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Sample records for subgingival bacterial samples

  1. Reproducibility of subgingival bacterial samples from patients with peri-implant mucositis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallström, Hadar; Persson, G Rutger; Strömberg, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    collected with paper points and analyzed using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Whole genomic probes of 74 preselected bacterial species were used. Based on the bacterial scores, Cohen's kappa coefficient was used to calculate the inter-annotator agreement for categorical data...

  2. Subgingival bacterial colonization profiles correlate with gingival tissue gene expression

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    Handfield Martin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the microbiota of the periodontal pocket. We investigated the association between subgingival bacterial profiles and gene expression patterns in gingival tissues of patients with periodontitis. A total of 120 patients undergoing periodontal surgery contributed with a minimum of two interproximal gingival papillae (range 2-4 from a maxillary posterior region. Prior to tissue harvesting, subgingival plaque samples were collected from the mesial and distal aspects of each tissue sample. Gingival tissue RNA was extracted, reverse-transcribed, labeled, and hybridized with whole-genome microarrays (310 in total. Plaque samples were analyzed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridizations with respect to 11 bacterial species. Random effects linear regression models considered bacterial levels as exposure and expression profiles as outcome variables. Gene Ontology analyses summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Results Wide inter-species variation was noted in the number of differentially expressed gingival tissue genes according to subgingival bacterial levels: Using a Bonferroni correction (p -7, 9,392 probe sets were differentially associated with levels of Tannerella forsythia, 8,537 with Porphyromonas gingivalis, 6,460 with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, 506 with Eikenella corrodens and only 8 with Actinomyces naeslundii. Cluster analysis identified commonalities and differences among tissue gene expression patterns differentially regulated according to bacterial levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the microbial content of the periodontal pocket is a determinant of gene expression in the gingival tissues and provide new insights into the differential ability of periodontal species to elicit a local host response.

  3. Comparison of subgingival bacterial sampling with oral lavage for detection and quantification of periodontal pathogens by real-time polymerase chain reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutaga, Khalil; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.; Winkel, Edwin G.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    Background: Saliva has been studied for the presence of subgingival pathogens in periodontitis patients. With the anaerobic culture technique, the discrepancy between salivary recovery and subgingival presence has been significant, which makes this approach not suitable for practical use in the

  4. Microbial profile comparisons of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in periodontitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Sembler-Møller, Maria Lynn; Grande, Maria Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare microbial profiles of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in patients with periodontitis. We tested the hypotheses that saliva can be an alternative to pooled subgingival samples, when screening for presence of periopathogens....... DESIGN: Site specific subgingival plaque samples (n = 54), pooled subgingival plaque samples (n = 18) and stimulated saliva samples (n = 18) were collected from 18 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. Subgingival and salivary microbiotas were characterized by means of HOMINGS (Human Oral...... to an AUC of 0.76 (sensitivity: 0.56, specificity: 0.94) in pooled subgingival samples. CONCLUSIONS: Site-specific presence of periodontal pathogens was detected with comparable accuracy in stimulated saliva samples and pooled subgingival plaque samples. Consequently, saliva may be a reasonable surrogate...

  5. Microbial profile comparisons of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in periodontitis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Sembler-Møller, Maria Lynn; Grande, Maria Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    . DESIGN: Site specific subgingival plaque samples (n = 54), pooled subgingival plaque samples (n = 18) and stimulated saliva samples (n = 18) were collected from 18 patients with generalized chronic periodontitis. Subgingival and salivary microbiotas were characterized by means of HOMINGS (Human Oral......OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare microbial profiles of saliva, pooled and site-specific subgingival samples in patients with periodontitis. We tested the hypotheses that saliva can be an alternative to pooled subgingival samples, when screening for presence of periopathogens...... by pooled subgingival samples. Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, Filifactor alocis, Tannerella forsythia and Parvimona micra in site-specific subgingival samples were detected in saliva with an AUC of 0.79 (sensitivity: 0.61, specificity: 0.94), compared...

  6. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from the upper first premolars and first molars using sterilized, UV-treated paper-points inserted into the subgingival sulcus at eight sites. After supragingival cleaning using an electric toothbrush and water, sampling was performed, firstly, excluding (Mode A) and, secondly, including (Mode B) cleansing with sterile cotton pellets. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and primers targeting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions V5 and V6 were used for 454-pyrosequencing. Wilcoxon signed rank test and t -test were applied to compare sampling modes. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and average agglomerative hierarchical clustering were calculated with unweighted UniFrac distance matrices. Sample grouping was tested with permutational MANOVA (Adonis). Results: Data filtering and quality control yielded 67,218 sequences with an average sequence length of 243bp (SD 6.52; range 231-255). Actinobacteria (2.8-24.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.2-25.1%), Proteobacteria (4.9-50.6%), Firmicutes (16.5-57.4%), and Fusobacteria (2.2-17.1%) were the five major phyla found in all samples. Differences in microbial abundances between sampling modes were not evident. High sampling numbers are needed to achieve significance for rare bacterial phyla. Samples taken from one individual using different sampling modes were more similar to each other than to other individuals' samples. PCoA and hierarchical clustering showed a grouping of the paired samples. Permutational MANOVA did not reveal sample grouping by

  7. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from the upper first premolars and first molars using sterilized, UV-treated paper-points inserted into the subgingival sulcus at eight sites. After supragingival cleaning using an electric toothbrush and water, sampling was performed, firstly, excluding (Mode A) and, secondly, including (Mode B) cleansing with sterile cotton pellets. DNA was extracted from the pooled samples, and primers targeting 16S rRNA hypervariable regions V5 and V6 were used for 454-pyrosequencing. Wilcoxon signed rank test and t-test were applied to compare sampling modes. Principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and average agglomerative hierarchical clustering were calculated with unweighted UniFrac distance matrices. Sample grouping was tested with permutational MANOVA (Adonis). Results: Data filtering and quality control yielded 67,218 sequences with an average sequence length of 243bp (SD 6.52; range 231–255). Actinobacteria (2.8–24.6%), Bacteroidetes (9.2–25.1%), Proteobacteria (4.9–50.6%), Firmicutes (16.5–57.4%), and Fusobacteria (2.2–17.1%) were the five major phyla found in all samples. Differences in microbial abundances between sampling modes were not evident. High sampling numbers are needed to achieve significance for rare bacterial phyla. Samples taken from one individual using different sampling modes were more similar to each other than to other individuals' samples. PCoA and hierarchical clustering showed a grouping of the paired samples. Permutational MANOVA did not reveal sample

  8. Sampling Modification Effects in the Subgingival Microbiome Profile of Healthy Children

    OpenAIRE

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Trajanoski, Slave; Eberhard, Katharina; Klug, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Background: Oral microbiota are considered major players in the development of periodontal diseases. Thorough knowledge of intact subgingival microbiomes is required to elucidate microbial shifts from health to disease. Aims: This comparative study investigated the subgingival microbiome of healthy children, possible inter- and intra-individual effects of modified sampling, and basic comparability of subgingival microprints. Methods: In five 10-year-old children, biofilm was collected from th...

  9. Medición de cambios cuantitativos de la microbiota subgingival posterior a la remoción de placa bacteriana supragingival Measurement of quantitative changes of the microbiota subgingival after to removal of bacterial plaque supragingival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Godoy

    2010-04-01

    possible that the microorganisms responsible for the origin and progression of the disease periodontal that live on the margin gingival (supragingival and under this (subgingival they have a direct relation that allows to support influential interactions in the growth and development of the different bacterial species that they live in the tissue periodontal.Therefore having removed the microorganisms that are located supragingivalmente would be possible to find changes in the way subgingival when an exchange not to exist between the aerobic environments (supragingival and anaerobic (subgingival once disorganized the bacterial plate supragingival. To demonstrate this relation 7 individuals selected with diagnosis of periodontitis chronicle moderate and severe to which they there was realized a destartraje supragingival of complete mouth to achieve supragingival to disorganize the bacterial plate. In turn microbiological samples of the sacks took periodontales deeper of every quadrant of these individuals, being the first taken sample before the destartraje supragingival considered as sample basal (the 0th, then they took at to 1, 7 and 21 days of removed the bacterial plate supragingival anaerobios (subgingival once disorganized the bacterial plate supragingival Of the results of the present study we could conclude that on having disorganized the biofilm supragingival a decrease is observed in the total quantity of microorganisms subgingivales, as well as also it diminishes in a considerable way the proportion of present Porphyoromona gingivalis in the way subgingival. Which would lead to thinking that there exists a direct and dependent relation between the microorganisms that live the way supragingival and subgingival.

  10. Comparison of real-time PCR and culture for detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutaga, Khalil; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2003-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in destructive periodontal disease in humans. Detection and quantification of this microorganism are relevant for diagnosis and treatment planning. The prevalence and quantity of P. gingivalis in subgingival plaque samples of periodontitis patients were

  11. Shifts of subgingival bacterial population after nonsurgical and pharmacological therapy of localized aggressive periodontitis, followed for 1 year by Ion Torrent PGM platform.

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    Campisciano, Giuseppina; Toschetti, Annamaria; Comar, Manola; Taranto, Rosanna Di; Berton, Federico; Stacchi, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of targeting the hypervariable region V3 of the 16S rRNA gene using Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) could provide a complete analysis of subgingival plaque samples, potentially able to identify microbiological species missed by culture-based methods. A 16-year-old female smoker patient, affected by localized aggressive periodontitis, underwent a full-mouth disinfection protocol and was inserted in a 3-month recall program. Microbiological samples were collected at baseline and at 30, 100, 365 days follow-up and analyzed by Ion Torrent PGM. Capnocytophaga, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, and Treponema were the most represented pathogens at baseline. Nonsurgical treatment and systemic antibiotics drastically lowered the anaerobic species, and their presence remained limited after 100 days, while a consistent recolonization by anaerobic bacteria was detected at 365 days. The patient showed a general improvement of periodontal conditions. Differently from polymerase chain reaction and other microarray techniques, Ion Torrent performs a quantitative analysis of the microbiota, irrespective of the searched species. An accurate definition of the shifts of the bacterial community might help periodontal researchers for a better understanding of the impact of different treatment approaches or in intercepting nonresponsive conditions.

  12. The profile of Porphyromonas gingivalis kgp biotype and fimA genotype mosaic in subgingival plaque samples.

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    Nadkarni, Mangala A; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Chapple, Cheryl C; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Hunter, Neil

    2014-12-01

    Combined analysis of allelic variation of the virulence-associated, strain-specific lys-gingipain gene (kgp) and major fimbrial gene (fimA) of Porphyromonas gingivalis was undertaken in 116 subgingival plaque samples to understand the kgp biotype and fimA genotype profile in a subject-specific manner. Allelic variation in the polyadhesin domain of kgp from P. gingivalis strains 381 (ATCC 33277), HG66 and W83 generated four isoforms corresponding to four biotypes of P. gingivalis. Similarly, variation in the fimA subunit of the fimA gene cluster of P. gingivalis resulted in six fimA genotypes. Strain-specific differential PCR was performed for kgp and fimA using DNA isolated from subgingival plaque samples. Our findings demonstrate that all of the P. gingivalis kgp biotypes detected in this study were predominantly associated with the fimA II genotype. Dominance of kgp biotypes 381 or HG66 combined with fimA II fimbriae could imply an adaptive strategy by P. gingivalis to generate the fittest strains for survival in the host environment. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of EBV, CMV and HSV-1 in subgingival samples of HIV positive and negative patients with chronic periodontitis.

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    Laura Escalona

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the presence of infection by EBV (Epstein-Barr Virus, CMV (Cytomegalovirus and HSV-1 (Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 in subgingival samples from HIV- positive patients under HAART (High Activity Antiretroviral Therapy, HIV- positive patients without HAART, HIV-negative patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy controls. Methodology: Crevicular fluid samples of 11 HIV+ patients on therapy were evaluated, 6 without antiretroviral therapy, 7 HIV- negative subjects with chronic periodontitis and 7 periodontally-healthy controls. PI (Plaque index, GI (Gingival Index, PD (probing depth and CAL (Clinical Attachment Loss were registered at six sites per each tooth in all teeth and subgingival plaque samples of a tooth were collected per quadrant. Nested PCR was used to detect EBV and endpoint PCR to detect infection by CMV and HSV-1. Results: Clinical parameters showed statistically significant differences between HIV-positive patients and subjects with chronic periodontitis compared with the control group (p<0.05. DNA of EBV was detected mainly in HIV-positive patients under HAART, 91% (10/11. DNA of CMV was detected mainly in patients without HAART, 67% (4/6, while HSV-1 was observed in 27% (3/11 of patients under HAART. In the control group no virus was detected. Coinfection was observed in 50% of HIV patients without HAART, 36% of HIV patients with HAART and 14% of HIV-negative with chronic periodontitis. Conclusion: Viral infection was prevalent in HIV patients under HAART and EBV was the primary viral infection detected in HIV-positive patients with chronic periodontitis.

  14. Effect of cigarette smoking on subgingival bacteria in healthy subjects and patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasneh, Jumana A; Al Habashneh, Rola A; Marzouka, Nour Aldain S; Thornhill, Martin H

    2017-03-21

    Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of periodontal destruction and developing chronic periodontitis (CP). It is also reported to affect the subgingival bacterial profile among CP patients. However, studies on the effect of smoking on the bacterial profile among healthy subjects are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on the subgingival bacterial profile in both healthy adults and CP patients. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from CP patients (30 nonsmokers and 9 smokers) and healthy subjects (37 non-smokers and 18 smokers). Genomic DNA was extracted and 25 bacterial species were detected using PCR of 16S rRNA. Comparing smokers to non-smokers from each group was conducted using chi2 and binary logistic regression analysis. After correcting for confounding factors, the odds of having Slackia exigua, Selenomonas sputigena and Campylobacter rectus was higher among healthy smokers (ORadj = 10.1, 6.62 and 5.62 respectively). While for CP group, the highest odds were observed for Treponema amylovorum, Treponema medium, Slackia exigua and Treponema vincentii (ORadj = 20.7, 7.97, 6.37 and 5.37 respectively) and the increase in Treponema amylovorum was statistically significant (p = 0.05). Smoking affects the subgingival bacterial profile in healthy individuals and is responsible for the depletion of beneficial bacteria and the increase in periodontopathogenic bacteria. In the CP patient group, our study suggests that subgingival bacteria (particularly Treponema species) make a more substantial contribution in the etiology of CP among non-smokers. Further studies using a larger sample set and more sensitive and quantitative techniques (such as real -time PCR) are needed to enhance our understanding of the exact effect of smoking on subgingival biofilm.

  15. The microbial community shifts of subgingival plaque in patients with generalized aggressive periodontitis following non-surgical periodontal therapy: a pilot study.

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    Han, Jing; Wang, Peng; Ge, Shaohua

    2017-02-07

    The object of this study is to characterize the bacterial community of subgingival plaque of two subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP) pre- and post-treatment. We picked two patients with GAgP and used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing. V4 hypervariable region was picked for PCR amplification of subgingival samples. Then, the PCR products were sequenced through Illumina MiSeq platform. One month after therapy, both the clinical features and periodontal parameters improved obviously. Moreover, the composition and structure of subgingival bacterial community changed after initial periodontal therapy. Also, the composition of the subgingival microbiota was highly individualized among different patients. Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetes and Fusobacteria were related to pathogenicity of GAgP while Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria seemed associated with clinical symptoms resolution. In this study, we found the subgingival bacterial community was high in species richness but dominated by a few species or phylotypes, with significant shifts of microbiota that occurred after treatment. This study demonstrated the shift of the subgingival bacterial community before and after treatment by high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing, and provided a concise method for analysis of microbial community for periodontal diseases.

  16. Medición de cambios cuantitativos de la microbiota subgingival posterior a la remoción de placa bacteriana supragingival Measurement of quantitative changes of the microbiota subgingival after to removal of bacterial plaque supragingival

    OpenAIRE

    C Godoy; C Melej; N Silva

    2010-01-01

    Uno de los campos de interés en el estudio de la microbiología periodontal para muchos investigadores ha sido identificar si es posible que los microorganismos responsables del origen y progresión de la enfermedad periodontal que habitan sobre el margen gingival (supragingival) y bajo este (subgingival) tengan una relación directa que permita mantener interacciones influyentes en el crecimiento y desarrollo de las diferentes especies bacterianas que habitan en los tejidos periodontales. Por l...

  17. Subgingival microbiome in smokers and non-smokers in Korean chronic periodontitis patients.

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    Moon, J-H; Lee, J-H; Lee, J-Y

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is a major environmental factor associated with periodontal diseases. However, we still have a very limited understanding of the relationship between smoking and subgingival microflora in the global population. Here, we investigated the composition of subgingival bacterial communities from the pooled plaque samples of smokers and non-smokers, 134 samples in each group, in Korean patients with moderate chronic periodontitis using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing. A total of 17,927 reads were analyzed and classified into 12 phyla, 126 genera, and 394 species. Differences in bacterial communities between smokers and non-smokers were examined at all phylogenetic levels. The genera Fusobacterium, Fretibacterium, Streptococcus, Veillonella, Corynebacterium, TM7, and Filifactor were abundant in smokers. On the other hand, Prevotella, Campylobacter, Aggregatibacter, Veillonellaceae GQ422718, Haemophilus, and Prevotellaceae were less abundant in smokers. Among species-level taxa occupying > 1% of whole subgingival microbiome of smokers, higher abundance (≥ 2.0-fold compared to non-smokers) of seven species or operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was found: Fusobacterium nucleatum, Neisseria sicca, Neisseria oralis, Corynebacterium matruchotii, Veillonella dispar, Filifactor alocis, and Fretibacterium AY349371. On the other hand, lower abundance of 11 species or OTUs was found in smokers: Neisseria elongata, six Prevotella species or OTUs, Fusobacterium canifelinum, Aggregatibacter AM420165, Selenomonas OTU, and Veillonellaceae GU470897. Species richness and evenness were similar between the groups whereas diversity was greater in smokers than non-smokers. Collectively, the results of the present study indicate that differences exist in the subgingival bacterial community between smoker and non-smoker patients with chronic moderate periodontitis in Korea, suggesting that cigarette smoking considerably affects subgingival bacterial ecology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons

  18. Effect of cigarette smoking on subgingival bacteria in healthy subjects and patients with chronic periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Karasneh, Jumana,; Al Habashneh, Rola ,; Marzouka, Nour Aldain,; Thornhill, Martin,

    2016-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of periodontal destruction and developing chronic periodontitis (CP). It is also reported to affect the subgingival bacterial profile among CP patients. However, studies on the effect of smoking on the bacterial profile among healthy subjects are still limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of smoking on the subgingival bacterial profile in both healthy adults and CP patients. Methods Subgingival plaqu...

  19. PCR detection of four periodontopathogens from subgingival clinical samples Detecção por PCR de quatro periodontopatógenos de pacientes com doença periodontal e de indivíduos sadios

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    Mario Julio Avila-Campos

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum were identified from subgingival plaque from 50 periodontal patients and 50 healthy subjects. Subgingival clinical samples were collected with sterilized paper points and transported in VMGA III. From all the diluted clinical samples (1:10, DNA was obtained by boiling, and after centrifugation the supernatant was used as template. Specific primers for each bacterial species were used in PCR. PCR amplification was sensitive to identify these organisms. PCR products from each species showed a single band and can be used to identify periodontal organisms from clinical specimens. PCR detection odds ratio values for A. actinomycetemcomitans and B. forsythus were significantly associated with disease showing a higher OR values for B. forsythus (2.97, 95% CI 1.88 - 4.70. These results suggest a strong association among the studied species and the periodontal lesion.Em nosso estudo quatro periodontopatógenos foram isolados e identificados de placas subgengivais de 50 pacientes com doença periodontal e de 50 indivíduos sadios. As placas subgengivais foram coletadas com pontas de papel e transportadas em VMGA III. Foram realizadas diluições seriadas das amostras clínicas (1:10, e os DNA foram obtidos por fervura. Iniciadores específicos para cada bactéria foram usados no PCR. As amplificações mostraram-se sensíveis na identificação de A. actinomycetemcomitans, B. forsythus, P. gingivalis e F. nucleatum. As reações de PCR produziram bandas específicas para cada espécie e podem ser usadas na identificação desses organismos periodontais diretamente das amostras clínicas. Os valores de odds ratio para a detecção de A. actinomycetemcomitans e B. forsythus foram significativamente associados com a doença periodontal mostrando altos valores de OR para B. forsythus (2,97, 95% CI 1,88 - 4,70. Esses resultados sugerem uma forte associação entre os

  20. Subgingival debridement of periodontal pockets by air polishing in comparison with ultrasonic instrumentation during maintenance therapy.

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    Wennström, Jan L; Dahlén, Gunnar; Ramberg, Per

    2011-09-01

    The objective was to determine clinical and microbiological effects and perceived treatment discomfort of root debridement by subgingival air polishing compared with ultrasonic instrumentation during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT). The trial was conducted as a split-mouth designed study of 2-month duration including 20 recall patients previously treated for chronic periodontitis. Sites with probing pocket depth (PPD) of 5-8 mm and bleeding on probing (BoP+) in two quadrants were randomly assigned to subgingival debridement by (i) glycine powder/air polishing applied with a specially designed nozzle or (ii) ultrasonic instrumentation. Clinical variables were recorded at baseline, 14 and 60 days post-treatment. Primary clinical efficacy variable was PPD reduction. Microbiological analysis of subgingival samples was performed immediately before and after debridement, 2 and 14 days post-treatment. Both treatment procedures resulted in significant reductions of periodontitis-associated bacterial species immediately and 2 days after treatment, and in significant reduction in BoP, PPD and relative attachment level at 2 months. There were no statistically significant differences between the treatment procedures at any of the examinations intervals. Perceived treatment discomfort was lower for air polishing than ultrasonic debridement. This short-term study revealed no pertinent differences in clinical or microbiological outcomes between subgingival air polishing and ultrasonic debridement of moderate deep pockets in SPT patients. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Microbiological Effect of Essential Oils in Combination with Subgingival Ultrasonic Instrumentation and Mouth Rinsing in Chronic Periodontitis Patients

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    Toshiya Morozumi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty chronic periodontitis patients were randomly assigned to 3 groups: control, saline, and essential oil-containing antiseptic (EO. Subgingival plaque was collected from a total of 90 pockets across all subjects. Subsequently, subgingival ultrasonic instrumentation (SUI was performed by using EO or saline as the irrigation agent. After continuous mouth rinsing at home with EO or saline for 7 days, subgingival plaques were sampled again. Periodontopathic bacteria were quantified using the modified Invader PLUS assay. The total bacterial count in shallow pockets (probing pocket depth (PPD = 4-5 mm was significantly reduced in both saline (P<0.05 and EO groups (P<0.01. The total bacterial count (P<0.05 and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P<0.01 and Tannerella forsythia (P<0.05 count in deep pockets (PPD ≥6 mm were significantly reduced only in the EO group. In comparisons of the change ratio relative to baseline value of total bacteria counts across categories, both the saline and EO groups for PPD 4-5 mm and the EO group for PPD 6 mm showed a significantly low ratio (P<0.05. The adjunctive use of EO may be effective in reducing subgingival bacterial counts in both shallow and deep pockets. This trial is registered with UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000007484.

  2. [Using DGGE to analyze bacteria community structure changes in subgingival plaque after periodontal initial therapy].

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    Zhou, Yan-bin; Shu, Rong; Liu, Da-li

    2012-02-01

    To analyze bacteria community structure changes in subgingival plaque after initial therapy, and to provide experimental evidences for clinical decision. Six patients with chronic periodontitis were chosen. Subgingival plaque samples, as well as clinical indexes, were collected at baseline and six weeks after initial therapy. The generated two different 16S rDNA fragments of subgingival plaque samples were separated by denaturing gel, creating bands patterns representative of community structure. Subsequent cluster analysis was made. The clinical indexes were improved significantly. The diversity of population of clinical subgingival samples was not significantly different between baseline and 6 weeks after initial therapy. Through cluster analysis, it was confirmed that same patient got similar subgingival plaque between baseline and 6 weeks after treatment. Same patient tend to get similar subgingival plaque between baseline and after initial therapy. DGGE can detect the microbial composition of subgingival plaque.

  3. Evaluation of Subgingival Dental Plaque Microbiota Changes In Fixed Orthodontic Patients with Syber Green Real Time PCR

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    Naser Sargolzaie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common problems we confront in orthodontic therapy is periodontal diseases. Initial factor which causes these diseases is colonization of anaerobic microorganisms in subgingival plaque. Technically, local environmental changes related to orthodontic band and brackets may influence the bacterial species in periodontal plaque. However, it seems necessary to assess variations in subgingival plaque caused by orthodontic appliances. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in subgingival microbiota and clinical parameters before and after bracket placement. Methods: Clinical parameters including probing depth (PD, plaque index (PI, clinical attachment level (CAL, bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival index (GI were recorded and subgingival microbial samples were collected in 30 people aged between 13 and 25. As a control group, 15 persons getting matched as to their age and sex with no need to orthodontic treatment were opted using specific primers, SYBER Green Real-Time PCR was carried out in order to determine bacterial flora in stored samples. All mentioned procedures were reassessed in experimental group and in control group three months after band and bracket bonding. A descriptive analysis was conducted, and paired t test and Wilcoxon test were used for differences between groups (P

  4. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhemrev, GE; Timmerman, MF; Veldkamp, A; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    Objective: To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Materials and Method: Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at

  5. Alterations of the Subgingival Microbiota in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Studied Longitudinally in Discovery and Validation Cohorts.

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    Kelsen, Judith; Bittinger, Kyle; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Posivak, Leah; Grunberg, Stephanie; Baldassano, Robert; Lewis, James D; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D

    2015-12-01

    Oral manifestations are common in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we characterized the subgingival microbiota in pediatric patients with CD initiating therapy and after 8 weeks to identify microbial community features associated with CD and therapy. Pediatric patients with CD were recruited from The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania. Healthy control subjects were recruited from primary care or orthopedics clinic. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at initiation of therapy and after 8 weeks. Treatment exposures included 5-ASAs, immunomodulators, steroids, and infliximab. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study was repeated in separate discovery (35 CD, 43 healthy) and validation cohorts (43 CD, 31 healthy). Most subjects in both cohorts demonstrated clinical response after 8 weeks of therapy (discovery cohort 88%, validation cohort 79%). At week 0, both antibiotic exposure and disease state were associated with differences in bacterial community composition. Seventeen genera were identified in the discovery cohort as candidate biomarkers, of which 11 were confirmed in the validation cohort. Capnocytophaga, Rothia, and TM7 were more abundant in CD relative to healthy controls. Other bacteria were reduced in abundance with antibiotic exposure among CD subjects. CD-associated genera were not enriched compared with healthy controls after 8 weeks of therapy. Subgingival microbial community structure differed with CD and antibiotic use. Results in the discovery cohort were replicated in a separate validation cohort. Several potentially pathogenic bacterial lineages were associated with CD but were not diminished in abundance by antibiotic treatment, suggesting targets for additional surveillance.

  6. [Study on Microbial Diversity of Peri-implantitis Subgingival by High-throughput Sequencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-jie; Wang, Shao-guo; Li, Yue-hong; Tu, Dong-xiang; Liu, Shi-yun; Nie, Hong-bing; Li, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Ju-mei

    2015-07-01

    To study microbial diversity of peri-implantitis subgingival with high-throughput sequencing, and investigate microbiological etiology of peri-implantitis. Subgingival plaques were sampled from the patients with peri-implantitis (D group) and non-peri-implantitis subjects (N group). The microbiological diversity of the subgingival plaques was detected by sequencing V4 region of 16S rRNA with Illumina Miseq platform. The diversity of the community structure was analyzed using Mothur software. A total of 156 507 gene sequences were detected in nine samples and 4 402 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were found. Selenomonas, Pseudomonas, and Fusobacterium were dominant bacteria in D group, while Fusobacterium, Veillonella and Streptococcus were dominant bacteria in N group. Differences between peri-implantitis and non-peri-implantitis bacterial communities were observed at all phylogenetic levels by LEfSe, which was also found in PcoA test. The occurrence of peri-implantitis is not only related to periodontitis pathogenic microbe, but also related with the changes of oral microbial community structure. Treponema, Herbaspirillum, Butyricimonas and Phaeobacte may be closely related to the occurrence and development of peri-implantitis.

  7. Changes in the subgingival biofilm composition after coronally positioned flap

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    Jadson Almeida Lima

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the effects of coronally positioned flap (CPF on the subgingival biofilm composition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-two subjects with gingival recessions were treated with CPF. Clinical parameters were assessed before and at 6 months after surgery. Subgingival biofilms were analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique for 40 bacterial species. RESULTS: Recession height, clinical attachment level and bleeding on probing improved significantly (p<0.05 at 6 months post-CPF. The proportions of 10 periodontal pathogens and the proportions of red and orange complexes decreased at 6 months. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, CPF can induce beneficial effects on the composition of the subgingival microbiota after 6 months.

  8. Microbiota in the oral subgingival biofilm is associated with obesity in adolescence.

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    Zeigler, Cecilia C; Persson, G Rutger; Wondimu, Biniyam; Marcus, Claude; Sobko, Tanja; Modéer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis whether microbiota in oral biofilm is linked with obesity in adolescents we designed this cross-sectional study. Obese adolescents (n = 29) with a mean age of 14.7 years and normal weight subjects (n = 58) matched by age and gender were examined with respect to visible plaque index (VPI%) and gingival inflammation (bleeding on probing (BOP%)). Stimulated saliva was collected. They answered a questionnaire concerning medical history, medication, oral hygiene habits, smoking habits, and sociodemographic background. Microbiological samples taken from the gingival crevice was analyzed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. The sum of bacterial cells in subgingival biofilm was significantly associated with obesity (P obesity was not confounded by any of the studied variables (chronic disease, medication, VPI%, BOP%, flow rate of whole saliva, or meal frequency). Totally 23 bacterial species were present in approximately threefold higher amounts, on average, in obese subjects compared with normal weight controls. Of the Proteobacteria phylum, Campylobacter rectus and Neisseria mucosa were present in sixfold higher amounts among obese subjects. The association between obesity and sum of bacterial cells in oral subgingival biofilm indicates a possible link between oral microbiota and obesity in adolescents.

  9. Relative abundance of total subgingival plaque-specific bacteria in salivary microbiota reflects the overall periodontal condition in patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Shinya; Takeshita, Toru; Asakawa, Mikari; Shibata, Yukie; Takeuchi, Kenji; Yamanaka, Wataru; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2017-01-01

    Increasing attention is being focused on evaluating the salivary microbiota as a promising method for monitoring oral health; however, its bacterial composition greatly differs from that of dental plaque microbiota, which is a dominant etiologic factor of oral diseases. This study evaluated the relative abundance of subgingival plaque-specific bacteria in the salivary microbiota and examined a relationship between the abundance and severity of periodontal condition in patients with periodontitis. Four samples (subgingival and supragingival plaques, saliva, and tongue coating) per each subject were collected from 14 patients with a broad range of severity of periodontitis before periodontal therapy. The bacterial composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing using Ion PGM. Of the 66 species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representing the mean relative abundance of ≥ 1% in any of the four niches, 12 OTUs corresponding to known periodontal pathogens, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, were characteristically predominant in the subgingival plaque and constituted 37.3 ± 22.9% of the microbiota. The total relative abundance of these OTUs occupied only 1.6 ± 1.2% of the salivary microbiota, but significantly correlated with the percentage of diseased sites (periodontal pocket depth ≥ 4 mm; r = 0.78, P microbiota (r = 0.61, P = 0.02). After periodontal therapy, the total relative abundance of these 12 OTUs was evaluated as well as before periodontal therapy and reductions of the abundance through periodontal therapy were strongly correlated in saliva and subgingival plaque (r = 0.81, P microbiota might be a promising target for the evaluation of subgingival plaque-derived bacteria representing the present condition of periodontal health.

  10. Alterations of the Subgingival Microbiota in Pediatric Crohn's Disease Studied Longitudinally in Discovery and Validation Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsen, Judith; Bittinger, Kyle; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Posivak, Leah; Grunberg, Stephanie; Baldassano, Robert; Lewis, James D; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral manifestations are common in Crohn's disease (CD). Here we characterized the subgingival microbiota in pediatric CD patients initiating therapy and after 8 weeks to identify microbial community features associated with CD and therapy. Methods Pediatric CD patients were recruited from The Children's Hospital of Pennsylvania. Healthy control subjects were recruited from primary care or orthopedics clinic. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at initiation of therapy and after 8 weeks. Treatment exposures included 5-ASAs, immunomodualtors, steroids, and infliximab. The microbiota was characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The study was repeated in separate discovery (35 CD, 43 healthy) and validation cohorts (43 CD, 31 healthy). Results A majority of subjects in both cohorts demonstrated clinical response after 8 weeks of therapy (discovery cohort 88%, validation cohort 79%). At week 0, both antibiotic exposure and disease state were associated with differences in bacterial community composition. Seventeen genera were identified in the discovery cohort as candidate biomarkers, of which 11 were confirmed in the validation cohort. Capnocytophaga, Rothia, and TM7 were more abundant in CD relative to healthy controls. Other bacteria were reduced in abundance with antibiotic exposure among CD subjects. CD-associated genera were not enriched compared to healthy controls after 8 weeks of therapy. Conclusions Subgingival microbial community structure differed with CD and antibiotic use. Results in the discovery cohort were replicated in a separate validation cohort. Several potentially pathogenic bacterial lineages were associated with CD but were not diminished in abundance by antibiotic treatment, suggesting targets for additional surveillance. PMID:26288001

  11. Effects of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microflora and antimicrobial susceptibility profile in acute periodontal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Kasai, Shunsuke; Ihara, Yuichiro; Imamura, Kentaro; Kita, Daichi; Ota, Koki; Kinumatsu, Takashi; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Saito, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect(s) of systemic administration of sitafloxacin on subgingival microbial profiles of acute periodontal lesions. Antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates was also investigated. Patients with acute phases of chronic periodontitis were subjected to clinical examination and microbiological assessment of their subgingival plaque samples by culture technique. Sitafloxacin was then administered (100 mg/day for 5 days) systemically. The clinical and microbiological examinations were repeated 6-8 days after administration. Susceptibilities of clinical isolates to various antimicrobials were determined using the broth and agar dilution methods. From the sampled sites in 30 participants, a total of 355 clinical isolates (34 different bacterial species) were isolated and identified. Parvimonas micra, Prevotella intermedia and Streptococcus mitis were the most prevalent cultivable bacteria in acute sites. Systemic administration of sitafloxacin yielded a significant improvement in clinical and microbiological parameters. Among the antimicrobials tested, sitafloxacin was the most potent against the clinical isolates with an MIC90 of 0.12 μg/ml at baseline. After administration, most clinical isolates were still highly susceptible to sitafloxacin although some increase in MICs was observed. The results suggest that systemic administration of sitafloxacin is effective against subgingival bacteria isolated from acute periodontal lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Long-term evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility and microbial profile of subgingival biofilms in individuals with aggressive periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Talita Gomes Baêta; Heller, Débora; do Souto, Renata Martins; Silva-Senem, Mayra Xavier e; Varela, Victor Macedo; Torres, Maria Cynesia Barros; Feres-Filho, Eduardo Jorge; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the antimicrobial susceptibility and composition of subgingival biofilms in generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP) patients treated using mechanical/antimicrobial therapies, including chlorhexidine (CHX), amoxicillin (AMX) and metronidazole (MET). GAP patients allocated to the placebo (C, n = 15) or test group (T, n = 16) received full-mouth disinfection with CHX, scaling and root planning, and systemic AMX (500 mg)/MET (250 mg) or placebos. Subgingival plaque samples were obtained at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-therapy from 3–4 periodontal pockets, and the samples were pooled and cultivated under anaerobic conditions. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of AMX, MET and CHX were assessed using the microdilution method. Bacterial species present in the cultivated biofilm were identified by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. At baseline, no differences in the MICs between groups were observed for the 3 antimicrobials. In the T group, significant increases in the MICs of CHX (p < 0.05) and AMX (p < 0.01) were detected during the first 3 months; however, the MIC of MET decreased at 12 months (p < 0.05). For several species, the MICs significantly changed over time in both groups, i.e., Streptococci MICs tended to increase, while for several periodontal pathogens, the MICs diminished. A transitory increase in the MIC of the subgingival biofilm to AMX and CHX was observed in GAP patients treated using enhanced mechanical therapy with topical CHX and systemic AMX/MET. Both protocols presented limited effects on the cultivable subgingival microbiota. PMID:26273264

  13. The combined and individual impact of diabetes and smoking on key subgingival periodontal pathogens in patients with chronic periodontitis.

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    Joaquim, C R; Miranda, T S; Marins, L M; Silva, H D P; Feres, M; Figueiredo, L C; Duarte, P M

    2017-11-06

    Comprehension of the similarities and differences in the composition of the subgingival microbiota of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), smokers or smokers with DM is an important step in developing therapies specific for these groups at risk for periodontitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the combined and individual effects of DM and smoking on the levels and prevalence of key subgingival periodontal pathogens in patients with chronic periodontitis. One hundred patients with generalized chronic periodontitis were allocated into one of the following groups: DM (n = 25, non-smokers with type 2 DM); S (n = 25, non-diabetic smokers); SDM (n = 25, smokers with type 2 DM); and control (n = 25, non-diabetic non-smokers). Two subgingival biofilm samples from healthy sites (probing depth and clinical attachment level ≤3 mm and no bleeding) and 2 from diseased sites (probing depth and clinical attachment level ≥5 mm and bleeding on probing) were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, Eubacterium nodatum, Parvimonas micra, Fusobacterium nucleatum ssp. and Prevotella intermedia. There were no differences among groups in the mean counts of the bacterial species studied, considering all sampled sites (healthy plus diseased sites). There were also no differences among groups regarding the prevalence of any bacteria species in healthy and diseased sites (P > .05). The mean P. micra count was significantly higher in the healthy sites of both smoking groups, than in those of the control group (P periodontitis presenting DM, smokers or smokers with DM. In addition, DM and smoking, jointly and individually, do not considerably affect the subgingival levels of target periodontal pathogens in patients with chronic periodontitis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Evaluation of a novel immunochromatographic device for rapid and accurate clinical detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, K; Takayama, S; Saito, A; Inoue, E; Nakayama, Y; Ogata, Y; Shirakawa, S; Nagano, T; Gomi, K; Morozumi, T; Akiishi, K; Watanabe, K; Yoshie, H

    2015-10-01

    An important goal for the improved diagnosis and management of infectious and inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis, is the development of rapid and accurate technologies for the decentralized detection of bacterial pathogens. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate the clinical use of a novel immunochromatographic device with monoclonal antibodies for the rapid point-of-care detection and semi-quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival plaque. Sixty-three patients with chronic periodontitis and 28 periodontally healthy volunteers were subjected to clinical and microbiological examinations. Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed for the presence of P. gingivalis using a novel immunochromatography based device DK13-PG-001, designed to detect the 40k-outer membrane protein of P. gingivalis, and compared with a PCR-Invader method. In the periodontitis group, a significant strong positive correlation in detection results was found between the test device score and the PCR-Invader method (Spearman rank correlation, r=0.737, pgingivalis, whereas 76% (n=48) of periodontitis subjects were tested positive. There was a significant positive correlation between device scores for P. gingivalis and periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level (r=0.317 and 0.281, respectively, pgingivalis in subgingival plaque. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR) UMIN000011943. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Subgingival microflora and treatment in prepubertal periodontitis associated with chronic idiopathic neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamma, J J; Lygidakis, N A; Nakou, M

    1998-09-01

    Prepubertal periodontitis affects both primary and permanent dentition. The purpose of this study was to examine the composition of subgingival microflora of the permanent dentition in an 11-year-old Caucasian female, who had premature exfoliation of her deciduous teeth on her 5th year of age, and the response of this condition to the antibiotic therapy and supportive periodontal care. Gingival tissues were highly inflamed and alveolar bone loss was detected radiographically. The girl had experienced frequent upper respiratory tract infections, tonsilitis and recurrent otitis media. Her mother had history of early onset periodontitis associated with chronic idiopathic neutropenia. Blood chemistry tests and immunological examinations were also performed. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the proximal sites of permanent molars, incisors, canines and maxillary premolars. 27 different microbial species were isolated from the subgingival microflora. Among the predominant species were Porphyromonas gingivalis (17.6%-7.3%), Prevotella intermedia (12.4%-4.7%), Capnocytophaga sputigena (14.4%-10.4%), Capnocytophaga ochracea (13.2%-6.9%) and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (9.3%-5.5%). Periodontal treatment consisted of scaling, root planing in conjunction with antibiotic administration of Augmentin 312.5 mg and Flagyl 200 mg, each t.i.d. for 10 days. 3 weeks after the antibiotic therapy, bacterial samples were collected from the same sites. All the periodontal pathogens were recovered in lower levels and A.actinomycetemcomitans was almost eliminated in the 3-week period. The evaluation of clinical indices at 3, 6 and 12 months showed that periodontal treatment in conjunction with antibiotics was effective and rapidly followed by marked clinical improvement. The microbiological monitoring at 3, 6 and 12 months after antibiotic treatment and each time prior to supportive periodontal care, revealed that the periodontal pathogens fluctuated in low levels even

  16. Subgingival bacteria in Ghanaian adolescents with or without progression of attachment loss

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    Gunnar Dahlén

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes subgingival bacterial profiles associated with clinical periodontal status in Ghanaian adolescents with or without progression of attachment loss. Materials and methods: Among 500 adolescents included in a cohort study, 397 returned 2 years later for a periodontal re-examination, including full-mouth CAL measurements. At follow-up, a subgroup of 98 adolescents was also subjected to bacterial sampling with paper points at four periodontal sites (mesial aspect of 11, 26, 31, and 46 and analyzed with the checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization technique against DNA-probes from nine periodontitis-associated bacterial species. Results: The 98 Ghanaian adolescents examined in the present study were similar to the entire group examined at the 2-year follow-up with respect to age, gender, and CAL ≥3 mm. A high detection frequency of Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia (>99% using checkerboard analysis was found, while for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans the detection frequency was <50%. A strong correlation was found at the individual level between the presence of P. intermedia and the total CAL change, and P. intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis were strongly correlated with a change in CAL and probing pocket depth (PPD at the sampled sites. In a linear regression model, a significant discriminating factor for the total CAL change in the dentition during the 2-year follow-up period was obtained for P. intermedia and public school. Conclusion: This study indicates that subgingival bacterial species other than A. actinomycetemcomitans, for example, P. intermedia, have a significant association with periodontal breakdown (change in CAL in Ghanaian adolescents with progression of periodontal attachment loss.

  17. Comparative evaluation of two subgingival irrigating solutions in the management of periodontal disease: A clinicomicrobial study

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    Dhara Jayesh Pandya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Local administration of antimicrobial agents offer a “site-specific” approach to the periodontal therapy and it has several benefits. Aim: The present study was aimed to assess the clinical and microbial changes by subgingival irrigation using different subgingival irrigants in periodontitis patients and also to assess the mechanical effect of different local irrigation devices; if any. Settings and Design: Split-mouth design was employed on ten individuals. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 10 individuals in whom full-mouth scaling and root planing was performed and subgingival irrigation therapy was instituted for an experimental period of 30 days. The clinical as well as microbiological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis Used: To calculate baseline data with day thirty data,paired t-test was used. Intergroup comparison was carried out using one-way ANOVA. Multiple comparisons among groups were carried out using post hoc Tamhane's T2 test. Results: Among the different subgingival irrigants used, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate is most effective followed by ozonated water, whereas saline was found to be ineffective when compared to the other two subgingival irrigants. Subgingival irrigation using pulsated device may not have any additive effect in alteration of the subgingival microflora. Conclusion: Within the limits and scope of the study, it can be safely concluded that 0.2% chlorhexidine may be used as an adjunct to mechanical therapy for achieving a significant reduction in inflammatory periodontal changes and also reduction in periodontopathogenic microflora.

  18. Subgingival microbiota dysbiosis in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with periodontal status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Jôice Dias; Calderaro, Débora Cerqueira; Ferreira, Gilda Aparecida; Mendonça, Santuza Maria Souza; Fernandes, Gabriel R; Xiao, E; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Leys, Eugene J; Graves, Dana T; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida

    2017-03-20

    Periodontitis results from the interaction between a subgingival biofilm and host immune response. Changes in biofilm composition are thought to disrupt homeostasis between the host and subgingival bacteria resulting in periodontal damage. Chronic systemic inflammatory disorders have been shown to affect the subgingival microbiota and clinical periodontal status. However, this relationship has not been examined in subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of our study was to investigate the influence of SLE on the subgingival microbiota and its connection with periodontal disease and SLE activity. We evaluated 52 patients with SLE compared to 52 subjects without SLE (control group). Subjects were classified as without periodontitis and with periodontitis. Oral microbiota composition was assessed by amplifying the V4 region of 16S rRNA gene from subgingival dental plaque DNA extracts. These amplicons were examined by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. SLE patients exhibited higher prevalence of periodontitis which occurred at a younger age compared to subjects of the control group. More severe forms of periodontitis were found in SLE subjects that had higher bacterial loads and decreased microbial diversity. Bacterial species frequently detected in periodontal disease were observed in higher proportions in SLE patients, even in periodontal healthy sites such as Fretibacterium, Prevotella nigrescens, and Selenomonas. Changes in the oral microbiota were linked to increased local inflammation, as demonstrated by higher concentrations of IL-6, IL-17, and IL-33 in SLE patients with periodontitis. SLE is associated with differences in the composition of the microbiota, independently of periodontal status.

  19. Microbial Profile of Supragingival and Subgingival Plaque of Patients With Glycogen Storage Disease

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    Chealsea E. Garcia DDS, MS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Patients with glycogen storage disease (GSD are either orally fed (ORF or gastronomy-tube fed (GTF with cornstarch to maintain normal glucose levels. It is not known whether the use of cornstarch affects the microbiological oral profile of patients with GSD. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare supragingival and subgingival plaque samples collected from 53 participants with GSD (2-56 years—29 ORF and 24 GTF. The 16S sequence bacterial profiles of plaque DNA were obtained and a total of 768 probes were detected across the plaque groups. Orally fed patients showed higher means of cariogenic species and periodontal health-associated species, whereas GTF patients showed higher means of periopathogenic species ( P < .05. Orally fed patients exhibited high levels of caries pathogens and lower levels of periodontal pathogens possibly due to the acidic environment created by their cornstarch diet, when compared to GTF patients.

  20. Characterization of specimens obtained by different sampling methods for evaluation of periodontal bacteria.

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    Okada, Ayako; Sogabe, Kaoru; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Okamoto, Masaaki; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2017-11-17

    Quantitative analysis of periodontal bacteria is considered useful for clinical diagnosis, evaluation and assessment of the risk of periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of sampling of saliva, supragingival and subgingival plaque for evaluation of periodontal bacteria. From each of 12 subjects, i) subgingival plaque was collected from the deepest pocket using a sterile paper point, ii) stimulated whole saliva was collected after chewing gum, and iii) supragingival plaque was collected using a tooth brush. These samples were sent to the medical examination laboratory for quantitative analysis of the counts of three periodontal bacterial species: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia. The proportions of these bacteria in subgingival plaque were higher than those in saliva or supragingival plaque, but lower in subgingival plaque than in saliva or supragingival plaque. In several cases, periodontal bacteria were below the levels of detection in subgingival plaque. We concluded that samples taken from subgingival plaque may be more useful for evaluating the proportion of periodontal bacteria in deep pockets than is the case for other samples. Therefore, for evaluation of periodontal bacteria, clinicians should consider the characteristics of the specimens obtained using different sampling methods.

  1. Microbial diversity of the supra- and subgingival biofilm of healthy individuals after brushing with chlorhexidine- or silver-coated toothbrush bristles.

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    do Nascimento, Cássio; Paulo, Diana Ferreira; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Pedrazzi, Vinícius; de Albuquerque Junior, Rubens Ferreira

    2015-02-01

    Nanoparticulate silver has recently been reported as an effective antimicrobial agent. The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the potential changes on the oral microbiota of healthy individuals after controlled brushing with chlorhexidine- or silver-coated toothbrush bristles. Twenty-four healthy participants were enrolled in this investigation and randomly submitted to 3 interventions. All the participants received, in a crossover format, the following toothbrushing interventions: (i) chlorhexidine-coated bristles, (ii) silver-coated bristles, and (iii) conventional toothbrush (Control). All the interventions had a duration of 30 days. The DNA checkerboard hybridization method was used to identify and quantify up to 43 microbial species colonizing the supra- and subgingival biofilm. The supragingival samples presented higher genome counts than the subgingival samples (p < 0.0001). The total genome counts from the Control group showed the highest values, followed by the silver and chlorhexidine groups (p < 0.0001). After 4 weeks of brushing, the silver-coated and chlorhexidine-coated bristles were capable of reducing or maintaining lower levels of the bacterial counts of the putative periodontal pathogens Tanerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Other major periodontal pathogens, such as Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella nigrescens, and Parvimonas micra, were also detected at lower levels. The toothbrush bristles impregnated with silver nanoparticles reduced the total and individual genome count in the supra- and subgingival biofilm after 4 weeks of brushing. Chlorhexidine was not effective in reducing the total genome counts in both supra- or subgingival biofilm after 4 weeks of brushing. Chlorhexidine reduced the individual genome counts in the supragingival biofilm for most of the target species, including putative periodontal pathogens.

  2. Endoscopic vs. tactile evaluation of subgingival calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Joy B; Lenton, Patricia A; Lunos, Scott A; Blue, Christine M

    2014-08-01

    Endoscopic technology has been developed to facilitate imagery for use during diagnostic and therapeutic phases of periodontal care. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of subgingival calculus detection using a periodontal endoscope with that of conventional tactile explorer in periodontitis subjects. A convenience sample of 26 subjects with moderate periodontitis in at least 2 quadrants was recruited from the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry to undergo quadrant scaling and root planing. One quadrant from each subject was randomized for tactile calculus detection alone and the other quadrant for tactile detection plus the Perioscope ™ (Perioscopy Inc., Oakland, Cali). A calculus index on a 0 to 3 score was performed at baseline and at 2 post-scaling and root planing visits. Sites where calculus was detected at visit 1 were retreated. T-tests were used to determine within-subject differences between Perioscope™ and tactile measures, and changes in measures between visits. Significantly more calculus was detected using the Perioscope™ vs. tactile explorer for all 3 subject visits (pcalculus detection from baseline to visit 1 were statistically significant for both the Perioscope™ and tactile quadrants (pcalculus detection from visit 1 to visit 2 was only significant for the Perioscope™ quadrant (pcalculus at this visit. It was concluded that the addition of a visual component to calculus detection via the Perioscope™ was most helpful in the re-evaluation phase of periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  3. Initial effect of controlled release chlorhexidine on subgingival microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshmand, Nazanin; Jorgensen, Michael G; Nowzari, Hessam; Morrison, John L; Slots, Jørgen

    2002-10-01

    Little or no data exist on the ability of subgingival application of PerioChip (2.5 mg chlorhexidine gluconate in a biodegradable chip; Astra Pharmaceuticals, Westborough, MA, USA) to suppress periodontopathic microorganisms. The present study compared the subgingival microbiota of periodontitis sites receiving the chlorhexidine chip plus scaling and root planing (Sc/Rp) or Sc/Rp alone. Seven males and six females, mean age 49 years, with moderate to advanced periodontitis participated in the study. In each patient, two bilateral pockets probing 6-7 mm were randomly assigned to treatment by chlorhexidine chip + Sc/Rp, or by Sc/Rp alone. Subgingival placement of chlorhexidine chips was carried out according to the manufacturer's instructions. Sc/Rp was performed with hand instruments for at least 10 min in each study tooth. Subgingival samples were collected by paper-points at baseline, at 2 weeks and at 4 weeks post-treatment. Anaerobic culture methods were used for microbial isolation and identification. The microbiologic examination was carried out blindly. Microbiological data were evaluated by a repeated measures analysis of variance. No statistical difference was found in total colony counts between subgingival sites treated with chlorhexidine chip + Sc/Rp and those treated with Sc/Rp alone. Also, the percentage of major periodontal pathogens (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Bacteroides forsythus) and the percentage of total periodontal pathogens (A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, B. forsythus, Prevotella intermedia-group, Fusobacterium, Eubacterium, Campylobacter rectus, Peptostreptococcus micros, Eikenella corrodens, enteric rods) were not significantly different between the chlorhexidine chip + Sc/Rp group and the Sc/Rp group. At baseline, A. actinomycetemcomitans was recovered from 4 chlorhexidine chip + Sc/Rp sites and 2 Sc/Rp sites, P. gingivalis from 5 chlorhexidine chip + Sc/Rp sites and 4 Sc/Rp sites, and B

  4. Subgingival Microbial Communities in Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency and Their Relationship with Local Immunopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsopoulos, Niki M.; Abusleme, Loreto; Greenwell-Wild, Teresa; Dutzan, Nicolas; Paster, Bruce J.; Munson, Peter J.; Fine, Daniel H.; Uzel, Gulbu; Holland, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency I (LAD-I) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by single gene mutations in the CD18 subunit of β2 integrins which result in defective transmigration of neutrophils into the tissues. Affected patients suffer from recurrent life threatening infections and severe oral disease (periodontitis). Microbial communities in the local environment (subgingival plaque) are thought to be the triggers for inflammatory periodontitis, yet little is known regarding the microbial communities associated with LAD-I periodontitis. Here we present the first comprehensive characterization of the subgingival communities in LAD-I, using a 16S rRNA gene-based microarray, and investigate the relationship of this tooth adherent microbiome to the local immunopathology of periodontitis. We show that the LAD subgingival microbiome is distinct from that of health and Localized Aggressive Periodontitits. Select periodontitis-associated species in the LAD microbiome included Parvimonas micra, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Eubacterium brachy and Treponema species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium not typically found in subgingival plaque is detected in LAD-I. We suggest that microbial products from LAD-associated communities may have a role in stimulating the local inflammatory response. We demonstrate that bacterial LPS translocates into the lesions of LAD-periodontitis potentially triggering immunopathology. We also show in in vitro assays with human macrophages and in vivo in animal models that microbial products from LAD-associated subgingival plaque trigger IL-23-related immune responses, which have been shown to dominate in patient lesions. In conclusion, our current study characterizes the subgingival microbial communities in LAD-periodontitis and supports their role as triggers of disease pathogenesis. PMID:25741691

  5. [Evaluation of clinical efficacy of casting pure titanium ring on reparation of subgingival residual root].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wang, Peng

    2013-10-01

    To explore treatment regime and curative effect of the casting pure titanium ring on reparation of subgingival residual root. Thirty-two teeth were selected for reparation of subgingival residual root after root canal therapy in our department during 2008-2010. The teeth were restored with casting pure titanium ring, glass fiber post and all-ceramic crown. The patients were recalled 12 and 24 months after placement of the pure titanium ring. Gingival crevicular fluid(GCF) samples were collected by filter paper strips. Then the weight of GCF was detected and the gingival index was recorded. The data was analyzed for paired samples t test by SPSS17.0 software package. There was no significant difference in the weight of GCF and the gingival index before and after placement of pure titanium ring (P<0.05). By using pure titanium ring, most subgingival residual root after root canal therapy can be rehabilitated and function well for long time.

  6. Investigation of the Effect of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus on Subgingival Plaque Microbiota by High-Throughput 16S rDNA Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Daniel; Zhu, Chunxia; Gao, Xiang; Zhang, Qi; Dong, Qunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for chronic periodontitis. We investigated the effects of type 2 diabetes on the subgingival plaque bacterial composition by applying culture-independent 16S rDNA sequencing to periodontal bacteria isolated from four groups of volunteers: non-diabetic subjects without periodontitis, non-diabetic subjects with periodontitis, type 2 diabetic patients without periodontitis, and type 2 diabetic patients with periodontitis. A total of 71,373 high-quality sequences were produced from the V1-V3 region of 16S rDNA genes by 454 pyrosequencing. Those 16S rDNA sequences were classified into 16 phyla, 27 classes, 48 orders, 85 families, 126 genera, and 1141 species-level OTUs. Comparing periodontally healthy samples with periodontitis samples identified 20 health-associated and 15 periodontitis-associated OTUs. In the subjects with healthy periodontium, the abundances of three genera (Prevotella, Pseudomonas, and Tannerella) and nine OTUs were significantly different between diabetic patients and their non-diabetic counterparts. In the subjects carrying periodontitis, the abundances of three phyla (Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Bacteriodetes), two genera (Actinomyces and Aggregatibacter), and six OTUs were also significantly different between diabetics and non-diabetics. Our results show that type 2 diabetes mellitus could alter the bacterial composition in the subgingival plaque. PMID:23613868

  7. Smoking affects the subgingival microflora in periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winkelhoff, AJ; Bosch-Tijhof, CJ; Winkel, EG; van der Reijden, WA

    Background: Tobacco smoking has been identified as one major risk factor for destructive periodontal disease. Scaling and root planing have been shown to be less effective in smokers with periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to compare the subgingival microbial flora of treated and

  8. Subgingival Human Cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr Virus in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis in Ahwaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahangirnezhad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Assessment of subgingival human cytomegalovirus (HCMV and Epstein Barr virus (EBV-1 in subjects with aggressive periodontitis.Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from plaques formed in subgingival regions of 26 aggressive periodontitis patients. All specimens were submitted to polymerase chain reaction in order to detect HCMV and EBV-1.Results: HCMV and EBV-1 were observed in 27% and 25% of the participants respectively.Coinfection with both viruses was found in 52% of the patients.Conclusion: Within the limitations of the present study, it can be suggested that HCMV and EBV-1 in subgingival plaques may be associated with aggressive periodontitis. Additionally,concomitant occurrence of these viruses may negatively affect the wellbeing ofperiodontal tissues.

  9. Subgingival microbiota in health compared to periodontitis and the influence of smoking.

    OpenAIRE

    Camelo-Castillo, A. J.; Mira, A.; Pico, A.; Nibali, L.; Henderson, B.; Donos, N.; Tomás, I.

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of periodontitis has traditionally been associated to a consortium of three bacterial species-the so-called "red-complex" of periodontal disease-which has been the target for most diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. However, other species have also been found to correlate with disease severity. In addition, the influence of smoking on periodontal microbiota is poorly understood. In the current manuscript, the composition of the subgingival microbiota in healthy individuals vs....

  10. Levels of Candidate Periodontal Pathogens in Subgingival Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R.R.D.S.; Fermiano, D.; Feres, M.; Figueiredo, L.C.; Teles, F.R.F.; Soares, G.M.S.; Faveri, M.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several new periodontal taxa have been associated with the etiology of periodontitis. A recent systematic review provides further support for the pathogenic role of 17 species/phylotypes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and levels of these species in subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (GChP; n = 30), generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP; n = 30), and periodontal health (PH; n = 30). All subjects underwent clinical and microbiological assessment. Nine subgingival plaque samples were collected from each subject and analyzed for their content of 20 bacterial species/phylotypes through the RNA-oligonucleotide quantification technique. Subjects from the GChP and GAgP groups presented the highest mean values for all clinical parameters in comparison with the PH group (P < 0.05). Subjects with GChP and GAgP showed significantly higher mean levels of Bacteroidetes sp. human oral taxon (HOT) 274, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360, and TM7 sp. HOT 356 phylotypes, as well as higher mean levels of Filifactor alocis, Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Selenomonas sputigena species than PH subjects (P < 0.05). GAgP subjects presented higher mean levels of TM7 sp. HOT 356 and F. alocis than GChP subjects (P < 0.05). A significantly higher mean prevalence of Bacteroidales sp. HOT 274, Desulfobulbus sp. HOT 041, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360, and Fretibacterium sp. HOT 362 was found in subjects with GChP and GAgP than in PH subjects. Mean levels of P. gingivalis (r = 0.68), T. forsythia (r = 0.62), F. alocis (r = 0.51, P = 0.001), and Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360 (r = 0.41) were correlated with pocket depth (P < 0.001). In conclusion, Bacteroidales sp. HOT 274, Desulfobulbus sp. HOT 041, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360, Fretibacterium sp. HOT 362, and TM7 sp. HOT 356 phylotypes, in addition to F. alocis, F. fastidiosum, and S. sputigena, seem to be associated with periodontitis, and their role

  11. Reducing allergic symptoms through eliminating subgingival plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono Utomo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Elimination of subgingival plaque for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases through scaling is a routine procedure. It is also well-known that periodontal disease is related to systemic diseases. Nevertheless, the idea how scaling procedures also able to reduce allergic symptoms i.e. eczema and asthma, is not easily accepted, because it is contradictory to the “hygiene hypothesis”. However, since allergic symptoms also depend on variable factors such as genetic, environmental and infection factors; every possible effort to eliminate or avoid from these factors had to be considered. Subgingival plaque is a source of infection, especially the Gram-negative bacteria that produced endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS, a potential stimulator of immunocompetent cells, which may also related to allergy, such as mast cells and basophils. In addition, it also triggers the “neurogenic switching” mechanism which may be initiated from chronic gingivitis. Objective: This case report may explain the possible connection between subgingival plaque and allergy based on evidence-based cases. Case: Two adult siblings who suffered from chronic gingivitis also showed different manifestations of allergy that were allergic dermatitis and asthma for years. They were also undergone unsuccessful medical treatment for years. Oral and topical corticosteroids were taken for dermatitis and inhalation for asthma. Case Management: Patients were conducted deep scaling procedures, allergic symptoms gradually diminished in days even though without usual medications. Conclusion: Concerning to the effectiveness of scaling procedures which concomitantly eliminate subgingival plaque in allergic patients, it concluded that this concept is logical. Nevertheless, further verification and collaborated study with allergic expert should be done.

  12. Reducing allergic symptoms through eliminating subgingival plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Utomo, Haryono; Prahasanti, Chiquita; Ruhadi, Iwan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Elimination of subgingival plaque for prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases through scaling is a routine procedure. It is also well-known that periodontal disease is related to systemic diseases. Nevertheless, the idea how scaling procedures also able to reduce allergic symptoms i.e. eczema and asthma, is not easily accepted, because it is contradictory to the “hygiene hypothesis”. However, since allergic symptoms also depend on variable factors such as genetic, environ...

  13. Characteristics of subgingival calculus detection by multiphoton fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Oi-Hong; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Lin; Chen, How-Foo

    2011-06-01

    Subgingival calculus has been recognized as a major cause of periodontitis, which is one of the main chronic infectious diseases of oral cavities and a principal cause of tooth loss in humans. Bacteria deposited in subgingival calculus or plaque cause gingival inflammation, function deterioration, and then periodontitis. However, subgingival calculus within the periodontal pocket is a complicated and potentially delicate structure to be detected with current dental armamentaria, namely dental x-rays and dental probes. Consequently, complete removal of subgingival calculus remains a challenge to periodontal therapies. In this study, the detection of subgingival calculus employing a multiphoton autofluorescence imaging method was characterized in comparison with a one-photon confocal fluorescence imaging technique. Feasibility of such a system was studied based on fluorescence response of gingiva, healthy teeth, and calculus with and without gingiva covered. The multiphoton fluorescence technology perceived the tissue-covered subgingival calculus that cannot be observed by the one-photon confocal fluorescence method.

  14. Improved yield of minimal proportional sample volume platelet bacterial culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Hany; Townsend, Mary; Bravo, Marjorie; Vassallo, Ralph R

    2017-10-01

    Reports of septic transfusion reactions (STRs) after transfusion of culture-negative platelets (PLTs) justify more effective prevention strategies. Pathogen reduction technologies or performance of additional point-of-issue testing are proposed strategies to enhance safety through Day 5 of storage. Trima leukoreduced apheresis PLTs (APs) were collected during two study periods (45 and 31 months) using standard procedures, with target settings adjusted during the second period to maintain split rate after increased culture volume. Primary testing for bacterial contamination was performed using BacT/ALERT 3D with sampling from the mother bag 24 to 36 hours after collection. Two culture approaches were compared: in Period A, an 8-mL sample in one aerobic culture bottle (CB), and in Period B a minimal proportional sample volume (PSV) of at least 3.8% of mother bag volume into one to three aerobic CBs (7-10 mL per bottle). In Periods A and B, 188,389 and 159,098 AP collections were tested, respectively. The true-positive (TP) rate in Period A was 0.90 per 10,000 collections and in Period B was 1.83 per 10,000 (p collections, was significantly higher than that of Period A, 3.66 per 10,000. One contaminated collection resulting in STR(s) was reported in each study period. Implementation of PSV was operationally successful and did not impact the AP split rate. Proportional sample volume improved the sensitivity of primary testing and identified collections that could have escaped detection had only a single bottle with 8- to 10-mL volume been used. PSV may represent another approach to enhanced PLT safety for 5-day storage without a requirement for secondary testing. © 2017 AABB.

  15. Oral Biofilm Sampling for Microbiome Analysis in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santigli, Elisabeth; Koller, Martin; Klug, Barbara

    2017-12-31

    Oral biofilm and its molecular analysis provide a basis for investigating various dental research and clinical questions. Knowledge of biofilm composition leads to a better understanding of cariogenic and periopathogenic mechanisms. Microbial changes taking place in the oral cavity during childhood are of interest for several reasons. The evolution of the child oral microbiota and shifts in its composition need to be analyzed further to understand and possibly prevent the onset of disease. At the same time, advanced knowledge of the natural composition of oral biofilm is needed. Early stages of caries-free permanent dentition with healthy gums provide a widely unaffected subgingival habitat that can serve as an in situ baseline for studying features of oral health and disease. Analysis of children's oral biofilm during different stages in life is thus an important theme in the field. Modern molecular analysis methods can provide comprehensive information about the bacterial diversity of such biofilms. To enable microbiota data comparison, it is important to standardize each step in the procedure for molecular data generation. This procedure spans from clinical sampling, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), bioinformatic data processing, to taxonomic interpretation. One of the most critical factors here is biofilm sampling. Sampling in children is even more challenging in particular due to limited space in subgingival areas. We thus focus on the use of paper points for subgingival sampling. This article provides a detailed protocol for oral biofilm sampling of the subgingival sulcus, the mucosa, and saliva in children.

  16. Impact of early colonizers on in vitro subgingival biofilm formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Ammann

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of early colonizing species on the structure and the composition of the bacterial community developing in a subgingival 10-species biofilm model system. The model included Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus anginosus, Actinomycesoris, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. nucleatum, Veillonella dispar, Campylobacter rectus, Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola. Based on literature, we considered Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus anginosus, and Actinomyces oris as early colonizers and examined their role in the biofilms by either a delayed addition to the consortium, or by not inoculating at all the biofilms with these species. We quantitatively evaluated the resulting biofilms by real-time quantitative PCR and further compared the structures using confocal laser scanning microscopy following fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The absence of the early colonizers did not hinder biofilm formation. The biofilms reached the same total counts and developed to normal thickness. However, quantitative shifts in the abundances of individual species were observed. In the absence of streptococci, the overall biofilm structure appeared looser and more dispersed. Moreover, besides a significant increase of P. intermedia and a decrease of P. gingivalis , P. intermedia appeared to form filamented long chains that resembled streptococci. A. oris, although growing to significantly higher abundance in absence of streptococci, did not have a visible impact on the biofilms. Hence, in the absence of the early colonizers, there is a pronounced effect on P. intermedia and P. gingivalis that may cause distinct shifts in the structure of the biofilm. Streptococci possibly facilitate the establishment of P. gingivalis into subgingival biofilms, while in their absence P. intermedia became more dominant and forms elongated chains.

  17. Near-ultraviolet removal rates for subgingival dental calculus at different irradiation angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenly, Joshua E.; Seka, Wolf D.; Rechmann, Peter

    2011-07-01

    The laser ablation rate of subgingival dental calculus irradiated at a 400-nm-wavelength, 7.4-mJ pulse energy, and 85- and 20-deg irradiation angles is measured using laser triangulation. Three-dimensional images taken before and after irradiation create a removal map with 6-μm axial resolution. Fifteen human teeth with subgingival calculus are irradiated in vitro under a cooling water spray with an ~300-μm-diam, tenth-order super-Gaussian beam. The average subgingival calculus removal rates for irradiation at 85 and 20 deg are 11.1+/-3.6 and 11.5+/-5.9 μm/pulse, respectively, for depth removal and 4.5+/-1.7×105 and 4.8+/-2.3×105 μm3/pulse, respectively, for volume removal. The ablation rate is constant at each irradiation site but varies between sites because of the large differences in the physical and optical properties of calculus. Comparison of the average depth- and volume-removal rates does not reveal any dependence on the irradiation angle and is likely due to the surface topology of subgingival calculus samples that overshadows any expected angular dependence.

  18. Bacterial Contamination of Blood DNA Samples is Associated with Donor's Health Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Shim, Sung-Mi; Kim, Jun-Woo; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Yoon Shin; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok-Ghee

    2010-09-01

    Bacterial contamination often occurs in human blood DNA samples, possibly due to bacteremia or an inappropriate procedure during sample preparation. This study aimed at analyzing the clinical significance of bacterial DNA contamination in human blood DNA samples and to assess its influence on experimental data. DNA samples (N = 1359) were randomly selected from population-based cohort samples to determine bacterial DNA contamination by polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing. Bacterial DNA contaminated samples (N = 150) were then assessed for experimental quality of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip data, compared with uncontaminated DNA samples (N = 1209). DNA sequencing data showed that a major source of bacterial contaminants was derived from Alcaligenes species. The occurrence of bacterial DNA contaminations was significantly associated with some clinical variables including a postprandial glucose level at 60 min, % body fat, and waist-to-hip ratio. It was also found that there was no difference of SNP call rates between bacterial DNA contaminated samples and uncontaminated DNA samples. This study showed that bacterial DNA contamination in human blood samples was related to donor's health condition, suggesting that the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination may provide useful health information of blood donors and a potential tool for human disease genomics.

  19. Comparative evaluation of subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and non-pregnant women: A clinical and microbiologic study

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    Rishi Emmatty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.

  20. Validation of EIA sampling methods - bacterial and biochemical analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheelu, G.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Nair, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Mohandass, C.

    the Indian Experiment (INDEX) during September 1996 and June-Sept. 1997. Analysis were done for lipid, protein and carbohydrates, which comprise the labile organic matter (LOM), total organic carbon (TOC) and total bacterial counts (TC). Of the 5 variables...

  1. High-Resolution Taxonomic Profiling of the Subgingival Microbiome for Biomarker Discovery and Periodontitis Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szafranski, Szymon P.; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L.; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jáuregui, Ruy; Plumeier, Iris; Klawonn, Frank; Tomasch, Jürgen; Meisinger, Christa; Kühnisch, Jan; Sztajer, Helena; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2014-01-01

    The oral microbiome plays a key role for caries, periodontitis, and systemic diseases. A method for rapid, high-resolution, robust taxonomic profiling of subgingival bacterial communities for early detection of periodontitis biomarkers would therefore be a useful tool for individualized medicine. Here, we used Illumina sequencing of the V1-V2 and V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. A sample stratification pipeline was developed in a pilot study of 19 individuals, 9 of whom had been diagnosed with chronic periodontitis. Five hundred twenty-three operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained from the V1-V2 region and 432 from the V5-V6 region. Key periodontal pathogens like Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia could be identified at the species level with both primer sets. Principal coordinate analysis identified two outliers that were consistently independent of the hypervariable region and method of DNA extraction used. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size algorithm (LEfSe) identified 80 OTU-level biomarkers of periodontitis and 17 of health. Health- and periodontitis-related clusters of OTUs were identified using a connectivity analysis, and the results confirmed previous studies with several thousands of samples. A machine learning algorithm was developed which was trained on all but one sample and then predicted the diagnosis of the left-out sample (jackknife method). Using a combination of the 10 best biomarkers, 15 of 17 samples were correctly diagnosed. Training the algorithm on time-resolved community profiles might provide a highly sensitive tool to detect the onset of periodontitis. PMID:25452281

  2. Representation of microorganisms of subgingival plaque at different degrees of periodontium tissue inflamation and destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staletović Danijela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parodontopathy is an inflammatory reaction to gram negative anaerobic bacterial infectious agents that attacks the supporting dental apparatus including gingiva, periodontal ligament, cement and alveolar bone. The aim of the survey was to identify quantitative qualitative structure of microorganisms of subgingival plaque in patients suffering from chronic and aggressive parodontopathy using the PCR method, and then evaluate the correlation of different degrees of inflammation and destruction of periodontium tissue with the presence and concentration of these microorganisms. The survey involved 70 patients, 16 to 65 years old. The identification of microorganisms in subgingival plaque was set by the PCR method (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Towards diagnosing and defining the destruction degree of periodontal tissue, standard epidemiological criteria were used: plaque index (Silness-Löe, gingival index (Löe-Silness, SBI index (Mühleman-Son and PDDZ. The presence of periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque showed the statistical link with clinical parameters of the severeness of parodontopathy and gingival inflammation. The test result of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans statistically was significantly more frequent in patients with medium and severe type of parodontopathy compared to the average depth of periodontal pockets. The detection of P.g. and A.a. statistically was significantly more frequent in persons with mild and intensive gingival inflammation.

  3. Changes in subgingival microflora after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković-Sandić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The placement of fixed orthodontic appliances may lead to increased plaque accumulation and changes in subgingival microflora. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in frequency of subgingival microflora that occur after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods. This study included 33 orthodontic patients, who were divided into two groups. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the right upper incisor (U1 and right upper first molar (U6. In group A, the samples were taken three times: before placement appliance (T1, after one month (T2, and after 3 months (T3. In group B the samples were also taken three times: before appliance removal (T1, after one month (T2, and after three months (T3. PCR method was used to determine the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia. Results. In group A the frequency of P. gingivalis showed statistically significant decrease at U1 (p=0.049 and U6 (p=0.008, from T1 to T2, and at U1 (p=0.048 from T1 to T3. In group B only the frequency of T. forsythia showed a statistically significant decrease, at U6 (T1 vs. T2, p=0.004; T1 vs. T3, p=0.0003. Regarding other analyzed bacteria, changes in the presence were noticed but no statistical significance was found. Conclusion. Placement of fixed appliances may have an impact on subgingival microflora, but in the first months after the placement and removal of the appliance changes were not significant, probably due to good oral hygiene. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  4. Subgingival Microbiota in White Patients With Desquamative Gingivitis: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Paolo G; Romano, Federica; Sasia, Danilo; Broccoletti, Roberto; Ricceri, Fulvio; Barbui, Anna Maria; Brossa, Silvia; Cipriani, Raffaella; Cricenti, Luca; Cabras, Marco; Aimetti, Mario

    2017-07-01

    Presence of epithelial desquamation, erythema, and erosions on gingival tissue is usually described in the literature as desquamative gingivitis (DG). A wide range of autoimmune/dermatologic disorders can manifest as DG, although the two more common are oral lichen planus and mucous membrane pemphigoid. The aim of this study is to investigate prevalence of 11 periodontopathogenic microorganisms in patients with DG and to compare it with the microbiologic status of individuals affected by plaque-induced gingivitis (pGI). Cross-sectional clinical and microbiologic data were obtained from 66 patients (33 in each group). Subgingival plaque samples were analyzed using semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Statistically significant difference, but with little clinical significance, was observed in gingival conditions between the two groups, probably due to the worse home control hygiene of patients with DG. Prevalence and levels of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Eikenella corrodens, and Fusobacterium nucleatum/periodonticum were statistically higher in samples from patients with DG than in those with pGI. In multivariate regression models, subgingival colonization of A. actinomycetemcomitans and F. nucleatum/periodonticum was not statistically associated with DG, whereas, high levels of E. corrodens were associated with 13-fold increased odds for DG. Microbiologic differences were found in subgingival plaque for patients with DG and pGI. This may suggest possible association between periodontal pathogens and DG.

  5. Advancement of the 10-species subgingival Zurich biofilm model by examining different nutritional conditions and defining the structure of the in vitro biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammann, Thomas W; Gmür, Rudolf; Thurnheer, Thomas

    2012-10-05

    Periodontitis is caused by a highly complex consortium of bacteria that establishes as biofilms in subgingival pockets. It is a disease that occurs worldwide and its consequences are a major health concern. Investigations in situ are not possible and the bacterial community varies greatly between patients and even within different loci. Due to the high complexity of the consortium and the availability of samples, a clear definition of the pathogenic bacteria and their mechanisms of pathogenicity are still not available. In the current study we addressed the need of a defined model system by advancing our previously described subgingival biofilm model towards a bacterial composition that reflects the one observed in diseased sites of patients and analysed the structure of these biofilms. We further developed the growth media by systematic variation of key components resulting in improved stability and the firm establishment of spirochetes in the 10-species subgingival Zurich biofilm model. A high concentration of heat-inactivated human serum allowed the best proliferation of the used species. Therefore we further investigated these biofilms by analysing their structure by confocal laser scanning microscopy following fluorescence in situ hybridisation. The species showed mutual interactions as expected from other studies. The abundances of all organisms present in this model were determined by microscopic counting following species-specific identification by both fluorescence in situ hybridisation and immunofluorescence. The newly integrated treponemes were the most abundant organisms. The use of 50% of heat-inactivated human serum used in the improved growth medium resulted in significantly thicker and more stable biofilms, and the quantitative representation of the used species represents the in vivo community of periodontitis patients much closer than in biofilms grown in the two media with less or no human serum. The appearance of T. denticola, P. gingivalis, and

  6. Broad-Range Bacterial Capture from Fluid-Samples: Implications for Amplification-Free Contamination Detection

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    Monika WEBER

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid-Screen, Inc. presents a bacterial concentration and filtration method based on dielectrophoresis and alternating current kinetics. Dielectrophoresis has been previously shown to induce particle motion; however, bacterial capture efficiency and reproducibility have consistently been low, reducing its potential for practical applications. In this study, we introduce a novel, patent-pending electrode system optimized to simultaneously capture a wide range of bacterial species from a variety of aqueous solutions. Specifically, we show that the method of dielectrophoresis used induces responses in both characteristic Gram- negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Enterococcus faecalis bacteria, as well as with Bacillus subtilis and Aestuariimicrobium kwangyangense. We have adapted the electrode design to create a bacterial sample preparatio unit, termed the sample sorter, that is able to capture multiple bacterial species and release them simultaneously for bacterial concentration and exchange from complex matrices to defined buffer media. This technology can be used on its own or in conjunction with standard bacterial detection methods such as mass spectroscopy. The Fluid-Screen product will dramatically improve testing and identification of bacterial contaminants in various industrial settings by eliminating the need for amplification of samples and by reducing the time to identification.

  7. Effect of triclosan on the subgingival microbiota of periodontitis-susceptible subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosling, B; Dahlén, G; Volpe, A; Furuichi, Y; Ramberg, P; Lindhe, J

    1997-12-01

    The present study evaluated the long-term effect of (i) meticulous self-performed, supragingival plaque control and (ii) the use of a triclosan/copolymer containing dentifrice in adult subjects susceptible to destructive periodontitis. 40 individuals were recruited into the trial. 3-5 years prior to the baseline examination, they had all been treated by nonsurgical means- for advanced periodontal disease. During the subsequent maintenance phase, all subjects had at different time intervals exhibited sites with recurrent periodontitis. At a baseline examination, 6 surfaces per tooth were examined regarding bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth, and probing attachment level. The deepest pocket site in each quadrant (i.e. 4 sites per subject) was selected and samples of the subgingival bacteria were taken. At baseline, all volunteers received detailed information on proper oral hygiene techniques. This information was repeated on an individual need basis during the course of the subsequent 36-months. No professional subgingival therapy was delivered between the baseline and the 36-month examinations. The subjects were randomly distributed into 2 equal groups of 20 individuals each, 1 test and 1 control group. The members of the test group were supplied with a fluoridated dentifrice containing triclosan/copolymer (Total, Colgate), while the controls received a corresponding dentifrice but without triclosan/copolymer. The findings demonstrated that in subjects with advanced and recurrent periodontitis, carefully practiced supragingival plaque control had some effects on the subgingival microbiota, but also that this was insufficient to prevent disease progression. In a corresponding group of subjects, however, who used a triclosan/copolymer dentifrice, the subgingival microbiota was reduced in both quantitative and qualitative terms and recurrent periodontitis was almost entirely prevented.

  8. Rapid cleanup of bacterial DNA from samples containing aerosol contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menking, Darrell E.; Kracke, Suzanne K.; Emanuel, Peter A.; Valdes, James J.

    1999-01-01

    Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is an in vitro enzymatic, synthetic method used to amplify specific DNA sequences from organisms. Detection of DNA using gene probes allows for absolute identification not only of specific organisms, but also of genetic material in recombinant organisms. PCR is an exquisite biological method for detecting bacteria in aerosol samples. A major challenge facing detection of DNA from field samples is that they are almost sure to contain impurities, especially impurities that inhibit amplification through PCR. DNA is being extracted from air, sewage/stool samples, food, sputum, a water and sediment; however, multi- step, time consuming methods are required to isolate the DNA from the surrounding contamination. This research focuses on developing a method for rapid cleanup of DNA which combines extraction and purification of DNA while, at the same time, removing inhibitors from 'dirty samples' to produce purified, PCR-ready DNA. GeneReleaser produces PCR-ready DNA in a rapid five-minute protocol. GeneReleaser resin was able to clean up sample contain micrograms of typical aerosol and water contaminants. The advantages of using GR are that it is rapid, inexpensive, requires one-step, uses no hazardous material and produces PCR-ready DNA.

  9. Bacterial communities in soil samples from the Mingyong Glacier of southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haoyu; Taj, Muhammad Kamran; Ji, Xiuling; Zhang, Qi; Lin, Liangbing; Zhou, Zhimei; Wei, Yunlin

    2017-05-01

    The present study was an effort to determine the bacterial diversity of soils in Mingyong Glacier located at the Meili Snow Mountains of southwestern China. Mingyong Glacier has different climatic zones within a very narrow area, and bacterial community diversity in this low temperature area remains largely unknown. In this study, soil samples were collected from four different climatic zones: M11A (dry warm valley), M14 (forest), M15 (grass land), and M16 (glacier zones). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V6 hypervariable region showed high bacterial abundance in the glacier. The number of Operational Taxonomic Units ranged from 2.24×103 to 5.56×103 in soil samples. Statistical analysis of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries results showed that bacterial diversity in zones M11A,M14 and M16 are higher than in zone M15. The bacterial community structures are clearly distinguishable, and phylogenetic analysis showed that the predominant phyla were Proteobacteria, Deinococcus-Thermus, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Nitrospirae in Mingyong Glacier. Seventy-nine different orders from four zones have been isolated. Bacterial diversity and distribution of bacterial communities related to the anthropogenic perturbations in zone (M15) were confirmed by diversity index analysis, and the diversity index of other three zones was satisfactory through this analysis software. The results suggest that bacterial diversity and distribution analyses using bacterial 16S rRNA gene V6 hypervariable region were successful, and bacterial communities in this area not only had the same bacterial phyla compared to other glaciers but also had their own rare species.

  10. Bacterial diversity of biofilm samples from deep mines in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    microbial diversity of mines in South Africa, biofilm samples were collected from Goldfield and diamond ... understand microbial biosynthetic processes and enhance remediation of contaminated environments3. The microbial diversity in these extreme environments has been the key to the ..... Biodiversity of acidophilic.

  11. Bacterial contamination of water samples in Gabon, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ehrhardt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of water is a major burden in the public health setting of developing countries. We therefore assessed the quality of water samples in Gabon in 2013. The main findings were a contamination rate with coliforms of 13.5% and the detection of a possible environmental reservoir for extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.

  12. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael A.; Pratte, Zoe A.; Kellogg, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard™, RNAlater®, DMSO–EDTA–salt (DESS), FTA® cards, and FTA Elute® cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA® cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard™, RNAlater®, and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost.

  13. Streamline-based purification of bacterial samples from liquefied sputum utilizing microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tian; Shao, Changjun; Li, Lingjun; Wang, Shujing; Ouyang, Qi; Kang, Yu; Luo, Chunxiong

    2017-10-25

    The separation or purification of bacterial samples from a mixed cell suspension is critical in a variety of biomedical applications, such as sputum diagnostics and cell biology studies. We propose a streamline-based microfluidic filtration device for highly efficient purification of bacterial samples from a mixed cell suspension. The device is composed of tens of repeated streamline-based separation units that continuously filter the solution. By injecting a liquid sample such as liquefied human sputum solution through the device, approximately 50% of the injected sample solution can be collected from the filtration collection channels, which filter approximately 99.9% of the mammalian cells but retain approximately 60% to 90% of the bacteria. Different injection rates (0.2 ml h-1 to 30 ml h-1), different sample viscosities, and different initial bacterial densities were tested and confirmed that our separation method was robust. The easy operation, robustness and high efficiency indicate that our method may be useful for the separation or purification of bacterial samples from a mixed cell suspension, such as bacterial samples for sputum diagnostics.

  14. Culturomics identified 11 new bacterial species from a single anorexia nervosa stool sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleiderer, A; Lagier, J-C; Armougom, F; Robert, C; Vialettes, B; Raoult, D

    2013-11-01

    The rebirth of bacterial culture has been highlighted successively by environmental microbiologists, the design of axenic culture for intracellular bacteria in clinical microbiology, and, more recently, by human gut microbiota studies. Indeed, microbial culturomics (large scale of culture conditions with the identification of colonies by MALDI-TOF or 16S rRNA) allowed to culture 32 new bacterial species from only four stool samples studied. We performed culturomics in comparison with pyrosequencing 16S rRNA targeting the V6 region on an anorexia nervosa stool sample because this clinical condition has never been explored before by culture, while its composition has been observed to be atypical by metagenomics. We tested 88 culture conditions generating 12,700 different colonies identifying 133 bacterial species, with 19 bacterial species never isolated from the human gut before, including 11 new bacterial species for which the genome has been sequenced. These 11 new bacterial species isolated from a single stool sample allow to extend more significantly the repertoire in comparison to the bacterial species validated by the rest of the world during the last 2 years. Pyrosequencing indicated a dramatic discrepancy with the culturomics results, with only 23 OTUs assigned to the species level overlapping (17 % of the culturomics results). Most of the sequences assigned to bacteria detected only by pyrosequencing belonged to Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae constituted by strictly anaerobic species, indicating the future route for culturomics. This study revealed new bacterial species participating significantly to the extension of the gut microbiota repertoire, which is the first step before being able to connect the bacterial composition with the geographic or clinical status.

  15. Inherent bacterial DNA contamination of extraction and sequencing reagents may affect interpretation of microbiota in low bacterial biomass samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassing, Angela; Dowd, Scot E; Galandiuk, Susan; Davis, Brian; Chiodini, Rodrick J

    2016-01-01

    The advent and use of highly sensitive molecular biology techniques to explore the microbiota and microbiome in environmental and tissue samples have detected the presence of contaminating microbial DNA within reagents. These microbial DNA contaminants may distort taxonomic distributions and relative frequencies in microbial datasets, as well as contribute to erroneous interpretations and identifications. We herein report on the occurrence of bacterial DNA contamination within commonly used DNA extraction kits and PCR reagents and the effect of these contaminates on data interpretation. When compared to previous reports, we identified an additional 88 bacterial genera as potential contaminants of molecular biology grade reagents, bringing the total number of known contaminating microbes to 181 genera. Many of the contaminants detected are considered normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract and the environment and are often indistinguishable from those genuinely present in the sample. Laboratories working on bacterial populations need to define contaminants present in all extraction kits and reagents used in the processing of DNA. Any unusual and/or unexpected findings need to be viewed as possible contamination as opposed to unique findings.

  16. Relationship of periodontal clinical parameters with bacterial composition in human dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujinaka, Hidetake; Takeshita, Toru; Sato, Hirayuki; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Nakamura, Junji; Hase, Tadashi; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-06-01

    More than 600 bacterial species have been identified in the oral cavity, but only a limited number of species show a strong association with periodontitis. The purpose of the present study was to provide a comprehensive outline of the microbiota in dental plaque related to periodontal status. Dental plaque from 90 subjects was sampled, and the subjects were clustered based on bacterial composition using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rRNA genes. Here, we evaluated (1) periodontal clinical parameters between clusters; (2) the correlation of subgingival bacterial composition with supragingival bacterial composition; and (3) the association between bacterial interspecies in dental plaque using a graphical Gaussian model. Cluster 1 (C1) having high prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in subgingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The values of the parameters in Cluster 2a (C2a) having high prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria were markedly lower than those in C1. A cluster having low prevalence of non-pathogenic bacteria in supragingival plaque showed increasing values of the parameters. The bacterial patterns between subgingival plaque and supragingival plaque were significantly correlated. Chief pathogens, such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, formed a network with other pathogenic species in C1, whereas a network of non-pathogenic species, such as Rothia sp. and Lautropia sp., tended to compete with a network of pathogenic species in C2a. Periodontal status relates to non-pathogenic species as well as to pathogenic species, suggesting that the bacterial interspecies connection affects dental plaque virulence.

  17. Culturomics identified 11 new bacterial species from a single anorexia nervosa stool sample

    OpenAIRE

    Pfleiderer, A; Lagier, J.C.; Armougom, Fabrice; Robert, C.; Vialettes, B; Raoult, Didier

    2013-01-01

    The rebirth of bacterial culture has been highlighted successively by environmental microbiologists, the design of axenic culture for intracellular bacteria in clinical microbiology, and, more recently, by human gut microbiota studies. Indeed, microbial culturomics (large scale of culture conditions with the identification of colonies by MALDI-TOF or 16S rRNA) allowed to culture 32 new bacterial species from only four stool samples studied. We performed culturomics in comparison with pyrosequ...

  18. Sterile paper points as a bacterial DNA-contamination source in microbiome profiles of clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, J.; Buijs, M.J.; Laine, M.L.; Wismeijer, D.; Loos, B.G.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives High throughput sequencing of bacterial DNA from clinical samples provides untargeted, open-ended information on the entire microbial community. The downside of this approach is the vulnerability to DNA contamination from other sources than the clinical sample. Here we describe

  19. Differences in bacterial saliva profile between periodontitis patients and a control cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease in which subgingival bacteria play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine if periodontitis is associated with a characteristic salivary bacterial profile. This was accomplished by comparing...... the bacterial profile of saliva from subjects with chronic periodontitis with that of saliva from a control cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples from 139 chronic periodontitis patients and 447 samples from a control cohort were analysed using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray...... component analysis was used to visualize bacterial community profiles obtained by the HOMIM. RESULTS: Eight bacterial taxa, including putative periodontal pathogens as Parvimonas micra and Filifactor alocis, and four bacterial clusters were identified statistically more frequently and at higher levels...

  20. Sterile paper points as a bacterial DNA-contamination source in microbiome profiles of clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Joyce; Buijs, Mark J; Laine, Marja L; Wismeijer, Daniël; Loos, Bruno G; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2013-12-01

    High throughput sequencing of bacterial DNA from clinical samples provides untargeted, open-ended information on the entire microbial community. The downside of this approach is the vulnerability to DNA contamination from other sources than the clinical sample. Here we describe contamination from sterile paper points (PPs) used in microbial sample collection. Peri-implant samples from 48 individuals were collected using sterile PPs. Control samples contained only PPs or DNA extraction blank controls. 16S rRNA gene libraries were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing. 16S rRNA gene copy numbers were measured by quantitative PCR. Nearly half of the sequencing reads belonged to two OTUs classified as Enterococcus (25% of reads) or Exiguobacterium (21%), which are not typical oral microorganisms. Of 87 peri-implant samples, only 10 samples (11%) contained neither of the two OTUs. The relative abundance of both unusual OTUs correlated with each other (pDNA equivalent to 1.2 × 10(3) and 1.1 × 10(4) cells respectively, which was within the range of DNA in the clinical samples (average 1.8 × 10(7), SD 4.8 × 10(7), min 4.4 × 10(2), max 2.8 × 10(8)). The microbial profile from these PPs was dominated (>83% of reads) by the two unusual OTUs. Sterile PPs can contain contaminating bacterial DNA. The use of PPs as a sampling tool for microbial profiling of clinical samples by open-ended techniques such as sequencing or DGGE should be avoided. Clinicians working with PPs as sampling tools for bacterial DNA should consider using an alternative sampling tool, because sterile unused PPs can be a considerable source of foreign bacterial DNA. We recommend sterile curettes for collecting clinical samples for open-ended techniques, such as sequencing or DGGE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Large-scale targeted metagenomics analysis of bacterial ecological changes in 88 kimchi samples during fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moeun; Song, Jung Hee; Jung, Min Young; Lee, Se Hee; Chang, Ji Yoon

    2017-09-01

    The microbial communities in kimchi vary widely, but the precise effects of differences in region of origin, ingredients, and preparation method on the microbiota are unclear. We analyzed the bacterial community composition of household (n = 69) and commercial (n = 19) kimchi samples obtained from six Korean provinces between April and August 2015. Samples were analyzed by barcoded pyrosequencing targeting the V1-V3 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. The initial pH of the kimchi samples was 5.00-6.39, and the salt concentration was 1.72-4.42%. Except for sampling locality, all categorical variables, i.e., salt concentration, major ingredient, fermentation period, sampling time, and manufacturing process, influenced the bacterial community composition. Particularly, samples were highly clustered by sampling time and salt concentration in non-metric multidimensional scaling plots and an analysis of similarity. These results indicated that the microbial community differed according to fermentation conditions such as salt concentration, major ingredient, fermentation period, and sampling time. Furthermore, fermentation properties, including pH, acidity, salt concentration, and microbial abundance differed between kimchi samples from household and commercial sources. Analyses of changes in bacterial ecology during fermentation will improve our understanding of the biological properties of kimchi, as well as the relationships between these properties and the microbiota of kimchi. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of a triclosan formula in controlling early subgingival biofilm formation: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto ANDRADE

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of rinses with slurries of a dentifrice containing triclosan (TCS, as compared with rinses with slurries from a control dentifrice, in controlling early subgingival biofilm formation. A double-blind, randomized and cross-over clinical trial was designed, and 26 dental students were included. In the first period, participants were randomized to rinse with a TCS slurry or a control slurry, in a 12 h interval, and to refrain from mechanical cleaning. A Plaque Free Zone Index was assessed at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h. After a washout period of 10 days, the second experimental period was conducted, following the same protocol as the first period, except that the slurry groups were switched. Use of the TCS slurry resulted in a significantly higher percentage of plaque-free surfaces, both at 24 h and at 72 h (p < 0.01. In the of 48-72 h interval, the triclosan slurry showed a lower percentage of sites converted to a score of 2 (38.1% for the testversus 40% for the control product, p = 0.015. In conclusion, rinsing with slurries of dentifrice containing TCS retards the down growth of bacterial biofilms from the supra- to the subgingival environment.

  3. Bacterial communities of disease vectors sampled across time, space, and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan T; Knight, Rob; Martin, Andrew P

    2010-02-01

    A common strategy of pathogenic bacteria is to form close associations with parasitic insects that feed on animals and to use these insects as vectors for their own transmission. Pathogens interact closely with other coexisting bacteria within the insect, and interactions between co-occurring bacteria may influence the vector competency of the parasite. Interactions between particular lineages can be explored through measures of alpha-diversity. Furthermore, general patterns of bacterial community assembly can be explored through measures of beta-diversity. Here, we use pyrosequencing (n=115,924 16S rRNA gene sequences) to describe the bacterial communities of 230 prairie dog fleas sampled across space and time. We use these communinty characterizations to assess interactions between dominant community members and to explore general patterns of bacterial community assembly in fleas. An analysis of co-occurrence patterns suggests non-neutral negative interactions between dominant community members (Pspace (phylotype-based: R=0.418, Pspecies (phylotype-based: R=0.160, P=0.011; phylogenetic-based: not significant). Collectively, our results show that flea-associated bacterial communities are not random assemblages; rather, an individual flea's bacterial community is governed by interactions between bacterial lineages and by the flea's place in space and time.

  4. Subgingival irrigation in the maintenance phase of periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagenhauf, U; Stellwag, P; Fiedler, A

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of subgingival scaling versus subgingival pocket irrigation with 0.1% chlorhexidine or saline controls on the repopulation of subgingival periodontal sites with disease-associated micro-organisms following a single procedure of scaling and root planing. Additionally, pertinent clinical parameters (attachment level, plaque index, bleeding on probing) were also recorded. 375 sites in 30 individuals with previously untreated periodontal disease were thoroughly scaled and subsequently either rescaled, irrigated, or not treated at all for the following 6 months at 1-month intervals. The results show that the initial scaling and root planing procedure led to significant clinical and microbiological improvements in all experimental groups. These improvements were maintained in all but the untreated sites. Based on the observed clinical and microbiological changes, subgingival irrigation of periodontal pockets at 1-month intervals was equally effective as scaling and root planing performed at the same pace. 0.1% chlorhexidine however, being used as test irrigant, was not more effective than saline controls.

  5. Ribotyping on small-sized spirochetes isolated from subgingival plaque

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, N E; Bangsborg, J M; Colding, H

    1995-01-01

    In the present study DNA restriction patterns and corresponding ribotypes of 17 subgingival small-sized spirochetes (1:2:1 and 2:4:2 isolates), 2 Treponema socranskii strains and two Treponema denticola strains were examined. Purified chromosomal DNA was digested by BamHI, HindIII, PstI and ClaI....

  6. Effect of freezing goat milk samples on recovery of intramammary bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A; Contreras, A; Jiménez, J; Luengo, C; Corrales, J C; Fernández, C

    2003-06-24

    With the aim of evaluating the effect of freezing goat milk samples on recovery of intramammary pathogens, 1200 milk samples from udder halves with subclinical intramammary infection were studied. Samples (20 ml) were frozen at -20 and at -80 degrees C. Thawing was carried out at room temperature at 7, 14, 21, 28, 58, 118, 178, 236 and 730 days after collection and bacteriological analyses were carried out to determine the number of colony forming units/ml (CFU/ml). Mixed model statistical analysis showed that bacterial group, temperature of storage, interaction of bacterial group and temperature of storage and the interaction of bacterial group, time and temperature of storage were statistically significant effects. For coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), least squares means of log CFU/ml recovered at -20 and -80 degrees C were not different. Nevertheless, for Gram negative bacilli (GNB) a significant decrease was detected in samples frozen at -20 vs. -80 degrees C. At both temperatures and at different times of storage, significant increases were detected between log CFU/ml of CNS and values on day zero. At -20 degrees C, a significant decrease in GNB recovery was detected between freezing days zero and 730. This difference was not detected when goat milk samples infected by GNB were frozen at -80 degrees C. The results show that frozen milk samples can be useful in goat subclinical mastitis control programs.

  7. Comparison of individual and pooled sampling methods for detecting bacterial pathogens of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Evered, J.; Brunson, Ray; Levine, J.; Winton, J.

    2005-01-01

    Examination of finfish populations for viral and bacterial pathogens is an important component of fish disease control programs worldwide. Two methods are commonly used for collecting tissue samples for bacteriological culture, the currently accepted standards for detection of bacterial fish pathogens. The method specified in the Office International des Epizooties Manual of Diagnostic Tests for Aquatic Animals permits combining renal and splenic tissues from as many as 5 fish into pooled samples. The American Fisheries Society (AFS) Blue Book/US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) Inspection Manual specifies the use of a bacteriological loop for collecting samples from the kidney of individual fish. An alternative would be to more fully utilize the pooled samples taken for virology. If implemented, this approach would provide substantial savings in labor and materials. To compare the relative performance of the AFS/USFWS method and this alternative approach, cultures of Yersinia ruckeri were used to establish low-level infections in groups of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that were sampled by both methods. Yersinia ruckeri was cultured from 22 of 37 groups by at least 1 method. The loop method yielded 18 positive groups, with 1 group positive in the loop samples but negative in the pooled samples. The pooled samples produced 21 positive groups, with 4 groups positive in the pooled samples but negative in the loop samples. There was statistically significant agreement (Spearman coefficient 0.80, P < 0.001) in the relative ability of the 2 sampling methods to permit detection of low-level bacterial infections of rainbow trout.

  8. Effect of smoking on subgingival microflora of patients with periodontitis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Satoru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is a risk factor for periodontitis. To clarify the contribution of smoking to periodontitis, it is essential to assess the relationship between smoking and the subgingival microflora. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the influence of smoking on the microflora of Japanese patients with periodontitis. Methods Sixty-seven Japanese patients with chronic periodontitis (19 to 83 years old, 23 women and 44 men were enrolled in the present study. They consisted of 30 smokers and 37 non-smokers. Periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD and bleeding on probing (BOP and oral hygiene status were recorded. Detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum/periodonticum, Treponema denticola and Campylobacter rectus in subgingival plaque samples was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Association between the detection of periodontopathic bacteria and smoking status was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis and chi-square test. Results A statistically significant association was found between having a PPD ≥ 4 mm and detection of T. denticola, P. intermedia, T. forsythia, or C. rectus, with odds ratios ranging from 2.17 to 3.54. A significant association was noted between BOP and the detection of C. rectus or P. intermedia, and smoking, with odds ratios ranging from 1.99 to 5.62. Prevalence of C. rectus was higher in smokers than non-smokers, whereas that of A. actinomycetemcomitans was lower in smokers. Conclusions Within limits, the analysis of the subgingival microbial flora in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis suggests a relevant association between smoking and colonization by the specific periodontal pathogens including C. rectus.

  9. Effect of smoking on subgingival microflora of patients with periodontitis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Michiya; Tanno-Nakanishi, Mariko; Yamada, Satoru; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-05

    Smoking is a risk factor for periodontitis. To clarify the contribution of smoking to periodontitis, it is essential to assess the relationship between smoking and the subgingival microflora. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the influence of smoking on the microflora of Japanese patients with periodontitis. Sixty-seven Japanese patients with chronic periodontitis (19 to 83 years old, 23 women and 44 men) were enrolled in the present study. They consisted of 30 smokers and 37 non-smokers. Periodontal parameters including probing pocket depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP) and oral hygiene status were recorded. Detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Fusobacterium nucleatum/periodonticum, Treponema denticola and Campylobacter rectus in subgingival plaque samples was performed by polymerase chain reaction. Association between the detection of periodontopathic bacteria and smoking status was analyzed by multiple logistic regression analysis and chi-square test. A statistically significant association was found between having a PPD ≥ 4 mm and detection of T. denticola, P. intermedia, T. forsythia, or C. rectus, with odds ratios ranging from 2.17 to 3.54. A significant association was noted between BOP and the detection of C. rectus or P. intermedia, and smoking, with odds ratios ranging from 1.99 to 5.62. Prevalence of C. rectus was higher in smokers than non-smokers, whereas that of A. actinomycetemcomitans was lower in smokers. Within limits, the analysis of the subgingival microbial flora in smokers and non-smokers with chronic periodontitis suggests a relevant association between smoking and colonization by the specific periodontal pathogens including C. rectus.

  10. Microbial diversity of supra- and subgingival biofilms on freshly colonized titanium implant abutments in the human mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, W; Stiesch, M; Abraham, W R

    2011-02-01

    Supra- and subgingival biofilm formation is considered to be mainly responsible for early implant failure caused by inflammations of periimplant tissues. Nevertheless, little is known about the complex microbial diversity and interindividual similarities around dental implants. An atraumatic assessment was made of the diversity of microbial communities around titanium implants by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons as well as subsequent sequence analysis. Samples of adherent supra- and subgingival periimplant biofilms were collected from ten patients. Additionally, samples of sulcusfluid were taken at titanium implant abutments and remaining teeth. The bacteria in the samples were characterized by SSCP and sequence analysis. A high diversity of bacteria varying between patients and within one patient at different locations was found. Bacteria characteristic for sulcusfluid and supra- and subgingival biofilm communities were identified. Sulcusfluid of the abutments showed higher abundance of Streptococcus species than from residual teeth. Prevotella and Rothia species frequently reported from the oral cavity were not detected at the abutments suggesting a role as late colonizers. Different niches in the human mouth are characterized by specific groups of bacteria. Implant abutments are a very valuable approach to study dental biofilm development in vivo.

  11. Detection of bacterial quorum sensing N-acyl homoserine lactones in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Anjali; Pasini, Patrizia; Daunert, Sylvia

    2008-07-01

    Bacteria communicate among themselves using certain chemical signaling molecules. These signaling molecules generally are N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) in Gram-negative bacteria and oligopeptides in Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria produce a family of signaling molecules known as autoinducer-2 that they employ for their communications. Bacteria coordinate their behavior by releasing and responding to the chemical signaling molecules present in proportion to their population density. This phenomenon is known as quorum sensing. The role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, is well established. Moreover, rather recently bacterial quorum sensing has been implicated in the onset of bacterial pathogenicity. Thus, we hypothesized that the signaling molecules involved in bacterial communication may serve as potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and management of several bacteria-related diseases. For that, we previously developed a method based on genetically engineered whole-cell sensing systems for the rapid, sensitive, cost-effective and quantitative detection of AHLs in biological samples, such as saliva and stool, from both healthy and diseased individuals with GI disorders. Although various analytical methods, based on physical-chemical techniques and bacterial whole-cell biosensors, have been developed for the detection of AHLs in the supernatants of bacterial cultures, only a few of them have been applied to AHL monitoring in real samples. In this paper, we report work performed in our laboratory and review that from others that describes the detection of AHLs in biological, clinical samples, and report some of our recent experimental results.

  12. Subgingival microbiome in smokers and non-smokers in periodontitis: an exploratory study using traditional targeted techniques and a next-generation sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bizzarro, S.; Loos, B.G.; Laine, M.L.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim To compare the results of two targeted techniques to an open-ended technique in periodontitis patients, differentiated on the basis of smoking habit. Materials & Methods Thirty periodontitis patients (15 smokers and 15 non-smokers) provided subgingival plaque samples for 16S rRNA gene amplicon

  13. Comparative analysis of bacterial profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples

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    Daniel Belstrøm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The microbial profiles of stimulated saliva samples have been shown to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. Saliva was stimulated to allow for easy and rapid collection; however, microbial composition may not reflect the more natural, unstimulated state. The purpose of this study was to validate whether stimulated saliva is an adequate surrogate for unstimulated saliva in determining salivary microbiomes. Design: Unstimulated (n=20 and stimulated (n=20 saliva samples were collected from 20 orally and systemically healthy, non-smoking participants. Salivary bacterial profiles were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS, and statistical analysis was performed using Mann–Whitney test with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparison, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and correspondence analysis. Results: From a total of 40 saliva samples, 496 probe targets were identified with a mean number of targets per sample of 203 (range: 146–303, and a mean number of probe targets of 206 and 200 in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples, respectively (p=0.62. Based on all statistical methods used for this study, the microbial profiles of unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples collected from the same person were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: Analysis of bacterial salivary profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples collected from the same individual showed comparable results. Thus, the results verify that stimulated saliva is an adequate surrogate of unstimulated saliva for microbiome-related studies.

  14. Comparative analysis of bacterial profiles in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Holmstrup, Palle; Jensen, Allan Bardow

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The microbial profiles of stimulated saliva samples have been shown to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, patients with dental caries, and orally healthy individuals. Saliva was stimulated to allow for easy and rapid collection; however, microbial...... orally and systemically healthy, non-smoking participants. Salivary bacterial profiles were analyzed by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification using Next Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS), and statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test with Benjamini-Hochberg's correction...

  15. Molecular viability testing of bacterial pathogens from a complex human sample matrix.

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    Kris M Weigel

    Full Text Available Assays for bacterial ribosomal RNA precursors (pre-rRNA have been shown to distinguish viable from inactivated bacterial cells in drinking water samples. Because the synthesis of pre-rRNA is rapidly induced by nutritional stimulation, viable bacteria can be distinguished from inactivated cells and free nucleic acids by measuring the production of species-specific pre-rRNA in samples that have been briefly stimulated with nutrients. Here, pre-rRNA analysis was applied to bacteria from serum, a human sample matrix. In contrast to drinking water, serum is rich in nutrients that might be expected to mask the effects of nutritional stimulation. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assays were used to detect pre-rRNA of four bacterial species: Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. These species were chosen for their clinical significance and phylogenetic diversity (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. To maximize resolving power, pre-rRNA was normalized to genomic DNA of each pathogen. When viable cells were shifted from serum to bacteriological culture medium, rapid replenishment of pre-rRNA was always observed. Cells of P. aeruginosa that were inactivated in the presence of serum exhibited no pre-rRNA response to nutritional stimulation, despite strong genomic DNA signals in these samples. When semi-automated methods were used, pre-rRNA analysis detected viable A. baumannii cells in serum at densities of ≤100 CFU/mL in <5.5 hours. Originally developed for rapid microbiological analysis of drinking water, ratiometric pre-rRNA analysis can also assess the viability of bacterial cells derived from human specimens, without requiring bacteriological culture.

  16. [Enhancement of norovirus detection rates in oysters and other food samples by using bacterial treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Arai, Teruyoshi; Hayashi, Yukinao; Mori, Kohji; Noguchi, Yayoi; Nagano, Miyuki; Yoshida, Yasuko; Yano, Kazuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Factors such as low recovery rate and food contaminants may be responsible for the difficulty of detecting Norovirus (NV) by PCR in foodborne outbreaks. To detect NV more efficiently, we introduced a bacterial treatment, in which concentrated samples were incubated overnight with Klebsiella oxytoca at 35 degrees C before RNA extraction using the standard protocol. Recovery rates of NVs (G I/8 or G II/13) added to food suspensions in the modified method were compared with those in the standard method by quantification of NV RNAs using real-time PCR. Recovery rates in the modified method were 8.6% for G I/8 and 11.6% for G II/13 in 18 oyster samples and 13.9% for G I/8 and 19.6% for G II/13 in 15 other food samples, while those in the standard method were 0.3% for G I/8 and 0.5% for G II/13 in the oyster samples and 1.9% for G I/8 and 7.9% for G II/13 in the other food samples. These results indicate that the bacterial treatment increase the recovery of NV from foods such as oysters, suggesting that the modified method will be useful for NV detection in food samples.

  17. The subgingival periodontal microbiota in the aging mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    FERES, Magda; TELES, Flavia; TELES, Ricardo; FIGUEIREDO, Luciene Cristina; FAVERI, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the increase in prevalence and severity of periodontitis in older adults, including shifts in the periodontal microbiota. However, the actual impact of aging in the composition of subgingival biofilms remains unclear. In the present article, we provide an overview of the composition of the subgingival biofilm in older adults and the potential effects of age on the oral microbiome. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (i) the oral microbiota of an aging mouth, (ii) the effects of age and time on the human oral microbiome, (iii) the potential impact of inflammaging and immunosenescence in the host-oral microbiota interactions, and (iv) the relationship of the aging oral microbiota and Alzheimer’s disease. Finally, in order to explore in greater breadth the potential effects of aging on the periodontal microbiota, we present analyses of data compiled from large clinical studies that evaluated the subgingival microbiota of periodontally healthy subjects and periodontitis patients from a wide age spectrum (20–83 years old). Those studies were conducted at Guarulhos University (São Paulo, SP, Brazil) and at The Forsyth Institute (Cambridge, USA), from 1999 to 2014. PMID:27501490

  18. The subgingival periodontal microbiota of the aging mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feres, Magda; Teles, Flavia; Teles, Ricardo; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Faveri, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Different mechanisms have been hypothesized to explain the increase in prevalence and severity of periodontitis in older adults, including shifts in the periodontal microbiota. However, the actual impact of aging on the composition of subgingival biofilms remains unclear. In the present article, we provide an overview of the composition of the subgingival biofilm in older adults and the potential effects of age on the oral microbiome. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (i) the oral microbiota of an aging mouth; (ii) the effects of age and time on the human oral microbiome; (iii) the potential impact of inflammaging and immunosenescence in the host-oral microbiota interactions; and (iv) the relationship of the aging oral microbiota and Alzheimer's disease. Finally, we present analyses of data compiled from large clinical studies that evaluated the subgingival microbiota of periodontally healthy subjects and patients with periodontitis from a wide age spectrum (20-83 years of age). © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on the subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Hilana Paula Carillo Artese

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy on the composition of subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Sixteen CKD pre-dialysis individuals (CKD and 14 individuals without clinical evidence of kidney disease (C presenting chronic periodontitis were treated by scaling and root planing. Subgingival samples were collected from each patient and analyzed for their composition by checkerboard at baseline and 3 months post-therapy. Significant differences between groups at baseline were sought by the Mann-Whitney and χ² tests. Changes over time were examined by the Wilcoxon test. At baseline, the CKD group had significantly lower counts of E. faecalis compared to the C group (p < 0.05. After treatment, the levels of a greater number of species were reduced in the C group. Higher levels of A. israelii, C. rectus, F. periodonticum, P. micra, P. nigrescens, T. forsythia, N. mucosa, and S. anginosus (p < 0.05 were found in the CKD group compared to the C group. Also, non-responsive sites in CKD individuals harbored significantly higher levels of pathogenic species (T. forsythia, P. gingivalis, T. denticola, Fusobacterium spp., D. pneumosintes, E. faecalis and S. aureus; p < 0.05 than sites that responded to therapy, as well as non-responsive sites in the C group. The periodontitis-associated subgingival microbiota of CKD and systemically healthy individuals was similar in composition. However, high levels of pathogenic species persisted in the subgingival microbiota of patients with CKD after treatment.

  20. Análise microbiológica da placa bacteriana da doença periodontal em cães e o efeito da antibioticoterapia sobre ela Microbiological analysis of bacterial plaque of periodontal disease on dogs and effects of antibioticotherapy on it

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    Stella Alves da Fonseca

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a microbiota da placa bacteriana subgengival de cães com doença periodontal (DP e estabelecer o efeito da antibioticoterapia. Avaliaram-se 20 cães com graus variados de DP e coletaram-se amostras da placa bacteriana subgengival antes e após antibioticoterapia. Preconizou-se antibioticoterapia distinta em dois grupos, com 10 animais cada: clindamicina (G1 e metronidazol + espiramicina (G2. Observou-se crescimento bacteriano subgengival na maioria dos cães com DP e correlação entre a severidade da DP e a idade dos animais. Houve redução significativa no crescimento bacteriano após a antibioticoterapia e o antibiograma demonstrou maior sensibilidade à clindamicina, seguido da espiramicina; todos os microrganismos foram resistentes ao metronidazol.The objective was to determine microbiote of the subgingival bacterial plaque of dogs with periodontal disease (PD and establish the effect of antibioticotherapy on its reduction. Twenty dogs with varied stages of PD were evaluated and samples of their subgingival bacterial plaque were collected. Distinct antibiotic protocols were used in two groups with ten animals each: clindamycin (G1 and metronidazole + espiramycin (G2. New subgingival samples were collected 15 days after antibiotic therapy started. There were observed subgingival bacterial culture on most dogs with PD and correlation between severity of PD and age. There was reduction of bacterial growth in 20% of the samples after treatment and antibiogram showed higher sensibility to clindamycin, followed by espiramycin - all microorganisms were resistant to metronidazole.

  1. Screening of bovine milk samples for sub-clinical mastitis and antibiogram of bacterial isolates

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    Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (58% and Escherichia coli (23.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8%, Streptococcus sp. (5.5%, Klebsiella sp. (3% and Bacillus sp. (2%. The in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity for ciprofloxacin (89%, ofloxacin (85%, enrofloxacin (82%, gentamicin (80% and chloramphenicol (75%, resistant to colistin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 358-359

  2. Diabetes, periodontitis, and the subgingival microbiota

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    Edward J. Ohlrich

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes have been associated with increased severity of periodontal disease for many years. More recently, the impact of periodontal disease on glycaemic control has been investigated. The role of the oral microbiota in this two-way relationship is at this stage unknown. Further studies, of a longitudinal nature and investigating a wider array of bacterial species, are required in order to conclusively determine if there is a difference in the oral microbiota of diabetics and non-diabetics and whether this difference accounts, on the one hand, for the increased severity of periodontal disease and on the other for the poorer glycaemic control seen in diabetics.

  3. The prevalence of bacterial resistance in clinical, food, water and some environmental samples in Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateef, A; Oloke, J K; Gueguimkana, E B

    2005-01-01

    The resistance pattern and mechanisms of bacterial isolates obtained from clinical origin, soil, industrial effluent, orange juice products and drinking water were studied using commonly used antibiotics. The microbial load of the water samples, industrial effluent and orange juice products were 1.0 x 10(1)-2.25 x 10(6), 2.15 x 10(5), and 3.5 x 10(4)-2.15 x 10(5) cfu mL(-1), respectively. The faecal coliform test revealed that only two out of twenty orange juice products had MPN of 2 and 20, the MPN of water ranged from 1-> or = 1800, while the effluent had MPN of > or = 1800. The bacterial isolates that were isolated include E. coli, S. aureus, P. vulgaris, S. marcescens, S. pyogenes, B. cereus, B. subtilis, Micrococcus sp., Klebsiella sp., P. aeruginosa, and Enterobacter sp. Also, clinical and soil isolates of P. aeruginosa were used in the study. Among the eight antibiotics tested for resistance on five strains of each bacterium, seven different resistance patterns were observed among the bacterial isolates obtained from water, effluent and orange juice products. Among the clinical and soil isolates of P. aeruginosa, four multiple-drug resistance patterns were obtained. Thirty strains of E. coli and S. aureus were tested for beta-lactamase production and fourteen strains, seven each of E. coli and S. aureus that had high Minimum Inhibitory Concentration values (MIC) for both Amoxycillin and Cloxacillin were positive.

  4. Molecular Analysis of the Bacterial Communities in Crude Oil Samples from Two Brazilian Offshore Petroleum Platforms

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    Elisa Korenblum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil samples with high- and low-water content from two offshore platforms (PA and PB in Campos Basin, Brazil, were assessed for bacterial communities by 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries. RDP Classifier was used to analyze a total of 156 clones within four libraries obtained from two platforms. The clone sequences were mainly affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria (78.2% of the total clones; however, clones associated with Betaproteobacteria (10.9%, Alphaproteobacteria (9%, and Firmicutes (1.9% were also identified. Pseudomonadaceae was the most common family affiliated with these clone sequences. The sequences were further analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 81 operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness estimators also calculated by MOTHUR indicated that oil samples with high-water content were the most diverse. Comparison of bacterial communities present in these four samples using LIBSHUFF and Principal Component Analysis (PCA indicated that the water content significantly influenced the community structure only of crude oil obtained from PA. Differences between PA and PB libraries were observed, suggesting the importance of the oil field as a driver of community composition in this habitat.

  5. Relative proportions of pathogen-related oral spirochetes (PROS) and Treponema denticola in supragingival and subgingival plaque from patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, G R; Elliot, K S; Adams, D F; Simonson, L G; Forgas, L B; Nilius, A M; Lukehart, S A

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to use monoclonal antibodies to enumerate spirochetes in dental plaque, including the newly recognized pathogen-related oral spirochete (PROS) and specific serovars of Treponema denticola. Plaque was collected from control subjects with no apparent periodontal disease and from sites of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis in patients with inflammatory periodontal disease. Individual monoclonal antibodies were used to determine whether spirochetes were present and then a double-staining protocol was employed to count total spirochetes and specific treponemes in individual microscopic fields. Results indicate that spirochetes are more common at diseased sites and in subgingival plaque than at healthy sites or in supragingival plaque. Together PROS and T. denticola comprised the majority of all spirochetes in all samples and PROS and T. denticola serovars "B" and D were most numerous in plaque from patients with periodontitis. PROS were the majority of all spirochetes in supragingival plaque (76.2% +/- 23.8%) and subgingival plaque (60.9% +/- 19.1%) from periodontitis patients, significantly larger than the percentage of T. denticola serovar "B" (P less than .001 for both supragingival and subgingival plaque) and serovar D (P less than .01 for supragingival and P less than .001 for subgingival plaque). These observations indicate that PROS are the predominant spirochete in plaque from sites of patients with periodontitis, but other analytical approaches are necessary to determine if PROS or T. denticola are pathogenic.

  6. [Bacterial isolates from respiratory samples of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis and their distribution by ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Natalia P; Baroni, María R; Ochoteco, María C; Zurbriggen, María L; Virgolini, Stella; Meneghetti, Fernando G

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial isolates from respiratory samples of 50 pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis, their distribution by ages and antimicrobial resistance pattern as well as the intermittence of isolations and coinfections, were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 72 % of patients, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (58 %), Haemophilus. influenzae (56 %), and the Burkholderia cepacia complex (12 %). The frequency of resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to β-lactam antibiotics was low (13.8 %). Fifty percent of S. aureus isolates was methicillin-resistant, and 57.1 % of H. influenza was ampicillin resistant due to β-lactamase production. In children under 4 years-old, S. aureus was predominant, followed by P. aeruginosa and H. influenzae. This order of predominance was observed in all the groups studied, except in that of children between 10 and 14 years-old. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolates were intermittent and accompanied by other microorganisms. Finally, we observed a great variety of bacterial species, which imposes stringent performance requirements for microbiological studies in all respiratory samples of these patients.

  7. Changes in antimicrobial susceptibility profile and prevalence of quinolone low-sensitive strains in subgingival plaque from acute periodontal lesions after systemic administration of sitafloxacin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Sachiyo; Kasai, Shunsuke; Imamura, Kentaro; Ihara, Yuichiro; Kita, Daichi; Ota, Koki; Sekino, Jin; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Saito, Atsushi

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in antimicrobial susceptibilities of subgingival bacteria in acute periodontal lesions following systemic administration of a new-generation fluoroquinolone, sitafloxacin and to monitor the occurrence and fate of quinolone low-sensitive strains. Patients with acute phase of chronic periodontitis were subjected to microbiological assessment of their subgingival plaque samples at baseline (A1). Sitafloxacin was then administered systemically (100 mg/day for 5 days). The microbiological examinations were repeated one week after administration (A2). Susceptibilities of clinical isolates from acute sites to various antimicrobials were determined using broth and agar dilution methods. At A2, subgingival bacteria with low sensitivity to levofloxacin were identified in four patients, and they were subjected to a follow-up microbiological examination at on the average 12 months after sitafloxacin administration (A3). The patients received initial and supportive periodontal therapy during the period A2 to A3. From the examined subgingival sites, 8 and 19 clinical isolates were obtained at A2 and A3, respectively. Some Streptococcus strains isolated at A2 were found to be resistant to levofloxacin (MIC 16-64 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC 2->128 μg/ml) or clarithromycin (MIC 1->32 μg/ml). At A3, isolated streptococci were highly susceptible to levofloxacin (MIC 0.5-2 μg/ml), while those resistant to azithromycin or clarithromycin were still isolated. It is suggested that the presence of the quinolone low-sensitive strains in initially acute lesions after sitafloxacin administration was transient, and they do not persist in the subgingival milieu during the periodontal therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis to study bacterial community structure in pockets of periodontitis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijnge, V.; Harmsen, H.J.M.; Kleinfelder, J.W.; Rest, M.E. van der; Degener, J.E.; Welling, G.W.

    Bacteria are involved in the onset and progression of periodontitis. A promising molecular technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), to study microbial population dynamics in the subgingival pocket is presented. Twenty-three samples were taken from the subgingival pockets of nine

  9. Biases during DNA extraction affect bacterial and archaeal community profile of anaerobic digestion samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopnarain, Ashira; Mukhuba, Mashudu; Adeleke, Rasheed; Moeletsi, Mokhele

    2017-12-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic waste for biogas production has received much attention in recent years due to the increasing need for renewable energy and environmentally friendly waste management systems. Identification of the microbial community involved in AD aids in better understanding and optimising of the process. The choice of DNA extraction method is an integral step in any molecular biodiversity study. In the present study, potential biases introduced by DNA extraction methods were examined by comparing quality, quantity and representability of DNA extracted from AD samples using various extraction methods. In spite of the non-kit based method (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) yielding the largest quantity of DNA (approximately 44 µg DNA per gram dry weight), the extracted DNA contained PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, the quantity of extracted DNA was not proportional to species diversity. Diversity, determined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), was strongly linked to the type of extraction method used. The spin-column filter-based kit that incorporated mechanical and chemical lysis (Macherey-Nagel kit) gave the best results in terms of bacterial and archaeal diversity (Shannon-Wiener indices: average 2.5 and 2.6, respectively). Furthermore, this kit was the most effective at lysing hard-to-lyse bacterial and archaeal cells. The choice of DNA extraction method significantly influences the reliability and comparability of results obtained during AD microbial ecology investigations. Moreover, the careful selection of the DNA extraction method is of particular importance when analysing AD samples since these samples are rich in PCR inhibitors and hard-to-lyse cells such as archaea and gram-positive bacteria.

  10. Evaluation of bacterial diversity recovered from petroleum samples using different physical matrices

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    Bruna Martins Dellagnezze

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Unraveling the microbial diversity and its complexity in petroleum reservoir environments has been a challenge throughout the years. Despite the techniques developed in order to improve methodologies involving DNA extraction from crude oil, microbial enrichments using different culture conditions can be applied as a way to increase the recovery of DNA from environments with low cellular density for further microbiological analyses. This work aimed at the evaluation of different matrices (arenite, shale and polyurethane foam as support materials for microbial growth and biofilm formation in enrichments using a biodegraded petroleum sample as inoculum in sulfate reducing condition. Subsequent microbial diversity characterization was carried out using Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE and 16S rRNA gene libraries in order to compare the microbial biomass yield, DNA recovery efficiency and diversity among the enrichments. The DNA from microbial communities in petroleum enrichments was purified according to a protocol established in this work and used for 16S rRNA amplification with bacterial generic primers. The PCR products were cloned, and positive clones were screened by Amplified Ribosomal DNA Restriction Analysis (ARDRA. Sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the bacterial community was mostly represented by members of the genera Petrotoga, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Geobacillus and Rahnella. The use of different support materials in the enrichments yielded an increase in microbial biomass and biofilm formation, indicating that these materials may be employed for efficient biomass recovery from petroleum reservoir samples. Nonetheless, the most diverse microbiota were recovered from the biodegraded petroleum sample using polyurethane foam cubes as support material.

  11. Detection and comparison of Selenomonas sputigena in subgingival biofilms in chronic and aggressive periodontitis patients

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    Disha Nagpal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the advent of DNA-based culture-independent techniques, a constantly growing number of Selenomonas phylotypes have been detected in patients with destructive periodontal diseases. However, the prevalence levels that have been determined in different studies vary considerably. Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect and compare the presence of Selenomonas sputigena in the subgingival plaque samples from generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP, chronic generalized periodontitis, and periodontally healthy patients using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients were categorized as periodontally healthy individuals (Group I, n = 30, chronic generalized periodontitis (Group II, n = 30, and GAP (Group III, n = 30. The clinical parameters were recorded and subgingival plaque samples were collected. These were then subjected to conventional PCR analysis.Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA test was used for multiple group comparisons followed by Mann–Whitney U-test for pairwise comparison. Results: On comparison between three groups, all the clinical parameters were found to be statistically highly significant. Comparing Groups I-II and I-III, the difference in detection was found to be statistically highly significant whereas in Groups II-III, it was statistically nonsignificant. On comparison of S. sputigena detected and undetected patients to clinical parameters in various study groups, the difference was found to be nonsignificant. Conclusion:S. sputigena was found to be significantly associated with chronic and aggressive periodontitis. Although the difference in its detection frequency in both groups was statistically nonsignificant when compared clinically, S. sputigena was more closely associated with the GAP.

  12. Reliability of recordings of subgingival calculus detected using an ultrasonic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corraini, Priscila; López, Rodrigo

    2015-04-01

    To assess the intra-examiner reliability of recordings of subgingival calculus detected using an ultrasonic device, and to investigate the influence of subject-, tooth- and site-level factors on the reliability of these subgingival calculus recordings. On two occasions, within a 1-week interval, 147 adult periodontitis patients received a full-mouth clinical periodontal examination by a single trained examiner. Duplicate subgingival calculus recordings, in six sites per tooth, were obtained using an ultrasonic device for calculus detection and removal. Agreement was observed in 65 % of the 22,584 duplicate subgingival calculus recordings, ranging 45 % to 83 % according to subject. Using hierarchical modeling, disagreements in the subgingival calculus duplicate recordings were more likely in all other sites than the mid-buccal, and in sites harboring supragingival calculus. Disagreements were less likely in sites with PD ≥  4 mm and with furcation involvement  ≥  degree 2. Bleeding on probing or suppuration did not influence the reliability of subgingival calculus. At the subject-level, disagreements were less likely in patients presenting with the highest and lowest extent categories of the covariate subgingival calculus. The reliability of subgingival calculus recordings using the ultrasound technology is reasonable. The results of the present study suggest that the reliability of subgingival calculus recordings is not influenced by the presence of inflammation. Moreover, subgingival calculus can be more reliably detected using the ultrasound device at sites with higher need for periodontal therapy, i.e., sites presenting with deep pockets and premolars and molars with furcation involvement.

  13. Bacterial Composition and Diversity in Breast Milk Samples from Mothers Living in Taiwan and Mainland China

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    Shiao-Wen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Human breast milk is widely recognized as the best source of nutrients for healthy growth and development of infants; it contains a diverse microbiota. Here, we characterized the diversity of the microbiota in the breast milk of East Asian women and assessed whether delivery mode influenced the microbiota in the milk of healthy breast-feeding mothers. We profiled the microbiota in breast milk samples collected from 133 healthy mothers in Taiwan and in six regions of mainland China (Central, East, North, Northeast, South, and Southwest China by using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Lactation stage (months postpartum when the milk sample was collected and maternal body mass index did not influence the breast milk microbiota. Bacterial composition at the family level differed significantly among samples from the seven geographical regions. The five most predominant bacterial families were Streptococcaceae (mean relative abundance: 24.4%, Pseudomonadaceae (14.0%, Staphylococcaceae (12.2%, Lactobacillaceae (6.2%, and Oxalobacteraceae (4.8%. The microbial profiles were classified into three clusters, driven by Staphylococcaceae (abundance in Cluster 1: 42.1%, Streptococcaceae (Cluster 2: 48.5%, or Pseudomonadaceae (Cluster 3: 26.5%. Microbial network analysis at the genus level revealed that the abundances of the Gram-positive Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Rothia were negatively correlated with those of the Gram-negative Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Halomonas, Herbaspirillum, and Pseudomonas. Milk from mothers who had undergone Caesarian section (C-section group had a significantly higher abundance of Lactobacillus (P < 0.05 and a higher number of unique unclassified operational taxonomic units (OTUs (P < 0.001 than that from mothers who had undergone vaginal delivery (vaginal group. These findings revealed that (i geographic differences in the microbial profiles were found in breast milk from mothers living in Taiwan and mainland China, (ii the

  14. Characterization of bacterial strains capable of desulphurisation in soil and sediment samples from Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniek, Douglas; Figueiredo, Débora; Pylro, Victor Satler; Duarte, Gabriela Frois

    2010-09-01

    The presence of sulphur in fossil fuels and the natural environment justifies the study of sulphur-utilising bacterial species and genes involved in the biodesulphurisation process. Technology has been developed based on the natural ability of microorganisms to remove sulphur from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon chains. This biotechnology aims to minimise the emission of sulphur oxides into the atmosphere during combustion and prevent the formation of acid rain. In this study, the isolation and characterization of desulphurising microorganisms in rhizosphere and bulk soil samples from Antarctica that were either contaminated with oil or uncontaminated was described. The growth of selected isolates and their capacity to utilise sulphur based on the formation of the terminal product of desulphurisation via the 4S pathway, 2-hydroxybiphenyl, was analysed. DNA was extracted from the isolates and BOX-PCR and DNA sequencing were performed to obtain a genomic diversity profile of cultivable desulphurising bacterial species. Fifty isolates were obtained showing the ability of utilising dibenzothiophene as a substrate and sulphur source for maintenance and growth when plated on selective media. However, only seven genetically diverse isolates tested positive for sulphur removal using the Gibbs assay. DNA sequencing revealed that these isolates were related to the genera Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas.

  15. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa chemotaxis methyltransferase CheR1 impacts on bacterial surface sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schmidt

    Full Text Available The characterization of factors contributing to the formation and development of surface-associated bacterial communities known as biofilms has become an area of intense interest since biofilms have a major impact on human health, the environment and industry. Various studies have demonstrated that motility, including swimming, swarming and twitching, seems to play an important role in the surface colonization and establishment of structured biofilms. Thereby, the impact of chemotaxis on biofilm formation has been less intensively studied. Pseudomonas aeruginosa has a very complex chemosensory system with two Che systems implicated in flagella-mediated motility. In this study, we demonstrate that the chemotaxis protein CheR1 is a methyltransferase that binds S-adenosylmethionine and transfers a methyl group from this methyl donor to the chemoreceptor PctA, an activity which can be stimulated by the attractant serine but not by glutamine. We furthermore demonstrate that CheR1 does not only play a role in flagella-mediated chemotaxis but that its activity is essential for the formation and maintenance of bacterial biofilm structures. We propose a model in which motility and chemotaxis impact on initial attachment processes, dispersion and reattachment and increase the efficiency and frequency of surface sampling in P. aeruginosa.

  16. [Bacterial resistance and antibiotic prescriptions: perceptions, attitudes and knowledge of a sample of French GPs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, C; Naqvi, A; Gardella, F; Dellamonica, P; Sotto, A

    2010-12-01

    The study's objective was to assess General Practitioners' (GPs) perceptions of their antibiotic prescribing practice and of bacterial resistance. We surveyed a random sample of 102 GPs out of the 1242 working in the Alpes-Maritimes area (France). The response rate was 69%. More than 80% of the GPs felt confident when prescribing an antibiotic. The two main factors thought to influence their antibiotic prescriptions were their previous experience (97%) and guidelines (81%), advice from a colleague was quoted by only 13% of the GPs. Antibiotic resistance was perceived as a national problem by 91% of the respondents, but only 65% rated the problem as important in their own daily practice. Widespread and inappropriate antibiotic use, prescription of broad spectrum antibiotics or too low antibiotic doses were rated as important causes of resistance, but excessive duration of antibiotic treatment or poor hand hygiene practices were cited less often. The three measures perceived to be helpful or very helpful to improve antibiotic prescribing by more than 80% of the GPs were training sessions, availability of guidelines and of resistance data. These perceptions must be taken into account to maximize adherence of GPs to the measures intended to limit bacterial resistance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Sequence-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal compositions of multiple kombucha (tea fungus) samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Alan J; O'Sullivan, Orla; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    Kombucha is a sweetened tea beverage that, as a consequence of fermentation, contains ethanol, carbon dioxide, a high concentration of acid (gluconic, acetic and lactic) as well as a number of other metabolites and is thought to contain a number of health-promoting components. The sucrose-tea solution is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulosic pellicle, which forms a floating mat in the tea, and generates a new layer with each successful fermentation. The specific identity of the microbial populations present has been the focus of attention but, to date, the majority of studies have relied on culture-based analyses. To gain a more comprehensive insight into the kombucha microbiota we have carried out the first culture-independent, high-throughput sequencing analysis of the bacterial and fungal populations of 5 distinct pellicles as well as the resultant fermented kombucha at two time points. Following the analysis it was established that the major bacterial genus present was Gluconacetobacter, present at >85% in most samples, with only trace populations of Acetobacter detected (kombucha, also being revealed. The yeast populations were found to be dominated by Zygosaccharomyces at >95% in the fermented beverage, with a greater fungal diversity present in the cellulosic pellicle, including numerous species not identified in kombucha previously. Ultimately, this study represents the most accurate description of the microbiology of kombucha to date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with chronic periodontal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Renata; Silva-Boghossian, Carina M.; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2014-01-01

    P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are important pathogens associated with late nosocomial pneumonia in hospitalized and institutionalized individuals. The oral cavity may be a major source of these respiratory pathogens, particularly in the presence of poor oral hygiene and periodontal infection. This study investigated the prevalence of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with periodontal disease or health. Samples were obtained from 55 periodontally healthy (PH) and 169 chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. DNA was obtained from the samples and detection of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. was carried out by multiplex and nested PCR. P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were detected in 40% and 45% of all samples, respectively. No significant differences in the distribution of these microorganisms between men and women, subgingival biofilm and saliva samples, patients ≤ 35 and > 35 years of age, and smokers and non-smokers were observed regardless periodontal status (p > 0.05). In contrast, the frequencies of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in saliva and biofilm samples were significantly greater in CP than PH patients (p oral microbiota of CP. Poor oral hygiene, smoking and the presence of P. aeruginosa are strongly associated with periodontitis. PMID:25242933

  19. Prevalence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with chronic periodontal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souto, Renata; Silva-Boghossian, Carina M; Colombo, Ana Paula Vieira

    2014-01-01

    P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. are important pathogens associated with late nosocomial pneumonia in hospitalized and institutionalized individuals. The oral cavity may be a major source of these respiratory pathogens, particularly in the presence of poor oral hygiene and periodontal infection. This study investigated the prevalence of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in subgingival biofilm and saliva of subjects with periodontal disease or health. Samples were obtained from 55 periodontally healthy (PH) and 169 chronic periodontitis (CP) patients. DNA was obtained from the samples and detection of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. was carried out by multiplex and nested PCR. P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. were detected in 40% and 45% of all samples, respectively. No significant differences in the distribution of these microorganisms between men and women, subgingival biofilm and saliva samples, patients ≤ 35 and > 35 years of age, and smokers and non-smokers were observed regardless periodontal status (p > 0.05). In contrast, the frequencies of P. aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. in saliva and biofilm samples were significantly greater in CP than PH patients (p Acinetobacter spp. are frequently detected in the oral microbiota of CP. Poor oral hygiene, smoking and the presence of P. aeruginosa are strongly associated with periodontitis.

  20. Comparison of Two Suspension Arrays for Simultaneous Detection of Five Biothreat Bacterial in Powder Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed novel Bio-Plex assays for simultaneous detection of Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Brucella spp., Francisella tularensis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Universal primers were used to amplify highly conserved region located within the 16S rRNA amplicon, followed by hybridized to pathogen-specific probes for identification of these five organisms. The other assay is based on multiplex PCR to simultaneously amplify five species-specific pathogen identification-targeted regions unique to individual pathogen. Both of the two arrays are validated to be flexible and sensitive for simultaneous detection of bioterrorism bacteria. However, universal primer PCR-based array could not identify Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Brucella spp. at the species level because of the high conservation of 16S rDNA of the same genus. The two suspension arrays can be utilized to detect Bacillus anthracis sterne spore and Yersinia pestis EV76 from mimic “write powder” samples, they also proved that the suspension array system will be valuable tools for diagnosis of bacterial biothreat agents in environmental samples.

  1. Comparison of seven methods for extraction of bacterial DNA from fecal and cecal samples of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Janina; Patron, Kevin; Legrand-Frossi, Christine; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Merlin, Christophe; Alauzet, Corentine; Lozniewski, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of bacterial DNA from fecal samples of mice is commonly performed in experimental studies. Although DNA extraction is a critical step in various molecular approaches, the efficiency of methods that may be used for DNA extraction from mice fecal samples has never been evaluated. We compared the efficiencies of six widely used commercial kits (MasterPure™ Gram Positive DNA Purification Kit, QIAamp® DNA Stool Mini Kit; NucliSENS® easyMAG®, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep™, FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Feces and FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil) and a non-commercial method for DNA isolation from mice feces and cecal contents. DNA quantity and quality were assessed by fluorometry, spectrophotometry, gel electrophoresis and qPCR. Cell lysis efficiencies were evaluated by qPCR targeting three relevant bacteria in spiked specimens. For both feces and intestinal contents, the most efficient extraction method was the FastDNA® SPIN Kit for Soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Fertilization and Sampling Time on Composition and Diversity of Entire and Active Bacterial Communities in German Grassland Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Sarah; Wemheuer, Franziska; Wemheuer, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Soil bacteria are major players in driving and regulating ecosystem processes. Thus, the identification of factors shaping the diversity and structure of these communities is crucial for understanding bacterial-mediated processes such as nutrient transformation and cycling. As most studies only target the entire soil bacterial community, the response of active community members to environmental changes is still poorly understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fertilizer application and sampling time on structure and diversity of potentially active (RNA-based) and the entire (DNA-based) bacterial communities in German grassland soils. Analysis of more than 2.3 million 16S rRNA transcripts and gene sequences derived from amplicon-based sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that fertilizer application and sampling time significantly altered the diversity and composition of entire and active bacterial communities. Although the composition of both the entire and the active bacterial community was correlated with environmental factors such as pH or C/N ratio, the active community showed a higher sensitivity to environmental changes than the entire community. In addition, functional analyses were performed based on predictions derived from 16S rRNA data. Genes encoding the uptake of nitrate/nitrite, nitrification, and denitrification were significantly more abundant in fertilized plots compared to non-fertilized plots. Hence, this study provided novel insights into changes in dynamics and functions of soil bacterial communities as response to season and fertilizer application. PMID:26694644

  3. Bacterial community profiling of cryogenically ground samples from the apical and coronal root segments of teeth with apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Flávio R F; Siqueira, José F; Carmo, Flávia L; Santos, Adriana L; Peixoto, Raquel S; Rôças, Isabela N; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2009-04-01

    Bacteria located at the apical part of infected root canals are arguably directly involved in the pathogenesis of apical periodontitis. This study was conducted to profile and further compare the bacterial communities established at the apical and middle/coronal segments of infected root canals. Extracted teeth with attached apical periodontitis lesions were sectioned so as to obtain two root fragments representing the apical third and the coronal two thirds. Root fragments were subjected to a cryogenic grinding approach. DNA was extracted from root powder samples and used as a template for bacterial community profiling using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene-based seminested polymerase chain reaction/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis approach. The mean number of bands in apical samples from teeth with primary infections was 28, ranging from 18 to 48, whereas in the middle/coronal samples, it was also 28, ranging from 19 to 36. Findings showed that the profile of bacterial community colonizing the apical third of infected root canals is as diverse as that occurring at the middle/coronal thirds. A high variability was observed for both interindividual (samples from the same region but from different patients) and intraindividual (samples from different regions of the same tooth) comparisons. The methodology used to prepare and analyze samples was highly effective in disclosing a previously unanticipated broad diversity of endodontic bacterial communities, especially at the apical part of infected root canals.

  4. Relationship between expression of human gingival beta-defensins and levels of periodontopathogens in subgingival plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P; Duan, D; Zhou, X; Li, X; Yang, J; Deng, M; Xu, Y

    2015-02-01

    Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are a group of antimicrobial peptides important in epithelial innate immunity, and their differential expression is associated with periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to explore relationships among hBDs, total subgingival bacteria and periodontopathogens in healthy subjects and in patients with chronic periodontitis. The periodontal clinical parameters of 29 healthy subjects and 25 patients with chronic periodontitis were recorded. The relative expression of hBD1, hBD2 and hBD3 genes in gingival biopsies was measured using real-time PCR. The numbers of total bacteria and of Treponema denticola, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia in subgingival plaque were quantified by real-time PCR. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and Spearman's rank correlation test. No significant differences in expression of the hBD genes were found between the group of healthy subjects and the group of patients with chronic periodontitis. Total bacteria and T. denticola were detected in all participants. F. nucleatum and T. forsythia were detected in all patients with chronic periodontitis and in 86.21% and 51.72%, respectively, of healthy volunteers. P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans were detected in 24.14% and 17.24%, respectively, of the healthy group and in 84.00% and 12.00%, respectively, of the chronic periodontitis group. The prevalence of all bacteria, except A. actinomycetemcomitans, was significantly higher in the group of patients with chronic periodontitis than in the group of healthy subjects (p analyzing the data in different groups, total bacteria and hBD-2 were significantly correlated (r = -0.492, p = 0.026) only in the group of healthy subjects. The negative correlations between hBD-2 and total bacteria, especially in the group of healthy subjects, indicate that hBDs may play an important role by limiting an increase of

  5. Scalable DNA-Based Magnetic Nanoparticle Agglutination Assay for Bacterial Detection in Patient Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, Anja; Fock, Jeppe; Antunes, Paula; Østerberg, Frederik W; Boisen, Anja; Nilsson, Mats; Hansen, Mikkel F; Ahlford, Annika; Donolato, Marco

    2015-07-28

    We demonstrate a nanoparticle-based assay for the detection of bacteria causing urinary tract infections in patient samples with a total assay time of 4 h. This time is significantly shorter than the current gold standard, plate culture, which can take several days depending on the pathogen. The assay is based on padlock probe recognition followed by two cycles of rolling circle amplification (RCA) to form DNA coils corresponding to the target bacterial DNA. The readout of the RCA products is based on optomagnetic measurements of the specific agglutination of DNA-bound magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using low-cost optoelectronic components from Blu-ray drives. We implement a detection approach, which relies on the monomerization of the RCA products, the use of the monomers to link and agglutinate two populations of MNPs functionalized with universal nontarget specific detection probes and on the introduction of a magnetic incubation scheme. This enables multiplex detection of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at clinically relevant concentrations, demonstrating a factor of 30 improvement in sensitivity compared to previous MNP-based detection schemes. Thanks to the universal probes, the same set of functionalized MNPs can be used to read out products from a multitude of RCA targets, making the approach truly scalable for parallel detection of multiple bacteria in a future integrated point of care molecular diagnostics system.

  6. Utilization of substrates by bacterial communities (biofilm) as they develop on stored chicken meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, D D; Arnold, J W; Chew, V

    1999-12-01

    Understanding and controlling the metabolic processes of microorganisms associated with chicken meat can lead to safer poultry products with a longer shelf life. The objective of the present study was threefold: 1) to determine the feasibility of using 96-well Biolog GN microtiter plates to assess substrate utilization profiles of bacterial communities (biofilm) as they develop on poultry products, 2) to identify substrates metabolized by microbial populations associated with stored chicken meat, and 3) to compare the substrate utilization profiles of biofilm communities as they develop on meat stored at 4 C (refrigeration temperature) for up to 5 d or at 13 C (a temperature common in poultry processing areas) for 2 d. The protocol used herein for preparing inocula for microplates was acceptable for the collection of optical density values (590 nm) in microplate wells as an indicator of microbial substrate utilization over time. Data from treatment of chicken meat samples using this protocol indicate that most of the 95 substrates tested were metabolized by microbial communities present as early as 1 d after storage at 4 or at 13 C. However, the rapidity (incubation time required for initial substrate utilization) and frequency (percentage of plates positive for transformation of an individual substrate) of metabolism of the substrates by the biofilm communities varied from 4 to 164 h of plate incubation and from 17 to 100% of microplates, respectively. At 13 C, polymers were the most rapidly metabolized substrate group, followed by carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, miscellaneous or amino acids, and amides or amines. Initial utilization of these substrate groups at 4 C occurred within a consistently shorter period (24 h of plate incubation). The frequency of metabolism of each individual substrate group varied only 3 to 16% between samples stored at 4 and 13 C. However, a greater difference in frequency of utilization of some individual substrates was noted. Such

  7. Antibiotic activity and concentrations in clinical samples from patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Cañas, V; Gutiérrez-Soto, B; Almonte-Fernández, H; Lara-Oya, A; Navarro-Marí, J M; Garrido-Frenich, A; Vázquez-Alonso, F; Gutiérrez-Fernández, J

    2017-12-01

    Chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) is the most common urological disease in patients younger than 50 years, whose long-standing symptoms could be related to an inappropriate therapeutic regimen. The objective was to analyse the sensitivity of microorganisms isolated from patients with CBP and measure the weekly antibiotic concentrations in serum, semen and urine. For the antibiotic sensitivity study, 60 clinical isolates were included between January 2013 and December 2014 from semen samples from patients with microbiologically confirmed CBP. Broth microdilution was performed on the samples. For the antibiotic concentration study from January to May 2014, urine, blood and semen samples were collected weekly, over 4 weeks of treatment from 8 patients with positive cultures for CBP. The concentrations were measured using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The antibiotics fosfomycin and nitrofurantoin had the highest activity (95.2% in both cases). The mean antibiotic concentrations in semen during the 4 weeks studied were as follows: 1.68mg/L, 8.30mg/L, 2.61mg/L, 0.33mg/L and 2.90mg/L, respectively, for patients 1 to 5, who were treated with levofloxacin; 1.625mg/L for patient 6, who was treated with ciprofloxacin; 2.67mg/L for patient 7, who was treated with ampicillin; and 1.05mg/L for patient 8, who was treated with doxycycline. Higher concentrations were obtained in the urine samples than in serum and semen, the latter 2 of which were comparable. Fosfomycin is proposed as the primary alternative to the empiric treatment of CBP due to its high in vitro activity. The antibiotic concentration in semen was higher than the minimal inhibitory concentration against the aetiological agent, although microbiological negativisation was not always correlated with a favourable clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Acceptability of a self-sampling technique to collect vaginal smears for gram stain diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskey, Elizabeth R; Atherly-Trim, Shelly A; O'Campo, Patricia J; Strobino, Donna M; Misra, Dawn P; Misra, P

    2004-01-01

    To diagnose asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV), self-sampled vaginal smears were collected during a study of risk factors for preterm birth in African American women. More than 90% of those women who were willing to participate in the interview portion of the study were also willing to provide a self-sampled vaginal smear. The smears are an acceptable and efficient way of detecting BV in an urban minority population.

  9. ACCEPTABILITY OF A SELF-SAMPLING TECHNIQUE TO COLLECT VAGINAL SMEARS FOR GRAM STAIN DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL VAGINOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Boskey, Elizabeth R.; Atherly-Trim, Shelly A.; O?Campo, Patricia J; Strobino, Donna M.; Misra, Dawn P.

    2004-01-01

    To diagnose asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis (BV), self-sampled vaginal smears were collected during a study of risk factors for preterm birth in African American women. More than 90% of those women who were willing to participate in the interview portion of the study were also willing to provide a self-sampled vaginal smear. The smears are an acceptable and efficient way of detecting BV in an urban minority population.

  10. Detection of Mogibacterium timidum in subgingival biofilm of aggressive and non-diabetic and diabetic chronic periodontitis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Corrêa Viana Casarin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of detection of Mogibacterium timidum in subgingival samples of subjects with generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP and uncontrolled diabetic and non-diabetic subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis (GChP. 48 patients with GAgP, 50 non-diabetic and 39 uncontrolled (glycated hemoglobin >7% type 2 diabetic subjects with GChP were enrolled in this study. Subgingival biofilm were collected from deep pockets (probing depth > 7 mm. After DNA extraction, M. timidum was detected by Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and chi-square test was used to data analysis (p>0.05. There were no differences in the frequency of detection of M. timidum between subjects with GAgP (35% and non-diabetic subjects with GChP (40% (p>0.05. The frequency of detection of M. timidum was significantly higher in deep pockets of diabetic subjects with GChP (56% when compared to GAgP (p0.05. The frequency of detection of M. timidum was higher in subjects GChP presenting uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus, when compared to GAgP subjects.

  11. The effect of smoking on inflammatory and bone remodeling markers in gingival crevicular fluid and subgingival microbiota following periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaes, D F; Mustafa, M; Mohamed, H G; Lie, S A; Leknes, K N

    2017-08-01

    Periodontal health is mediated by suppressing microorganisms inducing a local inflammatory host response. Smoking may impair this process. This study compares gingival crevicular fluid levels of inflammatory and bone remodeling markers in heavy smokers and non-smokers following active and supportive periodontal therapy in patients with chronic periodontitis. Gingival crevicular fluid and subgingival plaque were collected from the deepest periodontal pocket in 50 patients, 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers, at baseline (T0), following active (T1) and 12 mo of supportive periodontal therapy (T2). Smoking status was validated measuring serum cotinine levels. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of 27 inflammatory and two bone remodeling markers were analyzed using multiplex and singleplex micro-bed immunoassays, and subgingival plaque samples using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Amounts of markers in smokers and non-smokers were compared calculating the effect size. Expression of inflammatory and bone-remodeling markers in smokers demonstrated an overall reduced effect size at T0 and T2 (p periodontal therapy (p periodontal microbial species. Except for an upregulation of interleukin-8, smokers exhibited reduced gingival crevicular fluid levels of several inflammatory markers at baseline and following active and supportive periodontal therapy. Only inflammatory responses in non-smokers adapted to periodontal therapy. Apparently, there seems to be an immunosuppressant effect of smoking regulating the local inflammatory response and bone remodeling markers captured in gingival crevicular fluid following periodontal therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of presepsin (sCD14-ST) for prediction of bacterial infection in cerebrospinal fluid samples from children with suspected bacterial meningitis or ventriculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubljar, David; Kopitar, Andreja Natasa; Groselj-Grenc, Mojca; Suhadolc, Kristina; Fabjan, Teja; Skvarc, Miha

    2015-04-01

    Children with temporary external ventricular drains (EVD) are prone to nosocomial infections. Diagnosis of bacterial meningitis and ventriculitis in these children is challenging due to frequent blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and the presence of chemical ventriculitis. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy of presepsin (sCD14-ST), a novel biomarker of bacterial infection in CSF, to predict bacterial infection in comparison to the accuracy of established biomarkers like those demonstrated in biochemical analysis of CSF. We conducted a prospective study with 18 children with suspected bacterial meningitis or ventriculitis who had 66 episodes of disease. CSF samples were taken from external ventricular drainage. We measured presepsin in CSF, as well as CSF leukocyte count, glucose, and proteins. CSF was also taken to prove bacterial infection with culture methods or with 16S rRNA gene broad-range PCR (SepsiTest; Molzym, Germany). Infection was clinically confirmed in 57 (86%) episodes of suspected meningitis or ventriculitis. Chemical ventriculitis was diagnosed in 9 (14%) episodes of suspected meningitis or ventriculitis. Diagnostic accuracies presented as area under the curve (AUC) for sCD14-ST, leukocytes, and proteins measured in CSF were 0.877 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.793 to 0.961), 0.798 (95% CI, 0.677 to 0.920), and 0.857 (95% CI, 0.749 to 0.964), respectively. With CSF culture, we detected bacteria in 17 samples, compared to 37 detected with broad-range PCR. It was found that presepsin was present at a significantly higher level in children with clinically proven ventriculitis than in those without meningitis or ventriculitis. Diagnostic accuracies of presepsin were superior to those of leukocytes or proteins in CSF. Presepsin-guided 16S rRNA gene PCR could be used in everyday clinical practice to improve etiological diagnosis of meningitis and ventriculitis and to prescribe more appropriate antibiotics. Copyright

  13. Age-dependent changes in Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella species/phylotypes in healthy gingiva and inflamed/diseased sub-gingival sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadkarni, Mangala A; Chhour, Kim-Ly; Browne, Gina V; Byun, Roy; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Chapple, Cheryl C; Jacques, Nicholas A; Hunter, Neil

    2015-05-01

    Early colonisation of oral surfaces by periodontal pathogens presents a significant risk factor for subsequent development of destructive disease affecting tissues that support the dentition. The aims of the present study were to establish the age-dependent relationship between sub-gingival profiles of 22 Prevotella species/phylotypes in children, adolescents and adults from an isolated Aboriginal community and, further, to use this information to identify Prevotella species that could serve as microbial risk indicators. DNA isolated from sub-gingival plaque samples (three healthy sites and three inflamed/diseased sites) from adults, adolescents and children was screened for Porphyromonas gingivalis load and 22 Prevotella species/phylotypes by species-specific PCR. A noticeable feature in adolescents was the marked increase in colonisation by P. gingivalis across all test sites. The mean number of Prevotella species/phylotypes colonising inflamed/diseased sub-gingival sites increased with age. Progressive partitioning of selected Prevotella species/phylotypes to healthy or inflamed/diseased sites was evident. Prevalence of Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella oral clone P4PB_24 and Prevotella oris increased significantly with age in diseased sites. Similarly, significant age-dependent increase in colonisation of healthy as well as inflamed/diseased sub-gingival sites was apparent for Prevotella oralis, Prevotella multiformis, Prevotella denticola, Prevotella strain P4P_53 and Prevotella oral clone BR014. Early colonisation of children by P. gingivalis, P. intermedia and Prevotella oral clone P4PB_24 provides indication of risk for subsequent development of periodontal disease. In the present study, the complexity of Prevotella species within gingival sites is explored as a basis for evaluating contribution of Prevotella species to disease.

  14. Clinical and microbiological effects of topical subgingival application of hyaluronic acid gel adjunctive to scaling and root planing in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Höfling, K; Fimmers, R; Frentzen, M; Jervøe-Storm, P M

    2004-08-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) has shown anti-inflammatory effects in gingivitis therapy. The potential benefits of local subgingival application of HA adjunctive to scaling and root planing (SRP) were evaluated in this study. Twenty patients with chronic periodontitis were included in this split-mouth study. Sulcus fluid flow rate (SFFR) and sulcus bleeding index were monitored at baseline and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 12 weeks; probing depth and clinical attachment level were monitored at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks. Subgingival plaque samples were also taken at these same three appointments to determine the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Treponema denticola. All patients were treated with full-mouth scaling and root planing (SRP); in addition, an HA gel was administered subgingivally in the test sites every week for 6 weeks. An improvement of all clinical variables was observed (P Clinically, no difference between test and control sites could be found. No difference between test and control sites was seen in the tested microorganisms. No clinical or microbiological improvement was achieved by the adjunctive use of HA gel compared to SRP alone. Only SFFR was affected by the use of HA in terms of a more rapid reduction of SFFR in the test sites.

  15. Evaluation of the line probe assay for the rapid detection of bacterial meningitis pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid samples from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soysal, Ahmet; Toprak, Demet Gedikbasi; Türkoğlu, Salih; Bakir, Mustafa

    2017-01-11

    The aim of this study is to compare the diagnostic performance of the line probe assay (LPA) with conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Streptococcus pneumoniae as well as real-time PCR for Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from children during the multicenter national surveillance of bacterial meningitis between the years 2006 and 2009 in Turkey. During the study period 1460 subjects were enrolled and among them 841 (57%) met the criteria for probable bacterial meningitis. The mean age of subjects was 51 ± 47 months (range, 1-212 months). We performed the line probe assay in 751 (89%) CSF samples of 841 probable bacterial meningitis cases, of whom 431 (57%) were negative, 127 (17%) were positive for S. pneumoniae, 53 (7%) were positive for H. influenzae type b, and 41 (5%) were positive for N. meningitidis. The LPA was positive in 19 of 23 (82%) S. pneumoniae samples, 4 of 6 (67%) N. meningitidis samples and 2 of 2 (100%) Hib samples in CSF culture-positive cases. The specificity of the LPA for all of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b, and N. meningitidis was 88% (95% CI: 85-91%), when using the standard PCR as a reference. The specificity of LPA for each of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b, and N. meningitidis was 93% (95% CI: 89-95%), 96% (95% CI: 94-98%), and 99% (95% CI: 97-99%), respectively. For all of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b and N. meningitidis the sensitivity of the LPA was 76% (95% CI: 70-82%) and for each of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type b and N. meningitidis was 72% (95% CI:63-79%), 88% (95% CI: 73-95%), and 81% (95% CI:67-92%), respectively. The LPA assay can be used to detect common bacterial meningitis pathogens in CSF samples, but the assay requires further improvement.

  16. Ultradeep 16S rRNA sequencing analysis of geographically similar but diverse unexplored marine samples reveal varied bacterial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chairmandurai Aravindraja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bacterial community composition in the marine environment differs from one geographical location to another. Reports that delineate the bacterial diversity of different marine samples from geographically similar location are limited. The present study aims to understand whether the bacterial community compositions from different marine samples harbour similar bacterial diversity since these are geographically related to each other. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. A total of 22.44 million paired end reads were obtained from the metagenomic DNA of Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater and the epibacterial DNA of Seaweed and Seagrass. Diversity index analysis revealed that Marine sediment has the highest bacterial diversity and the least bacterial diversity was observed in Rhizosphere sediment. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant taxa present in all the marine samples. Nearly 62-71% of rare species were identified in all the samples and most of these rare species were unique to a particular sample. Further taxonomic assignment at the phylum and genus level revealed that the bacterial community compositions differ among the samples. CONCLUSION: This is the first report that supports the fact that, bacterial community composition is specific for specific samples irrespective of its similar geographical location. Existence of specific bacterial community for each sample may drive overall difference in bacterial structural composition of each sample. Further studies like whole metagenomic sequencing will throw more insights to the key stone players and its interconnecting metabolic pathways. In addition, this is one of the very few reports that depicts the unexplored bacterial diversity of marine samples (Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater and the host associated

  17. Ultradeep 16S rRNA sequencing analysis of geographically similar but diverse unexplored marine samples reveal varied bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindraja, Chairmandurai; Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial community composition in the marine environment differs from one geographical location to another. Reports that delineate the bacterial diversity of different marine samples from geographically similar location are limited. The present study aims to understand whether the bacterial community compositions from different marine samples harbour similar bacterial diversity since these are geographically related to each other. In the present study, 16S rRNA deep sequencing analysis targeting V3 region was performed using Illumina bar coded sequencing. A total of 22.44 million paired end reads were obtained from the metagenomic DNA of Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater and the epibacterial DNA of Seaweed and Seagrass. Diversity index analysis revealed that Marine sediment has the highest bacterial diversity and the least bacterial diversity was observed in Rhizosphere sediment. Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant taxa present in all the marine samples. Nearly 62-71% of rare species were identified in all the samples and most of these rare species were unique to a particular sample. Further taxonomic assignment at the phylum and genus level revealed that the bacterial community compositions differ among the samples. This is the first report that supports the fact that, bacterial community composition is specific for specific samples irrespective of its similar geographical location. Existence of specific bacterial community for each sample may drive overall difference in bacterial structural composition of each sample. Further studies like whole metagenomic sequencing will throw more insights to the key stone players and its interconnecting metabolic pathways. In addition, this is one of the very few reports that depicts the unexplored bacterial diversity of marine samples (Marine sediment, Rhizosphere sediment, Seawater) and the host associated marine samples (Seaweed and Seagrass) at higher depths from

  18. An uncooked vegan diet shifts the profile of human fecal microflora: computerized analysis of direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography profiles of bacterial cellular fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltonen, R; Ling, W H; Hänninen, O; Eerola, E

    1992-01-01

    The effect of an uncooked extreme vegan diet on fecal microflora was studied by direct stool sample gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) of bacterial cellular fatty acids and by quantitative bacterial culture by using classical microbiological techniques of isolation, identification, and enumeration of different bacterial species. Eighteen volunteers were divided randomly into two groups. The test group received an uncooked vegan diet for 1 month and a conventional diet of mixed Western type for the other month of the study. The control group consumed a conventional diet throughout the study period. Stool samples were collected. Bacterial cellular fatty acids were extracted directly from the stool samples and measured by GLC. Computerized analysis of the resulting fatty acid profiles was performed. Such a profile represents all bacterial cellular fatty acids in a sample and thus reflects its microflora and can be used to detect changes, differences, or similarities of bacterial flora between individual samples or sample groups. GLC profiles changed significantly in the test group after the induction and discontinuation of the vegan diet but not in the control group at any time, whereas quantitative bacterial culture did not detect any significant change in fecal bacteriology in either of the groups. The results suggest that an uncooked extreme vegan diet alters the fecal bacterial flora significantly when it is measured by direct stool sample GLC of bacterial fatty acids. PMID:1482187

  19. Effect of crop management and sample year on abundance of soil bacterial communities in organic and conventional cropping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C H; Stewart, C J; Leifert, C; Cooper, J M; Cummings, S P

    2015-07-01

    To identify changes in the bacterial community, at the phylum level brought about by varied crop management. Next-generation sequencing methods were used to compare the taxonomic structure of the bacterial community within 24 agricultural soils managed with either organic or conventional methods, over a 3-year period. Relative abundance of the proportionately larger phyla (e.g. Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria) was primarily affected by sample year rather than crop management. Changes of abundance in these phyla were correlated with changes in pH, organic nitrogen and soil basal respiration. Crop management affected some of the less dominant phyla (Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, Gemmatimonadetes) which also correlated with pH and organic N. Soil diversity can vary with changing environmental variables and soil chemistry. If these factors remain constant, soil diversity can also remain constant even under changing land use. The impact of crop management on environmental variables must be considered when interpreting bacterial diversity studies in agricultural soils. Impact of land use change should always be monitored across different sampling time points. Further studies at the functional group level are necessary to assess whether management-induced changes in bacterial community structure are of biological and agronomic relevance. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Potential application of superparamagnetic nanoparticles for extraction of bacterial genomic DNA from contaminated food and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Semanti; Chatterjee, Saptarshi; Bandyopadhyay, Arghya; Sarkar, Keka

    2013-03-15

    Isolation of high-molecular-weight DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications. Owing to the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors, there is a scarcity of suitable protocols for PCR-ready DNA extraction from food and natural environments. The conventional chemical methods of DNA extraction are time consuming and laborious and the yield is very low. Thus the aim of this research was to develop a simple, rapid, cost-effective method of genomic DNA extraction from food (milk and fruit juice) and environmental (pond water) samples and to detect bacterial contaminants present in those samples. This approach is efficient for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria from all the studied samples. Herein super paramagnetic bare iron oxide nanoparticles were implemented for bacterial genomic DNA isolation. The method was also compared to the conventional phenol-chloroform method in the context of quality, quantity and timing process. This method took only half an hour or less to obtain high-molecular-weight purified DNA from minimum bacterial contamination. Additionally, the method was directly compatible to PCR amplification. The problem of availability of suitable generalized methods for DNA isolation from various samples including food and environmental has been solved by a nanobiotechnological approach that may prove to be extremely useful in biotechnological applications. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Temporal Sampling of White Band Disease Infected Corals Reveals Complex and Dynamic Bacterial Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignoux-Wolfsohn, S.; Vollmer, S. V.; Aronson, F. M.

    2016-02-01

    White band disease (WBD) is a coral disease that is currently decimating populations of the endangered staghorn coral, Acropora cervicornis and elkhorn coral, A. palmata across the Caribbean. Since it was first reported in 1979, WBD has killed 95% of these critical reef-building Caribbean corals. WBD is infectious; it can be transmitted through the water column or by a corallivorous snail. While previous research shows that WBD is likely caused by bacteria, identification of a specific pathogen or pathogens has remained elusive. Much of the difficulty of understanding the etiology of the disease comes from a lack of information about how existing bacterial communities respond to disease and separating initial from secondary colonizers. In order to address this lack of information, we performed a fully-crossed tank infection experiment. We exposed healthy corals from two different sites to disease and healthy (control) homogenates from both sites, replicating genotype across tanks. We sampled every coral at three time points: before inoculation with the homogenate, after inoculation, and when the coral showed signs of disease. We then performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq 2000. We saw significant differences between time points and disease state. Interestingly, at the first time point (time one) we observed differences between genotypes: every fragment from some genotypes was dominated by Endozoicomonas, while other genotypes were not dominated by one family. At time two we saw an increase in abundance of Alteromonadaceae and Flavobacteriaceae in all corals, and a larger increase in disease-exposed corals. At time three, we saw another increase in Flavobacteriaceae abundance in diseased corals, as well as an introduction of Francisella to diseased corals. While Flavobacteriaceae and Francisella were proposed as potential pathogens, their increase at time three suggests they may be secondary colonizers or opportunists. In genotypes that were

  2. A bacterial sensitivity test to determine the effectiveness of minocycline HCI (Minocin), erythromycin (Erythrocin) and ampicillin (Ampicin) on the predominant microorganisms present in a diseased periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles, B L; Book, D R; Go, K G; Lim, D J; Uy, H G

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the three antimicrobials--Minocycline HCI, Erythromycin and Ampicillin based on the percentage reduction of bacteria present in subgingival microflora and in vitro assessment of antibiotic susceptibility of cultured strains of predominant microorganisms present in a diseased periodontium. Twelve volunteers 18 to 65 years of age, with moderate to severe periodontal disease, were randomly divided into Group A and Group B of 6 members each. Oral lavage procedure was performed to Group A and Group B received systemic administration of antibiotic for five days. Patients 1 & 2, 3 & 4 and 5 & 6 received minocycline HCI, Erythromycin and Ampicillin respectively. Microbiologic samples in the subgingival crevicular area in selected tooth exhibiting clinical periodontal breakdown were obtained from all the subjects prior to and after the oral lavage procedure and systemic drug administration. Streptococcus viridans is the most predominant aerobic microorganism obtained from 83% of samples. However no anaerobic microorganism has been isolated. Bacterial sensitivity testing showed 60% of samples with positive growth of microorganisms (S. viridans) were also equally sensitive to Minocycline HCI, Erythromycin and Ampicillin. Oral lavage proved to be ineffective in reducing the number of bacteria. However, systemic drug administration revealed that there was a reduction in bacterial count after taking such antibiotics for five days which is more favorable to Minocycline HCI.

  3. Bacterial diversity of biofilm samples from deep mines in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Metagenomic clone libraries were constructed and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of >100 derived clones resulted in four major restriction patterns from which 40 clones were chosen for sequencing. More than half (53%) of the sequences were affiliated with the bacterial phylum Proteobacteria, ...

  4. Concurrent Detection of Human Norovirus and Bacterial Pathogens in Water Samples from an Agricultural Region in Central California Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial pathogens and human norovirus (HuNoV are major cause for acute gastroenteritis caused by contaminated food and water. Public waterways can become contaminated from a variety of sources and flood after heavy rain events, leading to pathogen contamination of produce fields. We initiated a survey of several public watersheds in a major leafy green produce production region of the Central California Coast to determine the prevalence of HuNoV as well as bacterial pathogens. Moore swabs were used to collect environmental samples bi-monthly at over 30 sampling sites in the region. High prevalence of HuNoV and bacterial pathogens were detected in environmental water samples in the region. The overall detection rates of HuNoV, O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC, non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and Listeria were 25.58, 7.91, 9.42, 59.65, and 44.30%, respectively. The detection rates of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were significantly higher in the spring. Fall and spring had elevated detection rates of O157 STEC. The overall detection rates of non-O157 STEC in the fall were lower than the other seasons but not significant. The overall detection rates of HuNoV were highest in fall, followed by spring and winter, with summer being lowest and significantly lower than other seasons. This study presented the first study of evaluating the correlation between the detection rate of HuNoV and the detection rates of four bacterial pathogens from environmental water. Overall, there was no significant difference in HuNoV detection rates between samples testing positive or negative for the four bacterial pathogens tested. Pathogens in animal-impacted and human-impacted areas were investigated. There were significant higher detection rates in animal-impacted areas than that of human-impacted areas for bacterial pathogens. However, there was no difference in HuNoV detection rates between these two areas. The overall detection levels of generic E

  5. Subgingival dysbiosis in smoker and non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coretti, Lorena; Cuomo, Mariella; Florio, Ermanno; Palumbo, Domenico; Keller, Simona; Pero, Raffaela; Chiariotti, Lorenzo; Lembo, Francesca; Cafiero, Carlo

    2017-04-01

    Periodontitis is one of the most common oral inflammatory diseases, and results in connective tissue degradation and gradual tooth loss. It manifests with formation of periodontal pockets, in which anaerobic and Gram‑negative bacteria proliferate rapidly. Consequently, alteration of the subgingival microbiota is considered the primary etiologic agent of periodontitis. Previous studies have reported that smokers are at increased risk of periodontal disease, in both prevalence and severity, indicating that smoking is a risk factor for the onset and progression of the pathology. In the present study, 16S rRNA sequencing was employed to assess the subgingival microbiota in 6 smoker patients with chronic periodontitis, 6 non‑smoker patients with chronic periodontitis and 8 healthy controls. The results demonstrated significant alterations in the microbial structure of periodontitis patients. High relative abundance of Parvimonans, Desulfubulbus, Paludibacter, Haemophilus, and Sphaerochaeta genera characterized subgingival microbiota of periodontitis patients, both smokers and non‑smokers. Due to the high precision and sensitivity of the 16S rRNA sequencing method, analysis for low‑abundant genera (including Pedobacter, Granulicatella, Paracoccus, Atopobium, Bifidobacterium, Coprococcus, Oridobacteriu, Peptococcus, Oscillospira and Akkermansia) was feasible, and revealed novel phylotypes associated with periodontitis. Of note, a major microbial community alteration was evident in smoker patients, suggesting an association between smoking and severity of subgingival dysbiosis. The present study confirmed that chronic periodontitis is a polymicrobial disease where changes in the equilibrium of subgingival microbiota contribute to severity of pathology.

  6. The sociodemographic characteristics, periodontal health status, and subgingival microbiota of patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Liu, Jingbo; Tan, Lisi; Yu, Ning; Lin, Li; Geng, Fengxue; Zhang, Dongmei; Pan, Yaping

    2013-08-01

    In China, chronic periodontitis (CP) is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The purpose of this study is to identify the sociodemographic characteristics associated with such patients and to assess the periodontal health status and subgingival microbiota of patients with CP and T2DM (T2DMCP) in the Chinese population. A total of 150 patients with T2DMCP and 306 patients with CP without any systemic disease completed questionnaires, underwent clinical periodontal examinations and participated in diabetes-related parameter examinations. Subgingival plaques were obtained to determine the prevalence and amounts of selected oral bacterial species using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR, respectively. The income level and mean body mass index (BMI) of the patients with T2DMCP were significantly higher than those of the patients with CP. Additionally, the patients with T2DMCP were more likely to be urban residents, and they had significantly more severe periodontitis than did the patients with CP. In the patients with T2DMCP, the prevalence and amounts of Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia were significantly higher than those in the patients with CP. Finally, compared with the patients with CP, the patients with T2DMCP had a significantly lower prevalence and amount of Prevotella intermedia. Compared with the patients with CP, the patients with T2DMCP were more likely to be urban residents and generally had higher incomes, higher mean BMI, and poorer periodontal health status. Higher levels of T. denticola and T. forsythia and lower levels of P. intermedia were identified in the subgingival plaque of the patients with T2DMCP.

  7. Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (vis+wIRA and Chlorine e6 (Ce6 eradicates Planktonic Periodontal Pathogens and Subgingival Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative treatment methods for pathogens and microbial biofilms are required due to the widespread rise in antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has recently gained attention as a novel method to eradicate pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of a novel aPDT method using visible light (vis and water infiltrated infrared A (wIRA in combination with chlorine e6 (Ce6 against different periodontal pathogens in planktonic form and within in situ subgingival oral biofilms. Eight different periodontal pathogens were exposed to aPDT using vis+wIRA and 100 µg/ml Ce6 in planktonic culture. Additionally, pooled subgingival dental biofilm was also treated by aPDT and the number of viable cells determined as colony forming units (CFU. Live/dead staining was used in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM to visualize and quantify antimicrobial effects within the biofilm samples. Untreated negative controls as well as 0.2 % chlorhexidine (CHX-treated positive controls were used. All eight tested periodontal pathogens including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Eikenella corrodens, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Slackia exigua and Atopopium rimae and the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm were eliminated over the ranges of 3.43 - 8.34 and 3.91 - 4.28 log10 CFU in the log10 scale, respectively. Thus, aPDT showed bactericidal effects on the representative pathogens as well as on the in situ subgingival biofilm. The live/dead staining also revealed a significant reduction (33.45 % of active cells within the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm. Taking the favorable tissue healing effects of vis+wIRA into consideration, the significant antimicrobial effects revealed in this study highlight the potential of aPDT using this light source in combination with Ce6 as an adjunctive method to treat periodontitis as well as

  8. Bacterial Diversity in Oral Samples of Children in Niger with Acute Noma, Acute Necrotizing Gingivitis, and Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Benoît; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gizard, Yann; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Background Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. Methods and Principal Findings Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites) were amplified using “universal” PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis), gender, and site status (diseased or control site). Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98–99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis) and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. Conclusions Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent. PMID:22413030

  9. Bacterial diversity in oral samples of children in niger with acute noma, acute necrotizing gingivitis, and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bolivar

    Full Text Available Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods.Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites were amplified using "universal" PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis, gender, and site status (diseased or control site. Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98-99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries.Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent.

  10. Bacterial diversity in oral samples of children in niger with acute noma, acute necrotizing gingivitis, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, Ignacio; Whiteson, Katrine; Stadelmann, Benoît; Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Gizard, Yann; Mombelli, Andrea; Pittet, Didier; Schrenzel, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Noma is a gangrenous disease that leads to severe disfigurement of the face with high morbidity and mortality, but its etiology remains unknown. Young children in developing countries are almost exclusively affected. The purpose of the study was to record and compare bacterial diversity in oral samples from children with or without acute noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis from a defined geographical region in Niger by culture-independent molecular methods. Gingival samples from 23 healthy children, nine children with acute necrotizing gingivitis, and 23 children with acute noma (both healthy and diseased oral sites) were amplified using "universal" PCR primers for the 16 S rRNA gene and pooled according to category (noma, healthy, or acute necrotizing gingivitis), gender, and site status (diseased or control site). Seven libraries were generated. A total of 1237 partial 16 S rRNA sequences representing 339 bacterial species or phylotypes at a 98-99% identity level were obtained. Analysis of bacterial composition and frequency showed that diseased (noma or acute necrotizing gingivitis) and healthy site bacterial communities are composed of similar bacteria, but differ in the prevalence of a limited group of phylotypes. Large increases in counts of Prevotella intermedia and members of the Peptostreptococcus genus are associated with disease. In contrast, no clear-cut differences were found between noma and non-noma libraries. Similarities between acute necrotizing gingivitis and noma samples support the hypothesis that the disease could evolve from acute necrotizing gingivitis in certain children for reasons still to be elucidated. This study revealed oral microbiological patterns associated with noma and acute necrotizing gingivitis, but no evidence was found for a specific infection-triggering agent.

  11. Análise microbiológica da placa bacteriana da doença periodontal em cães e o efeito da antibioticoterapia sobre ela Microbiological analysis of bacterial plaque of periodontal disease on dogs and effects of antibioticotherapy on it

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stella Alves da Fonseca; Paula Diniz Galera; Daiana Lima Brito; Simone Perecmanis; Anahí Souza Silva; Larissa Borges Cardoso; Tatiana Guerrero Marçola; Vinícius Oliveira Drummond; Concepta McManus Pimentel

    2011-01-01

    ... clindamicina, seguido da espiramicina; todos os microrganismos foram resistentes ao metronidazol.The objective was to determine microbiote of the subgingival bacterial plaque of dogs with periodontal disease (PD...

  12. Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Bacterial Isolates from Pus Samples in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Punjab, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rugira Trojan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibilities patterns of bacterial isolates from pus samples collected from patients in a tertiary care hospital of Punjab, India. E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (51.2% followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (11.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.8%, Citrobacter spp. (3.5%, Acinetobacter baumannii (2.3%, Proteus mirabilis (2.3%, and Streptococcus spp. (2.3%. E. coli, K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and Citrobacter isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics including higher generation cephalosporins. S. aureus and Streptococcus isolates were sensitive to cloxacillin and vancomycin. However, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, and Streptococcus isolates were found to be less resistant to the spectrum of antibiotics tested. Overall, our findings indicate the prevalence of resistance to different classes of antibiotics in bacterial isolates from pus infections and hence highlight the need for effective surveillance, regulator reporting, and antibiogram-guided antibiotic prescription.

  13. Label-free isolation and deposition of single bacterial cells from heterogeneous samples for clonal culturing

    OpenAIRE

    J. Riba; T. Gleichmann; S. Zimmermann; R. Zengerle; P. Koltay

    2016-01-01

    The isolation and analysis of single prokaryotic cells down to 1??m and less in size poses a special challenge and requires micro-engineered devices to handle volumes in the picoliter to nanoliter range. Here, an advanced Single-Cell Printer (SCP) was applied for automated and label-free isolation and deposition of bacterial cells encapsulated in 35?pl droplets by inkjet-like printing. To achieve this, dispenser chips to generate micro droplets have been fabricated with nozzles 20??m in size....

  14. Bacteria and bacterial DNA in atherosclerotic plaque and aneurysmal wall biopsies from patients with and without periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Armingohar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have reported an association between chronic periodontitis (CP and cardiovascular diseases. Detection of periodontopathogens, including red complex bacteria (RCB, in vascular lesions has suggested these bacteria to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Objective: In this study, we investigate bacteria and their DNA in vascular biopsies from patients with vascular diseases (VD; i.e. abdominal aortic aneurysms, atherosclerotic carotid, and common femoral arteries, with and without CP. Methods: DNA was extracted from vascular biopsies selected from 40 VD patients: 30 with CP and 10 without CP. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rDNA (V3-V5 was polymerase chain reaction (PCR-amplified, and the amplicons were cloned into Escherichia coli, sequenced, and classified (GenBank and the Human Oral Microbiome database. Species-specific primers were used for the detection of Porphyromonas gingivalis. In addition, 10 randomly selected vascular biopsies from the CP group were subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM for visualization of bacteria. Checkerboard DNA–DNA hybridization was performed to assess the presence of RCB in 10 randomly selected subgingival plaque samples from CP patients. Results: A higher load and mean diversity of bacteria were detected in vascular biopsies from VD patients with CP compared to those without CP. Enterobacteriaceae were frequently detected in vascular biopsies together with cultivable, commensal oral, and not-yet-cultured bacterial species. While 70% of the subgingival plaque samples from CP patients showed presence of RCB, only P. gingivalis was detected in one vascular biopsy. Bacterial cells were seen in all 10 vascular biopsies examined by SEM. Conclusions: A higher bacterial load and more diverse colonization were detected in VD lesions of CP patients as compared to patients without CP. This indicated that a multitude of bacterial species both

  15. Efecto del tratamiento periodontal sobre la microbiota subgingival en pacientes con preeclampsia

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Jaramillo; Roger Arce; Adolfo Contreras; Julián A. Herrera

    2012-01-01

    Introducción. Pocos estudios han descrito la microbiota subgingival en mujeres embarazadas con preeclampsia leve. Objetivo. Identificar cambios periodontales y de la microbiota subgingival en mujeres embarazadas con preeclampsia, después del tratamiento periodontal. Materiales y métodos. En un análisis secundario de un ensayo clínico de asignación aleatoria, se estudiaron 57 pacientes con preeclampsia en el Hospital Universitario del Valle de Cali. Se asignaron al azar 31 al grupo de ...

  16. Application of flow cytometry and cell sorting to the bacterial analysis of environmental aerosol samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow cytometry (FCM) combined with viability staining is a useful tool in discerning viable bacteria in environmental samples where traditional culture methods may fail. Contamination of aerosol samples with dust and other non-biological particles can interfere with accurate sample analysis and ther...

  17. Comparison of bacterial culture and qPCR testing of rectal and pen floor samples as diagnostic approaches to detect enterotoxic Escherichia coli in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, N. R.; Nielsen, J. P.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    : bacterial culturing of faecal samples from three pigs (per pen) with clinical diarrhoea and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; bacterial culturing of pen floor samples and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; qPCR testing of pen floor samples in order....... The only adhesin factor detected in this study was F18. When comparing bacterial culture or qPCR testing of pen floor samples with detection of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic pigs by culture, agreement was found in 26 (83.9%, Kappa = 0.665) and 23 (74.2%, Kappa = 0.488) of the pens, respectively. Agreement...... and qPCR. This study showed that both bacterial culture and qPCR testing of pen floor samples can be used as a diagnostic approach for detecting groups of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic nursery pigs....

  18. Agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia in dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashmakova, Medora B; Piccione, Julie; Bishop, Micah A; Nelson, Whitney R; Lawhon, Sara D

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the agreement between results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples from dogs and cats with hepatobiliary disease for detection of bactibilia. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. ANIMALS 31 dogs and 21 cats with hepatobiliary disease for which subsequent microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples was performed from 2004 through 2014. PROCEDURES Electronic medical records of included dogs and cats were reviewed to extract data regarding diagnosis, antimicrobials administered, and results of microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples. Agreement between these 2 diagnostic tests was assessed by calculation of the Cohen κ value. RESULTS 17 (33%) dogs and cats had bactibilia identified by microscopic examination of bile samples, and 11 (21%) had bactibilia identified via bacterial culture. Agreement between these 2 tests was substantial (percentage agreement [positive and negative results], 85%; κ = 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 0.89) and improved to almost perfect when calculated for only animals that received no antimicrobials within 24 hours prior to sample collection (percentage agreement, 94%; κ = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.61 to 1.00). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that agreement between microscopic examination and bacterial culture of bile samples for detection of bactibilia is optimized when dogs and cats are not receiving antimicrobials at the time of sample collection. Concurrent bacterial culture and microscopic examination of bile samples are recommended for all cats and dogs evaluated for hepatobiliary disease.

  19. Fluoroscence in situ hybridization of chicken intestinal samples with bacterial rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Katja Nyholm; Francesch, M.; Christensen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    were hybridized for 24-72h, centrifuged, washed with pre-heated hybridization buffer, centrifuged and resuspended in Millipore quality water before filtration onto a 0.22 µm black polycarbonate filter. The probes used in this study were, LGC354A, LGC354B, LGC354C, Strc493, Bacto1080, Sal3, Chis150, EUB...... were counted by the EUB338 probe. Three weeks old male broiler Ross 308 chickens were used to investigate the bacterial composition of the intestine. The birds received a wheat-barley diet. Counts with the EUB338 probe were 1.97x108(std 1.45x108) The means of counts obtained with probes targeting the r...

  20. Discrimination between live and dead cellsin bacterial communities from environmental water samples analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nocker, Andreas; Richter-Heitmann, Tim; Montijn, Roy C; Schuren, Frank H J; Kort, Remco

    SUMMARY: The preferential detection of cells with intact membranes by sample treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA) in combination with PCR amplification is gaining in popularity. This study evaluates the effect of PMA on 454 pyrosequencing profiles of environmental water samples from a canal in

  1. Study of changes in bacterial and viral abundance in formaldehyde - Fixed water samples by epifluorescence microscopy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parvathi, A.; Radhakrishnan, S.; Sajila, M.P.; Jacob, B.

    of bacteria and viruses in water samples from Cochin Backwater was determined by SYBR Green I staining and epifluorescence microscopy. The counts were determined for 45 days in samples fixed with 1–6% formaldehyde. The results suggest rapid decline in counts...

  2. The Effect of Apically Repositioned Flap Surgery on Clinical Parameters and the Composition of the Subgingival Microbiota: 12-Month Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Rustin M.; Giannobile, William V.; Feres, Magda; Haffajee, Anne D.; Smith, Claire; Socransky, Sigmund S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the clinical and microbiologic effects of apically repositioned flap surgery. Eighteen patients with chronic periodontitis received initial preparation (IP) including scaling and root planing, followed at 3 months by apically repositioned flap surgery at sites with pocket depth > 4 mm. Subjects were monitored clinically and microbiologically at baseline, 3 months after IP, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months postsurgery. Clinical assessments of plaque accumulation, gingival redness, suppuration, bleeding on probing, pocket depth, and attachment level were made at six sites per tooth. Subgingival plaque samples were taken from the mesial aspect of each tooth, and the presence and levels of 40 subgingival taxa were determined using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Significant reductions were seen in mean pocket depth and percentage of sites exhibiting gingival redness and bleeding on probing in both sites that received IP only and in sites receiving IP followed by surgery. Mean attachment level increased significantly for both sets of sites, but the increase was greater at the surgically treated sites. The total DNA probe counts were significantly reduced at sites in both treatment groups. At surgically treated sites, 19 of 40 taxa were significantly reduced posttherapy. At sites receiving IP only, 16 species were significantly reduced over time. While there were some reductions in mean counts after IP in this site group, the major reductions occurred after the surgical phase in these patients, even though these particular sites did not receive surgical therapy. The reduction in pocket depth by surgical means and the associated decrease in reservoirs of periodontal pathogens may be important in achieving sustained periodontal stability. PMID:12186343

  3. Sampling bacterial biodiversity from a highly contaminated stream flowing through a densely populated urban area in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enam, Syed Faaiz; Qureshi, Humaira; Qureshi, Sohail A

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to understand the complexity of microbial populations in Pakistan where infectious diseases are prevalent. This study was undertaken to assess bacterial biodiversity in Nehr-e-Khayyam a heavily polluted stream connected to the Arabian Gulf, which runs through a densely populated urban area in Karachi, Pakistan. Employing a universal pair of oligonucleotides capable of amplifying species-specific segments of 16S rRNA gene from all Eubacteria, we generated a library of PCR products using total DNA purified from the collected sample, cloned the amplifers into pGEM-T-Easy and sequenced each recombinant clone. The obtained DNA sequences were subjected to bio-informatic analyses. A total of 71 recombinant clones were obtained from the amplified 16S rDNA products and sequenced. Bioinformatics analyses revealed that 54 (out of 71) were unique sequences from which 42 shared > 97% and 12 shared < 97% homology to their database counterparts. One sequence originated from the plastid DNA of eukaryote Pyramimonas disomata. From the remaining 53 sequences, 45 were Proteo-bacteria and 8 Fermicute in origin. Among 71 sequences, Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria species constituted -86% of Proteo-bacteria identified in the sample while only -13% were Fermicutes. The microbial niche in Nehr-e-Khayyam is occupied predominantly by heterotrophic Proteo-bacterial and Firmicute strains, some of which are known human pathogens.

  4. Evaluation of the multiplex PCR Allplex-GI assay in the detection of bacterial pathogens in diarrheic stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Ariadna; Pérez-Ayala, Ana; Chaves, Fernando; Lora, David; Orellana, M Ángeles

    2017-10-31

    Rapid and accurate detection of the pathogens that cause gastrointestinal infection is important for appropriate therapy and proper infection control. This study assesses the performance of a new molecular assay for simultaneous detection of 13 different gastrointestinal bacteria in stool specimens. Using the Allplex GI-Bacteria (AGI-BI/AGI-BII) assay, a total of 394 stool samples were tested and the results were compared with culturing on selective differential followed by identification by mass spectroscopy. Discordant results were analyzed by a different multiplex PCR method, the Fast-Track Diagnostics Bacterial gastroenteritis (FTD-BG). The routine method (RM) detected 109 (27.7%) positive samples and the Allplex-GI assay, 261 (66.2%). Analysis of discordant results revealed that the molecular assay detected 44 pathogens that were not detected by the RM, including 23 Campylobacter spp., 11 Salmonella spp, 3 Y. enterocolitica, 2 EIEC/Shigella spp, 2 E. coli 0157, 2 C. difficile and 1 Aeromonas spp. Five cases not detected by the molecular method were detected by the RM (3 Aeromonas spp, 1 Salmonella spp and 1 Y. enterocolitica). For all targets, the percentages of sensitivity and specificity were >95%, except for Aeromonas spp., which were 81% and 99% respectively. This study suggests that Allplex-GI multiplex PCR is a sensitive and specific assay that enables a rapid and accurate diagnosis of bacterial gastrointestinal infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and bacterial vaginosis presence in cervical samples from Paraguayan indigenous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongelos, Pamela; Mendoza, Laura Patricia; Rodriguez-Riveros, Isabel; Castro, Amalia; Gimenez, Graciela; Araujo, Patricia; Paez, Malvina; Castro, Wilberto; Basiletti, Jorge; González, Joaquín; Echagüe, Gloria; Diaz, Valentina; Laspina, Florentina; Ever, Santiago; Marecos, Ramón; Deluca, Gerardo; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2015-10-01

    To determine the frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and to assess bacterial vaginosis (BV) possible associations with cervical infections in indigenous Paraguayan women of the Department of Presidente Hayes. This study included 181 sexually active women without cervical lesions. HPV typing was performed by polymerase chain reaction with primers PGMY 09/11 followed by reverse line hybridization. BV was diagnosed by the Nugent criteria using the results from a Gram stain smear. Sixteen percent of women were positive for at least one high risk HPV type (HR-HPV). The most frequent genotypes were HPV 16 (4.4%), followed by HPV 58 (3.3%), HPV 45 (3.3%), HPV 53 (2.8%) and HPV 11 (2.8%). A significant association between HR-HPV and BV was observed (p=0.01). In addition, women with BV had a higher frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis (p=0.0007), Trichomonas vaginalis (p=0.00009), Mycoplasma hominis (p=0.001). A large variety of HPV genotypes was detected and showed a slightly different pattern from previous studies on urban women in Paraguay, with the predominance of HR-HPV. Furthermore, the information of co-infections involved in BV could be useful for the improvement of national prevention programs, as well as for laboratory surveillance of these genital infections. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Dielectrophoretic separation of blood pathogens ou Bacterial extraction from biological samples using DEP forces

    OpenAIRE

    Bisceglia, Emilie; Cubizolles, Myriam; Mallard, Frédéric; Français, Olivier; Le Pioufle, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    International audience; We report here a method based on DEP separation to concentrate pathogens out of a biological sample by combining positive and negative DEP to separate pathogens from the sample matrix. In this approach, we take advantage from the large tolerance of micro-organisms towards osmotic shock to perform dielectrophoretic separation in a low electric conductivity medium. This condition enables to collect micro-organisms by positive DEP, while lysed blood cells are repelled fro...

  7. A biogeochemical and genetic survey of acetylene fermentation by environmental samples and bacterial isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laurence G.; Baesman, Shaun M.; Kirshtein, Julie; Voytek, Mary A.; Oremland, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Anoxic samples (sediment and groundwater) from 13 chemically diverse field sites were assayed for their ability to consume acetylene (C2H2). Over incubation periods ranging from ˜ 10 to 80 days, selected samples from 7 of the 13 tested sites displayed significant C2H2 removal. No significant formation of ethylene was noted in these incubations; therefore, C2H2 consumption could be attributed to acetylene hydratase (AH) rather than nitrogenase activity. This putative AH (PAH) activity was observed in only 21% of the total of assayed samples, while amplification of AH genes from extracted DNA using degenerate primers derived from Pelobacter acetylenicus occurred in even fewer (9.8%) samples. Acetylene-fermenting bacteria were isolated as a pure culture from the sediments of a tidal mudflat in San Francisco Bay (SFB93) and as an enrichment culture from freshwater Searsville Lake (SV7). Comparison of 16S rDNA clone libraries revealed that SFB93 was closely related to P. carbolinicus, while SV7 consisted of several unrelated bacteria. AH gene was amplified from SFB93 but not SV7. The inability of the primers to generate amplicons in the SV7 enrichment, as well as from several of the environmental samples that displayed PAH activity, implied that either the primers were too highly constrained in their specificity or that there was a different type of AH gene in these environmental samples than occurs in P. acetylenicus. The significance of this work with regard to the search for life in the outer Solar System, where C2HL2 is abundant, is discussed.

  8. Managing sub-gingival fracture by multi-disciplinary approach: Endodontics-forced orthodontic extrusion and prosthetic rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Mittal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatized anterior teeth with sub-gingival crown fractures are a challenge to treat. The management of sub-gingival fractures includes exposing the cervical margin followed by appropriate coronal restoration. The treatment modalities, which involve exposing the cervical margin, are surgical crown lengthening and orthodontic extrusion. This paper reports a case of fractured maxillary anterior tooth at the sub-gingival level that was managed by forced orthodontic extrusion after endodontic treatment followed by esthetic rehabilitation, a much forgotten technique not utilized routinely yet conservative and cost-effective.

  9. Comparison of visual-tactile, radiographic, and histologic diagnoses of subgingival crown margin caries- an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittneben, Julia-Gabriela; Zöllner, Axel; Wright, Axel F; Weber, Hans-Peter

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of diagnosing interproximal subgingival caries at crown margins. A total of 32 subgingival interproximal crown margin areas were examined by 10 clinicians (n = 320) using conventional diagnostic methods on extracted, crowned teeth mounted in a specially designed cast. Crown margins were located 1.5 mm below the level of the artificial gingiva. Clinical and radiographic diagnoses were compared to the histopathologic findings for each site. Both visual-tactile and radiographic evaluations revealed a weak diagnostic accuracy for interproximal subgingival crown margin caries.

  10. ‘Actinotignum timonense’ sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from a human urine sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brahimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the main characteristics of ‘Actinotignum timonense’ strain Marseille-P2803T (= CSUR P2803 that was isolated from the urine sample of a 59-year-old man with end-stage renal disease.

  11. Evaluation of the Bacterial Status of Water Samples at Umudike Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriological status of different water samples (borehole, sachet, bottled, stream and rain) from Umudike, Abia State, Nigeria and its environs was evaluated. The total viable count (TVC) for the borehole I (MOUAU) and borehole II (Umuwaya) were 14.7x102 and 15.7x102 cfu/ml respectively, while the sachet water ...

  12. Rapid 16S rRNA next-generation sequencing of polymicrobial clinical samples for diagnosis of complex bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Salipante

    Full Text Available Classifying individual bacterial species comprising complex, polymicrobial patient specimens remains a challenge for culture-based and molecular microbiology techniques in common clinical use. We therefore adapted practices from metagenomics research to rapidly catalog the bacterial composition of clinical specimens directly from patients, without need for prior culture. We have combined a semiconductor deep sequencing protocol that produces reads spanning 16S ribosomal RNA gene variable regions 1 and 2 (∼360 bp with a de-noising pipeline that significantly improves the fraction of error-free sequences. The resulting sequences can be used to perform accurate genus- or species-level taxonomic assignment. We explore the microbial composition of challenging, heterogeneous clinical specimens by deep sequencing, culture-based strain typing, and Sanger sequencing of bulk PCR product. We report that deep sequencing can catalog bacterial species in mixed specimens from which usable data cannot be obtained by conventional clinical methods. Deep sequencing a collection of sputum samples from cystic fibrosis (CF patients reveals well-described CF pathogens in specimens where they were not detected by standard clinical culture methods, especially for low-prevalence or fastidious bacteria. We also found that sputa submitted for CF diagnostic workup can be divided into a limited number of groups based on the phylogenetic composition of the airway microbiota, suggesting that metagenomic profiling may prove useful as a clinical diagnostic strategy in the future. The described method is sufficiently rapid (theoretically compatible with same-day turnaround times and inexpensive for routine clinical use.

  13. MetaMLST: multi-locus strain-level bacterial typing from metagenomic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfo, Moreno; Tett, Adrian; Jousson, Olivier; Donati, Claudio; Segata, Nicola

    2017-01-25

    Metagenomic characterization of microbial communities has the potential to become a tool to identify pathogens in human samples. However, software tools able to extract strain-level typing information from metagenomic data are needed. Low-throughput molecular typing schema such as Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) are still widely used and provide a wealth of strain-level information that is currently not exploited by metagenomic methods. We introduce MetaMLST, a software tool that reconstructs the MLST loci of microorganisms present in microbial communities from metagenomic data. Tested on synthetic and spiked-in real metagenomes, the pipeline was able to reconstruct the MLST sequences with >98.5% accuracy at coverages as low as 1×. On real samples, the pipeline showed higher sensitivity than assembly-based approaches and it proved successful in identifying strains in epidemic outbreaks as well as in intestinal, skin and gastrointestinal microbiome samples. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Comparison of bacterial culture and qPCR testing of rectal and pen floor samples as diagnostic approaches to detect enterotoxic Escherichia coli in nursery pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, N. R.; Nielsen, J. P.; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2017-01-01

    : bacterial culturing of faecal samples from three pigs (per pen) with clinical diarrhoea and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; bacterial culturing of pen floor samples and subsequent testing for virulence genes in E. coli isolates; qPCR testing of pen floor samples in order....... The only adhesin factor detected in this study was F18. When comparing bacterial culture or qPCR testing of pen floor samples with detection of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic pigs by culture, agreement was found in 26 (83.9%, Kappa = 0.665) and 23 (74.2%, Kappa = 0.488) of the pens, respectively. Agreement...... was observed between the detection of ETEC by bacterial culture and qPCR in the same pen floor sample in 26 (83.9%, Kappa = 0.679) pens. Conclusion: We observed an acceptable agreement for the detection of ETEC-positive diarrhoeic nursery pigs in pen samples for both bacterial culture of pen floor samples...

  15. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R. J.; Petit, J.-R.; Komárek, J.; Elster, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area) and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia), from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville) and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas), in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic) media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria), Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified) and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one). Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps) and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones). These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone). The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp.) was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  16. Low-fouling surface plasmon resonance biosensor for multi-step detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens in complex food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisocherová-Lísalová, Hana; Víšová, Ivana; Ermini, Maria Laura; Špringer, Tomáš; Song, Xue Chadtová; Mrázek, Jan; Lamačová, Josefína; Scott Lynn, N; Šedivák, Petr; Homola, Jiří

    2016-06-15

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illnesses have shown that foodborne bacterial pathogens present a significant threat to public health, resulting in an increased need for technologies capable of fast and reliable screening of food commodities. The optimal method of pathogen detection in foods should: (i) be rapid, specific, and sensitive; (ii) require minimum sample preparation; and (iii) be robust and cost-effective, thus enabling use in the field. Here we report the use of a SPR biosensor based on ultra-low fouling and functionalizable poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (pCBAA) brushes for the rapid and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens in crude food samples utilizing a three-step detection assay. We studied both the surface resistance to fouling and the functional capabilities of these brushes with respect to each step of the assay, namely: (I) incubation of the sensor with crude food samples, resulting in the capture of bacteria by antibodies immobilized to the pCBAA coating, (II) binding of secondary biotinylated antibody (Ab2) to previously captured bacteria, and (III) binding of streptavidin-coated gold nanoparticles to the biotinylated Ab2 in order to enhance the sensor response. We also investigated the effects of the brush thickness on the biorecognition capabilities of the gold-grafted functionalized pCBAA coatings. We demonstrate that pCBAA-compared to standard low-fouling OEG-based alkanethiolate self-assemabled monolayers-exhibits superior surface resistance regarding both fouling from complex food samples as well as the non-specific binding of S-AuNPs. We further demonstrate that a SPR biosensor based on a pCBAA brush with a thickness as low as 20 nm was capable of detecting E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella sp. in complex hamburger and cucumber samples with extraordinary sensitivity and specificity. The limits of detection for the two bacteria in cucumber and hamburger extracts were determined to be 57 CFU/mL and 17 CFU/mL for E. coli and 7.4 × 10

  17. Bacterial identification in real samples by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösch, Petra; Stöckel, Stephan; Meisel, Susann; Bossecker, Anja; Münchberg, Ute; Kloss, Sandra; Schumacher, Wilm; Popp, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Pathogen detection is essential without time delay especially for severe diseases like sepsis. Here, the survival rate is dependent on a prompt antibiosis. For sepsis three hours after the onset of shock the survival rate of the patient drops below 60 %. Unfortunately, the results from standard diagnosis methods like PCR or microbiology can normally be received after 12 or 36 h, respectively. Therefore diagnosis methods which require less cultivation or even no cultivation at all have to be established for medical diagnosis. Here, Raman spectroscopy, as a vibrational spectroscopic method, is a very sensitive and selective approach and monitors the biochemical composition of the investigated sample. Applying micro-Raman spectroscopy allows for a spatial resolution below 1 μm and is therefore in the size range of bacteria. Raman spectra of bacteria depend on the physiological status. Therefore, the databases require the inclusion of the necessary environmental parameters such as temperature, pH, nutrition, etc. Such large databases therefore require a specialized chemometric approach, since the variation between different strains is small. In this contribution we will demonstrate the capability of Raman spectroscopy to identify pathogens without cultivation even from real environmental or medical samples.

  18. Responses of bacterial communities in arable soils in a rice-wheat cropping system to different fertilizer regimes and sampling times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    Full Text Available Soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in a rice-wheat cropping system subjected to different fertilizer regimes were investigated in two seasons (June and October. All fertilizer regimes increased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Both fertilizer regime and time had a significant effect on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure. The combined application of inorganic fertilizer and manure organic-inorganic fertilizer significantly enhanced the bacterial diversity in both seasons. The bacterial communities across all samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi at the phylum level. Permutational multivariate analysis confirmed that both fertilizer treatment and season were significant factors in the variation of the composition of the bacterial community. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances further revealed that bacterial communities were separated primarily by season. The effect of fertilizer treatment is significant (P = 0.005 and accounts for 7.43% of the total variation in bacterial community. Soil nutrients (e.g., available K, total N, total P and organic matter rather than pH showed significant correlation with the majority of abundant taxa. In conclusion, both fertilizer treatment and seasonal changes affect soil properties, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. The application of NPK plus manure organic-inorganic fertilizer may be a sound fertilizer practice for sustainable food production.

  19. Responses of Bacterial Communities in Arable Soils in a Rice-Wheat Cropping System to Different Fertilizer Regimes and Sampling Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Ni, Tian; Li, Yong; Xiong, Wu; Ran, Wei; Shen, Biao; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2014-01-01

    Soil physicochemical properties, soil microbial biomass and bacterial community structures in a rice-wheat cropping system subjected to different fertilizer regimes were investigated in two seasons (June and October). All fertilizer regimes increased the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. Both fertilizer regime and time had a significant effect on soil physicochemical properties and bacterial community structure. The combined application of inorganic fertilizer and manure organic-inorganic fertilizer significantly enhanced the bacterial diversity in both seasons. The bacterial communities across all samples were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi at the phylum level. Permutational multivariate analysis confirmed that both fertilizer treatment and season were significant factors in the variation of the composition of the bacterial community. Hierarchical cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis distances further revealed that bacterial communities were separated primarily by season. The effect of fertilizer treatment is significant (P = 0.005) and accounts for 7.43% of the total variation in bacterial community. Soil nutrients (e.g., available K, total N, total P and organic matter) rather than pH showed significant correlation with the majority of abundant taxa. In conclusion, both fertilizer treatment and seasonal changes affect soil properties, microbial biomass and bacterial community structure. The application of NPK plus manure organic-inorganic fertilizer may be a sound fertilizer practice for sustainable food production. PMID:24465530

  20. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients with and without dyspepsia, detected by polymerase chain reaction and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sangita; Jithendra, K D

    2012-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important gastrointestinal pathogen that is strongly associated with gastritis as well as peptic ulcer disease. Antimicrobial therapy frequently fails to cure H. pylori infection, which suggests there may be sanctuary sites where the organism resides. This study was aimed to assess the role of oral cavity as a reservoir of H. pylori by evaluating the occurrence of the organism in subgingival plaque of dyspeptic patients by polymerase chain reaction as well as culture. Thirty chronic periodontitis patients whose biopsy specimens were found to be H. pylori positive with rapid urease test and histopathologic examination were considered as cases and 20 chronic periodontitis patients who never had any symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer were taken as controls. Subgingival plaque samples were collected and sent to microbiological laboratory for detection of H. pylori by 16S rRNA based polymerase chain reaction as well as culture. 60% of the samples were found to be positive with polymerase chain reaction in the case group when compared to 15% in the controls. Also, 30% of the cases were found to be positive with culture compared to none in controls. A higher frequency of detection of H. pylori in those patients with positive antral biopsy report was seen. Also, polymerase chain reaction was found to be more sensitive than culture for detection. Thus, we conclude that detection of H. pylori in dental plaque of dyspeptic patients cannot be neglected and might represent a risk factor for recolonization of stomach after systemic eradication therapy.

  1. Studying the Effects of Reproductive Hormones and Bacterial Vaginosis on the Glycome of Lavage Samples from the Cervicovaginal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linlin; Koppolu, Sujeethraj; Chappell, Catherine; Moncla, Bernard J.; Hillier, Sharon L.; Mahal, Lara K.

    2015-01-01

    The cervicovaginal fluid (CVF) coating the vaginal epithelium is an important immunological mediator, providing a barrier to infection. Glycosylation of CVF proteins, such as mucins, IgG and S-IgA, plays a critical role in their immunological functions. Although multiple factors, such as hormones and microflora, may influence glycosylation of the CVF, few studies have examined their impact on this important immunological fluid. Herein we analyzed the glycosylation of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) samples collected from 165 women under different hormonal conditions including: (1) no contraceptive, post-menopausal, (2) no contraceptive, days 1-14 of the menstrual cycle, (3) no contraceptive, days 15-28 of the menstrual cycle, (4) combined-oral contraceptive pills for at least 6 months, (5) depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) injections for at least 6 months, (6) levonorgestrel IUD for at least 1 month. Glycomic profiling was obtained using our lectin microarray system, a rapid method to analyze carbohydrate composition. Although some small effects were observed due to hormone levels, the major influence on the glycome was the presence of an altered bacterial cohort due to bacterial vaginosis (BV). Compared to normal women, samples from women with BV contained lower levels of sialic acid and high-mannose glycans in their CVL. The change in high mannose levels was unexpected and may be related to the increased risk of HIV-infection observed in women with BV, as high mannose receptors are a viral entry pathway. Changes in the glycome were also observed with hormonal contraceptive use, in a contraceptive-dependent manner. Overall, microflora had a greater impact on the glycome than hormonal levels, and both of these effects should be more closely examined in future studies given the importance of glycans in the innate immune system. PMID:25993513

  2. The impact of sampling, PCR, and sequencing replication on discerning changes in drinking water bacterial community over diurnal time-scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-de Los Santos, Quyen Melina; Schroeder, Joanna L; Blakemore, Oliver; Moses, Jonathan; Haffey, Mark; Sloan, William; Pinto, Ameet J

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput and deep DNA sequencing, particularly amplicon sequencing, is being increasingly utilized to reveal spatial and temporal dynamics of bacterial communities in drinking water systems. Whilst the sampling and methodological biases associated with PCR and sequencing have been studied in other environments, they have not been quantified for drinking water. These biases are likely to have the greatest effect on the ability to characterize subtle spatio-temporal patterns influenced by process/environmental conditions. In such cases, intra-sample variability may swamp any underlying small, systematic variation. To evaluate this, we undertook a study with replication at multiple levels including sampling sites, sample collection, PCR amplification, and high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. The variability inherent to the PCR amplification and sequencing steps is significant enough to mask differences between bacterial communities from replicate samples. This was largely driven by greater variability in detection of rare bacteria (relative abundance samples. Despite this, we captured significant changes in bacterial community over diurnal time-scales and find that the extent and pattern of diurnal changes is specific to each sampling location. Further, we find diurnal changes in bacterial community arise due to differences in the presence/absence of the low abundance bacteria and changes in the relative abundance of dominant bacteria. Finally, we show that bacterial community composition is significantly different across sampling sites for time-periods during which there are typically rapid changes in water use. This suggests hydraulic changes (driven by changes in water demand) contribute to shaping the bacterial community in bulk drinking water over diurnal time-scales. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cytokines release and oxidative status in semen samples from rabbits treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collodel, G; Moretti, E; Brecchia, G; Kuželová, L; Arruda, J; Mourvaki, E; Castellini, C

    2015-04-15

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of a lipopolysaccharide- (LPS) induced inflammation on cytokines release and oxidative status of semen samples from buck rabbits at different times after treatment. Semen analysis was performed by optical microscopy and sperm motility evaluation by the computer-assisted sperm analyzer. The presence of activated macrophages and apoptotic/necrotic sperm was evaluated by fluorescent microscopy. A panel of cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were detected and quantified in seminal plasma using the Bio-Plex Cytokine assay. Reactive oxygen metabolite and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance determinations were carried out by spectrophotometry and tocopherol analysis by high performance liquid chromatography. The sperm motility and track speed were reduced in LPS-treated rabbits. The activated macrophages in LPS-treated buck rabbits significantly increased from 0.50 × 10(6)/mL (baseline) to 27 × 10(6)/mL on Day 21; successively, there was a progressive reduction. Apoptotic and necrotic sperm in LPS rabbits followed more or less the same trend. The reactive oxygen metabolite levels in semen from LPS-treated rabbits showed higher values compared with those evaluated in controls, particularly during the lag time, Days 1 to 3. The sperm thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances highlighted a peak in LPS-treated rabbits compared with those of controls on Day 1 after LPS treatment, and the different T isoforms (α, δ, and γ+β) showed a similar trend with a significant decrease on Day 1 after injection and a recovery on Days 30 to 56. Until Days 3 to 21 from the treatment, higher levels of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α were detected in seminal plasma of LPS-treated rabbits. Interleukin-6 showed a peak on Day 3 after LPS treatment, and on Day 7, the value was similar to the control group. In conclusion, this study confirms that the buck rabbit is a good model for mimicking and

  4. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

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    Ian J Davis

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (<25% attachment loss. In this survey subgingival plaque samples were collected from 223 dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  5. Bacterial contamination of whole-blood-derived platelets: the introduction of sample diversion and prestorage pooling with culture testing in the American Red Cross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Richard J; Kline, Linda; Dy, Beth A; Kennedy, Jean; Pisciotto, Patricia; Sapatnekar, Suneeti; Mercado, Rachel; Eder, Anne F

    2008-11-01

    Bacterial sepsis following whole blood-derived platelet (WBP) transfusion has remained a substantial patient risk, primarily due to a lack of practical and effective means to limit or detect bacterial contamination. We describe the risk of reported septic reactions to WBPs and the introduction of prestorage-pooled whole blood-derived platelets (PSPs) collected using initial sample diversion and cultured for bacterial contamination. Product qualification and quality control (QC) testing with the Acrodose PL system (Pall Medical) were evaluated in four regional blood centers. Bacterial contamination risk was assessed by review of reported septic transfusion reactions to WBPs and by aerobic QC culture of leukoreduced PSPs utilizing automated microbial detection system cultures (BacT/ALERT 3D, bioMérieux). Before implementing PSPs (January 2003-December 2006), we distributed 2,535,043 WBP units and received 20 reports of septic reactions including 2 fatalities (7.9 per million [1:126,752] reactions and 0.79 per million [1:1,267,522] fatalities). In October 2006, PSPs were effectively implemented with a product qualification success rate of 99.6 percent and a mean yield of 4.0 x 10(11) platelets (PLTs) per pool. Whole blood collection sets with sample diversion technology were introduced during the operational trial and decreased the rate of confirmed-positive bacterial culture of PSPs from 2111 (1:474) to 965 (1:1036) per million (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.22-0.95). No septic reactions to PSPs were reported (25,936 PSP units distributed). Sample diversion and bacterial culture are effective methods to reduce bacterial risk with WBP transfusion. Bacterial contamination of PSPs was assessed at 5.8-fold our current rate for apheresis PLTs utilizing comparable culture protocols.

  6. Detection of Pneumocystis DNA in samples from patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia- a case-control study

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    Benfield Thomas L

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. To investigate the clinical importance of a positive Pneumocystis-PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a retrospective matched case-control study was conducted. Methods Respiratory samples from 367 patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia were analysed by PCR amplification of Pneumocystis jiroveci. To compare clinical factors associated with carriage of P. jiroveci, a case-control study was done. For each PCR-positive case, four PCR-negative controls, randomly chosen from the PCR-negative patients, were matched on sex and date of birth. Results Pneumocystis-DNA was detected in 16 (4.4% of patients. The median age for PCR-positive patients was higher than PCR-negative patients (74 vs. 62 years, p = 0.011. PCR-positive cases had a higher rate of chronic or severe concomitant illness (15 (94% than controls (32 (50% (p = 0.004. Twelve (75% of the 16 PCR positive patients had received corticosteroids, compared to 8 (13% of the 64 PCR-negative controls (p Detection of Pneumocystis-DNA was associated with a worse prognosis: seven (44% of patients with positive PCR died within one month compared to nine (14% of the controls (p = 0.01. None of the nine PCR-positive patients who survived had developed PCP at one year of follow-up. Conclusions Our data suggest that carriage of Pneumocystis jiroveci is associated with old age, concurrent disease and steroid treatment. PCR detection of P. jiroveci has low specificity for diagnosing PCP among patients without established immunodeficiency. Whether overt infection is involved in the poorer prognosis or merely reflects sub-clinical carriage is not clear. Further studies of P. jiroveci in patients receiving systemic treatment

  7. Bacterial diversity of autotrophic enriched cultures from remote, glacial Antarctic, Alpine and Andean aerosol, snow and soil samples

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    E. González-Toril

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different communities and one culture of autotrophic microbial assemblages were obtained by incubation of samples collected from high elevation snow in the Alps (Mt. Blanc area and the Andes (Nevado Illimani summit, Bolivia, from Antarctic aerosol (French station Dumont d'Urville and a maritime Antarctic soil (King George Island, South Shetlands, Uruguay Station Artigas, in a minimal mineral (oligotrophic media. Molecular analysis of more than 200 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that all cultured cells belong to the Bacteria domain. Phylogenetic comparison with the currently available rDNA database allowed sequences belonging to Proteobacteria Alpha-, Beta- and Gamma-proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla to be identified. The Andes snow culture was the richest in bacterial diversity (eight microorganisms identified and the marine Antarctic soil the poorest (only one. Snow samples from Col du Midi (Alps and the Andes shared the highest number of identified microorganisms (Agrobacterium, Limnobacter, Aquiflexus and two uncultured Alphaproteobacteria clones. These two sampling sites also shared four sequences with the Antarctic aerosol sample (Limnobacter, Pseudonocardia and an uncultured Alphaproteobacteriaclone. The only microorganism identified in the Antarctica soil (Brevundimonas sp. was also detected in the Antarctic aerosol. Most of the identified microorganisms had been detected previously in cold environments, marine sediments soils and rocks. Air current dispersal is the best model to explain the presence of very specific microorganisms, like those identified in this work, in environments very distant and very different from each other.

  8. Effect of smoking on subgingival microflora of patients with periodontitis in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Michiya; Tanno-Nakanishi, Mariko; Yamada, Satoru; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking is a risk factor for periodontitis. To clarify the contribution of smoking to periodontitis, it is essential to assess the relationship between smoking and the subgingival microflora. The aim of this study was to gain an insight into the influence of smoking on the microflora of Japanese patients with periodontitis. Methods Sixty-seven Japanese patients with chronic periodontitis (19 to 83 years old, 23 women and 44 men) were enrolled in the present study. They con...

  9. Combinatorial effects of amoxicillin and metronidazole on selected periodontal bacteria and whole plaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulik Kunz, Eva M; Lenkeit, Krystyna; Waltimo, Tuomas; Weiger, Roland; Walter, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze in vitro the combinatorial effects of the antibiotic combination of amoxicillin plus metronidazole on subgingival bacterial isolates. Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Eikenella corrodens from our strain collection and subgingival bacteria isolated from patients with periodontitis were tested for their susceptibility to amoxicillin and metronidazole using the Etest. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI), which is commonly used to describe drug interactions, was calculated. Synergy, i.e. FICI values ≤ 0.5, between amoxicillin and metronidazole was shown for two A. actinomycetemcomitans (FICI: 0.3), two F. nucleatum (FICI: 0.3 and 0.5, respectively) and one E. corrodens (FICI: 0.4) isolates. Indifference, i.e. FIC indices of >0.5 but ≤4, occurred for other isolates and the 14 P. intermedia/nigrescens strains tested. Microorganisms resistant to either amoxicillin or metronidazole were detected in all samples by Etest. Combinatorial effects occur between amoxicillin and metronidazole on some strains of A. actinomycetemcomitans, F. nucleatum and E. corrodens. Synergy was shown for a few strains only. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Virulence genes of Aeromonas isolates, bacterial endotoxins and cyanobacterial toxins from recreational water samples associated with human health symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Katri A; Lyra, Christina; Niemi, R Maarit; Heens, Benoit; Hoppu, Kalle; Erkomaa, Kirsti; Sivonen, Kaarina; Rapala, Jarkko

    2011-12-01

    Exposure to cyanobacterial water blooms has been associated with various kinds of adverse health effects. In addition to cyanobacteria and their toxins, the bacteria associated with cyanobacteria could also be the etiological agents. We isolated Aeromonas strains (n = 176) from water samples (n = 38) taken from sites where cyanobacteria were suspected to have caused human health symptoms, of which fever and gastrointestinal symptoms were the most common. The isolates were screened by PCR for six virulence gene types (12 genes). The majority (90%) of the strains contained at least one of the virulence genes. Most common amplification products were those of genes (act/aerA/hlyA) that encode cytotoxic enterotoxin and haemolytic products. The genes encoding cytotonic enterotoxins (ast and alt), phospholipase (lip/pla/lipH3/alp-1), elastase (ahyB) and flagellin subunits (flaA/flaB) were also present in 5-37% of the Aeromonas strains. Analysed toxins (cyanobacterial hepatotoxins and neurotoxins, and bacterial endotoxins) were not detectable or were present in only low concentrations in the majority of the samples. The results indicated that the toxins were unlikely to be the main cause of the reported adverse health effects, whereas more attention should be paid to bacteria associated with cyanobacteria as a source of health effects.

  11. Tracking of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in subgingival plaque of aggressive periodontitis patients

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    Supriya Kheur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is thought to be one of the etiological agents in aggressive periodontitis as well as indicated in various systemic diseases. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival plaque of aggressive periodontitis patients. Study Design: Initially, under the selective growth conditions, the isolates were picked from the plaques and their identification was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for A. actinomycetemcomitans subgingival plaque of 15 patients diagnosed clinically and on radiographic criteria as aggressive periodontitis was inoculated on the Tryptic Soy agar with Bacitracin and Vancomycin culture media for 3-5 days under microaerophilic conditions. The positive colonies were selected based on biochemical tests for further analysis using reported primers for A. actinomycetemcomitans. Results: The results showed that 66.67% of aggressive periodontitis patients and 6.67% of control group of normal patients showed evidence of presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival microflora. Conclusion: This is the first study of its kind in an Indian population whereby almost all aggressive periodontitis patients showed evidence of A. actinomycetemcomitans.

  12. [Characterizing Beijing's Airborne Bacterial Communities in PM2.5 and PM1 Samples During Haze Pollution Episodes Using 16S rRNA Gene Analysis Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bu-ying; Lang, Ji-dong; Zhang, Li-na; Fang, Jian-huo; Cao, Chen; Hao, Ji-ming; Zhu, Ting; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jing-kun

    2015-08-01

    During 8th-14th Jan., 2013, severe particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes happened in Beijing. These air pollution events lead to high risks for public health. In addition to various PM chemical compositions, biological components in the air may also impose threaten. Little is known about airborne microbial community in such severe air pollution conditions. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected during that 7-day pollution period. The 16S rRNA gene V3 amplification and the MiSeq sequencing were performed for analyzing these samples. It is found that there is no significant difference at phylum level for PM2.5 bacterial communities during that 7-day pollution period both at phylum and at genus level. At genus level, Arthrobacter and Frankia are the major airborne microbes presented in Beijing winter.samples. At genus level, there are 39 common genera (combined by first 50 genera bacterial of the two analysis) between the 16S rRNA gene analysis and those are found by Metagenomic analysis on the same PM samples. Frankia and Paracoccus are relatively more abundant in 16S rRNA gene data, while Kocuria and Geodermatophilus are relatively more abundant in Meta-data. PM10 bacterial communities are similar to those of PM2.5 with some noticeable differences, i.e., at phylum level, more Firmicutes and less Actinobacteria present in PM10 samples than in PM2.5 samples, while at genus level, more Clostridium presents in PM10 samples. The findings in Beijing were compared with three 16S rRNA gene studies in other countries. Although the sampling locations and times are different from each other, compositions of bacterial community are similar for those sampled at the ground atmosphere. Airborne microbial communities near the ground surface are different from those sampled in the upper troposphere.

  13. Dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Neelam; Nato, Faridabano; Dartevelle, Sylvie; Sire, Jean Marie; Garin, Benoit; Thi Phuong, Lan Nguyen; Diep, Tai The; Shako, Jean Christophe; Bimet, François; Filliol, Ingrid; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Ungeheuer, Marie Noëlle; Ottone, Catherine; Sansonetti, Philippe; Germani, Yves

    2011-01-01

    We describe a test for rapid detection of S. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients. The test is based on the detection of S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 15 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 10 minutes. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 1.6×10⁶ CFU/ml and 4.9×10⁶ CFU/ml of S. dysenteriae 1, respectively. Optimal conditions to read the test have been determined to limit the risk of ambiguous results due to appearance of a faint yellow test band in some negative samples. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains in culture. When tested on 328 clinical samples in India, Vietnam, Senegal and France by laboratory technicians and in Democratic Republic of Congo by a field technician, the specificity (312/316) was 98.7% (95% CI:96.6-99.6%) and the sensitivity (11/12) was 91.7% (95% CI:59.8-99.6%). Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 98.4 % of cases (323/328) in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 73.3% (95% CI:44.8-91.1%) and 99.7% (95% CI:98-100%). The initial findings presented here for a simple dipstick-based test to diagnose S. dysenteriae 1 demonstrates its promising potential to become a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  14. Retrospective report of antimicrobial susceptibility observed in bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples at Mount Sinai Hospital, 2010 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oydanich, Marko; Dingle, Tanis C; Hamula, Camille L; Ghisa, Claudia; Asbell, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a major threat to global public health. Thus, the surveillance of changes in antimicrobial resistance in local and global settings is a paramount necessity. While many studies have tracked antimicrobial resistance, only a small percentage surveyed ocular isolates. The purpose of this study was to report the in vitro susceptibility of bacterial pathogens isolated from ocular samples in New York, NY from 2010 to 2015. A retrospective review of ocular isolates was conducted. All organisms were collected by 25 separate inpatient wards and outpatient clinics, and were analyzed by the clinical microbiology laboratory at Mount Sinai Hospital. Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines were followed for susceptibility testing and breakpoint interpretations. A total of 549 bacterial organisms were isolated from 1664 cultures (33%) during the 6-year study period. Of these, 358 isolates (65.2%) underwent susceptibility testing. 182 (50.8%) isolates were Gram-positive. The most common Gram-positive bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus (62.1%). Methicillin-resistance decreased in S. aureus isolates (31.3% in 2010, 14.1% in 2015) but was without significant change ( p  = 0.25). When analyzing all S. aureus isolates recovered during the study period, there were significantly more methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones ( p <0.0001), erythromycin ( p <0.0001), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMZ; p <0.05). Overall, Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates showed reduced susceptibility to erythromycin, but were otherwise susceptible to the other antimicrobials tested. Haemophilus influenzae (26.1%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23.9%) were the most common Gram-negative bacteria isolated . Resistance to ampicillin and TMP/SMZ was observed in several of the H. influenzae isolates. P. aeruginosa isolates did not show high resistance overall, however, it was noted that isolates resistant

  15. EVALUATION OF A RAPID SCREENING ASSAY FOR BACTERIAL IDENTIFICATION (DOT-ELISA IN FECAL SAMPLES FROM CHILDREN

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    Etelvina BOCCATTO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of standardizing a Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Dot-ELISA to detect antigens of fecal bacterial enteropathogens, 250 children, aged under 36 months and of both sexes, were studied; of which 162 had acute gastroenteritis. The efficacy of a rapid screening assay for bacterial enteropathogens (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli "EPEC", enteroinvasive Escherichia coli "EIEC", Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. was evaluated. The fecal samples were also submitted to a traditional method of stool culture for comparison. The concordance index between the two techniques, calculated using the Kappa (k index for the above mentioned bacterial strains was 0.8859, 0.9055, 0.7932 and 0.7829 respectively. These values express an almost perfect degree of concordance for the first two and substantial concordance for the latter two, thus enabling this technique to be applied in the early diagnosis of diarrhea in infants. With a view to increasing the sensitivity and specificity of this immunological test, a study was made of the antigenic preparations obtained from two types of treatment: 1 deproteinization by heating; 2 precipitation and concentration of the lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS using an ethanol-acetone solution, which was then heated in the presence of sodium EDTACom o objetivo de padronizar um Dot Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Dot-ELISA para a detecção de antígenos de enteropatógenos bacterianos fecais, estudaram-se 250 crianças, abaixo de 36 meses de idade, de ambos os sexos, 162 portadoras de gastroenterite aguda. Avaliou-se a eficácia de um teste rápido para bactérias enteropatógenas (Escherichia coli enteropatogênica "EPEC", Escherichia coli enteroinvasora" EIEC", Salmonella spp. e Shigella spp.. As amostras fecais foram também submetidas à metodologia tradicional de coprocultura para comparação. Os índices de concordância entre as 2 técnicas, calculado através do índice Kappa (k para as cepas

  16. Identification of Common Bacterial Pathogens Causing Meningitis in Culture-Negative Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Walaa Shawky; Elabd, Safia Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Background. Meningitis is a serious communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. It is an endemic disease in Egypt caused mainly by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae. In some settings, bacterial meningitis is documented depending mainly on positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results or CSF positive latex agglutination test, missing the important role of prior antimicrobial intake which can yield negative culture and latex agglutination test results. This study aimed to utilize molecular technology in order to diagnose bacterial meningitis in culture-negative CSF samples. Materials and Methods. Forty culture-negative CSF samples from suspected cases of bacterial meningitis were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) for the presence of lytA, bexA, and ctrA genes specific for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, respectively. Results. Positive real-time PCR results for Streptococcus pneumoniae were detected in 36 (90%) of culture-negative CSF samples while no positive results for Haemophilus influenzae or Neisseria meningitidis were detected. Four (10%) samples were negative by real-time PCR for all tested organisms. Conclusion. The use of molecular techniques as real-time PCR can provide a valuable addition to the proportion of diagnosed cases of bacterial meningitis especially in settings with high rates of culture-negative results.

  17. Comparison of two methods of bacterial DNA extraction from human fecal samples contaminated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Jun; Kurosaki, Morito; Kawakami, Yuta; Kashimoto, Takashi; Tsunomori, Yoshie; Sato, Koji; Ikeda, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keiji; Watahiki, Masanori; Shima, Tomoko; Kameyama, Mitsuhiro; Etoh, Yoshiki; Horikawa, Kazumi; Fukushima, Hiroshi; Goto, Ryoichi; Shirabe, Komei

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 2 methods of DNA extraction were evaluated for use in conjunction with the screening system Rapid Foodborne Bacterial Screening 24 (RFBS24), which employs multiplex real-time SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction (SG-PCR) and can simultaneously detect 24 target genes of foodborne pathogens in fecal DNA samples. The QIAamp DNA Stool mini kit (Qkit) and Ultra Clean Fecal DNA Isolation Kit (Ukit) were used for bacterial DNA extraction from fecal samples artificially inoculated with Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Campylobacter jejuni. SG-PCR and simplex real-time quantitative PCR (S-qPCR) analyses revealed higher copy numbers (8-234 times) of DNA in samples obtained using Ukit compared with those obtained using Qkit, resulting in lower cycle threshold values for the Ukit samples of the 4 bacteria on SG-PCR analysis. Fecal DNA samples from patients infected during foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella and Campylobacter were also prepared by Qkit and Ukit methods and subjected to RFBS24 analyses. Higher numbers of RFBS24 bacterial target genes were detected in DNA samples obtained using Ukit compared with those obtained using Qkit. Thus, the higher DNA extraction efficiency of the Ukit method compared with Qkit renders the former more useful in achieving improved detection rates of these 4 bacteria in fecal samples using SG-PCR.

  18. AADNMR: A Simple Method for Rapid Identification of Bacterial/Mycobacterial Infections in Antibiotic Treated Peritoneal Dialysis Effluent Samples for Diagnosis of Infectious Peritonitis

    CERN Document Server

    Guleria, Anupam; Rawat, Atul; Khetrapal, C L; Prasad, Narayan; Kumar, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    An efficient method is reported for rapid identification of bacterial or mycobacterial infection in a suspected clinical/biological sample. The method is based on the fact that the ring methylene protons of cyclic fatty acids (constituting the cell membrane of several species of bacteria and mycobacteria) resonate specifically between -0.40 and 0.68 ppm region of the 1H NMR spectrum. These cyclic fatty acids are rarely found in the eukaryotic cell membranes. Therefore, the signals from cyclic ring moiety of these fatty acids can be used as markers (a) for the identification of bacterial and mycobacterial infections and (b) for differential diagnosis of bacterial and fungal infections. However, these microbial fatty acids when present inside the membrane are not easily detectable by NMR owing to their fast T2 relaxation. Nonetheless, the problem can easily be circumvented if these fatty acids become suspended in solution. This has been achieved by abolishing the membrane integrity using broad spectrum antibiot...

  19. Subgingival air-polishing with erythritol during periodontal maintenance: randomized clinical trial of twelve months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Nada; Moëne, Raphaël; Cancela, José A; Mombelli, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate repeated subgingival air-polishing in residual pockets with a new erythritol powder containing 0.3% chlorhexidine. Single-centre, examiner masked, randomized clinical trial of 12 months with a two-arm, within-subject parallel design. Fifty patients in periodontal maintenance were monitored in 3-month intervals. At months 0, 3, 6 and 9, all sites presenting with a probing depth (PD) >4 mm were subject to subgingival air-polishing (test side) or ultrasonic debridement (control side). The primary endpoint was presence/absence of PD >4 mm after 12 months. Totally 6918 sites were monitored at baseline, 457 of them had a PD >4 mm (range 5-9 mm). The number of pockets >4 mm per subject, PD and bleeding on probing were significantly lower at month 12. Differences between test and control were not significant. There was a significant difference in favour of air-polishing for the perception of pain/discomfort. Differences of frequencies at >1000 and >100,000 cells/ml of six microorganisms between baseline and month 12 were not significant. At month 12, test sites were less frequently positive for Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans at >1000 cells/ml than controls, and counts never exceeded 100,000 cells/ml. Repeated subgingival air-polishing reduced the number of pockets >4 mm similar to ultrasonic debridement. It was safe and induced less pain. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Clinical Periodontology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Co-localized or randomly distributed? Pair cross correlation of in vivo grown subgingival biofilm bacteria quantified by digital image analysis.

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    Claudia Schillinger

    Full Text Available The polymicrobial nature of periodontal diseases is reflected by the diversity of phylotypes detected in subgingival plaque and the finding that consortia of suspected pathogens rather than single species are associated with disease development. A number of these microorganisms have been demonstrated in vitro to interact and enhance biofilm integration, survival or even pathogenic features. To examine the in vivo relevance of these proposed interactions, we extended the spatial arrangement analysis tool of the software daime (digital image analysis in microbial ecology. This modification enabled the quantitative analysis of microbial co-localization in images of subgingival biofilm species, where the biomass was confined to fractions of the whole-image area, a situation common for medical samples. Selected representatives of the disease-associated red and orange complexes that were previously suggested to interact with each other in vitro (Tannerella forsythia with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis with Prevotella intermedia were chosen for analysis and labeled with specific fluorescent probes via fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pair cross-correlation analysis of in vivo grown biofilms revealed tight clustering of F. nucleatum/periodonticum and T. forsythia at short distances (up to 6 µm with a pronounced peak at 1.5 µm. While these results confirmed previous in vitro observations for F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, random spatial distribution was detected between P. gingivalis and P. intermedia in the in vivo samples. In conclusion, we successfully employed spatial arrangement analysis on the single cell level in clinically relevant medical samples and demonstrated the utility of this approach for the in vivo validation of in vitro observations by analyzing statistically relevant numbers of different patients. More importantly, the culture-independent nature of this approach enables similar quantitative analyses for "as

  1. Co-localized or randomly distributed? Pair cross correlation of in vivo grown subgingival biofilm bacteria quantified by digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillinger, Claudia; Petrich, Annett; Lux, Renate; Riep, Birgit; Kikhney, Judith; Friedmann, Anton; Wolinsky, Lawrence E; Göbel, Ulf B; Daims, Holger; Moter, Annette

    2012-01-01

    The polymicrobial nature of periodontal diseases is reflected by the diversity of phylotypes detected in subgingival plaque and the finding that consortia of suspected pathogens rather than single species are associated with disease development. A number of these microorganisms have been demonstrated in vitro to interact and enhance biofilm integration, survival or even pathogenic features. To examine the in vivo relevance of these proposed interactions, we extended the spatial arrangement analysis tool of the software daime (digital image analysis in microbial ecology). This modification enabled the quantitative analysis of microbial co-localization in images of subgingival biofilm species, where the biomass was confined to fractions of the whole-image area, a situation common for medical samples. Selected representatives of the disease-associated red and orange complexes that were previously suggested to interact with each other in vitro (Tannerella forsythia with Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis with Prevotella intermedia) were chosen for analysis and labeled with specific fluorescent probes via fluorescence in situ hybridization. Pair cross-correlation analysis of in vivo grown biofilms revealed tight clustering of F. nucleatum/periodonticum and T. forsythia at short distances (up to 6 µm) with a pronounced peak at 1.5 µm. While these results confirmed previous in vitro observations for F. nucleatum and T. forsythia, random spatial distribution was detected between P. gingivalis and P. intermedia in the in vivo samples. In conclusion, we successfully employed spatial arrangement analysis on the single cell level in clinically relevant medical samples and demonstrated the utility of this approach for the in vivo validation of in vitro observations by analyzing statistically relevant numbers of different patients. More importantly, the culture-independent nature of this approach enables similar quantitative analyses for "as

  2. [Subgingival irrigation combined with scaling and root planing. Results of a study with chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamagate, A; Kone, D; Coulibaly, N T; Ahnoux, A

    2005-03-01

    Scaling and root planning is more and more associated with subgingival irrigation in chronics periodontal treatment. It is unreasonable to expect to control periodontal infections by mechanical treatment alone. Most patients do not achieve the necessary level of manual dexterity or motivation to control their plaque at home. It is rather better to deliver antimicrobial agents directly into the periodontal pocket. The aim of this study is to evaluate the action of subgingival irrigation associated to periodontal scaling on the clinical parameters and to compare the effects of chlorhexidine (Eludril) and sodium hypochlorite (Dakin Cooper) on adult's chronics periodontitis treatment. At the level of Plaque Index, Gingival Index and Bleeding on Probing, the results show that Eludril irrigation associated to scaling is lightly efficacious than Dakin cooper irrigation associated to scaling. And, the last one also is lightly efficacious than scaling alone. However, at the level of pocket depth, scaling alone has been also effective than scaling associated with subgingival irrigation.

  3. Applying meta-pathway analyses through metagenomics to identify the functional properties of the major bacterial communities of a single spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-09-01

    A high-resolution functional metagenomic analysis of a representative single sample of a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process was carried out to gain insight into its bacterial community functioning. By reconstruction of microbial meta-pathways based on metagenomic data, the current knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of bacterial members involved in the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem was extended. Functional meta-pathway analysis revealed the distribution of the metabolic pathways between the bacterial members involved. The metabolic capabilities of the lactic acid bacteria present were most associated with the heterolactic fermentation and citrate assimilation pathways. The role of Enterobacteriaceae in the conversion of substrates was shown through the use of the mixed-acid fermentation and methylglyoxal detoxification pathways. Furthermore, several other potential functional roles for Enterobacteriaceae were indicated, such as pectinolysis and citrate assimilation. Concerning acetic acid bacteria, metabolic pathways were partially reconstructed, in particular those related to responses toward stress, explaining their metabolic activities during cocoa bean fermentation processes. Further, the in-depth metagenomic analysis unveiled functionalities involved in bacterial competitiveness, such as the occurrence of CRISPRs and potential bacteriocin production. Finally, comparative analysis of the metagenomic data with bacterial genomes of cocoa bean fermentation isolates revealed the applicability of the selected strains as functional starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Efecto del tratamiento periodontal sobre la microbiota subgingival en pacientes con preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Jaramillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Pocos estudios han descrito la microbiota subgingival en mujeres embarazadas con preeclampsia leve. Objetivo. Identificar cambios periodontales y de la microbiota subgingival en mujeres embarazadas con preeclampsia, después del tratamiento periodontal. Materiales y métodos. En un análisis secundario de un ensayo clínico de asignación aleatoria, se estudiaron 57 pacientes con preeclampsia en el Hospital Universitario del Valle de Cali. Se asignaron al azar 31 al grupo de intervención periodontal (detartraje y alisado subgingival ultrasónico y manual durante su embarazo y otras 26 al grupo control (profilaxis supragingival. Se determinaron los parámetros clínicos periodontales y la microbiota subgingival a la inclusión al estudio y en el posparto. Se evaluaron 8 bacterias periodontopáticas y 2 virus herpes por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Se usaron las pruebas de ji al cuadrado, test de McNemar o t de Student, con un nivel de significancia de p≤0,05. Resultados. Los grupos fueron comparables en las variables clínicas y microbiológicas al inicio del estudio. El tratamiento periodontal redujo el promedio de la profundidad de bolsa en el grupo de intervención de 2,44±0,31 a 2,31±0,24 mm (p=0,000 y en el grupo control de 2,58±0,37 a 2,44±0,39 mm (p=0,000,y el índice de sangrado, de 16,4±1,5 a 7,9±0,7 % en el primero (p=0,000, y de 17,1±1,8 a 10±0,9 %, en el segundo (p=0,002. La frecuencia de detección de microorganismos no varió de manera significativa entre los grupos. Conclusión. El raspaje y alisado radicular, así como la profilaxis supragingival, redujeron de manera significativa la profundidad a la sonda y el índice de sangrado gingival. El tratamiento periodontal no fue más efectivo que la profilaxis para reducir los organismos periodontopáticos o los virus herpes.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i2.661

  5. Association of gingivitis with dental calculus thickness or dental calculus coverage and subgingival bacteria in feline leukemia virus- and feline immunodeficiency virus-negative cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thengchaisri, Naris; Steiner, Jörg M.; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Sattasathuchana, Panpicha

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most common oral disease in cats. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationships between gingivitis and dental calculus thickness (DCT), or dental calculus coverage (DCC); determine the association of gingivitis scores and types of oral bacteria; and to evaluate bacterial co-infection in cats with periodontal disease. Twelve cats that were not infected with feline leukemia or feline immunodeficiency viruses were enrolled in the study. Gingivitis, DCT, and DCC were scored and recorded. A Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare scores among canine, 2nd premolar, 3rd premolar, 4th premolar, and 1st molar teeth. The relationship between gingivitis and DCT or DCC scores was determined using the Spearman rank sum test (ρ). Subgingival bacteria were cultured and the association between bacterial species and gingivitis score was evaluated using a Fisher’s exact test. The average gingivitis, DCT, and DCC scores for the caudal maxillary teeth were higher for the caudal mandibular teeth and more severe for the 3rd premolar, 4th premolar, and 1st molar teeth than for the canine teeth. A strong relationship between average DCT or DCC score and average gingivitis score was found (ρ = 0.96 and 1, respectively). Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infections were identified in a large number of cats with periodontal disease (71.1% and 28.9%, respectively). In conclusion, severe gingivitis scores were associated with anaerobic bacterial infection. The caudal teeth are affected with more severe gingivitis, DCT, and DCC than the other teeth. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be prescribed in cats with periodontal disease. PMID:28154463

  6. High-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons characterizes bacterial composition in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with purulent meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aicui Liu,1,2,* Chao Wang,1,2,* Zhijuan Liang,3 Zhi-Wei Zhou,4 Lin Wang,1,2 Qiaoli Ma,1,2 Guowei Wang,1,2 Shu-Feng Zhou,4 Zhenhai Wang1,2 1Neurology Center, General Hospital of Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia; 2Key Laboratory of Brain Diseases of Ningxia, Yinchuan, Ningxia; 3Department of Neurology, The First People’s Hospital of Lanzhou, Lanzhou, Gansu, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Purulent meningitis (PM is a severe infectious disease that is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It has been recognized that bacterial infection is a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of PM. However, there is a lack of information on the bacterial composition in PM, due to the low positive rate of cerebrospinal fluid bacterial culture. Herein, we aimed to discriminate and identify the main pathogens and bacterial composition in cerebrospinal fluid sample from PM patients using high-throughput sequencing approach. The cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected from 26 PM patients, and were determined as culture-negative samples. The polymerase chain reaction products of the hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA gene in these 26 samples of PM were sequenced using the 454 GS FLX system. The results showed that there were 71,440 pyrosequencing reads, of which, the predominant phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes; and the predominant genera were Streptococcus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Neisseria. The bacterial species in the cerebrospinal fluid were complex, with 61.5% of the samples presenting with mixed pathogens. A significant number of bacteria belonging to a known pathogenic potential was observed. The number of operational taxonomic units for individual samples ranged from six to 75 and there was a comparable difference in the species diversity that

  7. [Comparison of subgingival debridement efficacy of air polishing and manual scaling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cong-jiao; Yin, Yuan-zheng; Guan, Dan-ping

    2015-10-01

    To assess the efficacy of subgingival air polishing and traditional manual scaling in 3-6 mm pockets. Patients with chronic periodontitis who were in the maintenance phase were randomly assigned to receive subgingival air polishing (experimental group) and manual scaling (control group) in 4 teeth with probing depths of 3 to 6 mm. Clinical variables including plaque index (PI), probing depth (PD), probing on bleeding (BOP) and gingival recession (GR) were recorded at baseline, 7 and 30 days post-treatment. "Pocket closure" [PD ≤ 4 mm and BOP⁻] was also calculated as supplementary data. The data of the 2 groups were compared using paired t test with SAS 8.2 software package. Thirty-one patients were enrolled and PI was 0.8 during the study. Both treatment procedures resulted in significant reductions of PD at day 7 (Pmanual scaling are both effective for improving clinical variables during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT) in teeth with probing depths of 3 to 6 mm. But the results reveal no significant difference between the 2 modalities.

  8. Gingival changes during pregnancy: II. Influence of hormonal variations on the subgingival biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Ana; Figuero, Elena; Herrera, David; Bascones-Martínez, Antonio

    2010-03-01

    To determine whether the exacerbated gingival inflammation that develops in pregnant women is related to a change in the subgingival biofilm induced by the increase in hormone levels during pregnancy. This open cohort study included 48 pregnant and 28 non-pregnant women without periodontitis. Pregnant women were evaluated in the first, second and third trimester and at 3 months after delivery. Non-pregnant women were evaluated twice, with a 6-month interval, assessing microbiological, clinical and hormonal variables at each visit. Total anaerobic counts and frequency of detection and proportions were calculated. The Friedman test with the Bonferroni correction was used for intra-group comparisons and Mann-Whitney U-tests for inter-group assessment. Correlations were analysed by means of Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Proportions of the subgingival periodontal pathogens did not differ throughout pregnancy, although significant differences were found for all the pathogens after delivery. Porphyromonas gingivalis-positive patients presented an increase in gingival inflammation (phormone levels and P. gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia. Qualitative differences in periodontal pathogens were found from pregnancy to post-partum. Patients harbouring P. gingivalis presented and increased gingival inflammatory status.

  9. Differential reflectometry versus tactile sense detection of subgingival calculus in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie, Fardad; Walsh, Laurence J.

    2012-10-01

    Detecting dental calculus is clinically challenging in dentistry. This study used typodonts with extracted premolar and molar teeth and simulated gingival tissue to compare the performance of differential reflectometry and periodontal probing. A total of 30 extracted teeth were set in an anatomical configuration in stone to create three typodonts. Clear polyvinyl siloxane impression material was placed to replicate the periodontal soft tissues. Pocket depths ranged from 10 to 15 mm. The three models were placed in a phantom head, and an experienced dentist assessed the presence of subgingival calculus first using the DetecTar (differential reflectometry) and then a periodontal probe. Scores from these two different methods were compared to the gold standard (direct examination of the root surface using 20× magnification) to determine the accuracy and reproducibility. Differential reflectometry was more accurate than tactile assessment (79% versus 60%), and its reproducibility was also higher (Cohen kappa 0.54 versus 0.39). Both methods performed better on single rooted premolar teeth than on multirooted teeth. These laboratory results indicate that differential reflectometry allows more accurate and reproducible detection of subgingival calculus than conventional probing, and supports its use for supplementing traditional periodontal examination methods in dental practice.

  10. The Impact of Residual Subgingival Cement on Biological Complications Around Dental Implants: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Alessandro; Lim, Zhuo Wei; Tang, Joyce; Perrotti, Vittoria; Leichter, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    To perform a systematic review on the impact of residual subgingival cement on peri-implant diseases and crestal bone loss. MEDLINE, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Knowledge and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) databases were used to identify articles published without time limits. A total of 6 articles were selected for a total of 389 patients (687 implants). The studies were heterogeneous and had a moderate-to-high risk of bias, but met the inclusion criteria. Four of 6 studies were published by the same research group and assessed similar populations over time. A positive relationship between residual cement and peri-implant inflammation was observed. Data on peri-implant probing depths and crestal bone loss were reported in 1 study. Residual subgingival cement seems to be strongly associated with peri-implant mucositis which is a risk factor for increased probing depths crestal bone loss and peri-implantitis. Zinc oxide eugenol cements should be preferred to resin cements especially in patients with a history of periodontitis.

  11. Detection of Pneumocystis DNA in samples from patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia--a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Jannik; Jensen, Jørgen Skov; Dohn, Birthe

    2002-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To investigate the clinical importance of a positive P...... Pneumocystis-PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a retrospective matched case-control study was conducted....

  12. Detection of Pneumocystis DNA in samples from patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia – a case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Jensen, JS; Dohn, G

    2002-01-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly known as P. carinii f.sp. hominis) is an opportunistic fungus that causes Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised individuals. Pneumocystis jiroveci can be detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To investigate the clinical importance of a positive P...... Pneumocystis-PCR among HIV-uninfected patients suspected of bacterial pneumonia, a retrospective matched case-control study was conducted....

  13. Show us your spots! Researchers need samples of bacterial leaf spots on celery, cilantro, parsley, and other crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 2002, a severe leaf spot disease on parsley has occurred throughout central coastal California and particularly in Monterey County. Three different bacterial pathogens (Pseudomonas syringae pv. apii, P. syringae pv. coriandricola and an organism very closely related to P. viridiflava) have bee...

  14. Osteoblast integration of dental implant materials after challenge by sub-gingival pathogens : a co-culture study in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Bingran; van der Mei, Henny C; Rustema-Abbing, Minie; Busscher, Henk J; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Sub-gingival anaerobic pathogens can colonize an implant surface to compromise osseointegration of dental implants once the soft tissue seal around the neck of an implant is broken. In vitro evaluations of implant materials are usually done in monoculture studies involving either tissue integration

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-FREE ENERGY ON SUPRAGINGIVAL AND SUBGINGIVAL PLAQUE MICROBIOLOGY - AN IN-VIVO STUDY ON IMPLANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    QUIRYNEN, M; VANDERMEI, HC; BOLLEN, CML; VANDENBOSSCHE, LH; DOORNBUSCH, GI; VANSTEENBERGHE, D; BUSSCHER, HJ

    THE INFLUENCE OF SURFACE FREE ENERGY on supra- and subgingival plaque microbiology was examined in 9 patients with functional fixed prostheses supported by endosseous titanium implants. Two abutments (trans-mucosal part of the 2 stage implant) were replaced by either a new titanium abutment or a

  16. Wide Spread Prevalence of β-Lactam Resistance among Bacterial Species Obtained from Non-Clinical Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Shivangi Bhatt; Neepa Pandhi

    2015-01-01

    The potential threats of bacterial resistance, especially widespread multi-drug resistance, are of major concern. The scenario of a patient dying from an infection caused by a multi-drug resistant organism is now a reality. Infections caused by resistant strains of bacteria are related to higher morbidity and mortality. β-Lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics, consisting of penicillin, cephalosporin, Monobactam, and carbapenems. β-lactam antibiotics are used to treat various inf...

  17. Matrix-Gla Protein rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism and serum and GCF levels of MGP in patients with subgingival dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Gülnihal Emrem; Demir, Turgut; Aksoy, Hülya; Sağlam, Ebru; Laloğlu, Esra; Yildirim, Abdulkadir

    2016-10-01

    Matrix-Gla Protein (MGP) is one of the major Gla-containing protein associated with calcification process. It also has a high affinity for Ca 2+ and hydroxyapatite. In this study we aimed to evaluate the MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism in association with subgingival dental calculus. Also a possible relationship between MGP gene polymorphism and serum and GCF levels of MGP were examined. MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism was investigated in 110 patients with or without subgingival dental calculus, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) techniques. Additionally, serum and GCF levels of MGP of the patients were compared according to subgingival dental calculus. Comparison of patients with and without subgingival dental calculus showed no statistically significant difference in MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism (p=0.368). MGP concentrations in GCF of patients with subgingival dental calculus were statistically higher than those without subgingival dental calculus (p=0.032). However, a significant association was not observed between the genotypes of AA, AG and GG of the MGP rs4236 gene and the serum and GCF concentrations of MGP in subjects. In this study, it was found that MGP rs4236 [A/G] gene polymorphism was not to be associated with subgingival dental calculus. Also, that GCF MGP levels were detected higher in patients with subgingival dental calculus than those without subgingival dental calculus independently of polymorphism, may be the effect of adaptive mechanism to inhibit calculus formation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Subgingival microflora and antibody responses against periodontal bacteria of young Japanese patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Nishimura, F; Kurihara, M; Iwamoto, Y; Takashiba, S; Miyata, T; Murayama, Y

    2001-10-01

    Periodontal disease is a complication of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), although the mechanisms responsible for this relationship remain unclear. The aim of this study was to examine oral manifestations and the prevalence of periodontal pathogens from subgingival plaque samples and serum IgG antibody levels against them in young Japanese type 1 diabetic subjects. One hundred and seventeen Japanese T1DM subjects (53 male, 64 female, mean age +/- SD, 16 +/- 6.5 years) participated in this study. Thirty-nine periodontally healthy, age-matched nondiabetics served as controls. T1DM subjects were clinically assigned into three groups: 12 periodontitis, 32 gingivitis and 73 periodontally healthy. Microbiological tests for four periodontal pathogens, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Capnocytophaga ochracea were performed using 16S ribosomal RNA-based polymerase chain reaction methods. Serum IgG antibody levels against 12 periodontal bacteria including the four species assessed by polymerase chain reaction were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the T1DM subjects, the Periodontitis group had a significantly longer mean duration of diabetes and a higher percentages of subjects harbouring P. gingivalis and P. intermedia than the Periodontally Healthy group. Serum IgG antibody levels against P. gingivalis were significantly elevated in the Periodontitis group compared with Gingivitis and Periodontally Healthy groups. These results indicate that Japanese T1DM subjects are a high-risk group for periodontal disease and both P. gingivalis infection and duration of T1DM are risk factors for the progression of periodontitis in patients with T1DM.

  19. The Effect of Pistacia atlantica Var. mutica Mouthwash on Dental Plaque Bacteria and Subgingival Microorganisms: a Randomized and Controlled Triple-blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arami, S; Mojaddadi, M A; Pourabbas, R; Chitsaz, M T; Delazar, A; Mobayen, H

    2015-09-01

    Dental plaque is a well-documented etiologic factor for periodontal diseases. While chlorhexidine (CHX) is the gold-standard agent for treating dental plaques, undesirable side effects are often found after continuous use of the mouthwash. Therefore, this single-center, randomized, triple-blinded and clinical trial was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of Pistacia atlantica Var. mutica extract mouthwash on de novo dental plaque bacteria and subgingival microorganisms compared to CHX on a total of 28 patients. The mean aerobic plaque bacterial count of patients at baseline was 2.17 × 10(6). After 4 days of treatment, there were statistically significant decreases in the mean aerobic bacteria in the patients who received P. atlantica and/or CHX (7.25 × 10(4), p = 0.006) and (9.91 × 10(3), p = 0.002), respectively, compared to the patients who received the placebo (6.26 × 10(5)). This study showed that P. atlantica mouthwash is effective against gingival microorganisms. Because of its reduced side effects, P. atlantica mouthwash may be a good alternative choice for patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Gel microbead cultivation with a subenrichment procedure can yield better bacterial cultivability from a seawater sample than standard plating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Shiqi; Zhao, Rui; Yin, Qi; Zhao, Yuan; Liu, Chenguang; Xiao, Tian; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2012-03-01

    A gel microbead (GMD) cultivation method was employed to cultivate microorganisms from an amphioxus breeding zone in Qingdao, P. R. China. The culture results were compared with those by standard plating method. In the GMD-based method, the microcolony-forming GMDs were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To further get pure cultures, a subsequent enrichment culture and a streaking purification procedure were conducted on marine R2A medium. Eighty bacterial strains isolated by the GMD-based method were randomly selected for sequencing. These isolates belonged to Alphaproteobacteria (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (44%), Bacteroidetes (11%), Actinobacteria (5%), Firmicutes (5%), Epsilonproteobacteria (1%), and Verrucomicrobia (1%), the last two groups being usually difficult to culture. The 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a diverse community with 91.1%-100% of the bacterial rRNAs similarities. Thirteen strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence which was less than 97% similar to any other rRNA genes currently deposited in TYP16S database. Seventy isolates derived from the standard plating method fell into 4 different taxonomic groups: Alphaproteobacteria (9%), Gammaproteobacteria (81%), Bacteroidetes (7%) and Firmicutes (3%) with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities between 95.8%-100%, in which only 3 strains were sharing 16S rRNA gene sequence of less than 97%. The results indicated that the GMD-based method with subenrichment culture yielded more taxonomic groups and more novel microbial strains, including members of previously rarely cultured groups, when compared with the standard plating method, and that this method markedly improved the bacterial cultivability.

  1. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O’Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs. PMID:26605793

  2. A Pyrosequencing Investigation of Differences in the Feline Subgingival Microbiota in Health, Gingivitis and Mild Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Stephen; Croft, Julie; O'Flynn, Ciaran; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Allsopp, Judi; Milella, Lisa; Davis, Ian J

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most frequently diagnosed health problem in cats yet little is known about the bacterial species important for the disease. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis (gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA from these plaque samples generated more than one million reads and identified a total of 267 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all gingival health categories, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Fusobacteria. The Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant family in gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from various genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. The species identified were very similar to those observed in canine plaque in the corresponding health and disease states. Such similarities were not observed between cat and human at the bacterial species level but with disease progression similarities did emerge at the phylum level. This suggests that interventions targeted at human pathogenic species will not be effective for use in cats but there is more potential for commonalities in interventions for cats and dogs.

  3. Multidisciplinary management of subgingival crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Zahedpasha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the multidisciplinary management of subgingival horizontal crown-root fracture of an immature permanent maxillary central incisor in a 10-year-old boy. After removal of the fractured fragment, pulpotomy was performed within 48 h from the injury to promote apexogenesis. The tooth was orthodontically extruded until the fracture line was located above the alveolar bone level. Frenectomy, supracrestal fiberotomy, and crown lengthening were performed after adequate stabilization of the extruded tooth for 5 months. Finally, the tooth was restored with composite resin by using the acid etch technique. This report highlights that a multidisciplinary treatment approach with strict cooperation among specialists to manage a complicated crown-root fracture can save and restore a traumatized immature permanent tooth.

  4. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  5. Supragingival treatment as an aid to reduce subgingival needs: a 450-day investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Carvalho Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the clinical effects of using a supragingival biofilm control regimen (SUPRA as a step prior to scaling and root planing (SRP. A split-mouth clinical trial was performed in which 25 subjects with periodontitis (47.2 ± 6.5 years underwent treatment (days 0-60 and monitoring (days 90-450 phases. At Day 0 (baseline treatments were randomly assigned per quadrant: SUPRA, SRP and S30SRP (SUPRA 30 days before SRP. The full-mouth visible plaque index (VPI, gingival bleeding index (GBI, periodontal probing depth (PPD, bleeding on probing (BOP, and clinical attachment loss (CAL were examined on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 270, and 450. Baseline data were similar among all groups. From days 0 to 60, the groups showed similar significant decreases in VPI and GBI. Reductions in PPD for the SRP (3.39 ± 0.17 to 2.42 ± 0.16 mm and S30SRP (3.31 ± 0.11 to 2.40 ± 0.07 mm groups were greater (p < 0.05 than those for the SUPRA group. This pattern was also observed for BOP. Attachment gain was similar and greater for the SRP (3.34 ± 0.28 to 2.58 ± 0.26 mm and S30SRP (3.25 ± 0.21 to 2.54 ± 0.19 mm groups compared to the SUPRA group. Results were maintained from day 90 forward. Overall, the S30SRP treatment reduced the subgingival treatment needs in 48.16%. Performance of a SUPRA step before SRP decreased subgingival treatment needs and maintained the periodontal stability over time.

  6. Microbial dynamics during conversion from supragingival to subgingival biofilms in an in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurnheer, T; Bostanci, N; Belibasakis, G N

    2016-04-01

    The development of dental caries and periodontal diseases result from distinct shifts in the microbiota of the tooth-associated biofilm. This in vitro study aimed to investigate changes in biofilm composition and structure, during the shift from a 'supragingival' aerobic profile to a 'subgingival' anaerobic profile. Biofilms consisting of Actinomyces oris, Candida albicans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans and Veillonella dispar were aerobically grown in saliva-containing medium on hydroxyapatite disks. After 64 h, Campylobacter rectus, Prevotella intermedia and Streptococcus anginosus were further added along with human serum, while culture conditions were shifted to microaerophilic. After 96 h, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola were finally added and the biofilm was grown anaerobically for another 64 h. At the end of each phase, biofilms were harvested for species-specific quantification and localization. Apart from C. albicans, all other species gradually increased during aerobic and microaerophilic conditions, but remained steady during anaerobic conditions. Biofilm thickness was doubled during the microaerophilic phase, but remained steady throughout the anaerobic phase. Extracellular polysaccharide presence was gradually reduced throughout the growth period. Biofilm viability was reduced during the microaerophilic conversion, but was recovered during the anaerobic phase. This in vitro study has characterized the dynamic structural shifts occurring in an oral biofilm model during the switch from aerobic to anaerobic conditions, potentially modeling the conversion of supragingival to subgingival biofilms. Within the limitations of this experimental model, the findings may provide novel insights into the ecology of oral biofilms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A cross-sectional survey of bacterial species in plaque from client owned dogs with healthy gingiva, gingivitis or mild periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ian J; Wallis, Corrin; Deusch, Oliver; Colyer, Alison; Milella, Lisa; Loman, Nick; Harris, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is the most widespread oral disease in dogs which if left untreated results in significant pain to the pet and loss of dentition. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial species in canine plaque that are significantly associated with health, gingivitis and mild periodontitis (gingivitis and mild periodontitis with 72 to 77 samples per health status. DNA was extracted from the plaque samples and subjected to PCR amplification of the V1-V3 region of the 16S rDNA. Pyrosequencing of the PCR amplicons identified a total of 274 operational taxonomic units after bioinformatic and statistical analysis. Porphyromonas was the most abundant genus in all disease stages, particularly in health along with Moraxella and Bergeyella. Peptostreptococcus, Actinomyces, and Peptostreptococcaceae were the most abundant genera in mild periodontitis. Logistic regression analysis identified species from each of these genera that were significantly associated with health, gingivitis or mild periodontitis. Principal component analysis showed distinct community profiles in health and disease. The species identified show some similarities with health and periodontal disease in humans but also major differences. In contrast to human, healthy canine plaque was found to be dominated by Gram negative bacterial species whereas Gram positive anaerobic species predominate in disease. The scale of this study surpasses previously published research and enhances our understanding of the bacterial species present in canine subgingival plaque and their associations with health and early periodontal disease.

  8. The yield and quality of cellular and bacterial DNA extracts from human oral rinse samples are variably affected by the cell lysis methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mohsen; Nair, Raj G; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Zhang, Li; Zulfiker, Abu Hasanat Md; Ahmetagic, Adnan; Good, David; Wei, Ming Q

    2016-03-01

    Recent culture-independent studies have enabled detailed mapping of human microbiome that has not been hitherto achievable by culture-based methods. DNA extraction is a key element of bacterial culture-independent studies that critically impacts on the outcome of the detected microbial profile. Despite the variations in DNA extraction methods described in the literature, no standardized technique is available for the purpose of microbiome profiling. Hence, standardization of DNA extraction methods is urgently needed to yield comparable data from different studies. We examined the effect of eight different cell lysis protocols on the yield and quality of the extracted DNA from oral rinse samples. These samples were exposed to cell lysis techniques based on enzymatic, mechanical, and a combination of enzymatic-mechanical methods. The outcome measures evaluated were total bacterial population, Firmicutes levels and human DNA contamination (in terms of surrogate GAPDH levels). We noted that all three parameters were significantly affected by the method of cell lysis employed. Although the highest yield of gDNA was obtained using lysozyme-achromopeptidase method, the lysozyme-zirconium beads method yielded the peak quantity of total bacterial DNA and Firmicutes with a lower degree of GAPDH contamination compared with the other methods. Taken together our data clearly points to an urgent need for a consensus, standardized DNA extraction technique to evaluate the oral microbiome using oral rinse samples. Further, if Firmicutes levels are the focus of investigation in oral rinse microbiome analyses then the lysozyme-zirconium bead method would be the method of choice in preference to others. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Differences in the composition of the subgingival microbiota of two periodontitis populations of different geographical origin. A comparison between Spain and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanz, M; van Winkelhoff, AJ; Herrera, D; Dellemijn-Kippuw, N; Simon, R; Winkel, E

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the subgingival microbiota of two geographically distinct patient populations using identical clinical and bacteriological methods. Adult patients with a diagnosis of periodontitis were consecutively selected according to pre-defined clinical criteria.

  10. Discrimination between live and dead cells in bacterial communities from environmental water samples analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nocker, A.; Richter-Heitmann, T.; Montijn, R.; Schuren, F.; Kort, R.

    2010-01-01

    The preferential detection of cells with intact membranes by sample treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA) in combination with PCR amplification is gaining in popularity. This study evaluates the effect of PMA on 454 pyrosequencing profiles of environmental water samples from a canal in Amsterdam

  11. Enrichment of bacteria samples by centrifugation improves the diagnosis of orthopaedics-related infections via real-time PCR amplification of the bacterial methicillin-resistance gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Arisa; Setoguchi, Takao; Kawabata, Naoya; Hirotsu, Masataka; Yamamoto, Takuya; Nagano, Satoshi; Yokouchi, Masahiro; Kakoi, Hironori; Kawamura, Hideki; Ishidou, Yasuhiro; Tanimoto, Akihide; Komiya, Setsuro

    2015-07-03

    To effectively treat orthopaedic infections by methicillin-resistant strains, an early diagnosis is necessary. Bacterial cultures and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been used to define methicillin-resistant staphylococci. However, even when patients display clinical signs of infections, bacterial culture and real-time PCR often cannot confirm infection. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the utility of real-time PCR for the mecA gene detection following centrifugation of human samples with suspected orthopaedic infections. In addition to the conventional real-time PCR method, we performed real-time PCR following centrifugation of the sample at 4,830×g for 10 min in a modified real-time PCR (M-PCR) method. We suspended cultured methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and generated standard dilution series for in vitro experiments. The in vitro detection sensitivity of the M-PCR method was approximately 5.06 times higher than that of the conventional real-time PCR method. We performed bacterial culture, pathological examination, real-time PCR, and M-PCR to examine the infectious fluids and tissues obtained from 36 surgical patients at our hospital. Of these, 20 patients who had undergone primary total hip arthroplasty were enrolled as negative controls. In addition, 15 patients were examined who were clinically confirmed to have an infection, including periprosthetic joint infection (eight patients), pyogenic spondylitis (two patients), infectious pseudoarthrosis (two patients), and after spine surgery (three patients). In one sample from a patient who developed infectious pseudoarthrosis and two samples from surgical site infections after spine surgery, the mecA gene was detected only by the M-PCR method. In one patient with infectious pseudoarthrosis, one patient with infection after arthroplasty, and two patients with purulent spondylitis, the detection sensitivity of the M-PCR method was increased compared with PCR (clinical

  12. Use of the Syrian golden hamster for the induction of intraoral abscesses by sutures contaminated with human subgingival plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfy, M O; McMahon, K T; Santos, A C; Minah, G E; Falkler, W A; Lloyd, D R

    1994-02-01

    Analysis of normal oral flora in 150 cheek pouches of hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) defined the microbial working environment and demonstrated the absence of human oral black-pigmented bacteria. Silk sutures saturated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia or subgingival plaque were used to close wounds made in hamster's cheek pouches. Abscesses were formed when sutures had solitary P. gingivalis or other bacteria mixed with P. gingivalis or when P. intermedia was mixed with other bacteria besides P. gingivalis. A concentration of black-pigmented bacteria emanating from 3 x 10(5) colony-forming units/inoculum was required for abscess formation. Six abscesses (14.3%) were developed in association with the presence of other odontopathic bacteria, primarily Fusobacterium nucleatum and Actinomyces viscosus. The hamster cheek pouch with iatrogenic wounds closed with plaque-impregnated sutures is a novel and effective model to study the pathology of wound infections and virulence of human subgingival organisms.

  13. Microbial diversity of supra- and subgingival biofilms on freshly colonized titanium implant abutments in the human mouth

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Supra- and subgingival biofilm formation is considered to be mainly responsible for early implant failure caused by inflammations of periimplant tissues. Nevertheless, little is known about the complex microbial diversity and interindividual similarities around dental implants. An atraumatic assessment was made of the diversity of microbial communities around titanium implants by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons as well...

  14. Orthodontic extrusion of subgingivally fractured tooth using a removable appliance: An alternative treatment to reestablish biological width

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Gupta Verma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Restoration of a traumatically injured tooth presents a clinical challenge for a predictable aesthetic outcome. This case report describes a multidisciplinary approach of a subgingivally fractured permanent maxillary central incisor. A removable orthodontic appliance was used for orthodontic extrusion of root, and surgical gingival recontouring was done with electrocautery to reestablish the biological width. Form and function were restored establishing biological width and esthetics was repaired with porcelain fused to metal crown.

  15. Subgingival bacteria in a case of prepubertal periodontitis, before and one year after extractions of the affected primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, D; Bimstein, E

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of children with prepubertal periodontitis (PP), may be complicated by the extent of the lesions and the possibility of tetracycline stain of the developing permanent dentition. Therefore, with the purpose of preventing the infection of permanent teeth during the mixed dentition, it has been recommended that the treatment of children with PP, should include the early extraction of the primary teeth affected with alveolar bone loss (ABL). Still, there is little evidence which confirms that extraction of the affected primary teeth do in fact reduce the periodonto-pathogens load of the subgingival plaque. The present study reports values of colony forming units (CFU) of total anaerobic bacteria, Actinobacillus actynomicetemcomitans (Aa) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) from the subgingival plaque from a child with PP, collected immediately before and 1 year after extractions of the primary teeth affected with ABL. CFU of Aa and Pg developed only from the subgingival plaque collected before the extraction of the primary teeth affected with ABL. These findings suggest that in cases of PP, extraction of the affected primary teeth may reduce the possibility of infection of the periodontum of the permanent teeth during the mixed dentition period.

  16. Determination of selected pesticides in water samples adjacent to agricultural fields and removal of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos using soil bacterial isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Alamgir Zaman; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Rahman, M. A.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Alam, M. Khorshed

    2015-06-01

    The use of pesticide for crops leads to serious environmental pollution, therefore, it is essential to monitor and develop approaches to remove pesticide from contaminated environment. In this study, water samples were collected to monitor pesticide residues, and degradation of chlorpyrifos was also performed using soil bacteria. Identification of pesticide residues and determination of their levels were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Among 12 samples, 10 samples were found contaminated with pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was detected in four tested samples and concentrations ranged from 3.27 to 9.31 μg/l whereas fenitrothion ranging from (Below Detection Limit, removal of 50 mg/l chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos degradation rates were found maximum by all three isolates at 2nd day of incubation for both tested concentrations. The results of the present study suggest the need for regular monitoring of pesticide residues in water, to protect the aquatic environment. Chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates can be used to clean up environmental samples contaminated with the organophosphate pesticides.

  17. Occurrence of Bacterial and Viral Pathogens in Common and Noninvasive Diagnostic Sampling from Parrots and Racing Pigeons in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovč, Alenka; Jereb, Gregor; Krapež, Uroš; Gregurić-Gračner, Gordana; Pintarič, Štefan; Slavec, Brigita; Knific, Renata Lindtner; Kastelic, Marjan; Kvapil, Pavel; Mićunović, Jasna; Vadnjal, Stanka; Ocepek, Matjaž; Zadravec, Marko; Zorman-Rojs, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Airborne pathogens can cause infections within parrot (Psittaciformes) and pigeon (Columbiformes) holdings and, in the case of zoonoses, can even spread to humans. Air sampling is a useful, noninvasive method which can enhance the common sampling methods for detection of microorganisms in bird flocks. In this study, fecal and air samples were taken from four parrot holdings. Additionally, cloacal and oropharyngeal swabs as well as air samples were taken from 15 racing pigeon holdings. Parrots were examined for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), proventricular dilatation disease virus (PDDV), adenoviruses (AdVs), avian paramyxovirus type-1 (APMV-1), avian influenza virus (AIV), Chlamydia psittaci (CP), and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). MAC and AdVs were detected in three parrot holdings, CP was detected in two parrot holdings, and PBFDV and PDDV were each detected in one parrot holding. Pigeons were examined for the pigeon circovirus (PiCV), AdVs, and CP; PiCV and AdVs were detected in all investigated pigeon holdings and CP was detected in five pigeon holdings.

  18. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Zachery T; Davis, Jasmine C C; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A

    2016-01-01

    Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization) offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides). No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status). However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis.

  19. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery T. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides. No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status. However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis.

  20. Potential bacterial core species associated with digital dermatitis in cattle herds identified by molecular profiling of interdigital skin samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Isbrand, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    of different molecular methods. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene variable regions V1–V2 showed that Treponema, Mycoplasma, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas were the genera best differentiating the DD samples from the controls. Additional deep sequencing analysis of the most abundant genus, Treponema......, targeting another variable region of the 16S rRNA gene, V3–V4, identified 15 different phylotypes, among which Treponema phagedenis-like and Treponema refringens-like species were the most abundant. Although the presence of Treponema spp., Fusobacterium necrophorum and Porphyromonas levii was confirmed...

  1. Impact of bacterial vaginosis, as assessed by nugent criteria and hormonal status on glycosidases and lectin binding in cervicovaginal lavage samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J Moncla

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of hormonal status and bacterial vaginosis (BV on the glycosidases present and glycosylation changes as assessed by lectin binding to cervicovaginal lavage constituents. Frozen cervicovaginal lavage samples from a completed study examining the impact of reproductive hormones on the physicochemical properties of vaginal fluid were utilized for the present study. In the parent study, 165 women were characterized as having BV, intermediate or normal microflora using the Nugent criteria. The presence of glycosidases in the samples was determined using quantitative 4-methyl-umbelliferone based assays, and glycosylation was assessed using enzyme linked lectin assays (ELLA. Women with BV had elevated sialidase, α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase and α-glucosidase activities compared to intermediate or normal women (P<0.001, 0.003, 0.006 and 0.042 respectively. The amount of sialic acid (Sambucus nigra, P = 0.003 and high mannose (griffithsin, P<0.001 were reduced, as evaluated by lectin binding, in women with BV. When the data were stratified according to hormonal status, α-glucosidase and griffithsin binding were decreased among postmenopausal women (P<0.02 when compared to premenopausal groups. These data suggest that both hormonal status and BV impact the glycosidases and lectin binding sites present in vaginal fluid. The sialidases present at increased levels in women with BV likely reduce the number of sialic acid binding sites. Other enzymes likely reduce griffithsin binding. The alterations in the glycosidase content, high mannose and sialic acid binding sites in the cervicovaginal fluid associated with bacterial vaginosis may impact susceptibility to viruses, such as HIV, that utilize glycans as a portal of entry.

  2. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Timothy R.; Pickering, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food) responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals’ interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data). Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing) to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci) concentrations on the caretaker’s hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes. PMID:26295964

  3. A Pilot Study on Integrating Videography and Environmental Microbial Sampling to Model Fecal Bacterial Exposures in Peri-Urban Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Julian

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases are a leading cause of under-five mortality and morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Quantitative exposure modeling provides opportunities to investigate the relative importance of fecal-oral transmission routes (e.g. hands, water, food responsible for diarrheal disease. Modeling, however, requires accurate descriptions of individuals' interactions with the environment (i.e., activity data. Such activity data are largely lacking for people in low-income settings. In the present study, we collected activity data and microbiological sampling data to develop a quantitative microbial exposure model for two female caretakers in peri-urban Tanzania. Activity data were combined with microbiological data of contacted surfaces and fomites (e.g. broom handle, soil, clothing to develop example exposure profiles describing second-by-second estimates of fecal indicator bacteria (E. coli and enterococci concentrations on the caretaker's hands. The study demonstrates the application and utility of video activity data to quantify exposure factors for people in low-income countries and apply these factors to understand fecal contamination exposure pathways. This study provides both a methodological approach for the design and implementation of larger studies, and preliminary data suggesting contacts with dirt and sand may be important mechanisms of hand contamination. Increasing the scale of activity data collection and modeling to investigate individual-level exposure profiles within target populations for specific exposure scenarios would provide opportunities to identify the relative importance of fecal-oral disease transmission routes.

  4. Presencia de Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola y Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans en el biofilm subgingival de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2: estudio transversal Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival biofilm of diabetic mellitus 2 patients: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    AJ Quintero; P Prada; CM Inostroza; Chaparro,A; AF Sanz; VL Ramírez; HC Morales

    2011-01-01

    Antecedentes: La investigación de la microflora subgingival en pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 con periodontitis ha presentado resultados contradictorios. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forshytia, Treponema denticola y Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, en el biofilm subgingival de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 y relacionarlo con el grado de control metabólico. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal, en el cual se analizaron 23 pacientes diabéticos de...

  5. Real-time PCR analysis of fungal organisms and bacterial species at peri-implantitis sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Becker, Kathrin; Rahn, Sebastian; Hegewald, Andrea; Pfeffer, Klaus; Henrich, Birgit

    2015-12-01

    The potential role of fungal organisms and their co-aggregation with either periodontopathogens or opportunistic pathogens at peri-implantitis sites is unknown. The aim of the present study was to qualitatively/quantitatively analyze and correlate fungal organisms and bacterial species at peri-implantitis sites. In a total of 29 patients, submucosal/subgingival plaque samples were collected at peri-implantitis and healthy implant sites as well as teeth with a history of periodontitis (controls). A real-time PCR assay was established for the qualification of fungal organisms and a TaqMan assay for the quantification of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Parvimonas micra, Tannerella forsythia, Mycoplasma salivarium, Veillonella parvula, and Staphylococcus aureus. Fungal organisms were more frequently identified at peri-implantitis (31.6%) (i.e., Candida albicans, Candida boidinii, Penicillium spp., Rhodotorula laryngis, Paelicomyces spp., Saccharomycetes, Cladosporium cladosporioides) and healthy implant sites (40% - Candida dubliniensis, C. cladosporioides) than at selected teeth (20% - C. albicans, Fusarium solani). At implant sites, fungal organisms were significantly correlated with P. micra and T. forsythia. Candida spp. and other fungal organisms were frequently identified at peri-implantitis as well as healthy implant sites and co-colonized with P. micra and T. forsythia.

  6. Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Bacterial Keratitis Sections What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Bacterial Keratitis Symptoms ... Lens Care Bacterial Keratitis Treatment What Is Bacterial Keratitis? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Queratitis Bacteriana? ...

  7. Rapid identification of oral Actinomyces species cultivated from subgingival biofilm by MALDI-TOF-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stingu, Catalina S.; Borgmann, Toralf; Rodloff, Arne C.; Vielkind, Paul; Jentsch, Holger; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Eschrich, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Background Actinomyces are a common part of the residential flora of the human intestinal tract, genitourinary system and skin. Isolation and identification of Actinomyces by conventional methods is often difficult and time consuming. In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) has become a rapid and simple method to identify bacteria. Objective The present study evaluated a new in-house algorithm using MALDI-TOF-MS for rapid identification of different species of oral Actinomyces cultivated from subgingival biofilm. Design Eleven reference strains and 674 clinical strains were used in this study. All the strains were preliminarily identified using biochemical methods and then subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS analysis using both similarity-based analysis and classification methods (support vector machine [SVM]). The genotype of the reference strains and of 232 clinical strains was identified by sequence analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Results The sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of all references strains confirmed their previous identification. The MALDI-TOF-MS spectra obtained from the reference strains and the other clinical strains undoubtedly identified as Actinomyces by 16S rRNA sequencing were used to create the mass spectra reference database. Already a visual inspection of the mass spectra of different species reveals both similarities and differences. However, the differences between them are not large enough to allow a reliable differentiation by similarity analysis. Therefore, classification methods were applied as an alternative approach for differentiation and identification of Actinomyces at the species level. A cross-validation of the reference database representing 14 Actinomyces species yielded correct results for all species which were represented by more than two strains in the database. Conclusions Our results suggest that a combination of MALDI-TOF-MS with powerful

  8. Rapid identification of oral Actinomyces species cultivated from subgingival biofilm by MALDI-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina S. Stingu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Actinomyces are a common part of the residential flora of the human intestinal tract, genitourinary system and skin. Isolation and identification of Actinomyces by conventional methods is often difficult and time consuming. In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS has become a rapid and simple method to identify bacteria. Objective: The present study evaluated a new in-house algorithm using MALDI-TOF-MS for rapid identification of different species of oral Actinomyces cultivated from subgingival biofilm. Design: Eleven reference strains and 674 clinical strains were used in this study. All the strains were preliminarily identified using biochemical methods and then subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS analysis using both similarity-based analysis and classification methods (support vector machine [SVM]. The genotype of the reference strains and of 232 clinical strains was identified by sequence analysis of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA. Results: The sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of all references strains confirmed their previous identification. The MALDI-TOF-MS spectra obtained from the reference strains and the other clinical strains undoubtedly identified as Actinomyces by 16S rRNA sequencing were used to create the mass spectra reference database. Already a visual inspection of the mass spectra of different species reveals both similarities and differences. However, the differences between them are not large enough to allow a reliable differentiation by similarity analysis. Therefore, classification methods were applied as an alternative approach for differentiation and identification of Actinomyces at the species level. A cross-validation of the reference database representing 14 Actinomyces species yielded correct results for all species which were represented by more than two strains in the database. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a combination of MALDI

  9. Impact of supragingival therapy on subgingival microbial profile in smokers versus non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Meulman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess subgingival microbiological changes in smokers versus non-smokers presenting severe chronic periodontitis after supragingival periodontal therapy (ST.Non-smokers (n=10 and smokers (n=10 presenting at least nine teeth with probing pocket depth (PPD (≥5 mm, bleeding on probing (BoP, and no history of periodontal treatment in the last 6 months were selected. Clinical parameters assessed were plaque index (PI, BoP, PPD, relative gingival margin position (rGMP and relative clinical attachment level (rCAL. Subgingival biofilm was collected before and 21 days after ST. DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified with the universal primer pair, 27F and 1492R. Amplified genes were cloned, sequenced, and identified by comparison with known 16S rRNA sequences. Statistical analysis was performed by Student's t and Chi-Square tests (α=5%.Clinically, ST promoted a significant reduction in PI and PPD, and gain of rCAL for both groups, with no significant intergroup difference. Microbiologically, at baseline, data analysis demonstrated that smokers harbored a higher proportion of Porphyromonas endodontalis, Bacteroidetes sp., Fusobacterium sp. and Tannerella forsythia and a lower number of cultivated phylotypes (p<0.05. Furthermore, non-smokers featured significant reductions in key phylotypes associated with periodontitis, whereas smokers presented more modest changes.Within the limits of the present study, ST promoted comparable clinical improvements in smokers and non-smokers with severe chronic periodontitis. However, in smokers, ST only slightly affected the subgingival biofilm biodiversity, as compared with non-smokers.

  10. Antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis: A study of knowledge of guidelines among dentists participated in the 47th international congress of dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemipour M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Infective endocarditis is a rare disease resulted in mortality and morbidity in 10-80% of patients. The purpose of present study was to investigate the knowledge of guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis for bacterial endocarditis in a group of Iranian dentists. "nMaterials and Methods: This was a descriptive study in which the population under study was 205 who were participated in the 47th international congress of dentistry (Tehran-Spring 2007 and they were chosen by census sampling methods. Nameless questionnaires were designed and were given to the dentists to complete. The t-test, χ² and spearman with the SPSS 13.5 program were used in the data analysis. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. "nResults: Regarding to the prescribing of prophylactic antibiotic for patients with prosthetic cardiac valves, 94.6% of all answers were correct. Also, the most common procedures in which the prophylaxis antibiotic was distinguished to be necessary were periodontal surgery, scaling, dental extraction and using subgingival cord, respectively. More than half of the dentists (65.8% had chosen amoxicillin as a prophylactic antibiotic. Mean knowledge score was 38.77±12.4. "nConclusion: Results of the present study showed that the knowledge of dentists about prescribing antibiotics for prevention of bacterial endocarditis is relatively low. It was also found that the level of knowledge decreases by passing time from graduation.

  11. Bacterial diversity in the oral cavity of ten healthy individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bik, Elisabeth M.; Long, Clara Davis; Armitage, Gary C.; Loomer, Peter; Emerson, Joanne; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Nelson, Karen E.; Gill, Steven R.; Fraser-Liggett, Claire M.; Relman, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The composition of the oral microbiota from 10 individuals with healthy oral tissues was determined using culture-independent techniques. From each individual, 26 specimens, each from different oral sites at a single point in time, were collected and pooled. An eleventh pool was constructed using portions of the subgingival specimens from all 10 individuals. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified using broad-range bacterial primers, and clone libraries from the individual and subgingival pools were constructed. From a total of 11 368 high-quality, non-chimeric, near full-length sequences, 247 species-level phylotypes (using a 99% sequence identity threshold) and 9 bacteria phyla were identified. At least 15 bacterial genera were conserved among all 10 individuals, with significant interindividual differences at the species and strain level. Comparisons of these oral bacterial sequences to near full-length sequences found previously in the large intestines and feces of other healthy individuals suggest that the mouth and intestinal tract harbor distinct sets of bacteria. Co-occurrence analysis demonstrated significant segregation of taxa when community membership was examined at the level of genus, but not at the level of species, suggesting that ecologically-significant, competitive interactions are more apparent at a broader taxonomic level than species. This study is one of the more comprehensive, high-resolution analyses of bacterial diversity within the healthy human mouth to date, and highlights the value of tools from macroecology for enhancing our understanding of bacterial ecology in human health. PMID:20336157

  12. Association between Mycoplasma-specific polymerase chain reaction assay results and oral bacterial contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples from dogs with respiratory tract disease: 121 cases (2005-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christina M; Ridgway, Marcella D; Mitchell, Mark A; Maddox, Carol W

    2013-12-01

    To determine whether an association exists between oral bacterial contamination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and positive PCR assay results for the detection of Mycoplasma spp in BALF samples of dogs with lower respiratory tract (LRT; portion from the trachea to the lungs) disease. Retrospective case series. 121 dogs with LRT disease. Procedures-Medical records from January 2005 to April 2012 were reviewed. Dogs with LRT disease that had BALF samples evaluated by use of Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay, bacterial culture, and cytologic examination were included. Information on signalment, final diagnoses, and BALF testing results was extracted. 83 (68.6%) dogs had BALF samples with negative PCR assay results for Mycoplasma spp, and 38 (31.4%) had positive results. The BALF samples with cytologic evidence of oral bacterial contamination were 5.1 times as likely to have positive Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results as were noncontaminated samples. Compared with hound or herding dogs, other breeds were 13.6 times as likely to have positive PCR assay results. Dogs with bronchitis were less likely than dogs with other LRT diseases to have positive Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results. No significant association was found between Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results and bacterial culture results. In dogs with LRT disease, Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay results for BALF samples should be interpreted in terms of possible oral bacterial contamination. Mycoplasma-specific PCR assay of BALF samples from herding dogs, hound dogs, and dogs with bronchitis may be less rewarding than for other dogs with LRT disease.

  13. Emergency management in bacterial meningitis and sepsis: application of real time-polymerase chain reaction and FilmArray technology performed directly on cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loria Bianchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. Bacterial meningitis and sepsis are medical emergencies where tests with a high sensitivity and short turn around time (TAT are crucial for an early targeted therapy. Aim of this study was the evaluation of an optimal diagnostic strategy for infectious meningitis/sepsis management, assessing seven methods: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF physical-chemical examination, CSF cultural tests (CCT, Gram stained smears (GSS, CSF latex agglutination test (CLAT, blood culture (BC, Real-Time (RT-PCR and FilmArray Technology (FAT performed directly on CSF/blood. Materials and Methods. Samples of CSF (240, blood (180 and cavitary fluids (9 were tested by commercial RT-PCR (Eurospital and Liferiver kits and traditional methods. Positive samples (BC and RT-PCR were tested by FAT (Blood Culture Identification Panel, Biofire, Salt Lake City, UT, USA performed directly on CSF, blood and cavitary fluids. Results. In CSF, GSS, CLAT, CCT, RT-PCR and FAT sensitivity was 41%, 35%, 41%, 100% and 62,5%, respectively. In blood, BC, RT-PCR and FAT sensitivity was 96%, 70% and 44%, respectively. TAT was 48-96 hrs, 3 hrs and 1 hr and NPV was 98%, 89% and 57%, respectively. Conclusions. For sepsis management, RT-PCR is faster than BC (3 hrs vs 24-72 hrs, but limited by a low overall sensitivity (70%, due to the low number of detectable pathogens; FAT, performed directly on positive BC should replace biochemical identification (Vitek 2, Biomérieux Marcy-l’Étoile, France reducing TAT (1 hr vs 12 hrs. For meningitis management, RT-PCR is the most sensitive and rapid method used in routine and emergency regimen. It is cost effective and it represents the gold standard for diagnosis and follow-up of patients under treatment. For meningitis management, FAT, with a higher sensitivity and rapidity and an easier and objective interpretation, should replace CLAT and GSS in emergency regimen.

  14. Sample dilution and bacterial community composition influence empirical leucine-to-carbon conversion factors in surface waters of the world's oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teira, Eva; Hernando-Morales, Víctor; Cornejo-Castillo, Francisco M; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Sarmento, Hugo; Valencia-Vila, Joaquín; Serrano Catalá, Teresa; Hernández-Ruiz, Marta; Varela, Marta M; Ferrera, Isabel; Gutiérrez Morán, Xosé Anxelu; Gasol, Josep M

    2015-12-01

    The transformation of leucine incorporation rates to prokaryotic carbon production rates requires the use of either theoretical or empirically determined conversion factors. Empirical leucine-to-carbon conversion factors (eCFs) vary widely across environments, and little is known about their potential controlling factors. We conducted 10 surface seawater manipulation experiments across the world's oceans, where the growth of the natural prokaryotic assemblages was promoted by filtration (i.e., removal of grazers [F treatment]) or filtration combined with dilution (i.e., also relieving resource competition [FD treatment]). The impact of sunlight exposure was also evaluated in the FD treatments, and we did not find a significant effect on the eCFs. The eCFs varied from 0.09 to 1.47 kg C mol Leu(-1) and were significantly lower in the FD than in the F samples. Also, changes in bacterial community composition during the incubations, as assessed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), were more pronounced in the FD than in the F treatments, compared to unmanipulated controls. Thus, we discourage the common procedure of diluting samples (in addition to filtration) for eCF determination. The eCFs in the filtered treatment were negatively correlated with the initial chlorophyll a concentration, picocyanobacterial abundance (mostly Prochlorococcus), and the percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes with high nucleic acid content (%HNA). The latter two variables explained 80% of the eCF variability in the F treatment, supporting the view that both Prochlorococcus and HNA prokaryotes incorporate leucine in substantial amounts, although this results in relatively low carbon production rates in the oligotrophic ocean. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Sample Dilution and Bacterial Community Composition Influence Empirical Leucine-to-Carbon Conversion Factors in Surface Waters of the World's Oceans

    KAUST Repository

    Teira, Eva

    2015-09-25

    The transformation of leucine incorporation rates to prokaryotic carbon production rates requires the use of either theoretical or empirically determined conversion factors. Empirical leucine-to-carbon conversion factors (eCFs) vary widely across environments, and little is known about their potential controlling factors. We conducted 10 surface seawater manipulation experiments across the world\\'s oceans, where the growth of the natural prokaryotic assemblages was promoted by filtration (i.e., removal of grazers [F treatment]) or filtration combined with dilution (i.e., also relieving resource competition [FD treatment]). The impact of sunlight exposure was also evaluated in the FD treatments, and we did not find a significant effect on the eCFs. The eCFs varied from 0.09 to 1.47 kg C mol Leu−1 and were significantly lower in the FD than in the F samples. Also, changes in bacterial community composition during the incubations, as assessed by automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA), were more pronounced in the FD than in the F treatments, compared to unmanipulated controls. Thus, we discourage the common procedure of diluting samples (in addition to filtration) for eCF determination. The eCFs in the filtered treatment were negatively correlated with the initial chlorophyll a concentration, picocyanobacterial abundance (mostly Prochlorococcus), and the percentage of heterotrophic prokaryotes with high nucleic acid content (%HNA). The latter two variables explained 80% of the eCF variability in the F treatment, supporting the view that both Prochlorococcus and HNA prokaryotes incorporate leucine in substantial amounts, although this results in relatively low carbon production rates in the oligotrophic ocean.

  16. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, Karen L.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurological emergency. Empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy should be initiated as soon as a single set of blood cultures has been obtained. Clinical signs suggestive of bacterial meningitis include fever, headache, meningismus, vomiting, photophobia, and an

  17. Real-time PCR quantification of six periodontal pathogens in saliva samples from healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaodong; Liu, Xiaoli; Li, Jing; Aprecio, Raydolfo M; Zhang, Wu; Li, Yiming

    2015-05-01

    The use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for the evaluation of periodontal health has gained attention recently. Most published real-time PCR assays focused on quantification of bacteria in subgingival plaque, not in saliva. The aims of this study were to develop a real-time PCR assay for quantification of six periodontal pathogens in saliva and to establish a relationship between the amount of DNA (fg) and colony-forming unit (CFU). TaqMan primers/probe sets were used for the detection of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa), Eikenella corrodens (Ec), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Tannerella forsythia (Tf), and total bacteria. Six periodontal pathogens and total bacteria in saliva from 24 periodontally healthy individuals were determined. The relationship between the amount of DNA (fg) and CFU was established by measuring the concentrations of extracted bacterial DNA and CFU per milliliter of bacteria on agar plates. Fn, Ec, and Pi were detected in all saliva samples, while 58.5, 45.8, and 33.3% were detected for Tf, Pg, and Aa, respectively. Numbers of Ec and Fn in saliva were highly correlated (R(2) = 0.93, P saliva and estimate the number of live bacteria (CFU). This real-time PCR assay in combination with the relationship between DNA (fg) and CFU has the potential to be an adjunct in evaluation of periodontal health status.

  18. Deep sequencing identifies ethnicity-specific bacterial signatures in the oral microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Mason

    Full Text Available Oral infections have a strong ethnic predilection; suggesting that ethnicity is a critical determinant of oral microbial colonization. Dental plaque and saliva samples from 192 subjects belonging to four major ethnicities in the United States were analyzed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP and 16S pyrosequencing. Ethnicity-specific clustering of microbial communities was apparent in saliva and subgingival biofilms, and a machine-learning classifier was capable of identifying an individual's ethnicity from subgingival microbial signatures. The classifier identified African Americans with a 100% sensitivity and 74% specificity and Caucasians with a 50% sensitivity and 91% specificity. The data demonstrates a significant association between ethnic affiliation and the composition of the oral microbiome; to the extent that these microbial signatures appear to be capable of discriminating between ethnicities.

  19. Bacterial conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjunctivitis causes irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, and watering or discharge of the eye. Most cases in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Staphylococcus species in adults, and Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children.A bacterial cause is more likely if there is gluing of the eyelids and no itch.Contact le...

  20. Bacterial conjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Epling, John

    2010-01-01

    Conjunctivitis causes irritation, itching, foreign body sensation, and watering or discharge of the eye. Most cases in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Staphylococcus species in adults, and Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children.A bacterial cause is more likely if there is glueing of the eyelids and no itch.Contact l...

  1. Influence of glycemic control on the levels of subgingival periodontal pathogens in patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Tamires Szeremeske; Feres, Magda; Retamal-Valdés, Belén; Perez-Chaparro, Paula Juliana; Maciel, Suellen Silva; Duarte, Poliana Mendes

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of glycemic control on the levels and frequency of subgingival periodontal pathogens in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and generalized chronic periodontitis (ChP). Fifty-six patients with generalized ChP and type 2 DM were assigned according to the levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) into one of the following groups: HbA1ctype 2 DM and ChP.

  2. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in subgingival plaque of periodontitis patients with and without dyspepsia, detected by polymerase chain reaction and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Sangita; Jithendra, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Helicobacter pylori is an important gastrointestinal pathogen that is strongly associated with gastritis as well as peptic ulcer disease. Antimicrobial therapy frequently fails to cure H. pylori infection, which suggests there may be sanctuary sites where the organism resides. This study was aimed to assess the role of oral cavity as a reservoir of H. pylori by evaluating the occurrence of the organism in subgingival plaque of dyspeptic patients by polymerase chain reaction as wel...

  3. Periodontal disease and subgingival microbiota as contributors for rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis: modifiable risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Jose U; Bretz, Walter A; Abramson, Steven B

    2014-07-01

    Since the early 1900s, the role of periodontal disease in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis has been a matter of intense research. The last decade has witnessed many advances supporting a link between periodontitis, the presence of specific bacterial species (i.e. Porphyromonas gingivalis) and their effects in immune response. This review will examine available evidence on the individuals. Epidemiological studies have stressed the commonalities shared by periodontal disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Many groups have focused their attention toward understanding the periodontal microbiota and its alterations in states of health and disease. The presence of circulating antibodies against periodontopathic bacteria and associated inflammatory response has been found in both rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and individuals at-risk for disease development. Most recently, the periodontal microbiota of smokers and patients with RA has been elucidated, revealing profound changes in the bacterial communities compared with those of healthy controls. This has led to several small clinical trials of progressive disease treatment as adjuvant for disease-modifying therapy in RA. Smoking and periodontal disease are emerging risk factors for the development of RA. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research has further strengthened this association, pointing toward changes in the oral microbiota as possible contributors to systemic inflammation and arthritis.

  4. Bacterial Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine Schedules Preteen & Teen Vaccines Meningococcal Disease Sepsis Bacterial Meningitis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Reference Español: Meningitis bacteriana Bacterial meningitis is very serious and can be deadly. Death ...

  5. Bacterial adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loosdrecht, van M.C.M.

    1988-01-01

    As mentioned in the introduction of this thesis bacterial adhesion has been studied from a variety of (mostly practice oriented) starting points. This has resulted in a range of widely divergent approaches. In order to elucidate general principles in bacterial adhesion phenomena, we felt it

  6. EFEKTIFITAS SKELING-PENGHALUSAN AKAR DENGAN DAN TANPA APLIKASI SUBGINGIVAL POVIDON-IODIN 10% PADA POKET 5-7mm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Ervina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In deep periodontal lesions, scaling and root planning (SRP failed to complete elimination of periodontal bacteria, so chemical antimicrobial agents are used topically to destroy microorganism. Povidon-iodin 10% is one of antimicrobial agents that can be applied topically and directly in the pocket. The aim of the research were evaluated the efficacy of povidon-iodin 10% as chemical antimicrobial agents locally applied into periodontal pocket. The data are obtained from patients with chronic adult periodontitis, baseline periodontal pocket depth (PPD are 5-7 mm. The teeth are scaled and root planed after clinical examinations (plaque index, papilla bleeding index and periodontal pocket depth and test sites or control sites are assigned randomly. Topically application of povidon-iodin 10% at test sites and aquabides at control sites is applied at day 1st and day 7th. The clinical parameters are assessed at day 14th. The results of the research showed that application of povidon-iodin 10% after SRP provide statistically significant more favorable papilla bleeding index reduction than SRP + aquabides after 14 day. The pocket depth reduction at test sites are greater than control cites (baseline PPD=6 and 7 mm. The conclusions of the research showed that application subgingival povidon-iodin 10% as adjuctive to SRP significantly reduce PBI and PPD (6 & 7 mm than without application povidon-iodin 10%.

  7. Effect of repeated adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on subgingival periodontal pathogens in the treatment of chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelin, Milan; Perkič, Katja; Seme, Katja; Gašpirc, Boris

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of subgingival ultrasonic scaling followed by repeated (three times) antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT), ultrasonic scaling alone (US), and scaling and root planing with hand instruments (SRP) for initial periodontal treatment. Twenty-seven non-smoking systemically healthy chronic periodontitis patients were included. Residual pockets ≥4 mm deep and bleeding on probing were debrided either with SRP, US alone, or US followed by a single episode of PDT during supportive periodontal treatment. Probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were monitored over 12 months. The presence of five periodontal pathogens in the pockets was determined by a commercially available micro-IDent test. Intergroup and intragroup statistical analysis was performed. All three treatments resulted in a significant clinical improvement. Additional application of PDT to US failed to result in further improvement in terms of PPD reduction and CAL gain. However, it resulted in a higher reduction of BOP at 3 and 12 months comparing to US alone or SRP (PDT from 25 to 13 and to 9%, US from 23 to 16 and to 12%, and SRP from 17 to 10 and to 9%, respectively). PDT reduced the proportion of positive sites after 6 months for Treponema denticola (TD) significantly more effectively than US or SRP (p 6 mm) compared to mechanical debridement alone (p < 0.05).

  8. Bacterial diversity characterization in petroleum samples from Brazilian reservoirs Caracterização da diversidade bacteriana em amostras de petróleo provenientes de reservatórios brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maia de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating potential differences among the bacterial communities from formation water and oil samples originated from biodegraded and non-biodegraded Brazilian petroleum reservoirs by using a PCR-DGGE based approach. Environmental DNA was isolated and used in PCR reactions with bacterial primers, followed by separation of 16S rDNA fragments in the DGGE. PCR products were also cloned and sequenced, aiming at the taxonomic affiliation of the community members. The fingerprints obtained allowed the direct comparison among the bacterial communities from oil samples presenting distinct degrees of biodegradation, as well as between the communities of formation water and oil sample from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Very similar DGGE band profiles were observed for all samples, and the diversity of the predominant bacterial phylotypes was shown to be low. Cloning and sequencing results revealed major differences between formation water and oil samples from the non-biodegraded reservoir. Bacillus sp. and Halanaerobium sp. were shown to be the predominant components of the bacterial community from the formation water sample, whereas the oil sample also included Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, Rhodococcus sp., Streptomyces sp. and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The PCR-DGGE technique, combined with cloning and sequencing of PCR products, revealed the presence of taxonomic groups not found previously in these samples when using cultivation-based methods and 16S rRNA gene library assembly, confirming the need of a polyphasic study in order to improve the knowledge of the extent of microbial diversity in such extreme environments.Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar as comunidades bacterianas de amostras de água de formação e de óleo de reservatórios de petróleo brasileiros com diferentes graus de biodegradação usando a técnica de PCR-DGGE. O DNA ambiental foi isolado e empregado em reações de PCR com primers bacterianos

  9. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... most common vaginal infection in sexually active teenaged girls . It appears to be caused by a bacterial ...

  10. Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... of getting other STDs, such as chlamydia and gonorrhea . These bacteria can sometimes cause pelvic inflammatory disease ( ...

  11. Bacterial conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epling, John

    2012-02-20

    Most cases of conjunctivitis in adults are probably due to viral infection, but children are more likely to develop bacterial conjunctivitis than they are viral forms. The main bacterial pathogens are Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults and children, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children. Contact lens wearers may be more likely to develop gram-negative infections. Bacterial keratitis occurs in up to 30 per 100,000 contact lens wearers. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of empirical treatment in adults and children with suspected bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with bacteriologically confirmed bacterial conjunctivitis? What are the effects of treatment in adults and children with clinically confirmed gonococcal conjunctivitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to July 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 44 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: ocular decongestants, oral antibiotics, parenteral antibiotics, saline, topical antibiotics, and warm compresses.

  12. BACTERIAL CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payel Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum aromatic hydrocarbons like benzen e, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylene, together known as BTEX, has almost the same chemical structure. These aromatic hydrocarbons are released as pollutants in th e environment. This work was taken up to develop a solvent tolerant bacterial cons ortium that could degrade BTEX compounds as they all share a common chemical structure. We have isolated almost 60 different types of bacterial strains from different petroleum contaminated sites. Of these 60 bacterial strains almost 20 microorganisms were screene d on the basis of capability to tolerate high concentration of BTEX. Ten differe nt consortia were prepared and the compatibility of the bacterial strains within the consortia was checked by gram staining and BTEX tolerance level. Four successful mi crobial consortia were selected in which all the bacterial strains concomitantly grew in presence of high concentration of BTEX (10% of toluene, 10% of benzene 5% ethyl benzene and 1% xylene. Consortium #2 showed the highest growth rate in pr esence of BTEX. Degradation of BTEX by consortium #2 was monitored for 5 days by gradual decrease in the volume of the solvents. The maximum reduction observed wa s 85% in 5 days. Gas chromatography results also reveal that could completely degrade benzene and ethyl benzene within 48 hours. Almost 90% degradation of toluene and xylene in 48 hours was exhibited by consortium #2. It could also tolerate and degrade many industrial solvents such as chloroform, DMSO, acetonitrile having a wide range of log P values (0.03–3.1. Degradation of aromatic hydrocarbon like BTEX by a solvent tolerant bacterial consortium is greatly significant as it could degrade high concentration of pollutants compared to a bacterium and also reduces the time span of degradation.

  13. Comparison of an antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with bacterial culture for detection of Salmonella in poultry-hatchery environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian W; Lutze-Wallace, Cheryl L; Devenish, John; Elmufti, Mohamed; Burke, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    An antigen-capture, monoclonal-antibody-based enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) that detects a broad range of Salmonella serovars in various serogroups was developed and compared with standard culture procedures for detection of Salmonella in 1055 field samples collected from poultry-hatchery environments. The diagnostic sensitivity of the ELISA relative to culture was 99.9% and the diagnostic specificity 99.6%. The extensive culture procedure included nonselective enrichment (NSE) as well as primary selective enrichment (PSE) and delayed secondary enrichment (DSE) with Hajna tetrathionate (TT) and Rappaport-Vassiliadis (RV) selective-enrichment broths. Significantly more Salmonella-positive samples were detected by ELISA and culture at the DSE stage than at the NSE and PSE stages (P hatchery samples.

  14. Clinical efficacy of subgingival debridement with adjunctive erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser treatment in patients with chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Sánchez, Ignacio; Ortiz-Vigón, Alberto; Matos, Rita; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser application as an adjunct to subgingival debridement in the treatment of chronic periodontitis (CP) is controversial. This study assesses the efficacy of combining full-mouth subgingival debridement with Er:YAG laser application in the treatment of patients with CP. In this 12-month, single-masked, parallel-group clinical trial, 40 patients with moderate CP were selected and randomly assigned to a test group (one session of full-mouth ultrasonic subgingival debridement followed 1 week later by Er:YAG application in sites with initial probing depths [PDs] of ≥4.5 mm) and a control group (two sessions of ultrasonic debridement within 1 week). The main outcome variable was change in PD; the secondary outcomes were change in clinical attachment level and proportion of sites with bleeding on probing. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after 3, 6, and 12 months. Data were analyzed as intention to treat using analysis of variance to assess intergroup differences. Both treatments resulted in significant clinical improvements. The test group achieved, in comparison with the control, a significantly lower percentage of sites with PD ≥4.5 mm (17.44% versus 22.83%, respectively; P = 0.004) and a tendency for a lower percentage of sites with PD ≥4.5 mm and bleeding on probing (9.78% versus 12.69%; P = 0.052). This limited added clinical effect may justify the use of a protocol combining full-mouth ultrasonic debridement with laser therapy in the treatment of initial moderate CP.

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of subgingival irrigation with 2% povidone-iodine and tetracycline HCl in subjects with chronic moderate periodontitis: A clinico microbiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perayil, Jayachandran; Menon, Keerthy S; Biswas, Raja; Fenol, Angel; Vyloppillil, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate and compare the clinical and antimicrobial efficacy of subgingival irrigation with tetracycline and povidone-iodine as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Twenty subjects with chronic moderate periodontitis were recruited in this split-mouth study with probing pocket depth of >3 and ≤5 mm and clinical attachment loss of 3-4 mm in relation to 16, 36, and 46. In each subject, three selected periodontal pockets were assigned to receive one out of three irrigants (1) sterile water (control) in 16; (2) tetracycline at 10 mg/ml in 36; (3) 2% povidone-iodine in 46, and these sites were designated as Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively. Plaque score, gingival score, pocket probing depth, and clinical attachment level were evaluated before treatment and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythensis which have been implicated as the major risk factors for periodontal disease. Subgingival plaque collected before treatment and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Data were analysed using ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA. Results were considered significant if P < 0.05. Clinical and microbiological parameters were reduced posttreatment, the reduction being significantly higher in Group B compared to Group C. It can be concluded that chemical and mechanical therapies were of slight benefit in the treatment of chronic moderate periodontitis, and there was an adjunctive effect of significance when scaling and root planing was combined with a single subgingival irrigation with tetracycline or povidone-iodine in lower concentration.

  16. Comparison of the efficacy of subgingival irrigation with 2% povidone-iodine and tetracycline HCl in subjects with chronic moderate periodontitis: A clinico microbiological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayachandran Perayil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was performed to evaluate and compare the clinical and antimicrobial efficacy of subgingival irrigation with tetracycline and povidone-iodine as an adjunct to nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects with chronic moderate periodontitis were recruited in this split-mouth study with probing pocket depth of >3 and ≤5 mm and clinical attachment loss of 3-4 mm in relation to 16, 36, and 46. In each subject, three selected periodontal pockets were assigned to receive one out of three irrigants (1 sterile water (control in 16; (2 tetracycline at 10 mg/ml in 36; (3 2% povidone-iodine in 46, and these sites were designated as Group A, Group B, and Group C, respectively. Plaque score, gingival score, pocket probing depth, and clinical attachment level were evaluated before treatment and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was used to detect Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythensis which have been implicated as the major risk factors for periodontal disease. Subgingival plaque collected before treatment and at 1 and 3 months posttreatment. Data were analysed using ANOVA and repeated measure ANOVA. Results were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results: Clinical and microbiological parameters were reduced posttreatment, the reduction being significantly higher in Group B compared to Group C. Conclusion: It can be concluded that chemical and mechanical therapies were of slight benefit in the treatment of chronic moderate periodontitis, and there was an adjunctive effect of significance when scaling and root planing was combined with a single subgingival irrigation with tetracycline or povidone-iodine in lower concentration.

  17. The effect of sequential dual-gas testing on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy-based discrimination: Application to brass samples and bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehse, Steven J., E-mail: rehse@wayne.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Mohaidat, Qassem I., E-mail: mohaidat_76@yahoo.co [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Four Cu-Zn brass alloys with different stoichiometries and compositions have been analyzed by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using nanosecond laser pulses. The intensities of 15 emission lines of copper, zinc, lead, carbon, and aluminum (as well as the environmental contaminants sodium and calcium) were normalized and analyzed with a discriminant function analysis (DFA) to rapidly categorize the samples by alloy. The alloys were tested sequentially in two different noble gases (argon and helium) to enhance discrimination between them. When emission intensities from samples tested sequentially in both gases were combined to form a single 30-spectral line 'fingerprint' of the alloy, an overall 100% correct identification was achieved. This was a modest improvement over using emission intensities acquired in argon gas alone. A similar study was performed to demonstrate an enhanced discrimination between two strains of Escherichia coli (a Gram-negative bacterium) and a Gram-positive bacterium. When emission intensities from bacteria sequentially ablated in two different gas environments were combined, the DFA achieved a 100% categorization accuracy. This result showed the benefit of sequentially testing highly similar samples in two different ambient gases to enhance discrimination between the samples.

  18. ‘Lysinibacillus saudimassiliensis’ sp. nov., a new bacterial species isolated from air samples in the urban environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papadioti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the main characteristics of ‘Lysinibacillus saudimassiliensis’ strain 13S34_airτ (CSUR=P1222, a new species of the Lysinibacillus genus that was isolated from air samples in the city environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the pilgrim period of Hajj 2012.

  19. ‘Arthrobacter saudimassiliensis’ sp. nov. a new bacterial species isolated from air samples in the urban environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Papadioti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report here the main characteristics of ‘Arthrobacter saudimassiliensis’ strain 11W110_airT (CSUR P1223, a new species of the Arthrobacter genus that was isolated from air samples in the city environment of Makkah, Saudi Arabia, during the pilgrim period of Hajj 2012.

  20. Prevalencia de Cándida y asociación con periodontopatógenos presentes en placa subgingival de pacientes con periodontitis crónica

    OpenAIRE

    C.M. Ardila Medina; M.E. López Gaviria; I.C. Guzmán Zuluaga

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: Pocos estudios han descrito la presencia de levaduras en placa subgingival de pacientes con periodontitis crónica desconociéndose las implicaciones que puede tener su presencia sobre el tratamiento periodontal. Objetivo: El propósito de esta investigación fue evaluar la prevalencia de levaduras en las bolsas periodontales, su influencia sobre los parámetros clínicos y su asociación con otros periodontopatógenos presentes en periodontitis crónica. Materiales y métodos: Se examina...

  1. Differential Recovery of Candida Species from Subgingival Sites in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive and Healthy Children from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, M. B.; Souza, I. P. R.; Costa, E. M. M. B.; Hagler, A. N.; Soares, R. M. A.; Santos, A. L. S.

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of subgingival Candida species was studied in 52 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and 42 HIV-negative children. Candida was cultured from 22 (42.3%) and 3 (7.1%) HIV-infected and control children, respectively. C. albicans was the most common Candida species isolated from HIV-infected children, followed by C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis. In the HIV-positive group, the prevalence of Candida isolation was significantly higher in children who presented with low CD4+-T-lymphocyte counts, elevated viral loads, and gingivitis. PMID:15583343

  2. Bacterial stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Bacterial stress. Physicochemical and chemical parameters: temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration, oxygen, irradiation. Nutritional depravation: nutrient starvation, water shortage. Toxic compounds: Antibiotics, heavy metals, toxins, mutagens. Interactions with other cells: ...

  3. Bacterial lipases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation,

  4. Bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heckenberg, Sebastiaan G. B.; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van de Beek, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a neurologic emergency. Vaccination against common pathogens has decreased the burden of disease. Early diagnosis and rapid initiation of empiric antimicrobial and adjunctive therapy are vital. Therapy should be initiated as soon as blood cultures have been obtained,

  5. Bacterial Cryoprotectants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    culture plate, whereas no growth was detected under similar conditions without betaine. They also observed that uptake of betaine into the bacterial cell was .... lar content of bound water, and (4) modifying the growth of ice crystals in the extracellular environment. Conclusion. At the present time, betaine serves as a model ...

  6. Bacterial mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Borch, Jonas; Dam, Mette

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial DNA segregation takes place in an active and ordered fashion. In the case of Escherichia coli plasmid R1, the partitioning system (par) separates paired plasmid copies and moves them to opposite cell poles. Here we address the mechanism by which the three components of the R1 par system...

  7. Bacterial Cryoprotectants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 11. Bacterial Cryoprotectants. M K Chattopadhyay. General Article Volume 7 Issue 11 November 2002 pp 59-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/007/11/0059-0063. Keywords.

  8. Ligature-associated bacterial profiles are linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rat model and influenced by antibody treatment against TNF-α or RAGE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauballe, M B; Belstrøm, D; Østergaard, J A

    2017-01-01

    of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE). A total of 62 Zucker obese rats (45 T2D) and 17 lean (non-T2D) were divided into 4 treatment groups; lean with PD, obese with PD, obese with PD and anti-TNF-α treatment, and obese with PD with anti-RAGE treatment. Periodontal disease was ligature induced. Ligature......-associated bacterial profiles were analyzed using Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM). Ligature-associated bacterial profiles differed between lean and obese rats. Furthermore, treatment with antibodies against TNF-α or RAGE had an impact on subgingival bacterial profiles. T2D phenotypes...... are associated with different ligature-associated bacterial profiles and influenced by treatment with antibodies against TNF-α or RAGE....

  9. Bacterial Adhesion & Blocking Bacterial Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejborg, Rebecca Munk

    2008-01-01

    components. These substances may both mediate and stabilize the bacterial biofilm. Finally, several adhesive structures were examined, and a novel physiological biofilm phenotype in E.coli biofilms was characterized, namely cell chain formation. The autotransporter protein, antigen 43, was implicated...

  10. Prevalence of actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and prophyromonas gingivalis in subgingival microflora of patients with aggressive periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paknejad M.

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the best ways for treatment of Aggressive Periodontitis (AP is identification and elimination of etiologic factors specially two microorganisms Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg in patients harboring them. Purpose: This study determines the prevalence of Aa and Pg and its correlation with age, sex and the number of family members as well as probing pocket depth (PPD in active sites of AP patients, referred to department of periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional, descriptive study, 54 sites (PPD> 5mm in 15 patients were considered for culture. Marginal gingiva was dried and sampling performed by paperpoint (#30. The selective medium for Aa, was Trypticase Soy Agar-Bacitracin- Vancomycin (TSBV and for Pg was Brucella agar. Results were analyzed using Fisher and Chi-Square statistical tests. Results: Thirteen patients or 38 sites (70.4% were identified as Aa positive and 3 patients or 10 sites (18.4% were Pg positive. There was no significant relation between the presence of Aa and sex or age (P=0.086. Pg was more prevalent in men compared with women (P<0.0001 but with regard to age there was no statistical difference between men and women. Aa had a significant positive correlation with PPD (P=0.002, which was not true for Pg. In addition, the number of positive sites showed a significant negative correlation with the number of family members. Conclusion: Based on the present study, the prevalence of Aa in deep pockets in patients with AP is higher than Pg.

  11. Bacterial lipases

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Ransac, Stéphane; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Colson, Charles; Heuvel, Margreet van; Misset, Onno

    1994-01-01

    Many different bacterial species produce lipases which hydrolyze esters of glycerol with preferably long-chain fatty acids. They act at the interface generated by a hydrophobic lipid substrate in a hydrophilic aqueous medium. A characteristic property of lipases is called interfacial activation, meaning a sharp increase in lipase activity observed when the substrate starts to form an emulsion, thereby presenting to the enzyme an interfacial area. As a consequence, the kinetics of a lipase rea...

  12. What exactly distinguishes aggressive from chronic periodontitis: is it mainly a difference in the degree of bacterial invasiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Velden, Ubele

    2017-10-01

    At the International Workshop for Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions in 1999, the classification of aggressive and chronic periodontitis that is presently used was introduced. A literature review of papers published in 2015 and having aggressive periodontitis in the title revealed that most studies use this terminology but it is questionable whether all established criteria were really applied correctly. Review of the literature showed no qualitative differences between aggressive and chronic periodontitis regarding bacterial and viral aspects. It is also unlikely that that there are major immunologic differences between aggressive and chronic periodontitis. Neutrophil function can be compromised in both conditions but may be more genetically related in aggressive periodontitis and be associated more with lifestyle factors in chronic periodontitis. In general, genetics plays a more important role in aggressive periodontitis than in chronic periodontitis. It is likely that periodontitis progresses by recurrent acute episodes during which invasion of bacteria into the connective tissue may occur. Two cases are presented for which invasive periodontitis is treated with systemic antibiotics, showing remarkable periodontal healing in terms of probing attachment gain, as well as radiographic bone gain. Periodontitis in an active state with bacterial invasion is probably accompanied with a significant increase in subgingival temperature. It is hypothesized that elevated subgingival temperature may help to distinguish between bacterial and nonbacterial invasive periodontitis. Scaling and root planing during a burst of disease activity may result in removal of connective tissue fiber attachment and down-growth of epithelium, thereby preventing the reattachment of connective tissue. Because the burst of disease is accompanied by an increase of temperature, assessment of the temperature may help in deciding whether or not to prescribe systemic antibiotics

  13. Exposure of Porphyromonas gingivalis to cortisol increases bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcalı, Aliye; Huck, Olivier; Buduneli, Nurcan; Davideau, Jean-Luc; Köse, Timur; Tenenbaum, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Psychological stress is considered as a risk factor for periodontal diseases. The stress-related hormone, cortisol is one of the main molecules released during human stress response and is found in plasma and gingival crevicular fluid. This hormone has been suggested to modify composition of subgingival biofilms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exposure to cortisol on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) growth. P. gingivalis ATCC strain 33277 was cultured under strict anaerobic conditions at 37°C in Brain Heart Infusion medium supplemented with hemin (5μgml(-1)) and menadione (1μgml(-1)). Bacterial cultures were incubated with or without hydrocortisone (0.04-10μgml(-1)) at 37°C for 12, 24 and 48h and bacterial growth was evaluated by spectrophotometric method (OD600nm). Cortisol consumption has been followed by HPLC. Cortisol significantly increased P. gingivalis growth in the first 24h peaking at 12h but this increase was not related to the concentration used. During the time period, no consumption of cortisol was observed. This study provides further support for the idea that stress-induced hormone; cortisol may influence the growth of P. gingivalis. This specific effect may be involved in the relationship between stress and periodontal diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bacterial Isolates Associated with Pelvic Inflammatory Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Out of the 100 samples analysed, 43% yielded pure cultures of bacterial isolates, 2% yielded mixed cultures while no bacterial growths were recorded from the remaining 55% samples. Organisms encountered were Staphylococcus aureus (16%), Escherichia coli (10%), Streptococcus faecalis (8%), Pseudomonas ...

  15. Aetiology and severity of gingival recession in an adult population sample in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods : The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The majority (79.4% of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1 st and 2 nd molars (35.3% and the mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars (28.7% were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05, malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001, horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001 and brushing once daily (P < 0.001 appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.

  16. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03 Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  17. Arsenic uptake in bacterial calcite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catelani, Tiziano; Perito, Brunella; Bellucci, Francesco; Lee, Sang Soo; Fenter, Paul; Newville, Matthew G.; Rimondi, Valentina; Pratesi, Giovanni; Costagliola, Pilario

    2018-02-01

    Bio-mediated processes for arsenic (As) uptake in calcite were investigated by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Xray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) coupled with X-ray Fluorescence measurements. The environmental bacterial strain Bacillus licheniformis BD5, sampled at the Bullicame Hot Springs (Viterbo, Central Italy), was used to synthesize calcite from As-enriched growth media. Both liquid and solid cultures were applied to simulate planktonic and biofilm community environments, respectively. Bacterial calcite samples cultured in liquid media had an As enrichment factor (Kd) 50 times higher than that from solid media. The XRD analysis revealed an elongation of the crystal lattice along the c axis (by 0.03Å) for biogenic calcite, which likely resulted from the substitution of larger arsenate for carbonate in the crystal. The XAS data also showed a clear difference in the oxidation state of sorbed As between bacterial and abiotic calcite. Abiotic chemical processes yielded predominantly As(V) uptake whereas bacterial precipitation processes led to the uptake of both As(III) and As(V). The presence of As(III) in bacterial calcite is proposed to result from subsequent reduction of arsenate to arsenite by bacterial activities. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experimental observation of the incorporation of As(III) in the calcite crystal lattice, revealing a critical role of biochemical processes for the As cycling in nature.

  18. BACTERIAL PLASMIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Dinic

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmids, extrachromosomal DNA, were identified in bacteria pertaining to family of Enterobacteriacae for the very first time. After that, they were discovered in almost every single observed strain. The structure of plasmids is made of circular double chain DNA molecules which are replicated autonomously in a host cell. Their length may vary from few up to several hundred kilobase (kb. Among the bacteria, plasmids are mostly transferred horizontally by conjugation process. Plasmid replication process can be divided into three stages: initiation, elongation, and termination. The process involves DNA helicase I, DNA gyrase, DNA polymerase III, endonuclease, and ligase.Plasmids contain genes essential for plasmid function and their preservation in a host cell (the beginning and the control of replication. Some of them possess genes whichcontrol plasmid stability. There is a common opinion that plasmids are unnecessary fora growth of bacterial population and their vital functions; thus, in many cases they can be taken up or kicked out with no lethal effects to a plasmid host cell. However,there are numerous biological functions of bacteria related to plasmids. Plasmids identification and classification are based upon their genetic features which are presented permanently in all of them, and these are: abilities to preserve themselves in a host cell and to control a replication process. In this way, plasmids classification among incompatibility groups is performed. The method of replicon typing, which is based on genotype and not on phenotype characteristics, has the same results as in compatibility grouping.

  19. Prevalence of "non-oral" pathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of subjects with chronic periodontitis Prevalência de bactérias patogênicas "não-orais" no biofilme dental subgengival de pacientes com periodontite crônica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renata Souto; Arnaldo Feitosa B. de Andrade; Milton Uzeda; Ana Paula Vieira Colombo

    2006-01-01

    .... Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and levels of pathogenic bacteria in the subgingival biofilm of chronic periodontitis lesions and healthy periodontal sites using...

  20. Detection of putative periodontal pathogens in subgingival specimens of dogs Detecção de patógenos periodontais em amostras subgengivais de cães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Alexandra Belini Nishiyama

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the presence of putative periodontal organisms, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, Fusobacterium nucleatum,Dialister pneumosintes,Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans,Campylobacter rectus,Eikenella corrodens and Treponema denticola were examined from subgingival samples of 40 dogs of different breeds with (25 and without (15 periodontitis, by using the PCR method. The PCR products of each species showed specific amplicons. Of the 25 dogs with periodontitis, P. gingivalis was detected in 16 (64% samples, C. rectus in 9 (36%, A. actinomycetemcomitans in 6 (24%, P. intermedia in 5 (20%, T. forsythensis in 5 (20%, F. nucleatum in 4 (16% and E. corrodens in 3 (12%. T. denticola and D. pneumosintes were not detected in clinical samples from dogs with periodontitis. Moreover, P. gingivalis was detected only in one (6.66% crossbred dog without periodontitis. Our results show that these microorganisms are present in periodontal microbiota of dogs with periodontitits, and it is important to evaluate the role of these putative periodontal microorganisms play in the periodontitis in household pets particularly, dogs in ecologic and therapeutic terms, since these animals might acquire these periodontopahogens from their respective owners.Neste estudo, a presença de patógenos periodontais, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Dialister pneumosintes, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Campylobacter rectus, Eikenella corrodens e Treponema denticola foi determinada por PCR, em amostras subgengivais de 40 cães com (25 e sem (15 doença periodontal. Os produtos amplificados pelo PCR para cada espécie bacteriana mostraram amplicons específicos. Dos 25 cães apresentando doença periodontal, P. gingivalis foi detectado em 16 amostras (64%, C. rectus em 9 (36%, A. actinomycetemcomitans em 6 (24%, P. intermedia em 5 (20%, T. forsythensis em 5 (20

  1. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation...

  2. Detection of bacterial species involved in perimplantitis concerned with cultural and RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Gatti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants offer new treatment options for edentulous either partially or completely, now represent a viable alternative to conventional fixed protheses. Dental implants are colonized by a flora dominated by Gram-positive facultative aerobic, while in patients with bone loss and formation of pockets peri-implant diseases was found a significant difference in the composition of microflora, bacteria, Gram-negative anaerobes in particular Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola (Spirochetes, Tannerella forsythensis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia as interim black-pigmented bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, often in high concentrations. Aims. The purpose of this study was to identify those at risk of perimplantitis using 2 techniques: RT-PCR examination of trade and culture. The results were compared taking into consideration the advantages and disadvantages of both methods. Materials and methods.We studied 24 patients (14 women and 10 men, aged, women between 43 and 76 years, with an average of 63.8 + / - 10.9 years, men between 45 and 88 years with a average of 64.3 years + / - 12.5 years. Was performed a double levy of sub-gingival plaque at multiple sites that had an implant CAL (clinical attachment level> 4mm in order to assess the microbiological identification with the two techniques: Examining culture and Real-Time PCR of Commerce ( Gum-Sunstar that identifies 4 bacterial species: A. actinomycetemcomitans (A.a., P.gingivalis (P.g., T.forsythensis (T.f., and T.denticola (T.d.. Results. All patients studied were positive to both tests with charger high: the consideration of tenure, with CFU / ml > 105, was positive in 66.6% of samples by:T.f., and P.g., in 12.5% for A.a., while T.d. not been sought by examining culture, the RT-PCR was positive, with high loads, in 95.8% of samples for T.f., in 79.1% for P.g., in 12.5% for A.a. and 20.8% for T.d.The test crop showed the presence of even P.intermedia in 91

  3. Presencia de Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola y Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans en el biofilm subgingival de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2: estudio transversal Presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival biofilm of diabetic mellitus 2 patients: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ Quintero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: La investigación de la microflora subgingival en pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 con periodontitis ha presentado resultados contradictorios. Objetivo: Determinar la presencia de Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forshytia, Treponema denticola y Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, en el biofilm subgingival de pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 y relacionarlo con el grado de control metabólico. Método: Estudio descriptivo transversal, en el cual se analizaron 23 pacientes diabéticos derivados consecutivamente del Policlínico de Especialidades de la Universidad de los Andes. Previo consentimiento informado, se realizó un examen clínico periodontal que incluyó mediciones de profundidad al sondaje, nivel de inserción clínica y sangrado gingival. Fueron clasificados según severidad de periodontitis y control metabólico de la diabetes determinado por un promedio de 3 exámenes de hemoglobina glicosilada. La detección microbiológica se realizó mediante la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. Resultados: En el grupo de pacientes estudiados, Treponema denticola y Tannerella forsythia fueron las bacterias más prevalentes (65.2%, seguida por Porphyromonas gingivalis (17.3% y Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (13%. Los pacientes con peor control glicémico tuvieron una mayor presencia de Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Porphyromonas gingivalis y Agreggatibacter actinomycetemcomitans y un aumento en el índice de sangrado al sondaje. Conclusiones: En el grupo de pacientes diabéticos estudiado, las bacterias más prevalentes fueron Treponema denticola y Tannerella forsythia. Los pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 con moderado y mal control glicémico presentaron mayor presencia de los microorganismos estudiados, comparado con los grupos con mejores niveles de control glicémico.Background: The investigation of subgingival microflora in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontitis presented conflicting results

  4. Pregnancy Complications: Bacterial Vaginosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care ... Point, NY 10980 Close X Home > Complications & Loss > Pregnancy complications > Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy Bacterial vaginosis and pregnancy ...

  5. Prevention of bacterial adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Per; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Hancock, Viktoria

    2010-01-01

    Management of bacterial infections is becoming increasingly difficult due to the emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial pathogens that are resistant to available antibiotics. Conventional antibiotics generally kill bacteria by interfering with vital cellular functions, an approach...... that imposes selection pressure for resistant bacteria. New approaches are urgently needed. Targeting bacterial virulence functions directly is an attractive alternative. An obvious target is bacterial adhesion. Bacterial adhesion to surfaces is the first step in colonization, invasion, and biofilm formation....... As such, adhesion represents the Achilles heel of crucial pathogenic functions. It follows that interference with adhesion can reduce bacterial virulence. Here, we illustrate this important topic with examples of techniques being developed that can inhibit bacterial adhesion. Some of these will become...

  6. Effect of heavy metals on bacterial transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Adsorption of metals onto bacteria and soil takes place as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. Changes in both bacterial surfaces and soil elemental content have been observed, and may alter the attachment of bacteria to soil surfaces. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses were performed on soil samples equilibrated with synthetic stormwater amended with copper, lead and zinc. The results demonstrate the presence of copper and zinc on soil surfaces. To investigate bacterial attachment behavior, sets of batch sorption experiments were conducted on Escherichia Coli (E. coli) under different chemical conditions by varying solution compositions (nutrient solution vs synthetic stormwater). The adsorption data is best described using theoretical linear isotherms. The equilibrium coefficient (Kd) of E. coli is higher in synthetic stormwater than in nutrient solution without heavy metals. The adsorption of heavy metals onto bacterial surfaces significantly decreases their negative surface charge as determined via zeta potential measurements (-17.0±5.96mv for E. coli equilibrated with synthetic stormwater vs -21.6±5.45mv for E. coli equilibrated with nutrient solution), indicating that bacterial attachment may increase due to the attachment of metals onto bacterial surfaces and their subsequent change in surface charge. The attachment efficiency (α) of bacteria was also calculated and compared for both solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment efficiency (α) in synthetic stormwater is 0.997, which is twice as high as that in nutrient solution(α 0.465). The ratio of bacterial diameter : collector diameter suggests minimal soil straining during bacterial transport. Results suggest that the presence of metals in synthetic stormwater leads to an increase in bacterial attachment to soil surfaces. In terms of designing stormwater infiltration basins, the presence of heavy metals seems to

  7. Bacterial profile of aggressive periodontitis in Morocco: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahboun, Hanane; Arnau, Maria Minguez; Herrera, David; Sanz, Mariano; Ennibi, Oum Keltoum

    2015-02-24

    Aggressive periodontitis (AgP) is one of the most severe forms of periodontal diseases. In Morocco, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans has been strongly associated with AgP, however limited knowledge is available about the implication of other periodontal pathogens in this entity. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of the subgingival microbiota in Moroccan patients with AgP. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from 50 aggressive, 13 localized and 37 generalized periodontitis patients. Samples from 20 chronic periodontitis (ChP) patients were taken as controls. Samples collected from the four deepest periodontal pockets in each patient were pooled in pre-reduced transport fluid and examined by culture. A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly more frequent (p = 0.004) in generalised AgP compared to ChP, and Porphyromonas gingivalis was less prevalent in localized AgP, when compared with generalized AgP (p = 0.040) or ChP (p = 0.016). Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Tannerella forsythia were also frequently detected in all groups. Mean proportions of A. actinomycetemcomitans were significantly higher in AgP groups, when compared to ChP, and generalized AgP patients harbored significantly higher proportions of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia, when compared to localized AgP or ChP. A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis, T. forsythia, P. intermedia and F. nucleatum were frequently detected in this Moroccan population with AgP. Differences in frequency of detection, counts and proportions of A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and T. forsythia suggests the presence of distinct microbiological profiles for localized AgP, generalized AgP and ChP patients.

  8. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  9. Carbon and phosphorus regulating bacterial metabolism in oligotrophic boreal lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, L. O.; Graneli, W.; Daniel, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    respiration and bacterial production responded positively to C + P enrichment for most of the lakes sampled. Bacterial growth efficiency showed a wide range (2.5-28.7%) and low mean value (12%). These variations were not correlated with the DOC concentration. Our results show that heterotrophic bacterial......-P and glucose-C alone or in combination (0.01 and 0.3 mg L(-1), respectively) was added to 1.0 mu m filtered lake water and incubated in darkness at 20 degrees C. Additions of glucose (C) and phosphorus (P) alone did not lead to changes in the rates of bacterial metabolic processes, whereas bacterial...

  10. Drug resistance of bacterial dental biofilm and the potential use of natural compounds as alternative for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouidhi, Bochra; Al Qurashi, Yasir Mohammed A; Chaieb, Kamel

    2015-03-01

    Oral diseases, such as dental caries and periodontal disease are directly linked with the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria colonizing the supragingival biofilm (Streptococcus, Lactobacillus and Actinomycetes). Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria forming a subgingival plaque (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium). Cells embedded in biofilm are up to 1000-fold more resistant to antibiotics compared to their planctonic ones. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain biofilms drug resistance. Given the increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics currently used in dentistry, a great importance is given to natural compounds for the prevention of oral bacterial growth, adhesion and colonization. Over the past decade, interest in drugs derived from medicinal plants has markedly increased. It has been well documented that medicinal plants and natural compounds confer considerable antibacterial activity against various microorganisms including cariogenic and periodontal pathogens. This paper provides a review of the literature focusing on the studies on (i) biofilm in the oral cavity, (ii) drug resistance of bacterial biofilm and (iii) the potential use of plant extracts, essential oils and natural compounds as biofilm preventive agents in dentistry, involving their origin and their mechanism of biofilm inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacterie remt phytophthora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuivers, M.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2009-01-01

    Bacteriën kunnen aardappelplanten weerbaarder maken tegen phytophthora. Uit kas-experimenten van Plant Research International (PRI) blijkt dat de aanwezigheid van de bacteriePseudomonas putida(isolaat P9) in twee late aardappelrassen leidt tot een vertraging met 45 procent van het ziekteverloop na

  12. common bacterial pathogens seen.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacterial infections are important causes of morbidity in the neonatal period. Therefore identification of infecting organisms and the risk factors for possible bacterial infection in the newborn is of great importance. Institution early appropriate therapy is an important step in combating morbidity and mortality in this ...

  13. Vimentin in Bacterial Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mak, Tim N; Brüggemann, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-studied bacterial strategies to target actin to subvert the host cell cytoskeleton, thus promoting bacterial survival, replication, and dissemination, relatively little is known about the bacterial interaction with other components of the host cell cytoskeleton, including intermediate...... filaments (IFs). IFs have not only roles in maintaining the structural integrity of the cell, but they are also involved in many cellular processes including cell adhesion, immune signaling, and autophagy, processes that are important in the context of bacterial infections. Here, we summarize the knowledge...... about the role of IFs in bacterial infections, focusing on the type III IF protein vimentin. Recent studies have revealed the involvement of vimentin in host cell defenses, acting as ligand for several pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. Two main aspects of bacteria...

  14. Hydrodebridement of wounds: effectiveness in reducing wound bacterial contamination and potential for air bacterial contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong David G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the level of air contamination with bacteria after surgical hydrodebridement and to determine the effectiveness of hydro surgery on bacterial reduction of a simulated infected wound. Methods Four porcine samples were scored then infected with a broth culture containing a variety of organisms and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. The infected samples were then debrided with the hydro surgery tool (Versajet, Smith and Nephew, Largo, Florida, USA. Samples were taken for microbiology, histology and scanning electron microscopy pre-infection, post infection and post debridement. Air bacterial contamination was evaluated before, during and after debridement by using active and passive methods; for active sampling the SAS-Super 90 air sampler was used, for passive sampling settle plates were located at set distances around the clinic room. Results There was no statistically significant reduction in bacterial contamination of the porcine samples post hydrodebridement. Analysis of the passive sampling showed a significant (p 3 to 16780 CFUs/m3 were observed with active sampling of the air whilst using hydro surgery equipment compared with a basal count of 582 CFUs/m3. During removal of the wound dressing, a significant increase was observed relative to basal counts (p Conclusion The results suggest a significant increase in bacterial air contamination both by active sampling and passive sampling. We believe that action might be taken to mitigate fallout in the settings in which this technique is used.

  15. Bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Kenji; Kusugami, Kazuo; Ohta, Michio

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial diarrhea can be classified into two clinical entities, noninflammatory diarrhea and inflammatory diarrhea syndromes. The latter type of diarrhea is characterized by bloody and puruloid mucus stool, and is often accompanied by fever, tenesmus, and severe abdominal pain. Pathogenic bacteria causing the inflammatory diarrhea syndrome include Salmonella, Vibrio, Shigella, enteroinvasive and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Chlamydia, and Clostridium difficile. The pathologic changes in the inflammatory diarrhea syndrome range from a superficial exudative enterocolitis to a transmural enterocolitis with overt ulceration. This syndrome is also designated as bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis because of its usual manifestation by bloody diarrhea. The diagnostic approach needs information on the patient's age, travel history, epidemiological associations, sexual practice, and medical history, including usage of antibiotics. Bacterial information can be obtained by microscopic study, culture, and the identification of specific bacterial toxins. Flexible colonoscopy with biopsy is useful for the differentiation of bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis from idiopathic ulcerative colitis and ischemic colitis. Physicians should be familiar with the diagnostic modalities used to detect the specific pathogens causing hemorrhagic bacterial enterocolitis; namely, bacterial culture, serology, histology, and nucleic acid technologies.

  16. Interfering with bacterial gossip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2011-01-01

    defense. Antibiotics exhibit a rather limited effect on biofilms. Furthermore, antibiotics have an ‘inherent obsolescence’ because they select for development of resistance. Bacterial infections with origin in bacterial biofilms have become a serious threat in developed countries. Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... that appropriately target bacteria in their relevant habitat with the aim of mitigating their destructive impact on patients. In this review we describe molecular mechanisms involved in “bacterial gossip” (more scientifically referred to as quorum sensing (QS) and c-di-GMP signaling), virulence, biofilm formation......, resistance and QS inhibition as future antimicrobial targets, in particular those that would work to minimize selection pressures for the development of resistant bacteria....

  17. Aortic bacterial endarteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma Maroto, M J; Gorodezky, M; Contreras, R; C'ardenas, M

    1975-01-01

    Micotic aneurisms are very rare. They are produced as a consequence of a bacterial infection of the endartery. They are divided into "primary", or those of an unknown septic focus, and "secondary" to bacterial endocarditis, to intravascular in infection or to infection located in a neighboring region. Two cases of the National Institute of Cardiology of Mexico are presented, with "primary" micotic aneurysm, which is the least frequent. One of them was because of bacterial endarteritis located in the thoracic aorta, an extremely rate entity. Due to the frequent rupture of these aneurysm with a very high mortality, emphasis is placed on the convenience of rapid surgical treatment of patients diagnosed.

  18. Bacterial intermediate filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charbon, Godefroid; Cabeen, M.; Jacobs-Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Crescentin, which is the founding member of a rapidly growing family of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, was previously proposed to resemble eukaryotic intermediate filament (IF) proteins based on structural prediction and in vitro polymerization properties. Here, we demonstrate that crescentin...

  19. Bacterial Skin Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Summer Camp Tips for Kids With Asthma, Allergies Antioxidants: The Good Health Helpers As Stroke 'Liquefies' Brain ... Cancer Additional Content Medical News Overview of Bacterial Skin Infections By A. Damian Dhar, MD, JD, Private ...

  20. When bacterial tracheitis complicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Teixeira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral croup is the most common cause of stridor in children seen at emergency room. In the absence of response to treatment with corticosteroids and nebulized adrenaline, bacterial tracheitis should be considered. Case Report: A six year-old child, was admitted in emergency room with stridor, respiratory distress and fever, with partial response to therapy with nebulized epinephrine. Ceftriaxone was prescribed for suspected bacterial laryngotracheobronchitis. Despite therapy, developed cervical cellulitis with progression to retropharyngeal abscess and mediastinitis. Good outcome after therapy with ceftriaxone, clindamycin and vancomycin. Discussion/Conclusion: The authors describe an original case of a bacterial tracheitis complicated with retropharyngeal abcess and mediastinitis, emphasizing that bacterial tracheitis is potentially life threatening, requiring a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis.

  1. Bacterial Wound Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Bacterial Wound Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Aerobic Wound Culture; Anaerobic Wound Culture Formal name: Culture, wound Related ...

  2. pH affects bacterial community composition in soils across the Huashan Watershed, China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhao, Dayong; Huang, Feng; Zeng, Jin; Yu, Zhongbo; Wu, Qinglong L; Shen, Feng; Huang, Rui; Cao, Xinyi; Feng, Jingwei; Jiang, Cuiling

    2016-01-01

    To investigate soil bacterial richness and diversity and to determine the correlations between bacterial communities and soil properties, 8 soil samples were collected from the Huashan watershed in Anhui, China...

  3. Bacterial proteases and virulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frees, Dorte; Brøndsted, Lone; Ingmer, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens rely on proteolysis for variety of purposes during the infection process. In the cytosol, the main proteolytic players are the conserved Clp and Lon proteases that directly contribute to virulence through the timely degradation of virulence regulators and indirectly by providing....... These extracellular proteases are activated in complex cascades involving auto-processing and proteolytic maturation. Thus, proteolysis has been adopted by bacterial pathogens at multiple levels to ensure the success of the pathogen in contact with the human host....

  4. [Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukić, Slobodanka; Ćirković, Ivana; Arsić, Biljana; Garalejić, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2-producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent's scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up-to-date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short-term and long-term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  5. Mechanisms of action of systemic antibiotics used in periodontal treatment and mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOARES, Geisla Mary Silva; FIGUEIREDO, Luciene Cristina; FAVERI, Marcelo; CORTELLI, Sheila Cavalca; DUARTE, Poliana Mendes; FERES, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics are important adjuncts in the treatment of infectious diseases, including periodontitis. The most severe criticisms to the indiscriminate use of these drugs are their side effects and, especially, the development of bacterial resistance. The knowledge of the biological mechanisms involved with the antibiotic usage would help the medical and dental communities to overcome these two problems. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to review the mechanisms of action of the antibiotics most commonly used in the periodontal treatment (i.e. penicillin, tetracycline, macrolide and metronidazole) and the main mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs. Antimicrobial resistance can be classified into three groups: intrinsic, mutational and acquired. Penicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin are broad-spectrum drugs, effective against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Bacterial resistance to penicillin may occur due to diminished permeability of the bacterial cell to the antibiotic; alteration of the penicillin-binding proteins, or production of β-lactamases. However, a very small proportion of the subgingival microbiota is resistant to penicillins. Bacteria become resistant to tetracyclines or macrolides by limiting their access to the cell, by altering the ribosome in order to prevent effective binding of the drug, or by producing tetracycline/macrolide-inactivating enzymes. Periodontal pathogens may become resistant to these drugs. Finally, metronidazole can be considered a prodrug in the sense that it requires metabolic activation by strict anaerobe microorganisms. Acquired resistance to this drug has rarely been reported. Due to these low rates of resistance and to its high activity against the gram-negative anaerobic bacterial species, metronidazole is a promising drug for treating periodontal infections. PMID:22858695

  6. Evaluation of method bias for determining bacterial populations in bacterial community analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Kita, Yasuko; Mizuno, Akihiro; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami

    2017-10-01

    Various methods are used for analyzing a bacterial community. We recently developed a method for quantifying each bacterium constituting the microbiota by combining a next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis with a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (NGS-qPCR) assay. Our NGS-qPCR method is useful for analyzing a comprehensive bacterial community because it is enables the easy calculation of the amounts of each bacterium constituting the microbiota. However, it has not been confirmed whether the estimated bacterial community obtained using this NGS-qPCR method corresponds to the results obtained using conventional methods. Accordingly, we prepared model bacterial community samples and analyzed them by several methods (NGS-qPCR, species-specific qPCR, flow cytometry, total direct counting by epifluorescent microscopy [TDC], and plate count). The total bacterial cell densities determined by the PCR-based methods were largely consistent with those determined by the TDC method. There was a difference between the amounts of each bacterium analyzed by NGS-qPCR and species-specific qPCR, although the same trend was shown by both species-specific qPCR and NGS-qPCR. Our findings also demonstrated that there is a strong positive correlation between the cell densities of a specific bacterial group in craft beer samples determined by group-specific qPCR and NGS-qPCR, and there were no significant differences among quantification methods (we tested two bacterial groups: lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria). Thus, the NGS-qPCR method is a practical method for analyzing a comprehensive bacterial community based on a bacterial cell density. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Physio-chemical characteristics and bacterial diversity in copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Afipia sp. and Burkholderia sp. were found in summer samples only while most of the other species were common in both the seasons. Finally, the Copper mine wastewater was deficient in nutrients but enriched with the bacterial diversity of the extremophiles. Keywords: Copper mining, heavy metals, bacterial diversity, ...

  8. Prevalence of antibacterial resistant bacterial contaminants from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mobile phones contaminated with bacteria may act as fomites. Antibiotic resistant bacterial contamination of mobile phones of inpatients was studied. One hundred and six samples were collected from mobile phones of patients admitted in various hospitals in Jazan province of Saudi Arabia. Eighty-nine (83.9%) out of 106 ...

  9. Microfluidic immunomagnetic separation for enhanced bacterial detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyland, James; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Ahmed, Shakil

    Salmonella from samples artificially contaminated with a concentration range of 10^2 to 10^7 mL-1 and the captured Salmonella were then detected and quantified flow cytometrically after vital staining. The results showed that on-chip IMS could effectively discriminate a bacterial contamination of 10^4/ml...

  10. Bacterial communities of two ubiquitous Great Barrier Reef corals reveals both site- and species-specificity of common bacterial associates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Charlotte E Kvennefors

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral-associated bacteria are increasingly considered to be important in coral health, and altered bacterial community structures have been linked to both coral disease and bleaching. Despite this, assessments of bacterial communities on corals rarely apply sufficient replication to adequately describe the natural variability. Replicated data such as these are crucial in determining potential roles of bacteria on coral. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal DNA was used in a highly replicated approach to analyse bacterial communities on both healthy and diseased corals. Although site-specific variations in the bacterial communities of healthy corals were present, host species-specific bacterial associates within a distinct cluster of gamma-proteobacteria could be identified, which are potentially linked to coral health. Corals affected by "White Syndrome" (WS underwent pronounced changes in their bacterial communities in comparison to healthy colonies. However, the community structure and bacterial ribotypes identified in diseased corals did not support the previously suggested theory of a bacterial pathogen as the causative agent of the syndrome. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first study to employ large numbers of replicated samples to assess the bacterial communities of healthy and diseased corals, and the first culture-independent assessment of bacterial communities on WS affected Acroporid corals on the GBR. Results indicate that a minimum of 6 replicate samples are required in order to draw inferences on species, spatial or health-related changes in community composition, as a set of clearly distinct bacterial community profiles exist in healthy corals. Coral bacterial communities may be both site and species specific. Furthermore, a cluster of gamma-proteobacterial ribotypes may represent a group of specific common coral and marine

  11. Isolation And Characterization Of The Bacterial Flora Of Soy Milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of five bacterial isolates designated A1, A2, A3, A4 and A5 were obtained from twelve locally produced soy milk samples purchased from different locations in Nsukka town. The soy milk samples comprised seven unrefrigerated and five refrigerated samples. All samples were 24h-old according to information ...

  12. Urticaria and bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Barberi, Giuseppina; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    The association between urticaria and infectious diseases has been discussed for >100 years. However, a causal relationship with underlying or precipitating infection is difficult to establish. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic analysis of the published cases of urticaria associated with bacterial infections. We give an umbrella breakdown of up-to-date systematic reviews and other important publications on the complex association of urticaria and bacterial infections. We did a Medline search, for English language articles published until January 2014, using the key words "urticaria" and "bacteria/bacterial disease"; a second analysis was performed in groups of bacteria and using each germ name as a key word. Many bacterial infections have been associated with urticaria manifestation, such as Helicobacter pylori, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Salmonella, Brucella, Mycobacterium leprae, Borrelia, Chlamydia pneumonia, and Yersinia enterocolitica. In some cases the skin manifestations, described as urticaria, could be caused by the presence of the microorganism in the skin, or for the action of their toxins, or to the complement activation mediated by circulating immune complexes. Although only a weak association with urticaria of unclear pathogenesis exists, clinicians should consider these bacterial agents in the workup of the patients with urticaria. The eradication of the infection could, in fact, lead to the resolution of urticaria. Prospective studies and well-structured research are obviously needed to better clarify the real role of bacteria in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence.

  13. Bacterial Cell Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, George K; Weibel, Douglas B

    2017-07-25

    Cellular mechanical properties play an integral role in bacterial survival and adaptation. Historically, the bacterial cell wall and, in particular, the layer of polymeric material called the peptidoglycan were the elements to which cell mechanics could be primarily attributed. Disrupting the biochemical machinery that assembles the peptidoglycan (e.g., using the β-lactam family of antibiotics) alters the structure of this material, leads to mechanical defects, and results in cell lysis. Decades after the discovery of peptidoglycan-synthesizing enzymes, the mechanisms that underlie their positioning and regulation are still not entirely understood. In addition, recent evidence suggests a diverse group of other biochemical elements influence bacterial cell mechanics, may be regulated by new cellular mechanisms, and may be triggered in different environmental contexts to enable cell adaptation and survival. This review summarizes the contributions that different biomolecular components of the cell wall (e.g., lipopolysaccharides, wall and lipoteichoic acids, lipid bilayers, peptidoglycan, and proteins) make to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial cell mechanics. We discuss the contribution of individual proteins and macromolecular complexes in cell mechanics and the tools that make it possible to quantitatively decipher the biochemical machinery that contributes to bacterial cell mechanics. Advances in this area may provide insight into new biology and influence the development of antibacterial chemotherapies.

  14. One-day point prevalence of emerging bacterial pathogens in a nationwide sample of 62 German hospitals in 2012 and comparison with the results of the one-day point prevalence of 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegner, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is an emerging problem worldwide. To combat multidrug resistant organisms (MRDOs networks of care providers have been established in all states in Germany. The HICARE-network, a project to combat MRDOs, founded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, has published data from 2010 of a voluntary, German-wide, multicenter point-prevalence survey in 2011 conducted in collaboration with the German Society of Hospital Hygiene. The aim of the present survey was the re-evaluation of the situation in 2012.Method: The survey was conducted as a voluntary, anonymous, point-prevalence in May 2012 using routine data of microbiological diagnostics of the hospitals. As in the former survey of 2010 it was differentiated between primary, secondary and tertiary care hospitals and only data from intensive care units, surgical and medical wards were collected. Based on the survey form used in 2010, an updated version was used including more pathogens and corrected issues observed in the former survey. Methicillin-resistant (MRSA (total as well as separated in hospital-acquired (HA, community-acquired (CA and lifestock-associated (LA MRSA, vancomycin resistant (VRSA/GRSA, vancomycin resistant resp. (VR-resp. VR-, extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-building (ESBL (ESBL-EC and (ESBL-KP, multiresistant spp. (MAB, multiresistant spp. (MRP, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CRE as well as (CD infections and severe infections requiring ICU-treatment were included in the survey along with additional data on screening strategy, the equipment with infection control staff and possible confounders.Results: Out of 1,550 hospitals asked to participate, 62 returned data (4%. Data from 56 hospitals including primary (26, secondary (20 and tertiary (10 care hospitals were analyzable (3.6%. The most frequently reported organisms were MRSA 1.53% [CI95: 1.32–1.75], followed by CDAD 1.30% [CI95: 1

  15. 9 CFR 113.3 - Sampling of biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS... bacterial vaccines; (iii) Two samples of Coccidiosis Vaccine; (iv) Eighteen samples of Rabies Vaccine... as follows: (1) Ten samples of Bacterial Master Seeds. (2) Thirteen samples of viral Master Seeds or...

  16. Bacterial Biodegradation of Crude Oil Using Local Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed S. Al-Wasify

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Acinetobacter lwoffi isolated from petroleum contaminated water and soil samples to degrade crude oil, separately and in a mixed bacterial consortium. Capillary gas chromatography was used for testing the effect of those bacterial species on the biodegradation of crude oil. Individual bacterial cultures showed less growth and degradation than did the mixed bacterial consortium. At temperature 22°C, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 88.5% of Egyptian crude oil after 28 days of incubation. This was followed by 77.8% by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 76.7% by Bacillus subtilis, and 74.3% by Acinetobacter lwoffi. The results demonstrated that the selected bacterial isolates could be effective in biodegradation of oil spills individually and showed better biodegradation abilities when they are used together in mixed consortium.

  17. Bacterial Biodegradation of Crude Oil Using Local Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wasify, Raed S; Hamed, Shimaa R

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to assess the efficiency of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis, and Acinetobacter lwoffi isolated from petroleum contaminated water and soil samples to degrade crude oil, separately and in a mixed bacterial consortium. Capillary gas chromatography was used for testing the effect of those bacterial species on the biodegradation of crude oil. Individual bacterial cultures showed less growth and degradation than did the mixed bacterial consortium. At temperature 22°C, the mixed bacterial consortium degraded a maximum of 88.5% of Egyptian crude oil after 28 days of incubation. This was followed by 77.8% by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 76.7% by Bacillus subtilis, and 74.3% by Acinetobacter lwoffi. The results demonstrated that the selected bacterial isolates could be effective in biodegradation of oil spills individually and showed better biodegradation abilities when they are used together in mixed consortium.

  18. Lipoproteins of Bacterial Pathogens▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs-Simon, A.; Titball, R. W.; Michell, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial lipoproteins are a set of membrane proteins with many different functions. Due to this broad-ranging functionality, these proteins have a considerable significance in many phenomena, from cellular physiology through cell division and virulence. Here we give a general overview of lipoprotein biogenesis and highlight examples of the roles of lipoproteins in bacterial disease caused by a selection of medically relevant Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Neisseria meningitidis. Lipoproteins have been shown to play key roles in adhesion to host cells, modulation of inflammatory processes, and translocation of virulence factors into host cells. As such, a number of lipoproteins have been shown to be potential vaccines. This review provides a summary of some of the reported roles of lipoproteins and of how this knowledge has been exploited in some cases for the generation of novel countermeasures to bacterial diseases. PMID:20974828

  19. Considerations on bacterial nucleoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo-Siota, Lucía; Rama, José Luis R; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2017-07-01

    The classic genome organization of the bacterial chromosome is normally envisaged with all its genetic markers linked, thus forming a closed genetic circle of duplex stranded DNA (dsDNA) and several proteins in what it is called as "the bacterial nucleoid." This structure may be more or less corrugated depending on the physiological state of the bacterium (i.e., resting state or active growth) and is not surrounded by a double membrane as in eukayotic cells. The universality of the closed circle model in bacteria is however slowly changing, as new data emerge in different bacterial groups such as in Planctomycetes and related microorganisms, species of Borrelia, Streptomyces, Agrobacterium, or Phytoplasma. In these and possibly other microorganisms, the existence of complex formations of intracellular membranes or linear chromosomes is typical; all of these situations contributing to weakening the current cellular organization paradigm, i.e., prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells.

  20. Studying bacterial multispecies biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Henriette Lyng; Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Burmølle, Mette

    2016-01-01

    the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the benefits......, but the identity and significance of interspecies bacterial interactions is neglected in these analyses. There is therefore an urgent need for bridging the gap between metagenomic analysis and in vitro models suitable for studies of bacterial interactions.Bacterial interactions and coadaptation are important...... at the microscale of complex communities, including biofilms.Studies of multispecies biofilms and the interactions shaping these are conducted in traditional approaches used for single-species biofilms with some adjustments; but a crucial point for consideration is which strains to combine and where these should...

  1. Diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Slobodanka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis is a common, complex clinical syndrome characterized by alterations in the normal vaginal flora. When symptomatic, it is associated with a malodorous vaginal discharge and on occasion vaginal burning or itching. Under normal conditions, lactobacilli constitute 95% of the bacteria in the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is associated with severe reduction or absence of the normal H2O2­producing lactobacilli and overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria and Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae, Mycoplasma hominis and Mobiluncus species. Most types of infectious disease are diagnosed by culture, by isolating an antigen or RNA/DNA from the microbe, or by serodiagnosis to determine the presence of antibodies to the microbe. Therefore, demonstration of the presence of an infectious agent is often a necessary criterion for the diagnosis of the disease. This is not the case for bacterial vaginosis, since the ultimate cause of the disease is not yet known. There are a variety of methods for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis but no method can at present be regarded as the best. Diagnosing bacterial vaginosis has long been based on the clinical criteria of Amsel, whereby three of four defined criteria must be satisfied. Nugent’s scoring system has been further developed and includes validation of the categories of observable bacteria structures. Up­to­date molecular tests are introduced, and better understanding of vaginal microbiome, a clear definition for bacterial vaginosis, and short­term and long­term fluctuations in vaginal microflora will help to better define molecular tests within the broader clinical context.

  2. Bacterial selection by mycospheres of Atlantic Rainforest mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Joshua Andrew; de Cássia Pereira E Silva, Michele; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    2016-10-01

    This study focuses on the selection exerted on bacterial communities in the mycospheres of mushrooms collected in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. A total of 24 paired samples (bulk soil vs. mycosphere) were assessed to investigate potential interactions between fungi and bacteria present in fungal mycospheres. Prevalent fungal families were identified as Marasmiaceae and Lepiotaceae (both Basidiomycota) based on ITS partial sequencing. We used culture-independent techniques to analyze bacterial DNA from soil and mycosphere samples. Bacterial communities in the samples were distinguished based on overall bacterial, alphaproteobacterial, and betaproteobacterial PCR-DGGE patterns, which were different in fungi belonging to different taxa. These results were confirmed by pyrosequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene (based on five bulk soil vs. mycosphere pairs), which revealed the most responsive bacterial families in the different conditions generated beneath the mushrooms, identified as Bradyrhizobiaceae, Burkholderiaceae, and Pseudomonadaceae. The bacterial families Acetobacteraceae, Chrhoniobacteraceae, Planctomycetaceae, Conexibacteraceae, and Burkholderiaceae were found in all mycosphere samples, composing the core mycosphere microbiome. Similarly, some bacterial groups identified as Koribacteriaceae, Acidobacteria (Solibacteriaceae) and an unclassified group of Acidobacteria were preferentially present in the bulk soil samples (found in all of them). In this study we depict the mycosphere effect exerted by mushrooms inhabiting the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, and identify the bacteria with highest response to such a specific niche, possibly indicating the role bacteria play in mushroom development and dissemination within this yet-unexplored environment.

  3. Bacterial blight of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aïda JALLOUL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial blight of cotton (Gossypium ssp., caused by Xanthomonas citri pathovar malvacearum, is a severe disease occurring in all cotton-growing areas. The interactions between host plants and the bacteria are based on the gene-for-gene concept, representing a complex resistance gene/avr gene system. In light of the recent data, this review focuses on the understanding of these interactions with emphasis on (1 the genetic basis for plant resistance and bacterial virulence, (2 physiological mechanisms involved in the hypersensitive response to the pathogen, including hormonal signaling, the oxylipin pathway, synthesis of antimicrobial molecules and alteration of host cell structures, and (3 control of the disease.

  4. Bacterial meningitis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lawrence C; Boggess, Kim A; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Neonatal bacterial meningitis is uncommon but devastating. Morbidity among survivors remains high. The types and distribution of pathogens are related to gestational age, postnatal age, and geographic region. Confirming the diagnosis is difficult. Clinical signs are often subtle, lumbar punctures are frequently deferred, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures can be compromised by prior antibiotic exposure. Infants with bacterial meningitis can have negative blood cultures and normal CSF parameters. Promising tests such as the polymerase chain reaction require further study. Prompt treatment with antibiotics is essential. Clinical trials investigating a vaccine for preventing neonatal Group B Streptococcus infections are ongoing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Periodontopathogens in the saliva and subgingival dental plaque of a group of mothers Periodontopatógenos na saliva e placa subgengival de um grupo de mães

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odila Pereira da Silva Rosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the periodontal condition and the presence of putative periodontal pathogens in 30 Brazilian mothers, aging 21-40 years (28.4 ± 4.49 years, and in their children, aging 5-6 years, since mothers can be a source of pathogens and, thus, influence their children's bacteriological and clinical condition. Besides assessing the plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI and pocket probing depth (PD, the survey analyzed four subgingival dental plaque samples from mothers and children, as well as a sample of stimulated saliva from mothers. Those samples were analyzed by means of the slot immunoblot (SIB technique, in order to determine the presence of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, Prevotella nigrescens (Pn, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg and Treponema denticola (Td. The mean values and standard deviations of the evaluated clinical variables for mothers and children were, respectively: 1.86 ± 0.67 and 1.64 ± 0.68 for PI, and 1.24 ± 0.67 and 0.82 ± 0.37, for GI. Only for mothers, the total PD was 1.81 ± 0.69 mm, and the PD of four sites was 4.03 ± 1.40 mm. The Wilcoxon test revealed significant difference (p Procurou-se avaliar a condição periodontal e a presença de periodontopatógenos em 30 mães brasileiras, com idades entre 21-40 anos (28,4 ± 4,49 anos e seus filhos, com 5-6 anos de idade, considerando que elas possam ser fonte de transmissão para seus filhos e influenciar suas condições clínicas e bacteriológicas. Além de determinar o índice de placa (IP, índice gengival (IG de mães e filhos, e a profundidade de sondagem periodontal (PS, apenas das mães, avaliaram-se quatro amostras de placa dental subgengival de mães e filhos e uma amostra de saliva total estimulada das mães para a presença de Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa, Prevotella nigrescens (Pn, Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg e Treponema denticola (Td, pela técnica de "slot immunoblot" (SIB. As médias e desvios

  6. Prevalence of bacterial vaginosis among women in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, P; Chawla, Rohit; Garg, S; Singh, M M; Raina, U; Bhalla, Ruchira; Sodhanit, Pushpa

    2007-02-01

    Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of vaginal discharge among women in reproductive age. Surveillance studies on bacterial vaginosis are mostly based on specialist clinic settings. As few population-based prevalence surveys of bacterial vaginosis have been conducted, we studied the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis in the urban and rural communities in Delhi, and to associate the presence of bacterial vaginosis with demographic profile, risk factors and presence of other reproductive tract infections (RTIs)/ sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Vaginal specimens for Gram-stain evaluation of vaginal flora for diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis and culture of Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida spp, blood samples for HIV and syphilis serology, and urine for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis were collected from women (15-49 yr) from rural and urban areas. Information on demographic characteristics, risk factors and clinical symptoms was obtained. Bacterial vaginosis was diagnosed in 70 (32.8%) subjects. A high percentage though asymptomatic (31.2%) were found to have bacterial vaginosis. Highest prevalence was seen in urban slum (38.6%) followed by rural (28.8%) and urban middle class community (25.4%). All women with vaginal trichomoniasis were found to have bacterial vaginosis while 50 per cent of subjects having syphilis also had bacterial vaginosis.. The study showed high prevalence of bacterial vaginosis. The asymptomatic women having bacterial vaginosis are less likely to seek treatment for the morbidity and thus are more likely to acquire other STIs. Women attending various healthcare facilities should be screened and treated for bacterial vaginosis to reduce the risk of acquisition of other STIs.

  7. Bacterial contamination of mussels at Mahe estuary, Malabar coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Iyer, T.S.G.; Varma, P.R.G.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Mussel samples from the mussel bed and near-by market, beach sand, sediment and water from the Mahe Estuary, Kerala, India were analysed for the bacterial quality. Indicator bacteria such as Escherichia coli and faecal streptococci were isolated...

  8. Multiple bacterial species reside in chronic wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjødsbøl, Kristine; Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Karlsmark, Tonny

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the bacterial profile of chronic venous leg ulcers and the importance of the profile to ulcer development. Patients with persisting venous leg ulcers were included and followed for 8 weeks. Every second week, ulcer samples were collected and the bacterial...... of P. aeruginosa in venous leg ulcers can induce ulcer enlargement and/or cause delayed healing....... species present were identified. More than one bacterial species were detected in all the ulcers. The most common bacteria found were Staphylococcus aureus (found in 93.5% of the ulcers), Enterococcus faecalis (71.7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (52.2%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (45.7%), Proteus...

  9. BACTERIAL WATERBORNE PATHOGENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial pathogens are examples of classical etiological agents of waterborne disease. While these agents no longer serve as major threats to U.S. water supplies, they are still important pathogens in areas with substandard sanitation and poor water treatment facilities. In th...

  10. Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know - Af-Soomaali (Somali) PDF Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Spanish (español) Expand Section Bacterial Infections: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Infecciones bacterianas: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) ...

  11. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  12. Bacterial communities associated with the lichen symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Scott T; Cropsey, Garrett W G; Caporaso, J Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

    2011-02-01

    Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and "algae" (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N(2) fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N(2) fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses.

  13. Multilevel analysis of bacterial counts from chronic periodontitis after root planing/scaling, surgery, and systemic and local antibiotics: 2-year results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahimu Mdala

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To follow changes (over 2 years in subgingival bacterial counts of five microbial complexes including health-related Actinomyces spp. in deeper pockets (≥5 mm after periodontal treatments. Methods: Eight different treatments were studied: (1 scaling+root planing (SRP; (2 periodontal surgery (SURG+systemic amoxicillin (AMOX+systemic metronidazole (MET; (3 SURG+locally delivered tetracycline (TET; (4 SURG; (5 AMOX+MET+TET; (6 AMOX+MET; (7 TET; and (8 SURG+AMOX+MET+TET. Antibiotics were given immediately following SRP. Subgingival plaque was collected mesiobuccally from each tooth, except third molars, from 176 subjects, completing the study, at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-treatment and analysed for 40 different bacteria using checkerboard hybridization. A negative binomial (NB generalized estimating equation (NB GEE model was used to analyze count data and a logistic GEE was used for proportions. Results: We observed short-term beneficial changes in the composition of the red complex of up to 3 months by treating subjects with AMOX+MET+TET. Similar short-term improvements with the same treatment were observed for Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola of the red complex. SURG had also short-term beneficial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis. No periodontal treatments applied to severely affected sites promoted the growth of Actinomyces. Smoking elevated counts of both the red and orange complex while bleeding on probing (BOP and gingival redness were also predictors of more red complex counts. Comparatively similar findings were obtained by analyzing counts and by analyzing proportions. Conclusions: Although short-term reductions in the counts of the red complex were observed in sites that were treated with AMOX+MET+TET, long-term significant effects were not observed with any of the eight treatments. Poor oral hygiene in patients with severe chronic periodontitis diminished the beneficial effects of treatment.

  14. Molecular Analysis of Bacterial Microbiota on Brazilian Currency Note Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairacan Augusto Pereira da Fonseca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currency notes have been implicated as a vehicle for transmitting community-acquired bacterial infections. However, the overall diversity of the bacterial population residing on banknotes is still unknown in Brazil. In this study, we aimed to investigate the overall bacterial population from 150 different Brazilian Rial (R$ notes in circulation using a culture-independent Illumina massively parallel sequencing approach of the 16S rRNA genes. Samples were randomly collected from three different street markets or “feiras” in the metropolitan region of São Paulo. Taxonomical composition revealed the abundance of Proteobacteria phyla, followed by Firmicutes and Streptophyta, with a total of 1193 bacterial families and 3310 bacterial genera. Most of these bacterial genera are of human, animal, and environmental origins. Also, our analysis revealed the presence of some potential pathogenic bacterial genera including Salmonella, Staphylococcus, and Klebsiella. The results demonstrate that there is a tremendous diversity of bacterial contamination on currency notes, including organisms known to be opportunistic pathogens. One of the factors that may contribute to the richness of bacterial diversity in currency notes is personal hygiene. Thus, our results underscore the need to increase public awareness of the importance of personal hygiene of money handlers who also handle food.

  15. Bacterial Exposures and Associations with Atopy and Asthma in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkonen, Maria; Wouters, Inge M; Täubel, Martin; Rintala, Helena; Lenters, Virissa; Vasara, Ritva; Genuneit, Jon; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Piarroux, Renaud; von Mutius, Erika; Heederik, Dick; Hyvärinen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The increase in prevalence of asthma and atopic diseases in Western countries has been linked to aspects of microbial exposure patterns of people. It remains unclear which microbial aspects contribute to the protective farm effect. The objective of this study was to identify bacterial groups associated with prevalence of asthma and atopy, and to quantify indoor exposure to some of these bacterial groups. A DNA fingerprinting technique, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), was applied to mattress dust samples of farm children and control children in the context of the GABRIEL Advanced study. Associations between signals in DGGE and atopy, asthma and other allergic health outcomes were analyzed. Quantitative DNA based assays (qPCR) for four bacterial groups were applied on the dust samples to seek quantitative confirmation of associations indicated in DNA fingerprinting. Several statistically significant associations between individual bacterial signals and also bacterial diversity in DGGE and health outcomes in children were observed. The majority of these associations showed inverse relationships with atopy, less so with asthma. Also, in a subsequent confirmation study using a quantitative method (qPCR), higher mattress levels of specifically targeted bacterial groups - Mycobacterium spp., Bifidobacteriaceae spp. and two different clusters of Clostridium spp. - were associated with a lower prevalence of atopy. DNA fingerprinting proved useful in identifying bacterial signals that were associated with atopy in particular. These findings were quantitatively confirmed for selected bacterial groups with a second method. High correlations between the different bacterial exposures impede a clear attribution of protective effects to one specific bacterial group. More diverse bacterial flora in mattress dust may link to microbial exposure patterns that protect against development of atopic diseases.

  16. Distribution of periodontopathic bacterial species in Japanese children with developmental disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemoto Hirotoshi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent developments in molecular biological techniques have enabled rapid detection of periodontopathic bacterial species in clinical specimens. Accumulated evidence suggests that detection of specific bacterial species enables identification of subjects at high risk for the onset of periodontitis. We investigated the distribution of 10 selected periodontopathic bacterial species in dental plaque specimens obtained from children with disabilities who were attending daycare centers. Methods A total of 187 children (136 boys, 51 girls aged 1-6 years old and diagnosed with such disabilities as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, and autism, participated in the study. Subgingival dental plaque specimens were collected from the buccal side of the maxillary left second primary molar after a clinical examination. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the specimens and PCR analyses were carried out to detect 10 selected periodontopathic species using specific primers for each. In addition, statistical analyses were performed to analyze the correlations among clinical parameters and the detected species. Results The most frequently detected species was Capnocytophaga sputigena (28.3%, followed by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (20.9% and Campylobacter rectus (18.2%. Eikenella corrodens, Capnocytophaga ochracea, and Prevotella nigrescence were detected in approximately 10% of the specimens, whereas Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia were rarely found, and Porphyromonas gingivalis was not detected in any of the subjects. The total numbers of detected species were positively correlated with the age of the subjects. There were 10 subjects with positive reactions for T. denticola and/or T. forsythia, in whom the total number of bacterial species was significantly higher as compared to the other subjects. Furthermore, subjects possessing C. rectus showed significantly greater values for periodontal pocket

  17. Urban greenness influences airborne bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhuireach, Gwynne; Johnson, Bart R; Altrichter, Adam E; Ladau, Joshua; Meadow, James F; Pollard, Katherine S; Green, Jessica L

    2016-11-15

    Urban green space provides health benefits for city dwellers, and new evidence suggests that microorganisms associated with soil and vegetation could play a role. While airborne microorganisms are ubiquitous in urban areas, the influence of nearby vegetation on airborne microbial communities remains poorly understood. We examined airborne microbial communities in parks and parking lots in Eugene, Oregon, using high-throughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform to identify bacterial taxa, and GIS to measure vegetation cover in buffer zones of different diameters. Our goal was to explore variation among highly vegetated (parks) versus non-vegetated (parking lots) urban environments. A secondary objective was to evaluate passive versus active collection methods for outdoor airborne microbial sampling. Airborne bacterial communities from five parks were different from those of five parking lots (p=0.023), although alpha diversity was similar. Direct gradient analysis showed that the proportion of vegetated area within a 50m radius of the sampling station explained 15% of the variation in bacterial community composition. A number of key taxa, including several Acidobacteriaceae were substantially more abundant in parks, while parking lots had higher relative abundance of Acetobacteraceae. Parks had greater beta diversity than parking lots, i.e. individual parks were characterized by unique bacterial signatures, whereas parking lot communities tended to be similar to each other. Although parks and parking lots were selected to form pairs of nearby sites, spatial proximity did not appear to affect compositional similarity. Our results also showed that passive and active collection methods gave comparable results, indicating the "settling dish" method is effective for outdoor airborne sampling. This work sets a foundation for understanding how urban vegetation may impact microbial communities, with potential implications for designing

  18. Bacterial vaginosis in pregnant adolescents: proinflammatory cytokine and bacterial sialidase profile. Cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Sanitá Tafner Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Bacterial vaginosis occurs frequently in pregnancy and increases susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STI. Considering that adolescents are disproportionally affected by STI, the aim of this study was to evaluate the cervicovaginal levels of interleukin (IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and bacterial sialidase in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at mother and child referral units in Belém, Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Vaginal samples from 168 pregnant adolescents enrolled were tested for trichomoniasis and candidiasis. Their vaginal microbiota was classified according to the Nugent criteria (1991 as normal, intermediate or bacterial vaginosis. Cervical infection due to Chlamydia trachomatisand Neisseria gonorrhoeae was also assessed. Cytokine and sialidase levels were measured, respectively, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and MUAN conversion in cervicovaginal lavages. Forty-eight adolescents (28.6% were excluded because they tested positive for some of the infections investigated. The remaining 120 adolescents were grouped according to vaginal flora type: normal (n = 68 or bacterial vaginosis (n = 52. Their cytokine and sialidase levels were compared between the groups using the Mann-Whitney test (P < 0.05. RESULTS: The pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis had higher levels of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 (P < 0.05. Sialidase was solely detected in 35 adolescents (67.2% with bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSIONS: Not only IL-1 beta and sialidase levels, but also IL-6 and IL-8 levels are higher in pregnant adolescents with bacterial vaginosis, thus indicating that this condition elicits a more pronounced inflammatory response in this population, which potentially increases vulnerability to STI acquisition.

  19. Bacterial Genome Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmon, Elise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial genomes are remarkably stable from one generation to the next but are plastic on an evolutionary time scale, substantially shaped by horizontal gene transfer, genome rearrangement, and the activities of mobile DNA elements. This implies the existence of a delicate balance between the maintenance of genome stability and the tolerance of genome instability. In this review, we describe the specialized genetic elements and the endogenous processes that contribute to genome instability. We then discuss the consequences of genome instability at the physiological level, where cells have harnessed instability to mediate phase and antigenic variation, and at the evolutionary level, where horizontal gene transfer has played an important role. Indeed, this ability to share DNA sequences has played a major part in the evolution of life on Earth. The evolutionary plasticity of bacterial genomes, coupled with the vast numbers of bacteria on the planet, substantially limits our ability to control disease. PMID:24600039

  20. Carbohydrate mediated bacterial adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Roland J

    2011-01-01

    In the process of adhesion, bacteria often carry proteins on their surface, adhesins, that bind to specific components of tissue cells or the extracellular matrix. In many cases these components are carbohydrate structures. The carbohydrate binding specificities of many bacteria have been uncovered over the years. The design and synthesis of inhibitors of bacterial adhesion has the potential to create new therapeutics for the prevention and possibly treatment of bacterial infections. Unfortunately, the carbohydrate structures often bind only weakly to the adhesion proteins, although drug design approaches can improve the situation. Furthermore, in some cases linking carbohydrates covalently together, to create so-called multivalent systems, can also significantly enhance the inhibitory potency. Besides adhesion inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy, the adhesion proteins can also be used for detection. Novel methods to do this are being developed. These include the use of microarrays and glyconanoparticles. New developments in these areas are discussed.

  1. Adult bacterial meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, C N; Samuelsson, I S; Galle, M

    2004-01-01

    Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin susceptibi......Episodes of adult bacterial meningitis (ABM) at a Danish hospital in 1991-2000 were identified from the databases of the Department of Clinical Microbiology, and compared with data from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Notification System. Reduced penicillin...... susceptibility occurred in 21 (23%) of 92 cases of known aetiology, compared to an estimated 6% in nationally notified cases (p treatment was appropriate in 97% of ABM cases in the study population, and in 99.6% of nationally notified cases. The notification rate...... treatment for ABM should not be based exclusively on clinical notification systems with possible unbalanced under-reporting....

  2. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  3. Investigation of bacterial effects of Asian dust events through comparison with seasonal variability in outdoor airborne bacterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonguk; Ichijo, Tomoaki; Nasu, Masao; Yamaguchi, Nobuyasu

    2016-10-20

    Atmospheric bacterial dispersion with aeolian dust has been reported to have a potential impact on public health and ecosystems. Asian dust is a major aeolian event that results in an estimated 4 million tons of Asian dust particles falling in Japan annually, 3,000-5,000 km away from their source regions. However, most studies have only investigated the effects of Asian dust during dust seasons. Therefore, in this study, outdoor bacterial abundance and community composition were determined by 16S rRNA quantitative PCR and amplicon sequencing, respectively, and compared on Asian and non-Asian dust days (2013-2015; 44 samples over four seasons). Seasonal variations in bacterial abundance of non-Asian dust days were not observed. Bacterial abundance of individual samples collected on non-Asian dust days changed dynamically relative to Asian dust days, with bacterial abundance occasionally reaching those of Asian dust days. The bacterial community composition on non-Asian dust days was rather stable seasonally, and did not differ from that on Asian dust days. These results indicate that bacteria in Asian dust does not immediately influence indigenous bacterial communities at the phylum/class level in distant downwind areas; accordingly, further studies of bacterial communities in downwind areas closer to the dust source are warranted.

  4. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Hanning Chen; Yunlong Zhu; Kunyuan Hu

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO) is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how ...

  5. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

    2014-04-01

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

  6. Bacterial terpene cyclases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2016-01-01

    Covering: up to 2015. This review summarises the accumulated knowledge about characterised bacterial terpene cyclases. The structures of identified products and of crystallised enzymes are included, and the obtained insights into enzyme mechanisms are discussed. After a summary of mono-, sesqui- and diterpene cyclases the special cases of the geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol synthases that are both particularly widespread in bacteria will be presented. A total number of 63 enzymes that have been characterised so far is presented, with 132 cited references.

  7. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus eGarcias-Bonet

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes and leaves by DGGE. A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ and δ subclasses and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types.

  8. Combing bacterial turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Nishiguchi, Daiki; Aronson, Igor

    Living systems represented by ensembles of motile organisms demonstrate a transition from a chaotic motion to a highly ordered state. Examples of such living systems include suspensions of bacteria, schools of fish, flocks of birds and even crowds of people. In spite of significant differences in interacting mechanisms and motion scales, ordered living systems have many similarities: short-range alignment of organism, turbulent-like motion, emergence of large-scale flows and dynamic vortices. In this work, we rectify a turbulent dynamics in suspensions of swimming bacteria Bacillus subtilis by imposing periodical constraints on bacterial motion. Bacteria, swimming between periodically placed microscopic vertical pillars, may self-organize in a stable lattice of vortices. We demonstrate the emergence of a strong anti-ferromagnetic order of bacterial vortices in a rectangular lattice of pillars. Hydrodynamic interaction between vortices increases the stability of an emerged pattern. The highest stability of vortices in the anti-ferromagnetic lattice and the fastest vortices speed were observed in structures with the periods comparable with a correlation length of bacterial unconstrained motion. A.S and I.A were supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science And Engineering, under contract No. DE AC02-06CH11357 and D.N was supported by ALPS and JSPS Grant No. 26-9915.

  9. Adaptive Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a recently developed nature-inspired optimization algorithm, which is based on the foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. Up to now, BFO has been applied successfully to some engineering problems due to its simplicity and ease of implementation. However, BFO possesses a poor convergence behavior over complex optimization problems as compared to other nature-inspired optimization techniques. This paper first analyzes how the run-length unit parameter of BFO controls the exploration of the whole search space and the exploitation of the promising areas. Then it presents a variation on the original BFO, called the adaptive bacterial foraging optimization (ABFO, employing the adaptive foraging strategies to improve the performance of the original BFO. This improvement is achieved by enabling the bacterial foraging algorithm to adjust the run-length unit parameter dynamically during algorithm execution in order to balance the exploration/exploitation tradeoff. The experiments compare the performance of two versions of ABFO with the original BFO, the standard particle swarm optimization (PSO and a real-coded genetic algorithm (GA on four widely-used benchmark functions. The proposed ABFO shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  10. Airborne bacterial communities in residences: similarities and differences with fungi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel I Adams

    Full Text Available Genetic analysis of indoor air has uncovered a rich microbial presence, but rarely have both the bacterial and fungal components been examined in the same samples. Here we present a study that examined the bacterial component of passively settled microbes from both indoor and outdoor air over a discrete time period and for which the fungal component has already been reported. Dust was allowed to passively settle in five common locations around a home - living room, bedroom, bathroom, kitchen, and balcony - at different dwellings within a university-housing complex for a one-month period at two time points, once in summer and again in winter. We amplified the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in these samples and analyzed them with high-throughput sequencing. Like fungal OTU-richness, bacterial OTU-richness was higher outdoors then indoors and was invariant across different indoor room types. While fungal composition was structured largely by season and residential unit, bacterial composition varied by residential unit and room type. Bacteria from putative outdoor sources, such as Sphingomonas and Deinococcus, comprised a large percentage of the balcony samples, while human-associated taxa comprised a large percentage of the indoor samples. Abundant outdoor bacterial taxa were also observed indoors, but the reverse was not true; this is unlike fungi, in which the taxa abundant indoors were also well-represented outdoors. Moreover, there was a partial association of bacterial composition and geographic distance, such that samples separated by even a few hundred meters tended have greater compositional differences than samples closer together in space, a pattern also observed for fungi. These data show that while the outdoor source for indoor bacteria and fungi varies in both space and time, humans provide a strong and homogenizing effect on indoor bacterial bioaerosols, a pattern not observed in fungi.

  11. Aislamientos bacterianos de muestras respiratorias de pacientes pediátricos con fibrosis quística y su distribución por edades Bacterial isolates from respiratory samples of pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis and their distribution by ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia P Busquets

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Se investigaron los microorganismos aislados de muestras respiratorias de 50 pacientes pediátricos con fibrosis quística. Se analizó la distribución por edades y se examinó la resistencia a los antimicrobianos, la intermitencia de los aislamientos y la presencia de coinfecciones. Se aisló Staphylococcus aureus en el 72 % de los pacientes, seguido de Pseudomonas aeruginosa (58 %, Haemophilus influenzae (56 % y complejo Burkholderia cepacia (12 %. Encontramos baja frecuencia de aislamientos de P. aeruginosa resistentes a los antibióticos p-lactámicos (13,8 %. El 50,0 % de S. aureus fue resistente a la meticilina. El 57,1 % de H. influenzae fue resistente a la ampicilina por producción de ß-lactamasa. En niños menores de 4 años predominó S. aureus, seguido de P. aeruginosa y H. influenzae. Este orden se observó en todos los grupos etarios analizados, excepto en el de los niños de 10 a 14 años. Los aislamientos de Stenotrophomonas maltophilia y Achromobacter xylosoxidans fueron intermitentes y estuvieron acompañados por otros microorganismos. En suma, en este estudio observamos una gran variedad de especies bacterianas, lo que impone la necesidad de realizar rigurosos estudios microbiológicos en los materiales respiratorios de estos pacientes.The bacterial isolates from respiratory samples of 50 pediatric patients with cystic fibrosis, their distribution by ages and antimicrobial resistance pattern as well as the intermittence of isolations and coinfections, were investigated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 72 % of patients, followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (58 %, Haemophilus. influenzae (56 %, and the Burkholderia cepacia complex (12 %. The frequency of resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to ß-lactam antibiotics was low (13.8 %. Fifty percent of S. aureus isolates was methicillin-resistant, and 57.1 % of H. influenza was ampicillin-resistant due to ß-lactamase production. In children under 4 years-old, S. aureus was

  12. Bacterial Isolates from Blood Samples of Patients in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1ml of venous blood was aseptically inoculated into two blood culture bottles, brain heart infusion broth and thioglycollate broth while giving great attention to sterile process. They were incubated overnight at 37 C and were examined daily for growth. Growth is usually characterized by gas bubbles or turbidity. If there was ...

  13. Bacterial Isolates from Blood Samples of Patients in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thioglychollate broth was sub cultured onto blood agar plate for anaerobic incubation, while the brain heart infusion broth was sub cultured onto chocolate, blood agar and McConkey agar for aerobic incubation. The anaerobic incubation was done by putting the culture plates into an anaerobic jar and filling it with ...

  14. Severity of meningococcal disease associated with genomic bacterial load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darton, Tom; Guiver, Malcolm; Naylor, Simone; Jack, Dominic L; Kaczmarski, Edward B; Borrow, Raymond; Read, Robert C

    2009-03-01

    Diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of Neisseria meningitidis has enabled accurate quantification of the bacterial load in patients with meningococcal disease. Quantification of the N. meningitidis DNA level by real time-PCR was conducted on whole-blood samples obtained from patients presenting with meningococcal disease to hospitals throughout England and Wales over a 3-year period. Levels were correlated with clinical outcome, infecting serogroup, and host factors including, interleukin-1 genotype (IL-1). Bacterial loads were available for 1045 patients and were not associated with the age of the patient, delay in sample submission, or administration of antibiotics prior to admission. The median log bacterial load was higher in 95 patients who died (5.29 log(10)copies/mL; interquartile range, 4.41-6.30 log(10)copies/mL) than in 950 patients who survived (3.79 log(10)copies/mL; interquartile range, 2.87-4.71 log(10)copies/mL). Logistic regression revealed that age (odds ratio, 1.04 per 1-year increase in age) and bacterial load (odds ratio, 2.04 per log(10)-copies/mL increase) had a statistically significant effect on the risk of death. Infection with N. meningitidis serogroup C was associated with increased risk of death and an increased bacterial load. Also associated with a higher bacterial load were prolonged hospitalization (duration, >10 days); digit, limb, or soft-tissue loss; and requirement of hemodialysis. Carriage of IL-1RN(+2018) was associated with increased mortality (odds ratio, 2.14; P=.07) but not with a higher bacterial load. In meningococcal disease, bacterial load is associated with likelihood of death, development of permanent disease sequelae, and prolonged hospitalization. The bacterial load was relatively higher in patients infected with N. meningitidis serogroup C than in those infected with other serogroups. The effects of age and IL-1 genotype on mortality are independent of a high genomic bacterial load.

  15. Radiology of bacterial pneumonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, Jose E-mail: vilar_jlu@gva.es; Domingo, Maria Luisa; Soto, Cristina; Cogollos, Jonathan

    2004-08-01

    Bacterial pneumonia is commonly encountered in clinical practice. Radiology plays a prominent role in the evaluation of pneumonia. Chest radiography is the most commonly used imaging tool in pneumonias due to its availability and excellent cost benefit ratio. CT should be used in unresolved cases or when complications of pneumonia are suspected. The main applications of radiology in pneumonia are oriented to detection, characterisation and follow-up, especially regarding complications. The classical classification of pneumonias into lobar and bronchial pneumonia has been abandoned for a more clinical classification. Thus, bacterial pneumonias are typified into three main groups: Community acquired pneumonia (CAD), Aspiration pneumonia and Nosocomial pneumonia (NP).The usual pattern of CAD is that of the previously called lobar pneumonia; an air-space consolidation limited to one lobe or segment. Nevertheless, the radiographic patterns of CAD may be variable and are often related to the causative agent. Aspiration pneumonia generally involves the lower lobes with bilateral multicentric opacities. Nosocomial Pneumonia (NP) occurs in hospitalised patients. The importance of NP is related to its high mortality and, thus, the need to obtain a prompt diagnosis. The role of imaging in NP is limited but decisive. The most valuable information is when the chest radiographs are negative and rule out pneumonia. The radiographic patterns of NP are very variable, most commonly showing diffuse multifocal involvement and pleural effusion. Imaging plays also an important role in the detection and evaluation of complications of bacterial pneumonias. In many of these cases, especially in hospitalised patients, chest CT must be obtained in order to better depict these associate findings.

  16. Biosensors for Whole-Cell Bacterial Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, Jo V.; Hirst, Natalie A.; Millner, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial pathogens are important targets for detection and identification in medicine, food safety, public health, and security. Bacterial infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In spite of the availability of antibiotics, these infections are often misdiagnosed or there is an unacceptable delay in diagnosis. Current methods of bacterial detection rely upon laboratory-based techniques such as cell culture, microscopic analysis, and biochemical assays. These procedures are time-consuming and costly and require specialist equipment and trained users. Portable stand-alone biosensors can facilitate rapid detection and diagnosis at the point of care. Biosensors will be particularly useful where a clear diagnosis informs treatment, in critical illness (e.g., meningitis) or to prevent further disease spread (e.g., in case of food-borne pathogens or sexually transmitted diseases). Detection of bacteria is also becoming increasingly important in antibioterrorism measures (e.g., anthrax detection). In this review, we discuss recent progress in the use of biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells for sensitive and earlier identification of bacteria without the need for sample processing. There is a particular focus on electrochemical biosensors, especially impedance-based systems, as these present key advantages in terms of ease of miniaturization, lack of reagents, sensitivity, and low cost. PMID:24982325

  17. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome....

  18. Identification of a novel bacterial outer membrane interleukin-1Β-binding protein from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamari Paino

    Full Text Available Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is a gram-negative opportunistic oral pathogen. It is frequently associated with subgingival biofilms of both chronic and aggressive periodontitis, and the diseased sites of the periodontium exhibit increased levels of the proinflammatory mediator interleukin (IL-1β. Some bacterial species can alter their physiological properties as a result of sensing IL-1β. We have recently shown that this cytokine localizes to the cytoplasm of A. actinomycetemcomitans in co-cultures with organotypic gingival mucosa. However, current knowledge about the mechanism underlying bacterial IL-1β sensing is still limited. In this study, we characterized the interaction of A. actinomycetemcomitans total membrane protein with IL-1β through electrophoretic mobility shift assays. The interacting protein, which we have designated bacterial interleukin receptor I (BilRI, was identified through mass spectrometry and was found to be Pasteurellaceae specific. Based on the results obtained using protein function prediction tools, this protein localizes to the outer membrane and contains a typical lipoprotein signal sequence. All six tested biofilm cultures of clinical A. actinomycetemcomitans strains expressed the protein according to phage display-derived antibody detection. Moreover, proteinase K treatment of whole A. actinomycetemcomitans cells eliminated BilRI forms that were outer membrane specific, as determined through immunoblotting. The protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli in both the outer membrane-associated form and a soluble cytoplasmic form. When assessed using flow cytometry, the BilRI-overexpressing E. coli cells were observed to bind 2.5 times more biotinylated-IL-1β than the control cells, as detected with avidin-FITC. Overexpression of BilRI did not cause binding of a biotinylated negative control protein. In a microplate assay, soluble BilRI bound to IL-1β, but this binding was not specific, as a control

  19. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  20. Bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis and dental implant failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Dingsdag

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. Objective: To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. Methods and results: The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation. The bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified. Samples yielding sufficient polymerase chain reaction product for further molecular analyses were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; 31 samples and next generation DNA sequencing (454 GS FLX Titanium; 8 samples. T-RFLP analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in diseased tissues were more similar to each other (p<0.049 than those from the healthy reference samples. Next generation sequencing detected 13 bacterial phyla and 373 putative bacterial species, revealing an increased abundance of Gram-negative [Prevotella, Fusobacterium (p<0.004, Treponema, Veillonellaceae, TG5 (Synergistetes] bacteria and a decreased abundance of Gram-positive [(Actinomyces, Corynebacterium (p<0.008] bacteria in the diseased tissue samples (n=5 relative to reference supragingival healthy samples (n=3. Conclusion: Increased abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium and TG5 (Synergistetes were associated with apical periodontitis and a failed implant. A larger sample set is needed to confirm these trends and to better define the processes of bacterial pathogenesis in implant failure and apical periodontitis. The application of combined culture-based, microscopic and molecular technique-based approaches is suggested for future studies.

  1. Bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis and dental implant failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingsdag, Simon; Nelson, Stephen; Coleman, Nicholas V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Previously, we demonstrated that bacteria reside in apparently healed alveolar bone, using culture and Sanger sequencing techniques. Bacteria in apparently healed alveolar bone may have a role in peri-implantitis and dental implant failure. Objective To compare bacterial communities associated with apical periodontitis, those colonising a failed implant and alveolar bone with reference biofilm samples from healthy teeth. Methods and results The study consisted of 196 samples collected from 40 patients undergoing routine dental implant insertion or rehabilitation. The bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA sequences were amplified. Samples yielding sufficient polymerase chain reaction product for further molecular analyses were subjected to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP; 31 samples) and next generation DNA sequencing (454 GS FLX Titanium; 8 samples). T-RFLP analysis revealed that the bacterial communities in diseased tissues were more similar to each other (p<0.049) than those from the healthy reference samples. Next generation sequencing detected 13 bacterial phyla and 373 putative bacterial species, revealing an increased abundance of Gram-negative [Prevotella, Fusobacterium (p<0.004), Treponema, Veillonellaceae, TG5 (Synergistetes)] bacteria and a decreased abundance of Gram-positive [(Actinomyces, Corynebacterium (p<0.008)] bacteria in the diseased tissue samples (n=5) relative to reference supragingival healthy samples (n=3). Conclusion Increased abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium and TG5 (Synergistetes) were associated with apical periodontitis and a failed implant. A larger sample set is needed to confirm these trends and to better define the processes of bacterial pathogenesis in implant failure and apical periodontitis. The application of combined culture-based, microscopic and molecular technique-based approaches is suggested for future studies. PMID:27834171

  2. Animal Models of Bacterial Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquart, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial keratitis is a disease of the cornea characterized by pain, redness, inflammation, and opacity. Common causes of this disease are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Animal models of keratitis have been used to elucidate both the bacterial factors and the host inflammatory response involved in the disease. Reviewed herein are animal models of bacterial keratitis and some of the key findings in the last several decades. PMID:21274270

  3. Animal Models of Bacterial Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Marquart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial keratitis is a disease of the cornea characterized by pain, redness, inflammation, and opacity. Common causes of this disease are Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Animal models of keratitis have been used to elucidate both the bacterial factors and the host inflammatory response involved in the disease. Reviewed herein are animal models of bacterial keratitis and some of the key findings in the last several decades.

  4. Prevalence of "non-oral" pathogenic bacteria in subgingival biofilm of subjects with chronic periodontitis Prevalência de bactérias patogênicas "não-orais" no biofilme dental subgengival de pacientes com periodontite crônica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Souto

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The oral cavity may act as a reservoir for several pathogens related to systemic infections. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and levels of pathogenic bacteria in the subgingival biofilm of chronic periodontitis lesions and healthy periodontal sites using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. 200 samples of subgingival biofilm from sites with periodontitis (probing pocket depth > 4 mm and /or clinical attachment level > 4 mm and 200 samples from healthy sites of 14 patients with chronic periodontitis, as well as 200 samples from 3 periodontally healthy patients were obtained. The presence and levels of 11 pathogenic bacteria were determined using whole genomic DNA probes and the checkerboard method, computed for each site and then across sites within each subject group. Significance of differences in clinical and microbiological parameters among groups were examinated using the Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon sign tests. The predominant species in all 600 samples included Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus,Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli. In general, most of the species were detected in greater prevalence and levels in sites with and without disease from patients with periodontitis in comparison to the periodontally healthy group. In particular, C. diphtheriae, E. coli, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus were significantly more prevalent and detected in higher counts in diseased sites of patients with periodontal disease compared to healthy subjects (p Apesar da extensa literatura sobre a associação de bactérias orais e doenças sistêmicas, tem se dado pouca atenção à cavidade oral como um reservatório de bactérias patogênicas "não-orais". A microbiota oral é constituída de mais de 300 espécies bacterianas já caracterizadas, além de organismos não cultiváveis que vêm sendo descobertos através de técnicas moleculares. O

  5. Analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigated the changes of bacterial community composition including bacterial pathogens along a biogas plant, i.e. from the influent, to the biogas reactor and to the post-digester. The effects of post-digestion temperature and time on the changes of bacterial community composition and bacterial pathogens were also studied. Microbial analysis was made by Ion Torrent sequencing of the PCR amplicons from ethidium monoazide treated samples, and ethidium monoazide was used to cleave DNA from dead cells and exclude it from PCR amplification. Both similarity and taxonomic analysis showed that the bacterial community composition in the influent was changed after anaerobic digestion. Firmicutes were dominant in all the samples, while Proteobacteria decreased in the biogas reactor compared with the influent. Variations of bacterial community composition in the biogas reactor with time were also observed. This could be attributed to varying composition of the influent. Batch experiments showed that the methane recovery from the digested residues (obtained from biogas reactor) was mainly related with post-digestion temperature. However, post-digestion time rather than temperature had a significant effect on the changes of bacterial community composition. The changes of bacterial community composition were also reflected in the changes of relative abundance of bacterial pathogens. The richness and relative abundance of bacterial pathogens were reduced after anaerobic digestion in the biogas reactor. It was found in batch experiments that bacterial pathogens showed the highest relative abundance and richness after 30 days' post-digestion. Streptococcus bovis was found in all the samples. Our results showed that special attention should be paid to the post-digestion since the increase in relative abundance of bacterial pathogens after post-digestion might reflect regrowth of bacterial pathogens and limit biosolids disposal vectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  6. Semen bacterial flora of Rhode Island Breeder cocks in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The semen used in this study was collected from 77 Rhode Island Breeder cocks reared in battery cages under intensive management from a private farm in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria using the back massage procedure, 27 of the 77 semen samples (35.1%) contained bacterial isolates. None of the samples grew fungi.

  7. Solid-state NMR for bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, Courtney; Cegelski, Lynette

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria associate with surfaces and one another by elaborating an extracellular matrix to encapsulate cells, creating communities termed biofilms. Biofilms are beneficial in some ecological niches, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of serious and chronic infectious diseases. New approaches and quantitative measurements are needed to define the composition and architecture of bacterial biofilms to help drive the development of strategies to interfere with biofilm assembly. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is uniquely suited to the examination of insoluble and complex macromolecular and whole-cell systems. This article highlights three examples that implement solid-state NMR to deliver insights into bacterial biofilm composition and changes in cell-wall composition as cells transition to the biofilm lifestyle. Most recently, solid-state NMR measurements provided a total accounting of the protein and polysaccharide components in the extracellular matrix of an Escherichia coli biofilm and transformed our qualitative descriptions of matrix composition into chemical parameters that permit quantitative comparisons among samples. We present additional data for whole biofilm samples (cells plus the extracellular matrix) that complement matrix-only analyses. The study of bacterial biofilms by solid-state NMR is an exciting avenue ripe with many opportunities and we close the article by articulating some outstanding questions and future directions in this area.

  8. Biosensors of bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlage, Robert S; Tillmann, Joshua

    2017-07-01

    Biosensors are devices which utilize both an electrical component (transducer) and a biological component to study an environment. They are typically used to examine biological structures, organisms and processes. The field of biosensors has now become so large and varied that the technology can often seem impenetrable. Yet the principles which underlie the technology are uncomplicated, even if the details of the mechanisms are elusive. In this review we confine our analysis to relatively current advancements in biosensors for the detection of whole bacterial cells. This includes biosensors which rely on an added labeled component and biosensors which do not have a labeled component and instead detect the binding event or bound structure on the transducer. Methods to concentrate the bacteria prior to biosensor analysis are also described. The variety of biosensor types and their actual and potential uses are described. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Bacterial microsystems and microrobots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Sylvain

    2012-12-01

    Microorganisms and specifically motile bacteria have been recently added to the list of micro-actuators typically considered for the implementation of microsystems and microrobots. Such trend has been motivated by the fact these microorganisms are self-powered actuators with overall sizes at the lower end of the micrometer range and which have proven to be extremely effective in low Reynolds number hydrodynamic regime of usually less than 10(-2). Furthermore, the various sensors or taxes in bacteria influencing their movements can also be exploited to perform tasks that were previously considered only for futuristic artificial microrobots. Bacterial implementations and related issues are not only reviewed, but this paper also proposes many techniques and approaches that can be considered as building blocks for the implementations of more sophisticated microsystems and microrobots.

  10. Anaerobes in bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four hundred high vaginal swabs were taken from patients attending gynaecology and obstetrics department of Govt. medical college, Amritsar. The patients were divided into four groups i.e. women in pregnancy (Group I, in labour/post partum (Group II, with abnormal vaginal discharge or bacterial vaginosis (Group III and asymptomatic women as control (Group IV. Anaerobic culture of vaginal swabs revealed that out of 400 cases, 212(53% were culture positive. Maximum isolation of anaerobes was in group III (84% followed by group II (56%, group I (36% and control group (15%. Gram positive anaerobes (69.2% out numbered gram negatives (30.8%. Among various isolates Peptostreptococcus spp. and Bacteroides spp. were predominant.

  11. Soil bacterial community responses to global changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmark, Lasse

    ’ of climate change manipulations on soil microorganisms and nutrient availability in a Danish heathland, where the samples were taken shortly after a prolonged pre-summer drought. The major findings in the study are that warming increased measures of fungi and bacteria and drought might shift/change...... the bacterial soil population. The thesis addresses the effects of different global change manipulations on the soil microbial community composition (climate change in Manuscript 1-4 and unconventional urban fertilizers in Manuscript 5-6). A special emphasis was put on combining molecular techniques like 454...... the microbial community towards a higher fungal dominance. That could lead to a change in the carbon and nutrient flow in soil. In Manuscript 2 the impact of climate change manipulations and the seasonal dynamics of soil fungi and bacterial communities are investigated. Our results show that the soil fungal...

  12. Changes in rhizosphere bacterial gene expression following glyphosate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Molli M; Lorenz, Nicola; Hoilett, Nigel; Lee, Nathan R; Dick, Richard P; Liles, Mark R; Ramsier, Cliff; Kloepper, Joseph W

    2016-05-15

    In commercial agriculture, populations and interactions of rhizosphere microflora are potentially affected by the use of specific agrichemicals, possibly by affecting gene expression in these organisms. To investigate this, we examined changes in bacterial gene expression within the rhizosphere of glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) in response to long-term glyphosate (PowerMAX™, Monsanto Company, MO, USA) treatment. A long-term glyphosate application study was carried out using rhizoboxes under greenhouse conditions with soil previously having no history of glyphosate exposure. Rhizosphere soil was collected from the rhizoboxes after four growing periods. Soil microbial community composition was analyzed using microbial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Total RNA was extracted from rhizosphere soil, and samples were analyzed using RNA-Seq analysis. A total of 20-28 million bacterial sequences were obtained for each sample. Transcript abundance was compared between control and glyphosate-treated samples using edgeR. Overall rhizosphere bacterial metatranscriptomes were dominated by transcripts related to RNA and carbohydrate metabolism. We identified 67 differentially expressed bacterial transcripts from the rhizosphere. Transcripts downregulated following glyphosate treatment involved carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and upregulated transcripts involved protein metabolism and respiration. Additionally, bacterial transcripts involving nutrients, including iron, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, were also affected by long-term glyphosate application. Overall, most bacterial and all fungal PLFA biomarkers decreased after glyphosate treatment compared to the control. These results demonstrate that long-term glyphosate use can affect rhizosphere bacterial activities and potentially shift bacterial community composition favoring more glyphosate-tolerant bacteria. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Growth of bacterial phytopathogens in animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledz, Wojciech; Zoledowska, Sabina; Motyka, Agata; Kadziński, Leszek; Banecki, Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Animal manures are routinely applied to agricultural lands to improve crop yield, but the possibility to spread bacterial phytopathogens through field fertilization has not been considered yet. We monitored 49 cattle, horse, swine, sheep or chicken manure samples collected in 14 Polish voivodeships for the most important plant pathogenic bacteria - Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Erwinia amylovora (Eam), Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms) and Dickeya sp. (Dsp). All of the tested animal fertilizers were free of these pathogens. Subsequently, the growth dynamics of Pba, Pcc, Rsol, and Xcc in cattle, horse, swine, sheep and chicken manures sterilized either by autoclaving or filtration was evaluated. The investigated phytopathogens did not exhibit any growth in the poultry manure. However, the manure filtrates originating from other animals were suitable for microbial growth, which resulted in the optical density change of 0.03-0.22 reached within 26 h (48 h Rsol, 120 h Xcc), depending on bacterial species and the manure source. Pcc and Pba multiplied most efficiently in the cattle manure filtrate. These bacteria grew faster than Rsol and Xcc in all the tested manure samples, both the filtrates and the autoclaved semi-solid ones. Though the growth dynamics of investigated strains in different animal fertilizers was unequal, all of the tested bacterial plant pathogens were proven to use cattle, horse, swine and sheep manures as the sources of nutrients. These findings may contribute to further research on the alternative routes of spread of bacterial phytopathogens, especially because of the fact that the control of pectionolytic bacteria is only based on preventive methods.

  14. Comparison of bacterial communities in leachate from decomposing bovine carcasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hak Yang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Burial is associated with environmental effects such as the contamination of ground or surface water with biological materials generated during the decomposition process. Therefore, bacterial communities in leachates originating from the decomposing bovine carcasses were investigated. Methods To understand the process of bovine (Hanwoo carcass decomposition, we simulated burial using a lab-scale reactor with a volume of 5.15 m3. Leachate samples from 3 carcasses were collected using a peristaltic pump once a month for a period of 5 months, and bacterial communities in samples were identified by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Results We obtained a total of 110,442 reads from the triplicate samples of various sampling time points (total of 15 samples, and found that the phylum Firmicutes was dominant at most sampling times. Differences in the bacterial communities at the various time points were observed among the triplicate samples. The bacterial communities sampled at 4 months showed the most different compositions. The genera Pseudomonas and Psychrobacter in the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in all of the samples obtained after 3 months. Bacillaceae, Clostridium, and Clostridiales were found to be predominant after 4 months in the leachate from one carcass, whereas Planococcaceae was found to be a dominant in samples obtained at the first and second months from the other two carcasses. The results showed that potentially pathogenic microbes such as Clostridium derived from bovine leachate could dominate the soil environment of a burial site. Conclusion Our results indicated that the composition of bacterial communities in leachates of a decomposing bovine shifted continuously during the experimental period, with significant changes detected after 4 months of burial.

  15. Bacteriële meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M. C.; van de Beek, D.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a severe disease which affects 35.000 Europeans each year and has a mortality rate of about 20%. During the past 25 years the epidemiology of bacterial meningitis has changed significantly due to the implementation of vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria

  16. Bacterial biodiversity from Roopkund Glacier, Himalayan mountain ranges, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Suman; Srinivas, T N R; Pindi, Pavan Kumar; Kishore, K Hara; Begum, Z; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Pratibha, M S; Yasala, Arun K; Reddy, G S N; Shivaji, S

    2010-07-01

    The bacterial diversity of two soil samples collected from the periphery of the Roopkund glacial lake and one soil sample from the surface of the Roopkund Glacier in the Himalayan ranges was determined by constructing three 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. The three clone libraries yielded a total of 798 clones belonging to 25 classes. Actinobacteria was the most predominant class (>10% of the clones) in the three libraries. In the library from the glacial soil, class Betaproteobacteria (24.2%) was the most predominant. The rarefaction analysis indicated coverage of 43.4 and 41.2% in the samples collected from the periphery of the lake thus indicating a limited bacterial diversity covered; at the same time, the coverage of 98.4% in the glacier sample indicated most of the diversity was covered. Further, the bacterial diversity in the Roopkund glacier soil was low, but was comparable with the bacterial diversity of a few other glaciers. The results of principal component analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene clone library data, percentages of OTUs and biogeochemical data revealed that the lake soil samples were different from the glacier soil sample and the biogeochemical properties affected the diversity of microbial communities in the soil samples.

  17. Oral microbiome in chinese patients with aggressive periodontitis and their family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Feng, Xianghui; Xu, Li; Zhang, Li; Lu, Ruifang; Shi, Dong; Wang, Xiane; Chen, Feng; Li, Jie; Meng, Huanxin

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the microbiome composition in Chinese patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP), and to compare the similarity of bacterial profiles between AgP patients and their family members. Pooled subgingival plaque and saliva samples were collected from 10 AgP patients and 10 of their first-degree blood relatives with chronic periodontitis. DNA amplicons of the V1-V3 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated, and were subjected to 454-pyrosequencing. In subgingival plaque, the unweighted UniFrac distances between family members were significantly lower than those in unrelated participants (p = 0.039). Compared with the relatives, the microbiota of subgingival plaque and saliva from AgP patients revealed significantly lower taxonomic diversity. High relative abundance of Porphyromonas gingivalis (about 35.88%) was detected in subgingival plaque from AgP patients. The relative abundance of P. gingivalis and Red complex pathogens (P. gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Tannerella forsythia) in the subgingival plaque and saliva samples from the same individual were significantly correlated in AgP patients (ρ= 0.687 and 0.678, respectively). There is a kinship in the phylogenetic architecture of microbiota among Chinese AgP patients and their family members. P. gingivalis might be a predominant pathogen in these Chinese AgP patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Molecular approaches for bacterial azoreductases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montira Leelakriangsak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Azo dyes are the dominant types of synthetic dyes, widely used in textiles, foods, leather, printing, tattooing, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. Many microorganisms are able to decolorize azo dyes, and there is increasing interest in biological waste treatment methods. Bacterial azoreductases can cleave azo linkages (-N=N- in azo dyes, forming aromatic amines. This review mainly focuses on employing molecular approaches, including gene manipulation and recombinant strains, to study bacterial azoreductases. The construction of the recombinant protein by cloning and the overexpression of azoreductase is described. The mechanisms and function of bacterial azoreductases can be studied by other molecular techniques discussed in this review, such as RT-PCR, southern blot analysis, western blot analysis, zymography, and muta-genesis in order to understand bacterial azoreductase properties, function and application. In addition, understanding the regulation of azoreductase gene expression will lead to the systematic use of gene manipulation in bacterial strains for new strategies in future waste remediation technologies.

  19. Bacterial identification in the diagnostic laboratory: How much is enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B N Kootallur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major impetus for bacterial identification came after the advent of solid culture media. Morphological appearance of bacterial colonies was often sufficient for their identification in the laboratory. Even in modern times, preliminary identification of most cultivable bacteria is based on such morphological characters. Advances have been made media for the presumptive identifi cation of common organisms encountered in clinical samples. Phenotypic characterisation of bacteria with, physiological tests with a battery of biochemical tests differentiate related bacterial genera as well as confirm their identity. . Each laboratory can select its own method(s of identification, provided they are based on scientific / epidemiological evidence; clinical laboratory and standards institute (CLSI is a widely accepted organization and laboratories in many parts of the world follow its recommendations for bacterial identification. Some of the latest advances in identification include Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF is a state of art facility used for fast and reliable species-specific identification of bacteria including Mycobacteria and fungi including yeasts. However the single most important factor that decides the method of bacterial identification in any laboratory is the cost involved. In the final analysis, selection of tests for bacterial identification should be based on their standardization with proper scientific basis. Considering the cost and lack of easy availability of commercial kits, we have put forward a simplified and rapid method of identification for most commonly encountered bacterial pathogens causing human infection in India

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid ferritin in children with viral and bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, M; Mamishi, S; Mahmoudi, S; Pourakbari, B; Khotaei, G; Daneshjou, K; Hashemi, N

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that the prognosis of bacterial meningitis has been improved by the influence of antibiotics, this disease is still one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality in children. Rapid differentiation between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, and the need for immediate antibiotic treatment in the former, is crucial in the prognosis of these patients. Ferritin is one of the most sensitive biochemical markers investigated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the early diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic capability of CSF ferritin in differentiating bacterial and viral meningitis in the paediatric setting. A cross-sectional study was carried out in the referral Children's Medical Center Hospital, Tehran, during 2008 and 2009. According to the inclusion criteria, CSF samples from 42 patients with suspected meningitis were obtained and divided into two meningitis groups, bacterial (n = 18) and viral (n = 24). Ferritin and other routine determinants (i.e., leucocytes, protein and glucose) were compared between the two groups. Ferritin concentration in the bacterial meningitis group was 106.39 +/- 86.96 ng/dL, which was considerably higher than in the viral meningitis group (10.17 +/- 14.09, P meningitis group and showed a positive correlation with CSF ferritin. In conclusion, this study suggests that CSF ferritin concentration is an accurate test for the early differentiation of bacterial and aseptic meningitis; however, further investigation on a larger cohort of patients is required to confirm this finding.

  1. Predictive value of decoy receptor 3 in postoperative nosocomial bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Juan; Shao, Li-Hua; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Rui-Ping; Liu, Hai-Hong; Dong, Xiao-Meng; Ma, Li-Xian

    2014-11-03

    Nosocomial bacterial meningitis requires timely treatment, but what is difficult is the prompt and accurate diagnosis of this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) levels in the differentiation of bacterial meningitis from non-bacterial meningitis. A total of 123 patients were recruited in this study, among them 80 patients being with bacterial meningitis and 43 patients with non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis was confirmed by bacterial culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the level of DcR3 in CSF. CSF levels of DcR3 were statistically significant between patients with bacterial meningitis and those with non-bacterial meningitis (pbacterial meningitis received antibiotic>24 h before CSF sampling, which was much higher than that of non-bacterial meningitis. CSF leucocyte count yielded the highest diagnostic value, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of 0.928, followed by DcR3. At a critical value of 0.201 ng/mL for DcR3, the sensitivity and specificity were 78.75% and 81.40% respectively. DcR3 in CSF may be a valuable predictor for differentiating patients with bacterial meningitis from those with non-bacterial meningitis. Further studies are needed for the validation of this study.

  2. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  3. Application of Sub-Micrometer Vibrations to Mitigate Bacterial Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will R. Paces

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As a prominent concern regarding implantable devices, eliminating the threat of opportunistic bacterial infection represents a significant benefit to both patient health and device function. Current treatment options focus on chemical approaches to negate bacterial adhesion, however, these methods are in some ways limited. The scope of this study was to assess the efficacy of a novel means of modulating bacterial adhesion through the application of vibrations using magnetoelastic materials. Magnetoelastic materials possess unique magnetostrictive property that can convert a magnetic field stimulus into a mechanical deformation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that vibrational loads generated by the magnetoelastic materials significantly reduced the number of adherent bacteria on samples exposed to Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus suspensions. These experiments demonstrate that vibrational loads from magnetoelastic materials can be used as a post-deployment activated means to deter bacterial adhesion and device infection.

  4. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Samkar, Anusha; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; van der Ende, Arie; van de Beek, Diederik

    2016-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology, etiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, outcome, and prevention of zoonotic bacterial meningitis in human adults. We identified 16 zoonotic bacteria causing meningitis in adults. Zoonotic bacterial meningitis is uncommon compared to bacterial meningitis caused by

  5. Venous Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... neck to help locate abnormally functioning glands or pituitary adenoma . This test is most often used after an unsuccessful neck exploration. Inferior petrosal sinus sampling , in which blood samples are taken from veins that drain the pituitary gland to study disorders related to pituitary hormone ...

  6. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  7. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...

  8. Electromagnetism of Bacterial Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainiwaer, Ailiyasi

    2011-10-01

    There has been increasing concern from the public about personal health due to the significant rise in the daily use of electrical devices such as cell phones, radios, computers, GPS, video games and television. All of these devices create electromagnetic (EM) fields, which are simply magnetic and electric fields surrounding the appliances that simultaneously affect the human bio-system. Although these can affect the human system, obstacles can easily shield or weaken the electrical fields; however, magnetic fields cannot be weakened and can pass through walls, human bodies and most other objects. The present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of bacteria when exposed to magnetic fields. The results indicate that a strong causal relationship is not clear, since different magnetic fields affect the bacteria differently, with some causing an increase in bacterial cells, and others causing a decrease in the same cells. This phenomenon has yet to be explained, but the current study attempts to offer a mathematical explanation for this occurrence. The researchers added cultures to the magnetic fields to examine any effects to ion transportation. Researchers discovered ions such as potassium and sodium are affected by the magnetic field. A formula is presented in the analysis section to explain this effect.

  9. Evolution of Bacterial Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchernookov, Martin; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-03-01

    While active, controlled cellular suicide (autolysis) in bacteria is commonly observed, it has been hard to argue that autolysis can be beneficial to an individual who commits it. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that bacterial autolysis is evolutionarily advantageous to an individualand would fixate in physically structured environments for stationary phase colonies. We perform spatially resolved agent-based simulations of the model, which predict that lower mixing in the environment results in fixation of a higher autolysis rate from a single mutated cell, regardless of the colony's genetic diversity. We argue that quorum sensing will fixate as well, even if initially rare, if it is coupled to controlling the autolysis rate. The model does not predict a strong additional competitive advantage for cells where autolysis is controlled by quorum sensing systems that distinguish self from nonself. These predictions are broadly supported by recent experimental results in B. subtilisand S. pneumoniae. Research partially supported by the James S McDonnell Foundation grant No. 220020321 and by HFSP grant No. RGY0084/2011.

  10. Environmental sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-12-31

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation.

  11. Adjunctive Therapies for Bacterial Keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhil, Turki Abdulaziz Bin; Stone, Donald U; Gritz, David C

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial keratitis is the most common type among all types of infectious keratitis. Currently, antibiotics are the main-stay of treatment. The objective of this systematic review is to review published clinical studies which discuss the adjunctive treatment of bacterial keratitis to guide clinical decision-making. We reviewed the role of a variety of medications and surgeries which can help in managing bacterial keratitis complications, which include as thinning, perforation, and impaired wound healing. We have included appropriate animal and laboratory studies, case reports and case series, and randomized clinical trials regarding each therapy.

  12. Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing with electrokinetics enhanced biosensors for diagnosis of acute bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tingting; Lu, Yi; Gau, Vincent; Liao, Joseph C; Wong, Pak Kin

    2014-11-01

    Rapid pathogen detection and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are required in diagnosis of acute bacterial infections to determine the appropriate antibiotic treatment. Molecular approaches for AST are often based on the detection of known antibiotic resistance genes. Phenotypic culture analysis requires several days from sample collection to result reporting. Toward rapid diagnosis of bacterial infection in non-traditional healthcare settings, we have developed a rapid AST approach that combines phenotypic culture of bacterial pathogens in physiological samples and electrochemical sensing of bacterial 16S rRNA. The assay determines the susceptibility of pathogens by detecting bacterial growth under various antibiotic conditions. AC electrokinetic fluid motion and Joule heating induced temperature elevation are optimized to enhance the sensor signal and minimize the matrix effect, which improve the overall sensitivity of the assay. The electrokinetics enhanced biosensor directly detects the bacterial pathogens in blood culture without prior purification. Rapid determination of the antibiotic resistance profile of Escherichia coli clinical isolates is demonstrated.

  13. Structural Genomics of Bacterial Virulence Factors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liddington, Robert

    2004-01-01

    We are applying a comprehensive yet focused structural genomics approach to determine the atomic resolution crystal structures of key bacterial virulence factors from high priority bacterial pathogens...

  14. Molecular detection of human bacterial pathogens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Dongyou

    2011-01-01

    .... Molecular Detection of Human Bacterial Pathogens addresses this issue, with international scientists in respective bacterial pathogen research and diagnosis providing expert summaries on current...

  15. Elevating sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuz, Joseph M.; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Sampling – the process of collecting, preparing, and introducing an appropriate volume element (voxel) into a system – is often under appreciated and pushed behind the scenes in lab-on-a-chip research. What often stands in the way between proof-of-principle demonstrations of potentially exciting technology and its broader dissemination and actual use, however, is the effectiveness of sample collection and preparation. The power of micro- and nanofluidics to improve reactions, sensing, separation, and cell culture cannot be accessed if sampling is not equally efficient and reliable. This perspective will highlight recent successes as well as assess current challenges and opportunities in this area. PMID:24781100

  16. Controlling bacterial contamination of dental impression guns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergard, Eric J; Romito, Laura M; Kowolik, Michael J; Palenik, Charles John

    2011-11-01

    Dental impression material handgun cartridge dispensers are contaminated easily during clinical use. The authors attempted to quantify contamination by bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), of impression guns used in an academic dental clinic after five infection-prevention protocols were followed. The authors obtained samples from four commercially available impression guns at four specific sites (button, handle, latch, trigger) after routine clinical use, disinfection, steam sterilization (also known as autoclaving), steam sterilization followed by use of plastic impression gun covers and steam sterilization followed by use of plastic impression gun covers and disinfection. The authors found that after routine clinical use, bacteria-including MRSA-heavily contaminated the impression guns. After the impression guns underwent disinfection, there was a 6 percent decrease in bacterial counts. The use of steam sterilization achieved sterility without harming the impression guns. Use of steam-sterilized impression guns with plastic impression gun covers decreased bacterial isolates by approximately 60 percent. Use of steam-sterilized impression guns plus covers and disinfection resulted in an approximately 95 percent reduction in contamination. The use of common infection-prevention methods appears to reduce the bacterial counts, including those of MRSA. Bacterial contamination was lowest after steam sterilization, followed by the use of plastic impression gun covers and disinfection. Use of contaminated impression guns on successive patients could increase the risk of causing cross-transmission of disease. The use of sterilization, plus plastic impression gun covers and disinfection, for impression guns after each use could be an effective and practical infection-control method for dental practices.

  17. Watershed Urbanization Linked to Differences in Stream Bacterial Community Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob D. Hosen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization strongly influences headwater stream chemistry and hydrology, but little is known about how these conditions impact bacterial community composition. We predicted that urbanization would impact bacterial community composition, but that stream water column bacterial communities would be most strongly linked to urbanization at a watershed-scale, as measured by impervious cover, while sediment bacterial communities would correlate with environmental conditions at the scale of stream reaches. To test this hypothesis, we determined bacterial community composition in the water column and sediment of headwater streams located across a gradient of watershed impervious cover using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Alpha diversity metrics did not show a strong response to catchment urbanization, but beta diversity was significantly related to watershed impervious cover with significant differences also found between water column and sediment samples. Samples grouped primarily according to habitat—water column vs. sediment—with a significant response to watershed impervious cover nested within each habitat type. Compositional shifts for communities in urbanized streams indicated an increase in taxa associated with human activity including bacteria from the genus Polynucleobacter, which is widespread, but has been associated with eutrophic conditions in larger water bodies. Another indicator of communities in urbanized streams was an OTU from the genus Gallionella, which is linked to corrosion of water distribution systems. To identify changes in bacterial community interactions, bacterial co-occurrence networks were generated from urban and forested samples. The urbanized co-occurrence network was much smaller and had fewer co-occurrence events per taxon than forested equivalents, indicating a loss of keystone taxa with urbanization. Our results suggest that urbanization has significant impacts on the community composition

  18. Bacterial isolates from equine infections in western Canada (1998–2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Chris; Greenwood, Sarah; Boison, Joe O.; Chirino-Trejo, Manuel; Dowling, Patricia M.

    2008-01-01

    All bacterial samples of equine origin submitted to the diagnostic laboratory at the Western College of Veterinary Medicine from January 1998 to December 2003 from either “in-clinic” or Field Service cases were accessed (1323 submissions). The most common bacterial isolates from specific presenting signs were identified, along with their in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. The most common site from which significant bacterial isolates were recovered was the respiratory tract, foll...

  19. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbendieck, Reed M.; Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Straight, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities. PMID:27551280

  20. Acute bacterial prostatitis with osteomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargund, V H; Stewart, P A Hamilton

    1995-01-01

    This short case presentation concerns the simultaneous occurrence of acute bacterial prostatitis and osteomyelitis due to staphylococcal bacteraemia hitherto unrecorded in the literature. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:7629772

  1. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  2. Bacterial exchange in household washing machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eCallewaert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Household washing machines launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household washing machines. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the washing machine effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin- and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the washing machine. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering.

  3. Bacterial Exchange in Household Washing Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callewaert, Chris; Van Nevel, Sam; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Granitsiotis, Michael S; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Household washing machines (WMs) launder soiled clothes and textiles, but do not sterilize them. We investigated the microbial exchange occurring in five household WMs. Samples from a new cotton T-shirt were laundered together with a normal laundry load. Analyses were performed on the influent water and the ingoing cotton samples, as well as the greywater and the washed cotton samples. The number of living bacteria was generally not lower in the WM effluent water as compared to the influent water. The laundering process caused a microbial exchange of influent water bacteria, skin-, and clothes-related bacteria and biofilm-related bacteria in the WM. A variety of biofilm-producing bacteria were enriched in the effluent after laundering, although their presence in the cotton sample was low. Nearly all bacterial genera detected on the initial cotton sample were still present in the washed cotton samples. A selection for typical skin- and clothes-related microbial species occurred in the cotton samples after laundering. Accordingly, malodour-causing microbial species might be further distributed to other clothes. The bacteria on the ingoing textiles contributed for a large part to the microbiome found in the textiles after laundering.

  4. Effect of Environmental Variation on Estimating the Bacterial Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjian; Kuang, Jialiang; Jia, Pu; Cadotte, Marc W.; Huang, Linan; Li, Jintian; Liao, Bin; Wang, Pandeng; Shu, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the species richness of microorganisms is of great importance in predicting, maintaining and managing microbial communities. Although the roles of environmental heterogeneity and geographical distance in structuring soil microbial communities have been studied intensively, the effects of environmental and spatial variation on the species richness estimation have not been examined. To this end, we have explored their effects on estimating the belowground soil bacterial species richness within a 50 ha forest dynamic plot (FDP) using a published massive sequencing dataset with intensive sampling scheme. Our resampling analyses showed that, for a given sequencing depth, increasing the sample size could significantly enhance the detection of rare species by capturing more of the environmental and spatial variation, thus obtaining higher observed and estimated species richness. Additionally, the estimates of bacterial species richness were significantly and positively correlated with environmental variation among samples, indicating that environmental filtering was the main mechanism driving the processes of community assembly for belowground soil bacterial communities in the plot. Moreover, this effect of environmental variation could be markedly alleviated when the sample size was higher than 450, and thus we predicted that there were at least 42,866 soil bacterial species based on 8,296,878 sequences from 550 samples in the whole 50 ha FDP. Furthermore, we built a power law environmental heterogeneity equation (EHE) as a decision-tool to determine an approximate sample size for comprehensively capturing the environmental gradient within a given habitat. Collectively, this work further links the inherent environmental and spatial variation to the estimation of soil bacterial species richness within a given region, and provides a useful tool of sampling design for a better understanding of microbial biogeographic patterns and estimation of microbial

  5. Effect of Environmental Variation on Estimating the Bacterial Species Richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongjian; Kuang, Jialiang; Jia, Pu; Cadotte, Marc W; Huang, Linan; Li, Jintian; Liao, Bin; Wang, Pandeng; Shu, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Estimating the species richness of microorganisms is of great importance in predicting, maintaining and managing microbial communities. Although the roles of environmental heterogeneity and geographical distance in structuring soil microbial communities have been studied intensively, the effects of environmental and spatial variation on the species richness estimation have not been examined. To this end, we have explored their effects on estimating the belowground soil bacterial species richness within a 50 ha forest dynamic plot (FDP) using a published massive sequencing dataset with intensive sampling scheme. Our resampling analyses showed that, for a given sequencing depth, increasing the sample size could significantly enhance the detection of rare species by capturing more of the environmental and spatial variation, thus obtaining higher observed and estimated species richness. Additionally, the estimates of bacterial species richness were significantly and positively correlated with environmental variation among samples, indicating that environmental filtering was the main mechanism driving the processes of community assembly for belowground soil bacterial communities in the plot. Moreover, this effect of environmental variation could be markedly alleviated when the sample size was higher than 450, and thus we predicted that there were at least 42,866 soil bacterial species based on 8,296,878 sequences from 550 samples in the whole 50 ha FDP. Furthermore, we built a power law environmental heterogeneity equation (EHE) as a decision-tool to determine an approximate sample size for comprehensively capturing the environmental gradient within a given habitat. Collectively, this work further links the inherent environmental and spatial variation to the estimation of soil bacterial species richness within a given region, and provides a useful tool of sampling design for a better understanding of microbial biogeographic patterns and estimation of microbial

  6. Gene calling and bacterial genome annotation with BG7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobes, Raquel; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Manrique, Marina; Pareja-Tobes, Eduardo; Kovach, Evdokim; Alekhin, Alexey; Pareja, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    New massive sequencing technologies are providing many bacterial genome sequences from diverse taxa but a refined annotation of these genomes is crucial for obtaining scientific findings and new knowledge. Thus, bacterial genome annotation has emerged as a key point to investigate in bacteria. Any efficient tool designed specifically to annotate bacterial genomes sequenced with massively parallel technologies has to consider the specific features of bacterial genomes (absence of introns and scarcity of nonprotein-coding sequence) and of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies (presence of errors and not perfectly assembled genomes). These features make it convenient to focus on coding regions and, hence, on protein sequences that are the elements directly related with biological functions. In this chapter we describe how to annotate bacterial genomes with BG7, an open-source tool based on a protein-centered gene calling/annotation paradigm. BG7 is specifically designed for the annotation of bacterial genomes sequenced with NGS. This tool is sequence error tolerant maintaining their capabilities for the annotation of highly fragmented genomes or for annotating mixed sequences coming from several genomes (as those obtained through metagenomics samples). BG7 has been designed with scalability as a requirement, with a computing infrastructure completely based on cloud computing (Amazon Web Services).

  7. Role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and intestinal motility in bacterial translocation in experimental cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, E; Casafont, F; Guerra, A; de Benito, I; Pons-Romero, F

    2005-11-01

    Intestinal bacterial overgrowth (IBO) is related to small bowel motility and has been involved in the pathogenesis of bacterial translocation (BT) in experimental models, and both overgrowing gut flora and translocating bacteria to mesenteric lymph nodes are common features in cirrhosis. The aims of this study were to analyze cecal aerobic bacteria and intestinal transit in cirrhotic rats, and their relationship with BT, evaluating the role of intestinal bacterial overgrowth and small bowel dismotility in the development of BT in experimental cirrhosis. We included twenty-seven male Sprague-Dawley rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis without ascites and ten controls. Cultures of mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), peripheral and portal blood, liver, spleen and cecal samples were carried out. Small intestinal transit was determined in ten cirrhotic rats and in ten control rats. The prevalence of bacterial translocation was 56%. Total cecal aerobic bacteria count was significantly higher in cirrhotic rats than in control rats (p < 0.001). Cirrhotic rats with translocated bacteria had higher total aerobic intestinal counts than culture-negative MLN bacteria (p < 0.05). The prevalence of total intestinal bacterial overgrowth in cirrhotic animals was 67%, and 0% in control animals (p < 0.001). According to BT, total IBO was more frequent in cirrhotic rats with BT versus those without BT (93 vs. 33%) (p < 0.001). Of the translocating bacteria, 95.6% were found to be overgrown in the cecum. The small-intestinal transit was slower in cirrhotic rats (60.5 +/- 12.7 cm vs. 81.2 +/- 5.7 cm) than in control animals (p < 0.001). These results suggest that the increase of intestinal aerobic bacteria in experimental cirrhosis is associated with translocation. In addition, IBO is frequent in cirrhotic rats, and is supposed to play an important role in the development of BT. Impaired motility of the small intestine is a common feature in cirrhosis and may be implicated in the

  8. Microbial diversity similarities in periodontal pockets and atheromatous plaques of cardiovascular disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Serra e Silva Filho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The immune and infectious alterations occurring in periodontitis have been shown to alter the development and severity of cardiovascular disease. One of these relationships is the translocation of oral bacteria to atheroma plaques, thereby promoting plaque development. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess, by 16s cloning and sequencing, the microbial diversity of the subgingival environment and atheroma plaques of patients concomitantly suffering from periodontitis and obstructive coronary artery atherosclerosis (OCAA. METHODS: Subgingival biofilm and coronary balloons used in percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty were collected from 18 subjects presenting with generalized moderate to severe periodontitis and OCAA. DNA was extracted and the gene 16S was amplified, cloned and sequenced. RESULTS: Significant differences in microbial diversity were observed between both environments. While subgingival samples mostly contained the phylum Firmicutes, in coronary balloons, Proteobacteria (p<0.05 was predominant. In addition, the most commonly detected genera in coronary balloons were Acinetobacter, Alloprevotella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Sphingomonas and Moraxella, while in subgingival samples Porphyromonas, Filifactor, Veillonella, Aggregatibacter and Treponema (p<0.05 were found. Interestingly, 17 identical phylotypes were found in atheroma and subgingival samples, indicating possible bacterial translocation between periodontal pockets and coronary arteries. CONCLUSION: Periodontal pockets and atheromatous plaques of cardiovascular disease patients can present similarities in the microbial diversity.

  9. A Bacterial Analysis Platform: An Integrated System for Analysing Bacterial Whole Genome Sequencing Data for Clinical Diagnostics and Surveillance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Ahrenfeldt, Johanne; Bellod Cisneros, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    web-based tools we developed a single pipeline for batch uploading of whole genome sequencing data from multiple bacterial isolates. The pipeline will automatically identify the bacterial species and, if applicable, assemble the genome, identify the multilocus sequence type, plasmids, virulence genes...... and antimicrobial resistance genes. A short printable report for each sample will be provided and an Excel spreadsheet containing all the metadata and a summary of the results for all submitted samples can be downloaded. The pipeline was benchmarked using datasets previously used to test the individual services...... and made publicly available, providing easy-to-use automated analysis of bacterial whole genome sequencing data. The platform may be of immediate relevance as a guide for investigators using whole genome sequencing for clinical diagnostics and surveillance. The platform is freely available at: https...

  10. Bacterial diversity in two Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krissi M Hewitt

    Full Text Available Infants in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs are particularly susceptible to opportunistic infection. Infected infants have high mortality rates, and survivors often suffer life-long neurological disorders. The causes of many NICU infections go undiagnosed, and there is debate as to the importance of inanimate hospital environments (IHEs in the spread of infections. We used culture-independent next-generation sequencing to survey bacterial diversity in two San Diego NICUs and to track the sources of microbes in these environments. Thirty IHE samples were collected from two Level-Three NICU facilities. We extracted DNA from these samples and amplified the bacterial small subunit (16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence using 'universal' barcoded primers. The purified PCR products were pooled into a single reaction for pyrosequencing, and the data were analyzed using QIIME. On average, we detected 93+/-39 (mean +/- standard deviation bacterial genera per sample in NICU IHEs. Many of the bacterial genera included known opportunistic pathogens, and many were skin-associated (e.g., Propionibacterium. In one NICU, we also detected fecal coliform bacteria (Enterobacteriales in a high proportion of the surface samples. Comparison of these NICU-derived sequences to previously published high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon studies of other indoor environments (offices, restrooms and healthcare facilities, as well as human- and soil-associated environments, found the majority of the NICU samples to be similar to typical building surface and air samples, with the notable exception of the IHEs which were dominated by Enterobacteriaceae. Our findings provide evidence that NICU IHEs harbor a high diversity of human-associated bacteria and demonstrate the potential utility of molecular methods for identifying and tracking bacterial diversity in NICUs.

  11. Differentiation of salivary bacterial profiles of subjects with periodontitis and dental caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries have been demonstrated to differ from that of oral health. The aim of this comparative analysis of existing data generated by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM from 293 stimulated saliva samples was to compare bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries.

  12. Diverse bacterial communities exist on canine skin and are impacted by cohabitation and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Torres

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has previously been shown that domestic dogs and their household owners share bacterial populations, and that sharing of bacteria between humans is facilitated through the presence of dogs in the household. However, less is known regarding the bacterial communities of dogs, how these communities vary by location and over time, and how cohabitation of dogs themselves influences their bacterial community. Furthermore, the effects of factors such as breed, hair coat length, sex, shedding, and age on the canine skin microbiome is unknown. This study sampled the skin bacterial communities of 40 dogs belonging to 20 households longitudinally across three seasons (spring, summer, and winter. Significant differences in bacterial community structure between samples were identified when stratified by season, but not by dog sex, age, breed, hair type, or skin site. Cohabitating dogs were more likely to share bacteria of the skin than non-cohabitating dogs. Similar to human bacterial microbiomes, dogs’ microbiomes were more similar to their own microbiomes over time than to microbiomes of other individuals. Dogs sampled during the same season were also more similar to each other than to dogs from different seasons, irrespective of household. However, there were very few core operational taxonomic units (OTUs identified across all dogs sampled. Taxonomic classification revealed Propionibacterium acnes and Haemophilus sp. as key members of the dog skin bacterial community, along with Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus epidermidis. This study shows that the skin bacterial community structure of dogs is highly individualized, but can be shared among dogs through cohabitation.

  13. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from food sold on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... The antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from cooked food samples sold in different eateries on the campus of the University of Ado-Ekiti was investigated. A total of seventy-eight bacterial isolates belonging to six genera were encountered in the following proportion: Escherichia coli (29.5%),.

  14. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from food sold on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from cooked food samples sold in different eateries on the campus of the University of Ado-Ekiti was investigated. A total of seventy-eight bacterial isolates belonging to six genera were encountered in the following proportion: Escherichia coli (29.5%), Klebsiella spp.

  15. Differentiation of salivary bacterial profiles of subjects with periodontitis and dental caries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries have been demonstrated to differ from that of oral health. The aim of this comparative analysis of existing data generated by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) from 293 stimulated saliva samples...... was to compare bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries....

  16. Assessment of the bacterial organisms in water from a lead-zinc ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four (24) bulk water samples collected from a lead-zinc mining pit in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State, Nigeria over a period of 2 years were used to assess the bacterial population of the mining pit water. Nine bacterial organisms, which included Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus sp., Escherichia coli, ...

  17. Survey of bacterial pathogens on leaves and seeds of red mangrove ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial pathogens of red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) were investigated. 50 samples each of leaves and seeds (healthy and diseased) were randomly collected and used for the analysis. Mean bacterial counts obtained were: healthy and diseased leaves; 8.26 x 103 and 5.9 l x l03 cfu/ml respectively; healthy seeds ...

  18. Effect of moringa oleifera seeds on bacterial quality of Drinking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical and bacteriological quality of drinking water in the rural communities of Ondo was examined and treated with the seeds of Moringa oleifera. The water samples were analyzed for some physicochemical parameters and pour plate technique was used to determine the presence of bacterial pathogens.

  19. Factors that influence the speed of bacterial wood degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.K.W.M.; Overeem, van B.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial wood decay is a serious threat to the many wooden foundation piles in the Netherlands. In order to learn more about the factors that influence the process of decay, approx. 2000 wood samples taken from Amsterdam piles heads were analysed on type and degree of decay and for 59 extracted

  20. Emerging antibiotic resistant enteric bacterial flora among food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotic in food animals is an emerging public health concern as a result of increasing multi-resistant bacteria found in Abeokuta. Therefore, occurrence rate and resistant profile of the emerging enteric pathogens were determined in food animals in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Fecal and rectal samples of 82 ...

  1. Effects of bacterial inoculants and an enzyme on the fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jannes

    where 500 g of sample from each jar was loosely packed in an open plastic jar that was covered with two layers of .... (2009), who reported a lack of effect on pH with bacterial inoculation to sweet sorghum straw at ... in sweet sorghum straws, which can easily produce a rapid drop in silage pH without the use of additives.

  2. Anammox bacterial populations in deep marine hypersaline gradient systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borin, S.; Mapelli, F.; Rolli, E.; Song, B.; Tobias, C.; Schmid, M.C.; de Lange, G.J.; Reichart, G.-J.; Schouten, S.; Jetten, M.; Daffonchio, D.

    2013-01-01

    To extend the knowledge of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) habitats, bacterial communities were examined in two hypersaline sulphidic basins in Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The 2 m thick seawater-brine haloclines of the deep anoxic hypersaline basins Bannock and L'Atalante were sampled in

  3. Purulent pelvic collections in HIV infected female patients: bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to compare the bacterial flora in purulent pelvic collections obtained from HIV infected and noninfected female patients treated over a period of two years. Samples of pus were collected from both groups during laparotomy that was carried out by the same trained surgeon and sent for culture and ...

  4. Microbial profile, antibiotic sensitivity and heat resistance of bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, antibiotic resistance and heat resistance profile of bacterial isolates obtained from ready to eat roasted beef (suya) sold in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods and Results: Fifty samples of suya were purchased from different vendors within the Federal Capital Territory and ...

  5. Chemical Properties Associated with Bacterial Wetwood in Red Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zicai Xu; Theodor D. Leininger; Andy W.C. Lee; Frank H. Tainter

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial wetwood is a major cause of value loss in the red oak lumber industry in the United States. Red oak trees in Mississippi, South Carolina, and Florida were sampled and evaluated for certain chemical properties possibly associated with the wetwood condition. Specific variables investigated were pH and concentmtions of methane, cations (Na+. Ca++, K+, and Mg...

  6. Organisms associated with bacterial vaginosis in Nigerian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition with diverse etiology.This condition predisposes women to increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and preterm birth.The diagnostic methods currently adopted in the evaluation of patient samples ...

  7. A Survey of Bacterial and Fungal Oppurtunistic Infections among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial pathogens were isolated using Blood and Chocolate agar plates and identified biochemically except the Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) which was tested in all the HIV positive samples by Ziehl Neelson staining technique. The fungal pathogens were isolated using Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) with antibiotics and ...

  8. Characterization of the bacterial flora of tilapia ( Oreochoromis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of the bacterial flora of tilapia ( Oreochoromis niloticus ) harvested from four lakes in the north of Cameroon. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... After 18 h of incubation, the homogenate sample was inoculated on thiosulphate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) using an inoculation loop and incubated at 37°C ...

  9. Bacterial Keratitis: Risk Factors and Causative Agents | Bataineh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: to describe the clinical, microbiological characteristics and risk factors of. Bacterial Keratitis at Prince Zeid and Rashed ... Offending organisms were isolated in 17(50%) cases only. Pseudomonas in 10(58.8%) cases ... Pseudomonas was the major causative organism. Proper sampling and microbiological ...

  10. The bacterial and physico-chemical properties of hair salon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial and physico-chemical properties of hair salon wastewater and contaminated soil in Benin metropolis were investigated. Investigations were carried out on five hair salons from different locations in Benin City. The physico chemical analysis showed that Ugbowo samples had the highest chemical oxygen ...

  11. Antimicrobial resistance profile in bacterial isolates from subclinical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... A total of 71 milk samples from cows that tested positive with CMT test were collected for bacterial isolation. ... Antimicrobial susceptibility testing results shows that bacteria isolates were susceptible to kanamycin, chloramphenicol and co-trimoxazole drugs but resistant to ...

  12. pathogenic intestinal parasites and bacterial agents in solid wastes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003-03-01

    Mar 1, 2003 ... Results: Cases of multiple intestinal parasites and bacterial agents were commonly encountered in the sludge refuse samples. The commonly found parasitic agents were of both human and veterinary importance. These include Ascaris Lumbricoides (9.3 egp),. Entamoeba histolytica (8.07 cyst per gram), ...

  13. Automatic counting and classification of bacterial colonies using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detection and counting of bacterial colonies on agar plates is a routine microbiology practice to get a rough estimate of the number of viable cells in a sample. There have been a variety of different automatic colony counting systems and software algorithms mainly based on color or gray-scale pictu...

  14. Assessment of commercially packaged water for faecal bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 60 commercially packaged drinking water comprising of 48 sachet and 12 bottled water samples were randomly collected and tested for bacterial indicators of fecal contamination. Escherichia coli type 1, Streptococcus fecalis and Clostridium perfringes were used as indices to evaluate potability, using Presumptive ...

  15. Effects of bacterial inoculation on the fermentation characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DNkosi

    2016-05-11

    May 11, 2016 ... The chopped forages were treated with or without the bacterial inoculant Lalsil Dry (LD) and treatments were as .... addition, samples collected on days 0 and 90 were used to determine nutritive values and fermentation ... concentration was determined using heat stable α-amylase (Sigma-Aldrich Co. LTD.

  16. bacterial load in expressed and stored breast milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    2013-09-04

    Sep 4, 2013 ... in both storage conditions were plated on three different culture media (Nutrient agar,. MacConkey agar and Chocolate agar) ... Results showed that in all the culture media, bacterial load was higher in breast milk samples stored at ..... Poor hygienic practices and improper washing of hands have also been ...

  17. The Human Vaginal Bacterial Biota and Bacterial Vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha Srinivasan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial biota of the human vagina can have a profound impact on the health of women and their neonates. Changes in the vaginal microbiota have been associated with several adverse health outcomes including premature birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, and acquisition of HIV infection. Cultivation-independent molecular methods have provided new insights regarding bacterial diversity in this important niche, particularly in women with the common condition bacterial vaginosis (BV. PCR methods have shown that women with BV have complex communities of vaginal bacteria that include many fastidious species, particularly from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. Healthy women are mostly colonized with lactobacilli such as Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii, and Lactobacillus iners, though a variety of other bacteria may be present. The microbiology of BV is heterogeneous. The presence of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae coating the vaginal epithelium in some subjects with BV suggests that biofilms may contribute to this condition.

  18. The effect of phosphate based glasses on the formation and viability of oral bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, April Miranda

    This study considered the antibacterial activity of a series of soluble phosphate-based glasses (based on the Na2O-CaO-P2O5 glass system) doped with increasing amounts of copper or silver against oral bacterial biofilms. Initially, a variety of phosphate-based glass compositions were produced. The dissolution rate of these glasses was determined, and the information obtained was used to decide which glass compositions would be investigated in future experiments for their antibacterial properties. Selected glass compositions were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus sanguis biofilms and oral microcosm biofilms. These biofilms were produced on phosphate-based glass discs using a Constant Depth Film Fermenter (CDFF), which allows the conditions found in the oral cavity to be closely mimicked. Following disc removal from the CDFF, various analytical procedures were carried out. Under conditions designed to mimic the supragingival environment of the oral cavity, fewer viable cells of Streptococcus sanguis were detected on both copper and silver-containing glass discs than on control discs, during the initial stages of the experiments, the greatest reduction occurring on the silver-containing glasses. An increase in viable cell number was observed as the experiments continued. Under the same conditions, copper-containing glasses failed to reduce the viability of microcosm biofilms. Viable cell number was initially reduced on the silver-containing glasses, but by the end of the experiments the viability of microcosm biofilms was significantly similar to those observed on the controls. Attempts to determine the efficacy of silver-containing glasses at reducing the viability of microcosm biofilms, under conditions designed to mimic the subgingival environment of the oral cavity, were subsequently made. Viable cells were not detected on any type of disc, including the control discs. Various reasons for this were postulated. In conclusion, the

  19. Soil bacterial community shifts associated with sugarcane straw removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Laisa; Gumiere, Thiago; Andreote, Fernando; Cerri, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Brazil, the adoption of the mechanical unburned sugarcane harvest potentially increase the quantity of residue left in the field after harvesting. Economically, this material has a high potential for second generation ethanol (2G) production. However, crop residues have an essential role in diverse properties and processes in the soil. The greater part of the uncertainties about straw removal for 2G ethanol production is based on its effects in soil microbial community. In this sense, it is important to identify the main impacts of sugarcane straw removal on soil microbial community. Therefore, we conducted a field study, during one year, in Valparaíso (São Paulo state - Brazil) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial community. Specifically, we wanted: i) to compare the rates of straw removal and ii) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial groups over one year. The experiment was in a randomized block design with treatments arranged in strip plot. The treatments are different rates of sugarcane straw removal, namely: no removal, 50, 75 and 100% of straw removal. Soil sampling was carried out at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months after the sugarcane harvest (August 2015). Total DNA was extracted from soil using the PowersoilTM DNA Isolation kit. And the abundance of bacterial in each soil sample was estimated via quantification of 16S rRNA gene. The composition of the bacterial communities was estimated via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, and the T-RF sizes were performed on a 3500 Genetic Analyzer. Finally, the results were examined with GeneMapper 4.1 software. There was bacterial community shifts through the time and among the rates of sugarcane straw removal. Bacterial community was firstly determined by the time scale, which explained 29.16% of total variation. Rates of straw removal explained 11.55% of shifts on bacterial community. Distribution through the time is an important

  20. New Treatments for Bacterial Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond L. M. Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review the newer treatments for bacterial keratitis. Data Sources. PubMed literature search up to April 2012. Study Selection. Key words used for literature search: “infectious keratitis”, “microbial keratitis”, “infective keratitis”, “new treatments for infectious keratitis”, “fourth generation fluoroquinolones”, “moxifloxacin”, “gatifloxacin”, “collagen cross-linking”, and “photodynamic therapy”. Data Extraction. Over 2400 articles were retrieved. Large scale studies or publications at more recent dates were selected. Data Synthesis. Broad spectrum antibiotics have been the main stay of treatment for bacterial keratitis but with the emergence of bacterial resistance; there is a need for newer antimicrobial agents and treatment methods. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones and corneal collagen cross-linking are amongst the new treatments. In vitro studies and prospective clinical trials have shown that fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are better than the older generation fluoroquinolones and are as potent as combined fortified antibiotics against common pathogens that cause bacterial keratitis. Collagen cross-linking was shown to improve healing of infectious corneal ulcer in treatment-resistant cases or as an adjunct to antibiotics treatment. Conclusion. Fourth-generation fluoroquinolones are good alternatives to standard treatment of bacterial keratitis using combined fortified topical antibiotics. Collagen cross-linking may be considered in treatment-resistant infectious keratitis or as an adjunct to antibiotics therapy.

  1. Chronic bacterial prostatitis in men with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Jörg; Bartel, Peter; Pannek, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) are a major problem affecting spinal cord injury (SCI) patients and may stem from chronic bacterial prostatitis. We have therefore investigated the presence of chronic bacterial prostatitis and its role in the development of recurrent symptomatic UTI in SCI men. This study is a prospective cross-sectional investigation of bacterial prostatitis in SCI men in a single SCI rehabilitation center. In 50 men with chronic SCI presenting for a routine urologic examination, urine samples before and after prostate massage were taken for microbiologic investigation and white blood cell counting. Furthermore, patient characteristics, bladder diary details, and the annual rate of symptomatic UTI were collected retrospectively. No participant reported current symptoms of UTI or prostatitis. In most men (39/50, 78 %), the microbiologic analysis of the post-massage urine sample revealed growth of pathogenic bacteria. The majority of these men (32/39, 82 %) also presented with mostly (27/39, 69 %) the same pathogenic bacteria in the pre-massage sample. There was no significant (p = 0.48) difference in the number of symptomatic UTI in men with a positive post-massage culture compared with those with a negative culture. No significant (p = 0.67) difference in the frequency distribution of positive versus negative post-massage cultures was detected between men with recurrent and sporadic UTI. Most SCI men are affected by asymptomatic bacterial prostatitis; however, bacterial prostatitis does not play a major role in the development of recurrent UTI. The indication for antibiotic treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis in asymptomatic SCI men with recurrent UTI is questionable.

  2. Bacterial community structure in the drinking water microbiome is governed by filtration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ameet J; Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2012-08-21

    The bacterial community structure of a drinking water microbiome was characterized over three seasons using 16S rRNA gene based pyrosequencing of samples obtained from source water (a mix of a groundwater and a surface water), different points in a drinking water plant operated to treat this source water, and in the associated drinking water distribution system. Even though the source water was shown to seed the drinking water microbiome, treatment process operations limit the source water's influence on the distribution system bacterial community. Rather, in this plant, filtration by dual media rapid sand filters played a primary role in shaping the distribution system bacterial community over seasonal time scales as the filters harbored a stable bacterial community that seeded the water treatment processes past filtration. Bacterial taxa that colonized the filter and sloughed off in the filter effluent were able to persist in the distribution system despite disinfection of finished water by chloramination and filter backwashing with chloraminated backwash water. Thus, filter colonization presents a possible ecological survival strategy for bacterial communities in drinking water systems, which presents an opportunity to control the drinking water microbiome by manipulating the filter microbial community. Grouping bacterial taxa based on their association with the filter helped to elucidate relationships between the abundance of bacterial groups and water quality parameters and showed that pH was the strongest regulator of the bacterial community in the sampled drinking water system.

  3. Bacterial profiles of saliva in relation to diet, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Belstrøm

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The bacterial profile of saliva is composed of bacteria from different oral surfaces. The objective of this study was to determine whether different diet intake, lifestyle, or socioeconomic status is associated with characteristic bacterial saliva profiles. Design: Stimulated saliva samples from 292 participants with low levels of dental caries and periodontitis, enrolled in the Danish Health Examination Survey (DANHES, were analyzed for the presence of approximately 300 bacterial species by means of the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM. Using presence and levels (mean HOMIM-value of bacterial probes as endpoints, the influence of diet intake, lifestyle, and socioeconomic status on the bacterial saliva profile was analyzed by Mann–Whitney tests with Benjamini–Hochberg's correction for multiple comparisons and principal component analysis. Results: Targets for 131 different probes were identified in 292 samples, with Streptococcus and Veillonella being the most predominant genera identified. Two bacterial taxa (Streptococcus sobrinus and Eubacterium [11][G-3] brachy were more associated with smokers than non-smokers (adjusted p-value<0.01. Stratification of the group based on extreme ends of the parameters age, gender, alcohol consumption, body mass index (BMI, and diet intake had no statistical influence on the composition of the bacterial profile of saliva. Conversely, differences in socioeconomic status were reflected by the bacterial profiles of saliva. Conclusions: The bacterial profile of saliva seems independent of diet intake, but influenced by smoking and maybe socioeconomic status.

  4. Ericoid Roots and Mycospheres Govern Plant-Specific Bacterial Communities in Boreal Forest Humus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Sari; Sinkko, Hanna; Sun, Hui; Sietiö, Outi-Maaria; Rinta-Kanto, Johanna M; Kiheri, Heikki; Heinonsalo, Jussi

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the bacterial populations of roots and mycospheres of the boreal pine forest ericoid plants, heather (Calluna vulgaris), bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), and lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idaea), were studied by qPCR and next-generation sequencing (NGS). All bacterial communities of mycosphere soils differed from soils uncolonized by mycorrhizal mycelia. Colonization by mycorrhizal hyphae increased the total number of bacterial 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene copies in the humus but decreased the number of different bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Nevertheless, ericoid roots and mycospheres supported numerous OTUs not present in uncolonized humus. Bacterial communities in bilberry mycospheres were surprisingly similar to those in pine mycospheres but not to bacterial communities in heather and lingonberry mycospheres. In contrast, bacterial communities of ericoid roots were more similar to each other than to those of pine roots. In all sample types, the relative abundances of bacterial sequences belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Acidobacteria were higher than the sequences belonging to other classes. Soil samples contained more Actinobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Opitutae, and Planctomycetia, whereas Armatimonadia, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteriia were more common to roots. All mycosphere soils and roots harbored bacteria unique to that particular habitat. Our study suggests that the habitation by ericoid plants increases the overall bacterial diversity of boreal forest soils.

  5. Bacterial Community Profiling of Plastic Litter in the Belgian Part of the North Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tender, Caroline A; Devriese, Lisa I; Haegeman, Annelies; Maes, Sara; Ruttink, Tom; Dawyndt, Peter

    2015-08-18

    Bacterial colonization of marine plastic litter (MPL) is known for over four decades. Still, only a few studies on the plastic colonization process and its influencing factors are reported. In this study, seafloor MPL was sampled at different locations across the Belgian part of the North Sea to study bacterial community structure using 16S metabarcoding. These marine plastic bacterial communities were compared with those of sediment and seawater, and resin pellets sampled on the beach, to investigate the origin and uniqueness of plastic bacterial communities. Plastics display great variation of bacterial community composition, while each showed significant differences from those of sediment and seawater, indicating that plastics represent a distinct environmental niche. Various environmental factors correlate with the diversity of MPL bacterial composition across plastics. In addition, intrinsic plastic-related factors such as pigment content may contribute to the differences in bacterial colonization. Furthermore, the differential abundance of known primary and secondary colonizers across the various plastics may indicate different stages of bacterial colonization, and may confound comparisons of free-floating plastics. Our studies provide insights in the factors that shape plastic bacterial colonization and shed light on the possible role of plastic as transport vehicle for bacteria through the aquatic environment.

  6. Bacterial Degradation of Aromatic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing X. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic compounds are among the most prevalent and persistent pollutants in the environment. Petroleum-contaminated soil and sediment commonly contain a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heterocyclic aromatics. Aromatics derived from industrial activities often have functional groups such as alkyls, halogens and nitro groups. Biodegradation is a major mechanism of removal of organic pollutants from a contaminated site. This review focuses on bacterial degradation pathways of selected aromatic compounds. Catabolic pathways of naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene are described in detail. Bacterial catabolism of the heterocycles dibenzofuran, carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and dibenzodioxin is discussed. Bacterial catabolism of alkylated PAHs is summarized, followed by a brief discussion of proteomics and metabolomics as powerful tools for elucidation of biodegradation mechanisms.

  7. Bacterial Protein-Tyrosine Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Lei; Kobir, Ahasanul; Jers, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    enzymes that are unique in exploiting the ATP/GTP-binding Walker motif to catalyze phosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues. Characterized for the first time only a decade ago, BY-kinases have now come to the fore. Important regulatory roles have been linked with these enzymes, via their involvement......Bacteria and Eukarya share essentially the same family of protein-serine/threonine kinases, also known as the Hanks-type kinases. However, when it comes to protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, bacteria seem to have gone their own way. Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are bacterial...... in exopolysaccharide production, virulence, DNA metabolism, stress response and other key functions of the bacterial cell. BY-kinases act through autophosphorylation (mainly in exopolysaccharide production) and phosphorylation of other proteins, which have in most cases been shown to be activated by tyrosine...

  8. Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoiby, N.; Bjarnsholt, T.; Givskov, M.

    2010-01-01

    A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis....... Characteristically, gradients of nutrients and oxygen exist from the top to the bottom of biofilms and these gradients are associated with decreased bacterial metabolic activity and increased doubling times of the bacterial cells; it is these more or less dormant cells that are responsible for some of the tolerance...... to antibiotics. Biofilm growth is associated with an increased level of mutations as well as with quorum-sensing-regulated mechanisms. Conventional resistance mechanisms such as chromosomal beta-lactamase, upregulated efflux pumps and mutations in antibiotic target molecules in bacteria also contribute...

  9. Acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartt, Russell

    2012-12-01

    Most cases of acute meningitis are infectious and result from a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Acute meningitis is infectious in most cases and caused by a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Shifts in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens have been influenced by changes in vaccines and their implementation. Seasonal and environmental changes influence the likely viral and rickettsial pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Pertinent testing and treatment can vary with the clinical presentation, season, and possible exposures. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of acute meningitis.

  10. Bacterial diversity analysis of Zhenjiang Yao meat during refrigerated and vacuum-packed storage by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Dong, Ying; Zhu, Ying; Cui, Henglin

    2013-04-01

    Zhenjiang Yao meat is a traditional variety of cooked marinated and jellied pork food in China. It is usually stored refrigerated to prevent gelatine liquefaction. Our understanding of the bacterial populations found in Zhenjiang Yao meat is limited. This study was designed to explore both the bacterial diversity and the main bacterial flora of Zhenjiang Yao meat using pyrosequencing of tagged amplicons from the V3 and V9 regions of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 53,363 bacterial sequences from five samples and an average 10,672 reads of each sample were acquired and used in the analysis of microbial diversity. The bacterial diversity was observed to increase weekly, and the main bacterial flora changed significantly under refrigerated vacuum-packaged storage. The predominant bacteria were Vibrio during the first 7 days of storage, whereas Shewanella, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Yersinia, and other Enterobacteriaceae members were the main groups after 15 days in refrigerated storage. The bacterial population changed significantly after 15 days, and the bacterial communities in the 30 days sample were significantly different from all other samples. In comparison with culture-dependant method, pyrosequencing provides a more comprehensive estimate of bacterial diversity and more close to the real bacterial composition in Zhenjiang Yao meat.

  11. Bacterial Community Composition and Potential Driving Factors in Different Reef Habitats of the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke F. Kegler

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal eutrophication is a key driver of shifts in bacterial communities on coral reefs. With fringing and patch reefs at varying distances from the coast the Spermonde Archipelago in southern Sulawesi, Indonesia offers ideal conditions to study the effects of coastal eutrophication along a spatially defined gradient. The present study investigated bacterial community composition of three coral reef habitats: the water column, sediments, and mucus of the hard coral genus Fungia, along that cross-shelf environmental and water quality gradient. The main research questions were: (1 How do water quality and bacterial community composition change along a coastal shelf gradient? (2 Which water quality parameters influence bacterial community composition? (3 Is there a difference in bacterial community composition among the investigated habitats? For this purpose, a range of key water parameters were measured at eight stations in distances from 2 to 55 km from urban Makassar. This was supplemented by sampling of bacterial communities of important microbial habitats using 454 pyrosequencing. Findings revealed that the population center Makassar had a strong effect on the concentrations of Chlorophyll a, suspended particulate matter (SPM, and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP, which were all significantly elevated at the inshore compared the other seven sites. Shifts in the bacterial communities were specific to each sampled habitat. Two OTUs, belonging to the genera Escherichia/Shigella (Gammaproteobacteria and Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria, respectively, both dominated the bacterial community composition of the both size fractions of the water column and coral mucus. The sampled reef sediments were more diverse, and no single OTUs was dominant. There was no gradual shift in bacterial classes or OTUs within the sampled habitats. In addition, we observed very distinct communities between the investigated habitats. Our data show strong changes in the

  12. Bacterial Community Composition and Potential Driving Factors in Different Reef Habitats of the Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Hauke F.; Lukman, Muhammad; Teichberg, Mirta; Plass-Johnson, Jeremiah; Hassenrück, Christiane; Wild, Christian; Gärdes, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Coastal eutrophication is a key driver of shifts in bacterial communities on coral reefs. With fringing and patch reefs at varying distances from the coast the Spermonde Archipelago in southern Sulawesi, Indonesia offers ideal conditions to study the effects of coastal eutrophication along a spatially defined gradient. The present study investigated bacterial community composition of three coral reef habitats: the water column, sediments, and mucus of the hard coral genus Fungia, along that cross-shelf environmental and water quality gradient. The main research questions were: (1) How do water quality and bacterial community composition change along a coastal shelf gradient? (2) Which water quality parameters influence bacterial community composition? (3) Is there a difference in bacterial community composition among the investigated habitats? For this purpose, a range of key water parameters were measured at eight stations in distances from 2 to 55 km from urban Makassar. This was supplemented by sampling of bacterial communities of important microbial habitats using 454 pyrosequencing. Findings revealed that the population center Makassar had a strong effect on the concentrations of Chlorophyll a, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), which were all significantly elevated at the inshore compared the other seven sites. Shifts in the bacterial communities were specific to each sampled habitat. Two OTUs, belonging to the genera Escherichia/Shigella (Gammaproteobacteria) and Ralstonia (Betaproteobacteria), respectively, both dominated the bacterial community composition of the both size fractions of the water column and coral mucus. The sampled reef sediments were more diverse, and no single OTUs was dominant. There was no gradual shift in bacterial classes or OTUs within the sampled habitats. In addition, we observed very distinct communities between the investigated habitats. Our data show strong changes in the bacterial

  13. [Effects of different carbohydrates on the simulation of human intestinal bacterial flora with in vitro culture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, B; Yin, Y S; Sun, G; Zhu, L Y; Liu, W; Pi, X E; Fei, D B; Peng, L H; Wang, X; Yang, Y S

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the optimal growth condition of human fecal bacterial flora in vitro by comparing the effect of different carbohydrates as cultural media. Three fecal samples (1, 2, 3) were collected and inoculated into a single-stage chemostat system, in which starch medium (VI) and starch polysaccharide medium(XP) were used. Samples were collected for bacterial genomic DNA extraction and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. Bacterial composition and short chain fatty acid (SCFA) were then analyzed. The single stage chemostat system reached steady after operating 8 days, when evaluated by the PCR-DGGE. Bacterial 16s rRNA high-throughput sequencing showed that the intestinal bacteria of these three volunteers was mainly composed of four bacterial phyla, namely, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. When the influence of bacterial abundance was considered, the similarity of bacterial composition between the original fecal samples to the harvested flora after culture was 0.847, 0.825, 0.968 in VI medium and 0.927, 0.926, 0.836 in XP medium, respectively. The similarity was decreased to 0.553, 0.580, 0.623 with VI medium and 0.617, 0.520, 0.574 with XP medium, when the number of bacterial species was considered. The variation of host individual also influenced the simulation. VI medium favored fecal sample 3, while XP medium more benefited sample 1 and 2. Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae_incertae_sedis grew in both VI and XP medium. However, some species were only detected in VI medium and some were specifically found in the XP medium. The SCFA concentration in fermenters was 15-35 mmol/L, mainly propionate and butyrate. The chemostat system works for stimulating human gut bacterial flora in vitro. The bacterial composition is affected by different carbohydrate in the culture medium yet with close simulation higher than 80%.

  14. Dynamic bacterial communities on reverse-osmosis membranes in a full-scale desalination plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, C-L de O; West, N; Rapenne, S; Lebaron, P

    2011-01-01

    To better understand biofouling of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes, bacterial diversity was characterized in the intake water, in subsequently pretreated water and on SWRO membranes from a full-scale desalination plant (FSDP) during a 9 month period. 16S rRNA gene fingerprinting and sequencing revealed that bacterial communities in the water samples and on the SWRO membranes were very different. For the different sampling dates, the bacterial diversity of the active and the total bacterial fractions of the water samples remained relatively stable over the sampling period whereas the bacterial community structure on the four SWRO membrane samples was significantly different. The richness and evenness of the SWRO membrane bacterial communities increased with usage time with an increase in the Shannon diversity index of 2.2 to 3.7. In the oldest SWRO membrane (330 days), no single operational taxonomic unit (OTU) dominated and the majority of the OTUs fell into the Alphaproteobacteria or the Planctomycetes. In striking contrast, a Betaproteobacteria OTU affiliated to the genus Ideonella was dominant and exclusively found in the membrane used for the shortest time (10 days). This suggests that bacteria belonging to this genus could be one of the primary colonizers of the SWRO membrane. Knowledge of the dominant bacterial species on SWRO membranes and their dynamics should help guide culture studies for physiological characterization of biofilm forming species.

  15. Curved microchannels and bacterial streamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2010-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms are commonly identified as microbial communities attached to a surface and encased in a self-secreted extracellular matrix. Due to their increased resistance to antimicrobial agents, biofilms have an enormous impact on health and medicine (e.g., wound healing, implant-associated infections, disease transmission). On the other hand, they constitute a major component of the stream ecosystem by increasing transport of nutrients and retention of suspended particles. In this talk, we present an experimental study of bacterial biofilm development in a microfluidic device. In particular, we show the formation of filamentous structures, or streamers, in curved channels and how these suspended biofilms are linked to the underlying hydrodynamics.

  16. Bacterial computing with engineered populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Martyn; Axmann, Ilka Maria; Blüthgen, Nils; de la Cruz, Fernando; Jaramillo, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Paton, Alfonso; Simmel, Friedrich

    2015-07-28

    We describe strategies for the construction of bacterial computing platforms by describing a number of results from the recently completed bacterial computing with engineered populations project. In general, the implementation of such systems requires a framework containing various components such as intracellular circuits, single cell input/output and cell-cell interfacing, as well as extensive analysis. In this overview paper, we describe our approach to each of these, and suggest possible areas for future research. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular mechanisms underlying bacterial persisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maisonneuve, Etienne; Gerdes, Kenn

    2014-01-01

    All bacteria form persisters, cells that are multidrug tolerant and therefore able to survive antibiotic treatment. Due to the low frequencies of persisters in growing bacterial cultures and the complex underlying molecular mechanisms, the phenomenon has been challenging to study. However, recent...... technological advances in microfluidics and reporter genes have improved this scenario. Here, we summarize recent progress in the field, revealing the ubiquitous bacterial stress alarmone ppGpp as an emerging central regulator of multidrug tolerance and persistence, both in stochastically and environmentally...... induced persistence. In several different organisms, toxin-antitoxin modules function as effectors of ppGpp-induced persistence....

  18. Bacterial Biofilm Control by Perturbation of Bacterial Signaling Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2017-01-01

    infections. A potential method for biofilm dismantling is chemical interception of regulatory processes that are specifically involved in the biofilm mode of life. In particular, bacterial cell to cell signaling called “Quorum Sensing” together with intracellular signaling by bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic...

  19. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  20. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Lan Nguyen

    Full Text Available Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  1. Compositional stability of a salivary bacterial population against supragingival microbiota shift following periodontal therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru Yamanaka

    Full Text Available Supragingival plaque is permanently in contact with saliva. However, the extent to which the microbiota contributes to the salivary bacterial population remains unclear. We compared the compositional shift in the salivary bacterial population with that in supragingival plaque following periodontal therapy. Samples were collected from 19 patients with periodontitis before and after periodontal therapy (mean sample collection interval, 25.8 ± 2.6 months, and their bacterial composition was investigated using barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Phylogenetic community analysis using the UniFrac distance metric revealed that the overall bacterial community composition of saliva is distinct from that of supragingival plaque, both pre- and post-therapy. Temporal variation following therapy in the salivary bacterial population was significantly smaller than in the plaque microbiota, and the post-therapy saliva sample was significantly more similar to that pre-therapy from the same individual than to those from other subjects. Following periodontal therapy, microbial richness and biodiversity were significantly decreased in the plaque microbiota, but not in the salivary bacterial population. The operational taxonomic units whose relative abundances changed significantly after therapy were not common to the two microbiotae. These results reveal the compositional stability of salivary bacterial populations against shifts in the supragingival microbiota, suggesting that the effect of the supragingival plaque microbiota on salivary bacterial population composition is limited.

  2. Presence of a polymicrobial endometrial biofilm in patients with bacterial vaginosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Swidsinski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the bacterial vaginosis biofilm extends into the upper female genital tract. STUDY DESIGN: Endometrial samples obtained during curettage and fallopian tube samples obtained during salpingectomy were collected. Endometrial and fallopian tube samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria with fluorescence-in-situ-hybridisation (FISH analysis with probes targeting bacterial vaginosis-associated and other bacteria. RESULTS: A structured polymicrobial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm could be detected in part of the endometrial and fallopian tube specimens. Women with bacterial vaginosis had a 50.0% (95% CI 24.0-76.0 risk of presenting with an endometrial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm. Pregnancy (AOR  = 41.5, 95% CI 5.0-341.9, p<0.001 and the presence of bacterial vaginosis (AOR  = 23.2, 95% CI 2.6-205.9, p<0.001 were highly predictive of the presence of uterine or fallopian bacterial colonisation when compared to non-pregnant women without bacterial vaginosis. CONCLUSION: Bacterial vaginosis is frequently associated with the presence of a structured polymicrobial Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm attached to the endometrium. This may have major implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of adverse pregnancy outcome in association with bacterial vaginosis.

  3. Transforming microbial genotyping: a robotic pipeline for genotyping bacterial strains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian O'Farrell

    Full Text Available Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of 200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost.

  4. Transforming microbial genotyping: a robotic pipeline for genotyping bacterial strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Brian; Haase, Jana K; Velayudhan, Vimalkumar; Murphy, Ronan A; Achtman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Microbial genotyping increasingly deals with large numbers of samples, and data are commonly evaluated by unstructured approaches, such as spread-sheets. The efficiency, reliability and throughput of genotyping would benefit from the automation of manual manipulations within the context of sophisticated data storage. We developed a medium- throughput genotyping pipeline for MultiLocus Sequence Typing (MLST) of bacterial pathogens. This pipeline was implemented through a combination of four automated liquid handling systems, a Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) consisting of a variety of dedicated commercial operating systems and programs, including a Sample Management System, plus numerous Python scripts. All tubes and microwell racks were bar-coded and their locations and status were recorded in the LIMS. We also created a hierarchical set of items that could be used to represent bacterial species, their products and experiments. The LIMS allowed reliable, semi-automated, traceable bacterial genotyping from initial single colony isolation and sub-cultivation through DNA extraction and normalization to PCRs, sequencing and MLST sequence trace evaluation. We also describe robotic sequencing to facilitate cherrypicking of sequence dropouts. This pipeline is user-friendly, with a throughput of 96 strains within 10 working days at a total cost of 200,000 items were processed by two to three people. Our sophisticated automated pipeline can be implemented by a small microbiology group without extensive external support, and provides a general framework for semi-automated bacterial genotyping of large numbers of samples at low cost.

  5. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  6. [Effect of environmental factors on bacterial community in Lake Dongping sediment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hongning; Du, Binghai; Zhang, Mingyan; Fu, Weizhang; Lu, Xiaomeng; Li, Zhenghua; Ding, Yanqin

    2010-08-01

    In order to investigate the effect of environmental factors on the bacterial composition of Lake Dongping sediment. We set six sampling points in Lake Dongping and sampled once in July and once October. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method was used to analyze the bacterial diversity. Ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) , nitrate nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) , total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), total organic carbon (TOC) and water depth were measured. T-RFLP profiles showed high similarity among samples. However, bacterial diversity indices were significant difference in various samples. The richness, diversity, and evenness in samples which were collected in dry season (October) were generally higher than those in wet season (July), and the bacterial species dominance was higher in wet season than that in dry season. Principal Component Analysis showed that the structure of bacterial communities in sample 2B was marked different from the other samples. The results of Canonical Correspondence Analysis suggested that the abundance of 558 bp T-RF was negatively correlated with NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, TN, TP and TOC, but positively correlated with TOC/TN and the water depth; the abundance of 64.5, 164, 509, and 543 bp T-RFs were positively correlated with NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, TN, TOC, TOC/TN and the water depth. The dominant bacteria in Lake Dongping sediments were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Environmental factors affect bacterial diversity of Lake Dongping sediments, although affect less on indigenous bacteria.

  7. Comparative characterization of bacterial communities in geese fed all-grass or high-grain diets

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qi Xu; Xiaoya Yuan; Tiantian Gu; Yang Li; Wangcheng Dai; Xiaokun Shen; Yadong Song; Yang Zhang; Wenming Zhao; Guobin Chang; Guohong Chen

    2017-01-01

    .... Results Here, caecal and faecal samples were collected simultaneously from all-grass-fed geese and high-grain-fed geese and the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were sequenced...

  8. Bacterial co-infections in a captive Python bivittatus with septicemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The snake was brought in dead to the Universiti Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia. Necropsy was conducted and organ samples were sent for virus and bacterial isolation, as well as histopathology. Gross pathological lesions ...

  9. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of bacterial communities composition in Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, S.K.; Ramaiah, N.

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to elucidate spatial and temporal variations in bacterial community composition (BCC) from four locations along the central west coast of India. DNA extracts from 36 water samples collected...

  10. Analysis of bacterial communities and bacterial pathogens in a biogas plant by the combination of ethidium monoazide, PCR and Ion Torrent sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Angelidaki, Irini

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the changes of bacterial community composition including bacterial pathogens along a biogas plant, i.e. from the influent, to the biogas reactor and to the post-digester. The effects of post-digestion temperature and time on the changes of bacterial community...... showed that the bacterial community composition in the influent was changed after anaerobic digestion. Firmicutes were dominant in all the samples, while Proteobacteria decreased in the biogas reactor compared with the influent. Variations of bacterial community composition in the biogas reactor...... with time were also observed. This could be attributed to varying composition of the influent. Batch experiments showed that the methane recovery from the digested residues (obtained from biogas reactor) was mainly related with post-digestion temperature. However, post-digestion time rather than temperature...

  11. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Kistler

    Full Text Available Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp, and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers developed gingivitis after two weeks. Pyrosequencing yielded a final total of 344,267 sequences after filtering, with a mean length of 354 bases, that were clustered into an average of 299 species-level Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs per sample. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA plots revealed significant shifts in the bacterial community structure of plaque as gingivitis was induced, and community diversity increased significantly after two weeks. Changes in the relative abundance of OTUs during the transition from health to gingivitis were correlated to bleeding on probing (BoP scores and resulted in the identification of new health- and gingivitis-associated taxa. Comparison of the healthy volunteers to the periodontitis patients also confirmed the association of a number of putative periodontal pathogens with chronic periodontitis. Taxa associated with gingivitis included Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. polymorphum, Lachnospiraceae [G-2] sp. HOT100, Lautropia sp. HOTA94, and Prevotella oulorum, whilst Rothia dentocariosa was associated with periodontal health. Further study of these taxa is warranted and may lead to new

  12. Bacterial community development in experimental gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, James O; Booth, Veronica; Bradshaw, David J; Wade, William G

    2013-01-01

    Current knowledge of the microbial composition of dental plaque in early gingivitis is based largely on microscopy and cultural methods, which do not provide a comprehensive description of oral microbial communities. This study used 454-pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of 16S rRNA genes (approximately 500 bp), and bacterial culture, to characterize the composition of plaque during the transition from periodontal health to gingivitis. A total of 20 healthy volunteers abstained from oral hygiene for two weeks, allowing plaque to accumulate and gingivitis to develop. Plaque samples were analyzed at baseline, and after one and two weeks. In addition, plaque samples from 20 chronic periodontitis patients were analyzed for cross-sectional comparison to the experimental gingivitis cohort. All of the healthy volunteers develop