E; Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Dörfer, Christof E

    2015-04-01

    What is the effect of mechanical inter-dental plaque removal in addition to toothbrushing, on managing gingivitis using various formats of inter-dental self-care in adults based on evidence gathered from existing systematic reviews? Three Internet sources were searched by a strategy designed to include systematic reviews on inter-dental cleaning devices. Plaque and gingivitis scores were the primary parameters of interest. Characteristics of selected papers were extracted. The potential risk of bias was estimated and the acquired evidence was graded. Screening of 395 papers resulted in six systematic reviews. Two papers evaluated the efficacy of dental floss, two of inter-dental brushes (IDB), one of woodsticks and one of the oral irrigator. Weak evidence of unclear or small magnitude was retrieved that supported dental floss, woodsticks and the oral irrigator to reduce gingivitis in addition to toothbrushing. No concomitant evidence for an effect on plaque emerged. There is moderate evidence that IDBs in combination with toothbrushing reduce both plaque and gingivitis. Evidence suggests that inter-dental cleaning with IDBs is the most effective method for inter-dental plaque removal. The majority of available studies fail to demonstrate that flossing is generally effective in plaque removal. All investigated devices for inter-dental self-care seem to support the management of gingivitis, however, to a varying extend. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Antimicrobial effect of probiotics on bacterial species from dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambori, Csilla; Morvay, Attila Alexandru; Sala, Claudia; Licker, Monica; Gurban, Camelia; Tanasie, Gabriela; Tirziu, Emil

    2016-03-31

    The antimicrobial role of probiotic Lactobacillus casei subspecies casei DG (L. casei DG) and of the mix culture of probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 was tested on species of Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera from supragingival sites from dogs with dental disease of different breed, age, sex, weight, and diet. The research was conducted on these four genera because of their importance in zoonotic infections after dog bites. Species from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera were isolated and identified. To test the antimicrobial efficacy of L. casei DG and the mixed culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BB-12 on the pathogenic species, the agar overlay method was used. L. casei DG had a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pasteurella, and Neisseria genera after 24 hours of incubation. The mixed probiotic culture made up of L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 species had no bactericidal effect on the species of Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera, which were resistant. However, it had a bacteriostatic effect on several species of Pasteurella and Neisseria genera. This work highlights the antimicrobial potential of probiotics in vitro, demonstrating that the probiotic L. casei DG has a bactericidal effect on all analyzed species isolated from dental plaque and that the mix culture of probiotic L. acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 has only a bacteriostatic effect.

  16. [Observation of genetic diversity in dental plaque of elder people with root caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shan-fen; Liang, Jing-ping; Jiang, Yun-tao; Zhu, Cai-lian

    2011-08-01

    Bacterial community in dental plaque of elder people was analyzed to learn about the microhabitat composition and diversity. Dental plaque samples were collected from 25 elders. PCR-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to evaluate the microbial diversity by displaying PCR-generated 16SrDNA fragments that migrate at different distances, reflecting the different sequence of fragment. SPSS12.0 software was used to analyze the variance of genotypes between different groups of bacteria. Genotypes of bacteria in dental plaques in the root caries group was significantly more than the other two groups. Crown caries group and caries-free group had no significant difference. The genetic diversity of the dental plaque microflora in the root caries group is significantly higher than coronal caries group and caries-free group.

  17. Chair-side detection of Prevotella Intermedia in mature dental plaque by its fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yoshiaki; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Sogabe, Kaoru; Okada, Ayako; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens is one of the well-known pathogens causing periodontal diseases, and the red florescence excited by the visible blue light caused by the protoporphyrin IX in the bacterial cells could be useful for the chair-side detection. The aim of this study was to evaluated levels of periodontal pathogen, especially P. intermedia in clinical samples of red fluorescent dental plaque. Thirty two supra gingival plaque samples from six individuals were measured its fluorescence at 640nm wavelength excited by 409nm. Periodontopathic bacteria were counted by the Invader PLUS PCR assay. Co-relations the fluorescence intensity and bacterial counts were analyzed by Person's correlation coefficient and simple and multiple regression analysis. Positive and negative predictive values of the fluorescence intensities for with or without P. intermedia in supragingival plaque was calculated. When relative fluorescence unit (RFU) were logarithmic transformed, statistically significant linear relations between RFU and bacterial counts were obtained for P. intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. By the multiple regression analysis, only P. intermedia had statistically significant co-relation with fluorescence intensities. All of the fluorescent dental plaque contained P. intermedia m. In contrast, 28% of non-fluorescent plaques contained P. intermedia. To check the fluorescence dental plaque in the oral cavity could be the simple chair-side screening of the mature dental plaque before examining the periodontal pathogens especially P. intermedia by the PCR method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of pH, temperature and plaque thickness on the hydrolysis of monofluorophosphate in experimental dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, E I F; Dibdin, G H

    2003-01-01

    Monofluorophosphate (MFP), an anti-caries agent commonly used in toothpaste, is known to be degraded to fluoride and orthophosphate by bacterial phosphatases in dental plaque. We have examined the effect of pH, temperature, plaque thickness and some ions on this process. Both natural plaque and artificial microcosm plaque incubated with purified MFP at pH 4-10 showed an optimum pH of approximately 8 for hydrolysis. Diffusion and concomitant hydrolysis were examined in an apparatus in which artificial plaque was held between rigid membranes separating two chambers. When MFP diffused through a plaque of 0.51-mm thickness over 4 h it was almost completely hydrolysed at pH 8, but hydrolysis on diffusion decreased as the pH deviated from 8. MFP in toothpaste extract showed a similar pH susceptibility to hydrolysis, according to the inherent pH of the toothpaste. Hydrolysis of MFP in the toothpaste was reduced by no more than 10% when compared with a matched-pH control, suggesting that other toothpaste ingredients had no major influence on hydrolysis. Transport was slower and hydrolysis at pH 6 more complete the thicker the plaque, but hydrolysis was not significantly slower at 23 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The addition of various potential activating or inhibiting ions at 0.1 and 1.0 mmol/l had small and non-significant effects on hydrolysis. The results suggest that MFP toothpaste should be formulated and used to maximise enzymic hydrolysis of this complex anion, and that plaque pH control is probably the most important factor. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Study on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque and the occurrence of dental caries or oral hygiene index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lin, Huanjian; Bai, Yang; Qin, Xiaoshu; Zheng, Xin; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yali

    2008-08-01

    The aims of our study were to determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the dental plaque of Chinese children aged 3-6 years by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to investigate the relationship between this infection and the occurrence of dental caries or oral hygiene index. Two hundred and fourteen children from a kindergarten in Guangzhou City of China were evaluated. The children's plaques were assessed by plaque indices of Quigley-Hein. Dental plaque was analyzed using nested PCR for two sets of primers directed to the 860-bp fragment of H. pylori genomic DNA, which have been reported to be highly sensitive and specific by other researchers. H. pylori was detected in dental plaque samples from 126 children, and 70 children with dental caries carried H. pylori in dental plaque. Of these children without infection, only 36 of 88 suffered dental caries. Besides, the average dental plaque index of 126 H. pylori-positive children was higher than that of 88 children without infection. In the present study, there was a significant correlation between H. pylori infection and dental caries or dental hygiene. The oral cavity may be a reservoir for H. pylori infection in children. H. pylori in dental plaque may play a role in the occurrence of dental caries, and poor oral hygiene may represent a risk factor for H. pylori in the oral cavity.

  20. Microbiology of dental plaque biofilms and their role in oral health and caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Philip D

    2010-07-01

    Dental plaque is the biofilm found naturally on teeth. Dental plaque is also implicated in dental caries, which is associated with shifts in the microbial balance of the biofilm resulting in increased proportions of acid producing and acid tolerating bacteria, especially (but not exclusively) mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The regular intake of fermentable dietary sugars, or impaired saliva flow, produces persistent conditions of low pH within the biofilm, which selects for these cariogenic bacteria. Clinicians should prevent this disruption to the natural microbial balance of the biofilm (relevant approaches are described) rather than merely treating its consequences by restoring cavities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of gingivitis with dental calculus thickness or dental calculus coverage and subgingival bacteria in feline leukemia virus- and feline immunodeficiency virus-negative cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Steiner, Jörg M; Suchodolski, Jan S; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease in cats. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationships between gingivitis and dental calculus thickness (DCT), or dental calculus coverage (DCC); determine the association of gingivitis scores and types of oral bacteria; and to evaluate bacterial co-infection in cats with periodontal disease. Twelve cats that were not infected with feline leukemia or feline immunodeficiency viruses were enrolled in the study. Gingivitis, DCT, and DCC were scored and recorded. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare scores among canine, 2nd premolar, 3rd premolar, 4th premolar, and 1st molar teeth. The relationship between gingivitis and DCT or DCC scores was determined using the Spearman rank sum test (ρ). Subgingival bacteria were cultured and the association between bacterial species and gingivitis score was evaluated using a Fisher's exact test. The average gingivitis, DCT, and DCC scores for the caudal maxillary teeth were higher for the caudal mandibular teeth and more severe for the 3rd premolar, 4th premolar, and 1st molar teeth than for the canine teeth. A strong relationship between average DCT or DCC score and average gingivitis score was found (ρ = 0.96 and 1, respectively). Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infections were identified in a large number of cats with periodontal disease (71.1% and 28.9%, respectively). In conclusion, severe gingivitis scores were associated with anaerobic bacterial infection. The caudal teeth are affected with more severe gingivitis, DCT, and DCC than the other teeth. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be prescribed in cats with periodontal disease.

  2. Association of gingivitis with dental calculus thickness or dental calculus coverage and subgingival bacteria in feline leukemia virus- and feline immunodeficiency virus-negative cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Steiner, Jörg M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease in cats. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationships between gingivitis and dental calculus thickness (DCT), or dental calculus coverage (DCC); determine the association of gingivitis scores and types of oral bacteria; and to evaluate bacterial co-infection in cats with periodontal disease. Twelve cats that were not infected with feline leukemia or feline immunodeficiency viruses were enrolled in the study. Gingivitis, DCT, and DCC were scored and recorded. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare scores among canine, 2nd premolar, 3rd premolar, 4th premolar, and 1st molar teeth. The relationship between gingivitis and DCT or DCC scores was determined using the Spearman rank sum test (ρ). Subgingival bacteria were cultured and the association between bacterial species and gingivitis score was evaluated using a Fisher’s exact test. The average gingivitis, DCT, and DCC scores for the caudal maxillary teeth were higher for the caudal mandibular teeth and more severe for the 3rd premolar, 4th premolar, and 1st molar teeth than for the canine teeth. A strong relationship between average DCT or DCC score and average gingivitis score was found (ρ = 0.96 and 1, respectively). Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infections were identified in a large number of cats with periodontal disease (71.1% and 28.9%, respectively). In conclusion, severe gingivitis scores were associated with anaerobic bacterial infection. The caudal teeth are affected with more severe gingivitis, DCT, and DCC than the other teeth. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be prescribed in cats with periodontal disease. PMID:28154463

  3. Smoking cessation alters subgingival microbial recolonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, S C; Preshaw, P M; Heasman, P A; Kumar, P S

    2009-06-01

    Smoking cessation improves the clinical manifestations of periodontitis; however, its effect on the subgingival biofilm, the primary etiological agent of periodontitis, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate, longitudinally, if smoking cessation altered the composition of the subgingival microbial community, by means of a quantitative, cultivation-independent assay for bacterial profiling. Subgingival plaque was collected at baseline, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment from smokers who received root planing and smoking cessation counseling. The plaque was analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP). Microbial profiles differed significantly between smokers and quitters at 6 and 12 months following smoking cessation. The microbial community in smokers was similar to baseline, while quitters demonstrated significantly divergent profiles. Changes in bacterial levels contributed to this shift. These findings reveal a critical role for smoking cessation in altering the subgingival biofilm and suggest a mechanism for improved periodontal health associated with smoking cessation.

  4. Assessing caries, dental plaque and salivary flow in asthmatic adolescents using inhaled corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, N C; Jamelli, S; Costa, L; Baracho Filho, C; Medeiros, D; Rizzo, J A; Sarinho, E

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have reported that inhaled corticosteroids may cause a greater incidence of caries, reduced salivary flow, changes in saliva composition and an increased frequency of dental plaque, probably through alterations in the oral microbiota. The objective was to compare the frequency of caries, dental plaque and non-stimulated salivary flow rate among asthmatic adolescents using inhaled corticosteroids and non-asthmatic adolescents, as well as the salivary biochemical parameters (pH and leucocytes) in both groups. This research has a descriptive cross-sectional design to compare dental health of 40 asthmatics on inhaled corticosteroids and 40 non-asthmatic adolescents (median age 13 years). The findings were a higher number of tooth surfaces affected by dental caries (median 4 versus 1.5), and more dental plaques (median 70.5 versus 60.7) among asthmatic adolescents. They also had a significantly higher frequency of salivary leucocytes. The non-stimulated salivary flow was similar in both groups. The results suggest an association between the use of inhaled corticosteroids and an increased risk of dental caries and bacterial plaque, which calls for special attention of these patients by doctors and dental health professionals. Copyright © 2010 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Release of mineral ions in dental plaque following acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, M; Margolis, H C

    1999-03-01

    The release of appreciable amounts of calcium, phosphate and fluoride found in whole plaque into the plaque-fluid phase, following bacterial acid production, can potentially reduce the driving force for tooth demineralization. However, limited information is available on this topic, particularly on the release of fluoride. This study sought to determine the change in calcium, phosphate and fluoride concentrations in plaque fluid after sucrose exposure. 48 h overnight-fasted supragingival plaque samples were collected from all tooth surfaces (with the exception of the lower lingual anterior teeth) of one half of an individual mouth, following a 1 min water rinse. Plaque samples were then collected from the other half of the same mouth, following a 292 mM sucrose rinse. Plaque fluid was isolated by centrifugation and analysed for total calcium and phosphate (ion chromatography) and for free fluoride (ion-specific electrode). Samples were collected from seven individuals. Following sucrose exposure, plaque-fluid pH decreased significantly from 6.5+/- 0.3 to 5.4+/-0.2; calcium concentrations (mmol/l) also increased significantly (p Fluoride and phosphate concentrations in plaque fluid, however, did not increase significantly after sucrose exposure: mean concentrations (mmol/l) of fluoride after the water and sucrose rinses were 0.006+/-0.003 and 0.005+/-0.002, respectively, and mean phosphate concentrations (mmol/l) were 11.0+/-2.0 and 12.0+/-3.0, respectively. When results were expressed per wet plaque weight, phosphate concentrations were also found to increase significantly. The same trends were observed when additional plaque samples were treated in vitro with sucrose: fluoride-ion activity did not increase in plaque under in vivo-like conditions.

  6. Effects of tongue cleaning on bacterial flora in tongue coating and dental plaque: a crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Miki; Chosa, Naoyuki; Shimoyama, Yu; Minami, Kentaro; Kimura, Shigenobu; Kishi, Mitsuo

    2014-01-14

    The effects of tongue cleaning on reconstruction of bacterial flora in dental plaque and tongue coating itself are obscure. We assessed changes in the amounts of total bacteria as well as Fusobacterium nucleatum in tongue coating and dental plaque specimens obtained with and without tongue cleaning. We conducted a randomized examiner-blind crossover study using 30 volunteers (average 23.7 ± 3.2 years old) without periodontitis. After dividing randomly into 2 groups, 1 group was instructed to clean the tongue, while the other did not. On days 1 (baseline), 3, and 10, tongue coating and dental plaque samples were collected after recording tongue coating score (Winkel tongue coating index: WTCI). After a washout period of 3 weeks, the same examinations were performed with the subjects allocated to the alternate group. Genomic DNA was purified from the samples and applied to SYBR® Green-based real-time PCR to quantify the amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum. After 3 days, the WTCI score recovered to baseline, though the amount of total bacteria in tongue coating was significantly lower as compared to the baseline. In plaque samples, the bacterial amounts on day 3 and 10 were significantly lower than the baseline with and without tongue cleaning. Principal component analysis showed that variations of bacterial amounts in the tongue coating and dental plaque samples were independent from each other. Furthermore, we found a strong association between amounts of total bacteria and F. nucleatum in specimens both. Tongue cleaning reduced the amount of bacteria in tongue coating. However, the cleaning had no obvious contribution to inhibit dental plaque formation. Furthermore, recovery of the total bacterial amount induced an increase in F. nucleatum in both tongue coating and dental plaque. Thus, it is recommended that tongue cleaning and tooth brushing should both be performed for promoting oral health.

  7. Evidence of helicobacter pylori infection in dental plaque and gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, M.; Haseeb-ur-Rehman; Mahmood, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine the presence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in dental plaque of individuals suffering from H. pylori associated gastric disease. Patients and Methods: Patients presenting with symptoms/signs of chronic gastritis were included in the study. Specimens of dental plaque and gastric biopsy were collected from all the patients. The dental plaque specimen was processed for helicourease test and the gastric biopsy specimens were processed both for the helicourease test and histopathology. Results: Out of all patients studied (n=52), 32 (61.53%) were positive for helicourease test with gastric biopsy while 48 (92.30%) were positive with dental plaque. The histopathology of gastric biopsy showed H. pylori associated chronic active gastritis in 42 (80.76%) patients. Eight (15.38%) patients showed chronic active gastritis which was not associated with H. pylori while in 2 (3.84%) patients the gastric biopsy specimen was unremarkable. Conclusion: Majority of the patients have possible H. pylori colonization in dental plaque while about two-thirds have H. pylori associated chronic active gastritis. Oral cavity may be the first place for colonization and then the infection involves the gastric mucosa. (author)

  8. Dental plaque removal with a novel battery-powered toothbrush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesbrock, Aaron R; Walters, Patricia; Bartizek, Robert D; Ruhlman, Douglas; Donly, Kevin J

    2002-04-01

    To compare the plaque removal efficacy of a positive control power toothbrush (Oral-B Ultra Plaque Remover) to an experimental power toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) following a single use. This study was a randomized, controlled, examiner-blind, 2-period crossover design which examined plaque removal with the two toothbrushes following a single use in 38 completed subjects. Plaque was scored before and after brushing using the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Index. Baseline plaque scores were 1.89 and 1.91 for the experimental toothbrush and control toothbrush treatment groups, respectively. With respect to all surfaces examined, the experimental toothbrush delivered an adjusted (via analysis of covariance) mean difference between baseline and post-brushing plaque scores of 0.46 while the control toothbrush delivered an adjusted mean difference of 0.45. These results were not statistically significant (P=0.645). A 95% one-sided upper confidence limit on the Ultra Plaque Remover minus SpinBrush difference in amount of plaque removed was calculated as 9.4% of the Ultra Plaque Remover adjusted mean. A common criterion for what is known as an "at least as good as" test is that the 95% one-sided confidence limit on the product difference is below 10% of the control product mean. Using this criterion, the SpinBrush is at least as good as the Oral-B Ultra Plaque Remover. With respect to buccal and lingual surfaces, the experimental toothbrush delivered very similar results relative to the control toothbrush. These results were also not statistically significant (P> 0.564).

  9. Efeito do controle da placa supragengival sobre a microflora subgengival e tecidos periodontais Effect of supragingival plaque control on subgingival microflora and periodontal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Nogueira MOREIRA

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar, clínica e microbiologicamente, 44 sítios em 11 pacientes com periodontite crônica generalizada. IP, IG, SS, PS e NI foram registrados. Amostras de placa subgengival foram colhidas nos mesmos sítios para cultivo de bactérias anaeróbias e determinação dos morfotipos microbianos por MCE. Os registros clínicos e estudos microbiológicos foram tomados no "baseline" e 4 semanas após a incorporação em um programa de controle de placa e cálculo supragengival. A análise microbiológica categorizou o grau de desenvolvimento em: 0 - não detectado, 1 - escasso, 2 - moderado e 3 - abundante. Os registros clínicos no "baseline" e dia 28 foram: IP - 1,73 ± 0,10 e 0,30 ± 0,08, IG - 1,73 ± 0,08 e 1,41 ± 0,08, SS - 0,91 ± 0,04 e 0,59 ± 0,07, PS - 6,43 ± 0,20 e 5,77 ± 0,25, NI - 6,86 ± 0,32 e 6,52 ± 0,34, respectivamente. A redução do IP, IG, SS e PS foi significativa. Não foram registradas diferenças significativas no NI. As proporções relativas dos morfotipos bacterianos observados por MCE no "baseline" e dia 28 foram: células cocóideas - 21,16 ± 3,77 e 36,00 ± 4,66, bacilos móveis - 44,86 ± 2,65 e 39,50 ± 2,64, treponemas totais - 24,66 ± 3,08 e 19,25 ± 2,75. No "baseline" e no dia 28 foi observado: Pi/n - 1,36 ± 0,18 e 0,43 ± 0,11, Pg - 0,48 ± 0,16 e 0,32 ± 0,13, Aa - 0,23 ± 0,09 e 0,23 ± 0,10, Fusobacterium nucleatum - 0,32 ± 0,14 e 0,41 ± 0,13 e peptostreptococos - 0,82 ± 0,19 e 0,54 ± 0,16, respectivamente. Houve um aumento significativo das células cocóideas, diminuição de treponemas e de Pi/n.The aim of this study was to investigate, clinically and microbiologically, forty-four sites in 11 patients presenting with generalized chronic periodontitis. Plaque Index (PI, Gingival Index (GI, Probing Bleeding (PB, Probing Depth (PD and Insertion Level (IL were registered. Samples of subgingival plaque were collected in the same sites for cultivation of anaerobic

  10. Antibacterial effect of taurolidine (2%) on established dental plaque biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arweiler, Nicole Birgit; Auschill, Thorsten Mathias; Sculean, Anton

    2012-04-01

    Preliminary data have suggested that taurolidine may bear promising disinfectant properties for the therapy of bacterial infections. However, at present, the potential antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm is unknown. To evaluate the antibacterial effect of taurolidine on the supragingival plaque biofilm using the vital fluorescence technique and to compare it with the effect of NaCl and chlorhexidine (CHX), 18 subjects had to refrain from all mechanical and chemical hygiene measures for 24 h. A voluminous supragingival plaque sample was taken from the buccal surfaces of the lower molars and wiped on an objective slide. The sample was then divided into three equal parts and mounted with one of the three test or control preparations (a) NaCl, (b) taurolidine 2% and (c) CHX 0.2%. After a reaction time of 2 min, the test solutions were sucked of. Subsequently, the plaque biofilm was stained with fluorescence dye and vitality of the plaque flora was evaluated under the fluorescence microscope (VF%). Plaque samples treated with NaCl showed a mean VF of 82.42 ± 6.04%. Taurolidine affected mean VF with 47.57 ± 16.60% significantly (p plaque biofilm which was, however, not as pronounced as that of CHX.

  11. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinses alleviate experimental gingivitis by inhibiting dental plaque maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Fei; He, Tao; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cun-Pei; Li, Zhen; Chang, Jin-Lan; Liu, Ji-Quan; Charbonneau, Duane; Xu, Jian; Li, Rui; Ling, Jun-Qi

    2016-09-29

    Oral rinses containing chemotherapeutic agents, such as cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), can alleviate plaque-induced gingival infections, but how oral microbiota respond to these treatments in human population remains poorly understood. Via a double-blinded, randomised controlled trial of 91 subjects, the impact of CPC-containing oral rinses on supragingival plaque was investigated in experimental gingivitis, where the subjects, after a 21-day period of dental prophylaxis to achieve healthy gingivae, received either CPC rinses or water for 21 days. Within-subject temporal dynamics of plaque microbiota and symptoms of gingivitis were profiled via 16S ribosomal DNA gene pyrosequencing and assessment with the Mazza gingival index. Cetylpyridinium chloride conferred gingival benefits, as progression of gingival inflammation resulting from a lack of dental hygiene was significantly slower in the mouth rinse group than in the water group due to inhibition of 17 gingivitis-enriched bacterial genera. Tracking of plaque α and β diversity revealed that CPC treatment prevents acquisition of new taxa that would otherwise accumulate but maintains the original biodiversity of healthy plaques. Furthermore, CPC rinses reduced the size, local connectivity and microbiota-wide connectivity of the bacterial correlation network, particularly for nodes representing gingivitis-enriched taxa. The findings of this study provide mechanistic insights into the impact of oral rinses on the progression and maturation of dental plaque in the natural human population.

  12. [Innovative application of small molecules to influence -pathogenicity of dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, M M; Volgenant, C M C; Krom, B P

    2018-05-01

    Current preventive measures against infectious oral diseases are mainly focussed on plaque removal and promoting a healthy lifestyle. This in vitro study investigated a third preventive method: maintaining healthy dental plaque with the use of small molecules. As a model of dental plaque, in vitro biofilms were cultivated under conditions that induce pathogenic characteristics. The effect of erythritol and other small molecules on the pathogenic characteristics and bacterial composition of the biofilm was evaluated. The artificial sweetener erythritol and the molecule 3-Oxo-N-(2-oxycyclohexyl)dodecanamide (3-Oxo-N) had no clinically relevant effect on total biofilm formation. Erythritol did, however, lower the gingivitis related protease activity of the biofilm, while 3-Oxo-N blocked the caries related lactic acid accumulation. Furthermore, both substances ensured the biofilm maintained a young, non-pathogenic microbial composition. This shows it is possible to influence the dental plaque in a positive manner in vitro with the help of small molecules. Further research is necessary before this manipulation of dental plaque can be applied.

  13. Red fluorescence imaging for dental plaque detection and quantification: pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao; Gomez, Juliana; Khan, Soniya; Peru, Debbie; Ellwood, Roger

    2017-09-01

    The red fluorescence of dental plaque originating from porphyrins in oral bacteria may allow visualization, detection, and scoring of plaque without disclosing agents. Two studies were conducted. The first included 24 healthy participants who abstained from oral hygiene for 24 h. Dental plaque was collected from tooth surfaces, and a 10% solution was prepared. These were scanned by a molecular spectrometer to identify the optimum excitation and emission wavelengths of plaque for developing a red fluorescence imaging system. Fourteen healthy subjects completed the second study. After a washout period (1 week), participants had a prophylaxis at baseline and abstained from oral hygiene during the study. They were monitored using the fluorescence imaging system at baseline, 24 h, and 48 h. A dentist clinically assessed plaque after disclosing and on red fluorescence images. Three descriptors were extracted from images and a RUSBoost classifier derived computer fluorescence scores through cross-validation. Red fluorescence plaque levels increased during the 48-h accumulation. Plaque progression was identified by dentist assessment and computer analysis, presenting significant differences between visits at tooth and subject levels (phygiene assessment.

  14. Dental Caries, and Supragingival Plaque and Calculus among Students, Tanga, Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, L C; Kabulwa, M N

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries and supragingival plaque and calculus in 785 secondary schools students was assessed. More than half (53.6%) of the students were caries-free, and the majority of those with dental caries experience were aged 14–17 (68.1%) and females (53%). Mean DMFT was 1.26, with mean D-component of 1.05, and molars were most affected. Most students had supragingival plaque (74%) and calculus (56.9%) and more so in males than females (P > 0.05). Less than half of the student...

  15. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended.

  16. Effect of Fluoride Mouthrinse and Toothpaste on Number of Streptococcal Colony Forming Units of Dental Plaque

    OpenAIRE

    SE Jabbarifar; SA Tabibian; F Poursina

    2005-01-01

    Background: Frequent topical fluoride therapy through toothpaste, mouthrinse, professional gels and solutions causes decrease in incidence, pause and repair of dental caries in the enamel. These mechanisms are done through penetration of fluoride ions (F-) and their replacement with hydroxyl ions (OH-) of hydroxyappatite of enamel, interfere with microbial metabolism of dental plaque and bacteriostatic effect on some cariogenic bacterial strains such as streptococci. The aim of this study was...

  17. Effect of the presence of dental plaque on oral sugar clearance and salivary pH: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Debapriya; Jain, Deepak; Gulati, Amit; Kolhe, Swapnil J; Baad, Rajendra; Rao, B Sunil

    2012-11-01

    Fermentable carbohydrates and microorganisms in the plaque play a significant role in the pathogenesis of dental caries. Oral clearance of sugars and salivary pH is affected by the presence of plaque. This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and on salivary pH. The study design was of a randomized controlled parallel group clinical trial and included two groups: The control group and plaque group, as follows: Control group--subjects without plaque and plaque group--subjects with plaque. Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A digital pH meter estimated the salivary pH. The Student's t test and Mann-Whitney test was employed to compare the intergroup differences. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for analysis. The salivary sucrose clearance time was increased by presence of plaque. The presence of plaque led to increased salivary sucrose concentrations and increased the salivary sucrose clearance time. The dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  18. Effect of Fluoride Mouthrinse and Toothpaste on Number of Streptococcal Colony Forming Units of Dental Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SE Jabbarifar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Frequent topical fluoride therapy through toothpaste, mouthrinse, professional gels and solutions causes decrease in incidence, pause and repair of dental caries in the enamel. These mechanisms are done through penetration of fluoride ions (F- and their replacement with hydroxyl ions (OH- of hydroxyappatite of enamel, interfere with microbial metabolism of dental plaque and bacteriostatic effect on some cariogenic bacterial strains such as streptococci. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fluoride mouthrinse and toothpaste on the number of streptococcal colony forming units of dental plaque. Methods: 62 children with 6-7 years old were put in two groups. Samples of dental plaque from each group were collected both before and after use of the fluoride mouthrinse and or toothpaste. The samples were cultured on blood agar to find the number of streptococcal colony forming units (CFU. The mean colony forming unit was compared inter and intra groups before and after application of Fluoride products. Results: The streptococcal CFU of dental plaque before and after use of the mouthrinse and toothpaste respectively was (1240±1367, 1253±1341.5 and (551±716, 898±1151. Statistically, the streptococcal CFU in each group before and after use of the toothpaste and mouthrinse was significantly different. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicated that the fluoride toothpaste and mouthrinse reduce number of streptococcal colony forming units of dental plaque. Also this reduction was not depended on level of (F- Ions, sort of vehicle of fluoride and frequent application of the fluoride mouthrinse and toothpaste. Keywords: fluoride mouthrinse, fluoride toothpaste, colony forming unit (CFU, streptococcus

  19. Bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathilah, A R; Rahim, Z H A; Othman, Y; Yusoff, M

    2009-03-15

    In this study, the bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on selected early dental plaque bacteria was investigated based on changes in the doubling time (g) and specific growth rates (micro). Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mitis and Actinomyces sp. were cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) in the presence and absence of the extracts. The growth of bacteria was monitored periodically every 15 min over a period of 9 h to allow for a complete growth cycle. Growth profiles of the bacteria in the presence of the extracts were compared to those in the absence and deviation in the g and micro were determined and analyzed. It was found that the g and mu were affected by both extracts. At 4 mg mL(-1) of P. betle the g-values for S. sanguinis and S. mitis were increased by 12.0- and 10.4-fold, respectively (p betle and P. guajava extracts have bacteriostatic effect on the plaque bacteria by creating a stressed environment that had suppressed the growth and propagation of the cells. Within the context of the dental plaque, this would ensure the attainment of thin and healthy plaque. Thus, decoctions of these plants would be suitable if used in the control of dental plaque.

  20. Community analysis of dental plaque and endotracheal tube biofilms from mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Poala J; Wise, Matt P; Smith, Ann; Marchesi, Julian R; Riggio, Marcello P; Lewis, Michael A O; Williams, David W

    2017-06-01

    Mechanically ventilated patients are at risk for developing ventilator-associated pneumonia, and it has been reported that dental plaque provides a reservoir of respiratory pathogens that may aspirate to the lungs and endotracheal tube (ETT) biofilms. For the first time, metataxonomics was used to simultaneously characterize the microbiome of dental plaque, ETTs, and non-directed bronchial lavages (NBLs) in mechanically ventilated patients to determine similarities in respective microbial communities and therefore likely associations. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from 34 samples of dental plaque, NBLs, and ETTs from 12 adult mechanically ventilated patients were analyzed. No significant differences in the microbial communities of these samples were evident. Detected bacteria were primarily oral species (e.g., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus salivarius, Prevotella melaninogenica) with respiratory pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcuspneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae) also in high abundance. The high similarity between the microbiomes of dental plaque, NBLs, and ETTs suggests that the oral cavity is indeed an important site involved in microbial aspiration to the lower airway and ETT. As such, maintenance of good oral hygiene is likely to be highly important in limiting aspiration of bacteria in this vulnerable patient group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does the Structure of Dental Hygiene Instruction Impact Plaque Control in Primary School Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaizzi, Lynda R; Tomar, Scott L; Urdegar, Steven M; Kass, Susan H

    2015-06-01

    A 6-month pilot study was conducted to test the assumption that an interactive, contextualized tooth brushing education program would impact the oral hygiene of low income students. The intervention consisted of an educational program focused on tooth brushing that included interactive sessions with dental professionals and teachers. School 1 students received instruction, toothbrushes, and encouragement to brush their teeth daily after lunch. School 2 students received instruction only. School 3 students only received toothbrushes to remove plaque. Children in all 3 schools were examined by trained dental hygiene students who used plaque disclosing liquid to score the amount of plaque. A predictive correlational design was used to determine the extent that different intervention types and/or demographic/hygiene practices predicted differences in post intervention plaque level, once baseline plaque level was taken into account. A total of 254 first and second grade students in 3 public elementary schools in Miami participated in the study. Overall, mean plaque scores were significantly lower at the 6 month follow-up. Between-group comparisons of the mean follow-up scores, adjusted for the effect of the baseline scores, revealed greater but non-significant plaque reduction at School 1 compared to the other schools, and the presence of significant age and ethnic effects. The most intensive intervention instruction accompanied by repeated practice may lead to improved oral hygiene when compared to instruction alone, when oral hygiene practices and demographic characteristics are taken into account. Design changes intended to increase statistical power may help to explicate these effects. Copyright © 2015 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  2. Effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate and xylitol on the clinical levels of dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha A Nayak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the effect of Manuka honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% mouthwash and xylitol chewing gum on the dental plaque levels. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy male dental students aged between 21 and 25 years (mean age 23.4 years participated in the study. All the subjects received a professional prophylaxis at the start of the study, with the purpose of making the dentition 100% free of plaque and calculus. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the Manuka honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the xylitol chewing gum group. Rinsing with water or any other fluid after the procedure was not allowed as also any form of mechanical oral hygiene for all the subjects during the experimental period of 72 h. After the experimental period, the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Results: The mean plaque scores for Groups I, II and III were 1.37, 1.35 and 1.57, respectively. The ANOVA revealed that between-group comparison was significant, with an F-value of 5.99 and a probability value of 0.004. The T-test was carried out to evaluate the inter-group significance, which revealed that the plaque inhibition by Manuka honey was similar to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Both Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly, better than the xylitol chewing gum. Conclusion: Manuka honey and chlorhexidine mouthwash reduced plaque formation significantly better than xylitol chewing gum.

  3. Congenital heart disease and its journey from dental plaque to arterial plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinathi Reddy Kankara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart disease is mostly found in children, approximately around 7–10% from overall heart diseases. The etiology is multifactorial but reported associations include untreated maternal diabetes, phenylketonuria, intake of retinoic acid last but not least is oral pathogens present in periodontopathic bacteria. The main objective of this article is to explain about different mechanisms by which it is associated with dental, periodontal manifestations. It also explains about two patients who reported to our hospital with congenital heart disease and their dental and periodontal management.

  4. Influence of periodontal treatment on subgingival and salivary microbiotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Grande, Maria Anastasia; Sembler-Møller, Maria Lynn

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare subgingival and salivary microbiotas before and after periodontal treatment to learn if any changes of the subgingival microbiota were reflected in saliva. We tested the hypothesis that salivary levels of specific periopathogens...... correlate with corresponding subgingival levels before and after periodontal treatment. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with generalized chronic periodontitis completed the study. Stimulated saliva samples and subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline and 2, 6 and 12 weeks after non......-surgical periodontal therapy. Subgingival and salivary microbiotas were processed by means of the Human Oral Microbe Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) technique, and characterized based on relative abundance. Spearman signed rank test was used to test correlation of periopathogens in subgingival and saliva samples...

  5. Photodynamic effects of methylene blue-loaded polymeric nanoparticles on dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Patel, Niraj; Song, Xiaoqing; Holewa, Colleen; Patel, Chitrang; Kent, Ralph; Amiji, Mansoor M; Soukos, Nikolaos S

    2011-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly being explored for treatment of oral infections. Here, we investigate the effect of PDT on human dental plaque bacteria in vitro using methylene blue (MB)-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles with a positive or negative charge and red light at 665 nm. Dental plaque samples were obtained from 14 patients with chronic periodontitis. Suspensions of plaque microorganisms from seven patients were sensitized with anionic, cationic PLGA nanoparticles (50 µg/ml equivalent to MB) or free MB (50 µg/ml) for 20 min followed by exposure to red light for 5 min with a power density of 100 mW/cm2 . Polymicrobial oral biofilms, which were developed on blood agar in 96-well plates from dental plaque inocula obtained from seven patients, were also exposed to PDT as above. Following the treatment, survival fractions were calculated by counting the number of colony-forming units. The cationic MB-loaded nanoparticles exhibited greater bacterial phototoxicity in both planktonic and biofilm phase compared to anionic MB-loaded nanoparticles and free MB, but results were not significantly different (P > 0.05). Cationic MB-loaded PLGA nanoparticles have the potential to be used as carriers of MB for PDT systems. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of dental plaque control in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousehal, Lahcen; Lazrak, Laila; Es-Said, Rabia; Hamdoune, Hind; Elquars, Farid; Khadija, Amine

    2011-03-01

    Multibracket orthodontic appliances increase dental plaque retention and make teethbrushing more difficult for patients. As a result, advice from the orthodontist on oral hygiene along with patient motivation regarding teethbrushing are particularly important. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of electric toothbrushes with that of manual brushing associated with mouth-rinses comprising chlorhexidine (0.12%) and 0% alcohol. To this end, 84 patients receiving current orthodontic treatment were randomly selected from patients treated at the Dento-Facial Orthopedics department in the Casablanca Dental Consultation and Treatment Center. Selected patients were divided into three groups: Group 1: manual teethbrushing; Group 2: electric teethbrushing; Group 3: manual brushing combined with mouth rinse. Oral hygiene was assessed using the Loe-Silness plaque and gingival indices. Measurements were made before and 4 weeks after the observation period. Results were subjected to statistical comparison in order to determine the group showing greatest improvement and to deduce the best means of controlling bacterial plaque. The electric toothbrush and the chlorhexidine mouth rinse appear to control dental plaque more effectively than manual teethbrushing alone. Following this study, patients receiving multibracket treatment were invited to combine manual brushing with short clinical mouth-rinsing sessions or to use an electric toothbrush. Copyright © 2011 CEO. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Immunoradiometric assay for quantification of serum antibodies to dental plaque antigen in immunized dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstedt, S.; Rylander, H.

    1975-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was used for quantifying dog serum antibodies to antigens from dental plaque collected from full-grown dogs. The antigens were adsorbed onto the inner surface of plastic tubes and then incubated with dog-anti-plaque serum, 125 I-labelled anti-dog plasma-immunoglobulin was used for quantification of the specific antibodies. Four 10 months old Beagle dogs in excellent gingival health were immunized for 10 weeks with ultrasonicated dog dental plaque. The antibody levels in antisera sampled 6, 8, 10 and 11 weeks after the first antigen injection were 2 to 5 times as high as those recorded before the immunizing period. The variability of the assay as judged from the difference between duplicate samples was found to be 18 percent+-4 (p<0.01) of the mean value and the variability between the same serum ran on different test occasions 13 percent+-7 (p<0.01). The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction in the immuno assay was tested by inhibition experiments. Preincubation of the antisera with dental plaque antigen significantly inhibited the antigen-antibody reaction in the IRMA, while bovine serum albumin did not. (author)

  8. Immunoradiometric assay for quantification of serum antibodies to dental plaque antigen in immunized dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, S; Rylander, H [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1975-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was used for quantifying dog serum antibodies to antigens from dental plaque collected from full-grown dogs. The antigens were adsorbed onto the inner surface of plastic tubes and then incubated with dog-anti-plaque serum, /sup 125/I-labelled anti-dog plasma-immunoglobulin was used for quantification of the specific antibodies. Four 10 months old Beagle dogs in excellent gingival health were immunized for 10 weeks with ultrasonicated dog dental plaque. The antibody levels in antisera sampled 6, 8, 10 and 11 weeks after the first antigen injection were 2 to 5 times as high as those recorded before the immunizing period. The variability of the assay as judged from the difference between duplicate samples was found to be 18 percent+-4 (p<0.01) of the mean value and the variability between the same serum ran on different test occasions 13 percent+-7 (p<0.01). The specificity of the antigen-antibody reaction in the immuno assay was tested by inhibition experiments. Preincubation of the antisera with dental plaque antigen significantly inhibited the antigen-antibody reaction in the IRMA, while bovine serum albumin did not.

  9. Composition of dental plaque formed in the presence of sucrose and after its interruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cury Jaime Aparecido

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Since dental plaque reservoirs of fluoride (F, calcium (Ca and inorganic phosphorus (Pi are susceptible to decreases in pH, this in situ crossover study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the low concentration of these ions in plaque, formed in the presence of sucrose, could be attributed merely to the fermentation of this sugar. Eleven volunteers wore palatal appliances containing 6 human enamel blocks during two stages. In each stage, the treatments were either 20% sucrose solution or distilled deionized water, which were dripped onto the blocks 8 times a day. After 28 days, in each stage, the dental plaque formed on two blocks was collected, the treatment was inverted and after a further 24 and 48 h, the biofilm formed was collected from the other blocks. The concentration of acid-soluble F, Ca and Pi, and the concentration of insoluble polysaccharide (IP were determined in the dental plaque. Statistically lower concentrations of F, Ca and Pi, and a higher concentration of IP were found in the 28-day biofilm formed in the presence of sucrose than in its absence; after the treatment inversion the change in F, Ca and Pi was not statistically significant, but the IP concentration changed significantly. The hypothesis was rejected because change in concentration of F, Ca and Pi is not due to fermentation of the sucrose.

  10. Changes in dental plaque following hospitalisation in a critical care unit: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Mishal; Ready, Derren; Brealey, David; Ryu, Jung; Bercades, Georgia; Nagle, Janette; Borja-Boluda, Susana; Agudo, Elisa; Petrie, Aviva; Suvan, Jean; Donos, Nikos; Singer, Mervyn; Needleman, Ian

    2013-09-04

    Previous research has suggested that deterioration in oral health can occur following hospitalisation. The impact of such deterioration could increase the risk of oral disease, reduce quality of life and increase the potential for healthcare-associated infections (HCAI) such as healthcare-associated pneumonia (HAP). However, the strength of the evidence is limited by, amongst other factors, the few observational studies published that assess oral health longitudinally. In view of the microbiological component of oral diseases and HCAIs, the objective of this study was to investigate the microbiological changes in dental plaque following hospitalisation in a Critical Care Unit (CCU): (1) total number of cultivable bacteria and (2) presence and changes in specific HAP pathogens. We conducted a prospective, longitudinal observational study in the CCU of University College Hospital, London. Study participants were recruited within 24 hours of admission. Dental plaque samples were collected from up to six sites per patient. The primary outcome was microbiological change from baseline to seven days with additional analysis for participants still present at day 14. 50 patients were recruited with 36 available for review at one week, with early discharge accounting for much of the loss to follow-up. The median total viable count of the plaque microbiota at baseline was 4.40 × 105 cfu/ml and increased at week one to 3.44 × 106 cfu/ml. The total viable microbe counts increased by a median of 2.26 × 106 cfu/ml from baseline to week one (95% CI: 3.19 × 106, 1.24 × 107) and this was statistically significant (P bacterial count of dental plaque increases during hospitalisation in CCU. This finding, together with the colonisation of dental plaque by HAP bacteria strengthens the evidence for a deterioration in oral health in CCU and a risk factor for negative health and quality of life outcomes.

  11. Simultaneous amplification of two bacterial genes: more reliable method of Helicobacter pylori detection in microbial rich dental plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Saima; Idrees, Muhammad; Izhar, Mateen; Butt, Arshad Kamal; Khan, Ayyaz Ali

    2011-01-01

    Polymerase Chain reaction (PCR) assay is considered superior to other methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in oral cavity; however, it also has limitations when sample under study is microbial rich dental plaque. The type of gene targeted and number of primers used for bacterial detection in dental plaque samples can have a significant effect on the results obtained as there are a number of closely related bacterial species residing in plaque biofilm. Also due to high recombination rate of H. pylori some of the genes might be down regulated or absent. The present study was conducted to determine the frequency of H. pylori colonization of dental plaque by simultaneously amplifying two genes of the bacterium. One hundred dental plaque specimens were collected from dyspeptic patients before their upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and presence of H. pylori was determined through PCR assay using primers targeting two different genes of the bacterium. Eighty-nine of the 100 samples were included in final analysis. With simultaneous amplification of two bacterial genes 51.6% of the dental plaque samples were positive for H. pylori while this prevalence increased to 73% when only one gene amplification was used for bacterial identification. Detection of H. pylori in dental plaque samples is more reliable when two genes of the bacterium are simultaneously amplified as compared to one gene amplification only.

  12. Red fluorescence of dental plaque in children -A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgenant, Catherine M C; Zaura, Egija; Brandt, Bernd W; Buijs, Mark J; Tellez, Marisol; Malik, Gayatri; Ismail, Amid I; Ten Cate, Jacob M; van der Veen, Monique H

    2017-03-01

    The relation between the presence of red fluorescent plaque and the caries status in children was studied. In addition, the microbial composition of dental plaque from sites with red fluorescent plaque (RFP) and from sites with no red fluorescent plaque (NFP) was assessed. Fluorescence photographs were taken from fifty children (6-14 years old) with overnight plaque. Full-mouth caries scores (ICDAS II) were obtained. The composition of a saliva sample and two plaque samples (RFP and NFP) was assessed using 16S rDNA sequencing. At the site level, no clinically relevant correlations were found between the presence of RFP and the caries status. At the subject level, a weak correlation was found between RFP and the caries status when non-cavitated lesions were included (r s =0.37, p=0.007). The microbial composition of RFP differed significantly from NFP. RFP had more anaerobes and more Gram-negative bacterial taxa. The most discriminative operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for RFP were Corynebacterium, Leptotrichia, Porphyromonas and Selenomonas, while the most discriminative OTUs for NFP were Neisseria, Actinomyces, Streptococcus and Rothia. There were no clinical relevant correlations in this cross-sectional study between the presence of RFP and (early) caries lesions. There were differences in the composition of these phenotypically different plaque samples: RFP contained more Gram-negative, anaerobic taxa and was more diverse than NFP. The study outcomes provide more insight in the possibilities to use plaque fluorescence in oral health risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation of bacterial extrachromosomal DNA from human dental plaque associated with periodontal disease, using transposon-aided capture (TRACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Philip J; Allan, Elaine; Hunter, Stephanie; Ward, John; Booth, Veronica; Wade, William G; Mullany, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The human oral cavity is host to a complex microbial community estimated to comprise >700 bacterial species, of which at least half are thought to be not yet cultivable in vitro. To investigate the plasmids present in this community, we used a transposon-aided capture system, which allowed the isolation of plasmids from human oral supra- and subgingival plaque samples. Thirty-two novel plasmids and a circular molecule that could be an integrase-generated circular intermediate were isolated. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Oral Health Training on Dental Plaque Index

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    M amiri

    2016-02-01

    3- oral health training (control group . Two weeks and two months after the intervention, plaque index was measured. Positive and negative changes were recorded over time, and then, the study data were analyzed using Chi-square (bonferroni adjustment, McNemar, Kruskal-Wallis  and Paired t-Test. Results: The study results revealed no significant differences between the  halitosis group and the traditional group, though both had a significant difference with the control group. Positive changes in halitosis group especially within girls were held to be more durable compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Oral health training accompanging training of oral malodor, tooth decay and periodontal disease seems to be more effective on health promotion of senior high school students in Yazd. Furthermore, oral malodor training produces more durable effects. As a result, this training style is recommended in regard with eductional programs of schools.

  15. The effect of orthodontic bonding materials on dental plaque accumulation and composition in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, H; Evans, R D; Wilson, M; Ready, D; Noar, J H; Pratten, J

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accumulation and composition of microcosm dental plaque on different orthodontic bonding materials using an in vitro model. Microcosm plaques were grown on discs of a range of bonding materials in a constant depth film fermentor. The biofilms were derived from human saliva and supplied with artificial saliva as a source of nutrients. The number of viable bacteria in the biofilms was determined and the streptococci present were identified to species level. The results showed that there was no significant difference in bacterial accumulation between different bonding materials, however, biofilms grown on materials which were fluoride releasing, did not contain Streptococcus mutans. This in vitro study has shown that the use of fluoride-releasing bonding materials may support the growth of supragingival plaque, which does not contain S. mutans.

  16. Use of β-caryophyllene to combat bacterial dental plaque formation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Souza, Marina Campos de Castro; Vermelho, Ligia Lobato Ramos; Vermelho, Marina Lobato Ramos; Perciano, Pedro Griffo; Vargas, Fabiano Souza; Borges, Andréa Pacheco Batista; da Veiga-Junior, Valdir Florêncio; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent illness that affects many dogs, reaching up to 85 % prevalence in individuals over the age of 4 years. Currently the drug of choice for combating the formation of dental plaque in these animals, the etiologic agent of the disease, is chlorhexidine, which has several side effects reported. Thus, surveys are conducted throughout the world in order to identify potential substitutes for antimicrobial therapy and prevention of periodontal disease. The objective of the work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of β-caryophyllene against bacteria from dog's dental plaque in vitro and in vivo. The minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated by agar microdilution assay, the induction or inhibition of bacterial adherence by sub-inhibitory concentrations in 96-well plates, and reduction of dental plaque formation in mongrel dogs subjected to topical solution with β-caryophyllene for 15 days. Results showed minimum inhibitory concentrations above 100 mg/mL for 25 % of the isolates, 100 mg/mL for 3 %, 50 mg/mL for 25 %, 25 mg/mL for 12 %, 12.5 mg/mL for 19 % and 6.25 mg/mL for 16 %. Bacterial adherences of three Enterococcus sp., one Streptococcus sp., one Haemophilus sp., one Aerococcus sp., one Bacillus sp. and one Lactococcus sp. isolates were inhibited by subinhibitory concentration. One Lactococcus sp., one Bacillus sp. and one Streptococcus sp. were stimulated to adhere by concentrations of 0.19, 1.56 and 0.78 mg/mL, respectively. In vivo assay showed reduction in dental plaque formation by β-caryophyllene, with final plaque coverage of 23.3 ± 2.6 % of the total area of the teeth, with significant difference compared with chlorhexidine group (37.5 ± 3.7 % - p dog's dental plaque-forming bacteria representing a suitable alternative to the use of chlorhexidine in prophylaxis and treatment of periodontal disease of dogs.

  17. Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Chałas; Ilona Wójcik-Chęcińska; Michał J. Woźniak; Justyna Grzonka; Wojciech Święszkowski; Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski

    2015-01-01

    Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of ...

  18. Dental plaque microbial profiles of children from Khartoum, Sudan, with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Ali, Hiba; Berggreen, Ellen; Nguyen, Daniel; Wahab Ali, Raouf; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Hasturk, Hatice; Mustafa, Manal

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the bacterial species associated with the deterioration of the dental and gingival health of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). The aims of this study were (1) to examine the dental plaque of children with CHD in order to quantify bacterial load and altered bacterial composition compared with children without CHD; and (2) to investigate the correlation between the level of caries and gingivitis and dental biofilm bacteria among those children. In this cross-sectional study, participants were children (3-12 years) recruited in Khartoum State, Sudan. A total of 80 CHD cases from the Ahmed Gasim Cardiac Centre and 80 healthy controls from randomly selected schools and kindergartens were included. Participants underwent clinical oral examinations for caries (decayed, missing, and filled teeth indices [DMFT] for primary dentition, and DMFT for permanent dentition), and gingivitis (simplified gingival index [GI]). Pooled dental biofilm samples were obtained from four posterior teeth using paper points. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection and quantification of Streptococcus mutans , Streptococcus sanguinis, and Lactobacillus acidophilus . Checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization was used for the detection of 40 additional bacterial species. CHD cases had a significantly higher caries experience (DMFT = 4.1 vs. 2.3, p  bacterial species exhibited significantly higher mean counts among CHD cases ( p  bacterial species in their dental plaque, which correlated with higher levels of caries and gingivitis.

  19. Plaque index between blind and deaf children after dental health education

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    Cynthia Carissa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Difficulty in mobility and motor coordination could affect the health at teeth and mouth. Dental health education of the blind and deaf children differs according their limitation. Blind and deaf children need a particular guidance in dental health education to promote oral hygiene as normal children do. Purpose: The objective of this study was to observe the difference of plaque index between blind and deaf children before and after dental health education. Methods: This research used purposive sampling technique. Twenty-three blind children were taken as samples from SLB-A Negeri Bandung and 31 deaf children from SLB-B Cicendo Bandung. The data were then collected through plaque index examination using modified patient hygiene performance (PHP test. Results: The result descriptively showed that plaque index average value of 23 blind children before dental health education was 3.0725 and after, was 1.7970. On the other hand, the plaque index average of deaf children before dental health education was 2.7474 and after was 1.5. Conclusion: It is concluded that plaque index of deaf children is better than blind children before and after dental health education.Latar belakang: Kesulitan dalam pergerakan dan koordinasi motorik akan memengaruhi kesehatan gigi dan mulut. Pendidikan kesehatan gigi dan mulut anak buta dan tuli akan berbeda tergantung tingkat kekurangan mereka. Anak tunanetra dan anak tunarungu membutuhkan pendidikan khusus berupa pendidikan kesehatan gigi untuk meningkatkan kebersihan gigi dan mulut serupa dengan anak normal. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui perbedaan indeks plak antara anak-anak buta dan tuli sebelum dan sesudah pendidikan kesehatan gigi. Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Dua puluh tiga anak tunanetra diambil sebagai sampel dari SLB-A Negeri Bandung dan 31 anak tunarungu dari SLB-B Cicendo Bandung. Data tersebut kemudian dikumpulkan melalui pemeriksaan indeks plak menggunakan indeks

  20. [The effects of topical fluoridation of enamel on the growth of cariogenic bacteria contained in the dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płuciennik-Stronias, Małgorzata; Zarzycka, Beata; Bołtacz-Rzepkowska, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a bacterial disease. The most important element used in caries prevention is fluoride, which is derived from the air, diet or fluoride-containing preparations and materials, e.g. glass-ionomer restorations. Fluoride can inhibit metabolism and bacterial growth in the dental plaque. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of topical fluoridation of the enamel on the growth of Lactobacillus spp. in the dental plaque. The study was carried out in 15 patients with good oral hygiene, in whom three-day dental plaque from the enamel was examined. Next, fluoride was rubbed on the same surface and the examination of three-day dental plaque was repeated. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.475) in the amounts of Lactobacillus spp. in the plaque collected prior to and after the topical fluoridation were revealed. Fluoride rubbed in the enamel, did not affect the amount of Lactobacillus spp. in the dental plaque growing on this material.

  1. Epithelial cell pro-inflammatory cytokine response differs across dental plaque bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulou, Panagiota G; Benakanakere, Manjunatha R; Galicia, Johnah C; Kinane, Denis F

    2010-01-01

    The dental plaque is comprised of numerous bacterial species, which may or may not be pathogenic. Human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs) respond to perturbation by various bacteria of the dental plaque by production of different levels of inflammatory cytokines, which is a putative reflection of their virulence. The aim of the current study was to determine responses in terms of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 secretion induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Streptococcus gordonii in order to gauge their virulence potential. HGECs were challenged with the four bacterial species, live or heat killed, at various multiplicity of infections and the elicited IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 responses were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Primary HGECs challenged with live P. gingivalis produced high levels of IL-1beta, while challenge with live A. actinomycetemcomitans gave high levels of IL-8. The opportunistic pathogen F. nucleatum induces the highest levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while the commensal S. gordonii is the least stimulatory. We conclude that various dental plaque biofilm bacteria induce different cytokine response profiles in primary HGECs that may reflect their individual virulence or commensal status.

  2. Gingival immunologic defense index: a new indicator for evaluating dental plaque infection risk in allergic children

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    Seno Pradopo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a possible relationship between dental plaque and children allergic diseases. According to literatures, gingivitis suffered mostly by allergic children than control. Case reports also revealed that dental plaque control therapy was able to reduce, even eliminate rhinosinusitis and asthmatic symptoms without additional medications. However, the exact method for confirming the gingivitis-related allergy is still uncertain. Allergic diseases have multifactorial etiologies and dental plaque had been proposed as a new trigger of allergic symptoms. Nevertheless, since not every child with gingivitis suffered from allergy or vice versa, this uncertain phenomenon may lead to patients or other clinician disbelief. The objective of the present study was to propose a new method, which involving the Gingival immunologic defense index (GIDI to evaluate the susceptibility to allergic diseases. GIDI is an index that had been developed earlier for evaluating gingival immunologic defense with respect to immunoglobulin A (IgA levels. This index based on the simple count of the inflamed gingival surfaces of a child plus the measurement of salivary IgA content. It provides clinicians with important information about the immunologic defense potential of each subject. Interestingly, most allergic children also had inherited IgA deficiency, thus this concept is likely. Based on literatures, GIDI could be a potential index for evaluating the risk of allergic diseases through gingival health assessment. However, prior investigation to the value of Indonesian GIDI index which related to allergy should be conducted.

  3. Anti-plaque effect of a synergistic combination of green tea and Salvadora persica L. against primary colonizers of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulbaqi, Hayder Raad; Himratul-Aznita, Wan Harun; Baharuddin, Nor Adinar

    2016-10-01

    Green tea (Gt), leafs of Camellia sinensis var. assamica, is widely consumed as healthy beverage since thousands of years in Asian countries. Chewing sticks (miswak) of Salvadora persica L. (Sp) are traditionally used as natural brush to ensure oral health in developing countries. Both Gt and Sp extracts were reported to have anti-bacterial activity against many dental plaque bacteria. However, their combination has never been tested to have anti-bacterial and anti-adherence effect against primary dental plaque colonizers, playing an initial role in the dental plaque development, which was investigated in this study. Two-fold serial micro-dilution method was used to measure minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of aqueous extracts of Gt, Sp and their combinations. Adsorption to hexadecane was used to determine the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of bacterial cells. Glass beads were used to mimic the hard tissue surfaces, and were coated with saliva to develop experimental pellicles for the adhesion of the primary colonizing bacteria. Gt aqueous extracts exhibited better anti-plaque effect than Sp aqueous extracts. Their combination, equivalent to 1/4 and 1/2 of MIC values of Gt and Sp extracts respectively, showed synergistic anti-plaque properties with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) equal to 0.75. This combination was found to significantly reduce CSH (pplaque activity, and could be used as a useful active agent to produce oral health care products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigation and comparison of the effect of two mouthrinses, Plax and Irsha on dental plaque reduction

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    Saghazadeh M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Although toothbrushing is still the most effective method in plaque reduction, it is insufficient for total plaque removal. Considering this limitation, it is suggested that toothbrushing could be aided by chemical methods. For this purpose, it is advised to use some kind of mouthrinses before toothbrushing to increase the rate of microbial plaque removal. Several prebrushing mouthrinses are available in the market and comparing their efficiency is valuable for dentists. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of two prebrushing mouthrinses, Plax and Irsha, on dental plaque reduction. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was carried out as an interventional and triple blind protocol, using completely random block design. For this purpose, questionnaire and initial examination chart was filled for 50 healthy volunteers between the age of 18 and 40 years and finally 30 individuals were selected based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. If scaling and polishing was necessary, it was performed at least 2 weeks before starting the main program. Then, each volunteer participated in a 4 steps program, including one step toothbrushing without use of mouthrinse and three steps toothbrushing after use of one of the mouthrinses (Plax, Irsha, Placebo. Data were analyzed by SPSS software using factorial analysis, ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple comparison tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: Toothbrushing without use of mouthrinse decreased the amount of plaque, significantly (P<0.0001. Use of mouthrinse without toothbrushing decreased the amount of plaque significantly (P<0.0001. The amount of plaque reduction after use of various mouthrinses (Plax, Irsha, Placebo showed no statistical differences (P=0.761. Use of the mouthrinses before toothbrushing, had no statistically significant effect on the final results after toothbrushing (P=0.331. Conclusion: According to the findings of the

  5. In vitro efficacy of cefovecin against anaerobic bacteria isolated from subgingival plaque of dogs and cats with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazandi, Manouchehr; Bird, Philip S; Owens, Jane; Wilson, Gary; Meyer, James N; Trott, Darren J

    2014-08-01

    Periodontal disease is a common disease of dogs and cats often requiring antimicrobial treatment as an adjunct to mechanical debridement. However, correct compliance with oral antimicrobial therapy in companion animals is often difficult. Cefovecin is a recently introduced veterinary cephalosporin that has demonstrated prolonged concentrations in extracellular fluid, allowing for dosing intervals of up to 14 days. Subgingival samples were collected from the oral cavity of 29 dogs and eight cats exhibiting grade 2 or grade 3 periodontal disease. Samples were cultivated on Wilkin Chalgrens agar and incubated in an anaerobic chamber for seven days. Selected anaerobic bacteria were isolated and identified to species level using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for cefovecin and six additional antimicrobials using the agar dilution methodology recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The 65 clinical isolates were identified as Porphyromonas gulae (n = 45), Porphyromonas crevioricanis (n = 12), Porphyromonas macacae (n = 1), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (n = 1) Fusobacterium nucleatum (n = 2), Fusobacterium russii (n = 1) and Solobacterium moorei (n = 3). This is the first report of S. moorei being isolated from companion animals with periodontal disease. All isolates were highly susceptible to cefovecin, with a MIC90 of ≤0.125 μg/ml. Conversely, different resistance rates to ampicillin, amoxicillin and erythromycin between isolates were detected. Cefovecin is thus shown to be effective in vitro against anaerobic bacteria isolated from dogs and cats with periodontal disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of an essential oil-containing dentifrice on dental plaque microbial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, C H; Vincent, J W; Borycheski, L; Amatnieks, Y; Sarina, M; Qaqish, J; Proskin, H M

    2000-09-01

    To determine the effect of 6 months use of an essential oil-containing (EO) antiplaque/antigingivitis fluoride dentifrice on the balance of the oral microbial flora and on the emergence of resistant microbial forms by analysis of dental plaque and saliva. The dentifrice essential oils consisted of a fixed combination of thymol, menthol, methyl salicylate, and eucalyptol. An identical fluoride-containing dentifrice without the essential oils served as the control. A subgroup of 66 subjects from a clinical trial population of 321 was randomly selected for characterization of their dental plaque microflora. Saliva was also cultured to monitor for the emergence of opportunistic pathogens. Supragingival plaque and saliva were harvested at baseline, after which subjects received a dental prophylaxis. Subjects were sampled again after 3 and 6 months of product use prior to clinical examination. Plaque was characterized for microbial content by phase contrast microscopy for recognizable cellular morphotypes and by cultivation on nonselective and selective culture media. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentrations of the test agent against selected Actinomyces and Veillonella isolated bacterial species was conducted at all time points to monitor for the potential development of bacterial resistance. There were no statistically significant differences between the microbial flora obtained from subjects using the essential oil-containing dentifrice and the vehicle control for all parameters and time periods except for the percentage of spirochetes at 6 months and for percentage of "other" microorganisms at 3 months. The EO group exhibited a lower adjusted mean for both parameters. Additionally, there was no evidence of the development of bacterial resistance to the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils or the emergence of opportunistic pathogens.

  7. Do Dental Resin Composites Accumulate More Oral Biofilms and Plaque than Amalgam and Glass Ionomer Materials?

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    Ning Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A long-time drawback of dental composites is that they accumulate more biofilms and plaques than amalgam and glass ionomer restorative materials. It would be highly desirable to develop a new composite with reduced biofilm growth, while avoiding the non-esthetics of amalgam and low strength of glass ionomer. The objectives of this study were to: (1 develop a protein-repellent composite with reduced biofilms matching amalgam and glass ionomer for the first time; and (2 investigate their protein adsorption, biofilms, and mechanical properties. Five materials were tested: A new composite containing 3% of protein-repellent 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC; the composite with 0% MPC as control; commercial composite control; dental amalgam; resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI. A dental plaque microcosm biofilm model with human saliva as inoculum was used to investigate metabolic activity, colony-forming units (CFU, and lactic acid production. Composite with 3% MPC had flexural strength similar to those with 0% MPC and commercial composite control (p > 0.1, and much greater than RMGI (p < 0.05. Composite with 3% MPC had protein adsorption that was only 1/10 that of control composites (p < 0.05. Composite with 3% MPC had biofilm CFU and lactic acid much lower than control composites (p < 0.05. Biofilm growth, metabolic activity and lactic acid on the new composite with 3% MPC were reduced to the low level of amalgam and RMGI (p > 0.1. In conclusion, a new protein-repellent dental resin composite reduced oral biofilm growth and acid production to the low levels of non-esthetic amalgam and RMGI for the first time. The long-held conclusion that dental composites accumulate more biofilms than amalgam and glass ionomer is no longer true. The novel composite is promising to finally overcome the major biofilm-accumulation drawback of dental composites in order to reduce biofilm acids and secondary caries.

  8. Influence of dental plaque pH on caries status and salivary microflora in children following comprehensive dental care under general anesthesia

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    Yng-Tzer J. Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: There is no report in examining dental plaque pH after dental care under general anesthesia. This study investigated the effects of comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia on the oral environment of children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC and the influence of dental plaque pH on caries recurrence and salivary microflora. Materials and methods: Thirty-seven children (mean age, 51.08 ± 9.68 months with S-ECC who underwent comprehensive dental treatment under general anesthesia were selected. Caries index, plaque pH, and Streptococcus mutans (SM and Lactobacillus (LB counts were evaluated during the initial examination and 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. Results: The plaque pH was significantly greater at the 6-month follow-up examination than at the initial examination (P = 0.006 and at the 12-month follow-up (P = 0.002, but there was no significant difference in plaque pH between the initial examination and the 12-month follow-up (P = 0.942. SM and LB counts at the sixth and twelfth months were significantly lower than the initial counts (P  0.05. Conclusion: The comprehensive dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia for children with S-ECC caused a temporary significant increase in the plaque pH at the sixth month and a significant reduction in the salivary microflora during the 12-month follow-up. Plaque pH did not demonstrate any strong correlations with caries status and salivary microflora in children with S-ECC. Keywords: caries status, plaque pH, salivary microflora

  9. Microbial profile comparisons of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in periodontitis patients.

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    Daniel Belstrøm

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare microbial profiles of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in patients with periodontitis. We tested the hypotheses that saliva can be an alternative to pooled subgingival samples, when screening for presence of periopathogens.Site specific subgingival plaque samples (n = 54, pooled subgingival plaque samples (n = 18 and stimulated saliva samples (n = 18 were collected from 18 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. Subgingival and salivary microbiotas were characterized by means of HOMINGS (Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing and microbial community profiles were compared using Spearman rank correlation coefficient.Pronounced intraindividual differences were recorded in site-specific microbial profiles, and site-specific information was in general not reflected by pooled subgingival samples. Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Filifactor alocis, Tannerella forsythia and Parvimona micra in site-specific subgingival samples were detected in saliva with an AUC of 0.79 (sensitivity: 0.61, specificity: 0.94, compared to an AUC of 0.76 (sensitivity: 0.56, specificity: 0.94 in pooled subgingival samples.Site-specific presence of periodontal pathogens was detected with comparable accuracy in stimulated saliva samples and pooled subgingival plaque samples. Consequently, saliva may be a reasonable surrogate for pooled subgingival samples when screening for presence of periopathogens. Future large-scale studies are needed to confirm findings from this study.

  10. Amoxicillin-resistant oral streptococci identified in dental plaque specimens from healthy Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Katsuhiko; Nemoto, Hirotoshi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Naka, Shuhei; Nomura, Ryota; Ooshima, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is known to be a life-threatening disease and invasive dental procedures are considered to be important factors. Oral amoxicillin (AMPC) is widely used for prophylaxis in patients with heart disorders who are at risk for IE. However, there is only limited information regarding the inhibition of oral bacteria by AMPC. Dental plaque specimens were obtained from 120 healthy Japanese adult subjects, then diluted and streaked onto selective medium for oral streptococci. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AMPC was evaluated using a macro-dilution method by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (2006). Seven strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more were isolated from 5 subjects. The bacterial species were confirmed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA from each strain, which demonstrated that most were Streptococcus sanguinis, followed by Streptococcus oralis. Dental plaque specimens collected from these 5 subjects again after an interval of 2-3 months possessed no strains with an MIC of AMPC of 16μg/mL or more. These findings suggest that strains with a high MIC of AMPC are present in the oral cavities of Japanese adults, though they may be transient rather than inhabitants. Copyright © 2012 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacterial diversity and community structure of supragingival plaques in adults with dental health or caries revealed by 16S pyrosequencing

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    Cuicui Xiao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries has a polymicrobial etiology within the complex oral microbial ecosystem. However, the overall diversity and structure of supragingival plaque microbiota in adult dental health and caries are not well understood. Here, 160 supragingival plaque samples from patients with dental health and different severities of dental caries were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction, pyrosequencing by amplification of the 16S rDNA V1–V3 hypervariable regions, and bioinformatic analysis. High-quality sequences (2,261,700 clustered into 10,365 operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% identity, representing 453 independent species belonging to 122 genera, 66 families, 34 orders, 21 classes, and 12 phyla. All groups shared 7522 OTUs, indicating the presence of a core plaque microbiome. Smooth rarefaction curves were suggestive of plaque microbial diversity. α diversity analysis showed that healthy plaque microbial diversity exceeded that of dental caries, with the diversity decreasing gradually with the severity of caries. The dominant phyla of plaque microbiota included Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, and TM7. The dominant genera included Capnocytophaga, Prevotella, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Neisseria, Streptococcus, Rothia, and Leptotrichia. β diversity analysis showed that the plaque microbial community structure was similar in all groups and that group members were relatively constant, only showing differences in abundance. Analysis of composition differences identified 10 health-related and 21 caries-related genera. Key genera (27 that potentially contributed to plaque microbiota distributions between groups were identified. Finally, co-occurrence network analysis and function prediction were performed. Treatment strategies directed toward modulating microbial interactions and their functional output should be further developed.

  12. Dental plaque microcosm biofilm behavior on calcium phosphate nanocomposite with quaternary ammonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lei; Weir, Michael D; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Eric J; Xu, Sarah M; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Hockin H K

    2012-08-01

    Half of dental restorations fail in 10 years, with secondary caries as the main reason. Calcium phosphate composites could remineralize tooth lesions. The objectives of this study were to: (1) impart antibacterial activity to a composite with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP); and (2) investigate the effect of quaternary ammonium dimethacrylate (QADM) on mechanical and dental plaque microcosm biofilm properties for the first time. The NACP and glass particles were filled into a dental resin that contained bis(2-methacryloyloxy-ethyl) dimethyl-ammonium bromide, the QADM. NACP nanocomposites containing 0%, 7%, 14%, and 17.5% of QADM by mass, respectively, were photo-cured. A commercial composite with no antibacterial activity was used as control. Mechanical properties were measured in three-point flexure. A human saliva microcosm model was used to grow biofilms on composites. Live/dead assay, metabolic activity, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, and lactic acid production of biofilms on the composites were measured. Increasing QADM mass fraction monotonically reduced the biofilm viability, CFU and lactic acid. Biofilms on NACP nanocomposite with 17.5% QADM had metabolic activity that was 30% that on a commercial composite control (pbacterial cells with normal short-rod shapes, while some cells on NACP-QADM nanocomposites disintegrated into pieces. Adding QADM to NACP did not decrease the composite strength and elastic modulus, which matched (p>0.1) those of a commercial composite without Ca-PO(4) or antibacterial activity. A dental plaque microcosm model was used to evaluate the novel NACP-QADM nanocomposite. The nanocomposite greatly reduced the biofilm viability, metabolic activity and lactic acid, while its mechanical properties matched those of a commercial composite. NACP-QADM nanocomposite with calcium phosphate fillers, good mechanical properties and a strong antibacterial activity may have potential for anti-biofilm and anti

  13. Betel leaf toothpastes inhibit dental plaque formation on fixed orthodontic patients

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    Rizka Amelia Mayasari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brackets, archwires, ligatures, and other fixed orthodontic appliance components complicate the use of conventional oral-hygiene measures. This often results in significant plaque accumulation around the bracket bases. The addition of betel leaf extract in toothpaste is expected to inhibit the growth of dental plaque. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of betel leaf toothpaste in inhibiting plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Methods: This study was done on dental student of Airlangga University aged 18–24 years, have been wearing fixed orthodontic appliances for 1–2 years, have no systemic diseases. The samples were divided into two groups, consisting of 20 samples. First group of samples brushed their teeth with betel group of samples brushed their teeth with betel brushed their teeth with betel leaf toothpaste and the second using placebo. The subjects were instructed to brush their teeth using Scrub method until reaching zero (0 scor of orthodontic plaque index (OPI. Plaque scores were taken again 4 hours after brushing. The statistical analysis was done by using paired t test. Results: The average of accumulated plaque on group that use betel leaf toothpaste was 25.54 and placebo was 41.09. The result showed that there was significant difference in plaque accumulation between the group with betel leaf toothpaste and placebo 4 hours after brushing (p = 0.001. Conclusion: In conclusion, betel leaf toothpaste is effective in inhibiting the dental plaque formation on the fixed orthodontic patients. Latar belakang: Bracket, kawat busur, kawat ligatur dan komponen peranti ortodonti cekat yang lain mempersulit pembersihan gigi secara konvensional. Hal ini sering menyebabkan terjadinya akumulasi plak di sekitar dasar braket. Penambahan ekstrak daun sirih yang mempunyai efek bakterisid pada pasta gigi diharapkan dapat menghambat pertumbuhan plak. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk

  14. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

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    Bart J. F. Keijser

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis.Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165. One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA. Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism.Conclusion: The results showed that

  15. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Bart J F; van den Broek, Tim J; Slot, Dagmar E; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A; Montijn, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  16. The Impact of Maltitol-Sweetened Chewing Gum on the Dental Plaque Biofilm Microbiota Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Bart J. F.; van den Broek, Tim J.; Slot, Dagmar E.; van Twillert, Lodewic; Kool, Jolanda; Thabuis, Clémentine; Ossendrijver, Michel; van der Weijden, Fridus A.; Montijn, Roy C.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The oral cavity harbors a complex microbial ecosystem, intimately related to oral health and disease. The use of polyol-sweetened gum is believed to benefit oral health through stimulation of salivary flow and impacting oral pathogenic bacteria. Maltitol is often used as sweetener in food products. This study aimed to establish the in vivo effects of frequent consumption of maltitol-sweetened chewing gum on the dental plaque microbiota in healthy volunteers and to establish the cellular and molecular effects by in vitro cultivation and transcriptional analysis. Results: An intervention study was performed in 153 volunteers, randomly assigned to three groups (www.trialregister.nl; NTR4165). One group was requested to use maltitol gum five times daily, one group used gum-base, and the third group did not use chewing gum. At day 0 and day 28, 24 h-accumulated supragingival plaque was collected at the lingual sites of the lower jaw and the buccal sites of the upper jaw and analyzed by 16S ribosomal rRNA gene sequencing. At day 42, 2 weeks after completion of the study, lower-jaw samples were collected and analyzed. The upper buccal plaque microbiota composition had lower bacterial levels and higher relative abundances of (facultative) aerobic species compared to the lower lingual sites. There was no difference in bacterial community structure between any of the three study groups (PERMANOVA). Significant lower abundance of several bacterial phylotypes was found in maltitol gum group compared to the gum-base group, including Actinomyces massiliensis HOT 852 and Lautropia mirabilis HOT 022. Cultivation studies confirmed growth inhibition of A. massiliensis and A. johnsonii by maltitol at levels of 1% and higher. Transcriptome analysis of A. massiliensis revealed that exposure to maltitol resulted in changes in the expression of genes linked to osmoregulation, biofilm formation, and central carbon metabolism. Conclusion: The results showed that chewing itself

  17. [Technical complications rates and plaque control of fixed dental prostheses in patients treated for periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yesi; Meng, Huanxin; Han, Jie; Pan, Shaoxia; Zhang, Li; Shi, Dong

    2016-02-01

    To compare the incidence of technical complications of implant-supported fixed dental prostheses in Chinese patients with a history of moderate or severe periodontitis and periodontally healthy patients(PHP) and analyze the effects of interproximal papillae patterns on food impaction and efficacy of plaque control. A total of 103 partially edentulous patients treated with implant-supported fixed dental prostheses between December 2009 and December 2012 for a minimum 1-year follow-up period were recruited from Department of Periodontology, Peking University, School and Hospital of Stomatology. Based on the initial periodontal examination, the participants were divided into three groups: 30 PHP, 36 moderate periodontally compromised patients(mPCP) and 37 severe periodontally compromised patients(sPCP). Implant survival/loss, technical complications, plaque index, papilla index, food impaction and degree of proximal contact tightness of each patient were assessed around the implants at follow-up. According to the implant papilla index, the implants were divided into two groups: the "filling" group with the mesial and distal aspects with papilla index=3 and the "no filling" group with at least one aspect with papilla indextechnical complications were analyzed. Comparisons of the incidence of technical complications were performed between the patients with different periodontal conditions with chi-square or Fisher's exact test. The influences of the interproximal papillae loss on food impaction and efficacy of plaque control were estimated with chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. The total implant survival rate was 100%(162/162) for all three groups. Technical complications were as following: veneer fractures(1.9%, 3/162), abutment screw loosening(1.9%, 3/162), prosthetic screw loosening(3.1%, 5/162) and decementation(3.1%, 5/162) in all subjects. No implant/screw fracture was noted. The incidence of technical complications in sPCP, mPCP and PHP did not yield

  18. Does the presence of the Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque associate with its gastric infection? A meta-analysis and systematic review

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    Nader Navabi

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Co-infection of gastric H. pylori and dental plaque is reported by half of the studies. However, there is not enough evidence for the efficacy of dental treatment on prevention of recurrent gastric H. pylori infection.

  19. Escova dental e dedeira na remoção da placa bacteriana dental em cães The dental brush and thumb-stall in the removal of the dental plaque in dogs

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    Tânia Berbert Ferreira Lima

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A placa bacteriana é fator primário na formação de gengivite, cálculo dentário, halitose e doença periodontal. Objetivou-se avaliar a quantidade de placa bacteriana dental removida pela escova dental e dedeira. Foram utilizados 60 cães machos e fêmeas de diferentes raças, idade e peso, divididos em dois grupos. O índice Logan & Boyce foi utilizados para quantificar a placa bacteriana antes e após a escovação. Observou-se diferença estatística (p0,05 entre a utilização da escova dental e a dedeira.The dental plaque is the primary factor for gingivitis formation, dental calculus, oral malodor and periodontal disease. To evaluate the amount of dental plaque removed by the dental brush and thumb-stall, 60 male and female dogs of different races, age and weight were divided in two groups and studies. The index of Logan & Boyce was used to quantify the dental plaque before and after the toothbrush. Statistical difference was observed (p 0.05 between the use of the dental brush and the thumb-stall.

  20. Subgingival bacterial recolonization after scaling and root planing in smokers with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, M; Bernal, Mac; Matarazzo, F; Faveri, M; Duarte, P M; Figueiredo, L C

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare subgingival bacterial recolonization patterns after scaling and root planing in current smokers and non-smokers. 15 smokers and 15 non-smokers with chronic periodontitis received scaling and root planing in six visits lasting one hour each, over a period of 21 days. Clinical monitoring was performed at baseline and 180 days, and microbiological monitoring was performed at baseline, immediately after scaling and root planing (Day 0) and at 42, 63 and 180 days post-therapy. Subgingival plaque samples were analysed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. An improvement in clinical condition was observed for smokers and non-smokers; however, non-smokers showed a greater reduction in mean clinical attachment level in intermediate sites in comparison with smokers (p < 0.05). At Day 0, there was a significant reduction in the mean counts of the three pathogens from the red complex, Eubacterium nodatum and Parvimonas micra only in non-smokers (p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the proportion of host-compatible species in non-smokers and smokers from baseline to 180 days post-therapy (p < 0.05). However, a significant decrease in the pathogenic species was observed only in non-smokers. Smokers were more susceptible to the re-establishment of a pathogenic subgingival biofilm than non-smokers. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Effectiveness of erythrosine-mediated photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy on dental plaque aerobic microorganisms: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Manohar; Acharya, Swathi; Prasad, Kakarla Veera Venkata; Kulkarni, Raghavendra; Bhat, Anithraj; Bhat, Devikripa

    2017-01-01

    Dental plaque is one of the predominant causes of major oral diseases. Although mechanical and chemical methods are extensively followed to control the development of plaque, plaque-related diseases still persist. Therefore, this necessitates for alternative measures of plaque control, one such alternative is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT). Split mouth randomized clinical trial (CTRI/2017/03/008239) was conducted on 30 participants who reported to the hospital. Participants were asked to rinse their mouth for 1 min using 10 ml of 25 μM erythrosine solutions. Same tooth on both quadrants of the same jaw are selected as the test and control. Intervention used was halogen-based composite curing light with wavelength of 500-590 nm. Plaque sample from the control tooth and test tooth was collected before and after exposure, respectively, and sent to microbiological laboratory for colony count. Logarithmic mean and standard deviation of control group with 10 2 dilutions of aerobic microbial count were found to be 5.34 ± 0.94, and for experimental group, it was 4.47 ± 1.37. The statistical difference between mean CFU values between aerobic bacterial counts was significant ( P = 0.006). Erythrosine-mediated PACT reduces the extent of dental plaque microbial count and has a potential preventive and therapeutic use in day-to-day life and dental clinics.

  2. Development of rampant dental caries, and composition of plaque fluid and saliva in irradiated primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edgar, W M; Bowen, W H; Cole, M F [National Caries Program, National Institute of Dental Research, Maryland USA

    1981-01-01

    Co-60 gamma irradiation of the salivary glands of Macaca mulata monkeys fed a cariogenic diet led to the rapid onset of dental caries resembling that in irradiated human patients. Plaque fluid and saliva were sampled from irradiated monkeys, nonirradiated controls and a group of animals fed a noncariogenic diet in order to look for changes which might occur in inorganic composition related to the caries development and to dietary differences. Salivary calcium and phosphate levels were not markedly changed after irradiation: iodide levels were raised, while thiocyanate levels fell. In plaque fluid, calcium concentrations were not affected by irradiation, but were higher in animals fed a noncariogenic diet. Phosphate levels were higher with a cariogenic diet and further increased in irradiated animals. Magnesium levels were occasionally higher than those of calcium. Other differences in plaque fluid composition may be related to secondary effects of the concomitant gingival disease. The results do not point clearly a specific change in the quality of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue after irradiation which precipitates the rampant caries. It is more likely that the grat reduction in the quantity of saliva with its protective constituents is responsible.

  3. Development of rampant dental caries, and composition of plaque fluid and saliva in irradiated primates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, W.M.; Bowen, W.H.; Cole, M.F.

    1981-01-01

    Co-60 gamma irradiation of the salivary glands of Macaca mulata monkeys fed a cariogenic diet led to the rapid onset of dental caries resembling that in irradiated human patients. Plaque fluid and saliva were sampled from irradiated monkeys, nonirradiated controls and a group of animals fed a noncariogenic diet in order to look for changes which might occur in inorganic composition related to the caries development and to dietary differences. Salivary calcium and phosphate levels were not markedly changed after irradiation: iodide levels were raised, while thiocyanate levels fell. In plaque fluid, calcium concentrations were not affected by irradiation, but were higher in animals fed a noncariogenic diet. Phosphate levels were higher with a cariogenic diet and further increased in irradiated animals. Magnesium levels were occasionally higher than those of calcium. Other differences in plaque fluid composition may be related to secondary effects of the concomitant gingival disease. The results do not point clearly a specific change in the quality of the saliva produced by the residual gland tissue after irradiation which precipitates the rampant caries. It is more likely that the grat reduction in the quantity of saliva with its protective constituents is responsible. (author)

  4. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection.

  5. Helicobacter pylori detection in gastric biopsies, saliva and dental plaque of Brazilian dyspeptic patients

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    Lucas Trevizani Rasmussen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. The oral cavity has been implicated as a potential H. pylori reservoir and may therefore be involved in the reinfection of the stomach, which can sometimes occur following treatment of an H. pylori infection. The objectives of this paper were (i to determine the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and (ii to examine the relationship between oral H. pylori and subsequent gastritis. Gastric biopsies, saliva samples and dental plaques were obtained from 78 dyspeptic adults. DNA was extracted and evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting methods. Persons with gastritis were frequently positive for H. pylori in their stomachs (p < 0.0001 and there was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in gastric biopsies and the oral cavity (p < 0.0001. Our results suggest a relationship between gastric infection and the presence of this bacterium in the oral cavity. Despite this, H. pylori were present in the oral cavity with variable distribution between saliva and dental plaques, suggesting the existence of a reservoir for the species and a potential association with gastric reinfection.

  6. Comparison of Subgingival and Peri-implant Microbiome in Chronic Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Qin, Xue Yan; Jiang, Wei Peng; Zheng, Hui; Xu, Xin Li; Chen, Feng

    2015-09-01

    To analyse the microbia composition of 10 healthy dental implants and 10 chronic periodontitis patients. Subgingival plaque and peri-implant biofilm were sampled at the first molar site before and after implant restoration. The analysis was conducted by 454-prosequencing of bacterial V1 to V3 regions of 16S rDNA. Chronic periodontitis subjects showed greater bacterial diversity compared with implant subjects. The relative abundance of sixteen genera and twelve species differed significantly between implant and chronic periodontitis subjects. The genera Catonella, Desulfovibrio, Mogibacterium, Peptostreptococcus and Propionibacterium were present in higher abundance in chronic periodontitis subjects, while implant subjects had higher proportions of Brevundimonas and Pseudomonas species. Our results demonstrate that implant restoration changes the oral microbiota. The analysis suggests that periodontal bacteria can remain for a prolonged period of time at non-dental sites, from where they can colonise the peri-implant.

  7. Salivary antimicrobial proteins associate with age-related changes in streptococcal composition in dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, J; Sherriff, A; Lappin, D F; Ramage, G; Conway, D I; Macpherson, L M D; Culshaw, S

    2014-12-01

    Secretion of antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and salivary antibodies can modify biofilm formation at host body surfaces. In adolescents, associations have been reported between dental caries and salivary AMPs. AMPs demonstrate direct antimicrobial effects at high concentrations, and at lower more physiological concentrations they mediate changes in host cell defenses, which may alter the local environment and indirectly shape local biofilm formation. The expression of salivary AMPs in preschool children, at an age when the oral bacteria are known to change, has not been investigated. We sought to investigate salivary AMP expression in the context of previously well-documented changes in the oral cavities of this age group including salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), oral bacteria and dental caries. Dental plaque and saliva were collected from 57 children aged 12-24 months at baseline, of whom 23 children were followed-up at 3 years of age. At each time, saliva was assessed for LL37, human neutrophil peptides 1-3, calprotectin, lactoferrin, salivary IgA, total plaque bacteria and Streptococcus mutans. Over time, concentrations of AMPs, S. mutans and bacteria-specific salivary IgA increased. Caries experience was also recorded when children were 3 years old. Concentrations of AMPs were highest in the saliva of 3-year-old children with the greatest burden of S. mutans. These data suggest that salivary AMPs are variable over time and between individuals, and are linked with bacterial colonization. At follow up, the majority of children remained caries free. Larger longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether salivary AMP levels are predictive of caries and whether their modulation offers therapeutic benefit. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Prediction of periodontopathic bacteria in dental plaque of periodontal healthy subjects by measurement of volatile sulfur compounds in mouth air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Mitsuo; Ohara-Nemoto, Yuko; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kishi, Kayo; Kimura, Shigenobu; Aizawa, Fumie; Yonemitsu, Masami

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether measurements of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are useful to predict colonization of periodontopathic bacteria. For this purpose, we assessed the relationships among distributions of 4 species of periodontopathic bacteria in tongue coating and dental plaque, oral conditions including VSC concentration in mouth air, and smoking habit of periodontal healthy young subjects. The subjects were 108 young adults (mean age, 23.5±2.56 years) without clinical periodontal pockets. Information regarding smoking habit was obtained by interview. After VSC concentration in mouth, air was measured with a portable sulfide monitor (Halimeter(®)), non-stimulated saliva flow and dental caries status were assessed, and tongue coating and dental plaque samples were collected from the subjects. The tongue coating samples were weighed to determine the amount. The colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, and Treponema denticola in both tongue coating and plaque samples was investigated using species-specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Significant relationships were observed between the colonization of periodontopathic bacteria in tongue coating and plaque samples, especially that of P. gingivalis. VSC concentration showed the most significant association with colonization of P. gingivalis in both tongue coating and dental plaque. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the adjusted partial correlation coefficient [Exp(B)] values for VSC concentration with the colonization of P. gingivalis, P. intermedia, and T. denticola in dental plaque were 135, 35.4 and 10.4, respectively. In addition, smoking habit was also shown to be a significant variable in regression models [Exp(B)=6.19, 8.92 and 2.53, respectively]. Therefore, receiver operating characteristic analysis was performed to predict the colonization of periodontal bacteria in dental plaque in the subjects divided by smoking

  9. Reduced Dental Plaque Formation in Dogs Drinking a Solution Containing Natural Antimicrobial Herbal Enzymes and Organic Matcha Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Lindinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an exploratory, multicenter clinical study confirmed the hypothesis that a novel, natural, and safe oral care product (OCP reduced the rate of plaque formation on teeth of dogs consuming the OCP (antimicrobial plant-derived enzymes, organic matcha green tea, cultured dextrose, sodium bicarbonate, and ascorbic acid compared to controls. Healthy dogs without periodontitis, of varying breeds, sex, and age, were recruited and enrolled, using nonrandomized stratification methods, into a control and treatment groups. Treatment group dogs drank only water into which OCP was suspended, for 28 days. Control group dogs drank their normal household water. On day 0 all teeth were cleaned by a veterinarian and gingivitis was assessed. On days 14, 21, and 28 plaque index, plaque thickness, gingivitis, freshness of breath, and general health were assessed. Over the 28 days of study, dogs on the OCP had significant reduction in plaque index and plaque thickness compared to controls. By day 14 OCP reduced plaque formation by 37%; the 28-day reduction in plaque index and coverage averaged 22% with no measurable gingivitis or calculus. Conclusion. Using the OCP attenuated dental plaque formation when consumed as normal drinking water and in the absence of other modes of oral care.

  10. Placa bacteriana dentária em cães Dental bacterial plaque in dogs

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    Duvaldo Eurides

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de avaliar a incidência de placa bacteriana dentária, foram utilizados 30 cães, sem raça definida, distribuídos em três grupos iguais, de acordo com a faixa etária, sendo o grupo I de 0 a 2 anos, o grupo II de 3 a 5 anos e o grupo III acima de 6 anos. Os animais foram submetidos a anestesia geral e sobre os dentes foi aplicado cloreto de metilrosanilina, para evidenciar acúmulos bacterianos. As placas encontravam-se distribuídas em 80,99% no grupo I, 71,45% no grupo II e 83,96% no grupo III. Os grupos dentários foram considerados separadamente, apresentando índices de 64,84% nos dentes incisivos, 84,80% nos caninos, 87,23% nos pré-molares e 78,34% nos molares. Nos três grupos de cães observou-se índices semelhantes de placa bacteriana nos diferentes grupos dentários. Os animais do grupo II e o grupo de dentes incisivos apresentaram menores índices de placa bacteriana.To avaliate the incidence of bacterial plaque 30 mogreal dogs were utilizated, distributed among three equal groups. According to age, group I was composed of 0 to 2 years-old dogs, group II was 3 to 5 years-old, and group III over 6 years-old. The animals underwent a general anesthesia and metilrosanilin cloret was applied over the tooth, to evidence the bacterial mass. The plaques were distributed to 80.99% in group I, 71.42% in group II and 83.96% in group III. The dental groups were considerated apart, showing index of 64.84% on the incisar tooth, 84.80% on the canine tooth, 87.23% on the premolar tooth, and 78.34% on the molar tooth. At the dogs groups, similar Índex of bacterial plaque were observed on the diffèrent dental groups. The dogs from group II and the incisive tooth group showed minar bacterial plaque index.

  11. Randomized controlled trial of toothbrushing to reduce ventilator-associated pneumonia pathogens and dental plaque in a critical care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, Ian G; Hirsch, Nicholas P; Leemans, Michele; Moles, David R; Wilson, Michael; Ready, Derren R; Ismail, Salim; Ciric, Lena; Shaw, Michael J; Smith, Martin; Garner, Anne; Wilson, Sally

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the effect of a powered toothbrush on colonization of dental plaque by ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)-associated organisms and dental plaque removal. Parallel-arm, single-centre, examiner- and analyst-masked randomized controlled trial. Forty-six adults were recruited within 48 h of admission. Test intervention: powered toothbrush, control intervention: sponge toothette, both used four times per day for 2 min. Groups received 20 ml, 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwash at each time point. The results showed a low prevalence of respiratory pathogens throughout with no statistically significant differences between groups. A highly statistically significantly greater reduction in dental plaque was produced by the powered toothbrush compared with the control treatment; mean plaque index at day 5, powered toothbrush 0.75 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.53, 1.00], sponge toothette 1.35 (95% CI 0.95, 1.74), p=0.006. Total bacterial viable count was also highly statistically significantly lower in the test group at day 5; Log(10) mean total bacterial counts: powered toothbrush 5.12 (95% CI 4.60, 5.63), sponge toothette 6.61 (95% CI 5.93, 7.28), p=0.002. Powered toothbrushes are highly effective for plaque removal in intubated patients in a critical unit and should be tested for their potential to reduce VAP incidence and health complications. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Dental plaque development on a hydroxyapatite disk in young adults observed by using a barcoded pyrosequencing approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Toru; Yasui, Masaki; Shibata, Yukie; Furuta, Michiko; Saeki, Yoji; Eshima, Nobuoki; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-30

    Dental plaque is a dynamic microbial biofilm ecosystem that comprises hundreds of species including difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. We observed the assembly of a plaque bacterial community through 16S rRNA gene analysis. Plaque samples that accumulated on a hydroxyapatite disk for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days with saliva on day 0 were collected from 19 young adults using a removable resin splint. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the total bacterial amount gradually increased and reached a plateau on day 4. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis revealed that the microbial richness and diversity particularly increased between days 5 and 7. A principal coordinate analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac showed the community assembly in a time-related manner, which became increasingly similar to the salivary microbiota. Facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Streptococcus, Neisseria, Abiotrophia, Gemella, and Rothia were predominant in the plaque bacterial community in the earlier days, whereas obligate anaerobes, such as Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, and Capnocytophaga showed increased dominance on later days. UniFrac analysis also demonstrated that dental caries experience had a significant effect on the assembly process. Our results reveal the development pattern of the plaque bacterial community as well as the inter-individual differences associated with dental caries experience.

  13. Efficacy of a triclosan formula in controlling early subgingival biofilm formation: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto ANDRADE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of rinses with slurries of a dentifrice containing triclosan (TCS, as compared with rinses with slurries from a control dentifrice, in controlling early subgingival biofilm formation. A double-blind, randomized and cross-over clinical trial was designed, and 26 dental students were included. In the first period, participants were randomized to rinse with a TCS slurry or a control slurry, in a 12 h interval, and to refrain from mechanical cleaning. A Plaque Free Zone Index was assessed at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. After a washout period of 10 days, the second experimental period was conducted, following the same protocol as the first period, except that the slurry groups were switched. Use of the TCS slurry resulted in a significantly higher percentage of plaque-free surfaces, both at 24 h and at 72 h (p < 0.01. In the of 48-72 h interval, the triclosan slurry showed a lower percentage of sites converted to a score of 2 (38.1% for the testversus 40% for the control product, p = 0.015. In conclusion, rinsing with slurries of dentifrice containing TCS retards the down growth of bacterial biofilms from the supra- to the subgingival environment.

  14. The Potency of Dextranase from Arthrobacter sp. Strain B7 as Dental Plaque Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AFAF BAKTIR

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dextranase of Arthrobacter sp. strain B7 (B7DEX enzyme was characterized in this study. This enzyme hydrolyzed sucrose and dextran, but not other glucans (starch, nigeran, cellulose, -soluble glucan. It also hydrolyzed glucan from dental plaque with the activity of 7.38 + 0.66 U/ml, where the activity toward dextran was 31.88 + 1.24 U/ml. The enzyme exhibited the pH optimum of 7 and the temperature optimum of 50 oC. Its optimum stability was at pH 7 and 50 oC. The enzyme was inhibited by Fe3+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Ag+, but not by the anionic detergent (SDS and the nonionic detergent (Triton-X. The enzyme was activated by Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, and saliva.

  15. In vitro study of the effect of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LuIs, Henrique Soares; Luis, Luis Soares; Bernardo, Mário

    2016-01-01

    Mouthrinses are used, by many of our patients, as a complement to daily dental hygiene routine. The use of a toothbrush and an interproximal cleaning method may not be enough to control dental plaque. Essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses are effective for the prevention of dental caries and gingivitis. To study the effect of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on dental plaque bacteria, an in vitro study was developed. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of an essential oil and a delmopinol mouth rinse on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli, and aerobic and anaerobic dental plaque nonspecific bacteria. Samples of human dental plaque were collected from consenting participants and bacteria isolated. Disk-diffusion tests were performed to obtain the minimum concentration of the mouth rinses necessary to inhibit bacterial growth. The ability of the commercial mouth rinses to inhibit bacterial growth was studied in comparison to a positive control (0.2% chlorhexidine) and a negative laboratorial control (sterilized water). The minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be inferior to the commercial essential oils and delmopinol mouth rinses concentrations. Delmopinol and essential oils have significant antibacterial properties shown in vitro only for aerobic bacteria, and for S. mutans, Lactobacillus, and anaerobic bacteria, the results were not statistically significant. Essential oils and chlorhexidine are statistically similar and better than delmopinol for aerobic bacteria growth inhibition. For the other bacteria, essential oils and delmopinol are not statistically promising. Results show that essential oils only may help patients to maintain good oral health as a complement to daily brushing and interproximal cleaning.

  16. Effects of extracellular plaque components on the chlorhexidine sensitivity of strains of Streptococcus mutans and human dental plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolinsky, L.E.; Hume, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    An in vitro study was undertaken to determine the effects of sucrose-derived extracellular plaque components on the sensitivity of selected oral bacteria to chlorhexidine (CX). Cultures of Streptococcus mutans HS-6, OMZ-176, Ingbritt C, 6715-wt13, and pooled human plaque were grown in trypticase soy media with or without 1% sucrose. The sensitivity to CX of bacteria grown in each medium was determined by fixed-time exposure to CX and subsequent measurement of 3 H-thymidine uptake. One-hour exposure to CX at concentrations of 10(-4) M (0.01% w/v) or greater substantially inhibited subsequent cellular division among all the S. mutans strains and human plaque samples tested. An IC50 (the CX concentration which depressed 3 H-thymidine incorporation to 50% of control level) of close to 10(-4) M was noted for S. mutans strains HS-6, OMZ-176, and 6715-wt13 when grown in the presence of sucrose. The same strains grown in cultures without added sucrose showed about a ten-fold greater sensitivity to CX (IC50 close to 10(-5) M). A three-fold difference was noted for S. mutans Ingbritt C. Only a slight increase in the IC50 was noted for the plaque samples cultured in sucrose-containing media, but their threshold for depression of 3 H-thymidine uptake by CX was lower than that for the sucrose-free plaque samples. The study showed that extracellular products confer some protection against CX to the bacteria examined, and provided an explanation for the disparity between clinically-recommended concentrations for plaque suppression and data on in vitro susceptibility

  17. Effects of mouthrinses with chlorhexidine and zinc ions combined with fluoride on the viability and glycolytic activity of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giertsen, E; Scheie, A A

    1995-10-01

    Inhibition of plaque acidogenicity by a mouthrinse with chlorhexidine (CHX) or zinc ions has been ascribed to a prolonged bacteriostasis due to substantive properties of the agents. The present aim was to study the effects of mouthrinses with CHX and Zn ions combined with fluoride on the viability and glycolytic activity of dental plaque in order to assess the bacteriostatic versus possible bactericidal effects. Following 2 d of plaque accumulation, 4 groups of 10 students rinsed with either 12 mM NaF (F), 0.55 mM CHX diacetate+F (F-CHX), 10 mM Zn acetate+F (F-Zn), or with the three agents in combination (F-CHX-Zn). Plaque samples were collected before and 90 min after mouthrinsing. Thereafter, the in vivo plaque pH response to sucrose was monitored in each student using touch microelectrodes. F-CHX and F-CHX-Zn reduced the in vivo pH fall significantly as compared with F, whereas F-Zn exerted a non-significant inhibition. Pooled pre- and post-rinse plaque samples were used to measure the pH fall during fermentation of [14C]-glucose, and the glycolytic profiles were analyzed by HPLC. Bacterial viability was assessed by counting the colony-forming units (CFU). All mouthrinses except F reduced glucose consumption and acid formation and thus the pH fall. F-CHX reduced the CFU equal to the reduction of glucose consumption, indicating that inhibition of plaque acidogenicity was due to a bactericidal rather than a bacteriostatic effect. F and F-Zn did not reduce the CFU, thus F-Zn decreased glucose metabolism without affecting plaque viability. F-CHX-Zn reduced both the CFU and glucose metabolism of surviving plaque microorganisms.

  18. Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Chałas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm.

  19. [Dental plaque as a biofilm - a risk in oral cavity and methods to prevent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chałas, Renata; Wójcik-Chęcińska, Ilona; Woźniak, Michał J; Grzonka, Justyna; Święszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydłowski, Krzysztof J

    2015-10-13

    Bacteria living constantly in the oral cavity are in the form of a biofilm. The biofilm formed on a solid base such as the enamel of the teeth, fillings, restorations, orthodontic appliances or obturators is dental plaque. Disturbance of homeostasis of biofilm, excessive growth or increase in the number of acid-forming bacteria leads to the development of the most common diseases of the oral cavity, i.e. dental caries and periodontal disease. The presence of bacterial biofilm on the walls of the root canal or at the top of the root on an outer wall leads to complications and failure in endodontic treatment. The aim of the study was to present the latest information on the occurrence, development and the role of biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of oral diseases and its control. Based on the literature analyzed, it can be concluded that the biofilm, due to its complex structure and numerous mechanisms of bacteria adaptation, is an effective barrier against the traditional agents with antibacterial properties. There are now great hopes for nanotechnology as an innovative method for obtaining new structures of nanometric size and different properties than source materials. The use of antibacterial properties of nano-silver used in dentistry significantly reduces the metabolic activity and the number of colony forming bacteria and lactic acid production in the biofilm.

  20. pH and bacterial profile of dental plaque in children and adults of a low caries population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raner, Elisabeth; Lindqvist, Lina; Johansson, Sofia; Hassan, Haidar; Carlén, Anette; Suksu-art, Narong; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2014-06-01

    This study compares pH and microbiological profile of dental plaque in children and adults of a low caries population. Thirty-nine children, 12-14 years of age and 45 adults between 20 and 39 years of age in 5 Karen villages of the Tak province, Northern Thailand were examined for plaque, calculus, caries (DMFT) and pH measurements in resting plaque and after a sucrose rinse. Information on dietary and oral hygiene habits was obtained through interviews using a fixed questionnaire. Microbiological profile of plaque samples was analyzed with DNA-DNA checkerboard technique. Mean DMFT was 0.77 ± 1.56 and 87% of the adults and 67% of the children were caries free (p plaque samples showed high levels of low acidogenic and anaerobic species, which dominated over strong acid producers such as streptococci. The study indicates that the Karen children and adults has a plaque physiology and microbiology predominating by low acidogenic anaerobes, which in addition to the low sucrose intake explains the low caries prevalence in this population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Photoabalation in dental hard substances and atheromatous plaques - The efficiency and selectivity criteria for surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, B.

    1995-01-01

    The basic principals of IR photoabalation are relatively easy to understand as long as water is the predominant absorber in the target tissue (e.g. brain tissue, cornea). Dental hard substances are typical target materials for the study of biological materials with low water content (30%) Its main constituent is hydroxyapatit (50%) with maximal absorption at 9.5 μm wavelength. The photoablation efficiency, the collateral thermal damage and the resultant formation of thermally induced surface cracks were investigated. Unlike the 2.95 μm of the Er:YAG, already in use, the 9.5 μm radiation minimizes the penetration depth; as a consequence, the volume of heated material per pulse is minimal too and thus thermal cracks - a potential source of caries are avoided. Furthermore at 9.5 μm, the ablation threshold requires a minimal fluence; this is an element of selectivity, limiting photoablation to dentin and enamel, while neighboring gingiva cannot be ablated accidentally. Removal of atherosclerotic plaques for recanalization of obliterated cardiac vessels (laser angioplasty) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure of highest socioeconomic relevance. The rather inhomogeneous composition of apatit and colesterol (both absorbing at 9.5 μm) make plaques a particularly complex target material; while the ablation efficiency has to be high, the related shock wave should be minimal. The open-quote selectivity close-quote criterion of the ablation process must avoid accidental perforation of the underlying vessel walls (composed of connective tissue with high water content), a deadly complication exclamation point Experimental results with FELIX will be demonstrated. Photoacoustic spectroscopy in a recently developed non contact mode has been proved to provide various informations (on line) about the IR-photoablation process

  2. Control of Established Gingivitis and Dental Plaque Using a 1450 ppm Fluoride/Zinc-based Dentifrice: A Randomized Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Y; Li, X; Hu, D Y; Mateo, L R; Morrison, B M; Delgado, E; Zhang, Y P

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy in controlling established gingivitis and dental plaque of a 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP)/zinc-based dentifrice, as compared to a zinc-free dentifrice with 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP after six months product use. A six-month clinical study, with eighty-six (86) subjects, was conducted in Chengdu, China, using a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group treatment design. After a baseline evaluation, study subjects were randomly assigned to one of the two study treatments: 1) 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP/zinc-based dentifrice (Test) or 2) 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP/zinc-free dentifrice (Negative Control). Subjects were provided with a soft bristle toothbrush and brushed their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice. After three months, and again after six months of product use, subjects returned to the testing facility for their followup gingivitis and plaque examinations. Statistical analyses were performed separately for the gingivitis assessments and dental plaque assessments using the appropriate statistical methods. All statistical tests of hypotheses were two-sided, and employed a level of significance of α = 0.05. After three and six months of product use, subjects assigned to the Test treatment exhibited statistically significant (p gingival index and plaque index scores as compared to subjects assigned to the Negative Control treatment. The results of this single-center, double-blind, parallel-group and randomized clinical study support the conclusion that a 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP/zinc-based dentifrice provides clinically meaningful and statistically significant reductions in gingivitis (23.8%) and dental plaque (22.5%) as compared to a 1450 ppm fluoride as SMFP/zinc-free dentifrice over a six-month period of twice-daily product use.

  3. Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Christina J; Dobney, Keith; Weyrich, Laura S; Kaidonis, John; Walker, Alan W; Haak, Wolfgang; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Townsend, Grant; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz; Alt, Kurt W; Parkhill, Julian; Cooper, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized1-5, yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets6,7 (beginning ~10,000 years BP6,8), and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (~1850)9. Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) ...

  4. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti-Rouy, Maryam; Azarsina, Mohadese; Rezaie-Soufi, Loghman; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Roshanaie, Ghodratollah; Komaki, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children. A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with pSage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn't significant. The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.

  5. Microbiological aspects of an in situ model to study effects of antimicrobial agents on dental plaque ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giertsen, E; Guggenheim, B; Thurnheer, T; Gmür, R

    2000-10-01

    This study validates an in situ model for ecological studies of dental plaque exposed to various antimicrobial agents with different modes of action on plaque bacteria. Eleven subjects wore two acrylic appliances, each containing two bovine enamel discs, during two 1-wk test periods. Using a split-mouth crossover design, the appliances were dipped twice daily for 1 min into water (control; treatment A), fluoride (26.3 mM NaF; B), zinc acetate (20.0 mM; C), or fluoride plus zinc acetate (D). Four of the subjects used also chlorhexidine diacetate (2.2 mM; E) and chlorhexidine plus fluoride (F). At the end of each period, plaque was collected from the discs, after which the microbiota were analyzed by culture, automated quantitative immunofluorescence, and a viability fluorescence stain. As compared to control, treatments B, C, and D resulted in a significant reduction of individual taxa as detected by immunofluorescence, whereas similar bacterial viability and total bacterial numbers were observed. In contrast, chlorhexidine significantly reduced bacterial viability, total cell numbers, and the abundance of most of the enumerated taxa. We conclude that this in situ model is well suited to study effects of antimicrobial agents on dental plaque ecology. Combined with viability testing, immunofluorescence is obviously superior to culture in detecting taxa-specific shifts caused by antimicrobial agents.

  6. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the plant extracts′ combinations against dental caries and plaque microorganisms: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Chandra Shekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health status has witnessed marked advances in many industrialized countries. However, dental caries is consistently increasing in developing countries, and periodontal diseases are among most common afflictions to humankind. Approach best suited for developing countries is to focus on the prevention with innovative strategies. Hence, evolution of novel, innovative strategies to prevent dental caries and periodontal diseases is need of hour. Objective: To determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of combinations of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava against dental caries and plaque microorganisms and to qualitatively identify various phytochemical constituents in individual plant extracts and their quadruple combinations. Materials and Methods: MIC of the combinations of A. nilotica, M. koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and P. guajava on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus (dental caries bacteria, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius (primary plaque colonizers, Fusobacterium nucleatum (secondary plaque colonizer, and Porphyromonas gingivalis (tertiary plaque colonizer was determined using broth dilution method. Series of dilutions of quadruple combinations ranging from 0.05% to 1.5% were prepared. 100 μL of each serial dilution of quadruple combinations was added to each tube containing bacterial culture. The optical density was noted after incubation in each tube to estimate the MIC for each bacterium. Results: MIC of the polyherbal combinations on S. mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius, L. acidophilus, F. nucleatum, and P. gingivalis was found to be 0.25%, 0.05%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.25%, respectively. Conclusion: The quadruple combinations of these four plant extracts could be considered in the evolution of an indigenous polyherbal mouth rinse as the formulation inhibited all the bacteria tested in the present study at low

  7. Comparative effect of fluoride, essential oil and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis in patients with and without dental caries: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charugundla, B R; Anjum, S; Mocherla, M

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fluoride, essential oil (EO) and chlorhexidine (CHX)-containing mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis and to compare their relative efficacy in patients with and without dental caries. A randomized, controlled, double- blind, crossover clinical trial was conducted for a period of 8 weeks. Thiry-six qualifying subjects, aged 12-44 years, were included in the study. Subjects were divided into caries and caries-free groups and were randomly assigned to one of the following mouth rinse groups: fluoride; EO; CHX and saline as negative control. Subjects used their respective mouth rinse for a period of 7-days each with 1-week wash-out periods. Primary efficacy variables were Quigley-Hein plaque index (PI) and Loe and Silness gingival index. Fluoride and CHX mouth rinses showed significant reduction in plaque after use of mouth rinses (P gingivitis (P > 0.05). Further significant differences were found in reducing plaque and gingivitis in caries-free subjects in comparison to those with caries (P gingivitis especially in caries-free subjects in comparison to those with caries, and amongst the three, fluoride and CHX proved to be more effective than EO mouth rinse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa [Dept. of Diagnosis and Health Promotion, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States); Soroushian, Sheila [Dept. of Orthodontics, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC(United States)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  9. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa; Soroushian, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  10. Use of ethanol extracts of Terminalia chebula to prevent periodontal disease induced by dental plaque bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongsung; Nho, Youn Hwa; Yun, Seok Kyun; Hwang, Young Sun

    2017-02-16

    The fruit of the Terminalia chebula tree has been widely used for the treatment of various disorders. Its anti-diabetic, anti-mutagenic, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and anti-viral effects have been studied. Dental plaque bacteria (DPB) are intimately associated with gingivitis and periodontitis. In the quest for materials that will prove useful in the treatment and prevention of periodontal disease, we investigated the preventive effects of an ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula (EETC) on DPB-induced inflammation and bone resorption. The anti-bacterial effect of EETC was analyzed using the disc diffusion method. The anti-inflammatory effect of EETC was determined by molecular biological analysis of the DPB-mediated culture cells. Prevention of osteoclastic bone resorption by EETC was explored using osteoclast formation and pit formation assays. EETC suppressed the growth of oral bacteria and reduced the induction of inflammatory cytokines and proteases, abolishing the expression of PGE2 and COX-2 and inhibiting matrix damage. By stimulating the DPB-derived lipopolysaccharides, EETC inhibited both osteoclast formation in osteoclast precursors and RANKL expression in osteoblasts, thereby contributing to the prevention of bone resorption. EETC may be a beneficial supplement to help prevent DPB-mediated periodontal disease.

  11. The susceptibility of dental plaque bacteria to the herbs included in Longo Vital®

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.; Fiehn, N. E.; Østergaard, E.

    1996-01-01

    Longo Vital® herbal tablets have been shown to have a protective effect against periodontal bone loss in rats. This may be ascribed either to a previously demonstrated immuno-stimulatory effect of the tablets, to an antimicrobial effect of the herbs or to a combination of both. In the present study...... the in vitro susceptibility of 12 dental plaque bacteria to six individual herbs included in Longo Vital® was determined by a broth dilution method. Paprika, rosemary leaves and peppermint inhibited two thirds of the tested bacteria at 2.8-45 mg/ml, 0.75-12 mg/ml and 3-24 mg/ml corresponding to 0.8-12.5 per...... cent, 1.6-25 per cent and 12.5-100 per cent of the recommended daily dose, respectively. A combination of paprika and rosemary leaves tested towards five susceptible bacteria revealed a decreased inhibitory effect on two of these bacteria, especially of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to paprika...

  12. Quorum sensing activity of Citrobacter amalonaticus L8A, a bacterium isolated from dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Share-Yuan; Khan, Saad Ahmed; Tee, Kok Keng; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2016-02-10

    Cell-cell communication is also known as quorum sensing (QS) that happens in the bacterial cells with the aim to regulate their genes expression in response to increased cell density. In this study, a bacterium (L8A) isolated from dental plaque biofilm was identified as Citrobacter amalonaticus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Its N-acylhomoserine-lactone (AHL) production was screened by using two types of AHL biosensors namely Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and Escherichia coli [pSB401]. Citrobacter amalonaticus strain L8A was identified and confirmed producing numerous types of AHL namely N-butyryl-L-homoserine lactone (C4-HSL), N-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C8-HSL) and N-hexadecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone (C16-HSL). We performed the whole genome sequence analysis of this oral isolate where its genome sequence reveals the presence of QS signal synthase gene and our work will pave the ways to study the function of the related QS genes in this bacterium.

  13. Inhibition of Tongue Coat and Dental Plaque Formation by Stabilized Chlorine Dioxide Vs Chlorhexidine Mouthrinse: A Randomized, Triple Blinded Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Seema Roodmal; Kini, Vineet Vaman; Padhye, Ashvini

    2015-09-01

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is an oxidizing agent with known bactericidal, viricidal and fungicidal properties. Its efficacy in reducing the halitosis has been established by previous literature. However, data evaluating its antiplaque property is scarce. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is considered as the gold standard and an effective adjunctive to mechanical plaque removal. However, it is associated with few reversible side effects. Therefore a study was conducted to assess the antiplaque property of ClO2 containing mouthrinse against CHX mouthrinse. To evaluate the efficacy of stabilized chlorine dioxide containing mouthrinse and CHX containing mouthrinse in inhibition of tongue coat accumulation and dental plaque formation using a four day plaque regrowth model clinically and microbiologically in a healthy dental cohort. A Single Center, Randomized, Triple blinded, Microbiological clinical trial was conducted involving 25 healthy dental students volunteers (11 males, 14 females). Two commercially available mouthrinse: Mouthrinse A - Aqueous based ClO2 mouthrinse Freshchlor(®) and Mouthrinse B - Aqueous based 0.2% CHX mouthrinse Hexidine(®) were selected as the test products. Subjects were asked to rinse and gargle for 1 minute with the allocated mouthrinse under supervision after supragingival scaling, polishing and tongue coat removal. After four hours, smears were taken from the buccal mucosa and tooth surface. On the fifth day from baseline of four day non brushing plaque regrowth model the samples were again taken from buccal mucosa and tooth surface followed by recording of plaque scores by Rastogi Modification of Navy Plaque index, extent of tongue coat by Winkel's tongue coating index and measuring tongue coat wet weight in grams. The samples collected were subjected to microbial analysis and the results were expressed as colony forming units (CFUs) per sample. The Data was analysed using SPSS 16.00 and presented using descriptive statistics. Independent t-test was

  14. Dynamics of red fluorescent dental plaque during experimental gingivitis--A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Monique H; Volgenant, Catherine M C; Keijser, Bart; Ten Cate, Jacob Bob M; Crielaard, Wim

    2016-05-01

    The dynamics of red fluorescent plaque (RFP) in comparison to clinical plaque and bleeding scores were studied during an experimental gingivitis protocol in a cohort of healthy participants. Forty-one participants were monitored for RFP before (24h plaque), during 14 days plaque accumulation (days 2, 5, 9, 14) and after 7 days recovery (24h plaque). RFP was assessed on fluorescence photographs of the vestibular aspect of the anterior teeth (cuspid to cuspid) in the upper and lower jaw. Clinical plaque and bleeding were assessed at days -14, 0, 14 and 21. RFP of 24h plaque was reproducible (days -14, 0), then increased during 14 days plaque accumulation and returned to baseline after 7 days recovery. Groups of low, moderate and high RFP formers were statistically significantly different at all times even already at baseline. The individual RFP response during 14 days plaque accumulation correlated well with RFP of 24h plaque (days -14, 0). RFP correlated moderate to well with clinical plaque at days -14, 0, 14 and 21. From day 2 of the gingivitis challenge RFP correlated with bleeding at day 14. RFP provided an objective measure of oral hygiene status. Given the correlation with clinical parameters found, the amount of RFP after 24h plaque accumulation was indicatory for the inflammatory response during a prolonged period of no oral hygiene. This trial was registered at the public trial register ​of the Central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (CCMO) under number NL51111.029.14 CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This paper shows the association between RFP after 24h plaque accumulation and inflammatory response after a prolonged period of no oral hygiene. Red plaque fluorescence can be used to identify subjects at risk for developing gingival inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Recombinant, Ureolytic Streptococcus mutans Demonstrates an Inverse Relationship between Dental Plaque Ureolytic Capacity and Cariogenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, K. Anne; Pearson, Sylvia; Bowen, William H.; Burne, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    Dental caries results from prolonged plaque acidification that leads to the establishment of a cariogenic microflora and demineralization of the tooth. Urease enzymes of oral bacteria hydrolyze urea to ammonia, which can neutralize plaque acids. To begin to examine the relationship between plaque ureolytic activity and the incidence of dental caries, recombinant, ureolytic strains of Streptococcus mutans were constructed. Specifically, the ureABCEFGD operon from Streptococcus salivarius 57.I was integrated into the S. mutans chromosome in such a way that the operon was transcribed from a weak, cognate promoter in S. mutans ACUS4 or a stronger promoter in S. mutans ACUS6. Both strains expressed NiCl2-dependent urease activity, but the maximal urease levels in ACUS6 were threefold higher than those in ACUS4. In vitro pH drop experiments demonstrated that the ability of the recombinant S. mutans strains to moderate a decrease in pH during the simultaneous metabolism of glucose and urea increased proportionately with the level of urease activity expressed. Specific-pathogen-free rats that were infected with ACUS6 and fed a cariogenic diet with drinking water containing 25 mM urea and 50 μM NiCl2 had relatively high levels of oral urease activity, as well as dramatic decreases in the prevalence of smooth-surface caries and the severity of sulcal caries, relative to controls. Urease activity appears to influence plaque biochemistry and metabolism in a manner that reduces cariogenicity, suggesting that recombinant, ureolytic bacteria may be useful to promote dental health. PMID:10768953

  16. Investigation of in vitro Mineral Forming Bacterial Isolates from Subgingival Calculus

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    Turgut Demir

    2014-06-01

    This is the first report to identify and show that bacteria from subgingival calculus under anaerobic conditions are involved in the formation of dental calculus. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2014; 3(3.000: 153-160

  17. Subgingival Microbiome of Gingivitis in Chinese Undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke; Ouyang, Xiang Ying; Chu, Yi; Zhang, Qian

    To analyse the microbiome composition of health and gingivitis in Chinese undergraduates with high-throughput sequencing. Sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons was performed with the MiSeq system to compare subgingival bacterial communities from 54 subjects with gingivitis and 12 periodontally healthy controls. A total of 1,967,372 sequences representing 14 phyla, 104 genera, and 96 species were detected. Analysis of similarities (Anosim) test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed significantly different community profiles between the health control and the subjects with gingivitis. Alpha-diversity metrics were significantly higher in the subgingival plaque of the subjects with gingivitis compared with that of the healthy control. Overall, the relative abundance of 35 genera and 46 species were significantly different between the two groups, among them 28 genera and 45 species showed higher relative abundance in the subjects with gingivitis, whereas seven genera and one species showed a higher relative abundance in the healthy control. The genera Porphyromonas, Treponema, and Tannerella showed higher relative abundance in the subjects with gingivitis, while the genera Capnocytophaga showed higher proportions in health controls. Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas endodontalis had higher relative abundance in gingivitis. Among them, Porphyromonas gingivalis was most abundant. Our results revealed significantly different microbial community composition and structures of subgingival plaque between subjects with gingivitis and healthy controls. Subjects with gingivitis showed greater taxonomic diversity compared with periodontally healthy subjects. The proportion of Porphyromonas, especially Porphyromonas gingivalis, may be associated with gingivitis subjects aged between 18 and 21 years old in China. Adults with gingivitis in this age group may have a higher risk of developing periodontitis.

  18. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral bacteria in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez y Mostajo, Mercedes; van der Reijden, Wil A; Buijs, Mark J; Beertsen, Wouter; Van der Weijden, Fridus; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2014-01-01

    Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX), has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strains were tested using agar diffusion susceptibility, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration tests. A pilot clinical study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers. Clinical assessments and microbiological sampling of supragingival plaque were performed at 1 month before the experiment (Pre-exp), at the start of the experiment (Baseline) and after the one-week experimental period (Post-exp). During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. The tested Prevotella strains and Fusobacterium nucleatum showed the highest sensitivity, while streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus were most resistant to AX. Plaque scores at Pre-exp and Baseline visits did not differ significantly (p = 0.193), nor did the microbial composition of plaque. During a period of 7-days non-brushing but twice daily rinsing plaque scores increased from 2.21 (0.31) at Baseline to 2.43 (0.39) Post-exp. A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased (p ≤ 0.001). AX has the potential for selective inhibition of oral bacteria. The shift in oral microbiome after 1 week of rinsing deserves further research.

  19. Effect of an oxygenating agent on oral microorganisms in vitro and on dental plaque composition in healthy young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes eFernandez y Mostajo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacteria live in symbiosis with the host. Therefore, when mouthwashes are indicated, selective inhibition of taxa contributing to disease is preferred instead of broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The potential selectivity of an oxygenating mouthwash, Ardox-X® (AX, has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial potential of AX and the effects of a twice-daily oral rinse on dental plaque composition. Material and methods: In vitro, 16 oral bacterial strains were tested using agar diffusion susceptibility, minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentration tests. A pilot clinical study was performed with 25 healthy volunteers. Clinical assessments and microbiological sampling of supragingival plaque were performed at one month before the experiment (Pre-exp, at the start of the experiment (Baseline and after the one-week experimental period (Post-exp. During the experiment individuals used AX mouthwash twice daily in absence of other oral hygiene measures. The microbiological composition of plaque was assessed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Results: AX showed high inter-species variation in microbial growth inhibition. The tested Prevotella strains and Fusobacterium nucleatum showed the highest sensitivity, while streptococci and Lactobacillus acidophilus were most resistant to AX. Plaque scores at Pre-exp and Baseline visits did not differ significantly (p = 0.193, nor did the microbial composition of plaque during a period of 7-days non-brushing but twice daily rinsing. Plaque scores increased from 2.21 (0.31 at Baseline to 2.43 (0.39 Post-exp. A significant microbial shift in composition was observed: genus Streptococcus and Veillonella increased while Corynebacterium, Haemophilus, Leptotrichia, Cardiobacterium and Capnocytophaga decreased (p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: AX has the potential for selective inhibition of oral bacteria. The shift in oral microbiome after one week of rinsing deserves

  20. Adjunctive dental therapy via tooth plaque reduction and gingivitis treatment by blue light-emitting diodes tooth brushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, Elina A.; Titorenko, Vladimir A.; Belikov, Andrey V.; Bashkatov, Alexey N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2015-12-01

    The efficacy of blue light-emitting toothbrushes (B-LETBs) (405 to 420 nm, power density 2 mW/cm2) for reduction of dental plaques and gingival inflammation has been evaluated. Microbiological study has shown the multifactor therapeutic action of the B-LETBs on oral pathological microflora: in addition to partial mechanical removal of bacteria, photodynamic action suppresses them up to 97.5%. In the pilot clinical studies, subjects with mild to moderate gingivitis have been randomly divided into two groups: a treatment group that used the B-LETBs and a control group that used standard toothbrushes. Indices of plaque, gingival bleeding, and inflammation have been evaluated. A significant improvement of all dental indices in comparison with the baseline (by 59%, 66%, and 82% for plaque, gingival bleeding, and inflammation, respectively) has been found. The treatment group has demonstrated up to 50% improvement relative to the control group. We have proposed the B-LETBs to serve for prevention of gingivitis or as an alternative to conventional antibiotic treatment of this disease due to their effectiveness and the absence of drug side effects and bacterial resistance.

  1. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts: dental plaque bacterial interactions can affect the virulence properties of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramitsu, Howard K; Wang, Bing-Yan

    2011-06-01

    It has been well established that dental caries results from the accumulation of dental plaque on tooth surfaces. Several decades of in vitro and as well as clinical studies have identified Streptococcus mutans as an important etiological agent in carious lesion formation. In addition, a variety of approaches have suggested that interactions between the bacterial components of biofilms can influence the properties of such polymicrobial structures. Therefore, it is likely that the mere presence of S. mutans in dental plaque does not alone account for the cariogenic potential of such biofilms. Recent studies have indicated that several bacteria commonly found in dental plaque can influence either the viability and/or virulence properties of S. mutans. This review will summarize some of the more recent findings in this regard as well as their implications for the development of novel anti-caries strategies.

  2. The comparison between the effectiveness of six different tooth brushing methods on removing dental bacterial plaque

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    Saghazadeh M.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: There are different tooth brushing methods for removing dental plaque from tooth surfaces. The effectiveness of these methods, and the time needed for instruction, learning and using seem to be different. Also, it is possible that the effectiveness of each method reduces with time, based on its difficulty level and the reduction of the patient s attention in following the given instructions. Purpose: The aim of this research was to compare the effectiveness of six different accepted tooth brushing methods on total and specific teeth, as well as on special tooth surfaces. The research also compared the time needed for instruction, learning and using the methods. Materials and Methods: The study was designed as a single blind randomised controlled trial protocol to compare the six accepted tooth brushing methods: Roll, Bass, Charters (C, Modified Stillman (MS, and Modified Bass in two ways (MB1-MB2. 15 volunteers were selected from the basic science level dental students at Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All the six methods were instructed to each volunteer, using a randomly selected sequence. Each participant should, therefore, pass six consequent courses, by the same sequences as follow: 1st Visit: After polishing the teeth, the participant was asked to abstain any kind of tooth cleaning. - 2nd visit (48-72 hours later: O Leary Plaque Index (PI was recorded and then the randomised selected method was instructed. Then, the participant brushed his/her teeth and PI was registered again. The time needed for instruction and using the method was registered too. The participant was then asked to use this newly learned tooth brushing method twice a day for 7±1 days. - 3rd visit (7±1 days later: PI was recorded. The teeth were polished. The participant was asked to abstain any kind of tooth cleaning for 48-72 hours, as washout period of the previous method and preparation period for the next method (2nd visit of the next

  3. Can insoluble polysaccharide concentration in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms predict early childhood caries? A follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisotto, T M; Stipp, R; Rodrigues, L K A; Mattos-Graner, R O; Costa, L S; Nobre-Dos-Santos, M

    2015-08-01

    Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 year. Plaque was collected for mutans streptococci (MS), total microorganism (TM) and lactobacilli (LB) enumerations in selective media, as well as for IP analysis, which was later assessed by colorimetry. Sugar/sucrose exposure was assessed by a diet chart. Positive correlations were found among the prevalence of caries and MS, TM, LB, solid sucrose and visible dental plaque. Additionally, children with IP concentrations in dental plaque higher than 2.36 μg/mg (odds ratio-OR=6.8), with visible plaque on maxillary incisors (OR=4.3), harbouring LB (OR=13) and exposed to solid sugar more than twice/day (OR=5) showed higher risk of developing caries (pdental plaque and cariogenic microorganisms could predict caries development, partially explaining the ECC pattern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [The effects of topical fluoridation of Ketac Molar Aplicap glass-ionomer material on the growth of cariogenic bacteria contained in the dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płuciennik-Stronias, Małgorzata; Zarzycka, Beata; Bołtacz-Rzepkowska, Elzbieta

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a bacterial disease. The most important element used in caries prevention is fluoride, which is derived from the air, diet or fluoride-containing preparations and materials, e.g. glass-ionomer restorations. Modern fluoride-containing restorative materials are capable of releasing fluoride to the environment. Fluoride can be also accumulated in glass-ionomer cements, thus an attempt was made to saturate these materials with fluoride. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of topical fluoridation of Ketac Molar Aplicap glass-ionomer cement on the growth of Lactobacillus spp. in the dental plaque. The study was carried out in 15 patients with good oral hygiene, in whom 35 fillings with conventional glass-ionomer material, Ketac Molar Aplicap, were performed. After 6 months, three-day dental plaque from these fillings was examined. Next, fluoride was rubbed on the glass-ionomer surface and the examination of three-day dental plaque was repeated. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.143) in the amounts of Lactobacillus spp. in the plaque collected prior to and after topical fluoridation were revealed. Fluoride rubbed in the conventional glass-ionomer cement, Ketac Molar Aplicap, did not affect the amount of Lactobacillus spp. in the dental plaque growing on this material.

  5. Efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous extracts) on dental plaque and gingivitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ritesh; Nekkanti, Sridhar; Kumar, Nikesh G; Kapuria, Ketan; Acharya, Shashidhar; Pentapati, Kalyana C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of triphala mouth rinse (aqueous) in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis among children. The study was a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, with a total of 60 school children (n = 30 in each group; triphala and chlorhexidine groups). Plaque and gingival indices were used to evaluate baseline and follow-up plaque and gingivitis. A total of 57 children completed the study. Both chlorhexidine and triphala groups showed significantly lower mean gingival and plaque index scores at follow up than baseline (P gingival index between the two groups (P = 0.826). The percentage change in the mean plaque index was significantly higher in the chlorhexidine group compared to the triphala group (P = 0.048). The effectiveness of triphala in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was comparable to chlorhexidine, and can be used for short-term purposes without potential side-effects. It is a cost-effective alternative in reducing plaque and gingivitis. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Can Insoluble Polysaccharide Concentration In Dental Plaque, Sugar Exposure And Cariogenic Microorganisms Predict Early Childhood Caries? A Follow-up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Parisotto; T. M.; Stipp; R.; Rodrigues; L. K. A.; Mattos-Graner; R. O.; Costa; L. S.; Nobre-dos-Santos; M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insoluble polysaccharide (IP) has been associated with caries prevalence in young children. However, the power of IP to predict ECC needs to be demonstrated. Aims: To assess the relationships between early childhood caries (ECC) and extracellular insoluble polysaccharides (IP) in dental plaque, sugar exposure and cariogenic microorganisms. Design: Visible plaque on maxillary incisors was recorded, followed by caries diagnosis in 65 preschoolers (3-4 years) at baseline and after 1 ...

  7. A Polymethyl Methacrylate-Based Acrylic Dental Resin Surface Bound with a Photoreactive Polymer Inhibits Accumulation of Bacterial Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunishi, Miya; Inoue, Yuuki; Morisaki, Hirobumi; Kuwata, Hirotaka; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Baba, Kazuyoshi

    The aim of this study was to examine the ability of a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butylmethacrylate-co-2-methacryloyloxyethyloxy-p-azidobenzoate) (PMBPAz) coating on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based dental resin to inhibit bacterial plaque formation, as well as the polymer's durability against water soaking and chemical exposure. Successful application of PMBPAz on PMMA surfaces was confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and measuring the static air contact angle in water. The anti-adhesive effects to bacterial plaque were evaluated using Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation assay. The mechanical and chemical durabilities of the PMBPAz coating on the PMMA surfaces were examined using soaking and immersion tests, respectively. XPS signals for phosphorus and nitrogen atoms and hydrophilic status on PMMA surfaces treated with PMBPAz were observed, indicating the presence of the polymer on the substrates. The treated PMMA surfaces showed significant inhibition of S mutans biofilm formation compared to untreated surfaces. The PMBPAz coating was preserved after water soaking and chemical exposure. In addition, water soaking did not decrease the ability of treated PMMA to inhibit biofilm formation compared to treated PMMA specimens not subjected to water soaking. This study suggests that PMBPAz coating may represent a useful modification to PMMA surfaces for inhibiting denture plaque accumulation.

  8. [The effects of Ketac Molar Aplicap glass-ionomer material on growth of cariogenic bacteria contained in the dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płuciennik-Stronias, Małgorzata; Sakowska, Danuta; Paul-Stalmaszczyk, Małgorzata; Bołtacz-Rzepkowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    In the aging population, the prevalence of root caries has been observed, which is a characteristic feature of the elderly people. The most important element used in caries prevention is fluoride, which is derived from the air, diet or fluoride-containing preparations and materials, e.g. glass-ionomer restorations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Ketac Molar Aplicap glass-ionomer on the growth of Lactobacillus sp. bacteria, one of the species most frequently found in the carietic focus of the tooth root. The study was carried out in 15 patients with good oral hygiene, in whom 35 fillings from Ketac Molar Aplicap conventional glass-ionomer material were performed. After 6 months, three-day dental plaque from these fillings and from the tooth enamel of the control group was examined. No statistically significant differences (p = 0.554) in the amounts of Lactobacillus sp. between the study and control group were revealed. Lack of inhibiting effect of glass-ionomer material on the growth of the dental plaque with Lactobacillus sp. after the time of observation is implied.

  9. The significance of gtf genes in caries expression: a rapid identification of Streptococcus mutans from dental plaque of child patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Apurva; Pandey, Ramesh K; Manickam, Natesan

    2015-01-01

    Rapid phylogenetic and functional gene (gtfB) identification of S. mutans from the dental plaque derived from children. Dental plaque collected from fifteen patients of age group 7-12 underwent centrifugation followed by genomic DNA extraction for S. mutans. Genomic DNA was processed with S. mutans specific primers in suitable PCR condtions for phylogenetic and functional gene (gtfB) identification. The yield and results were confirmed by agarose gel electrophoresis. 1% agarose gel electrophoresis depicts the positive PCR amplification at 1,485 bp when compared with standard 1 kbp indicating the presence of S. mutans in the test sample. Another PCR reaction was set using gtfB primers specific for S. mutans for functional gene identification. 1.2% agarose gel electrophoresis was done and a positive amplication was observed at 192 bp when compared to 100 bp standards. With the advancement in molecular biology techniques, PCR based identification and quantification of the bacterial load can be done within hours using species-specific primers and DNA probes. Thus, this technique may reduce the laboratory time spend in conventional culture methods, reduces the possibility of colony identification errors and is more sensitive to culture techniques.

  10. Effect of maltitol-containing chewing gum use on the composition of dental plaque microbiota in subjects with active dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Erica M; Kistler, James O; Moazzez, Rebecca; Thabuis, Clementine; Perreau, Caroline; Wade, William G

    2017-01-01

    Background : Sugar alcohols such as xylitol are incorporated in a number of oral hygiene products for their anti-cariogenic properties while chewing gum is known to be beneficial to oral hygiene. Objective : The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the dental plaque microbiota in patients with active caries before and after using a chewing gum supplemented with maltitol. Design : Forty subjects with active caries were randomly allocated to chew maltitol gum or gum base for two weeks. A healthy control group used gum base for two weeks. Plaque samples were collected before and after treatment and the microbiota analysed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Results : A total of 773,547 sequences were obtained from 117 samples. There was no difference in structure of the bacterial communities between groups (AMOVA). There was a significant difference in community membership between groups, (AMOVA, p=0.009). There was a significant difference between the control group after treatment and the maltitol patient group after treatment (p<0.001). A. naeslundii HOT-176 and Actinomyces HOT-169 were significantly reduced following use of maltitol chewing gum in patients. Conclusions : This study has shown that chewing gum containing maltitol had minor effects on the composition of the plaque microbiome.

  11. [The effect of fluoride-containing tooth paste on dental plaque and on fluoride level in the mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomori, H

    1989-01-01

    Various kinds of fluoride have been used for a long time and there are many reports concerning fluorides and their effects. Recently, the caries-inhibiting action of fluoride-containing tooth paste has been given much attention. In this study, I tried to clarify the residual time and amount of fluoride derived from the fluoride-containing tooth paste in the mouth, as well as to assess possible variation in bacterial composition in the dental plaque bacteriologically and biochemically. In the study on the fluoride clearance from the mouth, both 1.0 g and 0.5 g of paste showed the same reduction rates; and about an 80% reduction was recognized between the value at 3 minutes and that at 30 minutes, and about a 40% reduction from the 30-minute to the 60-minute interval. Next, a study on the variation in plaque bacteria was carried out. The total number of the CFU on each plate was not different between samples obtained before and after the use of the tooth paste; moreover, no difference was noted between aerobic and anaerobic culture. However, when plaque before and after brushing with fluoride-containing tooth paste were cultured in 10% sucrose solution, the differences of acid production such as lactic acid, acetic acid, and formic acid were demonstrated. Namely, these acid productions were inhibited after the use of fluoride, especially lactic acid was strongly inhibited. On the other hand, when Str. mutans from the plaque obtained after the use of fluoride-containing tooth paste was cultured in fluoride-free BHI broth, the inhibition of acid from carbohydrates was not shown clearly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Usefulness of real time PCR for the differentiation and quantification of 652 and JP2 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans genotypes in dental plaque and saliva

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    Piras Vincenzo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of our study is to describe a fast molecular method, able to distinguish and quantize the two different genotypes (652 and JP2 of an important periodontal pathogen: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans. The two genotypes show differences in the expression of an important pathogenic factor: the leukotoxin (ltx. In order to evidence this, we performed a real time PCR procedure on the ltx operon, able to recognize Aa clinical isolates with different leukotoxic potentials. Methods The specificity of the method was confirmed in subgingival plaque and saliva specimens collected from eighty-one Italian (Sardinian subjects with a mean age of 43.9, fifty five (68 % of whom had various clinical forms of periodontal disease. Results This procedure showed a good sensitivity and a high linear dynamic range of quantization (107-102 cells/ml for all genotypes and a good correlation factor (R2 = 0.97–0.98. Compared with traditional cultural methods, this real time PCR procedure is more sensitive; in fact in two subgingival plaque and two positive saliva specimens Aa was only detected with the molecular method. Conclusion A low number of Sardinian patients was found positive for Aa infections in the oral cavity, (just 10 positive periodontal cases out of 81 and two of these were also saliva positive. The highly leukotoxic JP2 strain was the most representative (60 % of the positive specimens; the samples from periodontal pockets and from saliva showed some ltx genotype for the same patient. Our experience suggests that this approach is suitable for a rapid and complete laboratory diagnosis for Aa infection.

  13. Consumption of baked nuts or seeds reduces dental plaque acidogenicity after sucrose challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Cheng, Chuoyue; Ge, Chunling; Wang, Bing; Gan, Ye-Hua

    2016-06-01

    To assess the acidogenic potential of eight different types of baked nuts or seeds eaten alone and after a sucrose challenge using in-dwelling electrode telemetry. Six participants wearing a mandibular partial prosthesis incorporated with a miniature glass pH electrode were enrolled. The plaque pH was measured after 5 or 6 days of plaque accumulation. To establish a control, the subjects were instructed to rinse with sucrose, without any subsequent treatment, at the first visit. At each subsequent test visit, the subjects were asked to chew sugar free xylitol gum or consume 10 g of baked (180 degrees C, 5 minutes) peanuts, walnuts, pistachios, cashews, almonds, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds, or watermelon seeds alone and 10 minutes after a sucrose rinse. The minimum plaque pH value and area of plaque pH curve under 5.7 (AUC5.7) during and after nut/seed consumption or gum chewing alone, the plaque pH value at 10 minutes after the sucrose rinse, the time required for the pH to return to >5.7 and AUC5.7 after the sucrose rinse with or without nut/seed consumption or gum chewing were calculated from the telemetric curves. The sucrose rinse induced a rapid decrease in the plaque pH to 4.32 +/- 0.17 at 10 minutes; this value remained below 5.7 for the measurement period. The AUC5.7 values were 34.58 +/- 7.27 and 63.55 +/- 15.17 for 40 and 60 minutes after the sucrose challenge, respectively. With the exception of cashews and pumpkin seeds (minimum pH, 5.42 and 5.63 respectively), the nuts or seeds did not decrease the plaque pH to below 5.7 when consumed alone, with the AUC5.7 values during and after consumption (total 40 minutes) ranging from 0.24 to 2.5 (8.44 for cashews), which were significantly lower than those after the sucrose challenge. Furthermore, nut/seed consumption or gum chewing after the sucrose challenge significantly reversed the sucrose-induced decrease in the plaque pH, and the time required for the pH to return to >5.7 and the AUC5.7 values for 60

  14. The effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on the cell-surface hydrophobicity of selected early settlers of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Fathilah Abdul; Othman, Rofina Yasmin; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abd

    2006-06-01

    The adhesion of early settlers of dental plaque to the tooth surface has a role in the initiation of the development of dental plaque. The hydrophobic surface properties of the bacteria cell wall are indirectly responsible for the adhesion of the bacteria cell to the acquired pellicle on the tooth surfaces. In this study, the effect of aqueous extract of two plants (Psidium guajava and Piper betle) on the cell-surface hydro-phobicity of early settlers of dental plaque was determined in vitro. Hexadecane, a hydrocarbon was used to represent the hydrophobic surface of the teeth in the oral cavity. It was found that treatment of the early plaque settlers with 1 mg/ml extract of Psidium guajava reduced the cell-surface hydrophobicity of Strep. sanguinis, Strep. mitis and Actinomyces sp. by 54.1%, 49.9% and 40.6%, respectively. Treatment of these bacteria with the same concentration of Piper betle however, showed a comparatively lesser effect (< 10%). It was also observed that the anti-adhesive effect of the two extracts on the binding of the early plaque settlers to hexadecane is concentration dependent.

  15. Urease activity in dental plaque and saliva of children during a three-year study period and its relationship with other caries risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou-Bermudez, E; Elias-Boneta, A; Billings, RJ; Burne, RA; Garcia-Rivas, V; Brignoni-Nazario, V; Suarez-Perez, E

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial urease activity in dental plaque and in saliva generates ammonia, which can increase the plaque pH and can protect acid-sensitive oral bacteria. Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that reduced ability to generate ammonia from urea in dental plaque can be an important caries risk factor. In spite of this proposed important clinical role, there is currently no information available regarding important clinical aspects of oral ureolysis in children. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution and pattern of urease activity in the dental plaque and in the saliva of children during a three-year period, and to examine the relationship of urease with some important caries risk factors. METHODS A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measures over a three-year period on a panel of 80 children, ages three to six years at recruitment. The dynamics of change in urease activity were described and associated with clinical, biological, and behavioral caries risk factors. RESULTS Urease activity in plaque showed a trend to remain stable during the study period and was negatively associated with sugar consumption (PUrease activity in unstimulated saliva increased with age, and it was positively associated with the levels of mutans streptococci in saliva and with the educational level of the parents (Purease activity and some important caries risk factors. Urease activity in saliva could be an indicator of mutans infection in children. PMID:21616477

  16. Intakes of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy servings and dental plaque in older Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Ra; Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Holm-Pedersen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether intakes of calcium and dairy-servings within-recommendations were associated with plaque score when allowing for vitamin D intakes. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, including 606 older Danish adults, total dietary calcium intake (mg/day) was classified...

  17. Effect of soy and bovine milks on the dental plaque pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Moeiny

    2016-11-01

    (P<0.05. Conclusion: Bovine milk in none of frequent timing dropped its pH below basic pH but also significantly increased the plaque pH above the critical pH. The maximum pH drop for soy milk was in 2minutes after consumption but it never reached below the critical pH.

  18. Effect of various rinsing protocols after use of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride toothpaste on the bacterial composition of dental plaque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loveren, C.; Gerardu, V.A.M.; Sissons, C.H.; van Bekkum, M.; ten Cate, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This clinical study evaluated the effect of different oral hygiene protocols on the bacterial composition of dental plaque. After a 2-week period of using fluoride-free toothpaste, 30 participants followed three 1-week experimental protocols, each followed by 2-week fluoride-free washout periods in

  19. Levels of Candidate Periodontal Pathogens in Subgingival Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R R D S; Fermiano, D; Feres, M; Figueiredo, L C; Teles, F R F; Soares, G M S; Faveri, M

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, several new periodontal taxa have been associated with the etiology of periodontitis. A recent systematic review provides further support for the pathogenic role of 17 species/phylotypes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and levels of these species in subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (GChP; n = 30), generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP; n = 30), and periodontal health (PH; n = 30). All subjects underwent clinical and microbiological assessment. Nine subgingival plaque samples were collected from each subject and analyzed for their content of 20 bacterial species/phylotypes through the RNA-oligonucleotide quantification technique. Subjects from the GChP and GAgP groups presented the highest mean values for all clinical parameters in comparison with the PH group (P GChP and GAgP showed significantly higher mean levels of Bacteroidetes sp. human oral taxon (HOT) 274, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360, and TM7 sp. HOT 356 phylotypes, as well as higher mean levels of Filifactor alocis, Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Selenomonas sputigena species than PH subjects (P GChP subjects (P GChP and GAgP than in PH subjects. Mean levels of P. gingivalis (r = 0.68), T. forsythia (r = 0.62), F. alocis (r = 0.51, P = 0.001), and Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360 (r = 0.41) were correlated with pocket depth (P < 0.001). In conclusion, Bacteroidales sp. HOT 274, Desulfobulbus sp. HOT 041, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 362, and TM7 sp. HOT 356 phylotypes, in addition to F. alocis, F. fastidiosum, and S. sputigena, seem to be associated with periodontitis, and their role in periodontal pathogenesis should be further investigated. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2016.

  20. Comparative efficacy of two battery-powered toothbrushes on dental plaque removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlman, C Douglas; Bartizek, Robert D; Biesbrock, Aaron R

    2002-01-01

    A number of clinical studies have consistently demonstrated that power toothbrushes deliver superior plaque removal compared to manual toothbrushes. Recently, a new power toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) has been marketed with a design that fundamentally differs from other marketed power toothbrushes. Other power toothbrushes feature a small, round head designed to oscillate for enhanced cleaning between the teeth and below the gumline. The new power toothbrush incorporates a similar round oscillating head in conjunction with fixed bristles, which allows the user to brush with optimal manual brushing technique. The objective of this randomized, examiner-blind, parallel design study was to compare the plaque removal efficacy of a positive control power toothbrush (Colgate Actibrush) to an experimental toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush) following a single use among 59 subjects. Baseline plaque scores were 1.64 and 1.40 for the experimental toothbrush and control toothbrush treatment groups, respectively. With regard to all surfaces examined, the experimental toothbrush delivered an adjusted (via analysis of covariance) mean difference between baseline and post-brushing plaque scores of 0.47, while the control toothbrush delivered an adjusted mean difference of 0.33. On average, the difference between toothbrushes was statistically significant (p = 0.013). Because the covariate slope for the experimental group was statistically significantly greater (p = 0.001) than the slope for the control group, a separate slope model was used. Further analysis demonstrated that the experimental group had statistically significantly greater plaque removal than the control group for baseline plaque scores above 1.43. With respect to buccal surfaces, using a separate slope analysis of covariance, the experimental toothbrush delivered an adjusted mean difference between baseline and post-brushing plaque scores of 0.61, while the control toothbrush delivered an adjusted mean difference of 0

  1. Association of caries experience and dental plaque with sociodemographic characteristics in elementary school-aged children: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashirian, Saeed; Shirahmadi, Samaneh; Seyedzadeh-Sabounchi, Shabnam; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Vahdatinia, Farshid

    2018-01-10

    Dental caries among Iranian elementary school children aged 6-12 years continue to rise. To estimate treatment needs and guide health initiatives, current epidemiologic data are required. Such data are currently unavailable for dental health. The purpose of this study was to assess caries experience, dental plaque, and associated factors in elementary school-aged children from Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 988 elementary school children aged 7-12 years were selected by multistage cluster sampling. Dental caries was studied using the WHO criteria, dental plaque was examined according to O'Leary index. Data on parental education and occupation, living district, dental pain within the past year, and tooth brushing habits under parental supervision were collected through interviews based on questionnaire. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and logistic and linear regression. The mean (SD) age of the elementary school children was 9.64 (1.73) years. The highest dmft was seen in elementary school children aged 7-8 years 6.53 (4.37) and the highest DMFT and dental plaque was in 12 year olds recorded as 1.17 (1.77) and 51.97 (25.86), respectively. The proportion of decayed teeth in 7 years old elementary school based on dmft index was 80.36%, moreover, the proportion in 12 years old elementary school was 40.17% based on the DMFT index. Age, gender, and dental pain within the past year were significantly associated with DMFT and dmft. The odds of developing dental caries (DMFT) was 1.70 times higher in girls than in boys (p elementary school children in Hamadan were high and they were influenced by their sociodemographic factors. The associations found can be used as a helpful guide for planning accurate preventive programs for elementary school children in this region.

  2. Non-lethal control of the cariogenic potential of an agent-based model for dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, David A; Marsh, Phil D; Devine, Deirdre A

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries or tooth decay is a prevalent global disease whose causative agent is the oral biofilm known as plaque. According to the ecological plaque hypothesis, this biofilm becomes pathogenic when external challenges drive it towards a state with a high proportion of acid-producing bacteria. Determining which factors control biofilm composition is therefore desirable when developing novel clinical treatments to combat caries, but is also challenging due to the system complexity and the existence of multiple bacterial species performing similar functions. Here we employ agent-based mathematical modelling to simulate a biofilm consisting of two competing, distinct types of bacterial populations, each parameterised by their nutrient uptake and aciduricity, periodically subjected to an acid challenge resulting from the metabolism of dietary carbohydrates. It was found that one population was progressively eliminated from the system to give either a benign or a pathogenic biofilm, with a tipping point between these two fates depending on a multiplicity of factors relating to microbial physiology and biofilm geometry. Parameter sensitivity was quantified by individually varying the model parameters against putative experimental measures, suggesting non-lethal interventions that can favourably modulate biofilm composition. We discuss how the same parameter sensitivity data can be used to guide the design of validation experiments, and argue for the benefits of in silico modelling in providing an additional predictive capability upstream from in vitro experiments.

  3. Efficacy of Chlorhexidine, Xylitol, and Chlorhexidine + Xylitol against Dental Plaque, Gingivitis, and Salivary Streptococcus mutans Load: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Taneja, Pratibha; Nagpal, Ruchi; Marya, Vandana; Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Arora, Dimple

    To compare the antiplaque, antigingivitis and antibacterial efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX), XYL and a mouthwash combining CHX and XYL against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). A parallel design, randomised controlled trial was conducted among 75 dental students. Participants were randomised into CHX, CHX+XYL and XYL-only groups using the lottery method. Subjects were instructed to use 10 ml of the provided mouthwash for 15 s twice daily for 3 weeks. All the outcome measures, gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and number of salivary S. mutans CFU were recorded at baseline and 3 weeks post intervention. Nonparametric tests were used for inferential statistics. All outcome variables (GI, PI scores and log10 salivary S. mutans counts) decreased significantly from baseline compared to post intervention among all three groups. Intergroup comparison demonstrated that reduction in GI was not significantly different among the three groups. The decrease in PI scores was found to be significantly higher in the XYL group, while the decrease in the log10 salivary S. mutans count was significantly higher in the CHX+XYL group. The present study provided sufficient data to suggest that all the three mouthwashes are effective against plaque, gingivitis and S. mutans load in saliva. Further investigations should be carried out to confirm the results and develop strategies for using such products to prevent tooth decay.

  4. Genomic library screening for viruses from the human dental plaque revealed pathogen-specific lytic phage sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jarbou, Ahmed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial pathogenesis presents an astounding arsenal of virulence factors that allow them to conquer many different niches throughout the course of infection. Principally fascinating is the fact that some bacterial species are able to induce different diseases by expression of different combinations of virulence factors. Nevertheless, studies aiming at screening for the presence of bacteriophages in humans have been limited. Such screening procedures would eventually lead to identification of phage-encoded properties that impart increased bacterial fitness and/or virulence in a particular niche, and hence, would potentially be used to reverse the course of bacterial infections. As the human oral cavity represents a rich and dynamic ecosystem for several upper respiratory tract pathogens. However, little is known about virus diversity in human dental plaque which is an important reservoir. We applied the culture-independent approach to characterize virus diversity in human dental plaque making a library from a virus DNA fraction amplified using a multiple displacement method and sequenced 80 clones. The resulting sequence showed 44% significant identities to GenBank databases by TBLASTX analysis. TBLAST homology comparisons showed that 66% was viral; 18% eukarya; 10% bacterial; 6% mobile elements. These sequences were sorted into 6 contigs and 45 single sequences in which 4 contigs and a single sequence showed significant identity to a small region of a putative prophage in the Corynebacterium diphtheria genome. These findings interestingly highlight the uniqueness of over half of the sequences, whilst the dominance of a pathogen-specific prophage sequences imply their role in virulence.

  5. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in dental plaque samples and its association with early childhood caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Jung; Lee, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Young-Jae

    2009-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus are closely associated with the development of early childhood caries (ECC). Recently, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been used for rapid and accurate quantification of these bacterial species. This study aims to detect quantitatively the levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in plaque samples by qRT-PCR, and to assess their association with the prevalence of ECC in Korean preschool children. One hundred and five children (71 months old or younger) were examined and classified into three groups (caries-free, ECC, severe ECC). Dental plaque samples were collected and qRT-PCR was conducted using oligonucleotide primers specific for glucosyltransferase gene (S. mutans-gtfB, S. sobrinus-gtfU) and universal primer. Pearson's correlation test was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the dmfs (decayed, missing, or filled surfaces primary teeth) scores and the microbiological findings. There was a significant difference between the levels of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in the plaque samples of the three groups (P plaque samples. The children with higher ratio of S. sobrinus to S. mutans in their dental plaque showed higher incidence of ECC.

  6. Dental plaque pH variation with regular soft drink, diet soft drink and high energy drink: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawale, Bhushan Arun; Bendgude, Vikas; Mahuli, Amit V; Dave, Bhavana; Kulkarni, Harshal; Mittal, Simpy

    2012-03-01

    A high incidence of dental caries and dental erosion associated with frequent consumption of soft drinks has been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pH response of dental plaque to a regular, diet and high energy drink. Twenty subjects were recruited for this study. All subjects were between the ages of 20 and 25 and had at least four restored tooth surfaces present. The subjects were asked to refrain from brushing for 48 hours prior to the study. At baseline, plaque pH was measured from four separate locations using harvesting method. Subjects were asked to swish with 15 ml of the respective soft drink for 1 minute. Plaque pH was measured at the four designated tooth sites at 5, 10 and 20 minutes intervals. Subjects then repeated the experiment using the other two soft drinks. pH was minimum for regular soft drink (2.65 ± 0.026) followed by high energy drink (3.39 ± 0.026) and diet soft drink (3.78 ± 0.006). The maximum drop in plaque pH was seen with regular soft drink followed by high energy drink and diet soft drink. Regular soft drink possesses a greater acid challenge potential on enamel than diet and high energy soft drinks. However, in this clinical trial, the pH associated with either soft drink did not reach the critical pH which is expected for enamel demineralization and dissolution.

  7. Sequencing ancient calcified dental plaque shows changes in oral microbiota with dietary shifts of the Neolithic and Industrial revolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Christina J; Dobney, Keith; Weyrich, Laura S; Kaidonis, John; Walker, Alan W; Haak, Wolfgang; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Townsend, Grant; Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz; Alt, Kurt W; Parkhill, Julian; Cooper, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The importance of commensal microbes for human health is increasingly recognized, yet the impacts of evolutionary changes in human diet and culture on commensal microbiota remain almost unknown. Two of the greatest dietary shifts in human evolution involved the adoption of carbohydrate-rich Neolithic (farming) diets (beginning ∼10,000 years before the present) and the more recent advent of industrially processed flour and sugar (in ∼1850). Here, we show that calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) on ancient teeth preserves a detailed genetic record throughout this period. Data from 34 early European skeletons indicate that the transition from hunter-gatherer to farming shifted the oral microbial community to a disease-associated configuration. The composition of oral microbiota remained unexpectedly constant between Neolithic and medieval times, after which (the now ubiquitous) cariogenic bacteria became dominant, apparently during the Industrial Revolution. Modern oral microbiotic ecosystems are markedly less diverse than historic populations, which might be contributing to chronic oral (and other) disease in postindustrial lifestyles.

  8. Urease activity in dental plaque and saliva of children during a three-year study period and its relationship with other caries risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morou-Bermudez, E; Elias-Boneta, A; Billings, R J; Burne, R A; Garcia-Rivas, V; Brignoni-Nazario, V; Suarez-Perez, E

    2011-11-01

    Bacterial urease activity in dental plaque and in saliva generates ammonia, which can increase the plaque pH and can protect acid-sensitive oral bacteria. Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that reduced ability to generate ammonia from urea in dental plaque can be an important caries risk factor. In spite of this proposed important clinical role, there is currently no information available regarding important clinical aspects of oral ureolysis in children. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution and pattern of urease activity in the dental plaque and in the saliva of children during a three-year period, and to examine the relationship of urease with some important caries risk factors. A longitudinal study was conducted with repeated measures over a three-year period on a panel of 80 children, aged 3-6 years at recruitment. The dynamics of change in urease activity were described and associated with clinical, biological, and behavioural caries risk factors. Urease activity in plaque showed a trend to remain stable during the study period and was negatively associated with sugar consumption (P<0.05). Urease activity in unstimulated saliva increased with age, and it was positively associated with the levels of mutans streptococci in saliva and with the educational level of the parents (P<0.05). The results of this study reveal interesting and complex interactions between oral urease activity and some important caries risk factors. Urease activity in saliva could be an indicator of mutans infection in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Changes in the Concentration of Ions in Saliva and Dental Plaque after Application of CPP-ACP with and without Fluoride among 6-9 Year Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poureslami H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The casein phospho peptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with or without fluoride (CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP respectively are of considerably new materials which are highly recommended for prevention of dental caries. However, there is a shortage in literature on how they affect the ion concentration of saliva or dental plaque. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of calcium, phosphate and fluoride in the plaque and saliva of children with Early Childhood Caries (ECC after applying the CPP-ACP paste in comparison with the use of CPP- ACPF paste. Materials and Methods: One ml of un-stimulated saliva of 25 preschool children was collected and then 1 mg of the plaque sample was collected from the buccal surfaces of the two first primary molars on the upper jaw. CPP-ACP as well as CPP- ACPF pastes were applied on the tooth surfaces in two separate steps. In steps, plaque and saliva sampling was performed after 60 minutes. The amount of calcium ions was measured by Atomic Absorption Device and the amount of phosphate and fluoride ions was measured by Ion Chromatography instrument. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measurements ANOVA at a p < 0.05 level of significance. Results: Application of both CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP significantly increased the concentration of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride in both saliva and dental plaque. Moreover, significantly higher salivary fluoride concentration was seen after application of CPP-ACPF compared to CPP-ACP. No other significant difference was observed between these two materials. Conclusions: CPP-ACPF can be more useful than CPP-ACP in protecting the primary teeth against caries process, especially when there is poor hygiene.

  10. Changes in the Concentration of Ions in Saliva and Dental Plaque after Application of CPP-ACP with and without Fluoride among 6-9 Year Old Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poureslami, H; Hoseinifar, Ra; Khazaeli, P; Hoseinifar, Re; Sharifi, H; Poureslami, P

    2017-03-01

    The casein phospho peptide-amorphous calcium phosphate with or without fluoride (CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP respectively) are of considerably new materials which are highly recommended for prevention of dental caries. However, there is a shortage in literature on how they affect the ion concentration of saliva or dental plaque. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of calcium, phosphate and fluoride in the plaque and saliva of children with Early Childhood Caries (ECC) after applying the CPP-ACP paste in comparison with the use of CPP-ACPF paste. One ml of un-stimulated saliva of 25 preschool children was collected and then 1 mg of the plaque sample was collected from the buccal surfaces of the two first primary molars on the upper jaw. CPP-ACP as well as CPP-ACPF pastes were applied on the tooth surfaces in two separate steps. In steps, plaque and saliva sampling was performed after 60 minutes. The amount of calcium ions was measured by Atomic Absorption Device and the amount of phosphate and fluoride ions was measured by Ion Chromatography instrument. Data were analyzed using Repeated Measurements ANOVA at a p Application of both CPP-ACPF and CPP-ACP significantly increased the concentration of calcium, phosphate, and fluoride in both saliva and dental plaque. Moreover, significantly higher salivary fluoride concentration was seen after application of CPP-ACPF compared to CPP-ACP. No other significant difference was observed between these two materials. CPP-ACPF can be more useful than CPP-ACP in protecting the primary teeth against caries process, especially when there is poor hygiene.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Copaifera langsdorffii oil and evaluation of its most bioactive fraction against bacteria of dog’s dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA Pieri

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of copaiba oil and its resinous and volatile fractions against 20 bacterial isolates from dental plaque of dogs. The antimicrobial activities of the oil and its fractions were evaluated by the agar diffusion test with solutions at 10% concentration. The results showed antimicrobial activity for the copaiba oil solution on 16 isolates. The volatile fraction was considered statistically similar (P>0.05 to copaiba oil intact on the size of inhibition zones inhibiting 17 isolates. The resinous fraction inhibited only eight isolates, with smaller haloes when compared with those of the volatile fraction and intact oil (P<0.05. It is concluded from these results that copaiba oil is a potential phytotherapic to be used in dental plaque antimicrobial therapy of dogs and suggests that its activity is due to sesquiterpenes of the volatile fraction.

  12. Subgingival microbial communities in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and their relationship with local immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsopoulos, Niki M; Chalmers, Natalia I; Barb, Jennifer J; Abusleme, Loreto; Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Dutzan, Nicolas; Paster, Bruce J; Munson, Peter J; Fine, Daniel H; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I (LAD-I) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by single gene mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins which result in defective transmigration of neutrophils into the tissues. Affected patients suffer from recurrent life threatening infections and severe oral disease (periodontitis). Microbial communities in the local environment (subgingival plaque) are thought to be the triggers for inflammatory periodontitis, yet little is known regarding the microbial communities associated with LAD-I periodontitis. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the subgingival communities in LAD-I, using a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray, and investigate the relationship of this tooth adherent microbiome to the local immunopathology of periodontitis. We show that the LAD subgingival microbiome is distinct from that of health and Localized Aggressive Periodontitits. Select periodontitis-associated species in the LAD microbiome included Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Eubacterium brachy and Treponema species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium not typically found in subgingival plaque is detected in LAD-I. We suggest that microbial products from LAD-associated communities may have a role in stimulating the local inflammatory response. We demonstrate that bacterial LPS translocates into the lesions of LAD-periodontitis potentially triggering immunopathology. We also show in in vitro assays with human macrophages and in vivo in animal models that microbial products from LAD-associated subgingival plaque trigger IL-23-related immune responses, which have been shown to dominate in patient lesions. In conclusion, our current study characterizes the subgingival microbial communities in LAD-periodontitis and supports their role as triggers of disease pathogenesis.

  13. Subgingival microbial communities in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and their relationship with local immunopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki M Moutsopoulos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I (LAD-I is a primary immunodeficiency caused by single gene mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins which result in defective transmigration of neutrophils into the tissues. Affected patients suffer from recurrent life threatening infections and severe oral disease (periodontitis. Microbial communities in the local environment (subgingival plaque are thought to be the triggers for inflammatory periodontitis, yet little is known regarding the microbial communities associated with LAD-I periodontitis. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the subgingival communities in LAD-I, using a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray, and investigate the relationship of this tooth adherent microbiome to the local immunopathology of periodontitis. We show that the LAD subgingival microbiome is distinct from that of health and Localized Aggressive Periodontitits. Select periodontitis-associated species in the LAD microbiome included Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Eubacterium brachy and Treponema species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium not typically found in subgingival plaque is detected in LAD-I. We suggest that microbial products from LAD-associated communities may have a role in stimulating the local inflammatory response. We demonstrate that bacterial LPS translocates into the lesions of LAD-periodontitis potentially triggering immunopathology. We also show in in vitro assays with human macrophages and in vivo in animal models that microbial products from LAD-associated subgingival plaque trigger IL-23-related immune responses, which have been shown to dominate in patient lesions. In conclusion, our current study characterizes the subgingival microbial communities in LAD-periodontitis and supports their role as triggers of disease pathogenesis.

  14. Changes in microflora in dental plaque from cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and the relationship of these changes with mucositis: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozza, Iole; Caldarazzo, Vito; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2015-05-01

    To assess changes in oral microflora in dental plaque from cancer patients within 7 days of the first course of chemotherapy, and the relationship of the changes with mucositis. Thirty cancer patients, divided into a test group undergoing chemotherapy and a control group no undergoing chemotherapy, were enrolled in this pilot study. Oral microflora were cultured from three samples of dental plaque at t0 (before chemotherapy), t1 (1 day after chemotherapy) and t2 (7 days after chemotherapy). Single and crossed descriptive analyses were used to establish prevalence, and the χ² test was used to establish the statistical significance of the differences observed in distributions (significance level: Pbacterial flora also had periodontal-pathogenic species. No Porphyromonas gingivalis appeared in the test group. Actinobacillus was the least frequently found bacterium among periodontal pathogens in the test group, while Fusobacterium nucleatum was the most frequently found. No significant differences were found in quantitative bacterial changes between t0, t1 and t2 in either the test or control groups, or between the two groups. According to World Health Organization scores, oral mucositis developed in 10 patients (66.6%) in the test group. The results of this pilot study indicate that there were no changes in microflora in dental plaque in cancer patients within 7 days of the first course of chemotherapy. No correlations between oral mucositis and specific microorganisms were assessed.

  15. Effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) mouthwash containing 1% tannin on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis: a double-blinded, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radafshar, Golpar; Ghotbizadeh, Mahshid; Saadat, Farshid; Mirfarhadi, Nastaran

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of Iranian green tea mouthwash containing 1% tannin on dental plaque and chronic gingivitis. In this randomized, double-blinded, parallel, controlled clinical trial, 40 volunteer dental students with a gingival index ≥1 were enrolled. At baseline, gingival, plaque, and bleeding indices were recorded and all the participants received dental polishing. Based on random allocation, 20 participants used the test and 20 used chlorhexidine mouthwash with no change in regular toothbrushing methods. The participants were asked to use 15 mL of the respective mouthwash for 1 min, twice a day for 28 days. All indices, as well as stain index, were recorded after 1 and 4 weeks post-rinsing. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests. Significant in-group differences, but not between-group differences, were observed in all indices after 1 and 4 weeks compared to baseline. The test mouthwash resulted in significantly less tooth staining than the control. The 1% tannin green tea mouthwash could be a safe and feasible adjunct to mechanical plaque control. The tested green tea mouthwash could be considered a good alternative for chlorhexidine in contraindicating situations. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Effect of various rinsing protocols after use of amine fluoride/stannous fluoride toothpaste on the bacterial composition of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loveren, C; Gerardu, V A M; Sissons, C H; van Bekkum, M; ten Cate, J M

    2009-01-01

    This clinical study evaluated the effect of different oral hygiene protocols on the bacterial composition of dental plaque. After a 2-week period of using fluoride-free toothpaste, 30 participants followed three 1-week experimental protocols, each followed by 2-week fluoride-free washout periods in a randomized crossover examiner-blind controlled trial. The 1-week experimental protocols comprised the use of AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste twice daily, after which participants either (1) rinsed with tap water, (2) did not rinse but only spat out the toothpaste, or (3) rinsed with an AmF/SnF(2) mouthwash. In the fluoride-free washout periods, the participants brushed their teeth with fluoride-free toothpaste without further instructions. Six hours after the last brushing (+/- rinsing) of each period, buccal plaque samples in the upper molar region were taken. The microbiota composition of the plaque samples was analyzed by checkerboard DNA:DNA hybridization. A statistically significant reduction was found in the total amount of DNA of the 39 major plaque species measured, and in the proportions of some acid-producing bacterial strains after the period having used the AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste + AmF/SnF(2) mouthrinsing. The results indicate that using the AmF/SnF(2) toothpaste and rinse combination could result in plaque of lower cariogenicity. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Total antioxidant property and pH change of dental plaque and saliva in 6-11-year-old children after consumption of flavored milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effat Khodadadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The antioxidant properties of chocolate and other flavored additives besides the sugar added to milk raises the question about the acidogenecity of flavored milk. This study was conducted to measure the pH changes of dental plaque and saliva after the consumption of flavored milk and evaluate the antioxidant property of them. Methods: This study was performed on 42 samples of dental plaque and 42 samples of saliva in 6-11 year old school going children. Milk with flavors of strawberry, chocolate, banana, honey and slim milk were evaluated, all from the same manufacturer with a similar production date. At the beginning of the study on the first day, children were given thorough oral propHylaxis and they were instructed to avoid any method of oral hygiene for 48 hours to permit enough plaque deposition. On the third day the children were divided into 7 groups, 6 children in each group. The supra-gingival plaque was collected through the help of an excavator #3 which was pulled twice with the same force on the tooth surface. The saliva was collected using spitting technique. Each child swished 10 cc of milk for 1 minute in his/her mouth. Fresh plaque samples after 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes and saliva samples immediately, after 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes were collected. The pH of the samples were recorded by a pH testing apparatus (Basic 20+, Crisom. To evaluate the antioxidant property of studied milk, Frap test was performed. The collected readings were reported as mean±SD and analyzed by ANOVA repeated measures, Post hoc Tukey and Paired T-test. In this study, p≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: After 30 minutes, honey milk caused the least drop 0.74±0.30 and banana milk caused the highest drop 1.38± 0.25 in plaque pH (p≤0.05. After 30 minutes, the pH of saliva showed no significant difference compared to the initial pH. Chocolate milk contained the highest (1000 micromol/liter and banana milk the lowest (706

  18. Rapid urease test (RUT) for evaluation of urease activity in oral bacteria in vitro and in supragingival dental plaque ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Hassan, Haidar; Blomqvist, Susanne; Carlén, Anette

    2018-05-18

    Urease is an enzyme produced by plaque bacteria hydrolysing urea from saliva and gingival exudate into ammonia in order to regulate the pH in the dental biofilm. The aim of this study was to assess the urease activity among oral bacterial species by using the rapid urease test (RUT) in a micro-plate format and to examine whether this test could be used for measuring the urease activity in site-specific supragingival dental plaque samples ex vivo. The RUT test is based on 2% urea in peptone broth solution and with phenol red at pH 6.0. Oral bacterial species were tested for their urease activity using 100 μl of RUT test solution in the well of a micro-plate to which a 1 μl amount of cells collected after growth on blood agar plates or in broth, were added. The color change was determined after 15, 30 min, and 1 and 2 h. The reaction was graded in a 4-graded scale (none, weak, medium, strong). Ex vivo evaluation of dental plaque urease activity was tested in supragingival 1 μl plaque samples collected from 4 interproximal sites of front teeth and molars in 18 adult volunteers. The color reaction was read after 1 h in room temperature and scored as in the in vitro test. The strongest activity was registered for Staphylococcus epidermidis, Helicobacter pylori, Campylobacter ureolyticus and some strains of Haemophilus parainfluenzae, while known ureolytic species such as Streptococcus salivarius and Actinomyces naeslundii showed a weaker, variable and strain-dependent activity. Temperature had minor influence on the RUT reaction. The interproximal supragingival dental plaque between the lower central incisors (site 31/41) showed significantly higher scores compared to between the upper central incisors (site 11/21), between the upper left first molar and second premolar (site 26/25) and between the lower right second premolar and molar (site 45/46). The rapid urease test (RUT) in a micro-plate format can be used as a simple and rapid method to test urease

  19. The influence of salivary variables on fluoride retention in dental plaque exposed to a mineral-enriching solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, K; Nakagaki, H; Arai, K; Pearce, E I F

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out to examine interindividual differences in salivary variables related to plaque accumulation and to estimate their influence on the fluoride retention in plaque in vivo by a mineral-enriching solution. Two saliva samples were taken from 10 subjects, once after brushing and once after 24 h without brushing. Calcium, phosphate and monofluorophosphatase (MFPase) activity in the saliva samples were determined. The salivary flow rate and the debris index were also recorded. After plaque had formed over 3 days within in situ plaque-generating devices, subjects were instructed to rinse with a mineral-enriching mouthrinse three times a day on 4 consecutive days. Plaque exposed to distilled water plus flavoring agents served as a control. Fluoride-free dentifrice was used during the experimental period. Twenty-four hours after the last rinsing, the samples were removed from the mouth, and fluoride and mineral distributions in plaque analyzed using a method previously reported by the authors. Salivary flow, MFPase activity and calcium concentration in saliva were significantly higher after 24 h of plaque accumulation. Rinsing with the mineral-enriching solution produced retention of fluoride and phosphate in the outer and middle layers of plaque. Salivary calcium concentration had a direct effect on fluoride uptake in plaque, but no obvious relationship was found between other salivary variables and the plaque fluoride retention. The salivary calcium effect may be due to enhanced bacterial cell wall binding of fluoride via calcium bridging. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Oral health status, salivary pH status, and Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaques and saliva of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Romina; Jabbarifar, Ebrahim; Ghasemi, Elnaz; Akkafzadeh, Elahe; Poursaeid, Elmira

    2017-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), accounting for 23% of all malignancies in children, is the most prevalent pediatric malignancy. This study compared dental caries, oral hygiene status, salivary pH, and Streptococcus mutans counts in dental plaques and saliva of children with leukemia with those of healthy controls. This case-control cross-sectional study assessed 32 children with ALL and 32 healthy children (4-9-year-old) for gingival bleeding index (GBI), decayed, missing, and filled/decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMF/dmfs), and plaque index (PI). Sampling was performed to determine salivary pH and S. mutans counts of the participants. The two groups matched in terms of age, gender, and socioeconomic status. The groups were compared using independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, and Spearman's and Pearson's correlation analyses. The mean DMF/dmfs and GBI were significantly higher in the ALL group (P DMF / dmfs = 0.03; P GBI = 0.04). However, the two groups were not significantly different in the mean PI values ( P = 0.47). The mean S. mutans counts in dental plaques and saliva of the children with leukemia were significantly lower than the healthy controls ( P salivary pH was significantly lower in the ALL group compared to the control group ( P salivary pH, and cumulative effects of other risk factors highlight the significance of oral hygiene training programs (for the parents of these children) and regular dental examinations for these children.

  1. Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Dental Plaque and Gingiva in Patients with Oral Cleft Malformation Treated with Multibracket and Removable Appliances: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Machorowska-Pieniążek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic appliances modify the local environment of the oral cavity, increase the accumulation of dental plaque, and affect the condition of the gingiva. The aim of this study is assessment of Brazilian propolis toothpaste’s effect on plaque index (PLI and gingival index (GI in patients with CL/CLP treated using orthodontic appliances in the 35-day study period. The study population included 96 patients of an Orthodontic Outpatient Clinic, ACSiMS in Bytom. All the patients participated in the active phase of orthodontic treatment using buccal multibracket appliances or removable appliances. During the first examination, each patient was randomly qualified to the propolis group or control group. A statistically significant decrease in GI and PLI in the entire propolis group (P<0.01 was shown during repeated examination. Insignificant change in GI was in the entire control group during the repeated examination compared to the baseline. Similar result was obtained in patients treated with multibracket and removable appliances. The orthodontic appliance type did not affect the final dental plaque amount and gingival condition in patients using the propolis toothpaste. These results may be clinically useful to improve prevention and control oral infectious diseases during orthodontic treatment patients with oral cleft.

  2. Correlation between dental caries experience and mutans streptococci counts using saliva and plaque as microbial risk indicators in 3-8 year old children. A cross Sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Jasmine; Sachdev, Vinod; Sandhu, Meera; Deep-Singh-Nanda, Kanwar

    2015-02-01

    Determination of the relative amounts of mutans streptococcus in both saliva and plaque and to study its correlation with dental caries in children. The study comprised of 60 children aged 3-8 years divided into 2 groups (30 children in each): Group A- Children with more than 4 carious teeth and Group B- Children without caries. Saliva and plaque was collected from children of both the groups with the help of Dentocult SM strip test kit (Orion Diagnostic). Following incubation, mutans streptococcus scores (from 0 to 3) in each individual was evaluated and compared between both the groups. On comparing the two groups, mean ± SD of saliva score and plaque score was 2.40 ± 0.675 and 2.40 ± 0.621 respectively in group A, whereas it was 0.60 ± 0.498 and 0.83 ± 0.531 in children of group B showing a significant correlation (p = Key words:Mutans streptococci, dentocult, dental caries.

  3. Effects of Brazilian Propolis on Dental Plaque and Gingiva in Patients with Oral Cleft Malformation Treated with Multibracket and Removable Appliances: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machorowska-Pieniążek, Agnieszka; Skucha-Nowak, Małgorzata; Mertas, Anna; Tanasiewicz, Marta; Niedzielska, Iwona; Morawiec, Tadeusz; Baron, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Orthodontic appliances modify the local environment of the oral cavity, increase the accumulation of dental plaque, and affect the condition of the gingiva. The aim of this study is assessment of Brazilian propolis toothpaste's effect on plaque index (PLI) and gingival index (GI) in patients with CL/CLP treated using orthodontic appliances in the 35-day study period. The study population included 96 patients of an Orthodontic Outpatient Clinic, ACSiMS in Bytom. All the patients participated in the active phase of orthodontic treatment using buccal multibracket appliances or removable appliances. During the first examination, each patient was randomly qualified to the propolis group or control group. A statistically significant decrease in GI and PLI in the entire propolis group (P appliances. The orthodontic appliance type did not affect the final dental plaque amount and gingival condition in patients using the propolis toothpaste. These results may be clinically useful to improve prevention and control oral infectious diseases during orthodontic treatment patients with oral cleft.

  4. A high-throughput microfluidic dental plaque biofilm system to visualize and quantify the effect of antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, William C.; Dowd, Scot E.; Samarian, Derek; Chludzinski, Jeffrey; Delli, Joseph; Battista, John; Rickard, Alexander H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Few model systems are amenable to developing multi-species biofilms in parallel under environmentally germane conditions. This is a problem when evaluating the potential real-world effectiveness of antimicrobials in the laboratory. One such antimicrobial is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), which is used in numerous over-the-counter oral healthcare products. The aim of this work was to develop a high-throughput microfluidic system that is combined with a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of CPC against oral multi-species biofilms grown in human saliva. Methods Twenty-four-channel BioFlux microfluidic plates were inoculated with pooled human saliva and fed filter-sterilized saliva for 20 h at 37°C. The bacterial diversity of the biofilms was evaluated by bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). The antimicrobial/anti-biofilm effect of CPC (0.5%–0.001% w/v) was examined using Live/Dead stain, CLSM and 3D imaging software. Results The analysis of biofilms by bTEFAP demonstrated that they contained genera typically found in human dental plaque. These included Aggregatibacter, Fusobacterium, Neisseria, Porphyromonas, Streptococcus and Veillonella. Using Live/Dead stain, clear gradations in killing were observed when the biofilms were treated with CPC between 0.5% and 0.001% w/v. At 0.5% (w/v) CPC, 90% of the total signal was from dead/damaged cells. Below this concentration range, less killing was observed. In the 0.5%–0.05% (w/v) range CPC penetration/killing was greatest and biofilm thickness was significantly reduced. Conclusions This work demonstrates the utility of a high-throughput microfluidic–CLSM system to grow multi-species oral biofilms, which are compositionally similar to naturally occurring biofilms, to assess the effectiveness of antimicrobials. PMID:23800904

  5. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes and cagA Gene in Dental Plaque of Asymptomatic Mexican Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Cantú, Alejandra; Urbina-Ríos, Cynthia Sofía; García-Martínez, Martha Elena; Torre-Martínez, Hilda H. H.

    2017-01-01

    The variability in Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes has been related to the progression of the gastrointestinal disease; also the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity has been associated with periodontal disease in adults, but, in children without dyspeptic symptoms, little is known about this. We evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori and the presence of vacA/cagA genotypes in the oral cavity of Mexican children without dyspeptic symptoms. The gingival status was measured, and dental plaque samples (n = 100) were taken. 38% of children were positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA gene by qPCR. A significant association between H. pylori oral infection and gingival status was observed (P < 0.001). In 34.6% (9/26) of mild gingivitis cases, s1m2 genotype was found, while s1m1 was typed in 50% (3/6) of moderate gingivitis. The cagA prevalence among H. pylori-positive children was 80.8% (21/26), 83.3% (5/6), and 16.7% (1/6) of cases of mild gingivitis, moderate gingivitis, and nongingivitis, respectively (P < 0.001). The s1m1/cagA+ combinational genotype was the most detected in children with gingivitis. Our results suggest that the prevalence of H. pylori and detection of vacA/cagA genotypes-associated gastrointestinal disease in the oral cavity could be related to the progression of gingivitis in asymptomatic children. PMID:29226140

  6. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA Genotypes and cagA Gene in Dental Plaque of Asymptomatic Mexican Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Mendoza-Cantú

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The variability in Helicobacter pylori vacA and cagA genes has been related to the progression of the gastrointestinal disease; also the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity has been associated with periodontal disease in adults, but, in children without dyspeptic symptoms, little is known about this. We evaluated the prevalence of H. pylori and the presence of vacA/cagA genotypes in the oral cavity of Mexican children without dyspeptic symptoms. The gingival status was measured, and dental plaque samples (n=100 were taken. 38% of children were positive for H. pylori 16S rRNA gene by qPCR. A significant association between H. pylori oral infection and gingival status was observed (P<0.001. In 34.6% (9/26 of mild gingivitis cases, s1m2 genotype was found, while s1m1 was typed in 50% (3/6 of moderate gingivitis. The cagA prevalence among H. pylori-positive children was 80.8% (21/26, 83.3% (5/6, and 16.7% (1/6 of cases of mild gingivitis, moderate gingivitis, and nongingivitis, respectively (P<0.001. The s1m1/cagA+ combinational genotype was the most detected in children with gingivitis. Our results suggest that the prevalence of H. pylori and detection of vacA/cagA genotypes-associated gastrointestinal disease in the oral cavity could be related to the progression of gingivitis in asymptomatic children.

  7. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium lactis on gingival health, dental plaque, and periodontopathogens in adolescents: a randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanzi, A; Honkala, S; Honkala, E; Varghese, A; Tolvanen, M; Söderling, E

    2018-04-10

    To determine the effect of a probiotic combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Bifidobacterium lactis BB-12 on the gingival health, dental plaque accumulation, and the oral carriage of four putative periodontal pathogens in healthy adolescents. 108 schoolboys, aged 13-15 years, participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: probiotics (n=54) and placebo (n=54). Both groups received two probiotic-laced or placebo lozenges twice a day during a four-week period. Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Index (GI) were recorded at baseline and after four weeks. Salivary and plaque carriage of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum were also monitored likewise. 101 subjects completed the study. A statistically significant reduction in GI was seen in the probiotic group as compared to the placebo group (P=0.012). A reduction in PI was found for both groups, with no difference observed between the groups after intervention (P=0.819). Probiotic lozenges significantly reduced levels of A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum in saliva and plaque (Pplaque (Pbacterial counts of the test group. The short-term daily consumption of LGG and BB-12 probiotic lozenges improved the gingival health in adolescents and decreased the microbial counts of A. actinomycetemcomitans, and P. gingivalis. Hence probiotic supplements may serve as a simple adjunct to standard oral care for promoting the oral health in adolescents.

  8. Untreated periodontal disease in Indonesian adolescents : Subgingival microbiota in relation to experienced progression of periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, MF; Van der Weijden, GA; Arief, EM; Armand, S; Abbas, F; Winkel, EG; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    Background/aims: In an Indonesian population deprived of regular dental care, the experienced progression of disease between baseline (1987) and follow-up (1994) was investigated in relation to the composition of the subgingival microbiota at follow-up. At baseline the age ranged from 15 to 25

  9. Pyrosequencing Analysis of Subgingival Microbiota in Distinct Periodontal Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, O-J; Yi, H; Jeon, J H; Kang, S-S; Koo, K-T; Kum, K-Y; Chun, J; Yun, C-H; Han, S H

    2015-07-01

    Subgingival microorganisms are potentially associated with periodontal diseases. However, changes in the subgingival microbiota during the progress of periodontal diseases are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed bacterial communities in the subgingival paper point samples from 32 Korean individuals with no sign of disease, gingivitis, or periodontitis using 454 FLX Titanium pyrosequencing. A total of 256,113 reads representing 26 phyla, 433 genera, and 1,016 species were detected. Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Synergistetes, and Spirochaetes were the abundant phyla in periodontitis subjects, whereas Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were identified as the dominant phyla in the gingivitis and healthy subjects, respectively. Although high levels of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Rothia, Filifactor, and Treponema genera were observed in the periodontitis subjects, Streptococcus, Capnocytophaga, Leptotrichia, and Haemophilus genera were found at high frequency in the gingivitis subjects. Species including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Fretibacterium fastidiosum were significantly increased in periodontitis subjects. On the other hand, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Leptotrichia hongkongensis were preferentially observed in the gingivitis subjects. Intriguingly, the halophile Halomonas hamiltonii was revealed as a predominant species in the healthy subjects. Based on Fast UniFrac analysis, distinctive bacterial clusters were classified for the healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis state. The current findings might be useful for understanding the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of periodontal diseases. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  10. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shikhar; Sogi, Suma H P; Indushekar, K R

    2013-01-01

    This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol) chewing gums in children. A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol) chewing gum showed a marked increase in the pH of saliva and plaque when compared to their counterpart. All these values had a significant difference of P ≤ 0.0001. Xylitol is a safe all-natural sweetener which helps to reduce tooth decay. It plays a unique role in preventive strategies for better health.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikhar Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Results: Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol chewing gum showed a marked increase in the pH of saliva and plaque when compared to their counterpart. All these values had a significant difference of P ≤ 0.0001. Conclusion: Xylitol is a safe all-natural sweetener which helps to reduce tooth decay. It plays a unique role in preventive strategies for better health.

  12. Comparative evaluation of the effects of xylitol and sugar-free chewing gums on salivary and dental plaque pH in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shikhar Kumar; Suma H. P. Sogi; K R Indushekar

    2013-01-01

    This research paper primarily focuses on the importance of use of xylitol among school children. Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the salivary and dental plaque pH changes after consumption of sugared and sugar-free (xylitol) chewing gums in children. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 school children were selected for this study and were divided into two equal groups and given both chewing gums for the experiment. Results: Children consuming the sugar-free (xylitol) chewin...

  13. Dental plaque pH and ureolytic activity in children and adults of a low caries population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, Linnea; Dahlén, Anna; Eriksson, Cecilia; Suksuart, Narong; Dahlén, Gunnar

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the plaque pH level and ureolytic activity among children and adults of Karen Hill tribes. Thirty-four children aged 6-10 years and 46 adults aged 20-38 years were interviewed regarding oral hygiene practices, sucrose intake and betel chewing. Caries experience (DMFT and DT), calculus, bleeding on probing (BoP) and Plaque index (PlI) were registered. Ureolytic activity in supragingival plaque was tested at two interproximal sites (11/12 and 41/42) with the rapid urease test (RUT). Registration of plaque pH was performed at two interproximal sites (15/16 and 31/41) before, during and 30 min after rinsing with an urea solution (0.25%). Four interproximal plaque samples (one from each quadrant) per individual were collected to test the bacterial composition using the checkerboard technique. Children and adults had similarly low DMFT and DT values. Children had a higher baseline pH and a higher ureolytic activity in the maxilla (p plaque pH is related to the ureolytic activity, which explains the low acidogenic plaque microflora and the low caries levels in the Karen population.

  14. Endoscopic vs. tactile evaluation of subgingival calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Joy B; Lenton, Patricia A; Lunos, Scott A; Blue, Christine M

    2014-08-01

    Endoscopic technology has been developed to facilitate imagery for use during diagnostic and therapeutic phases of periodontal care. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of subgingival calculus detection using a periodontal endoscope with that of conventional tactile explorer in periodontitis subjects. A convenience sample of 26 subjects with moderate periodontitis in at least 2 quadrants was recruited from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry to undergo quadrant scaling and root planing. One quadrant from each subject was randomized for tactile calculus detection alone and the other quadrant for tactile detection plus the Perioscope ™ (Perioscopy Inc., Oakland, Cali). A calculus index on a 0 to 3 score was performed at baseline and at 2 post-scaling and root planing visits. Sites where calculus was detected at visit 1 were retreated. T-tests were used to determine within-subject differences between Perioscope™ and tactile measures, and changes in measures between visits. Significantly more calculus was detected using the Perioscope™ vs. tactile explorer for all 3 subject visits (pcalculus detection from baseline to visit 1 were statistically significant for both the Perioscope™ and tactile quadrants (pcalculus detection from visit 1 to visit 2 was only significant for the Perioscope™ quadrant (pcalculus at this visit. It was concluded that the addition of a visual component to calculus detection via the Perioscope™ was most helpful in the re-evaluation phase of periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  15. Ribotyping on small-sized spirochetes isolated from subgingival plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, N E; Bangsborg, J M; Colding, H

    1995-01-01

    distinct bands were observed for the 2:4:2 isolates and the T. denticola strains. For each of the endonucleases used, identical band patterns were always observed for this group of isolates, and these patterns differed persistently from the T. denticola strains. For the 1:2:1 strains, up to 11 distinct...... bands were observed after digestion with HindIII, whereas a maximum of 6 bands were observed when PstI or ClaI was used. By using ClaI, the examined 1:2:1 isolates were separated into 8 groups, whereas PstI and HindIII separated these isolates into 5 groups. The ribotyping showed that the tested 1...

  16. Pyrosequencing of supra- and subgingival biofilms from inflamed peri-implant and periodontal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumann, Simone; Staufenbiel, Ingmar; Scherer, Ralph; Schilhabel, Markus; Winkel, Andreas; Stumpp, Sascha Nico; Eberhard, Jörg; Stiesch, Meike

    2014-12-17

    To investigate the microbial composition of biofilms at inflamed peri-implant and periodontal tissues in the same subject, using 16S rRNA sequencing. Supra- and submucosal, and supra- and subgingival plaque samples were collected from 7 subjects suffering from diseased peri-implant and periodontal tissues. Bacterial DNA was isolated and 16S rRNA genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned for the identification of bacterial genera. 43734 chimera-depleted, denoised sequences were identified, corresponding to 1 phylum, 8 classes, 10 orders, 44 families and 150 genera. The most abundant families or genera found in supramucosal or supragingival plaque were Streptoccocaceae, Rothia and Porphyromonas. In submucosal plaque, the most abundant family or genera found were Rothia, Streptococcaceae and Porphyromonas on implants. The most abundant subgingival bacteria on teeth were Prevotella, Streptococcaceae, and TG5. The number of sequences found for the genera Tannerella and Aggregatibacter on implants differed significantly between supra- and submucosal locations before multiple testing. The analyses demonstrated no significant differences between microbiomes on implants and teeth in supra- or submucosal and supra- or subgingival biofilms. Diseased peri-implant and periodontal tissues in the same subject share similiar bacterial genera and based on the analysis of taxa on a genus level biofilm compositions may not account for the potentially distinct pathologies at implants or teeth.

  17. Subgingival Microbiota in White Patients With Desquamative Gingivitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Romano, Federica; Sasia, Danilo; Broccoletti, Roberto; Ricceri, Fulvio; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Cipriani, Raffaella; Cricenti, Luca; Cabras, Marco; Aimetti, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Presence of epithelial desquamation, erythema, and erosions on gingival tissue is usually described in the literature as desquamative gingivitis (DG). A wide range of autoimmune/dermatologic disorders can manifest as DG, although the two more common are oral lichen planus and mucous membrane pemphigoid. The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of 11 periodontopathogenic microorganisms in patients with DG and to compare it with the microbiologic status of individuals affected by plaque-induced gingivitis (pGI). Cross-sectional clinical and microbiologic data were obtained from 66 patients (33 in each group). Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed using semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Statistically significant difference, but with little clinical significance, was observed in gingival conditions between the two groups, probably due to the worse home control hygiene of patients with DG. Prevalence and levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, and Fusobacterium nucleatum/periodonticum were statistically higher in samples from patients with DG than in those with pGI. In multivariate regression models, subgingival colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum/periodonticum was not statistically associated with DG, whereas, high levels of E. corrodens were associated with 13-fold increased odds for DG. Microbiologic differences were found in subgingival plaque for patients with DG and pGI. This may suggest possible association between periodontal pathogens and DG.

  18. Mechanisms of inhibition by fluoride of urease activities of cell suspensions and biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces naeslundii and of dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza-Silva, E; Castro, A C D; Marquis, R E

    2005-12-01

    Fluoride is known to be a potent inhibitor of bacterial ureases and can also act in the form of hydrofluoric acid as a transmembrane proton conductor to acidify the cytoplasm of intact cells with possible indirect, acid inhibition of urease. Our research objectives were to assess the inhibitory potencies of fluoride for three urease-positive bacteria commonly found in the mouth and to determine the relative importance of direct and indirect inhibition of ureases for overall inhibition of intact cells or biofilms. The experimental design involved intact bacteria in suspensions, mono-organism biofilms, cell extracts, and dental plaque. Standard enzymatic assays for ammonia production from urea were used. We found that ureolysis by cells in suspensions or mono-organism biofilms of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus salivarius or Actinomyces naeslundii was inhibited by fluoride at plaque levels of 0.1-0.5 mm in a pH-dependent manner. The results of experiments with the organic weak acids indomethacin and capric acid, which do not directly inhibit urease enzyme, indicated that weak-acid effects leading to cytoplasmic acidification are also involved in fluoride inhibition. However, direct fluoride inhibition of urease appeared to be the major mechanism for reduction in ureolytic activity in acid environments. Results of experiments with freshly harvested supragingival dental plaque indicated responses to fluoride similar to those of S. salivarius with pH-dependent fluoride inhibition and both direct and indirect inhibition of urease. Fluoride can act to diminish alkali production from urea by oral bacteria through direct and indirect mechanisms.

  19. The association between subgingival periodontal pathogens and systemic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winning, Lewis; Patterson, Christopher C; Cullen, Kathy M; Stevenson, Kathryn A; Lundy, Fionnuala T; Kee, Frank; Linden, Gerard J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate associations between periodontal disease pathogens and levels of systemic inflammation measured by C-reactive protein (CRP). A representative sample of dentate 60-70-year-old men in Northern Ireland had a comprehensive periodontal examination. Men taking statins were excluded. Subgingival plaque samples were analysed by quantitative real time PCR to identify the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia. High-sensitivity CRP (mg/l) was measured from fasting blood samples. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed using log-transformed CRP concentration as the dependent variable, with the presence of each periodontal pathogen as predictor variables, with adjustment for various potential confounders. A total of 518 men (mean age 63.6 SD 3.0 years) were included in the analysis. Multiple regression analysis showed that body mass index (p C-reactive protein. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Acidity of unstimulated saliva and dental plaque in asthmatics, treated with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics.

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Karova; George Christoff

    2012-01-01

    The number of asthmatics is continuously increasing all over the world. The aim of the study is to study the effect of different combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on salivary and plaque pH in asthmatics with mild persistent asthma. The effect of different quantities of lactose, as gustatory corrector in the inhalers, is traced out.Thirty patients of both sexes, from 20 to 55 years old participated in the study. Salivary and plaque pH values are traced ...

  1. Molecular identification of black-pigmented bacteria from subgingival samples of cats suffering from periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Salcedo, L; Laguna, E; Sánchez, M C; Marín, M J; O'Connor, A; González, I; Sanz, M; Herrera, D

    2015-04-01

    To characterise the black-pigmented bacterial species found in the subgingival samples of cats with periodontal disease using molecular-based microbiological techniques. Sixty-five subgingival samples obtained from 50 cats with periodontal disease were analysed by polymerase chain reaction amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes. Among the 65 subgingival samples, eight phylogenetic profiles were obtained, of which the most prevalent species were: Porphyromonas gulae (40%), P. gingivalis/P. gulae (36 · 9%), P. gulae/Porphyromonas sp. UQD 406 (9 · 2%), Odoribacter denticanis (6 · 2%), P. gulae/Porphyromonas sp. UQD 348 (1 · 5%) and P. circumdentaria (1 · 5%). When compared with the species resulting from biochemical diagnosis, the identification of P. gulae was congruent in 70% of the cases, while colonies identified as P. intermedia-like corresponded in 80% of cases to P. gulae. The use of molecular-based microbiological diagnostic techniques resulted in a predominance of Porphyromonas spp. in the subgingival plaque of cats suffering from periodontal disease. Further characterisation of these bacteria identified P. gulae, O. denticanis and P. circumdentaria. The more frequently detected phylogenetic profiles corresponded to P. gingivalis and P. gulae. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. The efficacy of dental floss in addition to a toothbrush on plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berchier, C.E.; Slot, D.E.; Haps, S.; van der Weijden, G.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess systematically the adjunctive effect of both flossing and toothbrushing versus toothbrushing alone on plaque and gingivitis. Materials: The MEDLINE and Cochrane Central register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were searched through December

  3. Motivação no controle do biofilme dental e sangramento gengival em escolares Motivation on plaque control and gengival bleeding in school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Fernanda Ceriotti Toassi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de duas estratégias motivacionais em relação ao controle do biofilme dental e sangramento gengival em 135 escolares da rede estadual e municipal de ensino do município de Santa Tereza, RS, 1999. O programa de motivação a que os escolares tinham acesso constou da utilização de diversos recursos aplicados em dois grupos de intervenção: Grupo A, motivação em sessão única, e Grupo B, motivação em quatro sessões. Para a avaliação da metodologia empregada foram realizados levantamentos do índice de placa visível (IPV de Ainamo & Bay (1975, e do índice de sangramento gengival (ISG. Em ambos os grupos houve redução tanto do ISG quanto do IPV após as sessões de intervenção (pThe objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of two pedagogical motivational approaches for plaque and gingival bleeding control among 135 students of local public schools in Santa Tereza, Brazil, in 1999 The motivational program consisted of different educational strategies offered to two distinct groups: Group A, who attended only one explanatory session about oral hygiene, and Group B, who attended a total of four pedagogical sessions. In order to evaluate the methodology applied, the visible plaque index (according to Ainamo & Bay, 1975 and gingival bleeding index (according to Löe and Silness, 1963 were calculated. A highly statistically significant reduction in the visible plaque index and gingival bleeding index was observed in both groups after the educational sessions (p<0.001. Moreover, a higher reduction in the gingival bleeding index and an even more accentuated decrease in the visible plaque index was found in group B when compared to group A (p<0.001. In conclusion, the motivational reinforcement in educational and preventive programs has a positive effect for the reduction and control of gingival bleeding and bacterial plaque.

  4. A study on the design, formulation and effectiveness of chewing gums containing Chlorhexidine Gluconate in the prevention of dental plaque

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    Kolahi Kazerani G

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: The role of the microbial plaque in caries etiology and periodontal diseases has been"nproved and the mechanical methods for plaque control have special limitations, consequently, chemical"nmethods have been suggested. One of the most effective materials is Chlorhexidine Gluconate that is"ncommonly used as mouth rinses. However, the medicated formulations of chewing gums, due to several"nproperties, have been paid attention. It should be noted that a new formulation to satisfy the consumers' taste"nseems necessary."nPurpose: The aim of this study was to present a new formulation for chewing gums containing chlorhexidine"nto achieve a pleasant taste coupled with their effectiveness and anti-plaque properties maintenance."nMaterials and Methods: In this double blind, crossover, prospective clinical trial, 18 volunteers were"ninvestigated. Chlorhexidine Gluconate was used and added to the gum-base by Manitole. In order to cover the"nbitter taste of the drug Aspartam, mint essence and Mentole were used. After gums production, the profile of"ndrug dissolution was evaluated by jaw movement simulating system. It took 5 days to study each type of"nchewing gums without any mechanical plaque control method. Medicated and placebo chewing gums were"nidentical in shape, size, color and formulation. The washout period was 2 days. Chewing gums were used"nevery 12 hours for 20 minutes. To determine plaque score, Turesky- Gilmore- Glickman modification index"nwas used. Other variables including: subjective evaluation of taste, cleansing effect and taste disturbance were"nassessed through filling a checklist. The data were analyzed by Paired t test and Wilcoxon test."nResults: During 20 mins, 80% of the drug was released from the gum-base. The mean difference of plaque"nscore between the initial and final stages at the first trial was -0.1589 and at the second trial was 2.994 which"nwas statistically significant (P<0.001. Subjective

  5. [Study on Microbial Diversity of Peri-implantitis Subgingival by High-throughput Sequencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-jie; Wang, Shao-guo; Li, Yue-hong; Tu, Dong-xiang; Liu, Shi-yun; Nie, Hong-bing; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Ju-mei

    2015-07-01

    To study microbial diversity of peri-implantitis subgingival with high-throughput sequencing, and investigate microbiological etiology of peri-implantitis. Subgingival plaques were sampled from the patients with peri-implantitis (D group) and non-peri-implantitis subjects (N group). The microbiological diversity of the subgingival plaques was detected by sequencing V4 region of 16S rRNA with Illumina Miseq platform. The diversity of the community structure was analyzed using Mothur software. A total of 156 507 gene sequences were detected in nine samples and 4 402 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. Selenomonas, Pseudomonas, and Fusobacterium were dominant bacteria in D group, while Fusobacterium, Veillonella and Streptococcus were dominant bacteria in N group. Differences between peri-implantitis and non-peri-implantitis bacterial communities were observed at all phylogenetic levels by LEfSe, which was also found in PcoA test. The occurrence of peri-implantitis is not only related to periodontitis pathogenic microbe, but also related with the changes of oral microbial community structure. Treponema, Herbaspirillum, Butyricimonas and Phaeobacte may be closely related to the occurrence and development of peri-implantitis.

  6. Detection and enumeration of periodontopathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of pregnant women

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    Fernanda Campos Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH technique to test the hypothesis of qualitative and quantitative differences of 8 periodontopathogens between pregnant and non-pregnant women. This cross-sectional study included 20 pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy and 20 non-pregnant women. Probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment level, and presence of calculus were recorded. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and the FISH technique identified the presence and numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Campylobacter rectus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella intermedia and Prevotella nigrescens. The Mann-Whitney U-test was applied to compare the data between the two groups. The mean age, ethnicity, marital status, education, and economic level in both groups were similar. The clinical parameters showed no significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women. The numbers of subgingival periodontopathogens were not found to be significantly different between groups, despite the higher mean counts of P. intermedia in pregnant women. Colonization patterns of the different bacteria most commonly associated with periodontal disease were not different in the subgingival plaque of pregnant and non-pregnant women.

  7. Identification of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola and Porphyromonas gingivalis within human dental calculus: a pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Nicolino; Galgut, Peter; Mordan, Nicola

    2007-10-01

    Dental calculus is considered to be simply a "plaque-retentive factor", and therefore only a secondary aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Recent studies have suggested a more active role for calculus. Our objective was to demonstrate the presence of periodontal pathogens in the non-mineralised areas of supra- and subgingival dental calculus. Subjects for the study were derived from patients with substantial amounts of supragingival calculus in the lower anterior region who had moderate periodontal disease, having been referred to the periodontal department at the Eastman Dental Hospital for periodontal care. Calculus was removed in as large pieces as possible by the use of a sickle or a push scaler placed underneath the apical or facial border of the calculus and fracturing it from the tooth surface in a single stroke. The orientation and absence of dental plaque was confirmed using light microscopy for each sample prior to inclusion in this study. Samples were prepared for transmission electron microscopic (TEM) observation after immunogold staining with polyclonal antibodies for the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. a.), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. g.) and Treponema denticola (T. d.). Most of the samples contained at least one of the bacterial species examined, either in the lacunae or in the covering dental plaque. T. d. was the most frequently identified species and was found in nearly all of the subgingival samples, whilstA. a. was rarely observed. In this limited study, supra- and subgingival dental calculus appears to be capable of maintaining periodontal pathogens within the deep recesses of its structural lacunae and channels. Therefore, calculus could possibly play a relevant role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of periodontitis. The presence of T. d. in the majority of specimens requires further investigation as its pathogenic potential may be underestimated in current published microbiological research, and

  8. Does pregnancy have an impact on the subgingival microbiota?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaens, Laurence M; Alessandri, Regina; Spörri, Stefan; Lang, Niklaus P; Persson, G Rutger

    2009-01-01

    We investigated clinical and subgingival microbiologic changes during pregnancy in 20 consecutive pregnant women > or =18 years not receiving dental care. Bacterial samples from weeks 12, 28, and 36 of pregnancy and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum were processed for 37 species by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Clinical periodontal data were collected at week 12 and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum, and bleeding on probing (BOP) was recorded at sites sampled at the four time points. The mean BOP at week 12 and postpartum was 40.1% +/- 18.2% and 27.4% +/- 12.5%, respectively. The corresponding mean BOP at microbiologic test sites was 15% (week 12) and 21% (postpartum; not statistically significant). Total bacterial counts decreased between week 12 and postpartum (P Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Selenomonas noxia, and Veillonella parvula. No changes occurred between weeks 12 and 28 of pregnancy. Counts of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), and Treponema denticola did not change. Counts of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia at week 12 were associated with gingivitis (P <0.001). Subgingival levels of bacteria associated with periodontitis did not change. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia counts were associated with BOP at week 12. A decrease was found in 17 of 37 species from week 12 to postpartum. Only counts of N. mucosa increased.

  9. Effect of commonly consumed sugar containing and sugar free fruit drinks on the hydrogen ion modulation of human dental plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanika Mahajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the increased awareness of healthy diet among the population, the intake of fruit juices as health drinks has been increased. This study has been designed to check the potential cariogenicity of fruit drinks frequently consumed by infants and young children. Aim: To compare the acidogenic potential of sugar free fruit juices with fruit juices containing sugar by evaluating the plaque pH changes, following consumption of the above drinks. Design: The study was carried out on 10 children in the age group of 8-15 years. The four fruit juices used were 1 orange juice with added sugar 2 orange juice with no added sugar 3 apple juice with added sugar 4 apple juice with no added sugar. Sucrose rinse of 10% was used as control group. The endogenous pH of the fruit juices and control was assessed using digital pH meter. The plaque pH was assessed at the baseline and after the consumption of the drinks at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 60 minutes time interval using the plaque-harvesting technique. The obtained results were compiled and subjected to statistical analysis using paired t-test. Result: All the fruit juices showed drop in plaque pH. A drop in pH was also observed in the juices despite of no added sugar content. Conclusion: The fruit juices labeled with "no added sugar" or "free from added sugar", contained substantial quantities of sugar and are equally cariogenic as are fruit drinks with added sugar.

  10. Intra-familial comparison of supragingival dental plaque microflora using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannaa, Alaa; Carlén, Anette; Dahlén, Gunnar; Lingström, Peter

    2012-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to correlate the quantified supragingival plaque bacteria between mothers and their children and identify possible microbial associations. A total of 86 mothers and their 4- to 6-year-old and 12- to 16-year-old children participated. Pooled supragingival plaque samples were obtained from interproximal sites between teeth 16/15, 25/26, 35/36 and 46/45 in mothers and older children and teeth 55/54, 64/65, 74/75 and 85/84 in younger children. All the samples were individually analysed for their content of 18 bacterial strains using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation (whole genomic probes). Microbial associations were sought using cluster analysis (dendrogram) for all three age groups together, while community ordination techniques were used for each of the three groups separately. Three complexes were formed from the dendrogram in addition to associations between these complexes and remaining bacterial strains. Principal component analysis results were similar in all three groups. The correlation analyses of bacterial counts between mothers and their children showed a significant association for most of the bacterial strains (pplaque microbiota are correlated between mothers and their children. In addition, similar supragingival plaque microbial associations are present in family members.. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbiological Effect of Essential Oils in Combination with Subgingival Ultrasonic Instrumentation and Mouth Rinsing in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

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    Toshiya Morozumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty chronic periodontitis patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control, saline, and essential oil-containing antiseptic (EO. Subgingival plaque was collected from a total of 90 pockets across all subjects. Subsequently, subgingival ultrasonic instrumentation (SUI was performed by using EO or saline as the irrigation agent. After continuous mouth rinsing at home with EO or saline for 7 days, subgingival plaques were sampled again. Periodontopathic bacteria were quantified using the modified Invader PLUS assay. The total bacterial count in shallow pockets (probing pocket depth (PPD = 4-5 mm was significantly reduced in both saline (P<0.05 and EO groups (P<0.01. The total bacterial count (P<0.05 and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P<0.01 and Tannerella forsythia (P<0.05 count in deep pockets (PPD ≥6 mm were significantly reduced only in the EO group. In comparisons of the change ratio relative to baseline value of total bacteria counts across categories, both the saline and EO groups for PPD 4-5 mm and the EO group for PPD 6 mm showed a significantly low ratio (P<0.05. The adjunctive use of EO may be effective in reducing subgingival bacterial counts in both shallow and deep pockets. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000007484.

  12. Subgingival microbiome in smokers and non-smokers in periodontitis: an exploratory study using traditional targeted techniques and a next-generation sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bizzarro, S.; Loos, B.G.; Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare the results of two targeted techniques to an open-ended technique in periodontitis patients, differentiated on the basis of smoking habit. Materials & Methods Thirty periodontitis patients (15 smokers and 15 non-smokers) provided subgingival plaque samples for 16S rRNA gene amplicon

  13. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2% and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2% on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash group. The data was collected at the baseline, 15 th day and 30 th day; the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the three groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that all the three groups were effective in reducing the plaque but post-hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference showed that honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group were more effective than chlorhexidine group alone. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of plaque indices in honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to chlorhexidine.

  14. Changes in subgingival microflora after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliances

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    Živković-Sandić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The placement of fixed orthodontic appliances may lead to increased plaque accumulation and changes in subgingival microflora. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in frequency of subgingival microflora that occur after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods. This study included 33 orthodontic patients, who were divided into two groups. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the right upper incisor (U1 and right upper first molar (U6. In group A, the samples were taken three times: before placement appliance (T1, after one month (T2, and after 3 months (T3. In group B the samples were also taken three times: before appliance removal (T1, after one month (T2, and after three months (T3. PCR method was used to determine the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia. Results. In group A the frequency of P. gingivalis showed statistically significant decrease at U1 (p=0.049 and U6 (p=0.008, from T1 to T2, and at U1 (p=0.048 from T1 to T3. In group B only the frequency of T. forsythia showed a statistically significant decrease, at U6 (T1 vs. T2, p=0.004; T1 vs. T3, p=0.0003. Regarding other analyzed bacteria, changes in the presence were noticed but no statistical significance was found. Conclusion. Placement of fixed appliances may have an impact on subgingival microflora, but in the first months after the placement and removal of the appliance changes were not significant, probably due to good oral hygiene. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  15. Surface area and volume determination of subgingival calculus using laser fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Fardad; Walsh, Laurence J

    2014-03-01

    Visible red (655 nm) laser fluorescence (LF) devices are currently used for identifying deposits of subgingival calculus on the root surfaces of teeth during dental examination and treatment; however, it is not known how the fluorescence readings produced by commercially available LF systems correlate to the nature of the deposits. This laboratory study explored the correlation between LF digital readings and the surface area and volume of subgingival calculus deposits on teeth. A collection of 30 extracted human posterior teeth with various levels of subgingival deposits of calculus across 240 sites were used in a clinical simulation, with silicone impression material used to replicate periodontal soft tissues. The teeth were scored by two examiners by using three commercial LF systems (DIAGNOdent, DIAGNOdent Pen and KEY3). The silicone was removed, and the teeth were removed for photography at × 20 magnification under white or ultraviolet light. The surface area, thickness, and volume were calculated, and both linear least squares regression and nonlinear (Spearman's rank method) correlation coefficients were determined. Visible red LF digital readings showed better correlation to calculus volume than to surface area. Overall, the best performance was found for the KEY3 system (Spearman coefficient 0.59), compared to the Classic DIAGNOdent (0.56) and the DIAGNOdent Pen (0.49). These results indicate that while visible red LF systems vary somewhat in performance, their LF readings provide a useful estimation of the volume of subgingival calculus deposits present on teeth.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the growth of dental plaque on the surfaces of removable orthodontic aligners after the use of different cleaning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levrini L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Luca Levrini, Francesca Novara, Silvia Margherini, Camilla Tenconi, Mario Raspanti Department of Surgical and Morphological Sciences, Dental Hygiene School, Research Centre Cranio Facial Disease and Medicine, University of Insubria, Varese, Italy Background: Advances in orthodontics are leading to the use of minimally invasive technologies, such as transparent removable aligners, and are able to meet high demands in terms of performance and esthetics. However, the most correct method of cleaning these appliances, in order to minimize the effects of microbial colonization, remains to be determined. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to identify the most effective method of cleaning removable orthodontic aligners, analyzing the growth of dental plaque as observed under scanning electron microscopy. Methods: Twelve subjects were selected for the study. All were free from caries and periodontal disease and were candidates for orthodontic therapy with invisible orthodontic aligners. The trial had a duration of 6 weeks, divided into three 2-week stages, during which three sets of aligners were used. In each stage, the subjects were asked to use a different method of cleaning their aligners: 1 running water (control condition; 2 effervescent tablets containing sodium carbonate and sulfate crystals followed by brushing with a toothbrush; and 3 brushing alone (with a toothbrush and toothpaste. At the end of each 2-week stage, the surfaces of the aligners were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. Results: The best results were obtained with brushing combined with the use of sodium carbonate and sulfate crystals; brushing alone gave slightly inferior results. Conclusion: On the basis of previous literature results relating to devices in resin, studies evaluating the reliability of domestic ultrasonic baths for domestic use should be encouraged. At present, pending the availability of experimental evidence, it can be suggested that dental

  17. Reducing dental plaque formation and caries development. A review of current methods and implications for novel pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalesinskas, Povilas; Kačergius, Tomas; Ambrozaitis, Arvydas; Pečiulienė, Vytautė; Ericson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is an oral disease, which has a high worldwide prevalence despite the availability of various prophylactic means, including the daily use of fluoride toothpastes, water fluoridation, dental sealants, oral health educational programs and various antiseptic mouth-rinses. One important reason for this is uncontrolled increase in consumption of foods containing considerable sucrose concentration, especially among children. Sucrose is easily metabolized by oral bacteria (mostly streptococci) to acids and, subsequently, causing tooth decay or dental caries. In the oral ecosystem, streptococci principally reside on tooth surfaces forming biofilm. Important structural and binding materials of biofilm are glucan polymers synthesized by several isoforms of glucosyltransferase enzyme present in certain species of oral bacteria, including mutans group streptococci - Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, which preferably colonize humans. Thus, there is a constant need to develop the methods and chemotherapeutics for improving oral health care and decreasing teeth decay through the suppression of cariogenic biofilm formation in the oral cavity. The aim of this paper was to review literature related to the pathogenesis of dental caries as well as currently existing and experimental pharmaceutical substances used for prevention of this process.

  18. Acidity of unstimulated saliva and dental plaque in asthmatics, treated with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Karova

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of asthmatics is continuously increasing all over the world. The aim of the study is to study the effect of different combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting sympathicomimetics on salivary and plaque pH in asthmatics with mild persistent asthma. The effect of different quantities of lactose, as gustatory corrector in the inhalers, is traced out.Thirty patients of both sexes, from 20 to 55 years old participated in the study. Salivary and plaque pH values are traced out in 30 minutes period after drug inhalation, at 6-months interval. It is found out that inhaled drugs cause significant decrease of initial salivary pH values, the lowest ones reported on first and fifth minute after the inhalation. The average salivary pH levels on the 30th minute remain significantly lower than initial ones.Most considerable changes in pH values are registered for patients treated with Fluticasone propionate and Salmeterol.

  19. [Clinical study on the effect of anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste in control of gingivitis and dental plaque].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Xi-Ping; Tao, Dan-Ying; Chen, Jian-Fen

    2016-08-01

    To observe the effect of anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste in control of gingivitis and plaque. The study was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-controlled clinical trail with a total of 100 subjects who were divided into two groups, experimental group and control group. The subjects in experimental group used anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste to brush twice daily for 3 minutes, and the subjects in control group used none anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste. The examiner recorded GI, PI and BOP index of all subjects at the baseline, 6-weeks and 12-weeks. SPSS21.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. Twelve weeks later, there were significant differences in GI and BOP between the two groups. Yet no significant difference was found in PI. Anti-gingivitis IgY toothpaste is effective in control of gingivitis.

  20. Bactericidal Effect of Extracts and Metabolites of Robinia pseudoacacia L. on Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis Causing Dental Plaque and Periodontal Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanta Kumar Patra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The mouth cavity hosts many types of anaerobic bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas gingivalis, which cause periodontal inflammatory diseases and dental caries. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of Robinia pseudoacacia and its different fractions, as well as some of its natural compounds against oral pathogens and a nonpathogenic reference bacteria, Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activity of the crude extract and the solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol of R. pseudoacacia were evaluated against S. mutans, P. gingivalis and E. coli DH5α by standard micro-assay procedure using conventional sterile polystyrene microplates. The results showed that the crude extract was more active against P. gingivalis (100% growth inhibition than against S. mutans (73% growth inhibition at 1.8 mg/mL. The chloroform and hexane fractions were active against P. gingivalis, with 91 and 97% growth inhibition, respectively, at 0.2 mg/mL. None of seven natural compounds found in R. pseudoacacia exerted an antibacterial effect on P. gingivalis; however, fisetin and myricetin at 8 µg/mL inhibited the growth of S. mutans by 81% and 86%, respectively. The crude extract of R. pseudoacacia possesses bioactive compounds that could completely control the growth of P. gingivalis. The antibiotic activities of the hexane and chloroform fractions suggest that the active compounds are hydrophobic in nature. The results indicate the effectiveness of the plant in clinical applications for the treatment of dental plaque and periodontal inflammatory diseases and its potential use as disinfectant for various surgical and orthodontic appliances.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the growth of dental plaque on the surfaces of removable orthodontic aligners after the use of different cleaning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Luca; Novara, Francesca; Margherini, Silvia; Tenconi, Camilla; Raspanti, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Advances in orthodontics are leading to the use of minimally invasive technologies, such as transparent removable aligners, and are able to meet high demands in terms of performance and esthetics. However, the most correct method of cleaning these appliances, in order to minimize the effects of microbial colonization, remains to be determined. The aim of the present study was to identify the most effective method of cleaning removable orthodontic aligners, analyzing the growth of dental plaque as observed under scanning electron microscopy. Twelve subjects were selected for the study. All were free from caries and periodontal disease and were candidates for orthodontic therapy with invisible orthodontic aligners. The trial had a duration of 6 weeks, divided into three 2-week stages, during which three sets of aligners were used. In each stage, the subjects were asked to use a different method of cleaning their aligners: 1) running water (control condition); 2) effervescent tablets containing sodium carbonate and sulfate crystals followed by brushing with a toothbrush; and 3) brushing alone (with a toothbrush and toothpaste). At the end of each 2-week stage, the surfaces of the aligners were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The best results were obtained with brushing combined with the use of sodium carbonate and sulfate crystals; brushing alone gave slightly inferior results. On the basis of previous literature results relating to devices in resin, studies evaluating the reliability of domestic ultrasonic baths for domestic use should be encouraged. At present, pending the availability of experimental evidence, it can be suggested that dental hygienists should strongly advise patients wearing orthodontic aligners to clean them using a combination of brushing and commercially available tablets for cleaning oral appliances.

  2. Clinical Effects of Stabilized Stannous Fluoride Dentifrice in Reducing Plaque Microbial Virulence I: Microbiological and Receptor Cell Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Haught, John Christian; Xie, Sancai; Circello, Ben; Tansky, Cheryl S; Khambe, Deepa; Huggins, Tom; White, Donald J

    2017-06-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) and lipoteichoic acids (LTAs), or bacterial endotoxins, bind with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are expressed on host cells of the periodontium, thereby contributing to the periodontal pathogenicity of oral bacteria. Stannous fluoride (SnF2), an antibacterial fluoride that treats and controls gingivitis, has been shown to react with lipophilic domains/anionic charges in LPS and LTA. The effects of bacterial species and dental plaque on toll receptors can be studied using genetically engineered cell lines containing linked toll receptors on their surfaces. This randomized, examiner-blinded study examined the clinical effects of stabilized SnF2 dentifrice intervention on gingivitis and dental plaque virulence in populations exhibiting high and low levels of clinical gingivitis. Recruited populations were evaluated for gingival inflammation (MGI) and gingival bleeding (GBI) at baseline and assigned into two cohorts of 20 each, those with high (GBI > 20 sites) and low (GBI plaque at both healthy (no bleeding, PD = 2 mm), as well as clinically diseased sites (bleeding, PD = 3-4 mm), and then provided with an intervention hygiene product including a stabilized SnF2 dentifrice and a new soft bristle manual toothbrush. Following two and four weeks of assigned dentifrice use, participants returned for a re-evaluation of gingival inflammation and bleeding and repeat samplings of dental plaque. Plaque samples were analyzed by anaerobic culturing of gram negative anaerobes (GNA), as well as by incubation of subgingival sampled plaques with TLR4 transfected HEK293 cells, where gene expression was assessed by measurement of a SEAP alkaline phosphatase reporter as a marker of toll receptor activation. Clinical assessments showed statistically significant reductions in MGI (24-26%) and GBI (42-53%) gingivitis in both diseased and healthy cohorts following four weeks of dentifrice intervention. For all clinical examinations, MGI and bleeding sites were

  3. Alterations of the Subgingival Microbiota in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Studied Longitudinally in Discovery and Validation Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith; Bittinger, Kyle; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Posivak, Leah; Grunberg, Stephanie; Baldassano, Robert; Lewis, James D; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D

    2015-12-01

    Oral manifestations are common in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we characterized the subgingival microbiota in pediatric patients with CD initiating therapy and after 8 weeks to identify microbial community features associated with CD and therapy. Pediatric patients with CD were recruited from The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania. Healthy control subjects were recruited from primary care or orthopedics clinic. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at initiation of therapy and after 8 weeks. Treatment exposures included 5-ASAs, immunomodulators, steroids, and infliximab. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study was repeated in separate discovery (35 CD, 43 healthy) and validation cohorts (43 CD, 31 healthy). Most subjects in both cohorts demonstrated clinical response after 8 weeks of therapy (discovery cohort 88%, validation cohort 79%). At week 0, both antibiotic exposure and disease state were associated with differences in bacterial community composition. Seventeen genera were identified in the discovery cohort as candidate biomarkers, of which 11 were confirmed in the validation cohort. Capnocytophaga, Rothia, and TM7 were more abundant in CD relative to healthy controls. Other bacteria were reduced in abundance with antibiotic exposure among CD subjects. CD-associated genera were not enriched compared with healthy controls after 8 weeks of therapy. Subgingival microbial community structure differed with CD and antibiotic use. Results in the discovery cohort were replicated in a separate validation cohort. Several potentially pathogenic bacterial lineages were associated with CD but were not diminished in abundance by antibiotic treatment, suggesting targets for additional surveillance.

  4. Increased crown-to-implant ratio may not be a risk factor for dental implant failure under appropriate plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shinsuke; Koretake, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Yasunari; Oue, Hiroshi; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increased crown-to-implant (C/I) ratio influences implant stability or not under proper healthy control of peri-implant mucosa. The hypothesis of this study is that implant stability can be maintained despite High C/I, under appropriate plaque control. Five male Beagle-Labrador hybrid dogs (2 years old) were used. Their bilateral mandibular premolar extraction was performed. After allowing 12 weeks for bone healing, 3 types of vertical marginal bone loss were simultaneously prepared randomly. Then, 30 titanium implants were placed in the edentulous areas and defined as High C/I, Mid C/I and Low C/I groups. This time point was designated as the baseline (0 Week). Twelve weeks after implant placement, metal superstructures were cemented to the implants and an occlusal plate was set at the opposite side. At the same time, Calcein green was injected for remodeling evaluation. Implants were loaded by feeding the dogs a hard pellet diet. Tooth brushing was performed 5 days per week during the study to maintain healthy peri-implant mucosa. Twenty-four weeks following implant placement, the interface structure was evaluated clinically, radiologically, and histologically. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) increased with time in all 3 groups, without any significant correlation with the C/I value (p >0.05). Moreover, mean marginal bone loss adjacent around implants in all 3 groups ranged between 0.11 and 0.19 mm, with no significant difference (p >0.05). Many fluorescence-labeled bones are shown in the High C/I group. It is considered that high remodeling activity prevent marginal bone loss in the High C/I group and this may provide favorable implant stability under proper plaque control. These findings suggest that increased C/I may not be a risk factor for implant failure if the peri-implant mucosa is kept healthy, as was the case in this animal model.

  5. Increased crown-to-implant ratio may not be a risk factor for dental implant failure under appropriate plaque control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Okada

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increased crown-to-implant (C/I ratio influences implant stability or not under proper healthy control of peri-implant mucosa. The hypothesis of this study is that implant stability can be maintained despite High C/I, under appropriate plaque control. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five male Beagle-Labrador hybrid dogs (2 years old were used. Their bilateral mandibular premolar extraction was performed. After allowing 12 weeks for bone healing, 3 types of vertical marginal bone loss were simultaneously prepared randomly. Then, 30 titanium implants were placed in the edentulous areas and defined as High C/I, Mid C/I and Low C/I groups. This time point was designated as the baseline (0 Week. Twelve weeks after implant placement, metal superstructures were cemented to the implants and an occlusal plate was set at the opposite side. At the same time, Calcein green was injected for remodeling evaluation. Implants were loaded by feeding the dogs a hard pellet diet. Tooth brushing was performed 5 days per week during the study to maintain healthy peri-implant mucosa. Twenty-four weeks following implant placement, the interface structure was evaluated clinically, radiologically, and histologically. RESULT: Implant stability quotient (ISQ increased with time in all 3 groups, without any significant correlation with the C/I value (p >0.05. Moreover, mean marginal bone loss adjacent around implants in all 3 groups ranged between 0.11 and 0.19 mm, with no significant difference (p >0.05. Many fluorescence-labeled bones are shown in the High C/I group. It is considered that high remodeling activity prevent marginal bone loss in the High C/I group and this may provide favorable implant stability under proper plaque control. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that increased C/I may not be a risk factor for implant failure if the peri-implant mucosa is kept healthy, as was the case in this animal model.

  6. Reducing Dental Plaque and Gingivitis With 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae Toothpaste: A Randomized, Double-Masked Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongchun; Yin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Cortex Ilicis Rotundae has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few studies have evaluated the effects of toothpastes containing Cortex Ilicis Rotundae. This study evaluates the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a test toothpaste containing 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae extract in a calcium carbonate base compared with a control toothpaste without any active ingredient. One hundred adults with a mean plaque index (PI) ≥ 1.5 and a mean gingival index (GI) ≥ 1.0 were enrolled in this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. They were assigned randomly to use a test toothpaste or a control toothpaste. At baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, they received examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, using Löe-Silness GI for gingivitis and the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein PI for PI. Adverse events were monitored. When the study was completed, the test group reported lower mean GI than the control group (1.13 ± 0.22 versus 1.30 ± 0.23; P = 0.001) and lower mean PI than the control group (2.53 ± 0.5 versus 2.93 ± 0.44; P gingivitis after 12 weeks of use compared with a negative control toothpaste.

  7. Efektifitas siwak (Salvadora persica dan pasta gigi siwak terhadap akumulasi plak gigi pada anak-anak (Effectiveness of Siwak (Salvadora persica and siwak toothpaste on dental plaque accumulation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Bramanti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: siwak contain of salvadorine with an antiseptic effect. There were many reports about antibacterial effect of siwak on the cariogenic bacterial, pathogen periodontal, and dental plaque accumulation. Purpose: The study was aimed to determine the effect of siwak and siwak toothpaste on accumulated dental plaque in children. Methods: The subjects were 39 teenage children in range of age 12-15 years old, and were divided on 3 groups. Each subject group was asked to brush their teeth 3 times a day using siwak; siwak toothpaste; and toothpaste with no additional substance as control, respectively. After brushing for a week, plaque scoring was performing using Modified Personal Hygiene Performance Index (PHP-M. Data were analysed using one way Anova. Results: The plaque score on siwak group lower significantly than control group, but there was no significant difference between siwak group and siwak toothpaste group. Conclusion: The study suggested that siwak and siwak toothpaste had the same effect on decreasing plaque accumulation in children.Latar belakang: siwak mengandung salvadorine yang berefek sebagai antiseptik. siwak juga dilaporkan memiliki efek antibakteri terhadap bakteri kariogenik dan pathogen periodontal, dan menghambat pembentukan plak. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji efek siwak dan pasta gigi siwak terhadap akumulasi plak pada anak. Metode: subyek penelitian adalah 39 anak remaja berusia 12-15 tahun yang dibagi dalam 3 kelompok. setiap subyek dalam kelompok yang sama diminta untuk menyikat gigi sehari 3 kali dengan menggunakan siwak; pasta gigi siwak; dan pasta gigi murni tanpa tambahan bahan sebagai control. setelah selama seminggu menyikat gigi, dilakukan pengukuran skor plak menggunakan indeks PHP-M. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan Anova satu jalur. Hasil: skor plak kelompok siwak lebih rendah secara signifikan dibanding kelompok pasta gigi murni, namun antara kelompok siwak dan pasta gigi siwak

  8. Prevalence of plaque and dental decay in the first permanent molar in a school population of south Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboada-Aranza, Olga; Rodríguez-Nieto, Karen

    2018-01-01

    The first permanent molar is susceptible to acquire tooth decay since its eruption, due to its anatomy and because it has been exposed before other teeth. An observational, prolective, transversal and comparative study in 194 students, with an average age of 9.9 ± 1.8 years. The evaluation of the dentobacterial plate (DBP) was analyzed using the O'Leary index and the tooth decay experience with the DMFS (sum of decayed, missing, extracted and filling dental surfaces) and DMFT (sum of decayed, missing, extracted and filling per tooth) indexes. The prevalence of DBP in the first permanent molar was of 99.4% and tooth decay of 57.2%. The value of DMFT was 1.4 ± 1.4. The tooth decay experience was higher in children from 7.10 years old with a value of 2.2 ± 2.3, who are 7.9 times more likely to develop lesions than younger children (odds ratio: 8.9; 95% confidence interval: 4.1-19.5; p tooth decay experience indexes; even though these were weak in the case of DMF (r = 0.439), the model allowed to explain 19% of the association, and 22% for DMFT (r = 0.464). Tooth decay develops rapidly in the first permanent molars; however, it does not receive the necessary care because it is usually unknown that it is a permanent tooth. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  9. Contemporary perspective on plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, P D

    2012-06-22

    The aim of this review article is to provide a scientific platform that will enable the dental team to develop a rational approach to plaque control based on the latest knowledge of the role of the oral microflora in health and disease. The resident oral microflora is natural and forms spatially-organised, interactive, multi-species biofilms on mucosal and dental surfaces in the mouth. These resident oral microbial communities play a key function in the normal development of the physiology of the host and are important in preventing colonisation by exogenous and often undesirable microbes. A dynamic balance exists between the resident microflora and the host in health, and disease results from a breakdown of this delicate relationship. Patients should be taught effective plaque control techniques that maintain dental biofilms at levels compatible with oral health so as to retain the beneficial properties of the resident microflora while reducing the risk of dental disease from excessive plaque accumulation. Antimicrobial and antiplaque agents in oral care products can augment mechanical plaque control by several direct and indirect mechanisms that not only involve reducing or removing dental biofilms but also include inhibiting bacterial metabolism when the agents are still present at sub-lethal concentrations.

  10. Quantification of periodontal pathogens in vascular, blood, and subgingival samples from patients with peripheral arterial disease or abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figuero, Elena; Lindahl, Christeel; Marín, María José; Renvert, Stefan; Herrera, David; Ohlsson, Ola; Wetterling, Thomas; Sanz, Mariano

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this investigation is to quantify periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Campylobacter rectus, and Tannerella forsythia) in vascular, blood, and subgingival samples. As a secondary objective, two molecular bacterial identification methods (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR] and quantitative PCR [qPCR]) are compared. Seventy consecutive patients provided a vascular lesion, a blood sample, and 36 subgingival samples. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and qPCR was used to determine the prevalence and amounts of the target pathogens in each sample. Nested PCR was performed only in the samples from vascular lesions. Periodontal examination was performed in 42 patients. Mann-Whitney U or χ(2) tests were used to compare microbiologic results according to periodontal diagnosis. All targeted periodontal pathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, or C. rectus) were detected in subgingival samples, with a prevalence rate of 72.2%, 47.2%, 74.3%, and 82.9%, respectively. In 7.1% and 11.4% of vascular and blood samples, bacterial DNA was detected. One patient was positive for A. actinomycetemcomitans in the three types of samples. No differences were found in the levels of targeted bacteria when comparing patients with and without periodontitis. Prevalence rates obtained with nested PCR were significantly higher than those obtained with qPCR. The presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans was demonstrated in vascular, blood, and subgingival samples in one of 36 patients. These results, although with a very low frequency, may support the hypothesis of a translocation of periodontal pathogens from subgingival microbiota to the bloodstream and then to atheromatous plaques in carotid or other peripheral arteries. Nested PCR is not an adequate method for identifying DNA of periodontal pathogens in low quantities because of the high number of false-negative results.

  11. New dimensions in mechanical plaque control: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnab Mandal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plaque control is the daily removal of dental plaque, oral biofilm and also prevention of their accumulation on the teeth and other parts of oral cavity. Dental plaque is the major etiology of maximum gingival and periodontal diseases. It is also related with various dental problems. Mechanical plaque control is a very effective method to get rid of plaque accumulation in oral cavity. In 3000 BC there was the first toothbrush invented by human beings. With time several modifications came in toothbrushes to make mechanical plaque control more effective in day to day oral hygiene practice. This article emphasizes on the advanced and emerging tools in mechanical plaque control methods in attaining an optimal level of oral hygiene standards and maintenance of oral health.

  12. Subgingival microflora and treatment in prepubertal periodontitis associated with chronic idiopathic neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamma, J J; Lygidakis, N A; Nakou, M

    1998-09-01

    Prepubertal periodontitis affects both primary and permanent dentition. The purpose of this study was to examine the composition of subgingival microflora of the permanent dentition in an 11-year-old Caucasian female, who had premature exfoliation of her deciduous teeth on her 5th year of age, and the response of this condition to the antibiotic therapy and supportive periodontal care. Gingival tissues were highly inflamed and alveolar bone loss was detected radiographically. The girl had experienced frequent upper respiratory tract infections, tonsilitis and recurrent otitis media. Her mother had history of early onset periodontitis associated with chronic idiopathic neutropenia. Blood chemistry tests and immunological examinations were also performed. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the proximal sites of permanent molars, incisors, canines and maxillary premolars. 27 different microbial species were isolated from the subgingival microflora. Among the predominant species were Porphyromonas gingivalis (17.6%-7.3%), Prevotella intermedia (12.4%-4.7%), Capnocytophaga sputigena (14.4%-10.4%), Capnocytophaga ochracea (13.2%-6.9%) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (9.3%-5.5%). Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling, root planing in conjunction with antibiotic administration of Augmentin 312.5 mg and Flagyl 200 mg, each t.i.d. for 10 days. 3 weeks after the antibiotic therapy, bacterial samples were collected from the same sites. All the periodontal pathogens were recovered in lower levels and A.actinomycetemcomitans was almost eliminated in the 3-week period. The evaluation of clinical indices at 3, 6 and 12 months showed that periodontal treatment in conjunction with antibiotics was effective and rapidly followed by marked clinical improvement. The microbiological monitoring at 3, 6 and 12 months after antibiotic treatment and each time prior to supportive periodontal care, revealed that the periodontal pathogens fluctuated in low levels even

  13. Vulnerable Plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plaque be prevented? Patients can lower their C-reactive protein levels in the same ways that they can cut their heart attack risk: take aspirin, eat a proper diet, quit smoking, and begin an exercise program. Researchers also think that obesity and diabetes may ...

  14. Fiscal 2000 survey report. Research on bone-forming dental material capable of reducing plaque adhesion; 2000 nendo shiko fuchaku boshigata hone keisei shika zairyo ni kansuru chosa kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development efforts are exerted to produce advanced dental materials equipped with such functions as plaque reduction, bactericidal effect, and early formation of hydroxyapatite (HAP). In the study of fluorine ion implantation for plaque reduction, it is found that in a specimen implanted with fluorine ions the adhesion of carius streptococci is reduced to 1/3-1/10 for the achievement of remarkable improvement. In particular, carious streptococcus multiplication is suppressed when the metal shield layer is replaced with a titanium mesh. For the realization of a thin film formation method for osteoblast multiplication through reforming the material surface in the study of bone-forming dental materials, film formation conditions under which a P/Ca rate which is quite near that of ameloblast are achieved by use of a high frequency magnetron sputtering device. A titanium plate coated with a thus-formed film is annealed for a great increase in its wet contact angle, and then adhesion of bacteria is reduced and an osteoblast multiplication rate is increased by 20% or more, as compared with the case of no treatment in a petri dish. (NEDO)

  15. Differential reflectometry versus tactile sense detection of subgingival calculus in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Fardad; Walsh, Laurence J.

    2012-10-01

    Detecting dental calculus is clinically challenging in dentistry. This study used typodonts with extracted premolar and molar teeth and simulated gingival tissue to compare the performance of differential reflectometry and periodontal probing. A total of 30 extracted teeth were set in an anatomical configuration in stone to create three typodonts. Clear polyvinyl siloxane impression material was placed to replicate the periodontal soft tissues. Pocket depths ranged from 10 to 15 mm. The three models were placed in a phantom head, and an experienced dentist assessed the presence of subgingival calculus first using the DetecTar (differential reflectometry) and then a periodontal probe. Scores from these two different methods were compared to the gold standard (direct examination of the root surface using 20× magnification) to determine the accuracy and reproducibility. Differential reflectometry was more accurate than tactile assessment (79% versus 60%), and its reproducibility was also higher (Cohen kappa 0.54 versus 0.39). Both methods performed better on single rooted premolar teeth than on multirooted teeth. These laboratory results indicate that differential reflectometry allows more accurate and reproducible detection of subgingival calculus than conventional probing, and supports its use for supplementing traditional periodontal examination methods in dental practice.

  16. Evaluation of efficacy of a commercially available herbal mouthwash on dental plaque and gingivitis: A double-blinded parallel randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjukta Bagchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate if a commercially available herbal mouthwash, can be a better choice as an anti-plaque and antigingivitis agent when compared with chlorhexidine. Materials and Methods: In a double-blind, parallel group randomized clinical trial 90 nursing students aged 18-25 years were randomly divided into three groups: A (chlorhexidine, B (HiOra and C (distilled water. These groups were asked to rinse with their respective mouthwash two times daily for 21 days. Plaque and gingivitis were evaluated by using Turesky et al. modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index (1970 and Modified Gingival Index by Lobene et al. (1986 respectively. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA test. Results: There was statistically significant reduction in plaque and gingival scores from baseline to 21 days in both the groups A and B. Conclusions: Although chlorhexidine group proved to be the best anti-plaque and antigingivitis agent, it was found that HiOra group also showed gradual improvement from baseline to 21 days. Whereas no improvement was seen in the Group C using distilled water over 21 days.

  17. Dental biofilm infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tove; Fiehn, Nils-Erik

    2017-01-01

    and cause gingival inflammation and breakdown of supporting periodontal fibers and bone and ultimately tooth loss, i.e., gingivitis, chronic or aggressive periodontitis, and around dental implants, peri-implantitis. Furthermore, bacteria from the dental biofilm may spread to other parts of the body......-fermenting bacteria causing demineralization of teeth, dental caries, which may further lead to inflammation and necrosis in the pulp and periapical region, i.e., pulpitis and periapical periodontitis. In supra- and subgingival biofilms, predominantly gram-negative, anaerobic proteolytic bacteria will colonize...

  18. Denture plaque--past and recent concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikawa, H; Hamada, T; Yamamoto, T

    1998-05-01

    This paper critically reviews the history of denture plaque and identifies some concerns with the presence of Candida in the mouth. This review covers literature sources related to Candida albicans and its relationship to denture plaque. The articles selected for this review are from referred journals and describe C. albicans and its relationship to oral, gastrointestinal and pleuropulmonary infections. The relationship to caries, root caries and periodontal disease is also covered. Denture plaque containing Candida could cause not only oral candidiasis, like oral thrush or denture-induced stomatitis, but also caries, root caries and periodontitis of abutment teeth. However, there is only limited experimental evidence or information available on the cariogenicity of Candida. The continuous swallowing or aspiration of micro-organisms from denture plaque exposes patients, particularly the immunocompromised host or medicated elderly, to the risks of unexpected infections. The term, 'denture plaque' has been used throughout the review. However, the term 'plaque on denture' should be used because the microbial flora and its pathogenicity of denture plaque resembles those of plaque formed on the tooth surface, so called dental plaque. In addition, the term 'denture related stomatitis' would be preferable to 'denture induced stomatitis', since the inflammation of (palatal) mucosa is not induced by the denture, but by wearing the denture or by plaque on the denture.

  19. Detection and comparison of Selenomonas sputigena in subgingival biofilms in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Nagpal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the advent of DNA-based culture-independent techniques, a constantly growing number of Selenomonas phylotypes have been detected in patients with destructive periodontal diseases. However, the prevalence levels that have been determined in different studies vary considerably. Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect and compare the presence of Selenomonas sputigena in the subgingival plaque samples from generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP, chronic generalized periodontitis, and periodontally healthy patients using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients were categorized as periodontally healthy individuals (Group I, n = 30, chronic generalized periodontitis (Group II, n = 30, and GAP (Group III, n = 30. The clinical parameters were recorded and subgingival plaque samples were collected. These were then subjected to conventional PCR analysis.Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA test was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Mann–Whitney U-test for pairwise comparison. Results: On comparison between three groups, all the clinical parameters were found to be statistically highly significant. Comparing Groups I-II and I-III, the difference in detection was found to be statistically highly significant whereas in Groups II-III, it was statistically nonsignificant. On comparison of S. sputigena detected and undetected patients to clinical parameters in various study groups, the difference was found to be nonsignificant. Conclusion:S. sputigena was found to be significantly associated with chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Although the difference in its detection frequency in both groups was statistically nonsignificant when compared clinically, S. sputigena was more closely associated with the GAP.

  20. Effects of Untreated Periodontitis on Osseointegration of Dental Implants in a Beagle Dog Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daehyun; Sohn, Byungjin; Kim, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Sungtae; Koo, Ki-Tae; Kim, Tae-Il; Seol, Yang-Jo; Lee, Yong-Moo; Rhyu, In-Chul; Ku, Young

    2016-10-01

    There have been previous studies on the relationship between periodontitis and peri-implantitis, but limited information is available on how periodontitis affects osseointegration and wound healing of newly placed dental implants adjacent to natural teeth. The objective of the present experiment is to evaluate healing around dental implants adjacent to teeth with untreated experimental periodontitis. The study included six male beagle dogs. Scaling and plaque control procedures were performed on three dogs (control group). In the other three dogs (experimental group), retraction cords and ligature wires were placed subgingivally around all premolars and the first molars. Induced experimental periodontitis was confirmed after 3 months. Each control or experimental group was divided into two subgroups depending on the timing of implant placement (immediate/delayed). Twelve dental implants (two implants for each dog) were placed immediately, and the other 12 dental implants (two implants for each dog) were placed 2 months after extraction. The animals were sacrificed 2 months after implant placement. Histologic and histometric analyses were performed. Four implants (three from the immediate placement group and one from the delayed placement group) failed in the experimental group. There were significant differences in the percentage of bone-to-implant contact and marginal bone volume density between the control and experimental groups. Both parameters were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group (P implants is associated with a higher failure rate compared with delayed placement. Untreated experimental periodontitis was correlated with compromised osseointegration in the implants with delayed placement.

  1. A new inexpensive customized plaque for choroidal melanoma iodine-125 plaque therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vine, A.K.; Tenhaken, R.K.; Diaz, R.F.; Maxson, B.B.; Lichter, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a new inexpensive precious metal alloy plaque for use in customized iodine-125 plaque therapy. Each plaque is formed from two flat circular gold/palladium foils which are used in dental crown work. Using a simple manual mechanism, the two forms are stamped over a customized acrylic die shaped to the dimensions of the tumor base plus a 2-mm margin. Completed plaques consist of a back wall, a 2-mm side wall, and a 1.5-mm wide lip with holes for suture placement. Advantages include: simple construction from inexpensive components, customized shape, and iodine seeds that are readily visible on plane radiographs

  2. Detection of odoriferous subgingival and tongue microbiota in diabetic and nondiabetic patients with oral malodor using polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh R Kamaraj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Halitosis has been correlated with the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs produced in the oral cavity by metabolic activity of bacteria colonizing the periodontal pockets and the dorsum of the tongue. It has been assumed that there is a relationship between periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus. Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the malodor using the organoleptic method and tanita device; to quantify odoriferous microorganisms of subgingival plaque and tongue coating, such as P. gingivalis (Pg, T. forsythia (Tf, and F. nucleatum (Fn using polymerase chain reaction (PCR in nondiabetic and diabetic chronic periodontitis patients. Patients and Methods: Thirty chronic periodontitis patients (with and without diabetes with 5-7 mm pocket depth, radiographic evidence of bone loss, and presence of oral malodor participated in this study. Subjective assessment of mouth air was done organoleptically and by using a portable sulfide monitor. Tongue coating was also assessed. Results: The scores of plaque index, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, VSC levels, and tongue coating between the nondiabetic and diabetic patients were not significant (P>0.5. In nondiabetic patients, Fn was found to be significantly (P0.5. In diabetic patients, Fn and Tf have shown significant (P<0.5 an increase in subgingival and tongue samples, respectively, whereas Pg has not shown significant difference between subgingival and tongue samples. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results confirm that there is no difference in clinical parameters between nondiabetic and diabetic periodontitis patients, but the odoriferous microbial profiles in tongue samples of diabetic patients were found to be high. However, there is a weak positive correlation between VSC levels, clinical parameters, and odoriferous microbial profiles.

  3. Molecular analysis of 16S rRNA genes identifies potentially periodontal pathogenic bacteria and archaea in the plaque of partially erupted third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, J M; Campbell, J H; Bhandari, A R; Jesionowski, A M; Vickerman, M M

    2012-07-01

    Small subunit rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used to identify cultivable and uncultivable microorganisms present in the dental plaque of symptomatic and asymptomatic partially erupted third molars to determine the prevalence of putative periodontal pathogens in pericoronal sites. Template DNA prepared from subgingival plaque collected from partially erupted symptomatic and asymptomatic mandibular third molars and healthy incisors was used in polymerase chain reaction with broad-range oligonucleotide primers to amplify 16S rRNA bacterial and archaeal genes. Amplicons were cloned, sequenced, and compared with known nucleotide sequences in online databases to identify the microorganisms present. Two thousand three hundred two clones from the plaque of 12 patients carried bacterial sequences from 63 genera belonging to 11 phyla, including members of the uncultivable TM7, SR1, and Chloroflexi, and difficult-to-cultivate Synergistetes and Spirochaetes. Dialister invisus, Filifactor alocis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Prevotella denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, which have been associated with periodontal disease, were found in significantly greater abundance in pericoronal compared with incisor sites. Dialister invisus and F nucleatum were found in greater abundance in sites exhibiting clinical symptoms. The archaeal species, Methanobrevibacter oralis, which has been associated with severe periodontitis, was found in 3 symptomatic patients. These findings have provided new insights into the complex microbiota of pericoronitis. Several bacterial and archaeal species implicated in periodontal disease were recovered in greater incidence and abundance from the plaque of partially erupted third molars compared with incisors, supporting the hypothesis that the pericoronal region may provide a favored niche for periodontal pathogens in otherwise healthy mouths. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and

  4. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    OpenAIRE

    A Kumar; R Hedge; U Dixit

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on saliv...

  5. Effect of Splinting on Dimensional Accuracy of Impressions Made of Implants with Different Subgingival Alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Shamshiri, Ahmed Reza; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Monzavi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Placement of implants at deeper levels of gingiva is sometimes inevitable because of issues like esthetics or bone availability. The accuracy of impressions may be affected in these situations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of splinting and length of impression copings on the accuracy of impressions made of deeply placed implants. A metal model with two parallel implants (Implantium; Dentium) was fabricated. One hundred and twenty impressions were made using the direct impression technique with and without splinting the impression copings (using short and long impression copings). Impressions were made of implants at three subgingival levels (1, 3, and 6 mm) using regular viscosity poly(vinyl siloxane). The impressions were poured with type IV dental stone. Displacements in the x, y, and z axes, as well as rotational discrepancies and interimplant distances were measured with a coordinate measuring machine. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and nonparametric adjusted rank transform tests. There was less rotational displacement using longer impression copings at different subgingival positions of the implants, either with splinted or nonsplinted direct technique (p impressions at different apico-coronal levels of implants than the splinted technique using short impression copings (p impression copings yielded better results than shorter ones in both splinted and nonsplinted techniques. Also, nonsplinted short impression copings produced more accurate impressions than splinted short impression copings. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H; Rams, Thomas E

    An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries.

  7. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol and plaque acid neutralisation (ID 485), maintenance of tooth mineralisation (ID 486, 562, 1181), reduction of dental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol and plaque acid neutralisation, maintenance of tooth mineralisation, reduction of dental plaque, and defence against pathogens in the middle ear. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States...... in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claims is sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol. The Panel considers that sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol...

  9. Changes in the subgingival biofilm composition after coronally positioned flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadson Almeida Lima

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of coronally positioned flap (CPF on the subgingival biofilm composition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two subjects with gingival recessions were treated with CPF. Clinical parameters were assessed before and at 6 months after surgery. Subgingival biofilms were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique for 40 bacterial species. RESULTS: Recession height, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing improved significantly (p<0.05 at 6 months post-CPF. The proportions of 10 periodontal pathogens and the proportions of red and orange complexes decreased at 6 months. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CPF can induce beneficial effects on the composition of the subgingival microbiota after 6 months.

  10. Supragingival treatment as an aid to reduce subgingival needs: a 450-day investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Carvalho Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical effects of using a supragingival biofilm control regimen (SUPRA as a step prior to scaling and root planing (SRP. A split-mouth clinical trial was performed in which 25 subjects with periodontitis (47.2 ± 6.5 years underwent treatment (days 0-60 and monitoring (days 90-450 phases. At Day 0 (baseline treatments were randomly assigned per quadrant: SUPRA, SRP and S30SRP (SUPRA 30 days before SRP. The full-mouth visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, periodontal probing depth (PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment loss (CAL were examined on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 270, and 450. Baseline data were similar among all groups. From days 0 to 60, the groups showed similar significant decreases in VPI and GBI. Reductions in PPD for the SRP (3.39 ± 0.17 to 2.42 ± 0.16 mm and S30SRP (3.31 ± 0.11 to 2.40 ± 0.07 mm groups were greater (p < 0.05 than those for the SUPRA group. This pattern was also observed for BOP. Attachment gain was similar and greater for the SRP (3.34 ± 0.28 to 2.58 ± 0.26 mm and S30SRP (3.25 ± 0.21 to 2.54 ± 0.19 mm groups compared to the SUPRA group. Results were maintained from day 90 forward. Overall, the S30SRP treatment reduced the subgingival treatment needs in 48.16%. Performance of a SUPRA step before SRP decreased subgingival treatment needs and maintained the periodontal stability over time.

  11. Effect of a 0.5% chlorhexidine gel on dental plaque superinfecting microorganisms in mentally handicapped patients Efeito do gel de clorexidina a 0,5% em microrganismos superinfectantes da placa bacteriana de portadores de necessidades especiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Mendes Pannuti

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A randomized clinical trial was conducted to investigate the effect of a 0.5% chlorhexidine (CHX gel on dental plaque superinfecting microorganisms in mentally handicapped patients. Thirty inmates from the institution "Casas André Luiz" were assigned to either test group (CHX gel, n = 15 or control group (placebo gel, n = 15. The gel was administered over a period of 8 weeks. Supragingival plaque samples were collected at baseline, after gel use (8 weeks and 16 weeks after baseline. The presence of Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus and yeasts was evaluated. No significant growth of any superinfecting microorganism was observed in the CHX group, when compared to the placebo group. The results indicated that the 0.5% chlorhexidine gel did not produce an undesirable shift in these bacterial populations.Foi conduzido um ensaio clínico aleatório com objetivo de investigar o efeito do gel de clorexidina (CHX a 0,5% sobre microorganismos superinfectantes da placa bacteriana de pacientes especiais. Trinta internos da instituição "Casas André Luiz" foram aleatoriamente divididos em grupo teste (gel de CHX, n = 15 e controle (gel placebo, n = 15. O gel foi utilizado por oito semanas. Amostras de placa supragengival foram coletadas no início do estudo, após o uso do gel (oito semanas e 16 semanas após o início do estudo. Foi avaliada a presença de bacilos entéricos Gram-negativos, Staphylococcus e leveduras. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto à presença desses microorganismos em qualquer momento do estudo. Os resultados indicam que o gel de CHX não provocou mudanças significativas na composição desses microorganismos.

  12. Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Meulman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST.Non-smokers (n=10 and smokers (n=10 presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD (≥5 mm, bleeding on probing (BoP, and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI, BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL. Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (α=5%.Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05. Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes.Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers.

  13. Genetic analysis of Porphyromonas gingivalis (fimA), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and red complex in coronary plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra, Jaideep; Mahendra, Little; Felix, John; Romanos, Georgios E

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis (fimA), Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and red complex in the coronary plaque of patients with coronary artery disease. The study population consisted of 51 patients with chronic periodontitis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. DNA was extracted from subgingival and coronary atherosclerotic plaque samples. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the part of 16S rRNA gene to detect the presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis (fimA), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis (fimA), and Treponema denticola were detected in 0%, 31.4%, 45.1%, 39.2%, and 51% of the atherosclerotic plaque samples, respectively. In both subgingival and coronary atherosclerotic plaque samples, Tannerella forsythia was detected in 19.6%, Porphyromonas gingivalis in 39.2%, Porphyromonas gingivalis (fimA) in 33.3%, and Treponema denticola in 35.3% of the samples. The study confirmed the detection of red complex bacteria in coronary plaque samples. However Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans could not be detected in these samples. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with chronic periodontal infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Souto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are important pathogens associated with late nosocomial pneumonia in hospitalized and institutionalized individuals. The oral cavity may be a major source of these respiratory pathogens, particularly in the presence of poor oral hygiene and periodontal infection. This study investigated the prevalence of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with periodontal disease or health. Samples were obtained from 55 periodontally healthy (PH and 169 chronic periodontitis (CP patients. DNA was obtained from the samples and detection of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. was carried out by multiplex and nested PCR. P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were detected in 40% and 45% of all samples, respectively. No significant differences in the distribution of these microorganisms between men and women, subgingival biofilm and saliva samples, patients 35 years of age, and smokers and non-smokers were observed regardless periodontal status (p > 0.05. In contrast, the frequencies of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in saliva and biofilm samples were significantly greater in CP than PH patients (p < 0.01. Smokers presenting P. aeruginosa and high frequencies of supragingival plaque were more likely to present CP than PH. P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are frequently detected in the oral microbiota of CP. Poor oral hygiene, smoking and the presence of P. aeruginosa are strongly associated with periodontitis.

  15. Plaque, caries level and oral hygiene habits in young patients receiving orthodontic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martignon, S; Ekstrand, K R; Lemos, M I

    2010-01-01

    To assess plaque, caries, and oral hygiene habits amongst patients receiving fixed-orthodontic treatment at the Dental-Clinic, Universidad-El-Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia.......To assess plaque, caries, and oral hygiene habits amongst patients receiving fixed-orthodontic treatment at the Dental-Clinic, Universidad-El-Bosque, Bogotá, Colombia....

  16. Identification of subgingival periodontal pathogens and association with the severity of periodontitis in patients with chronic kidney diseases: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Fidan Bahtiar; Ismail, Gener; Dumitriu, Anca Silvia; Baston, Catalin; Berbecar, Vlad; Jurubita, Roxana; Andronesi, Andreea; Dumitriu, Horia Traian; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the subgingival profile of 9 periodontal pathogens, by means of real-time PCR, in a group of predialysis chronic kidney disease patients with and without periodontal disease and to identify the risk factors associated with periodontal disease in these patients. This is a single centre cross-sectional cohort study performed on 70 CKD patients. Patients received a full-mouth periodontal examination and the following parameters were assessed: periodontal pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, and plaque index; subgingival biofilm samples were collected from the deepest periodontal pocket of each quadrant and were pooled in one transporting unit. Clinical data were drawn from the medical file of the patients. T. denticola (P = 0.001), T. forsythia (P < 0.001), and P. micros (P = 0.003) are significantly associated with periodontal disease in CKD subjects but in a multivariate model only age and T. forsythia remain independent risk factors for periodontal disease in patients with CKD. In our cohort, age and T. forsythia are independently associated with periodontitis in CKD patients. Within the limits of this study, CKD was not significantly associated with a particular subgingival periodontal pathogens profile in periodontitis patients.

  17. Identification of Subgingival Periodontal Pathogens and Association with the Severity of Periodontitis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Diseases: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidan Bahtiar Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our study was to assess the subgingival profile of 9 periodontal pathogens, by means of real-time PCR, in a group of predialysis chronic kidney disease patients with and without periodontal disease and to identify the risk factors associated with periodontal disease in these patients. Material and Methods. This is a single centre cross-sectional cohort study performed on 70 CKD patients. Patients received a full-mouth periodontal examination and the following parameters were assessed: periodontal pocket depth (PPD, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, and plaque index; subgingival biofilm samples were collected from the deepest periodontal pocket of each quadrant and were pooled in one transporting unit. Clinical data were drawn from the medical file of the patients. Results. T. denticola (P=0.001, T. forsythia (P<0.001, and P. micros (P=0.003 are significantly associated with periodontal disease in CKD subjects but in a multivariate model only age and T. forsythia remain independent risk factors for periodontal disease in patients with CKD. Conclusions. In our cohort, age and T. forsythia are independently associated with periodontitis in CKD patients. Within the limits of this study, CKD was not significantly associated with a particular subgingival periodontal pathogens profile in periodontitis patients.

  18. Identification of non-streptococcal organisms from human dental plaque grown on the Streptococcus-selective medium mitis-salivarius agar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Si Young

    2015-02-01

    Mitis-salivarius (MS) agar has been used widely in microbial epidemiological studies because oral viridans streptococci can be selectively grown on this medium. Even though the previous findings reported the limited selecting power of MS agar for streptococcus strains, the identities of non-streptococcal strains from human oral samples which can grow on this medium are not clear yet. In this study, we identified non-streptococcal organisms grown on MS agar plates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene. Eighty bacterial colonies on MS plates were isolated from plaque samples, and bacterial identification was achieved with the rapid ID 32 Strep system and mini API reader. The bacterial colonies identified as non-streptococci by the API system were selected for further identification. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and verified using DNA sequencing analysis for identification. Sequences were compared with those of reference organisms in the genome database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST). Among the 11 isolated non-streptococcal strains on MS plates, 3 strains were identified as Actinomyces naeslundii, 7 strains were identified as Actinomyces oris and 1 strain were identified as Actinomyces sp. using Blastn. In this study, we showed that some oral Actinomyces species can grow on Streptococcus-selective MS agar plates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The anti-adherence effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on the adhesion of early settlers in dental plaque to saliva-coated glass surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Fathilah Abdul; Rahim, Zubaidah Haji Abd

    2003-12-01

    The aqueous extracts of Piper betle and Psidium guajava were prepared and tested for their anti-adherence effect on the adhesion of early plaque settlers (Strep. mitis, Strep. sanguinis and Actinomyces sp.). The saliva-coated glass surfaces were used to simulate the pellicle-coated enamel surface in the oral cavity. Our results showed that the anti-adherence activities of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts towards the bacteria were different between the bacterial species. Psidium guajava was shown to have a slightly greater anti-adherence effect on Strep. sanguinis by 5.5% and Actinomyces sp. by 10% and a significantly higher effect on Strep. mitis (70%) compared to Piper betle. The three bacterial species are known to be highly hydrophobic, and that hydrophobic bonding seemed to be an important factor in their adherence activities. It is therefore suggested that the plant extracts, in expressing their anti-adherence activities, could have altered the hydrophobic nature of the bonding between the bacteria and the saliva-coated glass surfaces.

  20. Periodontal health of older men: the MrOS dental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Kathy R; Chan, Benjamin K S; Jennings-Holt, Marie; Geurs, Nico C; Reddy, Michael S; Lewis, Cora E; Orwoll, Eric S

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and severity of periodontitis in men of 65+ years and identify demographic and lifestyle factors associated with its presence. Participants were recruited from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study, a longitudinal study of risk factors for fractures in older men. Dental measures included clinical attachment loss (CAL), pocket depth (PD), calculus, plaque and bleeding on a random half-mouth, plus a questionnaire regarding access to care, symptoms and previous diagnosis. 1210 dentate men completed the dental visit. Average age was 75 years, 39% reported some graduate school education, 32% smoked 20 + pack years and 88% reported their overall health as excellent/good. In terms of periodontal health, 38% had sub-gingival calculus, 53% gingival bleeding, 82% CAL > or =5 mm and 34% PD > or =6 mm. The prevalence of severe periodontitis was 38%. Significant demographic and lifestyle factors associated with severe periodontitis in multivariate analyses included age > or =75 (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) non-white race (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.8), less than an annual dental visit (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0), and 20 + pack years (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-2.7). A high proportion of healthy older men have evidence of periodontal destruction which could, given the growing ageing population, have a significant impact on the dental profession's ability to provide preventive and therapeutic care. The population at highest risk of periodontitis in MrOS is older minority men who smoke and do not have annual dental visits.

  1. Periodontist-Dental Hygienist Collaboration in Periodontal Care for Chronic Periodontitis: An 11-year Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Uekusa, Tomomi; Hosono, Meiko; Kigure, Takashi; Sugito, Hiroki; Saito, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of severe chronic periodontitis treated and longitudinally maintained by a periodontist and dental hygienists. The patient was a 45-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of gingival bleeding and tooth mobility. An initial examination revealed generalized gingival inflammation and subgingival calculus in the premolar and molar regions. Premature contact was observed in #14 and 45. Clinical examination revealed 42% of sites with a probing depth (PD) of ≥4 mm and 44% of sites with bleeding on probing. Radiographic examination revealed vertical bone resorption in #35, 36, and 45, and horizontal bone resorption in other regions. Based on a clinical diagnosis of severe chronic periodontitis, initial periodontal therapy consisting of plaque control, scaling and root planing, and removal of an ill-fitting prosthesis was performed. Following suppression of inflammation, occlusal adjustment of premature contact sites was performed. Open flap debridement was performed for teeth with a PD of ≥5 mm. After confirming the stability of the periodontal tissue, final prostheses were placed on #16, 35-37, and 46. Following re-evaluation, the patient was placed on supportive periodontal therapy. It has been 11 years since the patient's first visit, and the periodontal conditions have remained stable. Meticulous periodontal care maintained over a number of years by a periodontist and dental hygienist have yielded a clinically favorable outcome.

  2. Comparison of the efficacy of subgingival irrigation with 2% povidone-iodine and tetracycline HCl in subjects with chronic moderate periodontitis: A clinico microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Perayil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed to evaluate and compare the clinical and antimicrobial efficacy of subgingival irrigation with tetracycline and povidone-iodine as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects with chronic moderate periodontitis were recruited in this split-mouth study with probing pocket depth of >3 and ≤5 mm and clinical attachment loss of 3-4 mm in relation to 16, 36, and 46. In each subject, three selected periodontal pockets were assigned to receive one out of three irrigants (1 sterile water (control in 16; (2 tetracycline at 10 mg/ml in 36; (3 2% povidone-iodine in 46, and these sites were designated as Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively. Plaque score, gingival score, pocket probing depth, and clinical attachment level were evaluated before treatment and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythensis which have been implicated as the major risk factors for periodontal disease. Subgingival plaque collected before treatment and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Data were analysed using ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA. Results were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results: Clinical and microbiological parameters were reduced posttreatment, the reduction being significantly higher in Group B compared to Group C. Conclusion: It can be concluded that chemical and mechanical therapies were of slight benefit in the treatment of chronic moderate periodontitis, and there was an adjunctive effect of significance when scaling and root planing was combined with a single subgingival irrigation with tetracycline or povidone-iodine in lower concentration.

  3. DİŞ PLAĞINDA pH ÖLÇÜM YÖNTEMLERİ-DENTAL PLAQUE pH MEASUREMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Koparal, Ece; Eronat, Cemal

    2013-01-01

    ÖzetBir substraün yenmesinden sonra diş üzerindeki plakta meydana gelen pH değişikliklerinin saptanmasına dayanan plak pH'ı ölçüm çalışmaları üç yöntemle yapılabilmektedir. İn vitro plak pH ölçümünde, diş üzerinden plak örnekleri alınarak ağız boşluğunun dışında ölçüm gerçekleştirilmektedir. İn vivo plak pH'ı ölçümünde ise telemetri ve yüzey duyarlı elektrot ile plağa dokundurularak ağız içinde ölçümler yapılmaktadır.Anahtar sözcükler: Dental plak, pH, plak örnekleme yöntemi, yüzey ...

  4. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from th...

  5. Fluorescence detection of dental calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonchukov, S.; Biryukova, T.; Sukhinina, A.; Vdovin, Yu

    2010-11-01

    This work is devoted to the optimization of fluorescence dental calculus diagnostics in optical spectrum. The optimal wavelengths for fluorescence excitation and registration are determined. Two spectral ranges 620 - 645 nm and 340 - 370 nm are the most convenient for supra- and subgingival calculus determination. The simple implementation of differential method free from the necessity of spectrometer using was investigated. Calculus detection reliability in the case of simple implementation is higher than in the case of spectra analysis at optimal wavelengths. The use of modulated excitation light and narrowband detection of informative signal allows us to decrease essentially its diagnostic intensity even in comparison with intensity of the low level laser dental therapy.

  6. Oral Microbiome of Deep and Shallow Dental Pockets In Chronic Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiuchun; Rodriguez, Rafael; Trinh, My; Gunsolley, John; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    We examined the subgingival bacterial biodiversity in untreated chronic periodontitis patients by sequencing 16S rRNA genes. The primary purpose of the study was to compare the oral microbiome in deep (diseased) and shallow (healthy) sites. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the influences of smoking, race and dental caries on this relationship. A total of 88 subjects from two clinics were recruited. Paired subgingival plaque samples were taken from each subject, one from a probing site depth >5 mm (deep site) and the other from a probing site depth ≤3mm (shallow site). A universal primer set was designed to amplify the V4–V6 region for oral microbial 16S rRNA sequences. Differences in genera and species attributable to deep and shallow sites were determined by statistical analysis using a two-part model and false discovery rate. Fifty-one of 170 genera and 200 of 746 species were found significantly different in abundances between shallow and deep sites. Besides previously identified periodontal disease-associated bacterial species, additional species were found markedly changed in diseased sites. Cluster analysis revealed that the microbiome difference between deep and shallow sites was influenced by patient-level effects such as clinic location, race and smoking. The differences between clinic locations may be influenced by racial distribution, in that all of the African Americans subjects were seen at the same clinic. Our results suggested that there were influences from the microbiome for caries and periodontal disease and these influences are independent. PMID:23762384

  7. Occurence of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... plaque among patients with periodontal disease at the University of Nairobi Dental Hospital. ... done followed by subgingival plaque collection from selected teeth. ... clinical attachment loss (t= 4.61, p<0.001) and periodontal disease severity ...

  8. Microbial profile comparisons of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in periodontitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Sembler-Møller, Maria Lynn; Grande, Maria Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    by pooled subgingival samples. Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Filifactor alocis, Tannerella forsythia and Parvimona micra in site-specific subgingival samples were detected in saliva with an AUC of 0.79 (sensitivity: 0.61, specificity: 0.94), compared...

  9. Subgingival microbial profile of obese women with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Boghossian, Carina M; Cesário, Paola C; Leão, Anna Thereza T; Colombo, Ana Paula V

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the composition of subgingival microbiota between obese and non-obese women with or without periodontal disease. Full-mouth periodontal clinical assessments were carried out in 76 obese women (17 periodontally healthy and 59 with periodontal disease), and 34 non-obese women (12 periodontally healthy, 22 with periodontal disease). Subgingival biofilm samples were individually obtained from seven sites of each individual, and the prevalence and counts of 40 bacterial taxa were determined by the checkerboard method. The frequency and counts of each species were computed for each individual and across the groups. Differences among and between groups were sought by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, respectively. Possible correlations between obesity and clinical and microbiologic parameters were tested with Spearman correlation coefficient. Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus oralis, and Capnocytophaga ochracea were found in significantly higher levels in obese compared with non-obese women (P periodontal health, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Leptotrichia buccalis were detected in higher mean frequency and/or counts in obese women than in non-obese women, whereas in patients with periodontal disease, obese women harbored greater levels of C. ochracea than non-obese women (P periodontal disease presented significantly greater mean counts of P. gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia than non-obese women with periodontal health (P periodontal disease are present at the same time, significant positive correlations were detected with C. ocharcea, P. gingivalis, S. sanguinis, and T. forsythia. Few differences in the composition of the subgingival microbiota of obese and non-obese women with periodontal health or disease were found. However, a high prevalence of P. gingivalis in obese women with periodontal health was observed. © 2018 American Academy of Periodontology.

  10. Effect of baking soda in dentifrices on plaque removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Srinivas R

    2017-11-01

    The prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases targets control of dental plaque biofilm. In this context, chemical agents could represent a valuable complement to mechanical plaque control by reducing and controlling biofilm formation. The literature on the effectiveness of different dentifrices has not, however, been carefully categorized. A lack of consensus exists among dental professionals on a recommendation for a universal dentifrice for plaque control. The authors reviewed the scientific data on the different properties of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda)-containing dentifrices and their effectiveness in plaque removal. The results of the literature search show that baking soda-containing dentifrices are ideal candidates to be considered as a universal dentifrice because baking soda is inexpensive, abundant in supply, highly biocompatible, exhibits specific antibacterial properties to oral microorganisms, has low abrasivity, and is effective in plaque biofilm removal. Although some patients may benefit from desensitizing or high fluoride-containing dentifrices, those with routine needs may find using dentifrices containing baking soda and fluoride effective. Baking soda and fluoride dentifrices, therefore, may perhaps be considered as a criterion standard for patients with routine oral hygiene needs. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. New antimicrobial therapies used against fungi present in subgingival sites--a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Janaina Cássia Orlandi; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco; Mendes Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2011-10-01

    Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. The treatment of periodontal disease includes scaling and root planning (SRP) associated with proper oral hygiene. However, some patients may have negative responses to different therapeutic procedures, with a continuous loss of insertion, so the use of antimicrobials is needed as an adjuvant to SRP treatment. The use of a broad-spectrum antibiotic, such as tetracycline and metronidazole, as an aid in periodontal treatment has also been a factor for the development of superinfections by resistant bacteria and Candida species, even in patients with HIV. In the dental practice, the most commonly used antifungals are nystatin and fluconazole. However, the introduction of new drugs like the next generation of azoles is essential before the onset of emergent species in periodontal disease. Plants are good options for obtaining a wide variety of drugs. This alternative could benefit a large population that uses plants as a first treatment option. Plants have been used in medicine for a long time and are extensively used in folk medicine, because they represent an economic alternative, are easily accessible and are applicable to various diseases. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining the presence of Candida sp. in periodontal pockets, the conventional antifungal resistance and new therapies that include natural antifungal agents are reviewed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reliability of recordings of subgingival calculus detected using an ultrasonic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corraini, Priscila; López, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    To assess the intra-examiner reliability of recordings of subgingival calculus detected using an ultrasonic device, and to investigate the influence of subject-, tooth- and site-level factors on the reliability of these subgingival calculus recordings. On two occasions, within a 1-week interval, 147 adult periodontitis patients received a full-mouth clinical periodontal examination by a single trained examiner. Duplicate subgingival calculus recordings, in six sites per tooth, were obtained using an ultrasonic device for calculus detection and removal. Agreement was observed in 65 % of the 22,584 duplicate subgingival calculus recordings, ranging 45 % to 83 % according to subject. Using hierarchical modeling, disagreements in the subgingival calculus duplicate recordings were more likely in all other sites than the mid-buccal, and in sites harboring supragingival calculus. Disagreements were less likely in sites with PD ≥  4 mm and with furcation involvement  ≥  degree 2. Bleeding on probing or suppuration did not influence the reliability of subgingival calculus. At the subject-level, disagreements were less likely in patients presenting with the highest and lowest extent categories of the covariate subgingival calculus. The reliability of subgingival calculus recordings using the ultrasound technology is reasonable. The results of the present study suggest that the reliability of subgingival calculus recordings is not influenced by the presence of inflammation. Moreover, subgingival calculus can be more reliably detected using the ultrasound device at sites with higher need for periodontal therapy, i.e., sites presenting with deep pockets and premolars and molars with furcation involvement.

  13. Comparisons of subgingival microbial profiles of refractory periodontitis, severe periodontitis, and periodontal health using the human oral microbe identification microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ana Paula V; Boches, Susan K; Cotton, Sean L; Goodson, J Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D; Socransky, Sigmund S; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J

    2009-09-01

    This study compared the subgingival microbiota of subjects with refractory periodontitis (RP) to those in subjects with treatable periodontitis (GRs = good responders) or periodontal health (PH) using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). At baseline, subgingival plaque samples were taken from 47 subjects with periodontitis and 20 individuals with PH and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM. The subjects with periodontitis were classified as having RP (n = 17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or more than three sites with AL >or=2.5 mm after scaling and root planing, surgery, and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GRs (n = 30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL >or=2.5 mm after treatment. Significant differences in taxa among the groups were sought using the Kruskal-Wallis and chi(2) tests. More species were detected in patients with disease (GR or RP) than in those without disease (PH). Subjects with RP were distinguished from GRs or those with PH by a significantly higher frequency of putative periodontal pathogens, such as Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros), Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., and Eikenella corrodens, as well as unusual species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon [OT] 346/356, Bacteroidetes sp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium timidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, and Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) (P spp. cluster I, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis

  14. Prevalence of "non-oral" pathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of subjects with chronic periodontitis Prevalência de bactérias patogênicas "não-orais" no biofilme dental subgengival de pacientes com periodontite crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Souto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity may act as a reservoir for several pathogens related to systemic infections. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and levels of pathogenic bacteria in the subgingival biofilm of chronic periodontitis lesions and healthy periodontal sites using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. 200 samples of subgingival biofilm from sites with periodontitis (probing pocket depth > 4 mm and /or clinical attachment level > 4 mm and 200 samples from healthy sites of 14 patients with chronic periodontitis, as well as 200 samples from 3 periodontally healthy patients were obtained. The presence and levels of 11 pathogenic bacteria were determined using whole genomic DNA probes and the checkerboard method, computed for each site and then across sites within each subject group. Significance of differences in clinical and microbiological parameters among groups were examinated using the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon sign tests. The predominant species in all 600 samples included Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus,Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In general, most of the species were detected in greater prevalence and levels in sites with and without disease from patients with periodontitis in comparison to the periodontally healthy group. In particular, C. diphtheriae, E. coli, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were significantly more prevalent and detected in higher counts in diseased sites of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy subjects (p Apesar da extensa literatura sobre a associação de bactérias orais e doenças sistêmicas, tem se dado pouca atenção à cavidade oral como um reservatório de bactérias patogênicas "não-orais". A microbiota oral é constituída de mais de 300 espécies bacterianas já caracterizadas, além de organismos não cultiváveis que vêm sendo descobertos através de técnicas moleculares. O

  15. 16S rRNA-based detection of oral pathogens in coronary atherosclerotic plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atherosclerosis develops as a response of the vessel wall to injury. Chronic bacterial infections have been associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. The ability of oral pathogens to colonize in coronary atheromatous plaque is well known. Aim: The aim of this study was to detect the presence of Treponema denticola, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Campylobacter rectus in the subgingival and atherosclerotic plaques of patients with coronary artery disease. Materials and Methods: Fifty-one patients in the age group of 40-80 years with coronary artery disease were selected for the study. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples. The specific primers for T. denticola, C. rectus and P. gingivalis were used to amplify a part of the 16S rRNA gene by polymerase chain reaction. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square analysis, correlation coefficient and prevalence percentage of the microorganisms were carried out for the analysis. Results: Of the 51 patients, T. denticola, C. rectus and P. gingivalis were detected in 49.01%, 21.51% and 45.10% of the atherosclerotic plaque samples. Conclusions: Our study revealed the presence of bacterial DNA of the oral pathogenic microorganisms in coronary atherosclerotic plaques. The presence of the bacterial DNA in the coronary atherosclerotic plaques in significant proportion may suggest the possible relationship between periodontal bacterial infection and genesis of coronary atherosclerosis.

  16. Comparative evaluation of two subgingival irrigating solutions in the management of periodontal disease: A clinicomicrobial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhara Jayesh Pandya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Local administration of antimicrobial agents offer a “site-specific” approach to the periodontal therapy and it has several benefits. Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the clinical and microbial changes by subgingival irrigation using different subgingival irrigants in periodontitis patients and also to assess the mechanical effect of different local irrigation devices; if any. Settings and Design: Split-mouth design was employed on ten individuals. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 10 individuals in whom full-mouth scaling and root planing was performed and subgingival irrigation therapy was instituted for an experimental period of 30 days. The clinical as well as microbiological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: To calculate baseline data with day thirty data,paired t-test was used. Intergroup comparison was carried out using one-way ANOVA. Multiple comparisons among groups were carried out using post hoc Tamhane's T2 test. Results: Among the different subgingival irrigants used, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate is most effective followed by ozonated water, whereas saline was found to be ineffective when compared to the other two subgingival irrigants. Subgingival irrigation using pulsated device may not have any additive effect in alteration of the subgingival microflora. Conclusion: Within the limits and scope of the study, it can be safely concluded that 0.2% chlorhexidine may be used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy for achieving a significant reduction in inflammatory periodontal changes and also reduction in periodontopathogenic microflora.

  17. Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (vis+wIRA and Chlorine e6 (Ce6 eradicates Planktonic Periodontal Pathogens and Subgingival Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative treatment methods for pathogens and microbial biofilms are required due to the widespread rise in antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has recently gained attention as a novel method to eradicate pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of a novel aPDT method using visible light (vis and water infiltrated infrared A (wIRA in combination with chlorine e6 (Ce6 against different periodontal pathogens in planktonic form and within in situ subgingival oral biofilms. Eight different periodontal pathogens were exposed to aPDT using vis+wIRA and 100 µg/ml Ce6 in planktonic culture. Additionally, pooled subgingival dental biofilm was also treated by aPDT and the number of viable cells determined as colony forming units (CFU. Live/dead staining was used in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM to visualize and quantify antimicrobial effects within the biofilm samples. Untreated negative controls as well as 0.2 % chlorhexidine (CHX-treated positive controls were used. All eight tested periodontal pathogens including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Eikenella corrodens, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Slackia exigua and Atopopium rimae and the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm were eliminated over the ranges of 3.43 - 8.34 and 3.91 - 4.28 log10 CFU in the log10 scale, respectively. Thus, aPDT showed bactericidal effects on the representative pathogens as well as on the in situ subgingival biofilm. The live/dead staining also revealed a significant reduction (33.45 % of active cells within the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm. Taking the favorable tissue healing effects of vis+wIRA into consideration, the significant antimicrobial effects revealed in this study highlight the potential of aPDT using this light source in combination with Ce6 as an adjunctive method to treat periodontitis as well as

  18. Imaging unstable plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SRIRANJAN, Rouchelle S.; TARKIN, Jason M.; RUDD, James H.; EVANS, Nicholas R.; CHOWDHURY, Mohammed M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging technology have enabled us to utilise a range of diagnostic approaches to better characterise high-risk atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this article is to review current and emerging techniques used to detect and quantify unstable plaque in the context of large and small arterial systems and will focus on both invasive and non-invasive imaging techniques. While the diagnosis of clinically relevant atherosclerosis still relies heavily on anatomical assessment of arterial luminal stenosis, evolving multimodal cross-sectional imaging techniques that encompass novel molecular probes can provide added information with regard to plaque composition and overall disease burden. Novel molecular probes currently being developed to track precursors of plaque rupture such as inflammation, micro-calcification, hypoxia and neoangiogenesis are likely to have translational applications beyond diagnostics and have the potential to play a part in quantifying early responses to therapeutic interventions and more accurate cardiovascular risk stratification.

  19. Effectiveness of adjunctive subgingival administration of amino acids and sodium hyaluronate gel on clinical and immunological parameters in the treatment of chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Lorenzo; Eriani, Jessica; Serroni, Ilde; Liani, Giuliana; Borelli, Violetta; Castronovo, Gaetano; Di Lenarda, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary Aims The aim of this clinical trial was to compare clinical and biochemical healing outcomes following ultrasonic mechanical instrumentation versus ultrasonic mechanical instrumentation associated with topical subgingival application of amino acids and sodium hyaluronate gel. Methods Eleven systemically healthy subjects with moderate-severe chronic periodontitis, who had four sites with pocket probing depth and clinical attachment level greater than or equal to 5 mm were randomly assigned to two different types of treatment: two pockets were treated with ultrasonic debridement (Control Group) and two pockets with ultrasonic mechanical instrumentation associated with 0,5 ml of amino acids and sodium hyaluronate gel (Test Group). Probing depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index and bleeding on probing were recorded at baseline, 45 and 90 days. Levels of calprotectin and myeloperoxidase activity in gingival crevicular fluid were assessed at baseline and on day 7 and 45. Results Statistical significance was found between baseline and day 45 in relation to probing depth reduction and bleeding on probing between groups for both of the tested treatments. Significant reductions in μg/sample of calprotectin and myeloperoxidase were found after 1-week and an increase at 45 days in both groups. There were no statistically significant differences between other variables evaluated in this study. Conclusions These data suggest that subgingival application of hyaluronic acid following ultrasonic mechanical instrumentation is beneficial for improving periodontal parameters. PMID:23087790

  20. Efeito de um dentifrício fluoretado contendo bicarbonato de sódio na contagem de estreptococos do grupo mutans, acidogenicidade e composição da placa dental Effect of a fluorated dentifrice containing baking soda on mutans counting, acidogenicity and dental plaque composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Fernanda IGNÁCIO

    1999-01-01

    ílica como abrasivo.This investigation evaluated the effect of a fluoride baking soda-containing dentifrice on mutans streptococci counting, acidogenicity and composition of dental plaque. Twenty-three volunteers brushing their teeth 3 times a day, tested 3 formulations of fluoride (1500 ppm F, containing or sodium bicarbonate (12% associated with calcium carbonate (CARB/BICAR, or calcium carbonate (CARBONATE, or silica (SILICA, in a double blind crossover trial, done in 3 phases of 30 days each. On the 28th day, 8-10 hours after the last brushing, a counting of mutans streptococci in saliva (SMS was made. On the 30th day (after 48 hours during which the subjects were instructed to rinse with a slurry of toothpaste/water 3 times a day and sucrose 10% 6 times a day, the effect was analyzed in dental plaque, 10-12 hours after the last rinse: a mutans streptococci (PMS; b polysaccharide alkali-soluble (ASP; c acid-soluble F (ASF and d pH in T0 (T0, 5 min. after cariogenic challenge (T5, calculating DpH (T0 - T5. The results (mean + SE according to the treatments with dentifrices SILICA, CARBONATE and CARB/BICAR, were respectively: 1 SMS (x 106 UFC/mL saliva = 11.43 + 7.62 A; 2,33 + 1.04 A; 2.07 + 1.10 A; 2 PMS (x 106 UFC/mg = 0.099 + 0.095 A; 0.027 + 0.018 A; 0.007 + 0.003 A; 3 ASP (mg/mg = 6.89 + 0.62 AC; 8.46 + 0.80 AB; 6.11 + 0.59 C; 4 ASF (mg/g = 36.67 + 10.10 A; 48.12 + 19.23 A; 52.21 + 15.12 A; 5 T0 = 6.72 + 0.12 A; 6.88 + 0.13 A; 6.65 + 0.11 A; 6 T5 = 5.61 + 0.13 A; 5.71 + 0.13 A; 5.70 + 0.12 A; 7 DpH = 1.12 + 0.11 A; 1.17 + 0.11 A; 0.95 + 0.10 A. Means followed by the same letter do not differ significantly (P < 0.05. The data show that although the baking soda-containing dentifrice demonstrated, collectively, a trend to influence positively the various factors of dental caries, it did not differ significantly from SILICA and CARBONATE dentifrices.

  1. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Hedge, R; Dixit, U

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  2. Role of plaque in the clearance of salivary sucrose and its influence on salivary ph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dental caries in children, in India, is higher than many of the industrialized countries. The sugar most commonly associated with dental caries is sucrose, as the microorganisms in the dental plaque have the ability to convert this dietary constituent into various organic acids. Aims and Objectives: This study was conducted to study the effect of the presence of plaque on the salivary clearance of sucrose and to study the effect of the presence of plaque on salivary pH, following sucrose clearance. Materials and Methods: Salivary sucrose determination was done by using the anthrone technique. A Digital MHOS pH meter estimated the salivary pH. Results: Presence of plaque increased the salivary sucrose clearance time and decreased the salivary pH at various time intervals. Conclusions: The microbial etiology of dental caries is the dynamic relationship among the dental plaque microbiota, dietary carbohydrates, saliva and pH lowering, and the cariogenic potential of the dental plaque. Caries occur preferentially in the dentition sites characterized by high exposure to carbohydrate and diminished salivary effect.

  3. Impact of early colonizers on in vitro subgingival biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Ammann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early colonizing species on the structure and the composition of the bacterial community developing in a subgingival 10-species biofilm model system. The model included Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus anginosus, Actinomycesoris, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, Veillonella dispar, Campylobacter rectus, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola. Based on literature, we considered Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus anginosus, and Actinomyces oris as early colonizers and examined their role in the biofilms by either a delayed addition to the consortium, or by not inoculating at all the biofilms with these species. We quantitatively evaluated the resulting biofilms by real-time quantitative PCR and further compared the structures using confocal laser scanning microscopy following fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The absence of the early colonizers did not hinder biofilm formation. The biofilms reached the same total counts and developed to normal thickness. However, quantitative shifts in the abundances of individual species were observed. In the absence of streptococci, the overall biofilm structure appeared looser and more dispersed. Moreover, besides a significant increase of P. intermedia and a decrease of P. gingivalis , P. intermedia appeared to form filamented long chains that resembled streptococci. A. oris, although growing to significantly higher abundance in absence of streptococci, did not have a visible impact on the biofilms. Hence, in the absence of the early colonizers, there is a pronounced effect on P. intermedia and P. gingivalis that may cause distinct shifts in the structure of the biofilm. Streptococci possibly facilitate the establishment of P. gingivalis into subgingival biofilms, while in their absence P. intermedia became more dominant and forms elongated chains.

  4. Can chemical mouthwash agents achieve plaque/gingivitis control?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Weijden, F.A.; Van der Sluijs, E.; Ciancio, S.G.; Slot, D.E.

    2015-01-01

    Key points • Oral health is important since the mouth is the gateway to the human body. Bacteria are always present in the oral cavity and when not frequently removed the dental plaque biofilm leads to the development of oral disease. • Over the past decades, the use of mouthwashes has become

  5. Efeitos clínicos e microbiológicos do óleo de copaíba (Copaifera officinalis sobre bactérias formadoras de placa dental em cães Clinical and microbiological effects of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis on dental plaque forming bacteria in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Pieri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de uso do óleo de copaíba (Copaifera officinalis na prevenção da doença periodontal, eliminando seu agente etiológico, foi avaliado em 18 cães sem raça definida, distribuídos homogeneamente em três grupos: teste, (contendo óleo de copaíba controle positivo e controle negativo. Os tratamentos ocorreram três vezes ao dia, durante oito dias. Ao nono dia, os animais receberam aplicação tópica de fucsina básica 0,5% para evidenciação do biofilme. Mudanças na halitose e gengivite foram avaliadas diariamente por inspeção visual. Adicionalmente, foram realizados testes laboratoriais de inibição de aderência de Streptococcus mutans e ensaio antimicrobiano de difusão em ágar, sobre bactérias formadoras de placa dental. Os resultados da placa evidenciada apontaram áreas de cobertura microbiana nos dentes de 53,4±8,8%, 28,5±5,4%, e 22,3±5,3% para os grupos negativo, positivo e teste, respectivamente, indicando diferença entre o controle negativo e os demais grupos (PThe copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis potential was evaluated in preventing periodontal disease and reducing its etiology. For that 18 mongrel dogs were homogeneously distributed in three groups: test (copaiba oil, positive control (chlorexidine and negative control. The treatments were carried out three times a day, during eight days. On the 9th day, the animals were tested with a 0.5% basic solution of fuchsin for the detection of biofilm. Changes in halitosis and gingivitis were daily observed. In addition, the following laboratory tests were done: inhibition of the adherence of Streptococcus mutans, and plaque forming bacteria antimicrobial assays by the agar diffusion method. The results of the fuchsin test showed that dental plaque reached areas of 53.4±8.8%, 28.5±5.4%, and 22.3±5.3% in the negative control, positive control, and test groups, respectively, showing differences between dogs from the negative control group and dogs from the

  6. EFEKTIFITAS SKELING-PENGHALUSAN AKAR DENGAN DAN TANPA APLIKASI SUBGINGIVAL POVIDON-IODIN 10% PADA POKET 5-7mm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Ervina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In deep periodontal lesions, scaling and root planning (SRP failed to complete elimination of periodontal bacteria, so chemical antimicrobial agents are used topically to destroy microorganism. Povidon-iodin 10% is one of antimicrobial agents that can be applied topically and directly in the pocket. The aim of the research were evaluated the efficacy of povidon-iodin 10% as chemical antimicrobial agents locally applied into periodontal pocket. The data are obtained from patients with chronic adult periodontitis, baseline periodontal pocket depth (PPD are 5-7 mm. The teeth are scaled and root planed after clinical examinations (plaque index, papilla bleeding index and periodontal pocket depth and test sites or control sites are assigned randomly. Topically application of povidon-iodin 10% at test sites and aquabides at control sites is applied at day 1st and day 7th. The clinical parameters are assessed at day 14th. The results of the research showed that application of povidon-iodin 10% after SRP provide statistically significant more favorable papilla bleeding index reduction than SRP + aquabides after 14 day. The pocket depth reduction at test sites are greater than control cites (baseline PPD=6 and 7 mm. The conclusions of the research showed that application subgingival povidon-iodin 10% as adjuctive to SRP significantly reduce PBI and PPD (6 & 7 mm than without application povidon-iodin 10%.

  7. A review of factors influencing the incidence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombelli, L; Farina, R

    2013-06-01

    An individual variation in the gingival inflammatory response to the dental biofilm has been demonstrated. This variability can be observed between individuals with neither quantitative nor qualitative differences in plaque accumulation. The reported significant differences in gingival inflammatory response under quantitatively and/or qualitatively almost identical bacterial challenge suggest that the gingival response to plaque accumulation may be an individual trait, possibly genetic in origin. The most recent classification of periodontal diseases acknowledges that the clinical expression of plaque-induced gingival inflammation can be substantially modified by systemic factors, either inherent to the host or related to environmental influences. The aim of the present literature review is to describe (i) the factors influencing the development of plaque-induced gingivitis as well as (ii) those metabolic, environmental and systemic factors which have a direct impact on the etiopathogenetic pathway of plaque-induced gingivitis, thus altering the nature or course of the gingival inflammatory response to dental biofilm.

  8. Impact of heavy smoking on the clinical, microbiological and immunological parameters of patients with dental implants: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ata-Ali, Javier; Flichy-Fernández, Antonio Juan; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Ata-Ali, Fadi; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate how heavy smoking influences the clinical, microbiological, and host-response characteristics in peri-implant sulcus fluid of patients with healthy dental implants. A total of 29 individuals with 74 dental implants were included in the present study; 20 implants were in heavy smokers and 54 were in non-smokers. The modified gingival index, modified plaque index, and probing pocket depth were evaluated. Periodontopathogenic bacteria Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis were evaluated, together with the total bacterial load. Peri-implant sulcus fluid samples were analyzed for the quantification of interleukin-8, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α. No significant differences in the clinical parameters evaluated were found between the groups, although smokers had poorer peri-implant parameters. Among the smokers, subgingival microbiota was composed of a greater number of periodontal pathogens; these differences were not statistically significant. Smokers showed a greater expression of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α, but interleukin-8 was slightly higher among non-smokers, but not significantly. Although smokers presented deeper probing depths, bleeding on probing, and peri-implant microbiota composed of a greater number of periodontal pathogens than in non-smoking patients, these data did not show significant differences. In the present study, and in relation to the samples analyzed, smoking alone did not influence the immunological and microbiological parameters in dental implants with healthy peri-implant tissues. Further studies with larger samples are required to better evaluate the influence of smoking on dental implants. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Management of periodontal destruction caused by overhanging dental restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnova Misnova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal tissue inflammations are occasionally caused by positions of restoration margins, particularly if they are placed subgingivally. A 44-year old male was referred to the Dental and Mouth Hospital of Dentistry Faculty Hasanuddin University with the chief complaint of severe pain at right posterior maxillary. Clinical examinations demonstrate a 7-mm periodontal pocket at buccal aspect of 16 teeth with tooth mobility °2. Overhanging dental composite restorations of Class V were detected at the subgingival areas of 15, 16, and 17. Radiographic results show vertically and horizontally alveolar bone loss. This case report is aimed to describe the management of periodontal tissue destruction as a result of overhanging dental composite restorations. Scaling and root planing were conducted as the initial therapy. The periodontal surgery was performed a week after the initial therapy. A full-thickness flap design with sulcular incision from 14 to 18 was made before the pocket curretage and necrotic tissue debridement along with restoration recontouring. The flap was sutured with simple suture technique. Periodontal dressing was packed for a week. Antibiotics, analgetics and antiinflammatory drugs were prescribed per orally. There was no history of pain a week after the surgical procedure. Tooth mobility was decreased to °1 and the periodontal pocket was reduced to 3 mm. Overhanging dental restorations may lead to periodontal tissue destruction. The subgingivally placement of those restorations should consider the health of periodontal tissues.

  10. Subgingival dysbiosis in smoker and non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coretti, Lorena; Cuomo, Mariella; Florio, Ermanno; Palumbo, Domenico; Keller, Simona; Pero, Raffaela; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Lembo, Francesca; Cafiero, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common oral inflammatory diseases, and results in connective tissue degradation and gradual tooth loss. It manifests with formation of periodontal pockets, in which anaerobic and Gram‑negative bacteria proliferate rapidly. Consequently, alteration of the subgingival microbiota is considered the primary etiologic agent of periodontitis. Previous studies have reported that smokers are at increased risk of periodontal disease, in both prevalence and severity, indicating that smoking is a risk factor for the onset and progression of the pathology. In the present study, 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to assess the subgingival microbiota in 6 smoker patients with chronic periodontitis, 6 non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis and 8 healthy controls. The results demonstrated significant alterations in the microbial structure of periodontitis patients. High relative abundance of Parvimonans, Desulfubulbus, Paludibacter, Haemophilus, and Sphaerochaeta genera characterized subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients, both smokers and non‑smokers. Due to the high precision and sensitivity of the 16S rRNA sequencing method, analysis for low‑abundant genera (including Pedobacter, Granulicatella, Paracoccus, Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Oridobacteriu, Peptococcus, Oscillospira and Akkermansia) was feasible, and revealed novel phylotypes associated with periodontitis. Of note, a major microbial community alteration was evident in smoker patients, suggesting an association between smoking and severity of subgingival dysbiosis. The present study confirmed that chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease where changes in the equilibrium of subgingival microbiota contribute to severity of pathology.

  11. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine and combination mouth rinse in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Laxmi S Lakade; Preetam Shah; Dayanand Shirol

    2014-01-01

    Background: The removal of plaque is utmost important to control dental caries. But in children, factors like lack of dexterity, individual motivation and monitoring limit the effectiveness of tooth brushing. This necessitates the use of chemotherapeutic agents for control of plaque. Aims: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and mouth rinse containing 0.03% triclosan, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 5% xylitol in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque...

  12. [Maintenance care for dental implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoi, K

    1989-10-01

    Dental implant has tried at the early stage in 19th century recovering an oral function and esthetics. Technological revolutions in biochemical and new materials have developed on the remarkable change in the dental implants, nowadays we call the three generation therapy for dental implantology. There are many kinds of methods and techniques in dental implants, however a lot of troublesome complication on the process of surgical phase, construction of prothodontics and prognosis of maintenance care. In the proceedings of this symposium, I would like to propose you how to manage the maintenance care for various kind of dental implants through the methodology and case presentations. Tendenay and future for dental implants The current outlook of dental implant has increasing supply and demand not only dentists but also patients. According to Japanese Welfare Ministry's report in 1987, average missing teeth over sixty years old generations are approximately 42% in accordance with NIDR (U.S.A.) research. They are missed on ten over teeth in full 28th teeth dentitions owing to dental caries and periodontal diseases. Generally speaking, latent implant patients are occupied on the same possibility of needs for dental implants both Japan and U.S.A. Management of maintenance care The patients hardly recognized the importance of plaque control for the maintenance care in the intraoral condition after implantation. Dentists and dental staffs must be instruct patients for importance of plaque removal and control, because they already had forgotten the habit of teeth cleaning, especially in the edenturous conditions. 1) Concept of establishment in oral hygiene. Motivation and instruction for patients include very important factors in dental implants as well as in periodontal diseases. Patients who could not achieve on good oral hygiene levels obtained no good results in the long term observations. To establish good oral hygiene are how to control supra plaque surrounding tissues

  13. Fluorescence detection of dental calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchukov, S; Sukhinina, A; Vdovin, Yu; Biryukova, T

    2010-01-01

    This work is devoted to the optimization of fluorescence dental calculus diagnostics in optical spectrum. The optimal wavelengths for fluorescence excitation and registration are determined. Two spectral ranges 620 – 645 nm and 340 – 370 nm are the most convenient for supra- and subgingival calculus determination. The simple implementation of differential method free from the necessity of spectrometer using was investigated. Calculus detection reliability in the case of simple implementation is higher than in the case of spectra analysis at optimal wavelengths. The use of modulated excitation light and narrowband detection of informative signal allows us to decrease essentially its diagnostic intensity even in comparison with intensity of the low level laser dental therapy

  14. La pelade par plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spano, Frank; Donovan, Jeff C.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Présenter aux médecins de famille des renseignements de base pour faire comprendre l’épidémiologie, la pathogenèse, l’histologie et l’approche clinique au diagnostic de la pelade par plaques. Sources des données Une recension a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents concernant la pathogenèse, le diagnostic et le pronostic de la pelade par plaques. Message principal La pelade par plaques est une forme de perte pileuse auto-immune dont la prévalence durant une vie est d’environ 2 %. Des antécédents personnels ou familiaux de troubles auto-immuns concomitants, comme le vitiligo ou une maladie de la thyroïde, peuvent être observés dans un petit sous-groupe de patients. Le diagnostic peut souvent être posé de manière clinique en se fondant sur la perte de cheveux non cicatricielle et circulaire caractéristique, accompagnée de cheveux en « point d’exclamation » en périphérie chez ceux dont le problème en est aux premiers stades. Le diagnostic des cas plus complexes ou des présentations inhabituelles peut être facilité par une biopsie et un examen histologique. Le pronostic varie largement et de mauvais résultats sont associés à une apparition à un âge précoce, une perte importante, la variante ophiasis, des changements aux ongles, des antécédents familiaux ou des troubles auto-immuns concomitants. Conclusion La pelade par plaques est une forme auto-immune de perte de cheveux périodiquement observée en soins primaires. Les médecins de famille sont bien placés pour identifier la pelade par plaques, déterminer la gravité de la maladie et poser le diagnostic différentiel approprié. De plus, ils sont en mesure de renseigner leurs patients à propos de l’évolution clinique de la maladie ainsi que du pronostic général selon le sous-type de patients.

  15. Distinguishing the Signals of Gingivitis and Periodontitis in Supragingival Plaque: a Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Doyle, Ronan; Mulewa, Simeon; Charlie, Davie; Maleta, Ken; Callard, Robin; Walker, A. Sarah; Balloux, Francois; Ashorn, Per; Klein, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Periodontal disease ranges from gingival inflammation (gingivitis) to the inflammation and loss of tooth-supporting tissues (periodontitis). Previous research has focused mainly on subgingival plaque, but supragingival plaque composition is also known to be associated with disease. Quantitative modeling of bacterial abundances across the natural range of periodontal severities can distinguish which features of disease are associated with particular changes in composition. We assessed a cross-sectional cohort of 962 Malawian women for periodontal disease and used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (V5 to V7 region) to characterize the bacterial compositions of supragingival plaque samples. Associations between bacterial relative abundances and gingivitis/periodontitis were investigated by using negative binomial models, adjusting for epidemiological factors. We also examined bacterial cooccurrence networks to assess community structure. The main differences in supragingival plaque compositions were associated more with gingivitis than periodontitis, including higher bacterial diversity and a greater abundance of particular species. However, even after controlling for gingivitis, the presence of subgingival periodontitis was associated with an altered supragingival plaque. A small number of species were associated with periodontitis but not gingivitis, including members of Prevotella, Treponema, and Selenomonas, supporting a more complex disease model than a linear progression following gingivitis. Cooccurrence networks of periodontitis-associated taxa clustered according to periodontitis across all gingivitis severities. Species including Filifactor alocis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were central to this network, which supports their role in the coaggregation of periodontal biofilms during disease progression. Our findings confirm that periodontitis cannot be considered simply an advanced stage of gingivitis even when only considering supragingival plaque

  16. Distinguishing the Signals of Gingivitis and Periodontitis in Supragingival Plaque: a Cross-Sectional Cohort Study in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Liam; Harjunmaa, Ulla; Doyle, Ronan; Mulewa, Simeon; Charlie, Davie; Maleta, Ken; Callard, Robin; Walker, A Sarah; Balloux, Francois; Ashorn, Per; Klein, Nigel

    2016-10-01

    Periodontal disease ranges from gingival inflammation (gingivitis) to the inflammation and loss of tooth-supporting tissues (periodontitis). Previous research has focused mainly on subgingival plaque, but supragingival plaque composition is also known to be associated with disease. Quantitative modeling of bacterial abundances across the natural range of periodontal severities can distinguish which features of disease are associated with particular changes in composition. We assessed a cross-sectional cohort of 962 Malawian women for periodontal disease and used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (V5 to V7 region) to characterize the bacterial compositions of supragingival plaque samples. Associations between bacterial relative abundances and gingivitis/periodontitis were investigated by using negative binomial models, adjusting for epidemiological factors. We also examined bacterial cooccurrence networks to assess community structure. The main differences in supragingival plaque compositions were associated more with gingivitis than periodontitis, including higher bacterial diversity and a greater abundance of particular species. However, even after controlling for gingivitis, the presence of subgingival periodontitis was associated with an altered supragingival plaque. A small number of species were associated with periodontitis but not gingivitis, including members of Prevotella, Treponema, and Selenomonas, supporting a more complex disease model than a linear progression following gingivitis. Cooccurrence networks of periodontitis-associated taxa clustered according to periodontitis across all gingivitis severities. Species including Filifactor alocis and Fusobacterium nucleatum were central to this network, which supports their role in the coaggregation of periodontal biofilms during disease progression. Our findings confirm that periodontitis cannot be considered simply an advanced stage of gingivitis even when only considering supragingival plaque

  17. AIDS IN DENTAL PRACTICE IN THE TROPICS.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DENTAL JOURNAL ol. iour with- eds. n the ese, .... In a preliminary investigation of 40 patients aHending Dental. OPD cli'nic in the period ..... ty is largely of academic and epidemiological values. TABLE: ... Nodular and plaque like hyperplasia.

  18. Impact of Periodontal Therapy on the Subgingival Microbiota of Severe Periodontitis: Comparison between Good Responders and “Refractory” Subjects by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ana Paula V.; Bennet, Susan; Cotton, Sean L.; Goodson, J. Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This study compared the changes on the subgingival microbiota of subjects with “refractory” periodontitis (RP) or treatable periodontitis (GR) before and after periodontal therapy by using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Methods Individuals with chronic periodontitis were classified as RP (n=17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or >3 sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after scaling and root planing, surgery and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GR (n=30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after treatment. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and 15 months after treatment and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM analysis. Significant differences in taxa before and after therapy were sought using the Wilcoxon test. Results The majority of species evaluated decreased in prevalence in both groups after treatment; however, only a small subset of organisms was significantly affected. Species that increased or persisted in high frequency in RP but were significantly reduced in GR included Bacteroidetes sp., Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Tannerella forsythia, Dialister spp., Selenomonas spp., Catonella morbi, Eubacterium spp., Filifactor alocis, Parvimonas micra, Peptostreptococcus sp. OT113, Fusobacterium sp. OT203, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Streptococcus intermedius or Streptococcus constellatus and Shuttlesworthia satelles. In contrast, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Gemella haemolysans, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Kingella oralis, Lautropia mirabilis, Neisseria elongata, Rothia dentocariosa, Streptococcus australis and Veillonella spp. were more associated with therapeutic success. Conclusion Persistence of putative and novel periodontal pathogens, as well as low prevalence of beneficial species was associated with chronic “refractory” periodontitis. PMID:22324467

  19. Co-localized or randomly distributed? Pair cross correlation of in vivo grown subgingival biofilm bacteria quantified by digital image analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Schillinger

    Full Text Available The polymicrobial nature of periodontal diseases is reflected by the diversity of phylotypes detected in subgingival plaque and the finding that consortia of suspected pathogens rather than single species are associated with disease development. A number of these microorganisms have been demonstrated in vitro to interact and enhance biofilm integration, survival or even pathogenic features. To examine the in vivo relevance of these proposed interactions, we extended the spatial arrangement analysis tool of the software daime (digital image analysis in microbial ecology. This modification enabled the quantitative analysis of microbial co-localization in images of subgingival biofilm species, where the biomass was confined to fractions of the whole-image area, a situation common for medical samples. Selected representatives of the disease-associated red and orange complexes that were previously suggested to interact with each other in vitro (Tannerella forsythia with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis with Prevotella intermedia were chosen for analysis and labeled with specific fluorescent probes via fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pair cross-correlation analysis of in vivo grown biofilms revealed tight clustering of F. nucleatum/periodonticum and T. forsythia at short distances (up to 6 µm with a pronounced peak at 1.5 µm. While these results confirmed previous in vitro observations for F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, random spatial distribution was detected between P. gingivalis and P. intermedia in the in vivo samples. In conclusion, we successfully employed spatial arrangement analysis on the single cell level in clinically relevant medical samples and demonstrated the utility of this approach for the in vivo validation of in vitro observations by analyzing statistically relevant numbers of different patients. More importantly, the culture-independent nature of this approach enables similar quantitative analyses for "as

  20. Comparisons of Subgingival Microbial Profiles of Refractory Periodontitis, Severe Periodontitis and Periodontal Health using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ana Paula V.; Boches, Susan K.; Cotton, Sean L.; Goodson, J. Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D.; Socransky, Sigmund S.; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E.; Paster, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study compared the subgingival microbiota of subjects with refractory periodontitis (RP) to those in subjects with treatable periodontitis (GR) or periodontal health (PH) using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Methods At baseline, subgingival plaque samples were taken from 47 periodontitis and 20 PH individuals, and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM. The periodontitis subjects were classified as RP (n=17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or >3 sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after SRP, surgery and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GR (n=30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after treatment. Significant differences in taxa among groups were sought using the Kruskal Wallis and Chi-square tests. Results More species were detected in diseased patients (GR or RP) than those without disease (PH). RP subjects were distinguished from GR and PH by a significantly high frequency of putative periodontal pathogens such as, Parvimonas micra, Campylobacter gracilis, Eubacterium nodatum, Selenomonas noxia, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., Eikenella corrodens, as well as “unusual” species (Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, TM7 spp. oral taxon (OT) 346/356, Bacteroidetes spp. OT 272/274, Solobacterium moorei, Desulfobulbus sp. OT 041, Brevundimonas diminuta, Sphaerocytophaga sp. OT 337, Shuttleworthia satelles, Filifactor alocis, Dialister invisus/pneumosintes, Granulicatella adiacens, Mogibacterium tidmidum, Veillonella atypica, Mycoplasma salivarium, Synergistes sp. cluster II, Acidaminococcaceae [G-1] sp. OT 132/150/155/148/135) [pspp. cluster I, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Lautropia mirabilis, Propionibacterium propionicum, Rothia dentocariosa/mucilagenosa, Streptococcus sanguinis (p<0.05). Conclusion RP patients present a distinct microbial profile compared to patients in the

  1. Impact of periodontal therapy on the subgingival microbiota of severe periodontitis: comparison between good responders and individuals with refractory periodontitis using the human oral microbe identification microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Ana Paula V; Bennet, Susan; Cotton, Sean L; Goodson, J Max; Kent, Ralph; Haffajee, Anne D; Socransky, Sigmund S; Hasturk, Hatice; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Paster, Bruce J

    2012-10-01

    This study compares the changes to the subgingival microbiota of individuals with "refractory" periodontitis (RP) or treatable periodontitis (good responders [GR]) before and after periodontal therapy by using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) analysis. Individuals with chronic periodontitis were classified as RP (n = 17) based on mean attachment loss (AL) and/or >3 sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after scaling and root planing, surgery, and systemically administered amoxicillin and metronidazole or as GR (n = 30) based on mean attachment gain and no sites with AL ≥2.5 mm after treatment. Subgingival plaque samples were taken at baseline and 15 months after treatment and analyzed for the presence of 300 species by HOMIM analysis. Significant differences in taxa before and post-therapy were sought using the Wilcoxon test. The majority of species evaluated decreased in prevalence in both groups after treatment; however, only a small subset of organisms was significantly affected. Species that increased or persisted in high frequency in RP but were significantly reduced in GR included Bacteroidetes sp., Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Tannerella forsythia, Dialister spp., Selenomonas spp., Catonella morbi, Eubacterium spp., Filifactor alocis, Parvimonas micra, Peptostreptococcus sp. OT113, Fusobacterium sp. OT203, Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Streptococcus intermedius or Streptococcus constellatus, and Shuttlesworthia satelles. In contrast, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Cardiobacterium hominis, Gemella haemolysans, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Kingella oralis, Lautropia mirabilis, Neisseria elongata, Rothia dentocariosa, Streptococcus australis, and Veillonella spp. were more associated with therapeutic success. Persistence of putative and novel periodontal pathogens, as well as low prevalence of beneficial species was associated with chronic refractory periodontitis.

  2. Dental calculus detection using the VistaCam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Fardad; Walsh, Laurence J

    2016-12-01

    The VistaCam® intra-oral camera system (Dürr Dental, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) is a fluorescence system using light emitting diodes that produce a 405-nm violet light. This wavelength has potential application for detection of dental calculus based on red emissions from porphyrin molecules. This study assessed the digital scores obtained for both supragingival and subgingival calculus on 60 extracted teeth and compared these with lesions of dental caries. It has also examined the effect of saliva and blood on the fluorescence readings for dental calculus. VistaCam fluorescence scores for both supragingival (1.7-3.3) and subgingival calculus (1.3-2.4) were higher than those for sound root surfaces (0.9-1.1) and dental caries (0.9-2.2) ( p  calculus samples were not affected by the presence of saliva or blood. These results suggest that the use of violet light fluorescence could be a possible adjunct to clinical examination for deposits of dental calculus.

  3. 21 CFR 101.80 - Health claims: dietary noncariogenic carbohydrate sweeteners and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sweeteners and dental caries. 101.80 Section 101.80 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... caries. (a) Relationship between dietary carbohydrates and dental caries. (1) Dental caries, or tooth... development of dental caries. Risk factors include tooth enamel crystal structure and mineral content, plaque...

  4. Metabolomic Effects of Xylitol and Fluoride on Plaque Biofilm in Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, N.; Washio, J.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is initiated by demineralization of the tooth surface through acid production from sugar by plaque biofilm. Fluoride and xylitol have been used worldwide as caries-preventive reagents, based on in vitro-proven inhibitory mechanisms on bacterial acid production. We attempted to confirm the inhibitory mechanisms of fluoride and xylitol in vivo by performing metabolome analysis on the central carbon metabolism in supragingival plaque using the combination of capillary electrophores...

  5. Antibiotic Susceptibility of Periodontal Streptococcus Constellatus and Streptococcus Intermedius Clinical Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Feik, Diane; Mortensen, Joel E; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus constellatus and Streptococcus intermedius in subgingival dental plaque biofilms may contribute to forms of periodontitis that resist treatment with conventional mechanical root debridement/surgical procedures and may additionally participate in some extraoral infections.

  6. The influence of mouthrinses with antimicrobial solutions on the inhibition of dental plaque and on the levels of mutans streptococci in children Influência de bochechos com soluções antimicrobianas na inibição da placa dentária e nos níveis de estreptococos mutans em crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildiceli Leite Melo Zanela

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daily mouthrinses on dental plaque accumulation and on salivary mutans streptococci was investigated in 200 children. The utilized solutions were: a placebo solution composed of mentholated deionized water (group I; 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate associated to 0.05% sodium fluoride (group II; 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate (group III, and 0.5% stevioside mixed with 0.05% sodium fluoride, with pH 3.4 (group IV. In order to verify the effect on plaque formation, the accumulation of plaque was assessed by means of the Löe12 index, at the beginning and at the end of the experiment, whereas the quantification of cariogenic streptococci was accomplished on three saliva samples collected at 3 different moments: before the first mouthrinse, 24 hours after the first mouthrinse and 1 week after the last mouthrinse. The mouthrinsing routine was carried out on a daily basis during 4 weeks. Five milliliters of solution were rinsed during 1 minute. The results revealed 4.10, 26.75, 41.20, and 5.91% of reduction in plaque accumulation for groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Comparisons between the groups as to plaque reduction revealed that groups II and III were significantly different from groups I (control and IV (p Avaliou-se, num total de 200 crianças, o efeito de bochechos diários com solução placebo de água deionizada mentolada (grupo I; gluconato de clorexidina 0,12% associado ao fluoreto de sódio 0,05% (grupo II; digluconato de clorexidina 0,2% (grupo III e esteviosídeo 0,5% associado ao fluoreto de sódio 0,05% pH 3,4 (grupo IV, sobre o acúmulo de placa dentária e o nível de estreptococos mutans salivares. Utilizando-se o índice de Löe12, o acúmulo de placa dentária foi avaliado no início e no final do experimento, enquanto os níveis de estreptococosmutans foram quantificados com o Caritest SM em 3 momentos: antes do primeiro bochecho, 24 horas após o primeiro bochecho e 1 semana após o último bochecho. O regime

  7. A comparison of dental ultrasonic technologies on subgingival calculus removal: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lidia Brión; Hodges, Kathleen O; Calley, Kristin Hamman; Seikel, John A

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study compared the clinical endpoints of the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric ultrasonic instruments on calculus removal. The null hypothesis stated that there is no statistically significant difference in calculus removal between the 2 instruments. A quasi-experimental pre- and post-test design was used. Eighteen participants were included. The magnetostrictive and piezoelectric ultrasonic instruments were used in 2 assigned contra-lateral quadrants on each participant. A data collector, blind to treatment assignment, assessed the calculus on 6 predetermined tooth sites before and after ultrasonic instrumentation. Calculus size was evaluated using ordinal measurements on a 4 point scale (0, 1, 2, 3). Subjects were required to have size 2 or 3 calculus deposit on the 6 predetermined sites. One clinician instrumented the pre-assigned quadrants. A maximum time of 20 minutes of instrumentation was allowed with each technology. Immediately after instrumentation, the data collector then conducted the post-test calculus evaluation. The repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the pre- and post-test calculus data (p≤0.05). The null hypothesis was accepted indicating that there is no statistically significant difference in calculus removal when comparing technologies (p≤0.05). Therefore, under similar conditions, both technologies removed the same amount of calculus. This research design could be used as a foundation for continued research in this field. Future studies include implementing this study design with a larger sample size and/or modifying the study design to include multiple clinicians who are data collectors. Also, deposit removal with periodontal maintenance patients could be explored.

  8. Dental Amalgam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Products and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam Dental Amalgam Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print Dental amalgam is a dental filling material which is ...

  9. Managing sub-gingival fracture by multi-disciplinary approach: Endodontics-forced orthodontic extrusion and prosthetic rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mittal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatized anterior teeth with sub-gingival crown fractures are a challenge to treat. The management of sub-gingival fractures includes exposing the cervical margin followed by appropriate coronal restoration. The treatment modalities, which involve exposing the cervical margin, are surgical crown lengthening and orthodontic extrusion. This paper reports a case of fractured maxillary anterior tooth at the sub-gingival level that was managed by forced orthodontic extrusion after endodontic treatment followed by esthetic rehabilitation, a much forgotten technique not utilized routinely yet conservative and cost-effective.

  10. A closer look: the complexities of dental biofilm

    OpenAIRE

    Costerton, J.W.; Stoodley, P.

    2003-01-01

    Biofilms are the collections of bacteria and other microorganisms that assemble on surfaces. They are widespread in nature and can colonize natural, nonliving hard surfaces such as river rocks, man-made surfaces like the concrete found in industrial pipelines, and even plant and animal surfaces and, of course, the teeth and gums.Within this broad definition, dental plaque falls into one of many types of different biofilms. Loosely adherent plaque and the denser, more firmly attached plaque ma...

  11. Dental hygiene work in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luís, H S; Morgado, I; Assunção, V; Bernardo, M F; Leroux, B; Martin, M D; DeRouen, T A; Leitão, J

    2008-08-01

    Dental hygiene activities were developed as part of a randomized clinical trial designed to assess the safety of low-level mercury exposure from dental amalgam restorations. Along with dental-hygiene clinical work, a community programme was implemented after investigators noticed the poor oral hygiene habits of participants, and the need for urgent action to minimize oral health problems in the study population. Clinical and community activity goal was to promote oral health and prevent new disease. Community activities involved participants and their fellow students and were aimed at providing education on oral health in a school environment. Dental hygienists developed clinical work with prophylaxis, sealants application and topical fluoride and implemented the community programme with in-class sessions on oral health themes. Twice a month fluoride mouthrinses and bi-annual tooth brushing instructional activity took place. Participation at dental-hygiene activities, sealed teeth with no need of restoration and dental-plaque-index were measures used to evaluate success of the programme for the participants. Improvement in dental hygiene is shown by the decrease in dental plaque index scores (P dental hygiene activities. Teachers became aware of the problem and included oral-health in school curricula. Dental hygiene activities have shown to be helpful to promote dental hygiene, promote oral health and to provide school-age children with education on habits that will be important for their future good health.

  12. New laboratory methods to study tooth surface coverage and interproximal plaque control by dentifrice products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Herles, Susan M; Barnes, Virginia M

    2004-01-01

    To develop and test an in vitro tooth model for use in conjunction with laboratory methods to study interproximal effects and efficacy of dentifrices. The application of the model should offer visual evaluation of dentifrice coverage of the tooth surface, and measure dental plaque control at posterior interdental spaces with a dentifrice. The dentifrice products tested with the model were: Colgate Total 2 in 1 Toothpaste and Mouthwash (CTTM), Colgate Total dentifrice (CTD), and Colgate Regular dentifrice (CRD). Extracted human posterior teeth were disinfected, cleaned, aligned, and mounted in denture acrylic. In the area coverage method, tooth surface coverage and penetration of two different forms of dentifrice products (CTTM and CRD) were compared using digital photography. In the interproximal plaque control method, the teeth were coated with human saliva and incubated anaerobically with a mixture of representative oral bacteria for six hours at 37 degrees C. In vitro dental plaque was assessed after brushing the facial surface with one of the three dentifrice products using a clinical plaque scoring index. The area coverage method demonstrated that both dentifrice products tested covered approximately 70% of the facial tooth surface; the CTTM dentifrice coverage on the lingual tooth surface was significantly higher than the coverage for the CRD dentifrice. With the interproximal plaque control method, in the presence of an active ingredient, the CTTM dentifrice had equivalent efficacy to the CTD dentifrice. Both CTTM and CTD were significantly superior to the CRD for interproximal dental plaque control. Using the developed tooth model, two assessment methods have been shown to have the potential to demonstrate tooth surface coverage, and to assess the potential efficacy of a dentifrice for the control of interproximal dental plaque. This process can indicate potential clinical evaluation of an oral care product, and support clinical findings with controlled

  13. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic kidney disease

    OpenAIRE

    Artese,Hilana Paula Carillo; Sousa,Celso Oliveira de; Torres,Maria Cynésia Medeiros de Barros; Silva-Boghossian,Carina Maciel; Colombo,Ana Paula Vieira

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the composition of subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sixteen CKD pre-dialysis individuals (CKD) and 14 individuals without clinical evidence of kidney disease (C) presenting chronic periodontitis were treated by scaling and root planing. Subgingival samples were collected from each patient and analyzed for their composition by checkerboard at baseline and 3 months post-therapy. Signif...

  14. Metabolomic Effects of Xylitol and Fluoride on Plaque Biofilm in Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N.; Washio, J.

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is initiated by demineralization of the tooth surface through acid production from sugar by plaque biofilm. Fluoride and xylitol have been used worldwide as caries-preventive reagents, based on in vitro-proven inhibitory mechanisms on bacterial acid production. We attempted to confirm the inhibitory mechanisms of fluoride and xylitol in vivo by performing metabolome analysis on the central carbon metabolism in supragingival plaque using the combination of capillary electrophoresis and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Fluoride (225 and 900 ppm F−) inhibited lactate production from 10% glucose by 34% and 46%, respectively, along with the increase in 3-phosphoglycerate and the decrease in phosphoenolpyruvate in the EMP pathway in supragingival plaque. These results confirmed that fluoride inhibited bacterial enolase in the EMP pathway and subsequently repressed acid production in vivo. In contrast, 10% xylitol had no effect on acid production and the metabolome profile in supragingival plaque, although xylitol 5-phosphate was produced. These results suggest that xylitol is not an inhibitor of plaque acid production but rather a non-fermentative sugar alcohol. Metabolome analyses of plaque biofilm can be applied for monitoring the efficacy of dietary components and medicines for plaque biofilm, leading to the development of effective plaque control. PMID:21940519

  15. Metabolomic effects of xylitol and fluoride on plaque biofilm in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, N; Washio, J

    2011-12-01

    Dental caries is initiated by demineralization of the tooth surface through acid production from sugar by plaque biofilm. Fluoride and xylitol have been used worldwide as caries-preventive reagents, based on in vitro-proven inhibitory mechanisms on bacterial acid production. We attempted to confirm the inhibitory mechanisms of fluoride and xylitol in vivo by performing metabolome analysis on the central carbon metabolism in supragingival plaque using the combination of capillary electrophoresis and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Fluoride (225 and 900 ppm F(-)) inhibited lactate production from 10% glucose by 34% and 46%, respectively, along with the increase in 3-phosphoglycerate and the decrease in phosphoenolpyruvate in the EMP pathway in supragingival plaque. These results confirmed that fluoride inhibited bacterial enolase in the EMP pathway and subsequently repressed acid production in vivo. In contrast, 10% xylitol had no effect on acid production and the metabolome profile in supragingival plaque, although xylitol 5-phosphate was produced. These results suggest that xylitol is not an inhibitor of plaque acid production but rather a non-fermentative sugar alcohol. Metabolome analyses of plaque biofilm can be applied for monitoring the efficacy of dietary components and medicines for plaque biofilm, leading to the development of effective plaque control.

  16. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J Davis

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss. In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  17. [Microbiocenosis of subgingival biofilm and intestinal content in chronic periodontal disease in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrukhina, N B; Zorina, O A; Shikh, E V; Kartysheva, E V

    The aim of the study was to assess correlations of subgingival biofilm and intestinal microbiota in patients with chronic periodontal disease (CPD) and metabolic syndrome (MS). The study included 80 patients divided in 2 groups: 40 healthy individuals with no signs of periodontal disease and 40 patients with CPD and MS. Oral and intestinal microbial consortia compositions were revealed using deep sequencing libraries of 16S rDNA. The study showed than the qualitative composition of the intestinal microbiome in patients with CPD differ significantly from the microbiome of controls. Real-time PCR of subgingival microflora in CPD patients revealed high content of P. gingivalis, T. forsythia and T. denticola, while in intestinal microbiome dominated representatives of Enterobacteriaceae and Eubacteriaceae families with signs of intestinal dysbiosis mostly associated with the decrease of protective species.

  18. Intraplaque Hemorrhage and the Plaque Surface in Carotid Atherosclerosis: The Plaque At RISK Study (PARISK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A. C.; Truijman, M. T. B.; Hussain, B.; Zadi, T.; Saiedie, G.; de Rotte, A. A. J.; Liem, M. I.; van der Steen, A. F. W.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.; Koudstaal, P. J.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; Hendrikse, J.; Kooi, M. E.; van der Lugt, A.

    2015-01-01

    An important characteristic of vulnerable plaque, intraplaque hemorrhage, may predict plaque rupture. Plaque rupture can be visible on noninvasive imaging as a disruption of the plaque surface. We investigated the association between intraplaque hemorrhage and disruption of the plaque surface. We

  19. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P pylori had a higher mean dental plaque index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  20. Subgingival microbiota in health compared to periodontitis and the influence of smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Camelo-Castillo, Anny J.; Mira, Alex; Pico, Alex; Nibali, Luigi; Henderson, Brian; Donos, Nikolaos; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of periodontitis has traditionally been associated to a consortium of three bacterial species-the so-called "red-complex" of periodontal disease-which has been the target for most diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, other species have also been found to correlate with disease severity. In addition, the influence of smoking on periodontal microbiota is poorly understood. In the current manuscript, the composition of the subgingival microbiota in healthy individuals vs....

  1. Evaluation of a hydrophilic gingival dental sealant in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    A liquid solution, gingival sealant containing polymers that form a barrier film upon application was evaluated in dogs. It is a non-toxic, low viscosity, hydrophilic barrier sealant that dries in approximately 10 to 15-seconds after subgingival application. It was designed as a preventative to be applied immediately following a professional oral hygiene procedure in order to block plaque and calculus formation in the sulcus and aid in the prevention of periodontal disease in companion animals. Additionally, the polymer was designed to promote an aerobic environment in the sulcus by oxygen and water transport through engineered pores within the polymer. A 30-day split-mouth, blinded study in two groups of 15 beagle dogs was used. Plaque was significantly (p periodontal disease in dogs.

  2. Dental Investigations: Efficiency of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy in Moderate Chronic Periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mlachkova Antoaneta M.; Popova Christina L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Chronic periodontitis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth caused by microorganisms in the dental biofilm, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation and gingival recession. Treatment of chronic periodontitis aims at arresting the inflammation and stopping the loss of attachment by removal and control of the supra- and subgingival biofilm and establishing a local environment and mic...

  3. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from the upper first premolars and first molars using sterilized, UV-treated paper-points inserted into the subgingival sulcus at eight sites. After supragingival cleaning using an electric toothbrush and water, sampling was performed, firstly, excluding (Mode A) and, secondly, including (Mode B) cleansing with sterile cotton pellets. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and primers targeting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions V5 and V6 were used for 454-pyrosequencing. Wilcoxon signed rank test and t-test were applied to compare sampling modes. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and average agglomerative hierarchical clustering were calculated with unweighted UniFrac distance matrices. Sample grouping was tested with permutational MANOVA (Adonis). Results: Data filtering and quality control yielded 67,218 sequences with an average sequence length of 243bp (SD 6.52; range 231–255). Actinobacteria (2.8–24.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.2–25.1%), Proteobacteria (4.9–50.6%), Firmicutes (16.5–57.4%), and Fusobacteria (2.2–17.1%) were the five major phyla found in all samples. Differences in microbial abundances between sampling modes were not evident. High sampling numbers are needed to achieve significance for rare bacterial phyla. Samples taken from one individual using different sampling modes were more similar to each other than to other individuals' samples. PCoA and hierarchical clustering showed a grouping of the paired samples. Permutational MANOVA did not reveal sample

  4. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from the upper first premolars and first molars using sterilized, UV-treated paper-points inserted into the subgingival sulcus at eight sites. After supragingival cleaning using an electric toothbrush and water, sampling was performed, firstly, excluding (Mode A) and, secondly, including (Mode B) cleansing with sterile cotton pellets. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and primers targeting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions V5 and V6 were used for 454-pyrosequencing. Wilcoxon signed rank test and t -test were applied to compare sampling modes. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and average agglomerative hierarchical clustering were calculated with unweighted UniFrac distance matrices. Sample grouping was tested with permutational MANOVA (Adonis). Results: Data filtering and quality control yielded 67,218 sequences with an average sequence length of 243bp (SD 6.52; range 231-255). Actinobacteria (2.8-24.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.2-25.1%), Proteobacteria (4.9-50.6%), Firmicutes (16.5-57.4%), and Fusobacteria (2.2-17.1%) were the five major phyla found in all samples. Differences in microbial abundances between sampling modes were not evident. High sampling numbers are needed to achieve significance for rare bacterial phyla. Samples taken from one individual using different sampling modes were more similar to each other than to other individuals' samples. PCoA and hierarchical clustering showed a grouping of the paired samples. Permutational MANOVA did not reveal sample grouping by

  5. Oral health benefits of a daily dental chew in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quest, Bradley W

    2013-01-01

    An independent study was conducted to determine and quantify the oral care benefits of a daily edible dental chew in dogs as measured by plaque and calculus control, gingival indices, and oral malodor. A "clean mouth" test model was used comparing a commercial dry diet and a commercial dry diet plus one dental chew per day. The dental chew tested was representative of a retail canine dental chew. The test dental chew was a green-colored dental dog chew with a flexible texture that can be readily chewed by dogs. They are made with a knuckle bone shape on one end and a toothbrush shape on the other end. Sixty adult dogs were allocated in either control or test groups based on plaque stratification and studied for 28-days. The test group (30 dogs) received a dry diet and 1 dental chew each day. The control group (30 dogs) received the same dry diet only. At the end of the study, measurements of plaque and calculus accumulation and evaluations of oral malodor and gingival heath were performed. Adding a dental chew to the diet resulted in statistically significant reductions in plaque and calculus accumulation, and oral malodor while improving gingival indices.

  6. Dental Investigations: Efficiency of Nonsurgical Periodontal Therapy in Moderate Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlachkova Antoaneta M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronic periodontitis is defined as an inflammatory disease of the supporting tissues of teeth caused by microorganisms in the dental biofilm, resulting in progressive destruction of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone with pocket formation and gingival recession. Treatment of chronic periodontitis aims at arresting the inflammation and stopping the loss of attachment by removal and control of the supra- and subgingival biofilm and establishing a local environment and microflora compatible with periodontal health. The AIM of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-surgical therapy (scaling and root planning in the treatment of moderate chronic periodontitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 30 patients aged between 33 and 75 years, of which 46.7% women and 53.3% men, diagnosed with moderate and, at some sites, severe periodontitis. They were treated with non-surgical periodontal therapy methods (scaling and root planning and curettage if indicated. Additionally, chemical plaque control with rinse water containing chlorhexidine was applied. The diagnostic and reassessment procedures included measuring the periodontal indices of 601 periodontal units before and after the therapy. The indices measured were the papillary bleeding index (PBI, the hygiene index (HI, the probing pocket depth (PPD and the clinical attachment level (CAL. RESULTS: Significant reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation was found in all treated patients; we also found a statistically significant reduction of periodontal pockets with clinically measured depth ⋋ 5 mm (PD ⋋ 5 mm. Pockets with PD > 5 mm did not show statistically significant lower incidence rates probably due to the initially small percentage of deep pockets in the patients studied. There was a statistically significant reduction of all sites with attachment loss, the highest significance found at sites where the attachment loss was greater than 5 mm. CONCLUSION

  7. Plaque control and oral hygiene methods

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The experimental gingivitis study of Löe et al.1 demonstrated a cause and effect relationship between plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation, and helped to establish plaque\\/biofilm as the primary risk factor for gingivitis. When healthy individuals withdrew oral hygiene efforts, gingival inflammation ensued within 21 days in all subjects. Once effective plaque removal was recommenced, clinical gingival health was quickly re-established – indicating that plaque-associated inflammation is modifiable by plaque control. As current consensus confirms that gingivitis and periodontitis may be viewed as a continuum of disease,2 the rationale for achieving effective plaque control is clear.

  8. The dental calculus metabolome in modern and historic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velsko, Irina M.; Overmyer, Katherine A.; Speller, Camilla

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Dental calculus is a mineralized microbial dental plaque biofilm that forms throughout life by precipitation of salivary calcium salts. Successive cycles of dental plaque growth and calcification make it an unusually well-preserved, long-term record of host-microbial interaction...... in the archaeological record. Recent studies have confirmed the survival of authentic ancient DNA and proteins within historic and prehistoric dental calculus, making it a promising substrate for investigating oral microbiome evolution via direct measurement and comparison of modern and ancient specimens. Objective: We...... present the first comprehensive characterization of the human dental calculus metabolome using a multi-platform approach. Methods: Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS) quantified 285 metabolites in modern and historic (200 years old) dental calculus, including...

  9. Comparison of subgingival bacterial sampling with oral lavage for detection and quantification of periodontal pathogens by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutaga, Khalil; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Winkel, Edwin G.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    Background: Saliva has been studied for the presence of subgingival pathogens in periodontitis patients. With the anaerobic culture technique, the discrepancy between salivary recovery and subgingival presence has been significant, which makes this approach not suitable for practical use in the

  10. Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Samuel Alberg

    simulationer, som tillod beregning af longitudinelle stress-niveauer i den fibrøse kappe. Afhandlingen indeholder tre artikler, som beskriver denne metode. Den første; “Mechanical Stresses in Carotid Plaques using MRI-Based Fluid Structure Interaction Models”, beskriver i detaljer metoden til at danne de...

  11. Dental therapeutic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zeenat; Jain, Nilu; Jain, Gaurav K; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahuja, Alka; Khar, Roop K; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2008-01-01

    The recognition of periodontal diseases as amenable to local antibiotherapy has resulted in a paradigmatic shift in treatment modalities of dental afflictions. Moreover the presence of antimicrobial resistance, surfacing of untoward reactions owing to systemic consumption of antibiotics has further advocated the use of local delivery of physiologically active substances into the periodontal pocket. While antimicrobials polymerized into acrylic strips, incorporated into biodegradable collagen and hollow permeable cellulose acetate fibers, multiparticulate systems, bio-absorbable dental materials, biodegradable gels/ointments, injectables, mucoadhesive microcapsules and nanospheres will be more amenable for direct placement into the periodontal pockets the lozenges, buccoadhesive tablets, discs or gels could be effectively used to mitigate the overall gingival inflammation. Whilst effecting controlled local delivery of a few milligram of an antibacterial agent within the gingival crevicular fluid for a longer period of time, maintaining therapeutic concentrations such delivery devices will circumvent all adverse effects to non- oral sites. Since the pioneering efforts of Goodson and Lindhe in 1989, delivery at gingival and subgingival sites has witnessed a considerable progress. The interest in locally active systems is evident from the patents being filed and granted. The present article shall dwell in reviewing the recent approaches being proffered in the field. Patents as by Shefer, et al. US patent, 6589562 dealing with multicomponent biodegradable bioadhesive controlled release system for oral care products, Lee, et al. 2001, US patent 6193994, encompassing a locally administrable, biodegradable and sustained-release pharmaceutical composition for periodontitis and process for preparation thereof and method of treating periodontal disease as suggested by Basara in 2004via US patent 6830757, shall be the types of intellectual property reviewed and presented in

  12. Plaque pH Changes Following Consumption of Two Types of Plain and Bulky Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Shiva; Noin, Sogol

    2011-01-01

    Consistency, backing process and content differences could influence cariogenic potential of foods. The aim was to compare plaque pH changes following consumption of two types of bread with different physical characteristics. In this clinical trial, interproximal plaque pH of 10 volunteers with high risk of dental caries (saliva Streptococcus mutans > 10(5), high dental caries experience, and average DMFT =6.10 ± 1.56) was measured. Plain traditionally backed "Sangak bread" and soft bulky "Baguette bread" and %10 sucrose solution were tested in a cross over designed experiment. Baseline plaque pH was recorded and followed by 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes intervals. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05). Sucrose solution caused the most pronounced pH and ΔpH drop from 7.15 ± 0.33 at baseline to 6.78 ± 0.29. Means plaque pH of 10% sucrose solution and Baguette were not statistically different at 1, 20 and 30 minutes (P > 0.05). Mean plaque pH of Sangak and Baguette showed significant differences at 0, 1, 20 and30 minutes (P bread samples within first 10 minutes, pH increased and then started to decrease during tenth to fifteenth minutes. During all experiment phases, the mean pH of Baguette with less consistency and carbohydrate content and higher rate of starch gelatination was lower compared to Sangak.

  13. Animal models to study plaque vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapira, K.; Heeneman, S.; Daemen, M. J. A. P.

    2007-01-01

    The need to identify and characterize vulnerable atherosclerotic lesions in humans has lead to the development of various animal models of plaque vulnerability. In this review, current concepts of the vulnerable plaque as it leads to an acute coronary event are described, such as plaque rupture,

  14. Current diagnostic modalities for vulnerable plaque detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schaar (Johannes); F. Mastik (Frits); E.S. Regar (Eveline); C.A. den Uil (Corstiaan); F.J.H. Gijsen (Frank); J.J. Wentzel (Jolanda); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); A.F.W. van der Steen (Ton)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRupture of vulnerable plaques is the main cause of acute coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction. Identification of vulnerable plaques is therefore essential to enable the development of treatment modalities to stabilize such plaques. Several diagnostic methods are currently tested

  15. QUALITATIVE EVALUATION OF SUBGINGIVAL MICROFLORA AFTER THE CHEWING OF BETEL LEAF

    OpenAIRE

    K Vani; Jose Maji; Rao Srinivasa

    2011-01-01

    Betel a branching vine, scientifically called as Piper betel, is used in a number of traditional remedies and known to have immune boosting as well as antibacterial properties. This study was conducted to assess the qualitative changes in the sub-gingival micro flora, after the chewing of betel leaves, in order to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of this medicinal plant on oral pathogens.Forty volunteers were made to chew betel leaves daily for 5-10 minutes for a period of two weeks and the ...

  16. Bacteria and bacterial DNA in atherosclerotic plaque and aneurysmal wall biopsies from patients with and without periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Armingohar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have reported an association between chronic periodontitis (CP and cardiovascular diseases. Detection of periodontopathogens, including red complex bacteria (RCB, in vascular lesions has suggested these bacteria to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Objective: In this study, we investigate bacteria and their DNA in vascular biopsies from patients with vascular diseases (VD; i.e. abdominal aortic aneurysms, atherosclerotic carotid, and common femoral arteries, with and without CP. Methods: DNA was extracted from vascular biopsies selected from 40 VD patients: 30 with CP and 10 without CP. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rDNA (V3-V5 was polymerase chain reaction (PCR-amplified, and the amplicons were cloned into Escherichia coli, sequenced, and classified (GenBank and the Human Oral Microbiome database. Species-specific primers were used for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In addition, 10 randomly selected vascular biopsies from the CP group were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM for visualization of bacteria. Checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization was performed to assess the presence of RCB in 10 randomly selected subgingival plaque samples from CP patients. Results: A higher load and mean diversity of bacteria were detected in vascular biopsies from VD patients with CP compared to those without CP. Enterobacteriaceae were frequently detected in vascular biopsies together with cultivable, commensal oral, and not-yet-cultured bacterial species. While 70% of the subgingival plaque samples from CP patients showed presence of RCB, only P. gingivalis was detected in one vascular biopsy. Bacterial cells were seen in all 10 vascular biopsies examined by SEM. Conclusions: A higher bacterial load and more diverse colonization were detected in VD lesions of CP patients as compared to patients without CP. This indicated that a multitude of bacterial species both

  17. The influence of xylitol containing toothpaste on plaque formation inhibition on fixed bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamim Fithrony

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plaque is the main cause of teeth and periodontal tissue damage, which usually accumulates on crown surfaces. To avoid this, plaque control is the best way that not only has a close connection to oral hygiene but also become important element in dental practice. Previously, xylitol was used as alternative sweetener for diabetic patients, but later it is used to maintain healthy teeth. Xylitol is capable to inhibit Streptococcus mutans growth which changes sugar and other carbohydrate into acid, because xylitol cannot be fermented. Purpose: This study was aimed to understand the inhibition capability of toothpaste containing xylitol to plaque formation on fixed bridge. Methods: This clinical experiment study was carried out in fifteen patients wearing fixed bridge at Prosthodontics Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Airlangga University in Surabaya from 2005 to 2008. Samples were based on selective random sampling technique. Plaque index was analyzed by Mann Whitney test. Result: This study showed that there was significant difference of plaque scores in patients who brush their teeth using xylitol containing toothpaste compared to the control group (placebo. Conclusion: Xylitol was capable to inhibit plaque formation on fixed bridge.

  18. Prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis in a Saudi adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrees, Majdy M.; Azzeghaiby, Saleh N.; Hammad, Mohammad M.; Kujan, Omar B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of plaque-induced gingivitis among a Saudi adult population in Riyadh region. Methods: Three hundred and eighty-five eligible participants in this cross-sectional study were recruited from routine dental patients attending the oral diagnosis clinic at Al-Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to December 2013. A clinical examination was performed by 2 dentists to measure the gingival and plaque indices of Löe and Silness for each participant. Results: The prevalence of gingivitis was 100% among adult subjects aged between 18-40 years old. Moreover, the mean gingival index was 1.68±0.31, which indicates a moderate gingival inflammation. In fact, males showed more severe signs of gingival inflammation compared with females (p=0.001). In addition, the mean plaque index was 0.875±0.49, which indicates a good plaque status of the participants. Interestingly, the age was not related either to the gingival inflammation (p=0.13), or to the amount of plaque accumulation (p=0.17). However, males were more affected than females (p=0.005). Conclusion: The results of this study show that plaque accumulation is strongly associated with high prevalence of moderate to severe gingivitis among Saudi subjects. PMID:25399215

  19. Microbiological characteristics of subgingival microbiota in adult periodontitis, localized juvenile periodontitis and rapidly progressive periodontitis subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, C; Mutters, R; de Jacoby, L F

    2001-04-01

    To describe the prevalence of the cultivable subgingival microbiota in periodontal diseases and to draw attention to the polymicrobial nature of periodontic infections. The study population consisted of 95 patients, 51 females and 44 males, aged 14-62 years. Twenty-nine patients exhibited adult periodontitis (AP), six localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP), and 60 rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP). Two to four pooled bacterial samples were obtained from each patient. Samples were collected with sterile paper points from the deepest periodontal pockets. The samples were cultured under anaerobic and microaerophilic conditions using selective and non-selective media. Isolates were characterized to species level by conventional biochemical tests and by a commercial rapid test system. Prevotella intermedia and Capnocytophaga spp. were the most frequently detected microorganisms in all diagnostic groups. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Peptostreptococcus micros were found more frequently in AP and RPP patients, while Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Eikenella corrodens were associated with AP, LJP and RPP patients. The other bacterial species, including Actinomyces spp., Streptococcus spp. and Eubacterium spp., were detected at different levels in the three disease groups. The data show the complexity of the subgingival microbiota associated with different periodontal disease groups, indicating that the detection frequency and levels of recovery of some periodontal pathogens are different in teeth affected by different forms of periodontal disease.

  20. Evaluation of the plaque removal efficacy of xylitol-impregnated single-use toothbrush in vivo in 10-11-year-old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tezer Ulusu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Xylitol is non-fermentable by oral bacteria and it inhibits the growth, metabolism and polysaccharide production of mutans streptococci, resulting in less bacterial plaque accumulation on teeth. This study aimed to compare the plaque removal efficacy on the teeth of children of xylitol-impregnated or non-impregnated single-use toothbrushes identical in shape and manufactured by the same company. Materials and Method: Thirty children aged 10-11 years were randomly separated into two groups of 15 children each. First group used a xylitol-impregnated toothbrush and the second group used a non-impregnated toothbrush for brushing. Dental plaque on upper central incisors was photographed intra-orally before and after brushing under standardized conditions. These photographs were stored in a computer and the amount of dental plaque was scored by using Turensky Modified Quinley Hein Plaque Index by a researcher blinded to the groups. Results: While both xylitol-impregnated and non-impregnated groups had significantly higher plaque index in before-brushing photographs than after-brushing photographs (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of the study emphasized that toothbrushing itself, regardless of xylitol content within the toothbrush, is essential for removing the dental plaque.

  1. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  2. In vitro and clinical evaluation of optical coherence tomography for the detection of subgingival calculus and root cementum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubokawa, Masaki; Aoki, Akira; Kakizaki, Sho; Taniguchi, Yoichi; Ejiri, Kenichiro; Mizutani, Koji; Koshy, Geena; Akizuki, Tatsuya; Oda, Shigeru; Sumi, Yasunori; Izumi, Yuichi

    2018-05-24

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of swept-source optical coherence tomography (ss-OCT) for detecting calculus and root cementum during periodontal therapy. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were taken before and after removal of subgingival calculus from extracted teeth and compared with non-decalcified histological sections. Porcine gingival sheets of various thicknesses were applied to the root surfaces of extracted teeth with calculus and OCT images were taken. OCT images were also taken before and after scaling and root planing (SRP) in human patients. In vitro, calculus was clearly detected as a white-gray amorphous structure on the root surface, which disappeared after removal. Cementum was identified as a thin, dark-gray layer. The calculus could not be clearly observed when soft tissues were present on the root surface. Clinically, supragingival calculus and cementum could be detected clearly with OCT, and subgingival calculus in the buccal cervical area of the anterior and premolar teeth was identified, which disappeared after SRP. Digital processing of the original OCT images was useful for clarifying the calculus. In conclusion, ss-OCT showed potential as a periodontal diagnostic tool for detecting cementum and subgingival calculus, although the practical applications of subgingival imaging remain limited.

  3. Preliminary antiplaque efficacy of aloe vera mouthwash on 4 day plaque re-growth model: randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Gupta, Devanand; Bhaskar, Dara John; Yadav, Ankit; Obaid, Khursheed; Mishra, Sumit

    2014-04-01

    Due to increasing resistance to antibiotics and rising incidence of oral diseases, there is a need for alternative treatment modalities to combat oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to access the effect of Aloe vera mouthwash on the dental plaque in the experimental period of 4 days and to compare it with the bench mark control chlorhexidine and placebo (saline water). A total of 300 systemically healthy subjects were randomly allocated into 3 groups: Aloe vera mouthwash group (n=100), control group (=100)-chlorhexidene group and saline water-Placebo (n=100). To begin with, Gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were recorded. Then, baseline plaque scores were brought to zero by professionally cleaning the teeth with scaling and polishing. After randomization of the participants into three groups they were refrained from regular mechanical oral hygiene measures. Subjects were asked to swish with respective mouthwash (Aloe vera mouthwash, 0.2%chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash, or normal saline) as per therapeutic dose for 4 days. The results showed that Aloe vera mouthrinse is equally effective in reducing plaque as Chlorhexidine compared to placebo over a period of 4 days. There was a significant reduction on plaque in Aloe vera and chlorhexidine groups and no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.05). Aloe vera mouthwash showed no side effects. The results of the present study indicated that Aloe vera may prove an effective mouthwash due to its ability in reducing dental plaque.

  4. Noninvasive characterization of carotid plaque strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amir A; Sikdar, Siddhartha; Hatsukami, Thomas; Cebral, Juan; Jones, Michael; Huston, John; Howard, George; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-06-01

    Current risk stratification of internal carotid artery plaques based on diameter-reducing percentage stenosis may be unreliable because ischemic stroke results from plaque disruption with atheroembolization. Biomechanical forces acting on the plaque may render it vulnerable to rupture. The feasibility of ultrasound-based quantification of plaque displacement and strain induced by hemodynamic forces and their relationship to high-risk plaques have not been determined. We studied the feasibility and reliability of carotid plaque strain measurement from clinical B-mode ultrasound images and the relationship of strain to high-risk plaque morphology. We analyzed carotid ultrasound B-mode cine loops obtained in patients with asymptomatic ≥50% stenosis during routine clinical scanning. Optical flow methods were used to quantify plaque motion and shear strain during the cardiac cycle. The magnitude (maximum absolute shear strain rate [MASSR]) and variability (entropy of shear strain rate [ESSR] and variance of shear strain rate [VSSR]) of strain were combined into a composite shear strain index (SSI), which was assessed for interscan repeatability and correlated with plaque echolucency. Nineteen patients (mean age, 70 years) constituting 36 plaques underwent imaging; 37% of patients (n = 7) showed high strain (SSI ≥0.5; MASSR, 2.2; ESSR, 39.7; VSSR, 0.03) in their plaques; the remaining clustered into a low-strain group (SSI routine B-mode imaging using clinical ultrasound machines. High plaque strain correlates with known high-risk echolucent morphology. Strain measurement can complement identification of patients at high risk for plaque disruption and stroke. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbiological changes associated with dental prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodson, J Max; Palys, Michael D; Carpino, Elizabeth; Regan, Elizabeth O; Sweeney, Michael; Socransky, Sigmund S

    2004-11-01

    Despite the common application of dental prophylaxis as part of patient therapy, there is little reported that describes the microbiological impact of this treatment. The authors gave 20 healthy college-aged subjects three dental prophylaxes with a fluoride-containing prophylaxis paste during a two-week period and instructed them in oral hygiene. They evaluated the microbiological composition of dental plaque samples collected before and after treatment using DNA probe analysis. They analyzed 40 representative bacterial species in seven bacterial complexes by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization assay techniques. After three dental prophylaxes, the patients' mean Gingival Index score decreased from 0.82 to 0.77, the mean Plaque Index score decreased from 0.72 to zero, and the total number of bacteria per tooth decreased to approximately one-third of the original number. The authors computed two different measures of bacterial presence. The reduction in bacterial numbers was statistically significant and occurred in many species. Bacterial proportion (DNA percentage or percentage of the bacteria per tooth) did not change significantly. Greater reductions in bacterial count occurred in species that showed high numbers before treatment. The total bacterial count decreased by approximately 72 percent of its original level before prophylaxis was initiated. Professional dental prophylaxis did not target any particular bacteria or bacterial groups but removed bacteria nonspecifically and in proportion to their initial numbers. Repeated dental prophylaxes effect a reduction in bacterial amount that is commensurate with the initial amount, but they do does not alter composition. This suggests that mild gingivitis may be a bacterially nonspecific effect of plaque accumulation and emphasizes the need for regular plaque removal to maintain optimal gingival health.

  6. EFFECT OF FREQUENT CONSUMPTION OF STARCHY FOOD ITEMS ON ENAMEL AND DENTIN DEMINERALIZATION AND ON PLAQUE PH IN-SITU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINGSTROM, P; BIRKHED, D; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    The aim of this cross-over study was to determine the cariogenic potential of starchy food items as between-meal snacks. This was done by measuring demineralization of human enamel and dentin as well as the pH of dental plaque in situ. Eight volunteers with complete dentures carried two enamel and

  7. Effects of high-fluoride dentifrice (5,000-ppm) on caries-related plaque and salivary variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannaa, A.; Carlén, A.; Zaura, E.; Buijs, M.J.; Bukhary, S.; Lingström, P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to measure the effects of a 5,000-ppm F toothpaste on caries-related factors in dental plaque and saliva. Materials and methods A 6-week clinical trial was designed with a total of 34 participants, of which 26 completed the study. The participants were

  8. Validation of the Visible Occlusal Plaque Index (VOPI) in estimating caries lesion activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho, J.C.; Mestrinho, H D; Oliveira, L S

    2017-01-01

    ). RESULTS: Construct validity was assumed based on qualitative assessment as no plaque (score 0) and thin plaque (score 1) reflected the theoretical knowledge that a regular disorganization of the dental biofilm either maintains the caries process at sub-clinical levels or inactivate it clinically. The VOPI...... of the VOPI was evidenced with multivariable analysis (GEE), by its ability to discriminate between the groups of adolescents with different oral hygiene status; negative association between adolescents with thick and heavy plaque and those with sound occlusal surfaces was found (OR=0.3, p... of oral hygiene and caries lesion activity. The VOPI is recommended to standardize and categorize information on the occlusal biofilm, thus being suitable for direct application in research and clinical settings....

  9. Efficacy of a barrier gel for reducing the development of plaque, calculus, and gingivitis in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan; Carithers, Douglas S; Gross, Sheila J

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the field efficacy of a professional and home-care barrier gel against the development of plaque, calculus, gingival bleeding, and gingivitis in client-owned cats over a 56-day period compared with negative controls. In a randomized, negative-controlled, outcome evaluator-blinded, client-owned animal clinical field study, 31 cats were evaluated to assess if the barrier gel dental product was effective in cats. Following an enrollment-qualification assessment and enrollment of each cat, all cats received a professional dental cleaning, including polishing and irrigation. Following cleaning, a post-cleaning assessment was performed by the evaluator. Then, using a pre-developed randomization schedule, cats were assigned to the treated or control group. The professional version of the barrier gel was applied to the treated group on day 0. The negative-control group patients did not receive any applications of the barrier gel following dental cleaning. Treated-group cats were brought back to the clinic for subsequent applications of the home-care version of the barrier gel, applied by a non-blinded trained assistant. The home-care version product applications began on day 14 and then were applied weekly (days, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49 and 56) through day 56. All cats enrolled in the study underwent full oral examinations and assessments by the blinded evaluator on or about their respective days 28 and 56. At these evaluations, the evaluator performed standardized assessments for plaque, calculus, gingivitis, and gingival bleeding. Numeric scores were assigned for each assessment using predetermined target teeth to ensure consistency. Using these assessment scores, statistical analyses were performed to determine the efficacies against plaque and calculus deposition; additionally, measurements of gingivitis and gingival bleeding were assessed. Change in plaque score from baseline, for all teeth assessed (all 4 canine teeth, and all 4

  10. MR plaque imaging of the carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yuji; Nagayama, Masako

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerotic carotid plaque represents a major cause of cerebral ischemia. The detection of vulnerable plaque is important for preventing future cardiovascular events. The key factors in advanced plaque that are most likely to lead to patient complications are the condition of the fibrous cap, the size of the necrotic core and hemorrhage, and the extent of inflammatory activity within the plaque. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has excellent soft tissue contrast and can allow for a more accurate and objective estimation of carotid wall morphology and plaque composition. Recent advances in MR imaging techniques have permitted serial monitoring of atherosclerotic disease evolution and the identification of intraplaque risk factors for accelerated progression. The purpose of this review article is to review the current state of techniques of carotid wall MR imaging and the characterization of plaque components and surface morphology with MR imaging, and to describe the clinical practice of carotid wall MR imaging for the determination of treatment plan. (orig.)

  11. Plaque pH changes following consumption of two types of plain and bulky bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Mortazavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consistency, backing process and content differences could influence cariogenic potential of foods. The aim was to compare plaque pH changes following consumption of two types of bread with different physical characteristics. Methods : In this clinical trial, interproximal plaque pH of 10 volunteers with high risk of dental caries (saliva Streptococcus mutans > 10 5 , high dental caries experience, and average DMFT =6.10 ± 1.56 was measured. Plain traditionally backed "Sangak bread" and soft bulky "Baguette bread" and %10 sucrose solution were tested in a cross over designed experiment. Baseline plaque pH was recorded and followed by 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes intervals. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey test (α = 0.05. Results: Sucrose solution caused the most pronounced pH and ∆pH drop from 7.15 ± 0.33 at baseline to 6.78 ± 0.29. Means plaque pH of 10% sucrose solution and Baguette were not statistically different at 1, 20 and 30 minutes (P > 0.05. Mean plaque pH of Sangak and Baguette showed significant differences at 0, 1, 20 and30 minutes (P < 0.05. Sucrose solution caused a dramatic plaque pH drop during first 10 minutes and then within 30 minutes returned to baseline pH. For two bread samples within first 10 minutes, pH increased and then started to decrease during tenth to fifteenth minutes. Conclusion: During all experiment phases, the mean pH of Baguette with less consistency and carbohydrate content and higher rate of starch gelatination was lower compared to Sangak.

  12. Evaluation of chlorhexidine 0.05% with the adjunct of fluoride 0.05% in the inhibition of plaque formation: a double blind, crossover, plaque regrowth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Siena, F; Del Fabbro, M; Corbella, S; Taschieri, S; Weinstein, R

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mouthrinses containing 0.05% chlorhexidine + 0.05% fluoride solution on early dental plaque regrowth. Thirty periodontally healthy subjects were included in the study. A crossover 4-day plaque regrowth protocol was adopted. The test product was initially used in 15 patients, while a placebo was administered to the other 15 patients. Then, after a washout period, each patient used the other product. No other oral hygiene manoeuvre was allowed. Full-mouth plaque and bleeding scores (FMPS and FMBS) were evaluated at baseline and after 4 days. All subjects completed the study. The mean age was 27 ± 8.4 years. Five patients were smokers with a mean daily consumption of 1 ± 2.5 cigarettes. FMPS at baseline was 8.0 ± 4.4 for control group and 7.9 ± 3.8 for test group, without significant difference. After the 4-day plaque regrowth the mean FMPS significantly increased to 31.9 ± 16.5 and 36.3 ± 16.1 for control and test group, respectively (no significant difference between the two groups). The test product was safe and well tolerated by subjects. The similar outcomes of the two experimental groups suggest that the two products have an equivalent effect on early dental plaque regrowth. Studies with longer follow-up are needed to clarify whether there is a beneficial long-term effect of daily rinses with the tested solution. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Prebrushing rinse with water on plaque removal: a split-mouth design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sluijs, E; Slot, D E; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Van Leeuwen, Mpc; Van der Weijden, G A

    2017-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate whether there is an additional beneficial effect on dental plaque removal of rinsing the oral cavity with water before toothbrushing. In total, 48 non-dental, systemically healthy participants ≥18 years were included in this randomized controlled clinical trial using a split-mouth design. The participants were requested to refrain from any form of oral hygiene for 48 h. First dental plaque scores (PI) were assessed full mouth. Two randomly assigned contra-lateral quadrants were brushed. Next the participant rinsed for 1 min with 15 ml water. Subsequently, the opposite two contra-lateral quadrants were brushed. Brushing was performed without toothpaste. Subsequently the second full-mouth PI assessment was performed. The brushing and rinsing procedure was performed under supervision and brushing time was tracked by a timer, each quadrant was brushed for 30 s. For the buccal, lingual, and approximal surfaces and tooth type, a subanalysis was performed. At baseline there was no statistically significantly difference between the two sets of contra-lateral quadrants. When a water rinse was used before toothbrushing the PI-score was reduced by 58%. If water rinse was used post-brushing the PI-score reduced by 57%. The difference of 0.04 in mean plaque index score reduction between the two brushing regimens was not significant(P = 0.162). When a 2 min brushing exercise was performed, on average more than 55% dental plaque was removed. Prerinsing with water did not contribute significantly to toothbrush efficacy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Análise microbiológica da placa bacteriana da doença periodontal em cães e o efeito da antibioticoterapia sobre ela Microbiological analysis of bacterial plaque of periodontal disease on dogs and effects of antibioticotherapy on it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Alves da Fonseca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a microbiota da placa bacteriana subgengival de cães com doença periodontal (DP e estabelecer o efeito da antibioticoterapia. Avaliaram-se 20 cães com graus variados de DP e coletaram-se amostras da placa bacteriana subgengival antes e após antibioticoterapia. Preconizou-se antibioticoterapia distinta em dois grupos, com 10 animais cada: clindamicina (G1 e metronidazol + espiramicina (G2. Observou-se crescimento bacteriano subgengival na maioria dos cães com DP e correlação entre a severidade da DP e a idade dos animais. Houve redução significativa no crescimento bacteriano após a antibioticoterapia e o antibiograma demonstrou maior sensibilidade à clindamicina, seguido da espiramicina; todos os microrganismos foram resistentes ao metronidazol.The objective was to determine microbiote of the subgingival bacterial plaque of dogs with periodontal disease (PD and establish the effect of antibioticotherapy on its reduction. Twenty dogs with varied stages of PD were evaluated and samples of their subgingival bacterial plaque were collected. Distinct antibiotic protocols were used in two groups with ten animals each: clindamycin (G1 and metronidazole + espiramycin (G2. New subgingival samples were collected 15 days after antibiotic therapy started. There were observed subgingival bacterial culture on most dogs with PD and correlation between severity of PD and age. There was reduction of bacterial growth in 20% of the samples after treatment and antibiogram showed higher sensibility to clindamycin, followed by espiramycin - all microorganisms were resistant to metronidazole.

  15. Multidisciplinary management of subgingival crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Zahedpasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of subgingival horizontal crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. After removal of the fractured fragment, pulpotomy was performed within 48 h from the injury to promote apexogenesis. The tooth was orthodontically extruded until the fracture line was located above the alveolar bone level. Frenectomy, supracrestal fiberotomy, and crown lengthening were performed after adequate stabilization of the extruded tooth for 5 months. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin by using the acid etch technique. This report highlights that a multidisciplinary treatment approach with strict cooperation among specialists to manage a complicated crown-root fracture can save and restore a traumatized immature permanent tooth.

  16. Reproducibility of subgingival bacterial samples from patients with peri-implant mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallström, Hadar; Persson, G Rutger; Strömberg, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    collected with paper points and analyzed using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Whole genomic probes of 74 preselected bacterial species were used. Based on the bacterial scores, Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to calculate the inter-annotator agreement for categorical data......OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility of bacterial enumeration from subsequent subgingival samples collected from patients with peri-implant mucositis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Duplicate microbial samples from 222 unique implant sites in 45 adult subjects were....... The percentage agreement was considered as "good" when the two samples showed the same score or differed by 1 to the power of 10. RESULTS: Moderate to fair kappa values were displayed for all bacterial species in the test panel (range 0.21-0.58). There were no significant differences between Gram...

  17. Association between periodontal condition and subgingival microbiota in women during pregnancy: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Viola BORGO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectivo In this study, the gingival conditions and the quantitative detection for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia in pregnant women were determined. Material and Methods Quantitative determinations of periodontal bacteria by using a SyBr green system in women during pregnancy were performed. Women at the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy and non-pregnant women were included in this study. A. actinomycetemcomitans was observed in high numbers in women at the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy with a significant difference (p<0.05. F. nucleatum and P. intermedia were also observed in high levels. Results and Conclusion Our results show that pregnant women are more susceptible to gingivitis, and the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival biofilm might be taken into account for the treatment of periodontal disease.

  18. Subgingival microbiota in health compared to periodontitis and the influence of smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo-Castillo, Anny J; Mira, Alex; Pico, Alex; Nibali, Luigi; Henderson, Brian; Donos, Nikolaos; Tomás, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of periodontitis has traditionally been associated to a consortium of three bacterial species-the so-called "red-complex" of periodontal disease-which has been the target for most diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, other species have also been found to correlate with disease severity. In addition, the influence of smoking on periodontal microbiota is poorly understood. In the current manuscript, the composition of the subgingival microbiota in healthy individuals vs. patients with chronic periodontitis has been investigated using 16S pyrosequencing and the influence of smoking on periodontal composition has been examined. Subgingival bacterial communities were sampled from 82 patients: 22 non-smoking healthy controls, 28 non-smoking periodontal patients, and 32 smoking periodontal patients. Bacterial diversity was higher in periodontal patients than in healthy subjects, which could be interpreted as the consequence of a nutritionally richer environment or a reduced immune competence. Periodontal patients showed a significantly higher prevalence/relative abundance of "established" periopathogens but also other taxa whose role is not well-established and that should be targets for future research. These include Anaeroglobus, Bulleidia, Desulfobulbus, Filifactor, Mogibacterium, Phocaeicola, Schwartzia or TM7. The microbial community of smoking-associated periodontitis is less diverse and distinct from that of non-smokers, indicating that smoking has an influence on periodontal ecology. Interestingly, the high sequencing coverage allowed the detection at low proportions of periodontal pathogens in all healthy individuals, indicating that chronic periodontitis cannot be strictly considered an infectious disease but the outcome of a polymicrobial dysbiosis, where changes in the proportions of microbial consortia trigger the inflammatory and tissue-degradation responses of the host.

  19. Subgingival microbiota in health compared to periodontitis and the influence of smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A eCamelo-Castillo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aetiology of periodontitis has traditionally been associated to a consortium of three bacterial species -the so-called red-complex of periodontal disease- which has been the target for most diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, other species have also been found to correlate with disease severity. In addition, the influence of smoking on periodontal microbiota is poorly understood. In the current manuscript, the composition of the subgingival microbiota in healthy individuals versus patients with chronic periodontitis has been investigated using 16S pyrosequencing and the influence of smoking on periodontal composition has been examined. Subgingival bacterial communities were sampled from 82 patients: 22 non-smoking healthy controls, 28 non-smoking periodontal patients and 32 smoking periodontal patients.Bacterial diversity was higher in periodontal patients than in healthy subjects, which could be interpreted as the consequence of a nutritionally richer environment or a reduced immune competence. Periodontal patients showed a significantly higher prevalence/abundance of established periopathogens but also other taxa whose role is not well-established and that should be targets for future research. These include Anaeroglobus, Bulleidia, Desulfobulbus, Filifactor, Mogibacterium, Phocaeicola, Schwartzia or TM7. The microbial community of smoking-associated periodontitis is less diverse and distinct from that of non-smokers, indicating that smoking has an influence on periodontal ecology. Interestingly, the high sequencing coverage allowed the detection at low proportions of periodontal pathogens in all healthy individuals, indicating that chronic periodontitis cannot be strictly considered an infectious disease but the outcome of a polymicrobial dysbiosis, where changes in the proportions of microbial consortia trigger the inflammatory and tissue-degradation responses of the host.

  20. Microbiological effects and recolonization patterns after adjunctive subgingival debridement with Er:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Sánchez, Ignacio; Ortiz-Vigón, Alberto; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the microbiological effects and recolonization patterns after non-surgical periodontal treatment protocol based on the adjunctive use of erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Er:YAG) laser. Patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to two different treatment protocols: test, full-mouth subgingival ultrasonic instrumentation followed by Er-YAG laser application 1 week later to sites with initial probing pocket depth ≥4.5 mm; and control, full-mouth ultrasonic subgingival instrumentation within 1 week. Clinical (at sampled sites) and microbiological (culture-based) parameters were recorded at baseline and 3 and 12 months. Microbiological variables included total counts, frequency of detection, proportions and counts of target species. Results from 19 test and 21 control patients were compared. Minor changes were observed for total colony-forming units, with no differences between groups. For the frequency of detection, a limited and similar impact in both groups was observed for the most prevalent (over 80 %) periodontal pathogens (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum). For proportions, reductions in P. gingivalis occurred at 3 months, both in the test and control groups (from 16.3 to 10 % and 16 to 14.8 %, respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant. At 12 months, the test group showed a statistically significant greater reduction in probing depth for the sampled sites. The adjunctive use of Er:YAG laser when compared with conventional ultrasonic debridement did not provide a microbiological added benefit. Even though some clinical benefits with the adjunctive laser application were identified when comparing both treatment protocols, there were no differences in microbiological outcomes or in the bacterial recolonization patterns.

  1. Subgingival bacteria in Ghanaian adolescents with or without progression of attachment loss

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    Gunnar Dahlén

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes subgingival bacterial profiles associated with clinical periodontal status in Ghanaian adolescents with or without progression of attachment loss. Materials and methods: Among 500 adolescents included in a cohort study, 397 returned 2 years later for a periodontal re-examination, including full-mouth CAL measurements. At follow-up, a subgroup of 98 adolescents was also subjected to bacterial sampling with paper points at four periodontal sites (mesial aspect of 11, 26, 31, and 46 and analyzed with the checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization technique against DNA-probes from nine periodontitis-associated bacterial species. Results: The 98 Ghanaian adolescents examined in the present study were similar to the entire group examined at the 2-year follow-up with respect to age, gender, and CAL ≥3 mm. A high detection frequency of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia (>99% using checkerboard analysis was found, while for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the detection frequency was <50%. A strong correlation was found at the individual level between the presence of P. intermedia and the total CAL change, and P. intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis were strongly correlated with a change in CAL and probing pocket depth (PPD at the sampled sites. In a linear regression model, a significant discriminating factor for the total CAL change in the dentition during the 2-year follow-up period was obtained for P. intermedia and public school. Conclusion: This study indicates that subgingival bacterial species other than A. actinomycetemcomitans, for example, P. intermedia, have a significant association with periodontal breakdown (change in CAL in Ghanaian adolescents with progression of periodontal attachment loss.

  2. Clinical evaluation of the cross-action and between teeth toothbrushes effects on the bacterial plaque and gingival status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayar Ferena

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The routine mechanical plaque control is done by toothbrush. With regard to different designs of tooth head brushes in order to better plaque removal, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of between teeth and cross-action tooth brush on the plaque and gingival status among dental students of dental branch-Islamic Azad University during 2012-13 academic years.   Materials and Methods: This single-blind, cross over, clinical trial was conducted on 30 subjects with mean age (23±0.9 in two groups of 15 persons . They had at least 20 teeth and had gingivitis with no history of antibiotic use in the last 3 months. Those who were undergoing orthodontic treatment, using drugs affecting the gums and having crown and bridge were excluded from the study. The first group used the cross action toothbrush and the second group used between teeth toothbrush and the subjects were asked to brush their teeth for two minutes twice a day in modified bass method and not to floss during the execution of this study. After 14 days plaque index (Turesky, Approximal plaque index and gingival bleeding index were recorded on all teeth except third molars. After a week wash out period, second stage of the study was conducted the same as the first stage with the other kind of brush for each group. Data were analyzed using Generalized Linear Model (GLM test.   Results: There was no statistical significant difference between two toothbrushes based on plaque index, gingival bleeding index and approximal plaque index, respectively (P = 0.29, P = 0.47, P = 0.33. In all measured indices, the treatment sequence showed no significant difference (P = 0.23.   Conclusion: There was no statistical difference between cross-action and between teeth toothbrush in reducing plaque and gingival bleeding.

  3. Real-time porphyrin detection in plaque and caries: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshchuk, Mari-Alina I.; Ridge, Jeremy S.; Rugg, Amanda L.; Nelson, Leonard Y.; Kim, Amy S.; Seibel, Eric J.

    2015-02-01

    An ultrathin scanning fiber endoscope, originally developed for cancer diagnosis, was used in a case study to locate plaque and caries. The imaging system incorporated software mitigation of background auto-fluorescence (AF). In conventional fluorescence imaging, varying AF across a tooth surface can mask low-level porphyrin signals. Laser-induced auto-fluorescence signals of dental tissue excited using a 405-nm laser typically produce fluorescence over a wavelength range extending from 440-nm to 750-nm. Anaerobic bacterial metabolism produces various porphyrin species (eg. protoporphyrin IX) that are located in carious enamel, dentin, gingivitis sites, and plaque. In our case study, these porphyrin deposits remained as long as one day after prophylaxis. Imaging the tooth surface using 405-nm excitation and subtracting the natural AF enhances the image contrast of low-level porphyrin deposits, which would otherwise be masked by the high background AF. In a case study, healthy tissues as well as sites of early and advanced caries formations were scanned for visual and quantitative signs of red fluorescence associated with porphyrin species using a background mitigation algorithm. Initial findings show increasing amplitudes of red fluorescence as caries severity increases from early to late stages. Sites of plaque accumulation also displayed red fluorescence similar to that found in carious dental tissue. The use of real-time background mitigation of natural dental AF can enhance the detection of low porphyrin concentrations that are indicators of early stage caries formation.

  4. Current status of vulnerable plaque detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharif, Faisal

    2012-02-01

    Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. The anatomical characteristics of the vulnerable plaque such as thin cap fibroatheroma and lipid pool can be identified with angioscopy, high frequency intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, and optical coherence tomography. Efforts have also been made to recognize active inflammation in high-risk plaques using intravascular thermography. Plaque chemical composition by measuring electromagnetic radiation using spectroscopy is also an emerging technology to detect vulnerable plaques. Noninvasive imaging with MRI, CT, and PET also holds the potential to differentiate between low and high-risk plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque neither has been shown to definitively predict outcome. Nevertheless in contrast, there has been a parallel development in the physiological assessment of advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Thus recent trials using fractional flow reserve in patients with modest non flow-limiting stenoses have shown that deferral of PCI with optimal medical therapy in these patients is superior to coronary intervention. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non flow-limiting plaque to establish patient-specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future.

  5. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  6. Assessment of the Effect of Fruit (Apple and Plain Yoghurt Consumption on Plaque pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyvand Moeiny

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays, thanks to improvements in fruit yoghurt tastes, more tendencies are seen in their consumption especially among children. Therefore, their cariogenicity evaluation as healthy snacks is important. The goal of this study was the assessment of the consumption effect of two kinds of Iranian fruit (apple and plain yoghurts on dental plaque PH. Methods: In this experimental study, 10 healthy dentistry students were selected upon inclusion criteria. Plaque pH in the certain areas of the mouth was measured by microelectrode and digital pH meter. PH was measured at the baseline and intervals of 2, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes after eating test products: fruit yoghurt (apple and plain Yoghurt. For positive control group, just the baseline PH and at intervals of 2 and 5 min after swishing with 10% sucrose solutions were recorded. The results were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Lowest pH was obtained after fruit yoghurt consumption followed by plain yoghurt and %10 sucrose solution and the plaque PH difference was significant (P=0.05. Furthermore, time duration which remained below the critical pH was longer after consuming fruit yoghurt. Conclusion: Both kinds of yoghurts were considered cariogenic since plaque pH drop below critical points. Average of plaque pH after consuming fruit yoghurt was significantly lower in almost all the time intervals

  7. Efficacy of homecare regimens for mechanical plaque removal in managing gingivitis a meta review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Weijden, Fridus A; Slot, Dagmar E

    2015-04-01

    Based on evidence as presented in systematic reviews what is the efficacy and safety of available homecare toothbrush regimens for mechanical plaque removal on plaque and gingivitis in adults? Three Internet sources were used (up to and including August 2014) to search for appropriate papers that satisfied the study purpose. Plaque scores and gingivitis scores were considered to be the primary parameter of interest. Safety was considered an important facet in relation to efficacy. Data and conclusions as presented in the selected papers were extracted. The potential risk of bias was estimated and the emerging evidence was graded. Independent screening of 176 unique reviews resulted in 10 published and eligible systematic reviews. They were categorized into one review evaluating the effect of an oral hygiene instruction with a toothbrush on plaque and gingivitis scores, five evaluating the efficacy of manual and power toothbrushes and three reviews evaluating toothbrush safety and one evaluating toothbrush contamination. Tooth brushing is effective in reducing levels of dental plaque. With respect to gingivitis power toothbrushes have a benefit over manual toothbrushes. The greatest body of evidence was available for oscillating-rotating brushes. Tooth brushing generally can be considered safe for the teeth and their investing tissues. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Clinical validation of robot simulation of toothbrushing - comparative plaque removal efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical validation of laboratory toothbrushing tests has important advantages. It was, therefore, the aim to demonstrate correlation of tooth cleaning efficiency of a new robot brushing simulation technique with clinical plaque removal. Methods Clinical programme: 27 subjects received dental cleaning prior to 3-day-plaque-regrowth-interval. Plaque was stained, photographically documented and scored using planimetrical index. Subjects brushed teeth 33–47 with three techniques (horizontal, rotating, vertical), each for 20s buccally and for 20s orally in 3 consecutive intervals. The force was calibrated, the brushing technique was video supported. Two different brushes were randomly assigned to the subject. Robot programme: Clinical brushing programmes were transfered to a 6-axis-robot. Artificial teeth 33–47 were covered with plaque-simulating substrate. All brushing techniques were repeated 7 times, results were scored according to clinical planimetry. All data underwent statistical analysis by t-test, U-test and multivariate analysis. Results The individual clinical cleaning patterns are well reproduced by the robot programmes. Differences in plaque removal are statistically significant for the two brushes, reproduced in clinical and robot data. Multivariate analysis confirms the higher cleaning efficiency for anterior teeth and for the buccal sites. Conclusions The robot tooth brushing simulation programme showed good correlation with clinically standardized tooth brushing. This new robot brushing simulation programme can be used for rapid, reproducible laboratory testing of tooth cleaning. PMID:24996973

  9. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  10. Comparative Evaluation for Assessing Oratest as a Diagnostic Tool for Evaluation of Plaque Levels & Gingivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahasweta Joshi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims & Objectives: Periodontal disease comprises a group of inflammatory conditions of the supporting tissues of the teeth that are caused by bacteria. The present study was undertaken to evaluate whether Oratest could be used as a sensitive indicator of plaque levels and gingivitis. Material and Methods: Hundred caries free patients visiting the out-patient department of A.E.C.S. Maaruti College of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Banglore were selected according to predetermined selection criteria. The study consisted of two clinical stages: Stage 1. Recording of Plaque Index (Loe, 1967 and Gingival Index (Loe & Silness 1963 in the subjects. Stage 2. Performance of the Oratest and recording the scores in the same subjects. The Oratest was performed by rinsing the mouth with sterilized UHT (Ultra high temperature milk. About 3 ml of expectorated milk was added to a test tube containing the 0.12 ml of 0.1% methylene blue. The time required for colour change from blue to white attained at the bottom of the tube was recorded. Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores were compared using Student t test. Pearson correlation test was applied to assess correlation between the indices and Oratest scores. Results:The results of the study showed that as age increased plaque and Gingival Indexes also increased whereas Oratest scores decreased. No significant difference between males and females was found in mean values of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Oratest scores. Negative correlation was seen between Plaque Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.724 and also between Gingival Index and Oratest scores (r = 0.728. Conclusions: The study showed high correlation between the plaque and gingival indices and Oratest scores. This study validates Oratest as a predictable & sensitive test to assess periodontal disease.

  11. Dental cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001055.htm Dental cavities To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Dental cavities are holes (or structural damage) in the ...

  12. Dental sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000779.htm Dental sealants To use the sharing features on this ... case a sealant needs to be replaced. How Dental Sealants are Applied Your dentist applies sealants on ...

  13. The implications of the new paradigm of dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Edwina

    2011-12-01

    The caries process is the ubiquitous, natural metabolism in the biofilm that causes numerous fluctuations in pH. The interaction of this biofilm with the dental tissues may result in a caries lesion. However, lesion formation and progression can be controlled, particularly by disturbing plaque regularly with a fluoride containing toothpaste. This paradigm implies that everyone with teeth is at risk to lesion development. Treatment of caries is principally non-operative, involving plaque control, fluoride and a sensible diet. Operative dentistry repairs un-cleansable cavities and is part of plaque control. A diagnosis is a mental resting place on the way to a treatment decision. The relevant diagnostic features with respect to caries are lesion activity (active lesions require active management) and un-cleansable cavities. When teaching undergraduates, it is important that they are credited for the non-operative treatment of caries as well as for operative dentistry. This is equally important in dental practice where an appropriate skills mix of the dental team is required to deliver dental health cost-effectively. Training more dentists may be an expensive mistake as far as disease control is concerned. It is ironic that dentists make most money from operative care and specialist treatment when disease control could be delivered relatively cheaply. The key to dental health is regular and effective plaque control with a fluoride containing toothpaste, from cradle to grave. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dental negligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, C S

    2000-02-01

    Medical and dental errors and negligence are again in the spotlight in recent news report. Dead because of doctor's bad handwriting Prescribing drug overdoses Germ-infested soap pumps--infections in hospitals This articles explains dental negligence including dental duty of care and the standard of care expected of dentists in relation to the Bolam principle.

  15. PLAQUE ASSAY OF NEWCASTLE DISEASE VIRUS

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    B. Sardjono

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Newcastle disease virus (NDV was isolated from a 3 months-old indigenous chicken (buras or kampung chicken which showed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND. For viral isolation a small part of the spleen and lung were inoculated into 10 days-old embryonated chicken eggs. The physical characteristics of the isolate (A/120 were studied. The hemagglutination of chicken red blood cell showed slow elution, thermostability of hemagglutinin at 56°C was 120 minutes. The vims was able to agglutinate horse erythrocytes but not those of sheep. The biological characteristics on mean death time (MDT of embryonated chicken egg and plaque morphology on chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF primary cell cultures were studied. The MDT was 56 hours, the isolate was velogenic NDV. There were three different plaque morphologies on CEF : 2 mm clear plaques, 1 mm clear plaques, and minute clear plaques which were visible only with microscopic examination.

  16. Assessment of relationship between oral health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsheen Lalani

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Thus, it is concluded that there is a significant relationship between the oral health behavior, oral hygiene, and gingival status of dental students. Dental students with better self-reported oral health behavior had lower plaque and gingival scores indicating a better attitude toward oral health.

  17. A Novel Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Method for Detection of the JP2 Clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in Subgingival Plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seki, M; Poulsen, Knud; Haubek, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    We developed a LAMP method that detects the JP2 clone of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, which induces aggressive periodontitis in adolescents of North- and West-African descents. Being independent of special equipment this specific and sensitive method offers significant advantages...

  18. Effects of Bristle Hardness & Duration of Manual Tooth brushing on Plaque Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sunny

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Poor oral health can have adverse effect on general health hence a good oral health is very essential, which in turn is achieved by good oral hygiene. Even though, the concept of good oral hygiene evolved 5000 years back, it is only in the beginning of 19th century it gained more importance. (1 Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most commonly occurring diseases affecting mankind. Dental plaque is a very important factor in the causation of both the diseases. (2 Aims & Objectives: To evaluate efficacy of four different types of toothbrushes, with difference in duration of brushing along with different bristle hardness in removal of microbial plaque. Material & Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, four groups with 40 subjects used manual toothbrushes with either hard, medium, soft and ultra-soft bristles. On baseline examination, clinical parameter plaque index (Sillness & Loe, 1964 was recorded. Selected subjects were refrained from all kinds of oral hygiene measures for 24 hrs before clinical appointment. On the day of clinical appointment scores of pre and post brushing were recorded in each patient when brushing time was set for 1 minute and same procedure was repeated after a wash off period of 3 days and similar recordings were made with brushing time of 11/2minute. Primary outcome was measured with differences in the plaque index (Sillness & Loe, 1964 compared to baseline. Results: Significant reduction in mean value of plaque score was observed on comparing pre-brushing and post-brushing data in all the subjects irrespective of bristle hardness in both 1 minute and 11/2 minute groups. On increasing time duration from 1 minute to 11/2 minute intergroup comparison revealed that significant correlation exist in mean plaque score reduction in subjects using medium bristle brush, soft bristle brush, ultra-soft bristle brush. However, no significant reduction in

  19. Effect of Subgingivally Delivered 10% Emblica officinalis Gel as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis - A Randomized Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Shilpa; Tewari, Shikha; Sharma, Rajinder K; Singh, Gajendra; Yadav, Aparna; Naula, Satish C

    2016-06-01

    Emblica officinalis fruit possesses varied medicinal properties including cytoprotective antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiresorptive and antiinflammatory activity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of subgingival application of indigenously prepared E. officinalis (Amla) sustained-release gel adjunctive to scaling and root planing (SRP) on chronic periodontitis. Forty-six patients (528 sites) were randomly assigned to control group (23;264): SRP +placebo gel and test group (23;264): SRP + 10% E. officinalis gel application. Periodontal parameters: plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI) were assessed at baseline, 2 and 3-month post-therapy. Forty patients (470 sites) completed the trial. When test and control sites were compared, significantly more reduction in mean PPD, mSBI, number of sites with PPD = 5-6 mm, PPD ≥ 7 mm, CAL ≥ 6 mm and greater CAL gain were achieved in test sites at 2- and 3-month post-therapy (p periodontal destruction in patients with chronic periodontitis when compared with SRP alone. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Dental care - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooth decay and gum disease are caused by plaque, a sticky combination of bacteria and food. Plaque begins to build up on teeth within 20 minutes after eating. If teeth are not cleaned well each day, plaque will lead ...

  1. Orthodontic extrusion of subgingivally fractured tooth using a removable appliance: an alternative treatment to reestablish biological width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Kanika Gupta; Juneja, Suruchi; Kumar, Sandeep; Goyal, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of a traumatically injured tooth presents a clinical challenge for a predictable aesthetic outcome. This case report describes a multidisciplinary approach of a subgingivally fractured permanent maxillary central incisor. A removable orthodontic appliance was used for orthodontic extrusion of root, and surgical gingival recontouring was done with electrocautery to reestablish the biological width. Form and function were restored establishing biological width and esthetics was repaired with porcelain fused to metal crown.

  2. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilana Paula Carillo Artese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the composition of subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Sixteen CKD pre-dialysis individuals (CKD and 14 individuals without clinical evidence of kidney disease (C presenting chronic periodontitis were treated by scaling and root planing. Subgingival samples were collected from each patient and analyzed for their composition by checkerboard at baseline and 3 months post-therapy. Significant differences between groups at baseline were sought by the Mann-Whitney and χ² tests. Changes over time were examined by the Wilcoxon test. At baseline, the CKD group had significantly lower counts of E. faecalis compared to the C group (p < 0.05. After treatment, the levels of a greater number of species were reduced in the C group. Higher levels of A. israelii, C. rectus, F. periodonticum, P. micra, P. nigrescens, T. forsythia, N. mucosa, and S. anginosus (p < 0.05 were found in the CKD group compared to the C group. Also, non-responsive sites in CKD individuals harbored significantly higher levels of pathogenic species (T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, T. denticola, Fusobacterium spp., D. pneumosintes, E. faecalis and S. aureus; p < 0.05 than sites that responded to therapy, as well as non-responsive sites in the C group. The periodontitis-associated subgingival microbiota of CKD and systemically healthy individuals was similar in composition. However, high levels of pathogenic species persisted in the subgingival microbiota of patients with CKD after treatment.

  3. Adult Dental Health Survey 2009: relationships between dental attendance patterns, oral health behaviour and the current barriers to dental care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, K B; Chadwick, B; Freeman, R; O'Sullivan, I; Murray, J J

    2013-01-01

    The importance of understanding barriers to dental attendance of adults in the UK was acknowledged in the first Adult Dental Health Survey in 1968 and has been investigated in all subsequent ADH surveys. In 1968, approximately 40% of dentate adults said they attended for a regular check-up; by 2009 this was 61%. Attendance patterns were associated with greater frequency of toothbrushing, use of additional dental hygiene products, lower plaque and calculus levels. Just under three-fifths of adults said they had tried to make an NHS dental appointment in the previous five years. The vast majority (92%) successfully received and attended an appointment, while a further 1% received an appointment but did not attend. The remaining 7% of adults were unable to make an appointment with an NHS dentist. The majority of adults were positive about their last visit to the dentist, with 80% of adults giving no negative feedback about their last dentist visit. Cost and anxiety were important barriers to care. Twenty-six percent of adults said the type of treatment they had opted for in the past had been affected by the cost and 19% said they had delayed dental treatment for the same reason. The 2009 survey data demonstrated a relationship between dental anxiety and dental attendance. Adults with extreme dental anxiety were more likely to attend only when they had trouble with their teeth (22%) than for a regular check-up.

  4. Evaluation of patients with oral lichenoid lesions by dental patch testing and results of removal of the dental restoration material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Buket Şahin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL are contact stomatitis characterized by white reticular or erosive patches, plaque-like lesions that are clinically and histopathologically indistinguishable from oral lichen planus (OLP. Amalgam dental fillings and dental restoration materials are among the etiologic agents. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the standard and dental series patch tests in patients with OLL in comparison to a control group and evaluate our results. Materials and Methods: Thirty-three patients with OLL or OLP and 30 healthy control subjects, who had at least one dental restoration material and/or dental filling, were included in the study. Both groups received standard series and dental patch test and the results were evaluated simultaneously. Results: The most frequent allergens in the dental series patch test in the patient group were palladium chloride (n=4; 12.12% and benzoyl peroxide (n=2, 6.06%. Of the 33 patients with OLL; 8 had positive reaction to allergents in the standard patch test series and 8 had positive reaction in the dental patch test series. There was no significant difference in the rate of patch test reaction to the dental and standard series between the groups. Ten patients were advised to have the dental restoration material removed according to the results of the patch tests. The lesions improved in three patients [removal of all amalgam dental fillings (n=1, replacement of all amalgam dental fillings with an alternative filling material (n=1 and replacement of the dental prosthesis (n=1] following the removal or replacement of the dental restoration material. Conclusion: Dental patch test should be performed in patients with OLL and dental restoration material. Dental filling and/or prosthesis should be removed/replaced if there is a reaction against a dental restoration material-related allergen.

  5. Dental caries: Strategies to control this preventable disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rugg-Gunn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man’s most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth’s resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: ‘automatic’, ‘home care’ and ‘professional care’: the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Conclusion. Dental caries is preventable – individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this.

  6. [Evaluation of the clinical effect of the teeth with subgingivally involved defect conserved by crown lengthening surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Ding, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Li-Li; Huang, Zhong-Suo; Bian, Hua-Qin

    2005-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical effect of the teeth with subgingivally involved defect which were conserved by crown lengthening surgery. 62 teeth, with defect subgingivally from 1.5 mm to 4 mm, mobility degree(MD)lengthening surgery by combining flap surgery and osteoectomy, and restored 4 weeks after operation and followed-up for one year. The parameters of MD, sulcus bleeding index (SBI) and maximal defect probing depth (PD) at different times were measured respectively. 46 anterior teeth were divided into two groups based on PD of pre-operation. The groups were as follows: minor defect group (0.05), but a significant increase about MD occurred in the major defect group one year after restoration (Pstage after operation and PD of pre-operation in anterior teeth (r=0.489, 0.526, 0.531, Plengthening surgery may conserve these teeth with subgingivally involved defect, and has a good, long-time clinical effect. But MD showed an increasing trend after operation and significant cor.

  7. Matrix vesicles in the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaque: possible contribution to plaque rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Y V; Killingsworth, M C; Lord, R S A; Grabs, A J

    2008-10-01

    Plaque rupture is the most common type of plaque complication and leads to acute ischaemic events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Calcification has been suggested as a possible indicator of plaque instability. Although the role of matrix vesicles in the initial stages of arterial calcification has been recognized, no studies have yet been carried out to examine a possible role of matrix vesicles in plaque destabilization. Tissue specimens selected for the present study represented carotid specimens obtained from patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Serial frozen cross-sections of the tissue specimens were cut and mounted on glass slides. The thickness of the fibrous cap (FCT) in each advanced atherosclerotic lesion, containing a well developed lipid/necrotic core, was measured at its narrowest sites in sets of serial sections. According to established criteria, atherosclerotic plaque specimens were histologically subdivided into two groups: vulnerable plaques with thin fibrous caps (FCT <100 microm) and presumably stable plaques, in which fibrous caps were thicker than 100 microm. Twenty-four carotid plaques (12 vulnerable and 12 presumably stable plaques) were collected for the present analysis of matrix vesicles in fibrous caps. In order to provide a sufficient number of representative areas from each plaque, laser capture microdissection (LCM) was carried out. The quantification of matrix vesicles in ultrathin sections of vulnerable and stable plaques revealed that the numbers of matrix vesicles were significantly higher in fibrous caps of vulnerable plaques than those in stable plaques (8.908+0.544 versus 6.208+0.467 matrix vesicles per 1.92 microm2 standard area; P= 0.0002). Electron microscopy combined with X-ray elemental microanalysis showed that some matrix vesicles in atherosclerotic plaques were undergoing calcification and were characterized by a high content of calcium and phosphorus. The percentage of calcified matrix vesicles

  8. Does pneumoconiosis of dental technician cause to calcific pleural lesions? (Case report

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    Abdurrahman ŞENYİĞİT

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The articles about various pneumoconiosis in dental technicians who work in inconvenient conditions have been increasing in recent years. Exposure to dust and fume that occur during the dental procedure may play role in pneumoconiosis of dental technicians.A 53 years old male patient conveyed that he has worked in dental prosthesis procedures for 22 years (1968-1990.Environmental asbestosis was not established in the history of the case but there were calcified pleural plaques in the chest x-ray graphy.There were appearance of calcific asbest plaques in many section of thorax CT.A case of pneumoconiosis in dental technician who work in unadequate preventive conditions was reported in this paper. Probably ,exposure to the asbest fibers that occurs during the procedure of dental prosthesis were the main reason for developing calcific pleural lesions.

  9. Multidetector row computed tomography may accurately estimate plaque vulnerability. Does MDCT accurately estimate plaque vulnerability? (Pro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Sei; Imai, Atsuko; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decade, multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has become the most reliable and established of the noninvasive examination techniques for detecting coronary heart disease. Now MDCT is chasing intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in terms of spatial resolution. Among the components of vulnerable plaque, MDCT may detect lipid-rich plaque, the lipid pool, and calcified spots using computed tomography number. Plaque components are detected by MDCT with high accuracy compared with IVUS and angioscopy when assessing vulnerable plaque. The TWINS study and TOGETHAR trial demonstrated that angioscopic loss of yellow color occurred independently of volumetric plaque change by statin therapy. These 2 studies showed that plaque stabilization and regression reflect independent processes mediated by different mechanisms and time course. Noncalcified plaque and/or low-density plaque was found to be the strongest predictor of cardiac events, regardless of lesion severity, and act as a potential marker of plaque vulnerability. MDCT may be an effective tool for early triage of patients with chest pain who have a normal electrocardiogram (ECG) and cardiac enzymes in the emergency department. MDCT has the potential ability to analyze coronary plaque quantitatively and qualitatively if some problems are resolved. MDCT may become an essential tool for detecting and preventing coronary artery disease in the future. (author)

  10. Xylitol chewing gum and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, J M

    1995-02-01

    There is an extensive peer-reviewed literature on xylitol chewing gum as it pertains to effects on tooth decay in human subjects, on human dental plaque reduction, on inhibition of dental plaque acid production, on inhibition of the growth and metabolism of the mutans group of streptococci which are the prime causative agents of tooth decay, on reduction of tooth decay in experimental animals, and on xylitol's reported contribution to the remineralisation of teeth. The literature not only supports the conclusion that xylitol is non-cariogenic but it is now strongly suggestive that xylitol is caries inhibitory, that is, anti-cariogenic in human subjects, and it supplies reasonable mechanistic explanation(s).

  11. Selective ablation of dental calculus with a frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechmann, Peter; Hennig, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was the selective removal of dental calculus by means of pulsed lasers. In a first approach the optical characteristics of subgingival calculus were calculated using fluorescence emission spectroscopy (excitation laser: N2-laser, wavelength 337 nm, pulse duration 4 ns). Subgingival calculus seems to absorb highly in the ultraviolet spectral region up to 420 nm. According to these measurements a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser (wavelength 377 nm, pulse duration 100 ns, repetition rate 110 Hz) was used to irradiate calculus located on enamel, at the cementum enamel junction and on the root surface (located on dentin or on cementum). Irradiation was performed perpendicular to the root surface with a laser fluence of 1 Jcm-2. During the irradiation procedure an effective water cooling-system was engaged. Histological investigations were done on undecalcified sections. As a result, engaging low fluences allows a fast and strictly selective removal of subgingival calculus. Even more the investigations revealed that supragingival calculus can be removed in a strictly selective manner engaging a frequency doubled Alexandrite-laser. No adverse side effects to the surrounding tissues could be found.

  12. Oral cavity evaluation and dental chart registration of coati (Nasua nasua) in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Elisângela P; Rahal, Sheila C; Teixeira, Carlos R; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Mendes, Guilherme M; Gioso, Marco A

    2008-06-01

    The aims of this study were to develop a dental evaluate any oral cavity disease, develop gypsum models of the dental arches, and to register the occlusions found in coatis (Nasua nasua) in captivity Formulation of the dental chart was assisted by intraoral radiographs from the head of an adult coati cadaver of the same species with the following dental formula.: I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/3, M 2/2. Seven live coatis of the Nasua nasua species were evaluated. Five of the seven coatis presented with various dental abnormalities as follows: dental plaque (71.4 0%), gingivitis (71.4 %), periodontitis (57.1 %), dental stain (42.9 %), dental abrasion (57.1 %), dental fracture (57.1 %), pulp exposure (42.9 %), malocclusion (57.1 %) and supernumerary teeth (14.2 %).

  13. Health promotion and dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene) should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  14. Health promotion and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Maltz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene, among others. For decades, a linear relationship between sugar consumption and caries has been observed. Recent data has indicated that this relationship is not as strong as it used to be before the widespread use of fluoride. However, diet is still a key factor acting in the carious process. Oral hygiene is a major aspect when it comes to caries, since dental biofilm is its etiological factor. Oral hygiene procedures are effective in controlling dental caries, especially if plaque removal is performed adequately and associated with fluoride. An alternative to a more efficient biofilm control in occlusal areas is the use of dental sealants, which are only indicated for caries-active individuals. If a cavity is formed as a consequence of the metabolic activity of the biofilm, a restorative material or a sealant can be placed to block access of the biofilm to the oral environment in order to prevent caries progress. The prevention of dental caries based on common risk-factor strategies (diet and hygiene should be supplemented by more disease-specific policies such as rational use of fluoride, and evidence-based dental health care.

  15. The efficacy of honey solution as plaque reducing agent

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    Dewi Nurul M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal care is an important step of periodontal health management. Some chemically active substances have been studied as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control. Honey is a traditional topical treatment for infected wounds and have inhibitory effect to around 60 species of bacteria including aerobes and anaerobes, gram-positives and gram-negatives. Purpose: To compare the efficacy of 5% and 25% honey solution and aquadest as mouth-rinses to control dental plaque during 4 days period. Method: After a thorough prophylaxis, during 4 days period of no oral hygiene all subjects were rinsed with 10 ml mouth-rinse they received 3 times a day after meal. Group I rinse with 5% honey solution, group II with 25%, and group III with aquadest as control. Results: There were significant increases of plaque index within each group, but no differences between all three groups in every experimental day. The fact that the probability value from day 1 (0.766 were gradually decreased to day 4 (0.076. Conclusion: Anti-microbial properties of honey solution as mouth-rinse did not show any inhibition effect on plaque formation until day 4.Latar belakang: Menjaga kesehatan periodontal merupakan tahap penting dalam pemeliharaan kesehatan periodontal. Beberapa substansi kimiawi aktif telah diteliti untuk membantu dalam kontrol plak gigi secara mekanik. Madu merupakan obat tradisional untuk luka terinfeksi dan dinyatakan mempunyai pengaruh menghambat sekitar 60 spesies termasuk bakteri aerob dan anaerob gram positif dan gram negatif. Tujuan: Membandingkan manfaat larutan madu 5% dan 25% terhadap akuades sebagai obat kumur untuk mengontrol pembentukan plak gigi selama 4 hari penelitian. Metode: Setelah tindakan profilaksis pembersihan sempurna, semua subjek penelitian dipersilahkan berkumur dengan 10 ml larutan yang telah diterima, 3 kali sehari setelah makan. Kelompok 1 berkumur dengan larutan madu 5%, kelompok 2 dengan 25%, dan kelompok 3 dengan akuades

  16. Effectiveness of herbal and nonherbal fluoridated toothpaste on plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial

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    Roopali Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental plaque is a well-known etiologic factor for gingivitis. Ayurvedic drugs have been used since ancient times to treat diseases including periodontal diseases. Toothpastes made from herbal medicines are used in periodontal therapy to control bleeding and reduce inflammation. Aim: To compare the effectiveness of herbal and nonherbal fluoridated toothpaste on plaque and gingivitis among residents of ladies hostel in Mathura City. Materials and Methods: A randomized controlled clinical trial was carried out on 60 participants aged 18-30 years residing in a ladies hostel of Mathura City. The 60 participants were randomly allocated into two groups: Group-I: Experimental group using herbal toothpaste, Group-II: Control group using fluoridated toothpaste. The subjects were asked to brush twice daily with the assigned dentifrice using standardized brushing technique for 46 days. The plaque and gingival indices were recorded according to Silness and Loe (1964 and Loe and Silness (1963, respectively. These parameters were assessed at baseline, 3 weeks, and 6 weeks. Data were analyzed by Student paired t-test and unpaired t-test using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 21 manufactured by IBM Corporation - Armonk, New York, US. Results: Baseline plaque and gingival scores were found 1.02 ± 0.02 and 0.88 ± 0.06 for the experimental group and 1.02 ± 0.03 and 0.81 ± 0.08 for control group, respectively. After 6 weeks plaque and gingival scores were found 0.77 ± 0.07 and 0.72 ± 0.08 for experimental group and 0.78 ± 0.07 and 0.73 ± 0.11 for control group, respectively. Statistically significant differences were obtained before and after intervention in both groups (P ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The herbal toothpaste was as effective as the conventionally formulated fluoride dentifrice in controlling plaque and gingivitis.

  17. Plaque echodensity and textural features are associated with histologic carotid plaque instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Robert J; Gorgui, Jessica; Veinot, Jean P; Lai, Chi; Kyriacou, Efthyvoulos; Corriveau, Marc M; Steinmetz, Oren K; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2016-09-01

    Carotid plaque echodensity and texture features predict cerebrovascular symptomatology. Our purpose was to determine the association of echodensity and textural features obtained from a digital image analysis (DIA) program with histologic features of plaque instability as well as to identify the specific morphologic characteristics of unstable plaques. Patients scheduled to undergo carotid endarterectomy were recruited and underwent carotid ultrasound imaging. DIA was performed to extract echodensity and textural features using Plaque Texture Analysis software (LifeQ Medical Ltd, Nicosia, Cyprus). Carotid plaque surgical specimens were obtained and analyzed histologically. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce imaging variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine if PCA variables and individual imaging variables predicted histologic features of plaque instability. Image analysis data from 160 patients were analyzed. Individual imaging features of plaque echolucency and homogeneity were associated with a more unstable plaque phenotype on histology. These results were independent of age, sex, and degree of carotid stenosis. PCA reduced 39 individual imaging variables to five PCA variables. PCA1 and PCA2 were significantly associated with overall plaque instability on histology (both P = .02), whereas PCA3 did not achieve statistical significance (P = .07). DIA features of carotid plaques are associated with histologic plaque instability as assessed by multiple histologic features. Importantly, unstable plaques on histology appear more echolucent and homogeneous on ultrasound imaging. These results are independent of stenosis, suggesting that image analysis may have a role in refining the selection of patients who undergo carotid endarterectomy. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PET/CT for atherosclerotic plaque imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Haim, S.; Technion Institute of Technology, Haifa; Israel, O.; Rambam Medical Center, Haifa

    2006-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Rupture of atherosclerotic plaques and thrombi formation are the primary mechanisms of myocardial infarction or cerebrovascular accident. Angiography is considered to represent the gold standard technique for imaging of the arterial lumen. However, in recent years it has been realized that the primary determinant of the atherosclerotic plaque stability is the composition of the plaque and other imaging modalities have been suggested. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the knowledge accumulated to present date regarding the potential role of fluo deoxyglucose imaging in the assessment of atherosclerosis and to compare this modality to additional available imaging approaches for the detection of vulnerable plaques

  19. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  20. The Influence of Pregnancy on Sweet Taste Perception and Plaque Acidogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbul, H; Ashi, H; Aljahdali, E; Campus, G; Lingström, P

    2017-05-01

    Objectives Women undergo different physiological and oral changes during pregnancy and this may increase the risk of dental caries and other oral diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate changes in biofilm acidogenicity and correlate them to sweet taste perception in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods Three groups of Saudi women participated in this cross-sectional study: (1) women in early pregnancy (n = 40/mean age 29.6 years/DMFT 10.7), (2) women in late pregnancy (n = 40/29.5 years/DMFT 10.8) and (3) non-pregnant women (n = 41/27.7 years/DMFT 12.3). Changes in plaque pH were determined by using colour-coded indicator strips before and after a 1-min rinse with a 10% sucrose solution. A taste perception test determining sweet preference and threshold levels was also performed. Results A significant difference regarding plaque pH was seen between the early, late and non-pregnant women when calculated as the area under the curve (p pregnant women may undergo taste changes and experience lower plaque pH, which may result in an increased risk of dental caries.

  1. Effects of food preservatives on growth and metabolism of plaque bacteria in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leikanger, S.; Bjertness, E.; Aamdal Scheie, A.

    1992-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the consumption of food preservatives during the last decades, and to study the effect of the preservatives, sorbic and benzoic acid, on growth and glycolysis of oral bacteria in vitro, and on acid formation by dental plaque in vivo. Five consumption reports from the Central Bureau of Statistics of Norway were used to estimate alterations in consumption of staple food containing the two preservatives. A modified broth dilution method was used to determine the MIC values of the preservatives against Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguis. Extracellular 14 C-glycolytic metabolites were studied by HPLC analyses. Plaque-pH measurements were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports were used to assess possible effects on acid production. The consumption reports indicated increased consumption of preservatives. The in vitro testing suggested that legal concentrations of preservatives may inhibit the growth of oral streptococci. However, the preservatives did not inhibit in vitro glycolysis at tested concentrations. In vivo testing with similar concentrations (0.4% w/v) showed a significant effect. A higher concentration (2% w/v potassium sorbate) had a tendency to inhibit acid-formation by dental plaque even more. (au)

  2. Carotid plaque age is a feature of plaque stability inversely related to levels of plasma insulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Hägg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The stability of atherosclerotic plaques determines the risk for rupture, which may lead to thrombus formation and potentially severe clinical complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. Although the rate of plaque formation may be important for plaque stability, this process is not well understood. We took advantage of the atmospheric (14C-declination curve (a result of the atomic bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s to determine the average biological age of carotid plaques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: The cores of carotid plaques were dissected from 29 well-characterized, symptomatic patients with carotid stenosis and analyzed for (14C content by accelerator mass spectrometry. The average plaque age (i.e. formation time was 9.6±3.3 years. All but two plaques had formed within 5-15 years before surgery. Plaque age was not associated with the chronological ages of the patients but was inversely related to plasma insulin levels (p = 0.0014. Most plaques were echo-lucent rather than echo-rich (2.24±0.97, range 1-5. However, plaques in the lowest tercile of plaque age (most recently formed were characterized by further instability with a higher content of lipids and macrophages (67.8±12.4 vs. 50.4±6.2, p = 0.00005; 57.6±26.1 vs. 39.8±25.7, p<0.0005, respectively, less collagen (45.3±6.1 vs. 51.1±9.8, p<0.05, and fewer smooth muscle cells (130±31 vs. 141±21, p<0.05 than plaques in the highest tercile. Microarray analysis of plaques in the lowest tercile also showed increased activity of genes involved in immune responses and oxidative phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show, for the first time, that plaque age, as judge by relative incorporation of (14C, can improve our understanding of carotid plaque stability and therefore risk for clinical complications. Our results also suggest that levels of plasma insulin might be involved in determining carotid plaque age.

  3. PCR detection of four periodontopathogens from subgingival clinical samples Detecção por PCR de quatro periodontopatógenos de pacientes com doença periodontal e de indivíduos sadios

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    Mario Julio Avila-Campos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were identified from subgingival plaque from 50 periodontal patients and 50 healthy subjects. Subgingival clinical samples were collected with sterilized paper points and transported in VMGA III. From all the diluted clinical samples (1:10, DNA was obtained by boiling, and after centrifugation the supernatant was used as template. Specific primers for each bacterial species were used in PCR. PCR amplification was sensitive to identify these organisms. PCR products from each species showed a single band and can be used to identify periodontal organisms from clinical specimens. PCR detection odds ratio values for A. actinomycetemcomitans and B. forsythus were significantly associated with disease showing a higher OR values for B. forsythus (2.97, 95% CI 1.88 - 4.70. These results suggest a strong association among the studied species and the periodontal lesion.Em nosso estudo quatro periodontopatógenos foram isolados e identificados de placas subgengivais de 50 pacientes com doença periodontal e de 50 indivíduos sadios. As placas subgengivais foram coletadas com pontas de papel e transportadas em VMGA III. Foram realizadas diluições seriadas das amostras clínicas (1:10, e os DNA foram obtidos por fervura. Iniciadores específicos para cada bactéria foram usados no PCR. As amplificações mostraram-se sensíveis na identificação de A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, P. gingivalis e F. nucleatum. As reações de PCR produziram bandas específicas para cada espécie e podem ser usadas na identificação desses organismos periodontais diretamente das amostras clínicas. Os valores de odds ratio para a detecção de A. actinomycetemcomitans e B. forsythus foram significativamente associados com a doença periodontal mostrando altos valores de OR para B. forsythus (2,97, 95% CI 1,88 - 4,70. Esses resultados sugerem uma forte associação entre os

  4. Influência do complexo flúor-xilitol no controle da placa dentária e do sangramento gengival em pacientes herbiátricos com aparelho ortodôntico fixo Influence of fluorine-xylitol complex in the dental plaque and gingival bleeding control in herbiatric patients with fixed orthodontic brace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Elias

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos de um dentifrício contendo flúor/xilitol na redução da adesão da placa à estrutura dentária, bem como no índice de sangramento gengival, em portadores de aparelho ortodôntico fixo. METODOLOGIA: foram avaliados 22 jovens, com idade entre 14 e 17 anos. Após a quantificação inicial dos índices, os jovens receberam instruções de escovação e começaram a utilizar somente os dentifrícios da pesquisa. Houve uma divisão aleatória da amostra em dois grupos (A e B. Na primeira semana todos utilizaram um dentifrício padrão e a partir da segunda semana os jovens do grupo A receberam um dentifrício contendo flúor, enquanto os do grupo B receberam um dentifrício contendo o complexo flúor-xilitol, que utilizaram durante vinte e oito dias, quando foram novamente avaliados (T1. Para a segunda fase (T2 houve inversão dos dentifrícios. RESULTADOS: foram comparados os resultados intra-grupo e nos dois grupos houve redução estatisticamente significante entre as fases inicial e T1, inicial e T2 e entre T1 e T2. Já na comparação entre os grupos não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre eles, embora o dentifrício contendo flúor/xilitol tenha proporcionado uma porcentagem de redução do índice de sangramento gengival maior que o dentifrício contendo apenas o fluoreto de sódio, principalmente entre as fases inicial e T2, onde a redução no grupo A foi de 90,13% e no grupo B foi de 78,84%. CONCLUSÃO: a utilização de dentifrícios contendo flúor e xilitol, associada à instrução e motivação, parece ser um recurso bastante promissor para a manutenção da saúde bucal nos pacientes ortodônticos.AIM: to evaluate the effects of a dentifrice containing fluorine/xylitol in the reduction of the adhesion of the plaque to the dental structure, as well as in the gingival bleeding index in patients who had orthodontic braces. METHODS: 22 teenagers, in between 14 and 17 years old were

  5. The prevention of plaque re-growth by toothpastes and solutions containing block copolymers with and without polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, N C; Addy, M; Newcombe, R; Moran, J

    2005-06-01

    Chemicals which have a direct effect at inhibiting or reducing bacterial adherence to tooth surfaces may subsequently inhibit plaque growth and reduce gingival inflammation. This study investigated whether two anti-adherent systems could inhibit plaque re-growth in the mouth when rinsed as a solution or as a toothpaste slurry. A total of 21 subjects took part in a partially blind, seven cell cross-over study which compared the effects on plaque re-growth of a binary system containing block copolymers, a ternary system containing block copolymers and polypeptide, both used as toothpaste slurry rinses, their corresponding solution rinses, a conventional fluoride toothpaste rinse, a positive control chlorhexidine rinse and a negative water control. Following a dental prophylaxis subjects then rinsed with 10 ml of one of the test products for 1 min. twice a day over a 4-day period. Throughout each trial period the subjects were not permitted to use any other forms of oral hygiene. On the fifth day (96 h), the volunteers returned to the clinic, and plaque was assessed by (1) plaque index and (2) plaque area following disclosing with a food dye. The test phase of the trial was repeated for each agent and was followed by a 10-day "washout" period. Essentially neither of the anti-adherent systems inhibited plaque re-growth, whether administered in a toothpaste slurry or solution compared with the controls. If anything, neither of the test pastes were as effective as the marketed commercial paste (pplaque recorded following use of the chlorhexidine rinse was significantly less than that seen with any of the other rinses (pplaque re-growth model, the findings of this study failed to show any benefit in using the anti-adherent systems, either in a rinse or toothpaste, with the aim of inhibiting or reducing plaque formation.

  6. Assessment of plaque regrowth with a probiotic toothpaste containing Lactobacillus paracasei: A spectrophotometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Srinivasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer health benefits on the host. Commonly, most of the organisms ascribed as having probiotic properties belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and milk is the most commonly used vehicle. Objectives: The study was aimed at analyzing the biofilm formation by plaque regrowth method upon the usage of a probiotic toothpaste containing Lactobacillus paracasei by measuring the optical density using a spectrophotometer.Materials and Methods: A commercially available probiotic toothpaste, PerioBiotic (spearmint flavored from the company Designs for Health, has been tested. The toothpaste contains the strain L. paracasei, which has been found to co-aggregate with Streptococcus mutans (MS. The Plaque Glycolysis and Regrowth Method (PGRM was used for the evaluation of the antimicrobial effects on plaque metabolism in vivo. PGRM is based on the observation that natural fasted dental plaque, sampled from different quadrants of the dentition, exhibits similar metabolic and regrowth properties when suspended at equal “biomass” in standardized media. Conclusion: The results suggest that L. paracasei-based toothpaste, PerioBiotic, is effective in the reduction of MSmonospecies biofilm, but the activity appears short lived when high sucrose exposure is administered.

  7. Programa preventivo da cárie dentária baseado no controle mecânico da placa bacteriana em crianças, por meio da profilaxia profissional periódica: Resultados após 25 anos de acompanhamento Dental caries prevention program based on the mechanical control of the bacterial plaque in children, through the periodic professional prophylaxis: Results after 25 years of attendance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Oliveira Lima

    2009-06-01

    program applied for 25 years. METHODS: A total of 640 children of both genders aged 3 to 15 years old participated in the program, which was based on mechanical plaque control by professional prophylaxis with sodium bicarbonate jet on a monthly basis. The incidence of dental caries was investigated by clinical and radiographic examination during attendances. RESULTS: Upon inclusion in the program, the mean age of children was 7.8 years; the mean number of decayed tooth surfaces was 5.3 at the onset and 0.18 at completion of the program. The caries incidence per year was 0.9 surface before the program and 0.03 surface during the program. Children were followed-up in the program for a mean period of 52.68 months, with a mean absence of 0.5 per year. These results demonstrate the success of the program, mainly because it attempts to balance the biodiversity in the oral cavity without the risk of undesirable side effects. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, this seems to be the shortest way to solve the program of dental caries, i.e., mechanical plaque control by monthly professional prophylaxis, since this method may be applied to any child, regardless of the psychomotor and social conditions; it provides the better cost-benefit relationship and agrees with the newest concepts of dental caries and its etiologic factors.

  8. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Variables affecting viral plaque formation in microculture plaque assays using homologous antibody in a liquid overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, A S; Stanton, G J; Green, J A; Baron, S

    1977-05-01

    A liquid antibody microculture plaque assay and the variables that govern its effectiveness are described. The assay is based on the principle that low concentrations of homologous antibody can inhibit secondary plaque formation without inhibiting formation of primary plaques. Thus, clear plaques that followed a linear dose response were produced. The assay was found to be more rapid, less cumbersome, and less expensive than assays using agar overlays and larger tissue culture plates. It was reproducible, quantitative, and had about the same sensitivity as the agar overlay technique in measuring infectious coxsackievirus type B-3. It was more sensitive in assaying adenovirus type 3 and Western equine encephalomyelitis, vesicular stomatitis, Semliki forest, Sendai, Sindbis, and Newcastle disease viruses than were liquid, carboxymethylcellulose, and methylcellulose microculture plaque assays. The variables influencing sensitivity and accuracy, as determined by using coxsackievirus type B-3, were: (i) the inoculum volume of virus; (ii) the incubation period of virus; and (iii) the incubation temperature.

  10. Effectiveness of low cost toothbrushes, with or without dentifrice, in the removal of bacterial plaque in deciduous teeth

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    Parizotto Symonne Pimentel Castro de Oliveira Lima

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a low cost toothbrush ("monoblock" to that of a conventional toothbrush with and without addition of dentifrice with respect to the removal of dental plaque. Thirty-two 4- to 6-year-old children took part in this study: they were evaluated under four experimental conditions defined by the combinations of the values of two factors, toothbrush (conventional or monoblock and use of dentifrice (with or without. The effectiveness of the treatments was defined in terms of the reduction of a bacterial plaque index evaluated before and after toothbrushing. No statistically significant differences were detected between the two types of toothbrushes with respect to the reduction of the bacterial plaque index. Similarly, there were no statistical evidences that the use of dentifrice improves the mechanical control of dental plaque. These results are important from a public health point of view, specially in developing countries, where the dissemination of educational and preventive techniques of low cost are fundamental.

  11. DECT evaluation of noncalcified coronary artery plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravanfar Haghighi, Rezvan [Medical Imaging Research Center and Colorectal Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz 719 363 5899 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chatterjee, S. [BGVS Chemical Engineering Building (Old), Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Tabin, Milo; Singh, Rishi P.; Sharma, Munish; Krishna, Karthik [Department of Forensic Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Sharma, Sanjiv; Jagia, Priya [Department of Cardiac-Radiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Ray, Ruma; Arava, Sudhir [Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Yadav, Rakesh [Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Vani, V. C. [Department of Instrumentation and Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Lakshmi, R.; Kumar, Pratik, E-mail: drpratikkumar@gmail.com [Department of Cardiac-Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India); Mandal, Susama R. [Department of Medical Physics Unit IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029 (India)

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: Composition of the coronary artery plaque is known to have critical role in heart attack. While calcified plaque can easily be diagnosed by conventional CT, it fails to distinguish between fibrous and lipid rich plaques. In the present paper, the authors discuss the experimental techniques and obtain a numerical algorithm by which the electron density (ρ{sub e}) and the effective atomic number (Z{sub eff}) can be obtained from the dual energy computed tomography (DECT) data. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques. Methods: For the purpose of calibration of the CT machine, the authors prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) lie in the range of (2.65 × 10{sup 23} ≤ ρ{sub e} ≤ 3.64 × 10{sup 23}/cm{sup 3}) and (6.80 ≤ Z{sub eff} ≤ 8.90). The authors fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(V{sub 1}) and HU(V{sub 2}), with V{sub 1},V{sub 2} = 100 and 140 kVp, for the same pixels and thus determine the coefficients of inversion that allow us to determine (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) from the DECT data. The HU(100) and HU(140) for the coronary artery plaque are obtained by filling the channel of the coronary artery with a viscous solution of methyl cellulose in water, containing 2% contrast. These (ρ{sub e}, Z{sub eff}) values of the coronary artery plaque are used for their characterization on the basis of theoretical models of atomic compositions of the plaque materials. These results are compared with histopathological report. Results: The authors find that the calibration gives ρ{sub e} with an accuracy of ±3.5% while Z{sub eff} is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%. The HU(100) and HU(140) are found to be considerably different for the same plaque at the same position and there is a linear trend between these two HU values. It is noted that pure lipid type plaques

  12. Approach To Unstable Plaque In Carotid Disease

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    Mojdeh Ghabaee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk of cerebral infarction due to thrombo emboli originating  from carotid artery disease estimated to be near 15%, and this risk  is closely associated with the severity of luminal stenosis. But at the same time characteristics  of the plaque should be taken into account for therapeutic planning when the patient is asymptomatic and the diameter of the stenosis does not reach the threshold of 70%. Search for markers of plaque vulnerability, instability, or thromboembolic potential as complementary to the degree of the luminal stenosis in stroke risk prediction should be considered .These morphologic features of carotid plaques are increasingly believed to be one of those markers that could carry further prognostic information, and early recognition of these plaques features may identify a high-risk subgroup of patients who might particularly benefit from aggressive interventions with aggressive medical treatment. Color and duplex Doppler sonography  evaluates both  morphologic and hemodynamic   abnormalitie of carotid. Echogensity, degree of stenosis and plaque surface features are essential parameters of morphological abnormality.

  13. Pyrosequencing of Plaque Microflora In Twin Children with Discordant Caries Phenotypes.

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    Meng Zhang

    Full Text Available Despite recent successes in the control of dental caries, the mechanism of caries development remains unclear. To investigate the causes of dental decay, especially in early childhood caries, the supragingival microflora composition of 20 twins with discordant caries phenotypes were analyzed using high-throughput pyrosequencing. In addition, the parents completed a lifestyle questionnaire. A total of 228,789 sequencing reads revealed 10 phyla, 84 genera, and 155 species of microflora, the relative abundances of these strains varied dramatically among the children, Comparative analysis between groups revealed that Veillonella, Corynebacterium and Actinomyces were presumed to be caries-related genera, Fusobacterium, Kingella and Leptotrichia were presumed to be healthy-related genus, yet this six genera were not statistically significant (P>0.05. Moreover, a cluster analysis revealed that the microbial composition of samples in the same group was often dissimilar but that the microbial composition observed in twins was usually similar. Although the genetic and environmental factors that strongly influence the microbial composition of dental caries remains unknown, we speculate that genetic factors primarily influence the individual's susceptibility to dental caries and that environmental factors primarily regulate the microbial composition of the dental plaque and the progression to caries. By using improved twins models and increased sample sizes, our study can be extended to analyze the specific genetic and environmental factors that affect the development of caries.

  14. Assessment of vulnerable plaque composition by matching the deformation of a parametric plaque model to measured plaque deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldewsing, Radj A; Schaar, Johannes A; Mastik, Frits; Oomens, Cees W J; van der Steen, Antonius F W

    2005-04-01

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) elastography visualizes local radial strain of arteries in so-called elastograms to detect rupture-prone plaques. However, due to the unknown arterial stress distribution these elastograms cannot be directly interpreted as a morphology and material composition image. To overcome this limitation we have developed a method that reconstructs a Young's modulus image from an elastogram. This method is especially suited for thin-cap fibroatheromas (TCFAs), i.e., plaques with a media region containing a lipid pool covered by a cap. Reconstruction is done by a minimization algorithm that matches the strain image output, calculated with a parametric finite element model (PFEM) representation of a TCFA, to an elastogram by iteratively updating the PFEM geometry and material parameters. These geometry parameters delineate the TCFA media, lipid pool and cap regions by circles. The material parameter for each region is a Young's modulus, EM, EL, and EC, respectively. The method was successfully tested on computer-simulated TCFAs (n = 2), one defined by circles, the other by tracing TCFA histology, and additionally on a physical phantom (n = 1) having a stiff wall (measured EM = 16.8 kPa) with an eccentric soft region (measured EL = 4.2 kPa). Finally, it was applied on human coronary plaques in vitro (n = 1) and in vivo (n = 1). The corresponding simulated and measured elastograms of these plaques showed radial strain values from 0% up to 2% at a pressure differential of 20, 20, 1, 20, and 1 mmHg respectively. The used/reconstructed Young's moduli [kPa] were for the circular plaque EL = 50/66, EM = 1500/1484, EC = 2000/2047, for the traced plaque EL = 25/1, EM = 1000/1148, EC = 1500/1491, for the phantom EL = 4.2/4 kPa, EM = 16.8/16, for the in vitro plaque EL = n.a./29, EM = n.a./647, EC = n.a./1784 kPa and for the in vivo plaque EL = n.a./2, EM = n.a./188, Ec = n.a./188 kPa.

  15. Correlation between plaque control and gingival health using short and extended oral hygiene intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De David, S C; Mário, T G; De Freitas, G C; Kantorski, K Z; Wikesjö, U M E; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate the correlation between dental plaque formation and gingival health in subjects performing high oral hygiene standards over short or extended intervals. Fifty-two non-dental students volunteered for this study. The subjects, trained to perform high oral hygiene standards, were randomized to perform oral hygiene at 12-, 24-, 48-, or 72-h interval over 30 days. The plaque index (PlI) and the gingival index (GI) were evaluated at baseline, 15, and 30 days. For the statistical analysis, oral hygiene intervals were collapsed into daily (12 and 24 h; G12/24) and extended (48 and 72 h; G48/72) intervals. Summary statistics (mean ± SD) and Spearman correlations between the PlI and the GI at baseline, 15, and 30 days were estimated. At baseline, correlation coefficients between PlI and GI were positive for both groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.25). At day 15 and 30, correlation was maintained with similar baseline values for the G48/72 group. GI levels did not increase despite an increase in PlI for the G12/24 group, and the correlation was lower than that observed at baseline (r = 0.13 vs. r = 0.29). In subjects with high oral hygiene standards, the oral hygiene frequency governs the correlation between dental plaque formation and gingival health. Subjects performing high oral hygiene standards at daily intervals will maintain gingival health in difference to subjects using extended hygiene intervals. Subjects performing high oral hygiene standards at daily intervals will maintain gingival health in difference to subjects using extended hygiene intervals.

  16. Dental calculus formation in children and adolescents undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carla; Siqueira, Walter Luiz; Oliveira, Elizabeth; Nicolau, José; Primo, Laura Guimarães

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to determine whether dental calculus formation is really higher among patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing hemodialysis than among controls. Furthermore, the study evaluated correlations between dental calculus formation and dental plaque, variables that are related to renal disease and/or saliva composition. The Renal Group was composed of 30 patients undergoing hemodialysis, whereas the Healthy Group had 30 clinically healthy patients. Stimulated whole saliva and parotid saliva were collected. Salivary flow rate and calcium and phosphate concentrations were determined. In the Renal Group the saliva collection was carried out before and after a hemodialysis session. Patients from both groups received intraoral exams, oral hygiene instructions, and dental scaling. Three months later, the dental calculus was measured by the Volpe-Manhold method to determine the rate of dental calculus formation. The Renal Group presented a higher rate of dental calculus formation (p dental calculus formation and whole saliva flow rate in the Renal Group after a hemodialysis session (r = 0.44, p dental calculus was associated with phosphate concentration in whole saliva from the Renal Group (p dental calculus formation, probably due to salivary variables.

  17. Assessing the acidity and total sugar content of four different commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children and its time-dependent effect on plaque and salivary pH

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Jha; G Radha; R Rekha; S K Pallavi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Sugared beverages such as cola, packaged juice, are known for cariogenicity their intake leads to the immediate drop in plaque and salivary pH, which can be an etiologic factor for dental caries. Objective: The objective was to assess the endogenous acidity and total sugar content of four commercially available beverages commonly consumed by children in India and its effect on salivary and plaque pH. Materials and Methods: A crossover controlled trial was conducted. 60 randomly ...

  18. Dental OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Petra; Otis, Linda; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhongping

    This chapter describes the applications of OCT for imaging in vivo dental and oral tissue. The oral cavity is a diverse environment that includes oral mucosa, gingival tissues, teeth and their supporting structures. Because OCT can image both hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity at high resolution, it offers the unique capacity to identity dental disease before destructive changes have progressed. OCT images depict clinically important anatomical features such as the location of soft tissue attachments, morphological changes in gingival tissue, tooth decay, enamel thickness and decay, as well as the structural integrity of dental restorations. OCT imaging allows for earlier intervention than is possible with current diagnostic modalities.

  19. Subgingival calculus imaging based on swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Sheng; Ho, Yi-Ching; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lu, Chih-Wei; Jiang, Cho-Pei; Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Wang, Chun-Yang; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2011-07-01

    We characterized and imaged dental calculus using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). The refractive indices of enamel, dentin, cementum, and calculus were measured as 1.625 +/- 0.024, 1.534 +/- 0.029, 1.570 +/- 0.021, and 2.097 +/- 0.094, respectively. Dental calculus leads strong scattering properties, and thus, the region can be identified from enamel with SS-OCT imaging. An extracted human tooth with calculus is covered with gingiva tissue as an in vitro sample for tomographic imaging.

  20. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 44. Competency Curriculum for Dental Assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-08-31

    Apply medication/treat carious lesion g. Irrigate pericoroniti3 h. Drain periodontal abscess i. Apply temporary sedative crown to fractured tooth J...TASKS a. Educate patients regarding relationship of plaque, caries, periodontal disease and oral health b. Instruct patient in use of plaque...microorganisms, caries Causes and effects of periodontal disease 35 I| Competency: DENTAL ASSISTANT (DA) Unit: Preventive Dentistry ( MODULE 3: ORAL

  1. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

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    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R. (Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (USA))

    1991-08-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 {times} 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications.

  2. Cobalt60 plaques in recurrent retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fass, D.; McCormick, B.; Abramson, D.; Ellsworth, R.

    1991-01-01

    Cobalt60 plaque irradiation is one treatment option for patients with recurrent retinoblastoma following conventional external beam irradiation (ERT). Tumorocidal doses can be delivered without excessive risk of normal tissue injury. In patients not considered candidates for xenon arc or cryotherapy, 60Co is an alternative to enucleation. Between 1968 and 1987, 85 patients were treated with 60Co plaques, 72 of whom had failed prior ERT. Age at diagnosis ranged from 1 week to 4 years. There are 37 males and 35 females. Seventy-one patients had bilateral disease and one had unilateral. Three patients had both eyes plaqued. Prior ERT ranged from 30 to 70 Gy (mean 4200 Gy). Time from initial therapy to failure ranged from 13 to 60 months. Cobalt plaques of 10 mm, 15 mm, or 10 x 15 mm were used depending on tumor size and location. Dose prescribed to the apex of the tumor ranged from 30 to 50 Gy (median 40 Gy) given over 3 to 8 days. Twelve patients had two plaque applications; three patients had three plaque applications. All patients were followed with routine ophthalmoscopic examinations. Follow-up ranged from 2 to 22 years (mean 8.7). Seven patients died of metastatic disease; 10 patients developed non-ocular second tumors. Thirty patients required enucleation. Twenty-two patients had clear tumor progression, two patients had radiation complications, and six patients had a combination of tumor growth and complications. Cobalt60 can salvage eyes in retinoblastoma patients failing ERT. Currently, the authors are using I125 in an attempt to spare normal ocular tissue and reduce subsequent complications

  3. Plaque, gingival bleeding and calculus formation after supragingival scaling with and without polishing: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanatta, Fabricio Batistin; Pinto, Tatiana Militz; Kantorski, Karla Zanini; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of polishing after scaling and root planing on supragingival plaque, calculus formation, and gingival bleeding. The study was designed as a split-mouth randomised clinical trial. Seventy-six patients were submitted to supragingival scaling on the six mandibular anterior teeth with manual curettes until a smooth surface was achieved. Subsequently, quadrants were randomly selected to be polished (test) or not (control) with a rubber cup and pumice. One, two and three weeks following treatment, a blinded examiner evaluated the visible plaque index, gingival bleeding index and the presence of supragingival calculus on the lingual tooth surfaces. The results showed that unpolished surfaces exhibited higher mean percentages of visible plaque in the third week. No statistically significant differences were observed between unpolished and polished sites related to gingival bleeding. Calculus formation was higher on unpolished sites than on polished sites at 2 and 3 weeks. Dental polishing after supragingival scaling contributed to reducing plaque and calculus formation. Polishing exerts an inhibitory effect on plaque and calculus formation.

  4. Influence of Peri-Implant Soft Tissue Condition and Plaque Accumulation on Peri-Implantitis: a Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Pranskunas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To systematically examine influence of soft tissue condition and plaque accumulation around dental implants on peri-implantitis development. Material and Methods: An electronic literature search was conducted of two databases - MEDLINE (Ovid and EMBASE from 2011 to 2016. Sequential screenings at the title, abstract, and full-text levels were performed. Clinical human studies in the English language that had reported soft tissue condition or plaque accumulation influence on peri-implantitis development were included. The resulting articles were independently subjected to clear inclusion and exclusion criteria by two reviewers as follows. Results: The search resulted in 8 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies reported gingival index, plaque index, pocket depth, bleeding on probing/modified bleeding index for sites with “adequate” (≥ 2 mm and “inadequate” (< 2 mm width of keratinized mucosa. Results demonstrated that the amount of keratinized mucosa has little influence on soft-tissue inflammation in the presence of good oral hygiene. However, suboptimal oral hygiene due to difficulty in access for plaque control in the areas of minimal keratinized mucosa may lead to greater tissue damage. Conclusions: In cases with insufficient keratinized gingiva in the vicinity of implants, the insufficiency does not necessarily mediate adverse effects on the hygiene management and soft tissue health condition. Nonetheless, the risk of the increase of gingival index, plaque index, pocket depth, bleeding on probing/modified bleeding index is present. Therefore, the presence of an appropriate amount of keratinized gingiva is required.

  5. Relation between diagnosis of atheromatous plaque from orthopantomographs and cardiovascular risk factors. A study of cases and control subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Bonet, Carmen; Leco-Berrocal, Isabel; Fernández-Cáliz, Fernando; Martínez-González, José-María

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years the use of orthopantomography has been proposed as a low-cost, reliable and non-invasive diagnostic medium for detecting atheromatous plaque. The purpose of this study was to correlate the presence of carotid calcifications (atheroma) in orthopantomographs with specific risk factors for cerebrovascular accidents (previous cerebrovascular accidents, arterial hypertension, and diabetes). Material and Methods The methods used in this observational study of cases and control subjects followed STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology) recommendations. The study analyzed a total of 1,602 panoramic radiographs taken for dental diagnostic purposes between January 2010 and February 2014. The main variables analyzed were the incidence of atheromatous plaque and other cardiovascular risk factors. Epidat 3.1 statistical software was used to determine minimum sample sizes and the results were analyzed using PASW (Predictive Analytics Software) Statistics 10.0.0. Results For all the variables analyzed, the correlation between radiographic detection of atheromatous plaque and the presence of cardiovascular disease risk factors was found to be statistically significant (RR>1.5). Conclusions The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to the incidence of radiopaque lesions at the carotid artery bifurcation, indicating the presence of atheromatous plaque. Key words:Orthopantomography, atheromatous plaque, cerebrovascular accident, diabetes, arterial hypertension. PMID:26595828

  6. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of chlorhexidine and combination mouth rinse in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi S Lakade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The removal of plaque is utmost important to control dental caries. But in children, factors like lack of dexterity, individual motivation and monitoring limit the effectiveness of tooth brushing. This necessitates the use of chemotherapeutic agents for control of plaque. Aims: To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 0.2% chlorhexidine mouth rinse and mouth rinse containing 0.03% triclosan, 0.05% sodium fluoride, and 5% xylitol in reducing the Mutans streptococcus count in plaque. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy children aged 8-10 years with dmft (decay component of three or four were selected. They were divided randomly into two groups: The control or chlorhexidine group and the study group or combination mouth rinse. Both the groups practiced rinsing with respective mouth wash for 1 min for 15 d twice a day. The plaque samples were collected and after incubation Mutans streptococcus count was estimated on the strips from the Dentocult SM kit and evaluated using manufacture′s chart. Statistical Analysis Used: Wilcoxon matched pairs signed ranks test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the findings. Results: Statistically significant reduction in the Mutans streptococci count in the plaque was seen in the control and study group from baseline level. But when both the groups were compared, the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine was more.

  7. Mass transfer of therapeutics through natural human plaque biofilms: a model for therapeutic delivery to pathological bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Colin

    2011-09-01

    Bacterial biofilms in the mouth are prime mediators of the destruction of the dental and oral tissues. This brief review summarises recent work using a device for generating intact plaque in the mouth on natural enamel surfaces such that quantitative studies of mass transfer through natural plaque biofilms could be carried out in relation to plaque architecture. This data is discussed against the background of existing information. The device revealed complex plaque architecture with high a surface area to mass ratio decreasing from the exterior of the biofilm towards the tissue surface. Fluoride, a potent inhibitor of caries was concentrated in the outer regions of the biofilm. This implies some restriction of diffusion and possibly binding to the high surface area of the outer biofilm. Whilst all components examined conformed to this distribution pattern, some relatively uncharged materials penetrated the bacterial biomass whilst other, more highly charged materials tended to be restricted to the channels or biomass surface. Plaque architecture was robust but could be altered using detergent indicating that biomass architecture and chemistry could be manipulated as a possible means of facilitating mass transport of therapeutics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma

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    Daniel J. Scanderbeg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

  9. Atherosclerotic plaque rupture and thrombosis. Evolving concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, V; Stein, B; Ambrose, J A; Badimon, L; Badimon, J J; Chesebro, J H

    1990-09-01

    Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque associated with partial or complete thrombotic vessel occlusion is fundamental to the development of ischemic coronary syndromes. Plaques that produce only mild-to-moderate angiographic luminal stenosis are frequently those that undergo abrupt disruption, leading to unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction. Plaques with increased lipid content appear more prone to rupture, particularly when the lipid pool is localized eccentrically within the intima. Macrophages appear to play an important role in atherogenesis, perhaps by participating in the uptake and metabolism of lipoproteins, secretion of growth factors, and production of enzymes and toxic metabolites that may facilitate plaque rupture. In addition, the particular composition or configuration of a plaque and the hemodynamic forces to which it is exposed may determine its susceptibility to disruption. Exposure of collagen, lipids, and smooth muscle cells after plaque rupture leads to the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade system. The resulting thrombus may lead to marked reduction in myocardial perfusion and the development of an unstable coronary syndrome, or it may become organized and incorporated into the diseased vessel, thus contributing to the progression of atherosclerosis. In unstable angina, plaque disruption leads to thrombosis, which is usually labile and results in only a transient reduction in myocardial perfusion. Release of vasoactive substances, arterial spasm, or increases in myocardial oxygen demand may contribute to ischemia. In acute myocardial infarction, plaque disruption results in a more persistent thrombotic vessel occlusion; the extent of necrosis depends on the size of the artery, the duration of occlusion, the presence of collateral flow, and the integrity of the fibrinolytic system. Thrombi that undergo lysis expose a highly thrombogenic surface to the circulating blood, which has the capacity of activating platelets and

  10. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Her