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Sample records for subgenomic promoter sgp

  1. The subgenomic promoter of brome mosaic virus folds into a stem-loop structure capped by a pseudo-triloop that is structurally similar to the triloop of the genomic promoter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, J.; Gaudin, M.; Podbevsek, P.

    2012-01-01

    In brome mosaic virus, both the replication of the genomic (+)-RNA strands and the transcription of the subgenomic RNA are carried out by the viral replicase. The production of (-)-RNA strands is dependent on the formation of an AUA triloop in the stem-loop C (SLC) hairpin in the 3'-untranslated...

  2. Subgenomic reporter RNA system for detection of alphavirus infection in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jordan Steel

    Full Text Available Current methods for detecting real-time alphavirus (Family Togaviridae infection in mosquitoes require the use of recombinant viruses engineered to express a visibly detectable reporter protein. These altered viruses expressing fluorescent proteins, usually from a duplicated viral subgenomic reporter, are effective at marking infection but tend to be attenuated due to the modification of the genome. Additionally, field strains of viruses cannot be visualized using this approach unless infectious clones can be developed to insert a reporter protein. To circumvent these issues, we have developed an insect cell-based system for detecting wild-type sindbis virus infection that uses a virus inducible promoter to express a fluorescent reporter gene only upon active virus infection. We have developed an insect expression system that produces sindbis virus minigenomes containing a subgenomic promoter sequence, which produces a translatable RNA species only when infectious virus is present and providing viral replication proteins. This subgenomic reporter RNA system is able to detect wild-type Sindbis infection in cultured mosquito cells. The detection system is relatively species specific and only detects closely related viruses, but can detect low levels of alphavirus specific replication early during infection. A chikungunya virus detection system was also developed that specifically detects chikungunya virus infection. Transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquito families were established that constitutively express the sindbis virus reporter RNA and were found to only express fluorescent proteins during virus infection. This virus inducible reporter system demonstrates a novel approach for detecting non-recombinant virus infection in mosquito cell culture and in live transgenic mosquitoes.

  3. Lidar Atmopheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Data Obtained During the Southern Great Plains (SGP97) Field Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LASE Southern Great Plains (SGP97) field experiment was conducted in Oklahoma during June-July 1997. SGP97 was a NASA EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigation...

  4. Dual Roles of Two Isoforms of Autophagy-related Gene ATG10 in HCV-Subgenomic replicon Mediated Autophagy Flux and Innate Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiong; Hu, Zhan-Ying; Zhang, Jing-Pu; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Ma, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Jian-Rui; Peng, Zong-Gen; Chen, Jin-Hua

    2017-09-12

    Autophagy and immune response are two defense systems that human-body uses against viral infection. Previous studies documented that some viral mechanisms circumvented host immunity mechanisms and hijacked autophagy for its replication and survival. Here, we focus on interactions between autophagy mechanism and innate-immune-response in HCV-subgenomic replicon cells to find a mechanism linking the two pathways. We report distinct effects of two autophagy-related protein ATG10s on HCV-subgenomic replication. ATG10, a canonical long isoform in autophagy process, can facilitate HCV-subgenomic replicon amplification by promoting autophagosome formation and by combining with and detaining autophagosomes in cellular periphery, causing impaired autophagy flux. ATG10S, a non-canonical short isoform of ATG10 proteins, can activate expression of IL28A/B and immunity genes related to viral ds-RNA including ddx-58, tlr-3, tlr-7, irf-3 and irf-7, and promote autophagolysosome formation by directly combining and driving autophagosomes to perinuclear region where lysosomes gather, leading to lysosomal degradation of HCV-subgenomic replicon in HepG2 cells. ATG10S also can suppress infectious HCV virion replication in Huh7.5 cells. Another finding is that IL28A protein directly conjugates ATG10S and helps autophagosome docking to lysosomes. ATG10S might be a new host factor against HCV replication, and as a target for screening chemicals with new anti-virus mechanisms.

  5. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  6. Epigenetic regulation of subgenome dominance following whole genome triplication in Brassica rapa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Chao; Wu, Jian; Schnable, James; Woodhouse, Margaret R; Liang, Jianli; Cai, Chengcheng; Freeling, Michael; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-07-01

    Subgenome dominance is an important phenomenon observed in allopolyploids after whole genome duplication, in which one subgenome retains more genes as well as contributes more to the higher expressing gene copy of paralogous genes. To dissect the mechanism of subgenome dominance, we systematically investigated the relationships of gene expression, transposable element (TE) distribution and small RNA targeting, relating to the multicopy paralogous genes generated from whole genome triplication in Brassica rapa. The subgenome dominance was found to be regulated by a relatively stable factor established previously, then inherited by and shared among B. rapa varieties. In addition, we found a biased distribution of TEs between flanking regions of paralogous genes. Furthermore, the 24-nt small RNAs target TEs and are negatively correlated to the dominant expression of individual paralogous gene pairs. The biased distribution of TEs among subgenomes and the targeting of 24-nt small RNAs together produce the dominant expression phenomenon at a subgenome scale. Based on these findings, we propose a bucket hypothesis to illustrate subgenome dominance and hybrid vigor. Our findings and hypothesis are valuable for the evolutionary study of polyploids, and may shed light on studies of hybrid vigor, which is common to most species. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  7. Extraction of the Constituent Subgenomes of the Natural Allopolyploid Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Tu, Yuqin; Zeng, Pan; Ge, Xianhong; Li, Zaiyun

    2016-11-01

    As the dynamic nature of progenitor genomes accompanies the speciation by interspecific hybridization, the extraction of the constituent subgenome(s) from a natural allopolyploid species of long history and then restitution of the progenitor(s) provides the unique opportunity to study the genome evolution and interplay. Herein, the A subgenome from the allotetraploid oilseed rape (Brassica napus L., AACC) was extracted through inducing the preferential elimination of C-subgenome chromosomes in intertribal crosses and the progenitor B. rapa was restituted (RBR). Then by crossing and backcrossing RBR with B. napus donor, the C subgenome was in situ dissected by adding each of its nine chromosomes to the extracted A subgenome and establishing the whole set of monosonic alien addition lines (MAALs). RBR from spring-type B. napus genotype "Oro" expressed a phenotype resembling some type of B. rapa never observed before, but showed a winter-type flowering habit. This RBR had weaker growth vigor and suffered more seriously from biotic and abiotic stresses compared with Oro. The phenotypes specific for these MAALs showed the location of the related genes on the particular C-subgenome chromosomes. These MAALs exhibited obviously different frequencies in homeologous pairing and transmission of additional C-subgenome chromosomes, which were associated with the distinct degrees of their relatedness, and even with the possible genetic regulation for meiotic pairing evolved in B. napus Finally, large scaffolds undetermined for sequence assembly of B. napus were anchored to specific C-subgenome chromosomes using MAALs. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Entamoeba histolytica: construction and applications of subgenomic databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Margit; Duchêne, Michael

    2005-07-01

    Knowledge about the influence of environmental stress such as the action of chemotherapeutic agents on gene expression in Entamoeba histolytica is limited. We plan to use oligonucleotide microarray hybridization to approach these questions. As the basis for our array, sequence data from the genome project carried out by the Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR) and the Sanger Institute were used to annotate parts of the parasite genome. Three subgenomic databases containing enzymes, cytoskeleton genes, and stress genes were compiled with the help of the ExPASy proteomics website and the BLAST servers at the two genome project sites. The known sequences from reference species, mostly human and Escherichia coli, were searched against TIGR and Sanger E. histolytica sequence contigs and the homologs were copied into a Microsoft Access database. In a similar way, two additional databases of cytoskeletal genes and stress genes were generated. Metabolic pathways could be assembled from our enzyme database, but sometimes they were incomplete as is the case for the sterol biosynthesis pathway. The raw databases contained a significant number of duplicate entries which were merged to obtain curated non-redundant databases. This procedure revealed that some E. histolytica genes may have several putative functions. Representative examples such as the case of the delta-aminolevulinate synthase/serine palmitoyltransferase are discussed.

  9. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-10-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea accessions representing various morphotypes and identified signals of selection at the mesohexaploid subgenome level. For cabbage morphotypes with their typical leaf-heading trait, we identified four subgenome loci that show signs of parallel selection among subgenomes within B. rapa, as well as four such loci within B. oleracea. Fifteen subgenome loci are under selection and are shared by these two species. We also detected strong subgenome parallel selection linked to the domestication of the tuberous morphotypes, turnip (B. rapa) and kohlrabi (B. oleracea). Overall, we demonstrated that the mesohexaploidization of the two Brassica genomes contributed to their diversification into heading and tuber-forming morphotypes through convergent subgenome parallel selection of paralogous genes.

  10. Effects of Modification of the Transcription Initiation Site Context on Citrus Tristeza Virus Subgenomic RNA Synthesis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, María A.; Gowda, Siddarame; Satyanarayana, Tatineni; Karasev, Alexander V.; Adkins, Scott; Mawassi, Munir; Guerri, José; Moreno, Pedro; Dawson, William O.

    2003-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV), a member of the Closteroviridae, has a positive-sense RNA genome of about 20 kb organized into 12 open reading frames (ORFs). The last 10 ORFs are expressed through 3′-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) regulated in both amounts and timing. Additionally, relatively large amounts of complementary sgRNAs are produced. We have been unable to determine whether these sgRNAs are produced by internal promotion from the full-length template minus strand or by transcription from the minus-stranded sgRNAs. Understanding the regulation of 10 sgRNAs is a conceptual challenge. In analyzing commonalities of a replicase complex in producing so many sgRNAs, we examined initiating nucleotides of the sgRNAs. We mapped the 5′ termini of intermediate- (CP and p13) and low- (p18) produced sgRNAs that, like the two highly abundant sgRNAs (p20 and p23) previously mapped, all initiate with an adenylate. We then examined modifications of the initiation site, which has been shown to be useful in defining mechanisms of sgRNA synthesis. Surprisingly, mutation of the initiating nucleotide of the CTV sgRNAs did not prevent sgRNA accumulation. Based on our results, the CTV replication complex appears to initiate sgRNA synthesis with purines, preferably with adenylates, and is able to initiate synthesis using a nucleotide a few positions 5′ or 3′ of the native initiation nucleotide. Furthermore, the context of the initiation site appears to be a regulatory mechanism for levels of sgRNA production. These data do not support either of the established mechanisms for synthesis of sgRNAs, suggesting that CTV sgRNA production utilizes a different mechanism. PMID:12915539

  11. Evolutionary Origins and Dynamics of Octoploid Strawberry Subgenomes Revealed by Dense Targeted Capture Linkage Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennessen, Jacob A.; Govindarajulu, Rajanikanth; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Liston, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Whole-genome duplications are radical evolutionary events that have driven speciation and adaptation in many taxa. Higher-order polyploids have complex histories often including interspecific hybridization and dynamic genomic changes. This chromosomal reshuffling is poorly understood for most polyploid species, despite their evolutionary and agricultural importance, due to the challenge of distinguishing homologous sequences from each other. Here, we use dense linkage maps generated with targeted sequence capture to improve the diploid strawberry (Fragaria vesca) reference genome and to disentangle the subgenomes of the wild octoploid progenitors of cultivated strawberry, Fragaria virginiana and Fragaria chiloensis. Our novel approach, POLiMAPS (Phylogenetics Of Linkage-Map-Anchored Polyploid Subgenomes), leverages sequence reads to associate informative interhomeolog phylogenetic markers with linkage groups and reference genome positions. In contrast to a widely accepted model, we find that one of the four subgenomes originates with the diploid cytoplasm donor F. vesca, one with the diploid Fragaria iinumae, and two with an unknown ancestor close to F. iinumae. Extensive unidirectional introgression has converted F. iinumae-like subgenomes to be more F. vesca-like, but never the reverse, due either to homoploid hybridization in the F. iinumae-like diploid ancestors or else strong selection spreading F. vesca-like sequence among subgenomes through homeologous exchange. In addition, divergence between homeologous chromosomes has been substantially augmented by interchromosomal rearrangements. Our phylogenetic approach reveals novel aspects of the complicated web of genetic exchanges that occur during polyploid evolution and suggests a path forward for unraveling other agriculturally and ecologically important polyploid genomes. PMID:25477420

  12. RFI Mitigation and Testing Employed at GGAO for NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M.; Rajagopalan, Ganesh; Stevenson, Thomas; Turner, Charles; Bulcha, Berhanu

    2017-01-01

    Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) Mitigation at Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) has been addressed in three different ways by NASA's Space Geodesy Project (SGP); masks, blockers, and filters. All of these techniques will be employed at the GGAO, to mitigate the RFI consequences to the Very Long Baseline Interferometer.

  13. HANDS: a tool for genome-wide discovery of subgenome-specific base-identity in polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Aziz; Belfield, Eric J; Brown, Carly; Jiang, Caifu; Leach, Lindsey J; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2013-09-24

    The analysis of polyploid genomes is problematic because homeologous subgenome sequences are closely related. This relatedness makes it difficult to assign individual sequences to the specific subgenome from which they are derived, and hinders the development of polyploid whole genome assemblies. We here present a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approach for assignment of subgenome-specific base-identity at sites containing homeolog-specific polymorphisms (HSPs): 'HSP base Assignment using NGS data through Diploid Similarity' (HANDS). We show that HANDS correctly predicts subgenome-specific base-identity at >90% of assayed HSPs in the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) transcriptome, thus providing a substantial increase in accuracy versus previous methods for homeolog-specific base assignment. We conclude that HANDS enables rapid and accurate genome-wide discovery of homeolog-specific base-identity, a capability having multiple applications in polyploid genomics.

  14. HANDS: a tool for genome-wide discovery of subgenome-specific base-identity in polyploids.

    KAUST Repository

    Mithani, Aziz

    2013-09-24

    The analysis of polyploid genomes is problematic because homeologous subgenome sequences are closely related. This relatedness makes it difficult to assign individual sequences to the specific subgenome from which they are derived, and hinders the development of polyploid whole genome assemblies.We here present a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based approach for assignment of subgenome-specific base-identity at sites containing homeolog-specific polymorphisms (HSPs): \\'HSP base Assignment using NGS data through Diploid Similarity\\' (HANDS). We show that HANDS correctly predicts subgenome-specific base-identity at >90% of assayed HSPs in the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) transcriptome, thus providing a substantial increase in accuracy versus previous methods for homeolog-specific base assignment.We conclude that HANDS enables rapid and accurate genome-wide discovery of homeolog-specific base-identity, a capability having multiple applications in polyploid genomics.

  15. Insight into octoploid strawberry (Fragaria) subgenome composition revealed by GISH analysis of pentaploid hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Poulsen, Elizabeth G; Davis, Thomas M

    2016-02-01

    As the product of interspecific hybridization between its two ancestral octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) species (Fragaria chiloensis and F. virginiana), the cultivated strawberry (F. ×ananassa) is among the most genomically complex of crop plants, harboring subgenomic components derived from as many as four different diploid ancestors. To physically visualize the octoploids' subgenome composition(s), we launched molecular cytogenetic studies using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), comparative GISH (cGISH), and rDNA-FISH techniques. First, GISH resolution in Fragaria was tested by using diploid and triploid hybrids with predetermined genome compositions. Then, observation of an octoploid genome was implemented by hybridizing chromosomes of pentaploid (2n = 5x = 35) hybrids from F. vesca × F. virginiana with genomic DNA probes derived from diploids (2n = 2x = 14) F. vesca and F. iinumae, which have been proposed by phylogenetic studies to be closely related to the octoploids yet highly divergent from each other. GISH and cGISH results indicated that octoploid-derived gametes (n = 4x = 28) carried seven chromosomes with hybridization affinities to F. vesca, while the remaining 21 chromosomes displayed varying affinities to F. iinumae, indicating differing degrees of subgenomic contribution to the octoploids by these two putatively ancestral diploids. Combined rDNA-FISH revealed severe 25S rDNA loss in both the F. vesca- and F. iinumae-like chromosome groups, while only the prior group retained its 5S loci.

  16. Satellite's Trajectory Propagation At NearCircular Orbits Using TLE Files In The Simplified SGP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chagina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the satellite's trajectory calculation algorithm for near-circular orbits using TLE (two-line element files in the simplified SGP model. The aim of the algorithm is to obtain the array of satellite's azimuth and elevation required to control the antennas of ground station. The initial conditions of motion in TLE format are very widespread nowadays, they are being used by many calculation software, nevertheless there is a deficit of information concerned with this format in Russian literature. The report presented at NASA web-sites by Dr. T.S. Kelso contains the descriptions of satellite's trajectory calculation algorithms in case of various models (SGP, SGP4, SDP4 etc. The realization of these algorithms demands for the executer's experience because speaking about Russian and the American scientific schools there are differences both in measure units and in approaches to satellite's trajectory calculation.Moreover, in opposite to series of related publications all the calculation sequence to obtain the values of antenna pointing is given in this article, the described algorithm is pretty simple and clear. It is not enough to have the satellite's coordinates and velocity in Earth inertial equatorial system to calculate azimuth and elevation. One has to bind the ground station situated at the surface of the Earth, which is involved in complicated motion, to a point in inertial space using Local Sidereal Time. Several issues propose the utilization of Astronomical Almanac. But the exploitation of the Almanac is not convenient when it is required to get the arrays of values of antenna control angles as functions of time. The article contains the methodology given in foreign issues which allow the calculation of Local Sidereal Time. This methodology is an adjacent part of the trajectory calculation problem with respect to ground station.The calculation results obtained using the described algorithm were compared with the data

  17. Mutual Interference between Genomic RNA Replication and Subgenomic mRNA Transcription in Brome Mosaic Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Grdzelishvili, Valery Z.; Garcia-Ruiz, Hernan; Watanabe, Tokiko; Ahlquist, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Replication by many positive-strand RNA viruses includes genomic RNA amplification and subgenomic mRNA (sgRNA) transcription. For brome mosaic virus (BMV), both processes occur in virus-induced, membrane-associated compartments, require BMV replication factors 1a and 2a, and use negative-strand RNA3 as a template for genomic RNA3 and sgRNA syntheses. To begin elucidating their relations, we examined the interaction of RNA3 replication and sgRNA transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expres...

  18. All subgenomic mRNAs of equine arteritis virus contain a common leader sequence.

    OpenAIRE

    de Vries, A A; Chirnside, E D; Bredenbeek, P J; Gravestein, L A; Horzinek, M C; Spaan, W J

    1990-01-01

    During the replication of equine arteritis virus (EAV) six subgenomic mRNAs are synthesized. We present evidence that the viral mRNAs form a 3'-coterminal nested set and contain a common leader sequence of 208 nucleotides which is encoded by the 5'-end of the genome. The leader is joined to the bodies of mRNA 5 and 6 at positions defined by the sequence 5' UCAAC 3'. The part of the leader sequence flanking the UCAAC motif is very similar to the 5'-splice site of the Tetrahymena pre-rRNA. A po...

  19. Characterizing the Vertical Distribution of Aerosols Over the ARM SGP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Ferrare, Connor Flynn, David Turner

    2009-05-05

    This project focused on: 1) evaluating the performance of the DOE ARM SGP Raman lidar system in measuring profiles of water vapor and aerosols, and 2) the use of the Raman lidar measurements of aerosol and water vapor profiles for assessing the vertical distribution of aerosols and water vapor simulated by global transport models and examining diurnal variability of aerosols and water vapor. The highest aerosol extinction was generally observed close to the surface during the nighttime just prior to sunrise. The high values of aerosol extinction are most likely associated with increased scattering by hygroscopic aerosols, since the corresponding average relative humidity values were above 70%. After sunrise, relative humidity and aerosol extinction below 500 m decreased with the growth in the daytime convective boundary layer. The largest aerosol extinction for altitudes above 1 km occurred during the early afternoon most likely as a result of the increase in relative humidity. The water vapor mixing ratio profiles generally showed smaller variations with altitude between day and night. We also compared simultaneous measurements of relative humidity, aerosol extinction, and aerosol optical thickness derived from the ARM SGP Raman lidar and in situ instruments on board a small aircraft flown routinely over the ARM SGP site. In contrast, the differences between the CARL and IAP aerosol extinction measurements are considerably larger. Aerosol extinction derived from the IAP measurements is, on average, about 30-40% less than values derived from the Raman lidar. The reasons for this difference are not clear, but may be related to the corrections for supermicron scattering and relative humidity that were applied to the IAP data. The investigators on this project helped to set up a major field mission (2003 Aerosol IOP) over the DOE ARM SGP site. One of the goals of the mission was to further evaluate the aerosol and water vapor retrievals from this lidar system

  20. Amplification of Nicotiana sylvestris mitochondrial subgenomes is under nuclear control and is associated with phenotypic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Béatrice; Lelandais, Christine; Pla, Magali; Leuret, Corine; Vitart, Véronique; Mathieu, Chantal; Sihachakr, Darasinh; Godelle, Bernard; De Paepe, Rosine

    2003-01-01

    We have previously shown the presence in a Nicotiana sylvestris protoplast-derived plant of both a nuclear mutation conferring male sterility (ms4) and a mtDNA reorganisation, named U, characterised by the amplification of substoichiometric mtDNA fragments generated by recombination in the parent T mtDNA. Here we show by physical mapping that the recombining repeats are in direct orientation, thus generating two subgenomes both of which are amplified in the U organisation to the detriment of the parent molecule, and are maintained through sexual reproduction. The nuclear ms4 mutation is likely to have play a role in the shift in mitochondrial molecule equilibrium, as higher levels of recombinant fragments were present in protoplast-derived T calli carrying the ms4 allele than in wild type calli or leaves. The MS4 gene could then lead to conflictual situation. However, subgenomic molecules were counter-selected during the regeneration process, suggesting the existence of different selective pressures in differentiated and non-differentiated cells. The U organisation is associated with higher stem height and late flowering, characters that may not be neutral from a selection point of view. The U equilibrium is an unusual example of sudden mtDNA reorganisation, without obvious differences in genetic information and with only a limited phenotypic impact.

  1. Diurnal Cycle of Clouds and Precipitation at the ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, W.; Marchand, R.; Fu, Q.

    2016-12-01

    Millimeter Wavelength Cloud Radar (MMCR) data from Dec. 1996 to Dec. 2010, collected at the U. S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program site in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP), are categorized into clouds (-40dBZe≤reflectivitycloud parameterizations replaced by a cloud resolved model (CRM). Observational and simulated radar reflectivity are compared and further sorted into different atmospheric states identified by Evans (2014). Evans used a neutral network to take ERA-Interim state variables (i.e. horizontal winds, relative humidity, temperature at seven predetermined pressure level and surface pressure) on an 8×8 grid with 1.5º×1.5º spatial resolution centered on the SGP site and found twenty-one atmospheric states which represent specific synoptic conditions. We use these states to study the differences in the diurnal cycle between observations and simulations. Differences in the (mean) annual diurnal cycle between the observations and model are decomposed into errors in the daily mean, errors in the diurnal variation in each state, and errors due to difference in the frequency of occurrence of atmospheric states between ERA and the MMF. The magnitude of various error sources is assessed.

  2. Synthesis of subgenomic mRNAs of mouse hepatitis virus is initiated independently: Evidence from UV transcription mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Jacobs, L.; Spaan, W.J.M.; Zeijst, B.A.M. van der

    1981-01-01

    The target sizes of the templates for the synthesis of the genome-sized RNA and the six subgenomic RNAs found in cells infected with mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 were determined by UV transcription mapping. Infected Sac(-) cells were irradiated at 6 h postinfection, the time when virus-specific

  3. Comparison of improved Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer CO2 with HIPPO and SGP aircraft profile measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kulawik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared radiances from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES between 10 and 15 μm contain significant carbon dioxide (CO2 information, however the CO2 signal must be separated from radiative interference from temperature, surface and cloud parameters, water, and other trace gases. Validation requires data sources spanning the range of TES CO2 sensitivity, which is approximately 2.5 to 12 km with peak sensitivity at about 5 km and the range of TES observations in latitude (40° S to 40° N and time (2005–2011. We therefore characterize Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES CO2 version 5 biases and errors through comparisons to ocean and land-based aircraft profiles and to the CarbonTracker assimilation system. We compare to ocean profiles from the first three Hiaper Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO campaigns between 40° S and 40° N with measurements between the surface and 14 km and find that TES CO2 estimates capture the seasonal and latitudinal gradients observed by HIPPO CO2 measurements. Actual errors range from 0.8–1.8 ppm, depending on the campaign and pressure level, and are approximately 1.6–2 times larger than the predicted errors. The bias of TES versus HIPPO is within 1 ppm for all pressures and datasets; however, several of the sub-tropical TES CO2 estimates are lower than expected based on the calculated errors. Comparisons to land aircraft profiles from the United States Southern Great Plains (SGP Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM between 2005 and 2011 measured from the surface to 5 km to TES CO2 show good agreement with an overall bias of −0.3 ppm to 0.1 ppm and standard deviations of 0.8 to 1.0 ppm at different pressure levels. Extending the SGP aircraft profiles above 5 km using AIRS or CONTRAIL measurements improves comparisons with TES. Comparisons to CarbonTracker (version CT2011 show a persistent spatially dependent bias pattern and comparisons to SGP show a time-dependent bias of −0.2 ppm

  4. A one-year climatology using data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site micropulse lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mace, G.G.; Ackerman, T.P. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Spinhirne, J.; Scott, S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The micropulse lidar (MPL) has been operational at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program for the past 15 months. The compact MPL is unique among research lidar systems in that it is eye-safe and operates continuously, except during precipitation. The MPL is capable of detecting cloud base throughout the entire depth of the troposphere. The MPL data set is an unprecedented time series of cloud heights. It is a vital resource for understanding the frequency of cloud ocurrence and the impact of clouds on the surface radiation budget, as well as for large-scale model validation and satellite retrieval verification. The raw lidar data are processed for cloud base height at a temporal frequency of one minute and a vertical resolution of 270 m. The resultant time series of cloud base is used to generate histograms as a function of month and time of day. Sample results are described.

  5. Use of DOE SGP Radars in Support of ASR Modeling Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutledge, Steven A. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2015-12-13

    The objective of this work was to use the DOE Southern Great Plains (SGP) precipitation radars to investigate physical characteristics of clouds and precipitation, and use this knowledge in support of DOE ASR modeling efforts. The goal was to develop an integrated data set based on the SGP instrumentation to yield statistically robust fields to aid in the task of verifying simulated cloud dynamical and microphysical fields. For this effort we relied heavily on the ARM scanning precipitation radars, X-SAPR’s and C-SAPR, and also incorporating data from wind profilers, surface disdrometers and the nearby WSR-88D radar, KVNX. Initially we lent our expertise to quality controlling the data from the newly installed ARM radars, particularly the X-band polarimetric data, and additionally assessed automatic radial velocity unfolding algorithms developed by other ASR researchers. We focused our efforts on four cases from the MC3E field campaign in 2011 and developed a dataset including microphysical information derived from hydrometeor identification and kinematic analysis using multiple-Doppler retrieval techniques. This dataset became a PI product and was released to the community in 2014. This analysis was used to investigate the source of big drops (> 5 mm) observed with disdrometers at the surface. It was found that the big drops were coincident with the strongest updrafts, suggesting they resulted from the melting of large precipitation ice, likely hail. We teamed up with W-K Tao and T. Matsui to statistically compare radar-derived observational kinematics and microphysics to WRF model output for the 25 April 2011. Comparisons highlighted some areas where the model may need improvement, such as generating too much hail and big drops, as well as overly-strong updrafts and overly-weak of downdrafts.

  6. Transcription of mouse Sp2 yields alternatively spliced and sub-genomic mRNAs in a tissue- and cell type-specific fashion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haifeng; Nichols, Teresa D.; Horowitz, Jonathan M.

    2010-01-01

    The Sp-family of transcription factors is comprised by nine members, Sp1-9, that share a highly-conserved DNA-binding domain. Sp2 is a poorly characterized member of this transcription factor family that is widely expressed in murine and human cell lines yet exhibits little DNA-binding or trans-activation activity in these settings. As a prelude to the generation of a “knock-out” mouse strain, we isolated a mouse Sp2 cDNA and performed a detailed analysis of Sp2 transcription in embryonic and adult mouse tissues. We report that (1) the 5′ untranslated region of Sp2 is subject to alternative splicing, (2) Sp2 transcription is regulated by at least two promoters that differ in their cell-type specificity, (3) one Sp2 promoter is highly active in nine mammalian cell lines and strains and is regulated by at least five discrete stimulatory and inhibitory elements, (4) a variety of sub-genomic messages are synthesized from the Sp2 locus in a tissue- and cell type-specific fashion and these transcripts have the capacity to encode a novel partial-Sp2 protein, and (5) RNA in situ hybridization assays indicate that Sp2 is widely expressed during mouse embryogenesis, particularly in the embryonic brain, and robust Sp2 expression occurs in neurogenic regions of the post-natal and adult brain. PMID:20353838

  7. Identification and characterization of genes on a single subgenome in the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype 'Chinese Spring'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Zheng, Zhi; Stiller, Jiri; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Liu, Yaxi; Deng, Mei; Wang, Penghao; Pu, Zhien; Chen, Guangdeng; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Gene loss during the formation of hexaploid bread wheat has been repeatedly reported. However, our knowledge on genome-wide analysis of the genes present on a single subgenome (SSG) in bread wheat is still limited. In this study, by analysing the 'Chinese Spring' chromosome arm shotgun sequences together with high-confidence gene models, we detected 433 genes on a SSG. Greater gene loss was observed in A and D subgenomes compared with B subgenome. More than 79% of the orthologs for these SSG genes were detected in diploid and tetraploid relatives of hexaploid wheat. Unexpectedly, no bias in expression breadth or in the distribution patterns of GO (gene ontology) terms for these genes was detected among the high-confidence genes. Further, network and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses indicated that most of these genes were not functionally related to each other. Interestingly, 30.7% of these SSG genes were most highly expressed in root, showing biased distribution given the distribution of the whole high-confidence genes. Collectively, these results facilitate our understanding of the loss of the genes that were retained in a SSG during the formation of hexaploid wheat.

  8. Persistent replication of the GBV-C subgenomic replicons in Huh7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ming-Mei; Ren, Hao; Zhao, Ping; Pan, Wei; Chen, Qiu-Li; Qi, Zhong-Tian

    2009-05-01

    Studies of GB virus type C (GBV-C) replication in vitro have been limited because of poor growth of GBV-C in cell culture. In order to address the infection of GBV-C, two GBV-C subgenomic replicons (GBCrepEGFP and GBCrepTNF) were developed from a GBV-C full-length genomic cDNA. The viral replication, protein expression and the production of virus-like particles were evaluated in human hepatoma cell line Huh7. The results showed that the established GBCrepEGFP and GBCrepTNF replicons could be replicated autonomously and expressed in cell culture for at least 2 months and 1 month respectively. The replicon RNA could assemble RNA-containing structures in the HuhEH cells expressing GBV-C structural proteins. It suggests that a cell line supporting the replication of GBV-C was established. This replicon system might be used to understand better the biology of GBV-C.

  9. Transcriptional strategy of closteroviruses: mapping the 5' termini of the citrus tristeza virus subgenomic RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasev, A V; Hilf, M E; Garnsey, S M; Dawson, W O

    1997-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) induces formation of a nested set of at least nine 3' coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) in infected tissue. The organization and expression of the 19,296-nucleotide (nt) CTV genome resembles that of coronaviruses, with polyprotein processing, translational frameshifting, and multiple sgRNA formation, but phylogenetically the CTV polymerase, like polymerases of other closteroviruses, belongs to the Sindbis virus-like lineage of RNA virus polymerases. Both positive-strand RNA virus supergroups, coronaviruses and Sindbis-like viruses, utilize different mechanisms of transcription. To address the mechanism of CTV transcription, 5' termini for the two most abundant sgRNAs, 1.5 and 0.9 kb, respectively, were mapped by runoff reverse transcription. The two sgRNAs were demonstrated to have 48- and 38-nt 5' untranslated regions (5'-UTRs), respectively. The 5'-UTR for the 1.5-kb RNA was cloned, sequenced, and demonstrated to be colinear with the 48-nt genomic sequence upstream of the initiator codon of the respective open reading frame 10, i.e., to be of continuous template origin. The data obtained suggest that the sgRNA transcription of CTV is dissimilar from the coronavirus transcription and consistent with the transcriptional mechanism of other Sindbis-like viruses. Thus, the Sindbis virus-like mechanism of transcription of the positive-strand RNA genomes might be successfully utilized by the closterovirus genome of up to 19.3 kb with multiple sgRNAs. PMID:9223524

  10. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA: Multiple Functions in West Nile Virus Pathogenesis and Modulation of Host Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Roby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Flaviviruses are a large group of positive strand RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods that include many human pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. All members in this genus tested so far are shown to produce a unique subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA derived from the 3' untranslated region (UTR. sfRNA is a product of incomplete degradation of genomic RNA by the cell 5'–3' exoribonuclease XRN1 which stalls at highly ordered secondary RNA structures at the beginning of the 3'UTR. Generation of sfRNA results in inhibition of XRN1 activity leading to an increase in stability of many cellular mRNAs. Mutant WNV deficient in sfRNA generation was highly attenuated displaying a marked decrease in cytopathicity in cells and pathogenicity in mice. sfRNA has also been shown to inhibit the antiviral activity of IFN-α/β by yet unknown mechanism and of the RNAi pathway by likely serving as a decoy substrate for Dicer. Thus, sfRNA is involved in modulating multiple cellular pathways to facilitate viral pathogenicity; however the overlying mechanism linking all these multiple functions of sfRNA remains to be elucidated.

  11. RAMAN LIDAR PROFILING OF WATER VAPOR AND AEROSOLS OVER THE ARM SGP SITE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERRARE,R.A.

    2000-01-09

    We have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. This Raman lidar system is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols (Goldsmith et al., 1998). These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. We have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) (Feltz et al., 1998; Turner et al., 1999). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

  12. Raman lidar profiling of water vapor and aerosols over the ARM SGP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrare, R.A.

    2000-01-09

    The authors have developed and implemented automated algorithms to retrieve profiles of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscattering, and aerosol extinction from Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) Raman Lidar data acquired during both daytime and nighttime operations. The Raman lidar sytem is unique in that it is turnkey, automated system designed for unattended, around-the-clock profiling of water vapor and aerosols. These Raman lidar profiles are important for determining the clear-sky radiative flux, as well as for validating the retrieval algorithms associated with satellite sensors. Accurate, high spatial and temporal resolution profiles of water vapor are also required for assimilation into mesoscale models to improve weather forecasts. The authors have also developed and implemented routines to simultaneously retrieve profiles of relative humidity. These routines utilize the water vapor mixing ratio profiles derived from the Raman lidar measurements together with temperature profiles derived from a physical retrieval algorithm that uses data from a collocated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). These aerosol and water vapor profiles (Raman lidar) and temperature profiles (AERI+GOES) have been combined into a single product that takes advantage of both active and passive remote sensors to characterize the clear sky atmospheric state above the CART site.

  13. On the Critical Behaviour of Observed and Simulated Spatial Soil Moisture Fields during SGP97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Gebremichael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aircraft-based ESTAR soil moisture fields from the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97 Hydrology Experiment are compared to the simulated ones obtained by Bertoldi et al. [1] with the GEOtop model [2], with a particular focus on their capability in capturing the critical point behaviour in their space-time dynamics (see [3]. The critical point behaviour should denote the transition of soil moisture spatial patterns from an unorganized to organized appearance, as conditions become wetter. The study region is the Little Washita watershed, located in the southwest Oklahoma, in the Southern Great Plains region of the USA. The case study takes place from June 27 to July 16 and encompasses wetting and drying cycles allowing for exploring the behaviour under transient conditions. Results show that the critical probability value is 0.85 for GEOtop, and 0.80 for ESTAR. The GEOtop patterns appear more fragmented, being more reluctant to organization, as confirmed by the higher value of critical probability. Such behaviour is probably inherited by the model’s parameterization: land use and soil classes impose additional spatial structures to those related to the meteorological forcings and the hillslope morphology, driving to higher degrees of heterogeneity.

  14. Investigating the Scale Dependence of SCM Simulated Clouds by Using Gridded Forcing Data at SGP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S.; Zhang, M.; Xie, S.

    2016-12-01

    Large-scale forcing data, such as vertical velocity and advective tendencies, are required to drive single-column models (SCM), cloud-resolving models and large-eddy simulations. Previous studies suggest that some model discrepancies could be attributed to the lack of horizontal inhomogeneity in the large-scale forcing data. This study investigates the spatial variability of the gridded large-scale forcing data derived from a three-dimensional constrained variational analysis (3DCVA) method and its impact on SCM simulated clouds and radiation. The analysis of March 2000 intensive operational periods at the ARM SGP site shows that the large-scale forcing data have large spatial variability especially when there are frontal systems passing through. SCM simulations are performed in each sub-column and the combination of these sub-columns captures some characteristics of the front structure. However, physical parameterizations are still the most important error source in SCM, since most model discrepancies remain in the sub-column runs. Overall, with the spatial variability of forcing, the average of sub-column SCM simulations of clouds and radiation are more consistent with the domain-averaged observations compared to the coarse column simulation

  15. EL IMPACTO DE LOS CAMBIOS EN EL SISTEMA GENERALIZADO DE PREFERENCIAS (SGP DE LA UNIÓN EUROPEA (UE EN PAÍSES ASIÁTICOS Y LATINOAMERICANOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludo Cuyvers

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudian el impacto de los cambios en el Sistema Generalizado de Preferencias (SGP de la Unión Europea (UE sobre sus propias importaciones, procedentes de los países beneficiarios del SGP de la ASEAN y China, y de América Latina, y el uso de los beneficios del SGP por estos países, entre 1994-2007. Se concluye que las importaciones agrícolas se ven afectadas negativamente por los cambios en el SGP, pero las industriales parecen haber reaccionado positivamente. Para las importaciones de los productos textiles los resultados no son significativos. Igualmente, se identifica que los países de la ASEAN y China se benefician más del SPG de la UE (para productos industriales y textiles que los latinoamericanos; sin embargo, los cambios en el SGP no tuvieron un efecto importante para ninguno de los dos grupos. Las estimaciones muestran que el mecanismo de graduación en el SGP de la UE parece ser eficaz para los productos industriales, pero no para los productos textiles.

  16. Dengue subgenomic flaviviral RNA disrupts immunity in mosquito salivary glands to increase virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompon, Julien; Manuel, Menchie; Ng, Geok Kee; Wong, Benjamin; Shan, Chao; Manokaran, Gayathri; Soto-Acosta, Ruben; Bradrick, Shelton S; Ooi, Eng Eong; Missé, Dorothée; Shi, Pei-Yong; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A

    2017-07-01

    Globally re-emerging dengue viruses are transmitted from human-to-human by Aedes mosquitoes. While viral determinants of human pathogenicity have been defined, there is a lack of knowledge of how dengue viruses influence mosquito transmission. Identification of viral determinants of transmission can help identify isolates with high epidemiological potential. Additionally, mechanistic understanding of transmission will lead to better understanding of how dengue viruses harness evolution to cycle between the two hosts. Here, we identified viral determinants of transmission and characterized mechanisms that enhance production of infectious saliva by inhibiting immunity specifically in salivary glands. Combining oral infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and reverse genetics, we identified two 3' UTR substitutions in epidemic isolates that increased subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA) quantity, infectious particles in salivary glands and infection rate of saliva, which represents a measure of transmission. We also demonstrated that various 3'UTR modifications similarly affect sfRNA quantity in both whole mosquitoes and human cells, suggesting a shared determinism of sfRNA quantity. Furthermore, higher relative quantity of sfRNA in salivary glands compared to midgut and carcass pointed to sfRNA function in salivary glands. We showed that the Toll innate immune response was preferentially inhibited in salivary glands by viruses with the 3'UTR substitutions associated to high epidemiological fitness and high sfRNA quantity, pointing to a mechanism for higher saliva infection rate. By determining that sfRNA is an immune suppressor in a tissue relevant to mosquito transmission, we propose that 3'UTR/sfRNA sequence evolution shapes dengue epidemiology not only by influencing human pathogenicity but also by increasing mosquito transmission, thereby revealing a viral determinant of epidemiological fitness that is shared between the two hosts.

  17. Dengue subgenomic flaviviral RNA disrupts immunity in mosquito salivary glands to increase virus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Pompon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Globally re-emerging dengue viruses are transmitted from human-to-human by Aedes mosquitoes. While viral determinants of human pathogenicity have been defined, there is a lack of knowledge of how dengue viruses influence mosquito transmission. Identification of viral determinants of transmission can help identify isolates with high epidemiological potential. Additionally, mechanistic understanding of transmission will lead to better understanding of how dengue viruses harness evolution to cycle between the two hosts. Here, we identified viral determinants of transmission and characterized mechanisms that enhance production of infectious saliva by inhibiting immunity specifically in salivary glands. Combining oral infection of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and reverse genetics, we identified two 3' UTR substitutions in epidemic isolates that increased subgenomic flaviviral RNA (sfRNA quantity, infectious particles in salivary glands and infection rate of saliva, which represents a measure of transmission. We also demonstrated that various 3'UTR modifications similarly affect sfRNA quantity in both whole mosquitoes and human cells, suggesting a shared determinism of sfRNA quantity. Furthermore, higher relative quantity of sfRNA in salivary glands compared to midgut and carcass pointed to sfRNA function in salivary glands. We showed that the Toll innate immune response was preferentially inhibited in salivary glands by viruses with the 3'UTR substitutions associated to high epidemiological fitness and high sfRNA quantity, pointing to a mechanism for higher saliva infection rate. By determining that sfRNA is an immune suppressor in a tissue relevant to mosquito transmission, we propose that 3'UTR/sfRNA sequence evolution shapes dengue epidemiology not only by influencing human pathogenicity but also by increasing mosquito transmission, thereby revealing a viral determinant of epidemiological fitness that is shared between the two hosts.

  18. Cloud properties derived from two lidars over the ARM SGP site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Jean-Charles; Haeffelin, Martial; Morille, Y.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Flynn, Connor J.; Long, Charles N.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Newsom, Rob K.

    2011-02-16

    [1] Active remote sensors such as lidars or radars can be used with other data to quantify the cloud properties at regional scale and at global scale (Dupont et al., 2009). Relative to radar, lidar remote sensing is sensitive to very thin and high clouds but has a significant limitation due to signal attenuation in the ability to precisely quantify the properties of clouds with a 20 cloud optical thickness larger than 3. In this study, 10-years of backscatter lidar signal data are analysed by a unique algorithm called STRucture of ATmosphere (STRAT, Morille et al., 2007). We apply the STRAT algorithm to data from both the collocated Micropulse lidar (MPL) and a Raman lidar (RL) at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site between 1998 and 2009. Raw backscatter lidar signal is processed and 25 corrections for detector deadtime, afterpulse, and overlap are applied. (Campbell et al.) The cloud properties for all levels of clouds are derived and distributions of cloud base height (CBH), top height (CTH), physical cloud thickness (CT), and optical thickness (COT) from local statistics are compared. The goal of this study is (1) to establish a climatology of macrophysical and optical properties for all levels of clouds observed over the ARM SGP site 30 and (2) to estimate the discrepancies induced by the two remote sensing systems (pulse energy, sampling, resolution, etc.). Our first results tend to show that the MPLs, which are the primary ARM lidars, have a distinctly limited range where all of these cloud properties are detectable, especially cloud top and cloud thickness, but even actual cloud base especially during summer daytime period. According to the comparisons between RL and MPL, almost 50% of situations show a signal to noise ratio too low (smaller than 3) for the MPL in order to detect clouds higher than 7km during daytime period in summer. Consequently, the MPLderived annual cycle of cirrus cloud base (top) altitude is

  19. D-subgenome bias of Xcm resistance genes in tetraploid Gossypium (cotton) suggests that polyploid formation has created novel avenues for evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, R J; Thaxton, P M; El-Zik, K M; Paterson, A H

    1998-08-01

    A detailed RFLP map was used to determine the chromosomal locations and subgenomic distributions of cotton (Gossypium) genes/QTLs that confer resistance to the bacterial blight pathogen, Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum (Xcm). Genetic mapping generally corroborated classic predictions regarding the number and dosage effects of genes conferring Xcm resistance. One recessive allele (b6) was a noteworthy exception to the genetic dominance of most plant resistance alleles. This recessive allele appeared to uncover additional QTLs from both resistant and ostensibly susceptible genotypes, some of which corresponded in location to resistance (R)-genes effective against other Xcm races. One putatively "defeated" resistance allele (B3) reduced severity of Xcm damage by "virulent" races. Among the six resistance genes derived from tetraploid cottons, five (83%) mapped to D-subgenome chromosomes-if each subgenome were equally likely to evolve new R-gene alleles, this level of bias would occur in only about 1.6% of cases. Possible explanations of this bias include biogeographic factors, differences in evolutionary rates between subgenomes, gene conversion or other intergenomic exchanges that escaped detection by genetic mapping, or other factors. A significant D-subgenome bias of Xcm resistance genes may suggest that polyploid formation has offered novel avenues for phenotypic response to selection.

  20. Cloud Droplet Effective Radius Derived from Ground-Based Remote Sensing at the ARM SGP and NSA sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B.; Schwartz, S. E.; Miller, M. A.; Min, Q.

    2002-12-01

    Aerosols affect global climate directly, by scattering or absorbing radiation, and indirectly, by altering cloud microphysical and radiative properties. However quantification of these effects has been limited, especially the indirect effect. The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program established the Southern Great Plains (SGP, north-central Oklahoma) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA, near Barrow) Cloud and Radiation Testbed sites to conduct multiple continuous in-situ and remote measurements of radiation and cloud and aerosol properties over extended periods. Here we examine remotely sensed microphysical properties of low clouds and relations to aerosol loading at the surface at the SGP and NSA sites for the year 2000. Widespread low-level water cloud layers without interference from higher-level ice clouds are most favorable for testing relations between radiation and microphysical properties. Suitable cases were carefully selected by examination of time series for cloud layers (mainly from cloud radar), liquid water path (LWP, microwave radiometer) in excess of 100 g m-2, and direct and diffuse solar irradiance (pyranometers). Spectral diffuse-horizontal irradiance relative to top of atmosphere was measured by a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR); cloud optical depth was obtained using the observed atmospheric transmittance and surface albedo (Min and Harrison, GRL, 1996) for solar zenith angle (SZA) less than 75›a. Situations of low-level and thin cloud layer are much less prevalent at SGP than at NSA, which is influenced by marine boundary layer cloud but limited by the SZA requirement. The primary controlling influence on cloud optical depth is LWP, with microphysics exerting a smaller influence that is discernible from differences in slopes graphs of optical depth vs. LWP (Schwartz et al., PNAS, 2002). Continental clouds exhibit low effective radii (typically 6-10 μm) indicative of strong aerosol

  1. Discrimination of candidate subgenome-specific loci by linkage map construction with an S1population of octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Soichiro; Shirasawa, Kenta; Hirakawa, Hideki; Maeda, Fumi; Ishikawa, Masami; Isobe, Sachiko N

    2017-05-12

    The strawberry, Fragaria × ananassa, is an allo-octoploid (2n = 8x = 56) and outcrossing species. Although it is the most widely consumed berry crop in the world, its complex genome structure has hindered its genetic and genomic analysis, and thus discrimination of subgenome-specific loci among the homoeologous chromosomes is needed. In the present study, we identified candidate subgenome-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, and constructed a linkage map using an S 1 mapping population of the cultivar 'Reikou' with an IStraw90 Axiom® SNP array and previously published SSR markers. The 'Reikou' linkage map consisted of 11,574 loci (11,002 SNPs and 572 SSR loci) spanning 2816.5 cM of 31 linkage groups. The 11,574 loci were located on 4738 unique positions (bin) on the linkage map. Of the mapped loci, 8999 (8588 SNPs and 411 SSR loci) showed a 1:2:1 segregation ratio of AA:AB:BB allele, which suggested the possibility of deriving loci from candidate subgenome-specific sequences. In addition, 2575 loci (2414 SNPs and 161 SSR loci) showed a 3:1 segregation of AB:BB allele, indicating they were derived from homoeologous genomic sequences. Comparative analysis of the homoeologous linkage groups revealed differences in genome structure among the subgenomes. Our results suggest that candidate subgenome-specific loci are randomly located across the genomes, and that there are small- to large-scale structural variations among the subgenomes. The mapped SNPs and SSR loci on the linkage map are expected to be seed points for the construction of pseudomolecules in the octoploid strawberry.

  2. The SGP – Faulty by Design or Made Faulty by Politicians? An Assessment Based on a Simulation Model

    OpenAIRE

    Horáková Šárka; Jahoda Robert

    2014-01-01

    By joining the European Monetary Union (the “EMU”), member countries lost the ability to use monetary policy as a tool for macroeconomic regulation. The attention was then focused on regulation of fiscal policy and Stability and Growth Pact (the “SGP”) was the instrument agreed upon. The states of the EMU have agreed to meet the 3% of GDP requirement for the maximum annual public budget deficit. Based on evolution of public debt in member countries, we can say that the SGP has failed as a too...

  3. Population genomic analysis reveals differential evolutionary histories and patterns of diversity across subgenomes and subpopulations of Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie eGazave

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The allotetraploid species Brassica napus L. is a global crop of major economic importance, providing canola oil (seed and vegetables for human consumption and fodder and meal for livestock feed. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources of this species. We used sequence-based genotyping to identify and genotype 30,881 SNPs in a diversity panel of 782 B. napus accessions, representing samples of winter and spring growth habits originating from 33 countries across Europe, Asia and America. We detected strong population structure broadly concordant with growth habit and geography, and identified three major genetic groups: spring (SP, winter Europe (WE, and winter Asia (WA. Subpopulation-specific polymorphism patterns suggest enriched genetic diversity within the WA group and a smaller effective breeding population for the SP group compared to WE. Interestingly, the two subgenomes of B. napus appear to have different geographic origins, with phylogenetic analysis placing WE and WA as basal clades for the other subpopulations in the C and A subgenomes, respectively. Finally, we identified 16 genomic regions where the patterns of diversity differed markedly from the genome-wide average, several of which are suggestive of genomic inversions. The results obtained in this study constitute a valuable resource for worldwide breeding efforts and the genetic dissection and prediction of complex B. napus traits.

  4. From rotten grapes to industrial exploitation: Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37, a micro-factory for macroscale production of bacterial nanocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swati; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Agarwal, Pragati; Singh, Jyoti; Sinha, Neeraj; Singh, R P

    2017-03-01

    Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), being ultrapure and unique in its properties, is a booming and ageless precursor of several breakthrough technologies of materials sciences; however, its low yield and high cost has created a challenge for its usage at industrial level. Herein, we report a novel, high yielding bacterial cell factory Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37, isolated from rotten grapes, for the production of high quality and value added BNC. The strain was kinetically analyzed to evaluate BNC production under different physiological conditions and had demonstrated the production of 9.98±0.24gL(-1) BNC at the expense of 12.08±1.94gL(-1) sugar following 2 weeks of cultivation, thus having the conversion yield of 0.82g BNC/g sugar which seems to be the maximum reported yield so far. The analysis of produced pellicle using FTIR, (13)C CP MAS NMR, FE-SEM, XRD and TGA had shown similar structural, morphological and chemical characteristics with that of bacterial nanocellulose. Thus, K. europaeus SGP37 appears to be a potential strain and may offer a promising platform for industrial scale production of nanocelluloses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA is processed by the mosquito RNA interference machinery and determines West Nile virus transmission by Culex pipiens mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göertz, G.P.; Fros, J.J.; Miesen, P.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Bent, van der M.L.; Geertsema, C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Rij, van R.P.; Oers, van M.M.; Pijlman, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5=-3= exoribonuclease

  6. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA Is Processed by the Mosquito RNA Interference Machinery and Determines West Nile Virus Transmission by Culex pipiens Mosquitoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goertz, G.P.; Fros, J.J.; Miesen, P.; Vogels, C.B.F.; Bent, M.L. van der; Geertsema, C.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; Rij, R.P. van; Oers, M.M. van; Pijlman, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5'-3' exoribonuclease

  7. Introgressing subgenome components from Brassica rapa and B. carinata to B. juncea for broadening its genetic base and exploring intersubgenomic heterosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zili Wei

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brassica juncea (AjAjBjBj, is an allotetraploid that arose from two diploid species, B. rapa (ArAr and B. nigra (BnBn. It is an old oilseed crop with unique favorable traits, but the genetic improvement on this species is limited. We developed an approach to broaden its genetic base within several generations by intensive selection. The Ar subgenome from the Asian oil crop B. rapa (ArAr and the Bc subgenome from the African oil crop B. carinata (BcBcCcCc were combined in a synthesized allohexaploid (ArArBcBcCcCc, which was crossed with traditional B. juncea to generate pentaploid F1 hybrids (ArAjBcBjCc, with subsequent self-pollination to obtain newly synthesized B. juncea (Ar/jAr/jBc/jBc/j. After intensive cytological screening and phenotypic selection of fertility and agronomic traits, a population of new-type B. juncea was obtained and was found to be genetically stable at the F6 generation. The new-type B. juncea possesses good fertility and rich genetic diversity and is distinctly divergent but not isolated from traditional B. juncea, as revealed by population genetic analysis with molecular markers. More than half of its genome was modified, showing exotic introgression and novel variation. In addition to the improvement in some traits of the new-type B. juncea lines, a considerable potential for heterosis was observed in inter-subgenomic hybrids between new-type B. juncea lines and traditional B. juncea accessions. The new-type B. juncea exhibited a stable chromosome number and a novel genome composition through multiple generations, providing insight into how to significantly broaden the genetic base of crops with subgenome introgression from their related species and the potential of exploring inter-subgenomic heterosis for hybrid breeding.

  8. Involvement of a subgenomic mRNA in the generation of a variable population of defective citrus tristeza virus molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, G; Mawassi, M; Gofman, R; Gafny, R; Bar-Joseph, M

    1997-01-01

    The fusion sites between the termini of naturally occurring defective RNAs (D-RNAs) from three citrus tristeza virus (CTV) isolates were sequenced. Seven of eight clones showed a common 3' terminus of 940 nucleotides (nt) fused to 5' termini with different sizes. An extra cytosine nucleotide was found at the junction site of the majority of the common 3' D-RNAs. Molecular analysis of the plus and minus strands of the 0.9-kbp double-stranded RNA, corresponding to the CTV open reading frame 11 subgenomic RNA (sgRNA), showed that they were identical in length and sequence to the common 3' sequence of the D-RNAs. These results imply that viral sgRNA messengers also function as building components for genomic rearrangement and exchange of complete viral genes. PMID:9371649

  9. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiquan; Xi, Baike; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) central facility are analyzed for determining the variability of cloud fraction and radiative forcing at several temporal scales between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layer low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (greater than 6 km) using ARM SGP ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW), longwave (LW), and net cloud radiative forcings (CRF) are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements. The annual averages of total, and single-layer, nonoverlapped low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Total and low cloud amounts were greatest from December through March and least during July and August. The monthly variation of high cloud amount is relatively small with a broad maximum from May to August. During winter, total cloud cover varies diurnally with a small amplitude, mid-morning maximum and early evening minimum, and during summer it changes by more than 0.14 over the daily cycle with a pronounced early evening minimum. The diurnal variations of mean single-layer cloud cover change with season and cloud height. Annual averages of all-sky, total, and single-layer high, middle, and low LW CRFs are 21.4, 40.2, 16.7, 27.2, and 55.0 Wm(sup -2), respectively; and their SW CRFs are -41.5, -77.2, -37.0, -47.0, and -90.5 Wm(sup -2). Their net CRFs range from -20 to -37 Wm(sup -2). For all-sky, total, and low clouds, the maximum negative net CRFs of -40.1, -70, and -69.5 Wm(sup -2), occur during April; while the respective minimum values of -3.9, -5.7, and -4.6 Wm(sup -2), are found during December. July is the month having maximum negative net CRF of -46.2 Wm(sup -2) for middle clouds, and May has the maximum value of -45.9 Wm(sup -2) for high clouds. An

  10. Investigation of the relationships between DCS cloud properties, lifecycle, and precipitation with meteorological regimes and aerosol sources at the ARM SGP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Xiquan [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences

    2016-10-26

    In this proposed research, we will investigate how different meteorological regimes and aerosol sources affect DCS properties, diurnal and life cycles, and precipitation using multiple observational platforms (surface, satellite, and aircraft) and NARR reanalysis at the ARM SGP site. The Feng et al. (2011, 2012) DCS results will serve as a starting point for this proposed research, and help us to address some fundamental issues of DCSs, such as convective initiation, rain rate, areal extent (including stratiform and convective regions), and longevity. Convective properties will be stratified by meteorological regime (synoptic/mesoscale patterns) identified by reanalysis. Aerosol information obtained from the ARM SGP site will also be stratified by meteorological regimes to understand their effects on convection. Finally, the aircraft in-situ measurements and various radar observations and retrievals during the MC3E campaign will provide a “cloud-truth” dataset and are an invaluable data source for verifying the findings and investigating the proposed hypotheses in Objective 1.

  11. Comparison of Aerosol Properties within and above the ABL at the ARM Program's SGP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monache, L.D.; Perry, K.D.; Cederwall, R.T.

    2002-02-26

    The goal of this study was to determine under what conditions, if any, measurements of aerosol properties made at the Earth's surface are representative of the aerosol properties within the column of air above the surface. This project used data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site (Stokes and Schwartz 1994), which is one of the only locations in the world where ground-based and in situ airborne measurements of atmospheric aerosol are made on a routine basis. All flight legs in the one-year period from March 2000 to March 2001 were categorized as either within or above the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) using an objective mixing height determination technique. The correlations between the aerosol properties measured at the surface and those measured within and above the ABL were then computed. The conclusion of this comparison is that the aerosol extensive properties (those that depend upon the amount of aerosol that is present in the atmosphere, i.e., either the number or mass concentrations), and intensive properties (those that do not depend upon the amount of aerosol present) measured at the surface are representative of values within the ABL, but not within the free atmosphere.

  12. Long-term Observations of the Convective Boundary Layer Using Insect Radar Returns at the SGP ARM Climate Research Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, A S; Kollias, P; Giangrande, S E; Klein, S A

    2009-08-20

    A long-term study of the turbulent structure of the convective boundary layer (CBL) at the U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility is presented. Doppler velocity measurements from insects occupying the lowest 2 km of the boundary layer during summer months are used to map the vertical velocity component in the CBL. The observations cover four summer periods (2004-08) and are classified into cloudy and clear boundary layer conditions. Profiles of vertical velocity variance, skewness, and mass flux are estimated to study the daytime evolution of the convective boundary layer during these conditions. A conditional sampling method is applied to the original Doppler velocity dataset to extract coherent vertical velocity structures and to examine plume dimension and contribution to the turbulent transport. Overall, the derived turbulent statistics are consistent with previous aircraft and lidar observations. The observations provide unique insight into the daytime evolution of the convective boundary layer and the role of increased cloudiness in the turbulent budget of the subcloud layer. Coherent structures (plumes-thermals) are found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total turbulent transport resolved by the cloud radar system. The extended dataset is suitable for evaluating boundary layer parameterizations and testing large-eddy simulations (LESs) for a variety of surface and cloud conditions.

  13. The vestigial olfactory receptor subgenome of odontocete whales: phylogenetic congruence between gene-tree reconciliation and supermatrix methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowen, Michael R; Clark, Clay; Gatesy, John

    2008-08-01

    The macroevolutionary transition of whales (cetaceans) from a terrestrial quadruped to an obligate aquatic form involved major changes in sensory abilities. Compared to terrestrial mammals, the olfactory system of baleen whales is dramatically reduced, and in toothed whales is completely absent. We sampled the olfactory receptor (OR) subgenomes of eight cetacean species from four families. A multigene tree of 115 newly characterized OR sequences from these eight species and published data for Bos taurus revealed a diverse array of class II OR paralogues in Cetacea. Evolution of the OR gene superfamily in toothed whales (Odontoceti) featured a multitude of independent pseudogenization events, supporting anatomical evidence that odontocetes have lost their olfactory sense. We explored the phylogenetic utility of OR pseudogenes in Cetacea, concentrating on delphinids (oceanic dolphins), the product of a rapid evolutionary radiation that has been difficult to resolve in previous studies of mitochondrial DNA sequences. Phylogenetic analyses of OR pseudogenes using both gene-tree reconciliation and supermatrix methods yielded fully resolved, consistently supported relationships among members of four delphinid subfamilies. Alternative minimizations of gene duplications, gene duplications plus gene losses, deep coalescence events, and nucleotide substitutions plus indels returned highly congruent phylogenetic hypotheses. Novel DNA sequence data for six single-copy nuclear loci and three mitochondrial genes (> 5000 aligned nucleotides) provided an independent test of the OR trees. Nucleotide substitutions and indels in OR pseudogenes showed a very low degree of homoplasy in comparison to mitochondrial DNA and, on average, provided more variation than single-copy nuclear DNA. Our results suggest that phylogenetic analysis of the large OR superfamily will be effective for resolving relationships within Cetacea whether supermatrix or gene-tree reconciliation procedures are

  14. Accumulation of a 5' proximal subgenomic RNA of Citrus tristeza virus is correlated with encapsidation by the minor coat protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Siddarame; Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Folimonova, Svetlana Y; Hilf, Mark E; Dawson, William O

    2009-06-20

    During replication, Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) produces large amounts of two unusual subgenomic (sg) RNAs that are positive-stranded and 5' coterminal. Although these RNAs are produced in similar amounts and are similar in size, with LMT1 ( approximately 750 nt) only slightly larger than LMT2 ( approximately 650), we found that the similar sgRNAs are produced differently. We previously showed that the LMT1 RNA is produced by premature termination during genomic RNA synthesis. However, LMT2 production was found to correlate with virion assembly instead of RNA replication. The time course of accumulation of the LMT2 RNA occurred late, coinciding with virion accumulation. The long flexuous virions of CTV contain two coat proteins that encapsidate the virions in a polar manner. The major coat protein encapsidates approximately 97% of the virion, while the minor capsid protein encapsidates the remainder of the genome beginning in the 5' non-translated region with the transition zone at approximately 630 nucleotides from the 5' end. The section of the virion RNA that was encapsidated by CPm was identical in size to the LMT2 RNA, suggesting that the LMT2 RNA represented a portion of the viral RNA protected by CPm encapsidation. Mutations that abrogated encapsidation by CPm also abolished the accumulation of LMT2 RNA. Thus, these two unusual but similar RNAs are produced via different pathways, one from RNA replication and one processed by the virion assembly process. To our knowledge, this represents the first evidence of a viral RNA processed by the assembly mechanism.

  15. Chromosomal characterization of the three subgenomes in the polyploids of Hordeum murinum L.: new insight into the evolution of this complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Cuadrado

    Full Text Available Hordeum murinum L. is a species complex composed of related taxa, including the subspecies glaucum, murinum and leporinum. However, the phylogenetic relationships between the different taxa and their cytotypes, and the origin of the polyploid forms, remain points of controversy. The present work reports a comparative karyotype analysis of seven accessions of the H. murinum complex representing all subspecies and cytotypes. The karyotypes were determined by examining the distribution of the repetitive Triticeae DNA sequences pTa71, pTa794, pSc119.2, pAs1 and pHch950, the simple sequence repeats (SSRs (AG10, (AAC5, (AAG5, (ACT5, (ATC5, and (CCCTAAA3 via in situ hybridization. The chromosomes of the three subgenomes involved in the polyploids were identified. All tetraploids of all subspecies shared the same two subgenomes (thus suggesting them to in fact belong to the same taxon, the result of hybridization between two diploid ancestors. One of the subgenomes present in all tetraploids of all subspecies was found to be very similar (though not identical to the chromosome complement of the diploid glaucum. The hexaploid form of leporinum came about through a cross between a tetraploid and a third diploid form. Exclusively bivalent associations among homologous chromosomes were observed when analyzing pollen mother cells of tetraploid taxa. In conclusion, the present results identify all the individual chromosomes within the H. murinum complex, reveal its genome structure and phylogeny, and explain the appearance of the different cytotypes. Three cryptic species are proposed according to ploidy level that may deserve full taxonomic recognition.

  16. A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Site. Part II; Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, B.; Minnis, P.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SCF) are analyzed to determine the monthly and hourly variations of cloud fraction and radiative forcing between January 1997 and December 2002. Cloud fractions are estimated for total cloud cover and for single-layered low (0-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and high clouds (more than 6 km) using ARM SCG ground-based paired lidar-radar measurements. Shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) fluxes are derived from up- and down-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements with uncertainties of approximately 10 Wm(exp -2). The annual averages of total, and single-layered low, middle and high cloud fractions are 0.49, 0.11, 0.03, and 0.17, respectively. Both total and low cloud amounts peak during January and February and reach a minimum during July and August, high clouds occur more frequently than other types of clouds with a peak in summer. The average annual downwelling surface SW fluxes for total and low clouds (151 and 138 Wm(exp-2), respectively) are less than those under middle and high clouds (188 and 201 Wm(exp -2), respectively), but the downwelling LW fluxes (349 and 356 Wm(exp -2)) underneath total and low clouds are greater than those from middle and high clouds (337 and 333 Wm(exp -2)). Low clouds produce the largest LW warming (55 Wm(exp -2) and SW cooling (-91 Wm(exp -2)) effects with maximum and minimum absolute values in spring and summer, respectively. High clouds have the smallest LW warming (17 Wm(exp -2)) and SW cooling (-37 Wm(exp -2)) effects at the surface. All-sky SW CRF decreases and LW CRF increases with increasing cloud fraction with mean slopes of -0.984 and 0.616 Wm(exp -2)%(exp -1), respectively. Over the entire diurnal cycle, clouds deplete the amount of surface insolation more than they add to the downwelling LW flux. The calculated CRFs do not appear to be significantly

  17. Discovery of SCH446211 (SCH6): A New Ketoamide Inhibitor of the HCV NS3 Serine Protease and HCV Subgenomic RNA Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogen, Stephane L.; Arasappan, Ashok; Bennett, Frank; Chen, Kevin; Jao, Edwin; Liu, Yi-Tsung; Lovey, Raymond G.; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Pan, Weidong; Parekh, Tajel; Pike, Russel E.; Ruan, Sumei; Liu, Rong; Baroudy, Bahige; Agrawal, Sony; Chase, Robert; Ingravallo, Paul; Pichardo, John; Prongay, Andrew; Brisson, Jean-Marc; Hsieh, Tony Y.; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Kemp, Scott J.; Levy, Odile E.; Lim-Wilby, Marguerita; Tamura, Susan Y.; Saksena, Anil K.; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F. George (SPRI)

    2008-06-30

    Introduction of various modified prolines at P{sub 2} and optimization of the P{sub 1} side chain led to the discovery of SCH6 (24, Table 2), a potent ketoamide inhibitor of the HCV NS3 serine protease. In addition to excellent enzyme potency (K*{sub i} = 3.8 nM), 24 was also found to be a potent inhibitor of HCV subgenomic RNA replication with IC{sub 50} and IC{sub 90} of 40 and 100 nM, respectively. Recently, antiviral activity of 24 was demonstrated with inhibition of the full-length genotype 2a HCV genome. In addition, 24 was found to restore the responsiveness of the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) in cells containing HCV RNA replicons.

  18. Discovery of SCH446211 (SCH6): a new ketoamide inhibitor of the HCV NS3 serine protease and HCV subgenomic RNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Stéphane L; Arasappan, Ashok; Bennett, Frank; Chen, Kevin; Jao, Edwin; Liu, Yi-Tsung; Lovey, Raymond G; Venkatraman, Srikanth; Pan, Weidong; Parekh, Tajel; Pike, Russel E; Ruan, Sumei; Liu, Rong; Baroudy, Bahige; Agrawal, Sony; Chase, Robert; Ingravallo, Paul; Pichardo, John; Prongay, Andrew; Brisson, Jean-Marc; Hsieh, Tony Y; Cheng, Kuo-Chi; Kemp, Scott J; Levy, Odile E; Lim-Wilby, Marguerita; Tamura, Susan Y; Saksena, Anil K; Girijavallabhan, Viyyoor; Njoroge, F George

    2006-05-04

    Introduction of various modified prolines at P(2) and optimization of the P(1) side chain led to the discovery of SCH6 (24, Table 2), a potent ketoamide inhibitor of the HCV NS3 serine protease. In addition to excellent enzyme potency (K(i)*= 3.8 nM), 24 was also found to be a potent inhibitor of HCV subgenomic RNA replication with IC(50) and IC(90) of 40 and 100 nM, respectively. Recently, antiviral activity of 24 was demonstrated with inhibition of the full-length genotype 2a HCV genome. In addition, 24 was found to restore the responsiveness of the interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF-3) in cells containing HCV RNA replicons.

  19. A 10-Year Climatology of Cloud Cover and Vertical Distribution Derived from Both Surface and GOES Observations Over the DOE ARM SGP Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Baike; Dong, Xiquan; Minnis, P.; Khaiyer, M.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of a decade of ARM radar-lidar and GOES observations at the SGP site reveal that 0.5 and 4-hr averages of the surface cloud fraction correspond closely to 0.5deg and 2.5deg averages of GOES cloudiness, respectively. The long-term averaged surface and GOES cloud fractions agree to within 0.5%. Cloud frequency increases and cloud amount decreases as the temporal and spatial averaging scales increase. Clouds occurred most often during winter and spring. Single-layered clouds account for 61.5% of the total cloud frequency. There are distinct bimodal vertical distributions of clouds with a lower peak around 1 km and an upper one that varies from 7.5 to 10.8 km between winter and summer, respectively. The frequency of occurrence for nighttime GOES high-cloud tops agree well with the surface observations, but are underestimated during the day.

  20. Biotransformation of sweet lime pulp waste into high-quality nanocellulose with an excellent productivity using Komagataeibacter europaeus SGP37 under static intermittent fed-batch cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Swati; Singh, Jyoti; Singh, R P

    2017-09-15

    Herein, sweet lime pulp waste (SLPW) was utilized as a low- or no-cost feedstock for the production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) alone and in amalgamation with other nutritional supplements by the isolate K. europaeus SGP37 under static batch and static intermittent fed-batch cultivation. The highest yield (26.2±1.50gL-1) was obtained in the hot water extract of SLPW supplemented with the components of HS medium, which got further boosted to 38±0.85gL-1 as the cultivation strategy was shifted from static batch to static intermittent fed-batch. BNC obtained from various SLPW medium was similar or even superior to that obtained with standard HS medium in terms of its physicochemical properties. The production yields of BNC thus obtained are significantly higher and fit well in terms of industrial scale production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Transcription Strategy in a Closterovirus: a Novel 5′-Proximal Controller Element of Citrus Tristeza Virus Produces 5′- and 3′-Terminal Subgenomic RNAs and Differs from 3′ Open Reading Frame Controller Elements†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Siddarame; Ayllón, María A.; Satyanarayana, Tatineni; Bar-Joseph, Moshe; Dawson, William O.

    2003-01-01

    Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) produces more than thirty 3′- or 5′-terminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) that accumulate to various extents during replication in protoplasts and plants. Among the most unusual species are two abundant populations of small 5′-terminal sgRNAs of approximately 800 nucleotides (nt) termed low-molecular-weight tristeza (LMT1 and LMT2) RNAs. Remarkably, CTV replicons with all 10 3′ genes deleted produce only the larger LMT1 RNAs. These 5′-terminal positive-sense sgRNAs do not have corresponding negative strands and were hypothesized to be produced by premature termination during plus-strand genomic RNA synthesis. We characterized a cis-acting element that controls the production of the LMT1 RNAs. Since manipulation of this cis-acting element in its native position (the L-ProI region of replicase) was not possible because the mutations negatively affect replication, a region (5′TR) surrounding the putative termination sites (nt ∼550 to 1000) was duplicated in the 3′ end of a CTV replicon to allow characterization. The duplicated sequence continued to produce a 5′-terminal plus-strand sgRNA, here much larger (∼11 kb), apparently by termination. Surprisingly, a new 3′-terminal sgRNA was observed from the duplicated 5′TR. A large 3′-terminal sgRNA resulting from the putative promoter activity of the native 5′TR was not observed, possibly because of the down-regulation of a promoter ∼19 kb from the 3′ terminus. However, we were able to observe a sgRNA produced from the native 5′TR of a small defective RNA, which placed the native 5′TR closer to the 3′ terminus, demonstrating sgRNA promoter activity of the native 5′TR. Deletion mutagenesis mapped the promoter and the terminator activities of the 5′TR (in the 3′ position in the CTV replicon) to a 57-nt region, which was folded by the MFOLD computer program into two stem-loops. Mutations in the putative stem-loop structures equally reduced or prevented

  2. Utilization of Airborne and in Situ Data Obtained in SGP99, SMEX02, CLASIC and SMAPVEX08 Field Campaigns for SMAP Soil Moisture Algorithm Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliander, Andreas; Chan, Steven; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Michael; Bindlish, Rajat; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Field experiment data sets that include coincident remote sensing measurements and in situ sampling will be valuable in the development and validation of the soil moisture algorithms of the NASA's future SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. This paper presents an overview of the field experiment data collected from SGP99, SMEX02, CLASIC and SMAPVEX08 campaigns. Common in these campaigns were observations of the airborne PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument, which was developed to acquire radar and radiometer measurements at low frequencies. The combined set of the PALS measurements and ground truth obtained from all these campaigns was under study. The investigation shows that the data set contains a range of soil moisture values collected under a limited number of conditions. The quality of both PALS and ground truth data meets the needs of the SMAP algorithm development and validation. The data set has already made significant impact on the science behind SMAP mission. The areas where complementing of the data would be most beneficial are also discussed.

  3. Introduction to a real-time cloud detection based on the ground-based infrared thermometer and the microwave radiometer at ARM SGP site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hye Young; Ahn, Myoung-Hwan

    2017-04-01

    A fast cloud detection for the utilization of ground based remote sensing instrument such as microwave radiometer is important for the real time application such as assimilation to the numerical prediction model. For this, an algorithm based on the spectral and temporal characteristics of clouds in the downwelling infrared radiance readily available with the infrared thermometer (IRT) equipped in the microwave radiometer has been developed for a specific IRT. Characteristics and applicability of the algorithm for a different types of instrumentation with an augumented validation data are demonstrated using the data obtained at ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) SGP (the Southern Great Plains) site. From the comparison, it is shown that the dynamic range of IRT (down to -100 oC) is important, while improvement in the spectral test could improve the detectablilty of high thin clouds. For a futher simplification of the algorithm, utilization of the retrieved precipitable water vapor from the microwave radiometer is under investigation and the detailed analysis is going to be presented during the conference.

  4. Recreatiemonitoring SGP Schouwen; deel 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, E.; Visschedijk, P.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    De doelstelling van het onderzoek is om tot 2008 met intervallen van twee jaar de gevolgen van de voorgestelde ontwikkelingen op het recreatief gebruik van Schouwen en de wensen en tevredenheid van de recreanten te volgen. De gegevens voor het onderzoek worden verkregen uit enqultes en tellingen. Er

  5. Noncoding Subgenomic Flavivirus RNA Is Processed by the Mosquito RNA Interference Machinery and Determines West Nile Virus Transmission by Culex pipiens Mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göertz, G P; Fros, J J; Miesen, P; Vogels, C B F; van der Bent, M L; Geertsema, C; Koenraadt, C J M; van Rij, R P; van Oers, M M; Pijlman, G P

    2016-11-15

    Flaviviruses, such as Zika virus, yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and West Nile virus (WNV), are a serious concern for human health. Flaviviruses produce an abundant noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. sfRNA results from stalling of the host 5'-3' exoribonuclease XRN1/Pacman on conserved RNA structures in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the viral genomic RNA. sfRNA production is conserved in insect-specific, mosquito-borne, and tick-borne flaviviruses and flaviviruses with no known vector, suggesting a pivotal role for sfRNA in the flavivirus life cycle. Here, we investigated the function of sfRNA during WNV infection of Culex pipiens mosquitoes and evaluated its role in determining vector competence. An sfRNA1-deficient WNV was generated that displayed growth kinetics similar to those of wild-type WNV in both RNA interference (RNAi)-competent and -compromised mosquito cell lines. Small-RNA deep sequencing of WNV-infected mosquitoes indicated an active small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based antiviral response for both the wild-type and sfRNA1-deficient viruses. Additionally, we provide the first evidence that sfRNA is an RNAi substrate in vivo Two reproducible small-RNA hot spots within the 3' UTR/sfRNA of the wild-type virus mapped to RNA stem-loops SL-III and 3' SL, which stick out of the three-dimensional (3D) sfRNA structure model. Importantly, we demonstrate that sfRNA-deficient WNV displays significantly decreased infection and transmission rates in vivo when administered via the blood meal. Finally, we show that transmission and infection rates are not affected by sfRNA after intrathoracic injection, thereby identifying sfRNA as a key driver to overcome the mosquito midgut infection barrier. This is the first report to describe a key biological function of sfRNA for flavivirus infection of the arthropod vector, providing an explanation for the strict conservation of sfRNA production. Understanding the flavivirus transmission

  6. Effective primary isolation of wild-type canine distemper virus in MDCK, MV1 Lu and Vero cells without nucleotide sequence changes within the entire haemagglutinin protein gene and in subgenomic sections of the fusion and phospho protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednicky, John A; Meehan, Thomas P; Kinsel, Michael J; Dubach, Jean; Hungerford, Laura L; Sarich, Nicolene A; Witecki, Kelley E; Braid, Michael D; Pedrak, Casandra; Houde, Christiane M

    2004-06-15

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is an important pathogen of many carnivores. We are developing a field-based model of morbillivirus virulence and pathogenesis through a study of distemper in naturally infected free-ranging raccoons. The isolation of CDV from raccoon tissues is essential for this work. CDV has often been isolated from animals only after co-cultivation of infected tissues with peripheral blood mononuclear cells derived from specific pathogen-free dogs or similar methods. We explored the utility and consequences of a simpler and cheaper alternative: CDV isolation in Vero, MDCK, and MV1 Lu cells. Virus growth was detected first in MDCK cells, whereas viral cytopathic effects were most obvious in Vero cells. CDV growth in MV1 Lu cells was relatively protracted and occurred without the formation of cytopathic effects. In primary CDV isolates, the entire nucleotide sequence of the receptor binding haemagglutinin (H) gene, and subgenomic fusion (F) and phospho (P) protein gene sequences corresponding to nt 5399-5733 and 2132-2563 of CDV reference strain Onderstepoort, respectively, were identical to those in matched infected tissues. Virus isolation confirmed the presence of CDV in instances where RT-PCR failed to detect CDV in infected tissues. Different viral phenotypes and genotypes were detected. The conservation of H gene sequences in primary CDV isolates suggests that MDCK, MV1 Lu, and Vero cells express proper receptors for wild-type CDV.

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping in Brassica rapa Revealed the Structural and Functional Conservation of Genetic Loci Governing Morphological and Yield Component Traits in the A, B, and C Subgenomes of Brassica Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-01-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species. PMID:23223793

  8. Quantitative trait loci mapping in Brassica rapa revealed the structural and functional conservation of genetic loci governing morphological and yield component traits in the A, B, and C subgenomes of Brassica species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Ramchiary, Nirala; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Choi, Su Ryun; Hur, Yoonkang; Nou, Ill-Sup; Yoon, Moo Kyoung; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2013-02-01

    Brassica rapa is an important crop species that produces vegetables, oilseed, and fodder. Although many studies reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, the genes governing most of its economically important traits are still unknown. In this study, we report QTL mapping for morphological and yield component traits in B. rapa and comparative map alignment between B. rapa, B. napus, B. juncea, and Arabidopsis thaliana to identify candidate genes and conserved QTL blocks between them. A total of 95 QTL were identified in different crucifer blocks of the B. rapa genome. Through synteny analysis with A. thaliana, B. rapa candidate genes and intronic and exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms in the parental lines were detected from whole genome resequenced data, a few of which were validated by mapping them to the QTL regions. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed differences in the expression levels of a few genes in parental lines. Comparative mapping identified five key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (R, J, F, E, and W) harbouring QTL for morphological and yield components traits between the A, B, and C subgenomes of B. rapa, B. juncea, and B. napus. The information of the identified candidate genes could be used for breeding B. rapa and other related Brassica species.

  9. Failure and Redemption of Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR)/Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) Cloud Screening: Contrasting Algorithm Performance at Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) and Southern Great Plains (SGP) Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Flynn, Connor J.; Koontz, Annette S.; Sivaraman, Chitra; Barnard, James C.

    2013-09-11

    Well-known cloud-screening algorithms, which are designed to remove cloud-contaminated aerosol optical depths (AOD) from AOD measurements, have shown great performance at many middle-to-low latitude sites around the world. However, they may occasionally fail under challenging observational conditions, such as when the sun is low (near the horizon) or when optically thin clouds with small spatial inhomogeneity occur. Such conditions have been observed quite frequently at the high-latitude Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites. A slightly modified cloud-screening version of the standard algorithm is proposed here with a focus on the ARM-supported Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) and Normal Incidence Multifilter Radiometer (NIMFR) data. The modified version uses approximately the same techniques as the standard algorithm, but it additionally examines the magnitude of the slant-path line of sight transmittance and eliminates points when the observed magnitude is below a specified threshold. Substantial improvement of the multi-year (1999-2012) aerosol product (AOD and its Angstrom exponent) is shown for the NSA sites when the modified version is applied. Moreover, this version reproduces the AOD product at the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, which was originally generated by the standard cloud-screening algorithms. The proposed minor modification is easy to implement and its application to existing and future cloud-screening algorithms can be particularly beneficial for challenging observational conditions.

  10. Metazoan promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenhard, Boris; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Carninci, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Promoters are crucial for gene regulation. They vary greatly in terms of associated regulatory elements, sequence motifs, the choice of transcription start sites and other features. Several technologies that harness next-generation sequencing have enabled recent advances in identifying promoters ...

  11. Health Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Borup, I.

    2015-01-01

    In 1953 when the Nordic School of Public Health was founded, the aim of public health programmes was disease prevention more than health promotion. This was not unusual, since at this time health usually was seen as the opposite of disease and illness. However, with the Ottawa Charter of 1986......, the World Health Organization made a crucial change to view health not as a goal in itself but as the means to a full life. In this way, health promotion became a first priority and fundamental action for the modern society. This insight eventually reached NHV and in 2002 - 50 years after the foundation...... - an associate professorship was established with a focus on health promotion. Nevertheless, the concept of health promotion had been integrated with or mentioned in courses run prior to the new post. Subsequently, a wide spectrum of courses in health promotion was introduced, such as Empowerment for Child...

  12. Health promotion is peace promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, J D

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of the arms race on health, in the absence of nuclear war. High levels of military expenditure are inextricably linked to unemployment, poverty, starvation and ill health. Alternatives to the escalation of military expenditure are possible; health promotion can be involved in wider public health initiatives towards economic and industrial conversion to peaceful, socially useful production. The interests of the health and scientific communities have traditionally transcended narrow chauvinism and nationalism. World Health Organization activities such as work towards primary health care and the Expanded Programme on Immunization actively involve international co-operation, demystify potential enemies and promote health and peace.

  13. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. .... Health promotion:defined byO'Donnel as 'the science and art ..... Trinity Hospice and Palliative Care Services.

  14. A cotton fiber-preferential promoter, PGbEXPA2, is regulated by GA and ABA in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Tu, Lili; Ye, Zhengxiu; Wang, Maojun; Gao, Wenhui; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-09-01

    PGbEXPA2 (Promoter of GbEXPA2 ) was preferentially and strongly expressed during cotton fiber development, and the 461-bp PGbEXPA2 fragment was essential for responding to exogenous GA and ABA in Arabidopsis. Cotton fibers are highly elongated single-cell, unbranched and non-glandular seed trichomes. Previous studies have reported that the transcript level of GbEXPA2 is significantly up-regulated during fiber cell elongation, suggesting that GbEXPA2 has an important function in fiber development. In this study, the promoter of GbEXPA2 (839 bp) from the D(T) sub-genome was isolated from Gossypium barbadense 3-79. Consistent with the expression pattern of GbEXPA2, the promoter PGbEXPA2 was able to express GUS to high levels in elongating fibers, but not in the root, stem, or leaf. In Arabidopsis, GUS activity was only found in the rosette leaf trichomes and rosette leaf vascular tissue, indicating that the transcription factors which bind to PGbEXPA2 in the leaf trichomes of transgenic Arabidopsis were similar to those found in cotton fiber. A deletion analysis of PGbEXPA2 revealed that a 461-bp fragment was sufficient to drive GUS expression in cotton fibers and Arabidopsis rosette leaf trichomes. Exogenous phytohormonal treatments on transgenic Arabidopsis with different promoter lengths (P-839, P-705, P-588 and P-461) showed that GUS activity in Arabidopsis trichomes could be strongly up-regulated by GA and, in contrast, down-regulated by ABA.

  15. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion programmes for families with adolescents orphaned as a result of AIDS in the rural Hammanskraal region in ... education by using the community and national media, providing information material and providing access to the internet in order to allow more people, ...

  16. What do health-promoting schools promote?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    for Health in Europe Research Group were invited to submit their work addressing processes and outcomes in school health promotion to this special issue of Health Education. Additionally, an open call for papers was published on the Health Education web site. Following the traditional double blind peer......-promotion interventions. Directly or indirectly the articles reiterate the idea that health promotion in schools needs to be linked with the core task of the school – education, and to the values inherent to education, such as inclusion, democracy, participation and influence, critical literacy and action competence...

  17. Developing a Promotional Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epley, Hannah K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for Extension professionals to show clientele the benefits of their program. This article shares how promotional videos are one way of reaching audiences online. An example is given on how a promotional video has been used and developed using iMovie software. Tips are offered for how professionals can create a promotional video and…

  18. SPORT PROMOTION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Lucian MIHAI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In sport marketing, the word promotion covers a range of interrelated activities. All of these activities are designed to attract attention, stimulate the interest and awareness of consumers, and of course, encourage them to purchase a sport product. Promotion is about communicating with and educating consumers. The purpose of a sport promotional strategy is to build brand loyalty and product credibility, develop image, and position the brand. A promotional strategy is similar to a marketing strategy, but the promotional strategy seeks short-term objectives, both direct and indirect. Promotional objectives usually include increased sales, stimulate impulse buying, raise customer traffic, and present and reinforce image. It also provides information about products and services, publicizes new stores or websites, and creates and enhances customer satisfaction.

  19. Health promotion in globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Franco-Giraldo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to unravel some theoretical and factual elements required to implement more effective health promotion strategies and practices in the field of health services whilst following the great challenges that globalization has imposed on the health systems, which are inevitably expressed in the local context (glocalization. Methodology: a narrative review taking into account the concepts of globalization and health promotion in relation to health determinants. The authors approach some courses of action and strategies for health promotion based on the social principles and universal values that guide health promotion, health service reorientation and primary healthcare, empowerment, social participation, and inter-sectoral and social mobilization. Discussion: the discussion focuses on the redirection of health promotion services in relation to the wave of health reforms that has spread throughout the world under the neoliberal rule. The author also discusses health promotion, its ineffectiveness, and the quest for renewal. Likewise, the author sets priorities for health promotion in relation to social determinants. Conclusion: the current global order, in terms of international relations, is not consistent with the ethical principles of health promotion. In this paper, the author advocates for the implementation of actions to change the social and physical life conditions of people based on changes in the use of power in society and the appropriate practice of politics in the context of globalization in order to achieve the effectiveness of the actions of health promotion.

  20. Perceptions of health promoters about health promotion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-02-11

    Feb 11, 2013 ... care level workers such as caregivers to render health promotion and education in the homes and communities. The caregivers ..... to perform their duties: '…no increment on what we are earning, any incentives or .... namely distribution of educational materials; showing of educational videos; delivery of ...

  1. High expression Zymomonas promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Tao, Luan [Havertown, PA; Zhang, Yuying [New Hope, PA; Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; McCole, Laura : Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; McCutchen, Carol M [Wilmington, DE; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO

    2011-08-02

    Identified are mutants of the promoter of the Z. mobilis glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene, which direct improved expression levels of operably linked heterologous nucleic acids. These are high expression promoters useful for expression of chimeric genes in Zymomonas, Zymobacter, and other related bacteria.

  2. Health-promoting schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwan, Stella Y L; Petersen, Poul Erik; Pine, Cynthia M

    2005-01-01

    Schools provide an important setting for promoting health, as they reach over 1 billion children worldwide and, through them, the school staff, families and the community as a whole. Health promotion messages can be reinforced throughout the most influential stages of children's lives, enabling...... Health Initiative and the potential for setting up oral health programmes in schools using the health-promoting school framework are discussed. The challenges faced in promoting oral health in schools in both developed and developing countries are highlighted. The importance of using a validated...... them to develop lifelong sustainable attitudes and skills. Poor oral health can have a detrimental effect on children's quality of life, their performance at school and their success in later life. This paper examines the global need for promoting oral health through schools. The WHO Global School...

  3. Promoting promotions: Does showcasing free gifts backfire?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raghubir, Priya; Celly, Kirti Sawhney

    2011-01-01

    ..., Raghubir, 2005 , Study 2), and even a multiple of the price that a consumer needs to pay to buy a product to get the free gift. The question is: Is there a drawback to showcasing a free gift rather than a company product in a free gift promotion? This paper attempts to answer this question, starting with the simple model: P r o m o t i o n P e ...

  4. 77 FR 47820 - Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Invention Promoters/Promotion Firms Complaints ACTION: Proposed... concerning invention promoters and responses from the invention promoters to these complaints. An individual may submit a complaint concerning an invention promoter to the USPTO, which will forward the complaint...

  5. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 3. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria - Potential Microbes for Sustainable Agriculture. Jay Shankar Singh. General Article Volume 18 Issue 3 March 2013 pp 275-281 ...

  6. Researching health promotion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Platt, Stephen David; Watson, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    ... the progress towards developing and implementing health promotion interventions that: * * * * are theoretically grounded, socio-culturally appropriate and sustainable involve the redistribution of resources towards those most in need reflect the principles of equity, participation and empowerment incorporate rigorous, methodologically ...

  7. Health Promotion Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    The paper discusses the implications of health promotion in education. The paper is based on my PhD project entitled “Health promotion education seen through a power/knowledge and subjectification perspective” (in prep). The PhD project explores how professional health promotion skills...... are conceived in a specific educational setting; namely the Danish social and health education programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a qualification aimed at citizens and patients - and not at the students themselves. However, as the paper will demonstrate, conceptions of student......’s and citizen’s health, health habits and health concerns merge within the educational framework. Through empirical findings, based on 20 qualitative interviews and participatory observation studies from four schools, I show that there are widespread ideas, among teachers as well as students, that professional...

  8. Health promotion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivo de Carvalho, Antonio; Westphal, Marcia Faria; Pereira Lima, Vera Lucia Góes

    2007-01-01

    Brazil, a Latin American country of continental proportions and contrasts, demographic inequalities, and social inequities, concomitantly faces the challenge of preventing and controlling infectious diseases, injuries, and non-communicable diseases. The loss of strength of the biomedical paradigm, the change in epidemiological profile, and the sociopolitical and cultural challenges of recent decades have fostered the emergence of new formulations about public health thinking and practice. Among them, are the paradigms of Brazilian Collective Health and Health Promotion. The former provides philosophical support for Brazil's Unified Health System (SUS). The aim of this article is to discuss the development of public health within the country's history, and to analyze and compare the theoretical assumptions of Health Promotion and Collective Health. We conclude that health promotion, based on the principles and values disseminated by the international Charters and concerned with social actors and social determinants of the health-disease process, has significant potential to promote the improvement of living and health conditions of the population. This frame of reference guided the formulation of the National Policy of Health Promotion within the Unified Health System, which was institutionalized by a ministerial decree. The importance and application of evaluating the effectiveness of health promotion processes and methodologies in Brazil have been guided by various frames of reference, which we clarify in this article through describing historical processes.

  9. ROMANIAN TOURISM PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Mircea NEDELEA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The tourism industry is unlike any other because, instead of a product, you are selling a place and all the things it has to offer. You are competing with the entire world every time you promote tourism in a given destination, and this high level of competition demands a creative and unique approach. To be successful, your marketing should constantly put forth the best possible image of your destination, while creating interest on a broad scale in as many ways as possible. Romania has to conceive an efficient promotional mix in order to attract more tourists.

  10. Promoting tourism destination image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Govers (Robert); F.M. Go (Frank); K. Kumar (Kuldeep)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines the role of tourism promotion as a component of destination image formation. It reports the findings of a study in which 1,100 respondents from around the globe described their previsit perceived image of seven sample destinations, as well as the information sources

  11. Promoting La Cultura Hispana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluviose, David

    2007-01-01

    Launched in 1985 at Arizona State University, the Hispanic Research Center's (HRC) efforts to promote Latino and Chicano art and issues have flourished in recent years. In 2004, the HRC hosted the Arizona International Latina/o Arts Festival in collaboration with the Mesa Southwest Museum. The HRC has also founded a mentoring institute for…

  12. Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Crop parameters. Rhizobium leguminosarum. Direct growth promotion of canola and lettuce. Pseudomonas putida. Early developments of canola seedlings, growth stimulation of tomato plant. Azospirillum brasilense andA. irakense. Growth of wheat and maize plants. P. flurescens. Growth of pearl millet, increase in growth, ...

  13. Promoting Linguistic Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daryai-Hansen, Petra Gilliyard

    2005-01-01

    To face up to the omnipresence of ‘Anglo-American’, conferences on language policy today address the issue of promoting linguistic diversity. This especially applies to contemporary Europe. Nevertheless, these conferences, which can be regarded as a kind of laboratories or academic microcosm, do...

  14. Developing Mechanisms to Promote

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Sociological Review, 5(1) 2001, pp.l7-35. Michael J. Kahn. Developing Mechanisms to ... Arguably this is a suite of thrusts that promote knowledge development and transfer, but the historical .... is at the level of feasibility studies into mining, ore processing, instrumentation and process control, and recovery of metals ...

  15. Commentary: Promoting Systems Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Clark A.

    2017-01-01

    This commentary on the special issue, entitled "Models and Tools for Systems Learning and Instruction," highlights the accomplishments of the papers in this collection. It also points to some avenues for further strengthening research on promoting systems understanding. Collectively, the papers make advances in our understanding of how…

  16. Buying time promotes happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whillans, Ashley; Dunn, Elizabeth; Smeets, Paul M.; Bekkers, R.H.F.P.; Norton, M.I.

    2017-01-01

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada,

  17. Promoting Renewable Energy Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Skytte, Klaus

    % of its annual electricity production. In this paper, we present and discuss the Danish experience as a case of promoting renewable energy technologies. The development path of the two technologies has been very different. Wind power is considered an outright success with fast deployment to decreasing...... technology and its particular context, it is possible to formulate some general principles that can help to create an effective and efficient policy for promoting new renewable energy technologies.......Wind power and combined heat and power (CHP) using biomass (for combustion, gasification or fermentation) are two of the most promising renewable technologies for generation of electricity. Denmark has a long and well-established tradition for these technologies that now account for approx. 25...

  18. ADVANCEMENT & PROMOTION REVIEW: 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Advancement, exceptional advancement and promotion decisions were made at the beginning of July, under the new career structure scheme and following the procedures published in Weekly Bulletin No. 11/2002. These decisions were included, where applicable, in the salaries for the month of July 2002. The award of the periodic step was communicated to staff by the salary shown on the July salary slip. All other decisions are communicated by separate notification. The names of staff receiving exceptional advancements or promotions will be published this year on the HR Division website and are accessible for consultation only at the following address : http://cern.ch/hr-div/internal/personnel/advlist.asp It is recalled that change of career path proposals submitted to the Technical Engineers and Administrative Careers Committee (TEACC) or to Human Resources Division are being examined with a view to preparing the latters' recommendations by the end of September 2002. Final decisions will be applied retroactivel...

  19. Guarded Type Promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    2011-01-01

    In Java, explicit casts are ubiquitous since they bridge the gap between compile-time and runtime type safety. Since casts potentially throw a ClassCastException, many programmers use a defensive programming style of guarded casts. In this programming style casts are protected by a preceding...... in a Java 6 compiler. Through our extensive testing of real-life code we show that guarded casts account for approximately one fourth of all casts and that Guarded Type Promotion can eliminate the need for 95 percent of these guarded casts....... conditional using the instanceof operator and thus the cast type is redundantly mentioned twice. We propose a new typing rule for Java called Guarded Type Promotion aimed at eliminating the need for the explicit casts when guarded. This new typing rule is backward compatible and has been fully implemented...

  20. The promotion of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuluhungwa, R R; Yung, W

    1979-01-01

    To reverse the current trend of a significant decline worldwide in breast feeding means reeducation of medical and health personnel as well as the general public. Programs to promote breast feeding require the commitment of governments, with support from various ministries including health, education, labor, community development and judiciary. Examples of what 3 developing countries--Jamaica, Colombia and Thailand--are doing to promote breast feeding are reported. A large scale breast feeding campaign was launched in Jamaica in October 1977. The 3 phases of the campaign were: 1) preliminary surveys and research and motivation of professional, voluntary and extension groups through training seminars, panel discussions, and meetings; 2) promotion of breast feeding via mass media and motivation of target groups by trained personnel; and 3) evaluation of the campaign. A survey undertaken in 1978 showed that the breast feeding messages had achieved the desired effect--more mothers practiced breast feeding. In Colombia the breast feeding campaign emphasized non-formal education through the use of games and pictures. A game is used which is usually initiated by a health worker in the waiting room of a health center and involves the mothers, the general public, and sometimes the professional personnel. Through reading and interpreting rhymed breast feeding messages, the participants exchange opinions and experiences. Before starting a campaign to encourage low-income urban and semi-urban mothers to breast feed, the National Food and Nutrition Committee of Thailand pretested slogans and posters designed for the promotion of breast feeding. Posters develpoed in accordance with the suggestions made by the women were tested among 126 pregnant and lactating women. The Committee decided which picture to print for low-income and rural audiences and which to print for middle-class audiences.

  1. Promoting Health, Producing Moralisms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy behav...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....

  2. Promoting Health, Producing Moralisms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....

  3. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  4. PROMOTIONS: PROper MOTION Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caleb Wherry, John; Sahai, R.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the development of a software tool (PROMOTIONS) to streamline the process of measuring proper motions of material in expanding nebulae. Our tool makes use of IDL's widget programming capabilities to design a unique GUI that is used to compare images of the objects from two epochs. The software allows us to first orient and register the images to a common frame of reference and pixel scale, using field stars in each of the images. We then cross-correlate specific morphological features in order to determine their proper motions, which consist of the proper motion of the nebula as a whole (PM-neb), and expansion motions of the features relative to the center. If the central star is not visible (quite common in bipolar nebulae with dense dusty waists), point-symmetric expansion is assumed and we use the average motion of high-quality symmetric pairs of features on opposite sides of the nebular center to compute PM-neb. This is then subtracted out to determine the individual movements of these and additional features relative to the nebular center. PROMOTIONS should find wide applicability in measuring proper motions in astrophysical objects such as the expanding outflows/jets commonly seen around young and dying stars. We present first results from using PROMOTIONS to successfully measure proper motions in several pre-planetary nebulae (transition objects between the red giant and planetary nebula phases), using images taken 7-10 years apart with the WFPC2 and ACS instruments on board HST. The authors are grateful to NASA's Undergradute Scholars Research Program (USRP) for supporting this research.

  5. The Promoted Sibling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visholm, Steen

    PRESENTATION No 72 Steen Visholm Associate professor, M.Psych., Ph. D., Roskilde University Private adress: Krystalgade 6 II DK-1172 København K Denmark svisholm@ruc.dk THE PROMOTED SIBLING By their writings about sibling relations Mitchell and Coles has added fruitful complexity to the psychodyn...... and Violence. Cambridge, Polity Press. Winnicott, Donald W. (1986): “Some thoughts on the meaning of the Word ‘Democracy’”. In. Home is where we start from. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd. 1986....

  6. TAp73 promotes anabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelio, Ivano; Antonov, Alexey A; Catani, Maria Valeria; Massoud, Renato; Bernassola, Francesca; Knight, Richard A; Melino, Gerry; Rufini, Alessandro

    2014-12-30

    Metabolic adaptation has emerged as a hallmark of cancer and a promising therapeutic target, as rapidly proliferating cancer cells adapt their metabolism increasing nutrient uptake and reorganizing metabolic fluxes to support biosynthesis. The transcription factor p73 belongs to the p53-family and regulates tumorigenesis via its two N-terminal isoforms, with (TAp73) or without (ΔNp73) a transactivation domain. TAp73 acts as tumor suppressor, at least partially through induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and through regulation of genomic stability. Here, we sought to investigate whether TAp73 also affects metabolic profiling of cancer cells. Using high throughput metabolomics, we unveil a thorough and unexpected role for TAp73 in promoting Warburg effect and cellular metabolism. TAp73-expressing cells show increased rate of glycolysis, higher amino acid uptake and increased levels and biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA. Moreover, we report an extensive TAp73-mediated upregulation of several anabolic pathways including polyamine and synthesis of membrane phospholipids. TAp73 expression also increases cellular methyl-donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), possibly influencing methylation and epigenetics, and promotes arginine metabolism, suggestive of a role in extracellular matrix (ECM) modeling. In summary, our data indicate that TAp73 regulates multiple metabolic pathways that impinge on numerous cellular functions, but that, overall, converge to sustain cell growth and proliferation.

  7. ITALY: WEB TOURISM PROMOTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Klimová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, an important industry with a significant social and cultural dimensions, provides interesting stimuli for the study of communication, particularly in the search for adequate tools for persuading potential clients. Since the internet is an essential tool for self-promotion nowadays, specialists examine how tourist destinations are presented in different types of digital texts such as official tourism websites, which combine the informative function of guidebooks with the promotional function of brochures and leaflets. The purpose of this study is to analyse the rhetorical strategies used on the official homepages of nine Italian regions to catch the eye of potential clients and create an identity for a particular region as a tourist destination.   Il turismo, industria importante che ha una significativa dimensione sociale e culturale, costituisce un’area che fornisce stimoli interessanti per lo studio della comunicazione, in particolare nella ricerca di strumenti adeguati a persuadere potenziali clienti. Dal momento che oggi Internet è uno strumento essenziale per l’auto-promozione, molti specialisti si sono dedicati allo studio di come le destinazioni turistiche sono presentate in diversi tipi di testi digitali quali, ad esempio, i siti turistici ufficiali, che combinano la funzione informativa delle guide con quella promozionale di opuscoli e volantini. Scopo di questo studio è analizzare le strategie retoriche utilizzate nelle homepage ufficiali di nove regioni italiane per catturare l’attenzione dei potenziali clienti e per caratterizzare la regione come destinazione turistica.

  8. Health Promotion by Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoyoku Nishino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:Background: Various antioxidnats from daily foods are expected to prevent lifestyle-related diseases. For example, natural carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin seems to be a promising antioxidant, and based upon epidemiological data it was shown to be a possible cancer preventing agent. For this reason, we chose to study beta-cryptoxanthin more extensively.Methods and Results: From the result of clinical trial using beta-cryptoxanthin-enriched Mandarin orange juice, it was proven to potentiate the preventive activity of multi-carotenoid mixture against liver cancer in the patients with chronic viral hepatitis-induced liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, beta-cryptoxanthin also has preventive activity against alcohol-induced gamma-GTP elevation, and obesity.Conclusion: An antioxidant beta -cryptoxanthin seems to be valuable for health promotion.

  9. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  10. HVEM signalling promotes colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Schaer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor super family (TNFSF members regulate important processes involved in cell proliferation, survival and differentiation and are therefore crucial for the balance between homeostasis and inflammatory responses. Several members of the TNFSF are closely associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Thus, they represent interesting new targets for therapeutic treatment of IBD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have used mice deficient in TNFSF member HVEM in experimental models of IBD to investigate its role in the disease process. Two models of IBD were employed: i chemical-induced colitis primarily mediated by innate immune cells; and ii colitis initiated by CD4(+CD45RB(high T cells following their transfer into immuno-deficient RAG1(-/- hosts. In both models of disease the absence of HVEM resulted in a significant reduction in colitis and inflammatory cytokine production. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that HVEM stimulatory signals promote experimental colitis driven by innate or adaptive immune cells.

  11. TRYPTOPHAN PROMOTES CHARITABLE DONATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eSteenbergen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The link between serotonin (5-HT and one of the most important elements of prosocial behavior, charity, has remained largely uninvestigated. In the present study, we tested whether charitable donating can be promoted by administering the food supplement L-Tryptophan (TRP, the biochemical precursor of 5-HT. Participants were compared with respect to the amount of money they donated when given the opportunity to make a charitable donation. As expected, compared to a neutral placebo, TRP appears to increase the participants’ willingness to donate money to a charity. This result supports the idea that the food we eat may act as a cognitive enhancer modulating the way we think and perceive the world and others.

  12. Buying time promotes happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Smeets, Paul; Bekkers, Rene; Norton, Michael I

    2017-08-08

    Around the world, increases in wealth have produced an unintended consequence: a rising sense of time scarcity. We provide evidence that using money to buy time can provide a buffer against this time famine, thereby promoting happiness. Using large, diverse samples from the United States, Canada, Denmark, and The Netherlands (n = 6,271), we show that individuals who spend money on time-saving services report greater life satisfaction. A field experiment provides causal evidence that working adults report greater happiness after spending money on a time-saving purchase than on a material purchase. Together, these results suggest that using money to buy time can protect people from the detrimental effects of time pressure on life satisfaction.

  13. Health Promotion for Asylum Seekers and Refugees : Health Promotion Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Taala, Maria; Löf, Salla

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this functional thesis was to produce a useful booklet about health promotion for asylum seekers and refugees. The booklet provides knowledge about mental, social, and environmental health, since they were considered to be most important. The literature review provides knowledge for health care professionals. In this thesis, health, health promotion, asylum seekers and refugees were researched and health promotion considered via the different dimensions of health. There we...

  14. Promoter diversity in multigene transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremarti, Ariadna; Twyman, Richard M; Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Naqvi, Shaista; Farré, Gemma; Sabalza, Maite; Miralpeix, Bruna; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Yuan, Dawei; Ramessar, Koreen; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu; Bassie, Ludovic; Capell, Teresa

    2010-07-01

    Multigene transformation (MGT) is becoming routine in plant biotechnology as researchers seek to generate more complex and ambitious phenotypes in transgenic plants. Every nuclear transgene requires its own promoter, so when coordinated expression is required, the introduction of multiple genes leads inevitably to two opposing strategies: different promoters may be used for each transgene, or the same promoter may be used over and over again. In the former case, there may be a shortage of different promoters with matching activities, but repetitious promoter use may in some cases have a negative impact on transgene stability and expression. Using illustrative case studies, we discuss promoter deployment strategies in transgenic plants that increase the likelihood of successful and stable multiple transgene expression.

  15. The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD)

    OpenAIRE

    Perier, R. C.; Praz, V; Junier, T; Bonnard, C.; Bucher, P

    2000-01-01

    The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD) is an annotated non-redundant collection of eukaryotic POL II promoters for which the transcription start site has been determined experimentally. Access to promoter sequences is provided by pointers to positions in nucleotide sequence entries. The annotation part of an entry includes a description of the initiation site mapping data, exhaustive cross-references to the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, SWISS-PROT, TRANSFAC and other databases, as well a...

  16. The Problem with Autocracy Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Tansey, Oisin

    2016-01-01

    Recent scholarship has increasingly focused on the international dimensions of authoritarian rule, and the idea of autocracy promotion has gained considerable academic currency. While the literature on autocracy promotion has identified some clear patterns of external support for autocratic incumbents, it has so far failed to demonstrate that these efforts can best be understood as a unified, coherent set of foreign policies that constitute intentional efforts to promote a particular regime t...

  17. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-07

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Promoting smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Michele M; Williams, Dave E

    2012-03-15

    Cigarette smoking causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States. Physicians can use the five A's framework (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) to promote smoking cessation. All patients should be asked about tobacco use and assessed for motivation to quit at every clinical encounter. Physicians should strongly advise patients to quit smoking, and use motivational interviewing techniques for patients who are not yet willing to stop smoking. Clinical contacts with unmotivated patients should emphasize the rewards and relevance of quitting, as well as the risks of smoking and anticipated barriers to abstinence. These messages should be repeated at every opportunity. Appropriate patients should be offered pharmacologic assistance in quitting, such as nicotine replacement therapies, bupropion, and varenicline. Use of pharmacologic support during smoking cessation can double the rate of successful abstinence. Using more than one type of nicotine replacement therapy ("patch plus" method) and combining these therapies with bupropion provide additional benefit. However, special populations pose unique challenges in pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Nicotine replacement therapies increase the risk of birth defects and should not be used during pregnancy. They are usually safe in patients with cardiovascular conditions, except for those with unstable angina or within two weeks of a coronary event. Varenicline may increase the risk of coronary events. Nicotine replacement therapies are safe for use in adolescents; however, they are less effective than in adults. Physicians also should arrange to have repeated contact with smokers around their quit date to reinforce cessation messages.

  19. Ethnopoly promotes tolerance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On Friday 23 April, 225 primary school children from the eight schools in Meyrin-Cointrin and their accompanying adults took part in a big game of Ethnopoly. Private individuals, associations, administrations, shopkeepers and CERN all opened their doors to them to talk about their countries, their customs and what they are doing to promote tolerance and integration.   The CERN stand set up at ForumMeyrin for the Ethnopoly game. Scurrying from one place to another, the 10 and 11 year olds were made aware of the rich cultural diversity of their commune, which is home to 130 different nationalities. Physicists and engineers from CERN took up residence in the Forum Meyrin for the day in order to talk to the children about the advantages of international collaboration, a subject dear to the Organization's heart. They welcomed around fifty children in the course of the day, conveying to them a message of tolerance: despite their differences, the 10,000 scientists and other members of the CERN...

  20. Integrative approaches: promoting socioecological resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.W. Long; Carl Skinner; M. North; C.T. Hunsaker; L. Quinn-Davidson

    2014-01-01

    This chapter begins by discussing current challenges for ecosystem management that emerged from multiple chapters of the full synthesis. It then considers integrative approaches to promote resilience, including general strategies that recognize the integrated nature of socioecological systems, the importance of promoting disturbance regimes upon which these systems...

  1. Health Education and Health Promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelen, M.A.; Ban, van den A.W.

    2004-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive resource for theory, research and action in health education and health promotion. The authors describe strategies and actions for health education and health promotion based on theories for understanding, predicting and changing behavioural, social and environmental

  2. Promoting Leadership in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew P.; Grice, Tim; Paulsen, Neil

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we review current practices for developing and promoting academic leadership in universities. We consider the forms of leadership that are appropriate for academic organisations, while exploring the types of leadership favoured by recruitment and promotion committees. Using the Australian higher education context as a case study, we…

  3. Promotion mix and industrial marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Dragoljub

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotion activities are very important and irreplaceable marketing instrument in placement of production goods. In contrast to final consumption goods, where advertising has an absolute priority compared to another promotion activities, personal sale and development of sale dominate during placement of production goods.

  4. MicroRNA promoter analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megraw, Molly; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we present a brief overview of current knowledge about the promoters of plant microRNAs (miRNAs), and provide a step-by-step guide for predicting plant miRNA promoter elements using known transcription factor binding motifs. The approach to promoter element prediction is based on a carefully constructed collection of Positional Weight Matrices (PWMs) for known transcription factors (TFs) in Arabidopsis. A key concept of the method is to use scoring thresholds for potential binding sites that are appropriate to each individual transcription factor. While the procedure can be applied to search for Transcription Factor Binding Sites (TFBSs) in any pol-II promoter region, it is particularly practical for the case of plant miRNA promoters where upstream sequence regions and binding sites are not readily available in existing databases. The majority of the material described in this chapter is available for download at http://microrna.gr.

  5. PROMOTION STRATEGIES IN WINE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Marketing has proven to be very useful instrument in the wine industry, in fostering comprehensive, cohesive and effective strategies which wineries require to effectively compete in today’s almost saturated wine market. But within wine marketing, the promotion strategy, from our point of view, is the most important component of the winery that can ensure the success in the market or can shorten the life cycle of the product. This being said, the aim of the paper is twofold. Firstly, to determine and analyze the steps that are required to create a promotion strategy in the wine industry, by comparing different approaches. Secondly, to identify the instruments of the promotional mix that helps a winery to implement its promotional strategy. Bearing that in mind, the paper starts with some theoretical aspects regarding the promotion strategy and ends by providing a brief overview of the main findings.

  6. Literature promotion in Public Libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kann-Christensen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses a model that can be used in order to analyse notions on literature promotion in public libraries. The model integrates different issues which interact with how literature promotion is understood and thought of in public libraries. Besides cultural policy we regard the logics...... of new public management (NPM) and professional logics in the field of public libraries. Cultural policy along with the identification of underlying logics present among politicians, government officials, managers and librarians/promoters of literature, play an important part in creating an understanding...... of literature promotion in Danish libraries. Thus the basic premise for the development of the model is that cultural policy (Policy) has an important influence on notions on literature promotion and other activities in public libraries, but that cultural policy must be seen in some kind of interaction...

  7. Promoter-mediated transcriptional dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajun; Zhou, Tianshou

    2014-01-21

    Genes in eukaryotic cells are typically regulated by complex promoters containing multiple binding sites for a variety of transcription factors, but how promoter dynamics affect transcriptional dynamics has remained poorly understood. In this study, we analyze gene models at the transcriptional regulation level, which incorporate the complexity of promoter structure (PS) defined as transcriptional exits (i.e., ON states of the promoter) and the transition pattern (described by a matrix consisting of transition rates among promoter activity states). We show that multiple exits of transcription are the essential origin of generating multimodal distributions of mRNA, but promoters with the same transition pattern can lead to multimodality of different modes, depending on the regulation of transcriptional factors. In turn, for similar mRNA distributions in the models, the mean ON or OFF time distributions may exhibit different characteristics, thus providing the supplemental information on PS. In addition, we demonstrate that the transcriptional noise can be characterized by a nonlinear function of mean ON and OFF times. These results not only reveal essential characteristics of promoter-mediated transcriptional dynamics but also provide signatures useful for inferring PS based on characteristics of transcriptional outputs. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Information technology in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintonen, T P; Konu, A I; Seedhouse, D

    2008-06-01

    eHealth, the use of information technology to improve or enable health and health care, has recently been high on the health care development agenda. Given the vivid interest in eHealth, little reference has been made to the use of these technologies in the promotion of health. The aim of this present study was to conduct a review on recent uses of information technology in health promotion through looking at research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen relevant journals with issues published between 2003 and June 2005 yielded altogether 1352 articles, 56 of which contained content related to the use of information technology in the context of health promotion. As reflected by this rather small proportion, research on the role of information technology is only starting to emerge. Four broad thematic application areas within health promotion were identified: use of information technology as an intervention medium, use of information technology as a research focus, use of information technology as a research instrument and use of information technology for professional development. In line with this rather instrumental focus, the concepts 'ePromotion of Health' or 'Health ePromotion' would come close to describing the role of information technology in health promotion.

  9. Health promotion in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiveness of effort to promote and protect workers′ health. It proves both cost-effective and cost-beneficial to health promotion at the worksite and subsequently further reduces absenteeism. However, future research is needed to identify the impact of other factors such as age, gender and race on workers′ exposure. There is also a need to develop valid tests to measure the outcome of these programmes at the workplace. Health promotion should be central to workplace planning and should be recognised as an integral part of proactive occupational health. Indeed, the workplace is viewed as one of the most popular venues for promoting health and preventing diseases among employees.

  10. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  11. Local wisdom and health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll

    2011-01-01

    The respectful, appropriate use of local wisdom (LW) in health promotion increases penetration and longevity of positive behavior change. Collaborations based on mutual respect, flexibility and trust between health program organizers, traditional and local practitioners, and the communities being...... served are the goal for public health physicians in our modern, globalized world. This meta-analysis reviewed literature from the past 18 years drawn from a wide range of sources. This investigations proposes a grassroots, material shift toward regarding health promotion interventions as partnerships...... when planning, executing, and evaluating health promotion projects. This holistic approach would be based on the premise that LW is equal to expert opinion. This article endorses the integration of LW at every stage of the health promotion process concluding that it is through empowerment...

  12. Oral health promotion at worksites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1989-01-01

    Many workplace-based health promotion programmes have been reported but only a few include or focus specifically on oral health. Although certain obstacles to oral health promotion in the workplace exist from the management side, from the dental profession and from the employees, these seem...... is at present sparse and there are few guidelines to actual strategies for effective oral health promotion. However, elements of strategies that have been successful in various geographical and economic environments include: active involvement of the work force, the use of dental auxiliaries, voluntary daily...... mouthrinsing, screening activities, use of mass media, oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis and paraprofessional training. It is recommended that future research concentrates on these elements to build up a meaningful and relevant data base upon which effective oral health promotion programmes can...

  13. Does Labor Diversity Promote Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    We find evidence that workforce educational diversity promotes entrepreneurial behavior of employees as well as the formation of new firms, whereas diversity in demographics hinders transitions to selfemployment. Ethnic diversity favors entrepreneurship in financial and business services....

  14. Workplace Health Promotion in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Brandberg, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly aging population in Japan constitutes a problem as public health expenditure is expected to increase. At the same time, the working part of the population is decreasing straining the health insurance scheme. Since the workplace is a setting that influences a large part of the adults for a long part of their lives, workplace health promotion has potential to improve the situation. This paper examines how workplaces in Japan are used for health promotion. Deductive content analysis ...

  15. Health promotion and dental caries

    OpenAIRE

    Maltz, Marisa; Jardim, Juliana Jobim; Alves, Luana Severo

    2010-01-01

    The central idea of the Brazilian health system is to prevent the establishment of disease or detect it as early as possible. Prevention and treatment of dental caries are related to behavioral factors, including dietary and oral hygiene habits, which are related to many chronic diseases. Dental health promotion therefore should be fully integrated into broadly based health-promoting strategies and actions such as food and health policies, and general hygiene (including oral hygiene), among o...

  16. 7 CFR 1260.122 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1260.122 Section 1260.122 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.122 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid...

  17. 7 CFR 1210.312 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1210.312 Section 1210.312 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATERMELON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Watermelon Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1210.312 Promotion. Promotion means any...

  18. 7 CFR 1160.111 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1160.111 Section 1160.111 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.111 Promotion. Promotion means the following activities: (a) Consumer Education, which...

  19. 7 CFR 1206.17 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1206.17 Section 1206.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MANGO PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION Mango Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1206.17 Promotion. Promotion means...

  20. 7 CFR 1250.310 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1250.310 Section 1250.310 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.310 Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid...

  1. 7 CFR 1216.23 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1216.23 Section 1216.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.23 Promotion. Promotion...

  2. [Five paradoxes in health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Dicastillo, Olga; Canga-Armayor, Navidad; Mujika, Agurtzane; Pardavila-Belio, Miren Idoia; Belintxon, Maider; Serrano-Monzó, Inmaculada; Pumar-Méndez, María J

    The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation. The detected paradoxes which are described herein involve the patient versus the person, the individual versus the group, disease professionals versus health professionals, disease indicators versus health indicators, and health as an expense versus health as an investment. Making these contradictions explicit can help determine why it is so complex to put the concepts related to health promotion into practice. It can also help to put forward aspects that need further work if health promotion is to put into practice. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The eukaryotic promoter database (EPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périer, R C; Praz, V; Junier, T; Bonnard, C; Bucher, P

    2000-01-01

    The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD) is an annotated non-redundant collection of eukaryotic POL II promoters for which the transcription start site has been determined experimentally. Access to promoter sequences is provided by pointers to positions in nucleotide sequence entries. The annotation part of an entry includes a description of the initiation site mapping data, exhaustive cross-references to the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, SWISS-PROT, TRANSFAC and other databases, as well as bibliographic references. EPD is structured in a way that facilitates dynamic extraction of biologically meaningful promoter subsets for comparative sequence analysis. WWW-based interfaces have been developed that enable the user to view EPD entries in different formats, to select and extract promoter sequences according to a variety of criteria, and to navigate to related databases exploiting different cross-references. The EPD web site also features yearly updated base frequency matrices for major eukaryotic promoter elements. EPD can be accessed at http://www.epd.isb-sib.ch

  4. Promotion of development and introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    In order to promote effectively and smoothly development and introduction of oil substituting energies, comprehensive investigations for improving the energy demand and supply structures and investigations on development infrastructures will be conducted. Investigations will also be given on promoting improvements in overseas coal import base infrastructures, and demand/supply improvement, development and utilization of overseas energies. Investigations and guidance will be given on forming visions to improve demand/supply structures and to introduce and promote technologies thereof. In order to deepen further the understanding and recognition by the nation on oil substituting energies, such publicity activities will be carried out as provision of information, and promotion on popularization and education of energy demand/supply improving systems. For the purpose of promoting international exchanges, information exchange will be promoted on improving the energy demand/supply structures, so is on international information exchange. International cooperative operations on coal utilization, international cooperation on alcohol utilization technologies, and assistance to holding the world energy conferences will be carried out, and an Asia-Pacific Coal Demand and Supply Seminar will be held. In addition, training operations for coal engineers will be performed.

  5. Health promotion: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, I

    1986-01-01

    The first part of this paper reviews the work of the World Health Organization's Regional Office for Europe undertaken to clarify the relevance of health promotion for all member states and regions. This work led to a definition of "health" as the ability to realize aspirations and satisfy needs and to change or cope with the environment. Health promotion was considered to 1) involve the population as a whole in the context of everyday lives, 2) be directed towards action on the determinants of health, 3) combine diverse but complementary methods or approaches, 4) aim for effective and concrete public participation, and 5) involve health professionals. Areas covered by health promotion activities include 1) access to health, 2) development of an environment conductive to health, 3) strengthening of social networks and social supports, 4) promoting positive health behavior and appropriate coping strategies, and 5) increasing knowledge and disseminating information. The next section of the paper traces the development of the concept of health promotion from its roots in health education, and the third section presents a brief history of public health to contextualize this development. The differences between the old and new approaches to public health are presented (the new role of the health sector is to ensure access to health, create advocacy for health, and move beyond health care through intersectoral action and public participation), and the new "forcefield" of public health that emerges from a conceptualization of health promotion is described. This forcefield, illustrated as a triangle linking healthy public policy, health promotion, and community action, works at all levels and is the framework for the development of appropriate strategies. It is concluded that in many cases public health will have to be reorganized as will the health care system as a whole. Health must be viewed as a social project linked to political responsibilities not as a medical

  6. Sport promotion in USA and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenov Gajina

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Promotion as most viewable marketing activity is in sports for years. Many companies invest lots of funds for promotion of sport. Investing funds in sports they can promote their companies. This is called sponsorship.

  7. Measuring the Cost of Supermarket Promotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Cixiu

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of retail promotions and the magnitude of dollars spent on them call economists to examine the role of promotional costs in shaping the coordination of pricing and promotion decisions. In this study, I estimate the marginal cost of price promotion in the retail industry....... The estimates imply that the marginal cost of promotion ranges from $0.97 to $4.98 per promotion, and the total promotion cost comprises 3.6 to 17.1 percent of store revenues, or 10.4 to 23.7 percent of profits. The results also indicate that stores with higher promotion elasticities are able to afford more...

  8. Artificial Promoters for Metabolic Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Hammer, Karin

    1998-01-01

    In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro-organisms......In this article, we review some of the expression systems that are available for Metabolic Control Analysis and Metabolic Engineering, and examine their advantages and disadvantages in different contexts. In a recent approach, artificial promoters for modulating gene expression in micro...

  9. Promoter analysis by saturation mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliga Nitin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression and regulation are mediated by DNA sequences, in most instances, directly upstream to the coding sequences by recruiting transcription factors, regulators, and a RNA polymerase in a spatially defined fashion. Few nucleotides within a promoter make contact with the bound proteins. The minimal set of nucleotides that can recruit a protein factor is called a cis-acting element. This article addresses a powerful mutagenesis strategy that can be employed to define cis-acting elements at a molecular level. Technical details including primer design, saturation mutagenesis, construction of promoter libraries, phenotypic analysis, data analysis, and interpretation are discussed.

  10. Promoting Inclusive Education in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djietror, Beauty B. K.; Okai, Edward; Kwapong, Olivia A. T. Frimpong

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive education is critical for nation building. The government of Ghana has put in measures for promoting inclusion from basic through to tertiary level of education. Some of these measures include expansion of school facilities, implementation of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (FCUBE); the change of policy on girls who drop…

  11. How Bureaucracy Promotes Inclusive Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    Diversity literature in general and Feminist in particular have long promoted alternatives to bureaucracy on the premise that this form of governance is far from gender- and race-neutral, and that inclusive organizing necessitate a flatter, decentralized and more ‘organic’ set-up (Ferguson 1984...

  12. University Festival Promotes STEM Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quagliata, Andrew B.

    2015-01-01

    STEM education is argued as an essential ingredient in preparing our children for careers of the future. This study describes a university festival that includes the promotion of STEM-related career interests in young people among its goals. A total of 203 participants between the age of 7 and 17 completed both pre-event and post-event surveys. In…

  13. Professional Preparation in Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Charles E.; Fisher, Shirley P.

    1992-01-01

    Colleges and universities must develop curricula to prepare health promotion specialists to work with persons of all ages. Program core should include self-care, consumer awareness, nutrition, weight control, stress management, and substance abuse. Health and physical educators should learn to facilitate change of negative health behaviors into…

  14. Promoting Metacognition in Music Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Carol W.

    2013-01-01

    Metacognition is a type of thinking in which learners think about their own cognitive processes. Because it transcends disciplines and grade levels, metacognition is useful in many educational settings and can be transferred from the music classroom to other subject areas. Music educators can promote metacognition by designing and implementing…

  15. Promoting Multiculturalism in Developmental Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higbee, Jeanne L.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that the teaching profession needs to recognize the natural connections between multicultural and developmental education. Presents eight steps developmental educators can take to promote pluralism, including (1) establishing a clear link between cultural pluralism and institutional and programmatic mission and goals; (2) striving for…

  16. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part.

  17. Tunable promoters in systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijakovic, Ivan; Petranovic, Dina; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2005-01-01

    The construction of synthetic promoter libraries has represented a major breakthrough in systems biology, enabling the subtle tuning of enzyme activities. A number of tools are now available that allow the modulation of gene expression and the detection of changes in expression patterns. But, how...

  18. Promoting and Assessing Mathematical Generalising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tiffany; Lannin, John; van Garderen, Delinda

    2015-01-01

    Helping students generalise mathematical ideas is an essential component of teaching and learning of mathematics (Lannin, Ellis, Elliott & Zbiek, 2011). However, it can be challenging for primary teachers to assess and promote generalisation. Because generalisation is an essential part of mathematics instruction, the authors highlight the…

  19. Sales promotion and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.; Soethoudt, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the

  20. Sales promotions and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); H. Soethoudt (Han)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConsumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal

  1. 7 CFR 1215.16 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Promotion. Promotion means any action, including paid advertising, to enhance the image or desirability of... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1215.16 Section 1215.16 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POPCORN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  2. 7 CFR 1209.17 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....17 Promotion. Promotion means any action determined by the Secretary to enhance the image or... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1209.17 Section 1209.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MUSHROOM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  3. 7 CFR 1150.114 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion, and publicity to advance the image and sales of, and demand for, dairy products generally. ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion. 1150.114 Section 1150.114 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research...

  4. 5 CFR 532.407 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 532.407 Section 532.407... Administration § 532.407 Promotion. (a) An employee who is promoted is entitled to be paid at the lowest.... (c) If the promotion is to a position in a different wage area, the agency shall determine the...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.121 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1220.121 Section 1220.121 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.121 Promotion. The term...

  6. Promoter shape varies across populations and affects promoter evolution and expression noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Ignacio E; Degner, Jacob F; Harnett, Dermot; Cannavò, Enrico; Casale, Francesco P; Shim, Heejung; Garfield, David A; Birney, Ewan; Stephens, Matthew; Stegle, Oliver; Furlong, Eileen E M

    2017-04-01

    Animal promoters initiate transcription either at precise positions (narrow promoters) or dispersed regions (broad promoters), a distinction referred to as promoter shape. Although highly conserved, the functional properties of promoters with different shapes and the genetic basis of their evolution remain unclear. Here we used natural genetic variation across a panel of 81 Drosophila lines to measure changes in transcriptional start site (TSS) usage, identifying thousands of genetic variants affecting transcript levels (strength) or the distribution of TSSs within a promoter (shape). Our results identify promoter shape as a molecular trait that can evolve independently of promoter strength. Broad promoters typically harbor shape-associated variants, with signatures of adaptive selection. Single-cell measurements demonstrate that variants modulating promoter shape often increase expression noise, whereas heteroallelic interactions with other promoter variants alleviate these effects. These results uncover new functional properties of natural promoters and suggest the minimization of expression noise as an important factor in promoter evolution.

  7. EXPERIENCES WITH IDEA PROMOTING INITIATIVES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv

    2011-01-01

    with a growing interest. In this paper I examine three different idea promoting initiatives carried out in Grundfos, a leading pump manufacturer. In the analysis I address what understandings of idea work are inscribed in the initiatives and what role these initiatives play in the organization with respect......In new product development a central activity is to provide new ideas. Over the last decades experiences with stimulating employee creativity and establishing idea promoting initiatives have been made in industrial practice. Such initiatives are often labeled Idea Management – a research field...... to idea work. Furthermore I look into what makes these initiatives ‘work’ or ‘not work’. The analysis builds on an in-depth case study made in Grundfos based on 40 interviews with R&D professionals and managers. The managerial implications of the study are that managers should be aware of what...

  8. Electrochemical promotion of catalytic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbihl, R.

    2010-05-01

    The electrochemical promotion of heterogeneously catalyzed reactions (EPOC) became feasible through the use of porous metal electrodes interfaced to a solid electrolyte. With the O 2- conducting yttrium stabilized zirconia (YSZ), the Na + conducting β″-Al 2O 3 (β-alumina), and several other types of solid electrolytes the EPOC effect has been demonstrated for about 100 reaction systems in studies conducted mainly in the mbar range. Surface science investigations showed that the physical basis for the EPOC effect lies in the electrochemically induced spillover of oxygen and alkali metal, respectively, onto the surface of the metal electrodes. For the catalytic promotion effect general concepts and mechanistic schemes were proposed but these concepts and schemes are largely speculative. Applying surface analytical tools to EPOC systems the proposed mechanistic schemes can be verified or invalidated. This report summarizes the progress which has been achieved in the mechanistic understanding of the EPOC effect.

  9. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  10. Oral health promotion at worksites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, L

    1989-01-01

    of services and less restraint from fee payment structures and physical environments. The immediate benefit to the employees is easy access to dental services. In addition, work-related dental hazards can be compensated for or prevented and screening activities can be more easily organized. The literature...... is at present sparse and there are few guidelines to actual strategies for effective oral health promotion. However, elements of strategies that have been successful in various geographical and economic environments include: active involvement of the work force, the use of dental auxiliaries, voluntary daily...... mouthrinsing, screening activities, use of mass media, oral hygiene instruction and prophylaxis and paraprofessional training. It is recommended that future research concentrates on these elements to build up a meaningful and relevant data base upon which effective oral health promotion programmes can...

  11. Health promotion: a realistic prospection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nampudakam, M

    1998-01-01

    The concept of "Health For All", envisages the attainment of a level of health that permits all the people of the world to lead a socially and economically productive life. This goal has been guiding health strategies all over the world for the past 2 decades. However, in the present day heterogeneous world, with wide disparities in health and social conditions existing between countries and regions, the achievements in health are also dissimilar. Presently, the world community has realized that despite commendable progress recorded in many places, "Health For All" has to be set in a new perspective. This paper presents a global perspective, national perspective, nongovernmental perspective, and grassroots perspective of "Health for All" and health promotion. It also discusses the different international documents that focused on health promotion, namely, the Ottawa Charter, the Jakarta Declaration, and the 51st World Health Assembly.

  12. Mistakes the newly promoted make.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M M

    1999-01-01

    Many newly promoted managers make identical mistakes, most of them preventable. Physician executives who are thinking of taking on a bigger job should consider the following eight mistakes: (1) misreading top management's agenda, (2) micromanaging your successor, (3) not updating technical skills, (4) assuming customs and taboos are negotiable, (5) not rewriting your job description to mirror your new role, (6) not mentally moving from management to leadership, (7) not adjusting to relationships, and (8) not identifying a likely successor.

  13. Promoting university interaction with industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jakob

    The present working paper reports the results of a study of experiences with the agenda of promoting science-based economic growth in Finland. With the objective of gathering information on best practices, the overall research question of this study was dual: (1) Which institutions, rules and pol...... and policies have been introduced to stimulate university interaction with industry? (2) Which of these seem, so far, to have been the most successful ones?...

  14. Supermarket Promotions and Food Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, H.; Lloyd, T. A.; Morgan, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample comprising nearly a quarter of a million weekly prices from the largest seven supermarket chains in the UK, we present statistical evidence on two pricing practices that have attracted public interest. Analysing price dynamics before and after periods of promotional discounting the investigation finds first, no evidence of a general tendency for sales to disguise rises in the regular price, and second, some evidence for prices to rise prior to sales in a manner that is consiste...

  15. Sport promotion and sales management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminiroshan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of third millennium, the world of sport has been experiencing new marketing techniques to introduce products and services. The purpose of this study was to compare advertising and sales promotion strategies, the effects of different strategies in sport production companies to retain or to gain market share among selected firms, which were active in Iran. The method of survey was descriptive – analytical and some questionnaires were used for collecting data in Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire were estimated by interview with professors and exports in marketing and sport marketing and the reliability was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha (α= 0.89. Statistical population of the study includes Sport Goods-Producing companies in Iran (N= 180 and 122 firms formed the study sample. For testing the hypothesis, we have used Paired Samples T-Test. The analysis of findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between using advertising and sales promotion strategies. In general, we can say, there are some limited applications of using techniques and methods of sales promotion strategies in Iranian sport industry and methods of advertising. Consequently, regarding the intense competition among companies as well as fast growth of markets and fast changes in consumer’s behavior, identifying the best methods for corresponding relationship to customer would be required.

  16. Engineered Promoters for Potent Transient Overexpression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Y Even

    Full Text Available The core promoter, which is generally defined as the region to which RNA Polymerase II is recruited to initiate transcription, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of gene expression. The core promoter consists of different combinations of several short DNA sequences, termed core promoter elements or motifs, which confer specific functional properties to each promoter. Earlier studies that examined the ability to modulate gene expression levels via the core promoter, led to the design of strong synthetic core promoters, which combine different core elements into a single core promoter. Here, we designed a new core promoter, termed super core promoter 3 (SCP3, which combines four core promoter elements (the TATA box, Inr, MTE and DPE into a single promoter that drives prolonged and potent gene expression. We analyzed the effect of core promoter architecture on the temporal dynamics of reporter gene expression by engineering EGFP expression vectors that are driven by distinct core promoters. We used live cell imaging and flow cytometric analyses in different human cell lines to demonstrate that SCPs, particularly the novel SCP3, drive unusually strong long-term EGFP expression. Importantly, this is the first demonstration of long-term expression in transiently transfected mammalian cells, indicating that engineered core promoters can provide a novel non-viral strategy for biotechnological as well as gene-therapy-related applications that require potent expression for extended time periods.

  17. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Literacy Health Care Quality Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This ... 16/2017 This site is coordinated by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of ...

  18. Synthetic promoter libraries for Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Jakob Vang; Helmark, Søren; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    constructed constitutive promoter libraries based on various combinations of a previously reported C. glutamicum -10 consensus sequence (gngnTA(c/t)aaTgg) and the Escherichia coli -35 consensus, either with or without an AT-rich region upstream. A promoter library based on consensus sequences frequently found...... in low-GC Gram-positive microorganisms was also included. The strongest promoters were found in the library with a -35 region and a C. glutamicum -10 consensus, and this library also represents the largest activity span. Using the alternative -10 consensus TATAAT, which can be found in many other...... prokaryotes, resulted in a weaker but still useful promoter library. The upstream AT-rich region did not appear to affect promoter strength in C. glutamicum. In addition to the constitutive promoters, a synthetic inducible promoter library, based on the E. coli lac-promoter, was constructed by randomizing...

  19. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Christopher J; Ros, Vera I D; Stevenson, Brian; Sniegowski, Paul D; Brisson, Dustin

    2013-01-01

    The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios) and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish chronic infections.

  20. Natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Graves

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that evolvability - the capacity to evolve by natural selection - is itself the object of natural selection is highly intriguing but remains controversial due in large part to a paucity of direct experimental evidence. The antigenic variation mechanisms of microbial pathogens provide an experimentally tractable system to test whether natural selection has favored mechanisms that increase evolvability. Many antigenic variation systems consist of paralogous unexpressed 'cassettes' that recombine into an expression site to rapidly alter the expressed protein. Importantly, the magnitude of antigenic change is a function of the genetic diversity among the unexpressed cassettes. Thus, evidence that selection favors among-cassette diversity is direct evidence that natural selection promotes antigenic evolvability. We used the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, as a model to test the prediction that natural selection favors amino acid diversity among unexpressed vls cassettes and thereby promotes evolvability in a primary surface antigen, VlsE. The hypothesis that diversity among vls cassettes is favored by natural selection was supported in each B. burgdorferi strain analyzed using both classical (dN/dS ratios and Bayesian population genetic analyses of genetic sequence data. This hypothesis was also supported by the conservation of highly mutable tandem-repeat structures across B. burgdorferi strains despite a near complete absence of sequence conservation. Diversification among vls cassettes due to natural selection and mutable repeat structures promotes long-term antigenic evolvability of VlsE. These findings provide a direct demonstration that molecular mechanisms that enhance evolvability of surface antigens are an evolutionary adaptation. The molecular evolutionary processes identified here can serve as a model for the evolution of antigenic evolvability in many pathogens which utilize similar strategies to establish

  1. Promoting collaboration in emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagraj, Shobhana; Harrison, Juliet; Hill, Lawrence; Bowker, Lesley; Lindqvist, Susanne

    2018-02-23

    Collaborative practice between paramedics and medical staff is essential for ensuring the safe handover of patients. Handover of care is a critical time in the patient journey, when effective communication and collaborative practice are central to promoting patient safety and to avoiding medical error. To encourage effective collaboration between paramedic and medical students, an innovative, practice-based simulation exercise, known as interprofessional clinical skills (ICS) was developed at the University of East Anglia, UK. Emphasising patient safety, effective handover of care and teamwork, within the context of emergency medicine, the ICS promotes collaborative practice amongst health care students through the use of high- and low-fidelity simulation, human factors and values-based practice. A total of 123 undergraduate students from paramedic (60) and medical backgrounds (63) took part in the ICS. Evaluation data were collected from all students through the completion of an internal feedback/satisfaction questionnaire with 13 statements and one open-ended comment box. The response rate for the questionnaire was 100%. Of the 123 students from paramedic and medical disciplines, 99% agreed or strongly agreed with the statement 'I enjoyed this session'. Students also felt that the ICS helped them to build mutual respect (98%), enhance understanding of roles (94%) and develop as collaborative practitioners (92%). Collaborative practice between paramedics and medical staff is essential CONCLUSION: The ICS is an innovative, enjoyable and meaningful intervention for promoting interprofessional collaborative practice between paramedic and medical students in a simulated practice setting. It encourages students to gain core training in clinical skills and patient safety, within a safe, supervised environment. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. Phosphazene-promoted anionic polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Junpeng

    2014-01-01

    In the recent surge of metal-free polymerization techniques, phosphazene bases have shown their remarkable potential as organic promoters/catalysts for the anionic polymerization of various types of monomers. By complexation with the counterion (e.g. proton or lithium cation), phosphazene base significantly improve the nucleophilicity of the initiator/chain-end resulting in rapid and usually controlled anionic/quasi-anionic polymerization. In this review, we will introduce the general mechanism, i.e. in situ activation (of initiating sites) and polymerization, and summarize the applications of such a mechanism on macromolecular engineering toward functionalized polymers, block copolymers and complex macromolecular architectures.

  3. Health promotion through forgiveness intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recine, Ann C; Stehle Werner, Joan; Recine, Louis

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer evidence-based forgiveness interventions clinically useful to nurses in holistic health promotion for individuals, families, and communities. Forgiveness interventions are developed and described within four approaches inspired by midrange nursing theorists who have adapted their theories from Bandura's Social Learning Theory and Frankl's Theory of Meaning. Interventions are also assimilated from a comprehensive review of theoretical and research literature. The four interventional approaches include persuasive information, vicarious experience, awareness of physiological reactions, and enactive attainment. Barriers to implementation are discussed as well as ways to individualize the interventions.

  4. PROMOTION OF MONTENEGRO THROUGH SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dervis Selhanovic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern social structures of Montenegro exist in a hypercomplex and very dynamic environment. The complexity and dynamism are, in part, a consequence of the general characteristics of the modern age, and in part, of the transition processes which have affected the Montenegrin society. The transition processes are taking place at all levels and subsystems of the community, and its sociological milieu is facing inevitability of adaptation and immersion in such processes and trends. There is no more positive promotion for a country than a sports promotion. There is no expert team, public relations agency or a lawyer than can win Montenegro a front page. We can talk about the importance of sports for the promotion of Montenegro from another point of view. If we compare the number of occurrences of names of the selected Montenegrin athletes with that of politicians, scientists or artists in different internet search engines, we will realize how great is the capacity of marketing potential that lies in Montenegrin sports and top athletes as representatives of the products and services with the label - Made in Montenegro. In addition to the success of the Montenegrin athletes globally, the promotion of Montenegro through sports is directly contributed by the major sporting events and contests, on account of which Montenegro presented itself not only as an excellent host and organizer, but also demonstrated the remarkable state and marketing capabilities and competencies. Reputation (image is not achieved overnight. Its semiological and symbolic charge includes all (visual, vocal, environmental, personal, active inputs, which need to be channelled and created. Indeed, continual work in creating and maintaining the image of Montenegro is a public relations function. With efficiently and professionally developed media and PR strategy, the modern state of Montenegro may expect to favourably position its image at the international scene, and to present its

  5. Sales promotion strategies in Procter&Gamble

    OpenAIRE

    Šebesta, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    The thesis gives comprehensive overview on the topic of sales promotions. The special focus is devoted to activities of Procter & Gamble on the Czech market. With increasing importance of sales promotions on the Czech market, the thesis aims to introduce main academic findings concerning sales promotions and test them on brands of Procter & Gamble. The next goal is to find out whether sales promotion strategies of Procter & Gamble provide a competitive advantage for the company on the Czech m...

  6. Study of Aerosol/Cloud/Radiation Interactions over the ARM SGP Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, C; Chin, S

    2006-03-14

    While considerable advances in the understanding of atmospheric processes and feedbacks in the climate system have led to a better representation of these mechanisms in general circulation models (GCMs), the greatest uncertainty in predictability of future climate arises from clouds and their interactions with radiation. To explore this uncertainty, cloud resolving model has been evolved as one of the main tools for understanding and testing cloud feedback processes in climate models, whereas the indirect effects of aerosols are closely linked with cloud feedback processes. In this study we incorporated an existing parameterization of cloud drop concentration (Chuang et al., 2002a) together with aerosol prediction from a global chemistry/aerosol model (IMPACT) (Rotman et al., 2004; Chuang et al., 2002b; Chuang et al., 2005) into LLNL cloud resolving model (Chin, 1994; Chin et al., 1995; Chin and Wilhelmson, 1998) to investigate the effects of aerosols on cloud/precipitation properties and the resulting radiation fields over the Southern Great Plains.

  7. Seven years of aerosol scattering hygroscopic growth measurements from SGP: Factors influencing water uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, A.; Hageman, D.; Morrow, H.; Mei, F.; Watson, T.

    2017-09-01

    Long-term measurements of changes in the aerosol scattering coefficient hygroscopic growth at the U.S. Department of Energy Southern Great Plains site provide information on the seasonal as well as size and chemical dependence of aerosol water uptake. Annual average sub-10 μm fRH values (the ratio of aerosol scattering at 85%/40% relative humidity (RH)) were 1.78 and 1.99 for the gamma and kappa fit algorithms, respectively. The study found higher growth rates in the winter and spring seasons that correlated with a high aerosol nitrate mass fraction. fRH exhibited strong, but differing, correlations with the scattering Ångström exponent and backscatter fraction, two optical size-dependent parameters. The aerosol organic mass fraction had a strong influence on fRH. Increases in the organic mass fraction and absorption Ångström exponent coincided with a decrease in fRH. Similarly, fRH declined with decreases in the aerosol single scatter albedo. Uncertainty analysis of the fit algorithms revealed high uncertainty at low scattering coefficients and increased uncertainty at high RH and fit parameters values.

  8. 7 CFR 1221.23 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of sorghum to the public and the end-user... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1221.23 Section 1221.23 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SORGHUM PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  9. 7 CFR 1218.17 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... Promotion means any action taken to present a favorable image of blueberries to the general public and the... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1218.17 Section 1218.17 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BLUEBERRY PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND...

  10. 21 CFR 314.640 - Promotional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 314.640 Section 314.640... Efficacy Studies Are Not Ethical or Feasible § 314.640 Promotional materials. For drug products being... materials, including promotional labeling as well as advertisements, intended for dissemination or...

  11. 21 CFR 314.550 - Promotional materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotional materials. 314.550 Section 314.550... Serious or Life-Threatening Illnesses § 314.550 Promotional materials. For drug products being considered... the agency for consideration during the preapproval review period copies of all promotional materials...

  12. 29 CFR 541.503 - Promotion work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Promotion work. 541.503 Section 541.503 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.503 Promotion work. (a) Promotion work is one type of activity often performed by persons who make sales, which may or may not be exempt outside sales work, depending upon the...

  13. 12 CFR 4.64 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 4.64 Section 4.64 Banks and Banking...; Contracting for Goods and Services § 4.64 Promotion. (a) Scope. The OCC, under the direction of the Deputy Comptroller for Resource Management, engages in promotion and outreach activities designed to identify MWOBs...

  14. 7 CFR 1230.22 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1230.22 Section 1230.22 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.22...

  15. Do online gossipers promote brands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Shintaro; Rubio, Natalia; Campo, Sara

    2013-02-01

    Online gossip has been recognized as small talk on social networking sites (SNSs) that influences consumer behavior, but little attention has been paid to its role. This study makes three theoretical predictions: (a) propensity to gossip online leads to greater information value, entertainment value, and friendship value; (b) upon exposure to a high-involvement product, online gossipers are more willing to spread such information through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in search of prestige or fame as a knowledge expert; and (c) this tendency will be more pronounced when they are connected with strong ties (rather than weak ties) and belong to a large network (rather than a small network). An experimental survey was conducted with a scenario method. In total, 818 general consumers participated in the survey. A multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) provides empirical support for prediction (1). With regard to predictions (2) and (3), a series of three-way and two-way between-subjective ANOVAs were performed. When a high-involvement product is promoted, gossipers, rather than nongossipers, are more willing to participate in eWOM on an SNS. Furthermore, a significant interaction effect indicates that online gossipers' willingness to particiapte in eWOM would be more pronounced if they belonged to a large network rather than a small network. However, when a low-involvement product is promoted, no interaction effect is found between online gossip and network size. In closing, theoretical and managerial implications are discussed, while important limitations are recognized.

  16. Promoting primary health in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J

    1983-11-01

    This article describes a 2-year project aimed at promoting primary health in a rural area of Belize with little access to health services. 27 mobile clinics were scheduled every 6 weeks. Services focused on immunization, development of a health education program, prenatal and postnatal care, and child health. A correlation was noted between the facilities available in each community (e.g. water supply) and the state of that community's health. Although family planning could not be promoted because of the government's pronatalist policy, birth spacing and breastfeeding were advocated. Project activities in the village of Santa Familia provide an example of community participation in health programs. A local lay midwife was given a traditional birth attenders course and trained to lead health education courses in the village. A community health council was established to initiate 3 projects: preschool nursery, cleaning up of the village, and latrine construction. As part of a campaign against hookworm, schoolchildren are required to wear shoes. The goal of these projects was to ensure that the villages would continue to take an interest in personal and community welfare after the departure of the health workers.

  17. Astroglial networks promote neuronal coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chever, Oana; Dossi, Elena; Pannasch, Ulrike; Derangeon, Mickael; Rouach, Nathalie

    2016-01-12

    Astrocytes interact with neurons to regulate network activity. Although the gap junction subunits connexin 30 and connexin 43 mediate the formation of extensive astroglial networks that cover large functional neuronal territories, their role in neuronal synchronization remains unknown. Using connexin 30- and connexin 43-deficient mice, we showed that astroglial networks promoted sustained population bursts in hippocampal slices by setting the basal active state of neurons. Astroglial networks limited excessive neuronal depolarization induced by spontaneous synaptic activity, increased neuronal release probability, and favored the recruitment of neurons during bursting, thus promoting the coordinated activation of neuronal networks. In vivo, this sustained neuronal coordination translated into increased severity of acutely evoked epileptiform events and convulsive behavior. These results revealed that connexin-mediated astroglial networks synchronize bursting of neuronal assemblies, which can exacerbate pathological network activity and associated behavior. Our data thus provide molecular and biophysical evidence predicting selective astroglial gap junction inhibitors as anticonvulsive drugs. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. International energy-promotion-activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Comprehensive promotion of energy and environmental measures are demanded in order to realize improvement in energy demand/supply structures in developing countries where increase in energy demand is anticipated. To achieve this goal, technical transfer related to energy saving technologies and clean coal as well as international energy promotion activities are implemented in China and Indonesia since fiscal 1993. In the field of energy saving, model operations are performed to improve efficiency in such energy consuming fields as steel making, power generation, and oil refining, in addition to cooperation in structuring databases and establishing master plans. In the clean coal field, model operations are conducted to reduce environmental load in coal utilizing areas, in addition to cooperation in establishing master plans for coal utilization. This paper describes feasibility studies on environmentally harmonious coal utilization systems in developing countries, assistance to introduction thereof, and joint verification operations. To rationalize international energy usage, basic surveys on energy utilization efficiency improvement and model operations are carried out mainly in the Asia-Pacific countries.

  19. Karyotype variation is indicative of subgenomic and ecotypic differentiation in switchgrass

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cytogenetic study was conducted on a dihaploid individual (2n'='2X'='18) of switchgrass to establish a chromosome karyotype. Size differences, condensation patterns, and arm-length ratios were used as identifying features and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assigned 5S and 45S rDNA loci...

  20. Translation of three mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 subgenomic RNAs in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Spaan, W.J.M.; Zeijst, B.A.M. van der

    1981-01-01

    We have purified the seven virus-specific RNAs which were previously shown to be induced in Sac(-) cells upon infection with mouse hepatitis virus strain A59 (W. J. M. Spaan, P. J. M. Rottier, M. C. Horzinek, and B. A. M. van der Zeijst, Virology 108:424-434, 1981). The individual RNAs, prepared by

  1. Noncoding subgenomic flavivirus RNA: multiple functions in West Nile virus pathogenesis and modulation of host responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roby, J.A.; Pijlman, G.P.; Wilusz, J.; Khromykh, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Flaviviruses are a large group of positive strand RNA viruses transmitted by arthropods that include many human pathogens such as West Nile virus (WNV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), yellow fever virus, dengue virus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. All members in this genus tested so far are

  2. CAUSE AND EFFECT IN PROMOTING A PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVERIAN-VLĂDUȚ IACOB

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For a project to be considered successful it is necessary, besides a proper coordination, to be also done a good and wide promotion. In view of communication, promotion and maintenance ensures the organization's image. Disturbances occurring in any type of project, as a result of poor promotion, affect the image of the team and highlight the weaknesses in its management. Therefore, the promotion should be permanently monitored and evaluated. Cause-effect analysis is one of the ways we can identify some of nonconformities of the promotion process within a project.

  3. Functional Screening of Core Promoter Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Dan Y; Kedmi, Adi; Ideses, Diana; Juven-Gershon, Tamar

    2017-01-01

    The core promoter is the DNA sequence that recruits the basal transcription machinery and directs accurate initiation of transcription. It is an active contributor to gene expression that can be rationally designed to manipulate the levels of expression. Core promoter function can be analyzed using different experimental approaches. Here, we describe the qualitative and quantitative analysis of engineered core promoter functions using the EGFP reporter gene that is driven by distinct core promoters. Expression plasmids are transfected into different mammalian cell lines, and the resulting fluorescence is monitored by live cell imaging , as well as by flow cytometry. In order to verify that the transcriptional activity of the examined core promoters is indeed a function of their activity, as opposed to differences in DNA uptake, real-time quantitative PCR analysis is performed. Importantly, the described methodology for functional screening of core promoter activity has enabled the analysis of engineered potent core promoters for extended time periods.

  4. Public relations as promotional activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Almira Curri-Mehmeti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public. It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a two-way street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensa-tional promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  5. Promoting sustainability through green chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchhoff, Mary M. [American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Green chemistry is an important tool in achieving sustainability. The implementation of green chemistry, the design of chemical products and processes that reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances, is essential if the expanding global population is to enjoy an increased standard of living without having a negative impact on the health of the planet. Cleaner technologies will allow the chemical enterprise to provide society with the goods and services on which it depends in an environmentally responsible manner. Green chemistry provides solutions to such global challenges as climate change, sustainable agriculture, energy, toxics in the environment, and the depletion of natural resources. A collaborative effort by industry, academia, and government is needed to promote the adoption of the green chemistry technologies necessary to achieve a sustainable society.

  6. Breastfeeding promotion: evidence and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Bellù

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Although breastfeeding is associated with many health benefits in children and mothers, and World Health Organization (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age, overall breastfeeding rates remain low. Italian rates of exclusive breastfeeding do not differ from international data. The aim of this review is to evaluate evidence of breastfeeding promotion interventions and the remaining problems to achieve them. We found that breastfeeding support is a complex system of interventions, including individual, structural and environmental factors. Many systematic reviews report evidence that breastfeeding support offered to women increases duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding, both in full term healthy newborns and in preterm infants. Political and economic efforts should be made to ensure breastfeeding support to all women in the different settings, assuming it as a collective target.

  7. Public Relations as Promotional Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almira CURRI-MEMETI

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Public relations give opportunity to the organization to present its image and personality to its own “public”- users, supporters, sponsors, donors, local community and other public.It is about transferring the message to the public, but that is a twoway street. You must communicate with your public, but at the same time you must give opportunity to the public to communicate easier with you. The real public relations include dialog – you should listen to the others, to see things through their perspective. This elaborate is made with the purpose to be useful for every organization, not for the sensational promotion of its achievements, but to become more critical towards its work. Seeing the organization in the way that the other see it, you can become better and sure that you are giving to your users the best service possible.

  8. Phytoextraction to promote sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.W.N. Anderson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining makes a positive contribution to the economy of Indonesia. Significant earnings accrue through the export of tin, coal, copper, nickel and gold. Of these commodities, gold carries the highest unit value. But not all gold mining is regulated. Indonesia has a significant Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining (ASGM industry, defined as any informal and unregulated system of gold mining. These operations are often illegal, unsafe and are environmentally and socially destructive. New technology is needed to support the sustainable exploitation of gold and other precious metal resources in locations where ASGM is currently practised. This technology must be simple, cheap, easy to operate and financially rewarding. A proven option that needs to be promoted is phytoextraction. This is technology where plants are used to extract metals from waste rock, soil or water. These metals can subsequently be recovered from the plant in pure form, and sold or recycled. Gold phytoextraction is a commercially available technology, while international research has shown that phytoextraction will also work for mercury. In the context of ASGM operations, tailings could be contained in specific ‘farming areas’ and cropped using phytoextraction technology. The banning of ASGM operations is not practicable or viable. Poverty would likely become more extreme if a ban were enforced. Instead, new technology options are essential to promote the sustainable development of this industry. Phytoextraction would involve community and worker engagement, education and employment. New skills in agriculture created through application of the technology would be transferrable to the production of food, fibre and timber crops on land adjacent to the mining operations. Phytoextraction could therefore catalyse sustainable development in artisanal gold mining areas throughout Indonesia.

  9. Single promoters as regulatory network motifs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zopf, Christopher; Maheshri, Narendra

    2012-02-01

    At eukaryotic promoters, chromatin can influence the relationship between a gene's expression and transcription factor (TF) activity. This additional complexity might allow single promoters to exhibit dynamical behavior commonly attributed to regulatory motifs involving multiple genes. We investigate the role of promoter chromatin architecture in the kinetics of gene activation using a previously described set of promoter variants based on the phosphate-regulated PHO5 promoter in S. cerevisiae. Accurate quantitative measurement of transcription activation kinetics is facilitated by a controllable and observable TF input to a promoter of interest leading to an observable expression output in single cells. We find the particular architecture of these promoters can result in a significant delay in activation, filtering of noisy TF signals, and a memory of previous activation -- dynamical behaviors reminiscent of a feed-forward loop but only requiring a single promoter. We suggest this is a consequence of chromatin transactions at the promoter, likely passing through a long-lived ``primed'' state between its inactive and competent states. Finally, we show our experimental setup can be generalized as a ``gene oscilloscope'' to probe the kinetics of heterologous promoter architectures.

  10. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robyn; Stafford, Julia; Pierce, Hannah; Daube, Mike

    2017-07-01

    In Australia, most alcohol is sold as packaged liquor from off-premises retailers, a market increasingly dominated by supermarket chains. Competition between retailers may encourage marketing approaches, for example, discounting, that evidence indicates contribute to alcohol-related harms. This research documented the nature and variety of promotional methods used by two major supermarket retailers to promote alcohol products in their supermarket catalogues. Weekly catalogues from the two largest Australian supermarket chains were reviewed for alcohol-related content over 12 months. Alcohol promotions were assessed for promotion type, product type, number of standard drinks, purchase price and price/standard drink. Each store catalogue included, on average, 13 alcohol promotions/week, with price-based promotions most common. Forty-five percent of promotions required the purchase of multiple alcohol items. Wine was the most frequently promoted product (44%), followed by beer (24%) and spirits (18%). Most (99%) wine cask (2-5 L container) promotions required multiple (two to three) casks to be purchased. The average number of standard drinks required to be purchased to participate in catalogue promotions was 31.7 (SD = 24.9; median = 23.1). The median price per standard drink was $1.49 (range $0.19-$9.81). Cask wines had the lowest cost per standard drink across all product types. Supermarket catalogues' emphasis on low prices/high volumes of alcohol reflects that retailers are taking advantage of limited restrictions on off-premise sales and promotion, which allow them to approach market competition in ways that may increase alcohol-related harms in consumers. Regulation of alcohol marketing should address retailer catalogue promotions. [Johnston R, Stafford J, Pierce H, Daube M. Alcohol promotions in Australian supermarket catalogues. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:456-463]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  11. Apprehending public relations as a promotional industry

    OpenAIRE

    Aronczyk, M; Edwards, L.; Kantola, A.

    2017-01-01

    This special issue examines the growing social and political importance of promotional activities and public relations. For decades, promotional tools have been deployed to foster the aims of various societal agencies, be they corporations, political actors, public institutions, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) or citizen movements. In today’s turbulent political and media environments, promotional practices have become more inventive, coordinated and ubiquitous, crossing transnational b...

  12. Using art to promote democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Mijoč

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The author presents and supports with case studies international practice of adult learning, which uses rather unusual and innovative approaches to motivate and train groups of people, who live on the margin of events and decision-making processes, for democratic citizenship. We speak about informal training, which through music, art and literature enriches the process of mutual learning. This encourages selfconfidence of individuals and groups and helps developing competencies, which are important for active and democratic citizenship. International conferences, which are very often prepared for the first time also for members of minor organizations and societies, such as within Grundtvig projects, are for many a learning experience and opportunity to promote and meet >>good solutions« for problems of adult learning. Using immediate experience of planning and cooperation in projects and also on basis of mistakes, problems and conflicts people learn to contribute. At the same time relationships are enriched and friendships built between trainers/educators, participants and volunteers from different European countries.

  13. Promoting innovation in pediatric nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Dennis M

    2010-01-01

    Truly impactful innovation can only be recognized in retrospect. Moreover, almost by definition, developing algorithmic paths on roadmaps for innovation are likely to be unsuccessful because innovators do not generally follow established routes. Nonetheless, environments can be established within Departments of Pediatrics that promote innovating thinking. The environmental factors necessary to do so include: (1) demand that academic Pediatrics Departments function in an aggressively scholarly mode; (2) capture the most fundamental science in postnatal developmental biology; (3) focus education and training on the boundaries of our knowledge, rather than the almost exclusive attention to what we think we already know; (4) devote mentoring, time and resources to only the most compelling unanswered questions in the pediatric sciences, including nutrition; (5) accept only systematic, evidence-based answers to clinical questions; (6) if systematic, evidence-based data are not available, design the proper studies to get them; (7) prize questioning the answers to further move beyond the knowledge limit; (8) support the principle that experiments in children will be required to convincingly answer clinical questions important to children, and (9) establish the multicenter resources in pediatric scientist training, clinical study design and implementation, and laboratory and instrument technologies required to answer today's questions with tomorrow's methods. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Reflections: health promotion--what is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, D F; Gold, R S

    1986-01-01

    The term health promotion has gained wide popularity in recent years. This widespread usage has been accompanied by a wide diversity of definitions. Some of this diversity may be seen in the articles which made up this theme issue on health promotion. In many cases health promotion seems to have become an all-inclusive umbrella term under which any health service may find coverage. Health services have become health promotion services; outpatient clinics have become health-promotion centers. In these cases, "health promotion" has become a fad or a gimmick--as meaningless as labelling certain cereals and other foods as "natural." Others use health promotion as an umbrella term but of more limited scope. Perhaps the most popular of these is Green's definition of health promotion as, "any combination of educational, organizational, economic and environmental supports for behavior conducive to health." Much that is to be found in this theme issue derives from this conceptualization of health promotion as all of the means by which healthy behavior may be encouraged.

  15. Competitive One-to-One Promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Greg Shaffer; Z. John Zhang

    2002-01-01

    One-to-one promotions are possible when consumers are individually addressable and firms know something about each customer's preferences. We explore the competitive effects of one-to-one promotions in a model with two competing firms where the firms differ in size and consumers have heterogeneous brand loyalty. We find that one-to-one promotions always lead to an increase in price competition (average prices in the market decrease). However, we also find that one-to-one promotions affect mar...

  16. Comparative analyses of bidirectional promoters in vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor James

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.

  17. Do remittances promote financial development in Africa?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karikari, Nana Kwasi; Mensah, Sam; Harvey, Simon K

    2016-01-01

    The paper seeks to establish whether or not remittances promoted financial developments and explore the traceable causality between remittances and financial developments in some countries in Africa...

  18. Promoting Strong Written Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The reason that an improvement in the quality of technical writing is still needed in the classroom is due to the fact that universities are facing challenging problems not only on the technological front but also on the socio-economic front. The universities are actively responding to the changes that are taking place in the global consumer marketplace. Obviously, there are numerous benefits of promoting strong written communication skills. They can be summarized into the following six categories. First, and perhaps the most important: The University achieves learner satisfaction. The learner has documented verbally, that the necessary knowledge has been successfully acquired. This results in learner loyalty that in turn will attract more qualified learners.Second, quality communication lowers the cost per pupil, consequently resulting in increased productivity backed by a stronger economic structure and forecast. Third, quality communications help to improve the cash flow and cash reserves of the university. Fourth, having high quality communication enables the university to justify the need for high costs of tuition and fees. Fifth, better quality in written communication skills result in attracting top-quality learners. This will lead to happier and satisfied learners, not to mention greater prosperity for the university as a whole. Sixth, quality written communication skills result in reduced complaints, thus meaning fewer hours spent on answering or correcting the situation. The University faculty and staff are thus able to devote more time on scholarly activities, meaningful research and productive community service. References Boyer, Ernest L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the Professorate.Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Hawkins, P., & Winter, J. (1997). Mastering change: Learning the lessons of the enterprise.London: Department for Education and Employment. Buzzel, Robert D., and Bradley T. Gale. (1987

  19. Alternative means of replacement antimicrobial growth promoters

    OpenAIRE

    NAGORNA L.V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents data on the possibility of using different organic acids as full substitutes for antimicrobial growth promoters. It is shown that organic acids enhance the digestibility of feed nutrients, increase the nutritional value of food and reproductive capacity poultry, promote balancing microflora and microfauna.

  20. Promoting Healthy Body Image in Middle School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akos, Patrick; Levitt, Dana Heller

    2002-01-01

    Provides advice for school counselors on promoting healthy body image among middle school students. Interventions for the promotion of healthy body image at individual, group, and systemic levels can offer students a protective factor for common disruptions associated with puberty and the transition into middle school. Outlines issues for…

  1. Electrochemical Promotion of Catalytic Reactions Using

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrushina, Irina; Bjerrum, Niels; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on electrochemical promotion (EP) of catalytic reactions using Pt/C/polybenzimidazole(H3PO4)/Pt/C fuel cell performed by the Energy and Materials Science Group (Technical University of Denmark) during the last 6 years[1-4]. The development of our...... understanding of the nature of the electrochemical promotion is also presented....

  2. Predicting sales promotion contest proneness and participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reid, Mike; Thompson, Peter; Mavondo, Felix

    There is growing interest by Consumer Packaged Goods manufacturers in using tnonprice sales promotions, including competitions and sweepstakes and in better understanding consumers’ engagement with and reaction to these forms of sales promotion (Kalra and Shi, 2010). A contest or sweepstake...

  3. Promoting Entrepreneurship Research in Southeast Asia: Applying ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Entrepreneurship Research in Southeast Asia: Applying the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Entrepreneurship has been a major driver of growth and job creation in Southeast Asia. However, there is little empirical research on entrepreneurial activity, innovation, and the types of policies which can promote ...

  4. 77 FR 56552 - Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ...] [Pages 56552-56554] [FR Doc No: 2012-22507] POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Holiday Mobile Shopping... Holiday Mobile Shopping Promotion (``Promotion''), which will take place between November 7, 2012 and.../ Cyber Monday holiday shopping timeframe. In this final rule, the Postal Service provides a description...

  5. 7 CFR 1219.22 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion. 1219.22 Section 1219.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HASS AVOCADO PROMOTION, RESEARCH...

  6. Mental health promotion: paradigms and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tudor, Keith

    1996-01-01

    ... concept which is clearly differentiated from mental illness and psychopathology. The second part of the book focuses on the theory and practice of mental health promotion through applications to policy, assessment, consultation, and to education and training in mental health promotion. Drawing on a wealth of international literature Keith Tudor offe...

  7. 17 CFR 200.70 - Business promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Canons of Ethics § 200.70 Business promotions. A member must not engage in any other business, employment or vocation while in office, nor may he ever use the... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business promotions. 200.70...

  8. Promotion of oral health by community nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, Brendan; Boran, Sue

    2017-10-02

    To explore the enablers and barriers perceived by community nurses in the promotion of oral health in an adult community trust directorate. Oral health care promotion in community care settings is being neglected. England and Wales have witnessed marked improvements in periodontal disease; however, no improvements have been seen in older people. A qualitative methodology was employed, where eight nurses from Band 5 to 7 were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The data was analysed thematically. Data analysis was organised into four themes: professional self-concept and the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary in the promotion of oral health; the impact an organisation has on the promotion of oral health and an exploration of the enablers and barriers identified by the community nurses while delivering care; the relationships between the nurse and patient and the potential impact on oral health promotion; the concept of self-regard in relation to the promotion of oral health and its overall impact. A commitment to improving oral health and requests for additional educational input were apparent. Organisational enablers and barriers were identified, alongside the crucial role a positive self-regard for oral health care may play in the promotion of oral health. Nurses need relevant education, organisational support, adequate resources and support from a multidisciplinary team to deliver optimal oral health promotion.

  9. Promoting Transformative Learning through Reading Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggan, Chad; Cranton, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This article is a report on research into the role of fiction in promoting transformative learning in higher education settings. Participants were 131 undergraduate and graduate students from two universities in the United States. To determine the type of learning promoted by reading fiction, we performed qualitative analyses on participants'…

  10. The double jeopardy of sales promotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J P

    1990-01-01

    The maturing of most consumer markets in the United States has put great pressure on manufacturers in their search for growth. They have concentrated on building sales and expanding share proportions in the stagnant markets with devices like niche products, product extensions, mergers, and international ventures. They have shifted emphasis to sales promotions at the expense of advertising. But promotions, when you come right down to it, mean price reductions. Trade promotions are almost always rebates, and consumer promotions are usually temporary price reductions or coupons. The cost in reduced profit, demonstrated mathematically through calculations of price elasticity, is severe. Besides, when the promotion is over, the manufacturer has not moved forward an inch in shoring up the brand franchise. Promotions bring volatile demand, whereas the producer seeks stable demand. By sustaining a brand image and building customer loyalty, on the other hand, theme advertising can stabilize demand. Moreover, this type of advertising is less likely than promotion is to invite destructive competitive retaliation. Calculation of the advertising elasticity of a brand indicates that sometimes even modest sales increases can produce healthy profit improvement. In a well-planned marketing campaign, there is often good reason to include trade or consumer promotion--to counter a leading competitor's moves, for example. But there is no point in carrying out wild swings at rivals in a struggle for market share. Mathematical techniques can aid the efficiency of marketing planning and put on a more rational basis the decision on where to put the dollars.

  11. 7 CFR 1212.20 - Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... honey products to the public and food industry with the intent of improving the perception and competitive position of honey and stimulating sales of honey or honey products. ..., PROMOTION, CONSUMER EDUCATION AND INDUSTRY INFORMATION ORDER Honey Packers and Importers Research, Promotion...

  12. Ethics in health promotion: freedom or determinism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, F

    Nurses' beliefs about human nature will influence their interactions with clients. Health promotion can be approached from the point of view of the individual or of society as a whole. This article examines how nurses can promote the health of their clients.

  13. Promoting School Connectedness through Whole School Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona; Stewart, Donald; Patterson, Carla

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework to demonstrate the contribution of whole school approaches embodied by the health-promoting school approach, to the promotion of school connectedness, defined as the cohesiveness between diverse groups in the school community, including students, families, school staff and the wider…

  14. Managerial style and health promotion programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K

    1993-02-01

    Organizational correlates of worksite health promotion programs were isolated and interpreted within a diffusion of innovation framework. A sample of managers from California (U.S.A.) 500 organizations were interviewed via telephone on their corporate management styles and health care strategies. Organizational management style was found to be related to prevalence of health promotion programs and future plans for health promotion programs. Specifically, this study found that organizations with democratic management styles are more likely to plan, adopt, and/or implement worksite health promotion programs when compared to organizations with authoritarian management styles. An additional contribution of this study was the development and validation of the Organizational Management Style (OMS) scale. These results have important theoretical and practical implications. For example, these findings explain why some organizations are more or less likely to adopt health promotion programs. Both diffusion of innovation and social control explanations are used to interpret the results.

  15. Does workplace health promotion reach shift workers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Clausen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: One reason for health disparities between shift and day workers may be that workplace health promotion does not reach shift workers to the same extent as it reaches day workers. This study aimed to investigate the association between shift work and the availability of and participation...... in workplace health promotion. METHODS: We used cross-sectional questionnaire data from a large representative sample of all employed people in Denmark. We obtained information on the availability of and participation in six types of workplace health promotion. We also obtained information on working hours, ie......). RESULTS: In the general working population, fixed evening and fixed night workers, and employees working variable shifts including night work reported a higher availability of health promotion, while employees working variable shifts without night work reported a lower availability of health promotion...

  16. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Epilepsy health promotion - An educational journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Yvonne; Millar, Charlene; Walker, Joy; Copeman, June; Henderson, Lorraine

    2006-09-01

    Few undergraduate health promotion nurse education programmes move beyond hypothetical pieces of course work. This paper focuses on an epilepsy health promotion intervention undertaken by second year adult and mental health nursing students at Leeds Metropolitan University. These students studied collaboratively, facilitated by tutors to design, plan and implement an initiative focussing on epilepsy health promotion in a primary school. The educational benefits for the primary school children, the undergraduate nurses and the health promotion nursing tutors are examined. These included children demonstrating self-awareness of possible stigma and how to relate more positively to people with epilepsy. The undergraduate nurses also gained an invaluable learning experience, developed confidence and professional skill competencies in providing a feasible and original health promotion initiative. The implications for health promotion nursing tutors in supporting this type of educational intervention are discussed in relation to both the changing nature of the National Health Service and the current demands on curriculum design. The authors suggest that fully embedding health promotion theory in practice places high demands, in the short-term, on nursing tutor capacity. Clearly, this may be outweighed by the long-term benefits of preparing innovative graduate practitioners fit for practice.

  18. THE PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITY IN THE TOURISTIC SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costel Iliuta Negricea

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The promotion as one of the components of the marketing mix, laying stress, în this regard,on its role în the deployment of the tourism companies’ activity, the structure of the promotional activity în thetouristic sector as well as the use of the promotional strategies în the attainment of the development targets ofthe tourism companies.So, în the paper there have been mentioned the three levels at which it is made the touristic promotionîn Romania, respectively nationally, by the Ministry of the Tourism, under whose subordination it is theTourism National Authority, the second level is the regional/local one, concerning the activity carried out bythe Centers/Offices of Touristic Information from a series of localities, and the last level refers to the microone, respectively at the level of the tourism companies, which promote their offer individually (the most often.The important role of the promotion în the deployment of the activity of the tourism companies isbeing highlighted by the fact that this makes the connection between the activity of an organization and itscustomers (effective or potential, and, în the touristic field, the content of the promotional activity is stronglystressed by the features of this type of services and of the system of creation and delivery, as well as of thepurchasing behaviour.

  19. The impact of the distance-dependent promotional effect on the promotion cost sharing decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Gwo-Ji; Wang, Shih-Yen; Yeh, Yingchieh

    2016-02-01

    This paper considers the promotion cost sharing decision between a supplier and a retailer. The customer demand is affected by both national and local promotional effects while the local promotional effect on a customer is dependent on the distance between the retailer and this customer. We propose a continuous approximation approach to modelling the sum of the customer demand in the whole market area served by the retailer. A model is provided to help managers decide on the retail price, the local advertising expenditure, the national advertising expenditure, and the supplier participation rate, with consideration of the influence of distance on the promotional effect. We also find that the supplier's promotion cost sharing rate increases as the market size increases or the influence of distance on the promotional effect decreases. A numerical example is given to show that the nature of distance-dependent promotional effect has a significant impact on the decisions and profits.

  20. The contemporary Romanian paradigm of marketing promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manic Marius

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary marketing takes place in the field of permanent interconnection, of instant information and immediate rewards. Communication through marketing promotion will take these characteristics into account or will be just an inefficient spending. The Romanian market is no different from the global one. Marketing promotion currently has new tools that lead to new challenges in that it makes use of traditional, yet pow erful forms, but also absolute ways of communication. The Romanian promotion is helped today by these tools, but its task is more complex than it was a decade ago .

  1. Promotional activities of banks in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelenović Vera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on banking sector in Serbia, particulary on promotional activities of banks in public and on media. The authors of paper tried to find cause and effect relationship between business success and working quality on the one hand and investment in promotion activities of bank on the other hand, like important instrument of bank's business policy realization. Promotional activities appear like successful instrument in order to increase satisfaction of the bank's clients, which effect the increase of successfulness of banks' business.

  2. Salutogenic Window of Opportunity in Nutrition Promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, L.I.; Swan, E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Their workshop will discuss Antonovsky’s Salutogenic Framework and how it offers a window of opportunity for enabling healthy lifestyle practices and nutrition promotion. During the interactive workshop, participants will have the opportunity to practice Salutogenic thinking through discussion,

  3. The Role of Entrepreneurial Competencies in Promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    recommendations. Key Words: entrepreneurial, competencies, entrepreneurship, development, Nigeria. Introduction ... Despite government's efforts towards the promotion of entrepreneurial development in. Nigeria, failure in the ..... entrepreneurship to achieve economic development in the country. The theory emphasizes ...

  4. [Child health promotion: a physiotherapeutic approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Miriam Ribeiro Calheiros; Gomes, Romeu

    2013-04-01

    This article seeks to analyze the state-of-the-art physiotherapeutic actions geared to children, with a focus on health promotion, in the available literature. Thus, by questioning ideas present in the production of knowledge, the intention is to contribute with input for the formulation of principles for physiotherapy to promote actions of comprehensive health care for children. In terms of methodology, the study consisted of a bibliographical review of a qualitative nature, focusing on articles available in national and international virtual libraries and databases. Four pivotal themes that permeate the discussion were singled out, namely: physiotherapy from the perspective of promoting the health of children; bodily practices at different levels of care; physiotherapy for children on a community basis; and cooperation between sectors. The discussions of the literature consulted made it possible to establish parameters for the development of physiotherapy geared to children from a health promotion standpoint.

  5. Promoting Community Health Resources: Preferred Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Community health promotion efforts involve communicating resource information to priority populations. Which communication strategies are most effective is largely unknown for specific populations. Objective: A random-dialed telephone survey was conducted to assess health resource comm...

  6. The Causes and Costs of Promotion Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Lu Ann W.; McGrath, Loraine G.

    1983-01-01

    Minimizing the stress that nurses experience after a promotion requires an understanding of the factors associated with moving up the managerial ladder. Knowing these factors, nursing administrators can plan their programs to support their managers in transition. (SSH)

  7. Can collusion promote sustainable consumption and production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, M.P.; Spiegel, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several competition authorities have taken public interest considerations, such as promoting sustainable consumption and production, into account in cartel proceedings.We show that when consumers value sustainable products and firms choose investments in sustainability before choosing output,

  8. Worksite health promotion programs in college settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657

  9. Health promotion settings: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scriven, Angela; Hodgins, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    ...: www.sagepublications.comHealth Promotion Settings Principles and Practice Edited by Angela Scriven and Margaret HodginsEditorial arrangement, Introduction to Part II © Angela Scriven and Margaret...

  10. The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD): recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périer, R C; Junier, T; Bonnard, C; Bucher, P

    1999-01-01

    The Eukaryotic Promoter Database (EPD) is an annotated non-redundant collection of eukaryotic POL II promoters, for which the transcription start site has been determined experimentally. Access to promoter sequences is provided by pointers to positions in nucleotide sequence entries. The annotation part of an entry includes description of the initiation site mapping data, cross-references to other databases, and bibliographic references. EPD is structured in a way that facilitates dynamic extraction of biologically meaningful promoter subsets for comparative sequence analysis. Recent efforts have focused on exhaustive cross-referencing to the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, and on the improvement of the WWW-based user interfaces and data retrieval mechanisms. EPD can be accessed at http://www.epd.isb-sib.ch

  11. Ethical dilemmas in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrante, J P; Sloan, R P

    1986-05-01

    In less than a decade, workplace health promotion programs designed to promote employee health and help reduce the high cost of health insurance premiums paid by business and industry have proliferated. Notwithstanding the latent benefits and cost savings that corporate management expects to gain from the investment in such programs, it is argued that workplace health promotion is not without potential misuse and that its goals and methods ought not to be above ethical scrutiny. Drawing on earlier work, we discuss how workplace health promotion may pose ethical problems related to social justice, protection of privacy, and social control. The attendant moral dilemmas for the professional whose responsibility it is to develop and implement such programs are also presented.

  12. Professional competences in school health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2015-01-01

    these formulations, and essential values and approaches in school health promotion. However, by underemphasizing the potential of education and learning, and reducing changes at individual and group level to behavioral change, the formulations of competencies and standards are not in concert with essential values...... and approaches in school health promotion, and the usefulness of the formulations impaired for professionals in this field. Issues related to the use of competency-based standards within the field of education, are addressed in a concluding discussion.......The purpose of the study is to critically explore the formulations of competencies and standards in the European project “Developing Competencies and Professional Standards for Health Promotion Capacity Building in Europe”, and to discuss them in relation to school health promotion. The analysis...

  13. Nucleosomal promoter variation generates gene expression noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher R; Boeger, Hinrich

    2014-12-16

    Gene product molecule numbers fluctuate over time and between cells, confounding deterministic expectations. The molecular origins of this noise of gene expression remain unknown. Recent EM analysis of single PHO5 gene molecules of yeast indicated that promoter molecules stochastically assume alternative nucleosome configurations at steady state, including the fully nucleosomal and nucleosome-free configuration. Given that distinct configurations are unequally conducive to transcription, the nucleosomal variation of promoter molecules may constitute a source of gene expression noise. This notion, however, implies an untested conjecture, namely that the nucleosomal variation arises de novo or intrinsically (i.e., that it cannot be explained as the result of the promoter's deterministic response to variation in its molecular surroundings). Here, we show--by microscopically analyzing the nucleosome configurations of two juxtaposed physically linked PHO5 promoter copies--that the configurational variation, indeed, is intrinsically stochastic and thus, a cause of gene expression noise rather than its effect.

  14. Jibril Attahiru Alhassan FACTORS PROMOTING AGRICULTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INIFAP) is the key organization in the promotion of research-extension linkages at national level. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a merger of computing telecommunication technologies for information acquisition, storage, ...

  15. Promoting media and information literacy in libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, F.; Franke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Librarians and (public) libraries are active in promoting information literacy and (more recently) media literacy. After a brief historical sketch, this document describes how public libraries assist patrons and educational institutions in enhancing knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to

  16. Television and the promotion of mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Current media campaigns, realized within national campaigns and actions on mental health prevention and promotion, are considered in this paper, in the context of expert public relation, as well as the whole society, towards mental health. Mental health promotion is determined as a range of activities by which individuals, community and society are being enabled to take control over mental health determinants and to improve it, but also as an action for improvement of mental health posi...

  17. Promotion of the region by foreign investment

    OpenAIRE

    Miroslaw Acewicz

    2013-01-01

    Globalization of the world usually starts with the economic, capital and production relations. Locating foreign investment in different regions starts their promotion. Self-promotion just by the sheer existence of something in a certain environment is implemented identity and image dimensions. Pomotion identity is the identity of the region in the context of changes of its economic and social potential, whereas an image is a visible sign of wealth and the success of the entire territory perce...

  18. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Paz, I. C. P.; SANTIN, R. de C. M.; Guimaraes, A. M.; Rosa, O. P. P.; Dias, A. C. F.; QUECINE, M. C.; Azevedo,J.L. de; A.T.S. Matsumura

    2012-01-01

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus ...

  19. Health Promotion Viewed in a Critical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to reflect critically on the current health promotion initiatives targeting overweight individuals in Western countries. The paper’s methodological approach is to draw on analytical findings from my and other sociologists’ empirical work on how the problems of overweight ...... values such as  self-responsibility and self-control, and that a combination of biomedicine and these dominating values can lead to health promotion becoming a problematic moral endeavour....

  20. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  1. Promotion and Development of Tourism in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Frida-Tolonen, Frida

    2014-01-01

    This Bachelor’s thesis is aimed to achieve a main goal which is at Promoting and developing tourism in Cameroon. This work will give a broad overview of issues in tourism in Africa and Cameroon, suggesting guidelines to assist countries such as Cameroon, Namibia, Nigeria, to develop a more coherent structure for tourism. Tourism can only develop sustainably if it is united into the country’s overall economic, social and physical planning policies and enhancing regional promotion and effective...

  2. Cultural aspects of ageing and health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, R J

    2015-03-01

    The emphasis of Australian Government policy is on the promotion of good health in later life and positive experiences with ageing. Conceptually, a new gerontology framework has replaced the study of disease, decline, loss and disability. Within this framework, health promotion offers a mechanism by which individuals can be assisted to create environments that offer better opportunities for continued participation in society and improved quality of health and self-care. Oral health is instrumental to older people's health, life satisfaction, quality of life and perception of self. Australia is culturally diverse, composed of numerous ethno-cultural groups coexisting within a larger, predominant culture, creating a multicultural and multiracial society. However, despite this cultural diversity, the well documented ageing profile of the Australian population and repeated calls for comprehensive geriatric assessment, the oral health of older adults remains a challenge for oral health providers and for society. A major challenge will be to translate existing knowledge and experience of disease prevention and health promotion into appropriate programmes for older adults. Health promotion is the key to improving oral health in later life as it encourages older adults to be proactive in regard to their health. Therefore, increased efforts should be directed towards identifying opportunities for health promotion activities and the development of community based models that encourage older people to improve and maintain their oral health. Ignoring opportunities for health promotion may increase inequalities in oral health and may lead to even greater demands for curative and oral rehabilitative services from these groups This article firstly provides a brief rationale for oral health promotion. Its second part explores the influence of culture on health beliefs, behaviours and outcomes in older adults and how oral health can relate to cultural background. The last section

  3. Bacterial volatiles promote growth in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Choong-Min; Farag, Mohamed A.; Hu, Chia-Hui; Reddy, Munagala S.; Wei, Han-Xun; Paré, Paul W; Kloepper, Joseph W.

    2003-01-01

    Several chemical changes in soil are associated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Some bacterial strains directly regulate plant physiology by mimicking synthesis of plant hormones, whereas others increase mineral and nitrogen availability in the soil as a way to augment growth. Identification of bacterial chemical messengers that trigger growth promotion has been limited in part by the understanding of how plants respond to external stimuli. With an increasing appreciation of...

  4. A Price Discrimination Model of Trade Promotions

    OpenAIRE

    Tony Haitao Cui; Jagmohan S. Raju; Z. John Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Critics have long faulted the wide-spread practice of trade promotions as wasteful. It has been estimated that this practice adds up to $100 billion worth of inventory to the distribution system. Yet, the practice continues. In this paper, we propose a price discrimination model of trade promotions. We show that in a distribution channel characterized by a dominant retailer, a manufacturer has incentives to price discriminate between the dominant retailer and smaller independents. While offer...

  5. Moderating Effects of Sales Promotion Types

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando de Oliveira Santini; Cláudio Hoffmann Sampaio; Marcelo Gattermann Perin; Lelis Balestrin Espartel; Wagner Junior Ladeira

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to analyze the influence sales promotion types have on the relationship between perception of financial risk and perception of utilitarian and hedonic value on consumer purchase intentions. To this end, an experiment was conducted involving 589 participants divided into two groups defined by distinct scenarios in which the sales promotion type (monetary vs. non-monetary) was manipulated. The working hypotheses predicted a direct and positive relationship between th...

  6. Promoter-Based Theranostics for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    based on induced cancer-specific expression of reporter or therapeutic proteins . 1. KEYWORDS: tumor-specific promoter, molecular-genetic imaging...system to treat hepatocellular carcinoma .  IL Minn Ended Title: Promoter-based Theranostics for Prostate Cancer Time commitments: 0.60...new molecular-genetic expression vectors for efficient, non-invasive diagnosis and targeted radiopharmaceutical therapy of prostate cancer (PC). The

  7. 7 CFR 1250.341 - Research, education, and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, education, and promotion. 1250.341 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Research, Education, and Promotion § 1250.341 Research, education, and promotion. The Board shall develop and submit to the Secretary for approval any...

  8. Nurses and Teachers: Partnerships for Green Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendall, Marguerite C.; Lidstone, John; Fleming, MaryLou; Domocol, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Background: The term "green health promotion" is given to health promotion underpinned by the principles of ecological health and sustainability. Green health promotion is supported philosophically by global health promotion documents such as the 1986 Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion and the ecological public health movement. Green…

  9. 7 CFR 1230.60 - Promotion, research, and consumer information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Promotion, research, and consumer information. 1230... PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information § 1230.60 Promotion, research, and consumer...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.333 - Research and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 1205.333 Section 1205.333... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Research and Promotion § 1205.333 Research and promotion. The Cotton...

  11. Moderating Effects of Sales Promotion Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Oliveira Santini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the influence sales promotion types have on the relationship between perception of financial risk and perception of utilitarian and hedonic value on consumer purchase intentions. To this end, an experiment was conducted involving 589 participants divided into two groups defined by distinct scenarios in which the sales promotion type (monetary vs. non-monetary was manipulated. The working hypotheses predicted a direct and positive relationship between the perception of (hedonic and utilitarian consumption value and purchase intention for a promoted product and a negative relationship between the perception of consumption value and the perception of financial risk. In addition, it was supposed that the sales promotion type would moderate these direct relationships and that a monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the relationship between purchase intention and perceived product utility, whereas a non-monetary promotion would have a stronger effect on the other relationships (hedonic value and financial risk perceptions. Analysis of the outcomes supported the proposed hypotheses.

  12. Food Blogger Instagram: Promotion Through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fariz Syahbani

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Do promotions through food blogger account is the way that is currently being sought after by the culinary business operators to introduce their restaurant. Bloggers have a significant impact of people searching for information through social sites before making a purchase. In other words, the food blogger become a benchmark for people in considering whether or not a restaurant worth visiting. This research aims to determine of promotion through food blogger on social media instagram towards purchase intention of college student in Bandung. This research is a quantitative research. The method used is descriptive - causal. The sampling technique used is a non-probability sample of the type of incidental sampling. The data collection was distributed with questionnaires to 400 respondents who are collage students in Bandung was using instagram and recognizing the phenomenon of food bloggers as media promotion. Data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression analysis. The research results, food blogger promotion through social media on instagram be in good category. Purchase intention of college student at Bandung in good categories. Promotion through food blogger on social media instagram partial effect consisting of context, communication, collaboration and connection to the buying interest of collage students in Bandung and simultaneously influence the buying interest of collage students in Bandung. From this study, it appears that through the instagram as an effective media campaign can provide an explanation and the message delivered effectively and efficiently for displaying a variety of contexts with good multimedia features. Keyword : Promotion, Social Media Marketing, Food Blogger, Purchase Intention

  13. PROMOTING TOURISTIC BRAND ”BUCOVINA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana HÎNCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of tourism product appears as a part of the travel agencies and the tourist areas such as: Bucovina and Maramures, Danube Delta, Dobrogea etc. Tourist areas have become real brands along the sights of Romania. Associations promote tourism, tourist information centers and tourist promotion offices of Romania, together with ANAT should devise strategies to promote tourism brands representing Romania. Regarding tourism brand, it is a picture element, which identifies the products or services of a tourist zone. Customers are the ones who decide if that brand live up to their expectations or not. Travel Branding is a process of creating and maintaining a brand in the hospitality industry. Travel Branding refers to identifying and exploiting competitive advantages in our case about the strengths of your product or Bucovina tourist area. Bucovina ,,Neverland” promoting a full of beauty. I think it can awaken from the numbness Romanian tourism. Just as red Bordeaux promote France among others, as well as Voronet blue is a Romanian brand, internationally recognized, and I think that is the most important national tourism brand. After many this area is considered a wonderland of Romania, a pearl of the country that can make the most to promote the culture and traditions of this part of Europe, so-called Switzerland of Romania. It's an area where natural beauty is complemented by monasteries and hospitality of the people of the lands.

  14. Development of a promoter shutoff system in Aspergillus oryzae using a sorbitol-sensitive promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Ken; Terado, Shiho; Toyoura, Rieko; Fukuda, Hisashi; Kawauchi, Moriyuki; Iwashita, Kazuhiro

    2016-09-01

    Promoter shutoff is a general method for analyzing essential genes, but in the fungus Aspergillus oryzae, no tightly repressed promoters have been reported. To overcome the current limitations of conditional promoters, we examined sorbitol- and galactose-responsive genes using microarrays to identify regulatable genes with only minor physiological and genetic effects. We identified two sorbitol-induced genes (designated as sorA and sorB), cloned their promoters, and built a regulated egfp and brlA expression system. Growth medium-dependent enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) fluorescence and conidiation were confirmed for egfp and brlA under the control of their respective promoters. We also used this shutoff system to regulate the essential rhoA, which demonstrated the expected growth inhibition under repressed growth conditions. Our new sorbitol promoter shutoff system developed can serve as a valuable new tool for essential gene analyses of filamentous fungi.

  15. Good practice models for public workplace health promotion projects in Austria: promoting mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkert, Nathalie T; Muckenhuber, Johanna; Großschädl, Franziska; Sprenger, Martin; Rohrauer-Näf, Gerlinde; Ropin, Klaus; Martinel, Evelyn; Dorner, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Promoting mental health is a central public health issue since the Jakarta statement in 1997. In Austria, the nationwide organisation for health promotion is the 'Fonds Gesundes Österreich' (FGÖ), which has been established in 1998. The FGÖ funds and supports workplace health promotion projects; therefore, it co-operates with the Austrian Network on Workplace Health Promotion. In 2011, among others, two Austrian companies were honoured as best practice models for promoting mental health in the project 'Work. In tune with life. Move Europe'. One of their central key success factors are the provision of equal opportunities, engagement, their focus on overall health as well as the implementation of behavioural and environmental preventive measures. Since mental health problems in the population are still rising, public health promotion projects which orientate on the best practice models have to be established in Austria.

  16. 75 FR 20991 - NACEPT Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... AGENCY NACEPT Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency..., EPA gives notice of a meeting of the NACEPT Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship. The purpose of the Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship (SPES) of the National Advisory Council...

  17. 75 FR 12231 - NACEPT Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... AGENCY NACEPT Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Stewardship. The purpose of the Subcommittee on Promoting Environmental Stewardship (SPES) of the National... Protection Agency on how to promote environmental stewardship practices that encompass all environmental...

  18. Engineering of synthetic, stress-responsive yeast promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajkumar, Arun Stephen; Liu, Guodong; Bergenholm, David

    2016-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology and our understanding of the rules of promoter architecture have led to the development of diverse synthetic constitutive and inducible promoters in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, the design of promoters inducibleby specific endogenous or environmental conditions...

  19. Rice tissue-specific promoters and condition-dependent promoters for effective translational application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hee-Jeong; Jung, Ki-Hong

    2015-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important staple food crops for more than half of the world's population. The demand is increasing for food security because of population growth and environmental challenges triggered by climate changes. This scenario has led to more interest in developing crops with greater productivity and sustainability. The process of genetic transformation, a major tool for crop improvement, utilizes promoters as one of its key elements. Those promoters are generally divided into three types: constitutive, spatiotemporal, and condition-dependent. Transcriptional control of a constitutive promoter often leads to reduced plant growth, due to a negative effect of accumulated molecules during cellular functions or energy consumption. To maximize the effect of a transgene on transgenic plants, it is better to use condition-dependent or tissue-specific promoters. However, until now, those types have not been as widely applied in crop biotechnology. In this review, we introduce and discuss four groups of tissue-specific promoters (50 promoters in total) and six groups of condition-dependent promoters (27 promoters). These promoters can be utilized to fine-tune desirable agronomic traits and develop crops with tolerance to various stresses, enhanced nutritional value, and advanced productivity. © 2015 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Promotional Tool of Marketing: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anwar

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Promotional tools of marketing, (e.g., personal selling, advertising, sales promotion, public relations, promotional games as well as contests, play a key role in creating consumer awareness about the qualities of various products and services available on the market, and can go a long way in contributing to economic progress and social development. Muslim marketers have to be conscious of their position and role in managing marketing activities. The Qur'anic view about man and his resources should be the basis for designing promotional tools and media strategies. The latter are meant to inculcate Islamic values, build the characters of customers and marketers and uphold truth in the society. Ethical behavior in advertising and other promotional activities must be based on a strong foundation of Islamic tenets and injunctions. There is a need to develop not only general guidelines for achieving marketing goals and corporate objectives in a morally acceptable manner, but also to devise an Islamic code of marketing by Muslim marketers, corporate leaders, and sharīʿah experts.

  1. Promoter Motifs in NCLDVs: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziele Pereira Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, gene expression in the three cellular domains has been studied in an attempt to discover sequences associated with the regulation of the transcription process. Some specific transcriptional features were described in viruses, although few studies have been devoted to understanding the evolutionary aspects related to the spread of promoter motifs through related viral families. The discovery of giant viruses and the proposition of the new viral order Megavirales that comprise a monophyletic group, named nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDV, raised new questions in the field. Some putative promoter sequences have already been described for some NCLDV members, bringing new insights into the evolutionary history of these complex microorganisms. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of the transcription regulation process in the three domains of life, followed by a systematic description of what is currently known about promoter regions in several NCLDVs. We also discuss how the analysis of the promoter sequences could bring new ideas about the giant viruses’ evolution. Finally, considering a possible common ancestor for the NCLDV group, we discussed possible promoters’ evolutionary scenarios and propose the term “MEGA-box” to designate an ancestor promoter motif (‘TATATAAAATTGA’ that could be evolved gradually by nucleotides’ gain and loss and point mutations.

  2. WHEN A PROMOTION IS DENIED: THE EFFECTS OF DECISION STAGE ON PERCEPTIONS OF PROMOTION AND PRICE FAIRNESS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Monika Kukar-Kinney; Lan Xia; Kent B Monroe

    2011-01-01

    ... resulting in lower promotion and price fairness. This effect is mediated through the feeling of entitlement to the promotional price and the inferred negative retailer's motive for the promotion. Theoretical and managerial implications are also discussed. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT

  3. Oral Health Promotion During Well Visits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguino, Sandra M; Dhepyasuwan, Niramol; Church, Annamaria; Dabrow, Sharon; Serwint, Janet R; Bernstein, Henry H

    2017-09-01

    Training pediatric residents in Bright Futures and oral health concepts is critical to improving oral health. This study's objective was to determine the skill level of pediatric residents in integrating oral health promotion during health supervision visits of 12- to 35-month-old children. One hundred forty-three pediatric residents participated in an evaluation of the effectiveness of a Bright Futures oral health curriculum. Competencies assessed preintervention included partnership building, communication, and integration of oral health concepts. Pediatric residents' abilities to integrate oral health promotion into health supervision visits varied considerably. Residents demonstrated greater skill in communication and partnership building compared with oral health promotion behaviors and performance of an oral examination. Further education is needed at a national level if we are to meet Healthy People 2020 goals.

  4. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Rama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment.

  5. Promotional literature: how do we critically appraise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, V V; Karve, A V

    2008-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of new and generic drugs coming into the market. The busy practitioner obtains the information from various sources, of which promotional literature forms an important source. The promotional literature provided by the pharmaceutical companies cannot be entirely relied upon; moreover, very few physicians are equipped with the skills of critically appraising it. The new drug should be relevant to the clinician's practice in terms of population studied, the disease and the need for new treatment. The methodology of the study should be carefully judged to determine the authenticity of the evidence. The new drug should be preferred over the existing one if it offers clear advantages in terms of safety, tolerability, efficacy and price. Critical appraisal of promotional literature can provide valuable information to the busy physician to practice evidence-based medicine.

  6. ELECTROCHEMICAL PROMOTED CATALYSIS: TOWARDS PRACTICAL UTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIMITRIOS TSIPLAKIDES

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical promotion (EP of catalysis has already been recognized as “a valuable development in catalytic research” (J. Pritchard, 1990 and as “one of the most remarkable advances in electrochemistry since 1950” (J. O’M. Bockris, 1996. Laboratory studies have clearly elucidated the phenomenology of electrochemical promotion and have proven that EP is a general phenomenon at the interface of catalysis and electrochemistry. The major progress toward practical utilization of EP is surveyed in this paper. The focus is given on the electropromotion of industrial ammonia synthesis catalyst, the bipolar EP and the development of a novel monolithic electropromoted reactor (MEPR in conjunction with the electropromotion of thin sputtered metal films. Future perspectives of electrochemical promotion applications in the field of hydrogen technologies are discussed.

  7. Initiatives and resources to promote antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paño-Pardo, José Ramón; Campos, José; Natera Kindelán, Clara; Ramos, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The development of an antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) requires institutional support. However, obtaining sufficient institutional support is often a complex task that requires convincing the hospital's managers of the benefits of these programs. Additionally, in the design and implementation of an ASP, antimicrobial stewardship (AS) leaders need tools for diverse purposes, such as measuring antimicrobial consumption, education and training and designing protocols. In this review we provide useful information for AS promoters to facilitate the task of designing and implementing an ASP. First, we summarize information about various institutions that promote AS and include evidence that supports the need for and benefits of these programs. Then, several campaigns promoting AS are described. Finally, online resources for professionals dealing with AS are briefly summarized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  8. The architecture of mammalian ribosomal protein promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Robert P

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian ribosomes contain 79 different proteins encoded by widely scattered single copy genes. Coordinate expression of these genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels is required to ensure a roughly equimolar accumulation of ribosomal proteins. To date, detailed studies of only a very few ribosomal protein (rp promoters have been made. To elucidate the general features of rp promoter architecture, I made a detailed sequence comparison of the promoter regions of the entire set of orthologous human and mouse rp genes. Results A striking evolutionarily conserved feature of most rp genes is the separation by an intron of the sequences involved in transcriptional and translational regulation from the sequences with protein encoding function. Another conserved feature is the polypyrimidine initiator, which conforms to the consensus (Y2C+1TY(T2(Y3. At least 60 % of the rp promoters contain a largely conserved TATA box or A/T-rich motif, which should theoretically have TBP-binding capability. A remarkably high proportion of the promoters contain conserved binding sites for transcription factors that were previously implicated in rp gene expression, namely upstream GABP and Sp1 sites and downstream YY1 sites. Over 80 % of human and mouse rp genes contain a transposable element residue within 900 bp of 5' flanking sequence; very little sequence identity between human and mouse orthologues was evident more than 200 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point. Conclusions This analysis has provided some valuable insights into the general architecture of mammalian rp promoters and has identified parameters that might coordinately regulate the transcriptional activity of certain subsets of rp genes.

  9. The construction of a library of synthetic promoters revealed some specific features of strong Streptomyces promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seghezzi, Nicolas; Amar, Patrick; Købmann, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces are bacteria of industrial interest whose genome contains more than 73% of bases GC. In order to define, in these GC-rich bacteria, specific sequence features of strong promoters, a library of synthetic promoters of various sequence composition was constructed in Streptomyces. To do so...

  10. Streamlining Appointment, Promotion, and Tenure Procedures to Promote Early-Career Faculty Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shannon B; Hollerbach, Ann; Donato, Annemarie Sipkes; Edlund, Barbara J; Atz, Teresa; Kelechi, Teresa J

    2016-01-01

    A critical component of the progression of a successful academic career is being promoted in rank. Early-career faculty are required to have an understanding of appointment, promotion, and tenure (APT) guidelines, but many factors often impede this understanding, thwarting a smooth and planned promotion pathway for professional advancement. This article outlines the steps taken by an APT committee to improve the promotion process from instructor to assistant professor. Six sigma's DMAIC improvement model was selected as the guiding operational framework to remove variation in the promotion process. After faculty handbook revisions were made, several checklists developed, and a process review rubric was implemented; recently promoted faculty were surveyed on satisfaction with the process. Faculty opinions captured in the survey suggest increased transparency in the process and perceived support offered by the APT committee. Positive outcomes include a strengthened faculty support framework, streamlined promotion processes, and improved faculty satisfaction. Changes to the APT processes resulted in an unambiguous and standardized pathway for successful promotion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Menagerie of Promotional Characters: Promoting Food to Children through Food Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, Lana; King, Lesley; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy; Innes-Hughes, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the extent to which (1) promotional characters are used on food packaging for healthful and less-healthful food and (2) different companies use this persuasive marketing strategy. Design: Cross-sectional supermarket audit of all food and beverages featuring promotional characters on the packaging. Setting: Three Australian…

  12. A single-copy galK promoter cloning vector suitable for cloning strong promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandanell, Gert; Court, Donald L.; Hammer, Karin

    1986-01-01

    We report the construction of lambda galK promoter cloning vectors for cloning and characterization of strong promoters. This phage, which contains a unique HindIII cloning site, was applied to the cloning and analysis of transcription initiations of the regulatory region of the deo-operon of...

  13. Baculovirus ETL promoter acts as a shuttle promoter between insect cells and mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-kou; Chu, Chih-chieh; Wu, Tzong-yuan

    2006-03-01

    To identify a shuttle promoter that can mediate gene expression in both insect cells and mammalian cells to facilitate the development of a baculovirus vector-based mammalian cell gene delivery vehicle. Recombinant baculoviruses carrying the beta-galactosidase reporter gene under the control of an early to late (ETL) promoter of the Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) or a cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (CMV promoter) were constructed. COS1, HeLa, CHO-K1, hFob1.19, and MCF-7 mammalian cells were tested for the expression of b-galactosidase. ETL promoter activity was higher in bone-derived hFob1.19 than in COS1, HeLa, CHO-K1, or MCF-7 mammalian cells. The transient plasmid transfection assay indicated that ETL promoter activity in mammalian cells was dependent on baculovirus gene expression. ETL promoter activity in mammalian cells is baculovirus gene expression-dependent, and the shuttle promoter will facilitate the application of baculovirus expression vectors in mammalian cell expression systems and for gene therapy.

  14. The role of promotion in alcoholism treatment marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M A; Self, D R; Owens, C A; Kline, T A

    1988-01-01

    This article is an overview of the promotion function as a part of the ATM's marketing mix. It approaches various promotion decision areas from a managerial perspective, focusing upon some key components of promotion planning. Rather than provide specific operational or implementation details (how to write a brochure) it is more conceptual in nature and offers a framework for promotion planners. The article addresses promotion management, promotion objectives, analysis for promotion planning, the promotion mix, and addresses the benefits and limitations of some specific promotion tools available to the ATM manager. It treats ATMs as a service and reveals specific implications for promotion strategy dictated by services. The article also reports promotion tools employed by Alabama ATMs citing data from the Alabama study.

  15. 22-Oxocholestanes as plant growth promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeferino-Diaz, Reyna; Hilario-Martinez, J Ciciolil; Rodriguez-Acosta, Maricela; Sandoval-Ramirez, Jesus; Fernandez-Herrera, Maria A

    2015-06-01

    The spirostanic steroidal side-chain of diosgenin and hecogenin was modified to produce 22-oxocholestane derivatives. This type of side-chain was obtained in good yields through a straightforward four-step pathway. These compounds show potent brassinosteroid-like growth promoting activity evaluated via the rice lamina joint inclination bioassay. This is the first report of steroidal skeletons bearing the 22-oxocholestane side-chain and preserving the basic structure (A-D rings) from their corresponding parent compounds acting as plant growth promoters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ESTRATEGIES TO PROMOTE RESEARCHIN THE CLASSROOM

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Arias, Miguel Gerardo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Inga Arias, Manuel; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    This article presents strategies on how to promote research from the classroom and in the classroom. It also adds how it is possible to promote internal motivation which will generate a cognitive conflict, as well as how to manage information in search of answers to proposed problems. This work also contemplates the formulation of hypothesis, the managing of the information and the operation of variables. Este trabajo presenta estrategias de cómo promover la investigación desde el aula y e...

  17. Promoting sustainable consumption and healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen

    /secondary schools (children age from 6 to 15 years old) in Denmark, Germany, Finland and Italy. The study was initiated in Denmark, and subsequently parallel performed in other three countries through a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire was translated and adapted according to different native languages......, and schools were also more likely to promote nutritional education and availability of healthy food items. The study among the school food coordinators document that schools have a huge potential to promote nutritional education, healthy eating patterns and sustainable consumption. However, some difficulties...

  18. TOURISM PROMOTION FOR UNKNOWN AREAS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotache Lacramioara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an effort to unknown areas identity affirmation, through collaborative development of advertising mix, with an emphasis on virtual platforms as admissible solution for increasing visibility. Based upon comparative effective analysis of categories of communication particularities, it is suggested a positioning strategic solution, via virtual advertising platform as unique, integrated, complex and very attractive tourism product promotion, fitted for the internal and international tourism circuit. The active promotion of the specified territorial identity will launch a brand with an impact among tourists by using marketing techniques and innovating technical means and prioritizing tourism as a principal vector of local and regional development.

  19. Reflexive regulation of CSR to promote sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of governmental regulation as a measure to promote public policy interests through public-private regulation intended to influence firms’ self-regulation. Presenting a ‘government case’ for CSR, the connection between...... in understanding the mechanisms by which public authorities seek to influence firm’s behaviour through CSR in order to promote public policy objectives. The analysis indicates that to be effective, reflexive regulatory approaches to public-private regulation should pay careful attention to procedural design...

  20. Reflexive regulation of CSR to promote sustainablility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article discusses Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) from the perspective of governmental regulation as a measure to promote public policy interests through public-private regulation intended to influence firms’ self-regulation. Presenting a ‘government case’ for CSR, the connection between...... in understanding the mechanisms by which public authorities seek to influence firm’s behaviour through CSR in order to promote public policy objectives. The analysis indicates that to be effective, reflexive regulatory approaches to public-private regulation should pay careful attention to procedural design...

  1. Promoting Health Literacy in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Christensen, Julie Hellesøe

    2017-01-01

    in Copenhagen, Denmark, during the autumn and winter of 2013–2014. Participants numbered 281 pupils and nine teachers. Method: We used Nutbeam’s conceptualisation of health literacy as a theoretical framework to assess which levels of health literacy the programme would promote; we assessed these using data...... school pupils develop health literacy related to physical activity. It discusses curriculum-integrated health education’s contribution to promoting health literacy. Design: Qualitative classroom observation. Setting: IMOVE was implemented in 12 school classes (grades 5–7) in four public schools...

  2. Health promoting compounds in vegetables and fruits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K.; Christensen, L.P.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2004-01-01

    Vegetables contain unknown compounds with important health promoting effect. The described project defined and tested a two-step screening procedure for identification of such compounds. Step 1 is initial screening according to three criteria: 1.1, chemically reactive functional groups; 1.......2, toxicity at high concentrations or other bioactivity; and 1.3, presence in healthy foods. Step 2 is testing for minimum criteria defining health-promoting compounds: 2.1, positive or biphasic ("hormesis") responses in bioassay; 2.2, human tissue concentrations corresponding to beneficial effects...

  3. Insulators and promoters: closer than we think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Jesse R.; Kamakaka, Rohinton T.

    2012-01-01

    Insulators prevent promiscuous gene regulation by restricting the action of enhancers and silencers. Recent studies have revealed a number of similarities between insulators and promoters, including binding of specific transcription factors, chromatin-modification signatures and localization to specific subnuclear positions. We propose that enhancer-blockers and silencing barrier-insulators might have evolved as specialized derivatives of promoters and that the two types of element use related mechanisms to mediate their distinct functions. These insights can help to reconcile different models of insulator action. PMID:20442713

  4. Price and promotion effects of supermarket mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, David E.

    2009-01-01

    I use a unique data set of retail food prices to analyze mergers between supermarket chains. The data allow for an examination of the effects of mergers on prices, the frequency of promotions, and the depth of promotions. I find that increases in a chain’s share of the total US food sales are associated with price decreases, suggesting that supermarkets enjoy economies of scale and/or benefit from an improved bargaining position relative to their suppliers after a merger. I also find that mer...

  5. Options for promoting high-biodiversity REDD+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swan, Steve; Mcnally, Richard; Grieg-Gran, Maryanne; Roe, Dilys; Mohammed, Essam Yassin

    2011-11-15

    International climate and biodiversity conventions agree that to be effective in the long term, strategies to reduce emissions from deforestation, forest degradation, conservation and enhancement of forest carbon stocks, and sustainable forest management (REDD+), must not undermine biodiversity. But how do countries achieve 'high-biodiversity REDD+' in practice? At a global level, options include immediate policy strengthening in international negotiations; promotion of co-benefit standards; and financial incentives and preferences for buying countries. At a national level, developing countries can also promote high-biodiversity REDD+ through more coherent policies; integrated planning; regulatory and economic instruments; and improved monitoring of biodiversity impacts.

  6. Tunable promoters in synthetic and systems biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehli, Tore; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    in synthetic biology. A number of tools exist to manipulate the steps in between gene sequence and functional protein in living cells, but out of these the most straight-forward approach is to alter the gene expression level by manipulating the promoter sequence. Some of the promoter tuning tools available......Synthetic and systems biologists need standardized, modular and orthogonal tools yielding predictable functions in vivo. In systems biology such tools are needed to quantitatively analyze the behavior of biological systems while the efficient engineering of artificial gene networks is central...

  7. Pet dogs as promoters of wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    While, Alison

    2017-07-02

    The rise in life expectancy requires strategies to enable healthy ageing and the promotion of a high quality of life in old age. Poor mental health including depression and social isolation can blight older people's lives. Despite the positive benefits of physical activity for both mental and physical health, only a minority of those over 65 years are attaining the recommended levels of physical activity. The evidence relating to the benefits of pet dogs as promoters of wellbeing is set out in this article, although meeting their care needs may place an additional strain on an older person and/or their carer who has limited resources and physical capabilities.

  8. Employer and Promoter Perspectives on the Quality of Health Promotion Within the Healthy Workplace Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Yin, Yun-Wen; Liu, Chia-Yun; Chang, Chia-Chen; Zhou, Yi-Ping

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the employers’ and promoters’ perspective of health promotion quality according to the healthy workplace accreditation. Methods: We assessed the perspectives of 85 employers and 81 health promoters regarding the quality of health promotion at their workplaces. The method of measurement referenced the European Network for Workplace Health Promotion (ENWHP) quality criteria. Results: In the large workplaces, the accredited corporation employers had a higher impression (P promoters from different sized workplaces with or without accreditation (P > 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that employers’ perspectives of healthy workplace accreditation surpassed employers from non-accredited workplaces. Specifically, large accredited corporations could share their successful experiences to encourage a more involved workplace in small–medium workplaces. PMID:28691998

  9. Associations of advertisement-promotion-sponsorship-related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associations of advertisement-promotion-sponsorship-related factors with current cigarette smoking among in-school adolescents in Zambia. ... Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the associations. Results : Altogether, 2378 students, of whom 56.8% were females, participated in the study. Overall, 10.5% of ...

  10. How would extracorporeal shockwave therapy possibly promote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shobha

    proselytes with its application in the management of delayed or nonunion of fractures where it is claimed to enhance wound healing.[1,2] It has also been used in soft tissue disorders like tendinitis and plantar fasciitis with claims of resolution of symptoms.[3,4]. How does ESWT promote wound healing as a premise for these ...

  11. Promoting Creativity and Entrepreneurship in Education: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Promoting Creativity and Entrepreneurship in. Education: The Panacea for Poverty Reduction in. Nigeria (Pp. 119-133). Okoye, K. R. E. - Vocational Education Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe. University, Awka. E-mail: kelechireokoye@yahoo.com. Eze, T. I. - Vocational Education Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,.

  12. Promoting entrepreneurship education in Nigerian universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study is to review entrepreneurship education in China and to present a succinct profile of contributions of entrepreneurship education in China colleges since its official introduction in the 1990's. The study used a comparative approach to explore four identified models used in promoting entrepreneurial ...

  13. The Role of Entrepreneurial Competencies in Promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of entrepreneurial competencies in promoting entrepreneurship in Nigeria using selected practicing entrepreneurs in Anambra State as case study. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Eight hundred and fifty-one (851) business owners and managers within the defined category were ...

  14. Reading Habit Promotion in ASEAN Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangkaeo, Somsong

    This paper describes the activities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) libraries have undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among their people. First, factors limiting reading habits in ASEAN libraries are addressed, including: we are not a reading society, but a chatting society; the management of "3…

  15. Promoting Innovation in Global Nursing Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting Innovation in Global Nursing Practice. Petra Brysiewicz1* Tonda L. Hughes2, Linda L. McCreary2. 1School of Nursing and Public Health,University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. 2College of Nursing, University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. Abstract. Innovation can be thought of as taking two things that already ...

  16. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Physical inactivity has become a global health concern and is among the 10 leading causes of death and disability. Physiotherapists are in a position to combat inactivity and effectively promote physical activity to their clients. Objectives: To establish the relationship between physical activity levels of ...

  17. Perceived effectiveness of messages promoting hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald E

    2017-03-01

    Eighty-six infection control specialists evaluated 24 messages promoting hand hygiene (HH). Brief, simple messages using appeals to social situations and to ego (self-efficacy) were rated as most likely to increase HH compliance. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Macias, José Brambila

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a classification of public policies to promote healthier eating and a structured mapping of existing measures in Europe. Complete coverage of alternative policy types was ensured by complementing the review with a selection of major interventions from outside Europe. Within...

  19. Promoting Conceptual Understanding via Adaptive Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jacob P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a scalable concept map based navigation system for a digital textbook. A literature review has been conducted to identify possible methods to promote conceptual understanding in the context of a digital textbook, and these hypothesized solutions will be evaluated through…

  20. Method for promoting Michael addition reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pankaj V.; Vietti, David E.; Whitman, David William

    2010-09-21

    Homogeneously dispersed solid reaction promoters having an average particle size from 0.01 .mu.m to 500 .mu.m are disclosed for preparing curable mixtures of at least one Michael donor and at least one Michael acceptor. The resulting curable mixtures are useful as coatings, adhesives, sealants and elastomers.

  1. Entomology: Promoting Creativity in the Science Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcay, Behiye B.

    2013-01-01

    A class activity has been designed to help fourth grade students to identify basic insect features as a means of promoting student creativity while making an imaginary insect model. The 5Es (Engage, Explore, Explain, Extend [or Elaborate], and Evaluate) learning cycle teaching model is used. The 5Es approach allows students to work in small…

  2. Phosphate solubilization and multiple plant growth promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, consecutive studies should focus on field studies on those strains due to their potentially high importance for the phosphorus nutrition of crops in this area and in this context for the improvement of the sustainability of crop production in the country. Keywords: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), indole acetic ...

  3. A endophytic fungus, Ramichloridium cerophilum, promotes growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-06-22

    Jun 22, 2016 ... Key words: Ramichloridium cerophilum, endophytic fungus, Chinese cabbage, plant growth promoting. INTRODUCTION. The mycorrhizal symbiosis between plants and fungi is common and most plant species are dependent on this symbiosis for improving the productivity and sustainability, including ...

  4. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Abstract. Background: Physical inactivity has become a global health concern and is among the 10 leading causes of death and disability. Physiotherapists are in a position to combat inactivity and effectively promote physical activity to their clients. Objectives: To establish the relationship between physical activity levels of ...

  5. Promoting Active Lifestyles--A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Deb; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of articles that address the theme of promoting active lifestyles through education. Some topics are facilities and equipment, how fear plays a part in limiting participation in physical activity, working with disabled as well as aging persons, the use of water activities, and instructor accountability. (GLR)

  6. Promoting Fair Food-to-Consumer Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barratt, Daniel; Hviid Madsen, Mai; Smith, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    with authoritative definitions (adding experts’ final judgments). The research is part of the cross-disciplinary research project “Spin or fair speak – when foods talk” which aims at providing new knowledge, tools, and experimental evidence for promoting fairness in food naming and labelling practices....

  7. Motivations and Barriers in Promoting Preschool Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçükturan, A. Güler; Akbaba Altun, Sadegül

    2017-01-01

    This study is designed to explore the reasons for sending and not sending preschool age children to preschools at an early age by exploring the motivations for and barriers towards promoting preschool education in Turkey. It aimed to determine various stakeholders' perceptions, attitudes, and knowledge related to preschool education in order to…

  8. Anywhere, everywhere: alcohol industry promotion strategies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whilst sales promotions offering free alcohol and price discounts influenced men to buy and consume larger quantities of alcohol than they had intended, the actions of sales personnel also engendered impulse purchasing and the consumption of more potent brands. The women were also influenced by sales staff to ...

  9. The Role of Entrepreneurial Competencies in Promoting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    financial resources. Thus, leading to sustained neglect of other important variables such as entrepreneurial competencies which could equally promote successful entrepreneurship in the country. Inyang and Enuoh (2010) wrote on entrepreneurial competencies as the missing links to successful entrepreneurship in Nigeria.

  10. [Health promotion actions in a prison environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechet, Fabienne

    2012-01-01

    Prisoners must be able to benefit from the same level of healthcare as the general population. With this objective in mind, nurses from the consultations and outpatient care unit (UCSA) of La Santé prison in Paris take part in the development of health promotion actions. Active participation methods are favoured in order to encourage prisoners to become involved in protecting their health.

  11. Promotion and resignation in employee networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Linyan; Wan, Xue-Song; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    Enterprises have put more and more emphasis on data analysis so as to obtain effective management advices. Managers and researchers are trying to dig out the major factors that lead to employees' promotion and resignation. Most previous analyses are based on questionnaire survey, which usually consists of a small fraction of samples and contains biases caused by psychological defense. In this paper, we successfully collect a data set consisting of all the employees' work-related interactions (action network, AN for short) and online social connections (social network, SN for short) of a company, which inspires us to reveal the correlations between structural features and employees' career development, namely promotion and resignation. Through statistical analysis, we show that the structural features of both AN and SN are correlated and predictive to employees' promotion and resignation, and the AN has higher correlation and predictability. More specifically, the in-degree in AN is the most relevant indicator for promotion, while the k-shell index in AN and in-degree in SN are both very predictive to resignation. Our results provide a novel and actionable understanding of enterprise management and suggest that to enhance the interplays among employees, no matter work-related or social interplays, can be helpful to reduce staffs' turnover risk.

  12. Promoting leaders in labour research | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-07-30

    Promoting leaders in labour research. July 30, 2015. Image. Education is essential to future opportunities. In several Asian countries with large youth bulges, investments in training will be needed to equip the next generation for work in more skill intensive sectors. IDRC. INSIGHT | INCLUSIVE GROWTH. Despite the ...

  13. Performance as a Factor in Enlisted Promotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    the Airman Performance Report. When one reviews the previous research into the matter of enlisted promotions, one senses a feeling of corporate " deja ... vu ." An Air War College research report noted in 1952 that the 7 _... .. . .. _. ._. . . . . I I ’ . Air Force NCO corps had been "destroyed" during

  14. Effect of matrix metalloproteinase promoter polymorphisms on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) promoter polymorphisms are considered to play roles in the aetiology of endometriosis and adenomyosis, however, the evidence available are inconsistent. We aimed to systematically review the asscociationbetween MMP-1 -1607 1G/2G MMP-2 -735 C/T, MMP-3 -1171 5A/6A and MMP-9 ...

  15. Health promotion in adolescent student: Thematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Paola Betancourth-Loaiza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the characteristics of studies on health behaviors of school adolescents, models and strategies in health promotion applicability. Method: Review articles and published texts (2003 - 2012 through electronic and manual search, consulted with the descriptors: health promotion, lifestyle, teens, school and health education in electronic sources such as search engines, libraries electronic and international databases (Schoolar Google, SciELO, PubMed, JSTOR and Ovid. Results: Were found in the scientific literature a total of 92 texts were reviewed, of these 66 were recovered in full text, evidence possible to define two main categories: health behaviors of adolescent students and the different models and strategies in promoting health that can be used with this group. Conclusions: There is evidence of the importance of nursing as an active part in actions from the health promotion under theoretical underpinnings with adolescent students, it must transcend individual counseling with an interdisciplinary approach, based on integrating aspects from objectivities, subjectivity and the obvious need to show results through measurements of effectiveness, as a basis for decisions on public health and point to select strategies based on the best available knowledge.

  16. Pharmacy residents' attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashker, Sumer; Burkiewicz, Jill S

    2007-08-15

    The attitudes of pharmacy residents toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived effects of such promotion on the knowledge and professional practice of the residents were studied. A questionnaire study of current postgraduate year 1 and postgraduate year 2 pharmacy residents was conducted. Questions were adapted from instruments used in studies of medical student or physician attitudes regarding the pharmaceutical industry. The questionnaire requested demographic information about the resident, information regarding the resident's exposure to specific types of pharmaceutical company-related activities, and the resident's perception of whether the residency program or department had policies or guidelines regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Questions investigated the attitudes toward pharmaceutical industry promotion and the perceived influence of pharmaceutical industry promotion on the professional knowledge and behavior of the residents. Responses were received from 496 pharmacy residents. Nearly all (89%) residents agreed that pharmaceutical company-sponsored educational events enhance knowledge. Almost half (43%) of the respondents reported that information from educational events influences therapeutic recommendations. One quarter (26%) of the pharmacy residents indicated prior training regarding pharmacist-industry interactions, and most (60%) residents indicated that their institution's residencies or departments have policies regarding interactions with the pharmaceutical industry. Most surveyed pharmacy residents believed that educational events sponsored by pharmaceutical companies enhance knowledge. Respondents whose institutions had policies or who had received training about such events were less likely than other respondents to perceive an influence of the events on their knowledge and behavior.

  17. Picolinic acid promoted oxidative decarboxylation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetics and mechanism of picolinic acid promoted reaction of phenylsulfinylacetic acid (PSAA) with Cr(VI) was carried out in aqueous acetonitrile medium under pseudo first order conditions. The reaction follows Michaelis-Menten type of kinetics with respect to PSAA. The catalytic activity by picolinic acid can be ...

  18. Why We Need to Stop Promoting Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollard, Mindy Miner

    2009-01-01

    Book displays have always been an important part of the library field. However, despite all the time and effort, children do not read them. In this article, the author stresses the need to stop promoting reading. Instead, she encourages library media specialists to help children find reading material they will be eager to read.

  19. Promoting Self-Expression in Classroom Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraldi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Self-expression is a key concept for sociological studies on childhood since it is the cue for children's self-socialization and agency. Hence promoting children's agency and social participation requires their self-expression to be facilitated in their interaction with adults. The analysis in this article of a set of interactions in Italian…

  20. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  1. Processes and outcomes in school health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    This is the second special issue of Health Education which features research, theory and practice based perspectives on what counts as desirable outcomes of health promotion in schools in terms of health as well as education, and the effective processes in schools which lead to these outcomes...

  2. Management Strategies for Promoting Teacher Collective Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Eric C. K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to validate a theoretical model for developing teacher collective learning by using a quasi-experimental design, and explores the management strategies that would provide a school administrator practical steps to effectively promote collective learning in the school organization. Twenty aided secondary schools in Hong Kong were…

  3. A Methodology for Promoting Educational Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shears, Arthur E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a five step mechanism for promoting change and illustrates it with a case study from the Telecommunication and Broadcasting Training Institute (TBTI) in Saudi Arabia. The steps outlined are: (1) organizational analysis; (2) determining receptivity to change; (3) implementation strategy; (4) implementing change and overcoming resistance;…

  4. Factors promoting agricultural research in Nigeria universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major findings of the study showed that funding, collaboration and ICT promote agricultural research in Nigerian universities. The study also found that agricultural sciences research is not well funded in Nigerian federal universities as lecturers do not benefit from either university funded research nor government or agency ...

  5. The sheep industry in Botswana: promoting the

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technical Notes. The sheep industry in Botswana: promoting the. Karakul sheep industry. S.J. Nsoso' and M.J. Madimabe. Botswana College of Agriculture, Private Bag 0027, Gaborone, Botswana. Received revised 25 October 1999; accepted 25 October I999. *To whom correspondence should be addressed at: Tel: 00267 ...

  6. Health Promotion in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corrêa, Camila; Blasca, Wanderléia; Berretin-Felix, Giédre

    2015-01-01

    .... Data Synthesis A literature review was conducted using Lilacs, Medline, PubMed, and Scopus by combining the following keywords: “Health Promotion,” “Sleep Disorders,” “Primary Prevention,” “Health Education...

  7. Promoting Inclusive, Accountable, and Legitimate Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reframing State-building and Peacebuilding Narratives in Africa. To date, more than 40 countries have signed the New Deal for Engagement in Fragile States, which places peacebuilding and state-building as two central and mutually reinforcing goals to promote... View moreReframing State-building and Peacebuilding ...

  8. Promoting Party Politics in Emerging Democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnell, P.; Gerrits, A.

    2010-01-01

    This opening section briefly introduces international political party support, that is, assistance to political parties by international organizations, mostly from the US and Europe, to strengthen individual political parties, to promote peaceful interaction between parties and to help to create a

  9. [Gender sensitive health promotion and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolip, P

    2008-01-01

    Numerous gender differences in health-related behaviour are relevant in the planning of health promotion and prevention. More men than women consume amounts of alcohol that are a risk to their health. Tobacco consumption has fallen slightly among men but has risen among women. Women eat more healthy food. Man behave risky in leisure time and traffic, thus their mortality rates due to accidents are much higher, especially in young age groups. The epidemiological data lead to the conclusion that gender sensitive health promotion and prevention is necessary. Gender mainstreaming is declared as the main strategy to enhance gender equity in health. The paper focuses on the public health action cycle and demonstrates that at each step gender mainstreaming improves the quality of intervention. To implement gender mainstreaming in health promotion and prevention, a process of sensitization has to be initialized. An instrument is presented that supports this process at the foundation "Health Promotion Switzerland". A short description of some examples of gender adequate interventions is given at the end of the paper.

  10. Promoting increased Chlorella sorokiniana Shih. et Krauss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Nweze

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... Chlorella sorokiniana Shih. et Krauss, a unicellular green alga was assayed to assess its to promotion potentials response of aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. C. sorokiniana grown in 200 ml aliquots of modified basal medium for two weeks: was treated with the aqueous and ...

  11. Potential effects of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damping off caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on cowpea results in yield losses with serious socioeconomic implication. Induction of defense responses by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) is largely associated with the production of defense enzyme phenyl ammonia lyase (PAL) and oxidative enzymes like ...

  12. Promoting Corporate Enterprise: Marketing the Executive MBA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Doren, Doris C.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    More than 100 Executive Masters of Business Administration programs exist, and new ones are being developed. How these programs operate and where they fit in with the growth in business education are discussed. Program practices, screening applications, promotion, programs structure, understanding market changes, and providing a quality faculty…

  13. Health Promotion by Social Cognitive Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    2004-01-01

    This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior,…

  14. Pakistan: Government to promote research in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Punjab Govenor,

    2002-01-01

    According to the Punjab Governor, Lt.General Khalid, the government will soon set up a school of biological sciences by unifying Physics, High Energy Physics and Solid State Physics departments so as to implement the government policy of promoting research in this sector (1/2 page).

  15. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background:  In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are

  16. Preserving, developing and promoting indigenous languages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the basis of literature from various fields an attempt is made to construct a holistic conceptual framework for reflection by LIS professionals. Some examples from South African projects are given to illustrate the possible roles of LIS in the preservation, development and promotion of indigenous languages. Innovation ...

  17. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  18. Healthy Universities: Mapping Health-Promotion Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map out and characterize existing health-promotion initiatives at Florida International University (FIU) in the USA in order to inform decision makers involved in the development of a comprehensive and a long-term healthy university strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This study encompasses a narrative…

  19. Health promoting behaviors in industrial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Yilmazel

    2015-04-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Health promoting behaviors were found to be in moderate level among cement factory workers. In our country, health protection and development programs at the national level would be useful to standardize for employees in the industrial sector. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(2.000: 153-162

  20. Promoting Healthy Lifestyles with Schoolwide Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    Schoolwide events to promote healthy lifestyles include fitness field day; family-fitness night; geography run; school health fair; morning and evening stretches and workouts; Jump Rope for Heart, Hoops for Heart, and Step for Heart; All Children Exercising Simultaneously; holiday classics; neighborhood fitness trail; morning and evening workouts;…

  1. Performance Evaluation of Health Promotion in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Maria; Cerasa, Federica

    2002-01-01

    A health promotion program that provided health information and training to Italian older adults received high ratings from participants for lecturer helpfulness, subjects, locations, and time. Most participants changed eating and social habits, attributing positive changes to personal conviction. Those who received training disseminated…

  2. Nectarine promotes longevity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aging is associated with increased oxidative damage and gradual decline of physiology function with age, and is modulated by numerous genetic and environmental factors. Functional fruits are thought to be ideal candidates for promoting longevity and healthspan due to their high contents of polypheno...

  3. Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota State Dept. of Children, Families, and Learning, Roseville. Food and Nutrition Service.

    "Healthy School Meals: Promotion Ideas That Work" is a Minnesota program based on the USDA's Team Nutrition program. The program's goal is to improve the health of children through school meals and nutrition education. This is accomplished by empowering schools to serve meals meeting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and motivating…

  4. School Health Promotion and Teacher Professional Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Didier; Simar, Carine; Deasy, Christine; Carvalho, Graça S.; McNamara, Patricia Mannix

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Health and education are inextricably linked. Health promotion sits somewhat uncomfortably within schools, often remaining a marginal aspect of teachers' work. The purpose of this paper is to examine the compatibility of an HP-initiative with teacher professional identity. Design/methodology/approach: A qualitative research design was…

  5. Factors promoting tourism services and their development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cristina Martin

    2013-10-01

    Because the fact that tourism services are intangible, sales through self-service are impossible, which makes indispensable the presence of the seller or counselor at the point of sale. Unable to clearly differentiate against competitors, tourist trips wholesalers will practice a more limited range of methods of sales promotion.

  6. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the…

  7. Promoting Creativity and Entrepreneurship in Education: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Promoting Creativity and Entrepreneurship in Education: The Panacea for Poverty Reduction in Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... This paper gives clue to phenomena about creative abilities and entrepreneurial spirit by which possession, one would expectantly become job creator rather than job seeker and as well ...

  8. Dialogic Reading Aloud to Promote Extensive Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George M.

    2016-01-01

    How can teachers motivate students to read extensively in a second language? One strategy is for teachers to read aloud to students to promote the joys of reading generally, to build students' language skills and to introduce students to specific authors, book series, genres, websites, etc. This article begins by discussing why teachers might want…

  9. Promoting Integrity through Standards of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komives, Susan R.; Arminio, Jan

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, the Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) has developed and promulgated standards of practice for quality programs and services. The standards are designed intentionally to promote student learning and developmental outcomes through a self-assessment process. CAS has coalesced professional…

  10. Promoting the female condom to refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Papo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available UNHCR and its partners have been providing male condoms since the late 1990s. However, uptake remains alarmingly low. Will the agency be more successful in promoting the female condom, a female-initiated barrier method of contraception and disease prevention?

  11. Humor: A pedagogical tool to promote learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Chabeli

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking.

  12. Promoting Rural Development through Chieftaincy Institutions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the contribution of the District Assembly and Chieftaincy Institution in promoting rural development. The purpose was to provide empirical data on the contribution of the District Assembly and Chieftaincy Institution as stakeholders in the rural development agenda of local government in Ghana. This is ...

  13. The human tyrosine hydroxylase gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Mark A; Yang, Ming; Gollomp, Kandace L; Jin, Hao; Iacovitti, Lorraine

    2003-04-10

    13.329 kilobases of the single copy human tyrosine hydroxylase (hTH) gene were isolated from a genomic library. The 5' flanking 11 kilobases fused to the reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) drove high level expression in TH+ cells of the substantia nigra of embryonic and adult transgenic mice as determined by double label fluorescence microscopy. To provide a basis for future analysis of polymorphisms and structure-function studies, the previously unreported distal 10.5 kilobases of the hTH promoter were sequenced with an average coverage of 20-fold, the remainder with 4-fold coverage. Sequence features identified included four perfect matches to the bicoid binding element (BBE, consensus: BBTAATCYV) all of which exhibited specific binding by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Comparison to published sequences of mouse and rat TH promoters revealed five areas of exceptional homology shared by these species in the upstream TH promoter region -2 kb to -9 kb relative to the transcription start site. Within these conserved regions (CRs I-V), potential recognition sites for NR4A2 (Nurr1), HNF-3beta, HOXA4, and HOXA5 were shared across human, mouse, and rat TH promoters.

  14. Health promotion: From malaria control to elimination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Advocacy, health promotion, health education, strategic marketing, advertising, and the strengthening of existing partnerships are essential prerequisites in closing the identified gaps in the malaria control programme when moving from control to elimination.[10]. To chart the way forward for moving malaria programmes ...

  15. Waterpipe Promotion and Use on Instagram: #Hookah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Jon-Patrick; Chu, Kar-Hai; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B

    2017-10-01

    Waterpipe (hookah) use is becoming more prevalent in the United States and abroad with potential implications for public health. As waterpipe use rapidly grows in popularity, novel data streams are needed that can help capture and document the social and environmental context in which individuals use, and are marketed, this emerging tobacco product. This study characterized waterpipe-related posts on Instagram in order to inform regulatory and policy activities in the United States. Data were collected from Instagram, an image-based social media site. Inclusion criteria for this study comprised an Instagram post with the hashtag "#hookah" that was accompanied by geo-location metadata demonstrating that the post was inside the contiguous United States. Rules were established for coding themes of images (n = 1705). Seven percent of images depicted a single person using a waterpipe and/or blowing smoke, 25% depicted two or more persons lounging and/or using a waterpipe, 6% depicted waterpipes, coals or flavored tobacco without people, 18% of images were promotional material for hookah lounges and restaurant/bars/nightclubs referencing hookah in the text or depicting a waterpipe, 25% were non-waterpipe-related promotional material, 1% were sexually explicit material, and 18% other. 31% of all images depicted or referenced alcohol. 30% of posts provided geo-location from a hookah lounge, 56% from a restaurant/bar/nightclub, and 14% from other types of locations. The cross promotion of waterpipe and alcohol use by hookah lounges, and restaurants/bars/nightclubs suggests that poly-substance use is regularly depicted, and promoted, in nightlife entertainment as well as normalized on Instagram in the United States. In the US Instagram posts with the hashtag #hookah regularly depicted waterpipe use in conjunction with alcohol use. Instagram's focus on images facilitates picture-based advertising where hookah lounges promote drink specials at the same time nightclubs promote

  16. 37 CFR 4.4 - Invention promoter reply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Invention promoter reply. 4.4... COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.4 Invention promoter reply. (a) If a submission appears to meet the requirements of a complaint, the invention promoter named in the complaint...

  17. 7 CFR 1160.301 - Promotion, consumer education and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, consumer education and research. 1160.301... PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Promotion, Consumer Education and Research § 1160.301 Promotion, consumer education and research. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative develop...

  18. 5 CFR 335.104 - Eligibility for career ladder promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for career ladder promotion... REGULATIONS PROMOTION AND INTERNAL PLACEMENT General Provisions § 335.104 Eligibility for career ladder promotion. No employee shall receive a career ladder promotion unless his or her current rating of record...

  19. 5 CFR 302.403 - Qualifications for promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications for promotion. 302.403... EMPLOYMENT IN THE EXCEPTED SERVICE Selection and Appointment; Reappointment; and Qualifications for Promotion § 302.403 Qualifications for promotion. In determining qualifications for promotion with respect to an...

  20. Direct and indirect effects in the regulation of overlapping promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Erdossy, Janos; Csiszovski, Zsolt

    2011-01-01

    promoter database we found that ~14% of the identified 'forward' promoters overlap with a promoter oriented in the opposite direction. In this article we combine a mathematical model with experimental analysis of synthetic regulatory regions to investigate interference of overlapping promoters. We find...

  1. 7 CFR 1150.161 - Promotion, research and nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Promotion, research and nutrition education. 1150.161... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Promotion, Research and Nutrition Education § 1150.161 Promotion, research and nutrition education. (a) The Board shall receive and evaluate, or on its own initiative...

  2. Sialoglycoprotein isolated from the eggs of Gadus morhua enhances fracture healing in osteoporotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qiping; Gui, Xiong; Wang, Fei; Yu, Peng; Zhao, Meihui; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2017-03-22

    Osteoporosis is a common disease in the elderly, which is related to fracture healing delay. In this study, the effects of treatment with sialoglycoprotein isolated from the eggs of Gadus morhua (Gm-SGP) on tibial fracture healing in ovariectomized (OVX) osteoporotic female C57BL/6J mice for 56 days post-fracture were investigated. The result showed that Gm-SGP treatment significantly increased serum angiogenic factors and bone formation markers on day 5 and 11 post-fracture when compared with the OVX group. In addition, histological results in the Gm-SGP group showed a stronger endochondral ossification, a stronger bony consolidation and a stronger bony callus remodeling capability on day 11, 24 and 35 post-fracture, respectively, in comparison with the OVX group. Meanwhile, micro-computerized tomography revealed that the Gm-SGP group had stronger bony callus remodeling capability as evidenced by higher BV/TV and Tb.N but lower Tb.Sp and shorter lengths of callus maximum cross section than the OVX group on day 24 post-fracture. Besides, the tibial callus bending stiffness was significantly enhanced in the Gm-SGP group as compared with the OVX group on day 56 post-fracture. Moreover, gene expression suggested that Gm-SGP promoted vascular invasion and endochondral ossification on day 11 post-fracture as well as bone formation on day 11 and 24 post-fracture via up-regulating the expression of angiogenesis factors (including VEGF, PDGF and Ang1), entochondrostosis factors (including Col2a1, Aggrecan, Col10a1 and MMP-13) and osteogenesis markers (including Col1a1, BMP-2 and OCN). This research suggests that Gm-SGP significantly improve fracture healing which is delayed by OVX-induced osteoporosis. The present study may contribute to providing important implications for the utilization of Gm-SGP from fish eggs as a functional food to enhance fracture healing.

  3. Studies on promoting action in skin carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffiotti, U.; Shubik, P.

    1963-01-01

    A number of substances were tested for carcinogenic promoting activity in Swiss mice by applying them twice weekly to the clipped dorsal skin, beginning 1 wk after a single application of 9,10-dimethyl-1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA; 1 to 1.5% in mineral oil). Tests with silver nitrate (10% aqueous), iodoacetic acid (0.9% in acetone, fumaric acid (1% in acetone), ethylphenylpropiolate (5% in acetone), trihydroxymethylanthraquinone. (Emodin; 0.5% in acetone), oleic alcohol, monostearin (5% in acetone) and sorbitan monolaurate were essentially negative; when a single application of croton oil (5% in mineral oil) was interspersed between the carcinogen and silver nitrate, 6/20 mice developed 14 benign tumors and 1 carcinoma. N-Dodecane showed moderate promoting activity (26 tumors, with 2 carcinomas, in 12/30 mice). Tests of several petroleum fractions showed high initial promoting activity (404 tumors, with 31 carcinomas, in 36/50 mice), but the activity disappeared on storage; while there was no carcinogenic activity in mice, in New Zealand albino rabbits the petroleum fractions alone produced considerable numbers of tumors. One application of DMBA, however, did increase tumor incidence and shorten the latent period. The hexane-eluted fraction of a methanolic extract of croton seeds (which had little vesicant activity), had all the promoting activity of the original croton oil; this could be demonstrated with uethan (20 mg/day ip for 5 days) as the initiator as well as with DMBA. In conclusion, the authors distinguish sharply between the promoting activity of compounds such as croton oil, which lead mostly to benign tumors (many of which regress spontaneously), and the additive effects of carcinogenic substances which may have a stimulatory effect on the second stage of carcinogenesis; for this additive carcinogenic effect, they suggest the term developing action. Other studies on croton oil are also reviewed.

  4. Sigma factors and promoters in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pátek, Miroslav; Nešvera, Jan

    2011-07-10

    The Corynebacterium glutamicum genome codes for 7 sigma subunits (factors) of RNA polymerase (RNAP): primary sigma factor SigA (σ(A)), primary-like SigB and 5 other alternative sigma factors (SigC, SigD, SigE, SigH and SigM). Each sigma factor is responsible for recognizing promoters of genes belonging to a regulon (sigmulon) involved in specific functions of the cell. Most promoters of C. glutamicum housekeeping genes are recognized by RNAP+σ(A), whereas σ(B) is involved in transcription of a large group of genes active during the transition phase between the exponential and stationary growth phases when various stress factors threaten to damage the cell. The σ(H) regulon consists of the genes involved in heat shock response including those coding for regulators and other sigma factors. It seems therefore that σ(H) occupies a central position in the cross-regulated network of sigma factors and controls their concerted response to various stress conditions in C. glutamicum. The σ(M) factor was found to regulate genes responding to oxidative stress. The main role of σ(E) is to activate genes involved in response to a cell surface stress. Promoters of individual classes recognized by different sigma factors are compiled and the respective consensus sequences of their key recognition motifs (-35 and -10 regions) are derived. In a number of genes, two or more promoters controlled by the same or different sigma factors were discovered. These multiple, overlapping or dual promoters contribute to a complex gene transcription control mechanisms that integrate internal and external signals and tune gene expression in cells as required by environmental and physiological conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Promotion of seed germination by cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylorson, R B; Hendricks, S B

    1973-07-01

    Potassium cyanide at 3 mum to 10 mm promotes germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, and Lepidium virginicum seeds. l-Cysteine hydrogen sulfide lyase, which catalyzes the reaction of HCN with l-cysteine to form beta-l cyanoalanine, is active in the seeds. beta-l-Cyanoalanine is the most effective of the 23 alpha-amino acids tested for promoting germination of A. albus seeds. Aspartate, which is produced by enzymatic hydrolysis of asparagine formed by hydrolysis from beta-cyanoalanine, is the second most effective of the 23 amino acids. Uptake of aspartate-4-(14)C is much lower than of cyanide.Radioactive tracer in K(14)CN shows uptake of about 1.5 mumoles of HCN per gram of A. albus and L. sativa seeds after 20 hours of imbibition. Extracts of the seeds gave high (14)C activity in beta-cyanoalanine, asparagine, and aspartate. The acid-hydrolyzed protein extract gave high activity only in aspartate. Tests were negative for free cyanide in the seed. Respiration of the seed is inhibited more than 75% by KCN and by KN(3) at 10 mm. Azide at greater than 1.0 mm inhibits the promotion of germination by cyanides. Neither 0.1 mm KCN nor KN(3) inhibit O(2) consumption, whereas lower concentrations promote germination. It is concluded that the high rate of utilization of cyanide in the reaction to form beta-l-cyanoalanine and the subsequent incorporation into protein limit any inhibition of oxygen consumption. The promotion of seed germination is substrate-limited by asparagine-aspartate, which is required for protein synthesis.

  6. Health promoting leadership - different views of the concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Andrea; Axelsson, Runo; Axelsson, Susanna Bihari

    2011-01-01

    To describe and analyse different views of health promoting leadership among actors involved in workplace health promotion in eight Swedish municipalities. Twenty individuals were interviewed and their views were analysed according to the methodology of phenomenograpic research, exploring how health promoting leadership was described, what motives were expressed, and what critical conditions were perceived for developing such leadership. The informants described health promoting leadership in three ways: organising health promoting activities, having a supportive leadership style, and developing a health promoting workplace. The motives mentioned for developing health promoting leadership were instrumental motives and improved health. The critical conditions for health promoting leadership were organisational conditions, characteristics of individual managers, and support to managers. It seems that the concept of health promoting leadership was often used to link ideas about good leadership to the health of employees. Organisational goals and management trends may also have influenced the motives as well as the conditions for development of health promoting leadership.

  7. Conditional gene expression and promoter replacement in Zymoseptoria tritici using fungal nitrate reductase promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchegiani, Elisabetta; Sidhu, Yaadwinder; Haynes, Ken; Lebrun, Marc-Henri

    2015-06-01

    Studying essential genes in haploid fungi requires specific tools. Conditional promoter replacement (CPR) is an efficient method for testing gene essentiality. However, this tool requires promoters that can be strongly down-regulated. To this end, we tested the nitrate reductase promoters of Magnaporthe oryzae (pMoNIA1) and Zymoseptoria tritici (pZtNIA1) for their conditional expression in Z. tritici. Expression of EGFP driven by pMoNIA1 or pZtNIA1 was induced on nitrate and down-regulated on glutamate (10-fold less than nitrate). Levels of differential expression were similar for both promoters, demonstrating that the Z. tritici nitrogen regulatory network functions with a heterologous promoter similarly to a native promoter. To establish CPR, the promoter of Z. tritici BGS1, encoding a β-1,3-glucan synthase, was replaced by pZtNIA1 using targeted sequence replacement. Growth of pZtNIA1::BGS1 CPR transformants was strongly reduced in conditions repressing pZtNIA1, while their growth was similar to wild type in conditions inducing pZtNIA1. This differential phenotype demonstrates that BGS1 is important for growth in Z. tritici. In addition, in inducing conditions, pZtNIA1::BGS1 CPR transformants were hyper-sensitive to Calcofluor white, a cell wall disorganizing agent. Nitrate reductase promoters are therefore suitable for conditional promoter replacement in Z. tritici. This tool is a major step toward identifying novel fungicide targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Trade Promotion Organizations (TPOs Role in Laying the Groundwork for an Export Promotion Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OCTAVIAN-LIVIU OLARU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most countries focus on strategies for export development and promotion, given the importance of national goals and, in many cases, limited resources. A TPO has a significant role in laying the groundwork for an export promotion program. TPOs should pay close attention to the trade information needs of exporters and have appropriate mechanisms for acquiring such information systematically and disseminating it in a timely way. Moreover, a TPO provides basic and useful support to the export community if it can facilitate contacts between foreign buyers and exporters. Developing the export promotion program is one of the basic requirements when the TPO formulates its support program for the export sector.

  9. Trying to lure customers? Choose the right promotional tools first!

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Advertising and sales promotions account for over 25% of UK marketing budgets, however, research shows that more than 50% of promotions are not profitable. It is common knowledge that promotional tools can used to encourage unplanned purchase, but do you really know when to use which promotional tools?\\ud \\ud A study conducted by Dr. Jenny Ma and her team at the University of Worcester investigated British and Chinese consumer responses to promotional tools in casino gambling. Casino is a fas...

  10. Developing a promotional strategy: important questions for social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Neiger, Brad L; Hanson, Carl L

    2007-10-01

    Health practitioners often use the terms marketing and promotion interchangeably. Yet, promotion is just one element of an overall marketing strategy. To realize the greatest impact there must be a combination of all the marketing components, including product, price, place, and promotion. The purpose of this article is to clarify the role of promotion and describe key elements of developing a promotional strategy within the broader context of a social marketing initiative.

  11. EKSPLOITASI PADA PEREMPUAN SALES PROMOTION GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afta Lestari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Terjadi perubahan posisi perempuan yang semula hanya berada di sektor domestik, kini beralih ke sektor publik. Kondisi di perkotaan yang relatif lebih heterogen membuka peluang perempuan untuk bekerja di berbagai bidang, salah satunya adalah sales promotion girls (SPG. Dalam penelitian ini, penulis mengeksplorasi bagaimana profil SPG dan eksploitasi yang dialaminya. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi dalam pengambilan datanya. Penampilan cantik dan menarik menjadi modal utama dalam pekerjaan ini. Sales Promotion Girls pada industri rokok dan minuman  berumur sekitar 21-30 tahun dengan jam kerja sekitar 5-7 jam perhari. Alasan bekerja di bidang ini adalah bahwa bidang ini merupakan pekerjaan ringan dan tidak memerlukan pendidikan yang tinggi, walaupun di sisi lain mereka hanya mendapatkan upah yang rendah. Perempuan dalam pekerjaan ini seringkali mengalami eksploitasi fisik berupa pelecehan seksual dan eksploitasi ekonomi berupa waktu kerja yang sampai malam hari dan tidak terpenuhinya hak-hak pekerja perempuan seperti faktor keselamatan dan hak untuk cuti. Dengan kondisi seperti ini, maka perlindungan terhadap perempuan bekerja pada umumnya dan sales promotion girls pada khususnya menjadi hal yang sangat penting untuk diperhatikan.A change in economic condition in Indonesia brings about a change of woman position, from formerly domestic sector to recently public sector. Urban areas that is relatively more heterogeneous than rural ones open opportunities for women to work in various fields, one of which is sales promotion girls (SPG. In this study, the author seeks to explore the SPG profile and the exploitation they experienced. The method used in this study are qualitative approach, with observation, interviews, and documentation. The research uncovered the following facts. Beautiful and attractive appearance becomes a priority in this work. Sales promotion girls on cigarettes

  12. Artificial promoter libraries for selected organisms and promoters derived from such libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    An artificial promoter library for a selected organism or group of organisms is constructed as a mixture of double stranded DNA fragments, the sense strands of which comprise at least two consensus sequences of efficient promoters from said organism or group of organisms, or parts thereof...... imparting a specific regulatory feature, such as activation by a change in the growth conditions, to the promoters of the library. Further, they may have a sequence comprising one or more recognition sites for restriction endonucleases added to one of or both their ends. The selected organism or group...... in eukaryotes said consensus sequences should comprise a TATA box and at least one upstream activation sequence (UAS). Such artificial promoter libraries can be used i.a. for optimizing the expression of specific genes in various selected organisms....

  13. A future task for Health Promotion research: Integration of Health Promotion and sustainable development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelsøe, Erling; Thualagant, Nicole; Holm, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    . Despite obvious interfaces and interactions between the two, our contention is that strategies for health promotion are not sufficiently integrated with strategies for sustainable development and that policies aimed at solving health or sustainability problems may therefore cause new, undesired...

  14. Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I; Ehiri, John E; Arikpo, Dachi; Meremikwu, Martin M; Critchley, Julia A

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhoea accounts for 1.8 million deaths in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the identified strategies to prevent diarrhoea is hand washing. Objectives To assess the effects of hand washing promotion interventions on diarrhoeal episodes in children and adults. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (27 May 2015); CENTRAL (published in the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5); MEDLINE (1966 to 27 May 2015); EMBASE (1974 to 27 May 2015); LILACS (1982 to 27 May 2015); PsycINFO (1967 to 27 May 2015); Science Citation Index and Social Science Citation Index (1981 to 27 May 2015); ERIC (1966 to 27 May 2015); SPECTR (2000 to 27 May 2015); Bibliomap (1990 to 27 May 2015); RoRe, The Grey Literature (2002 to 27 May 2015); World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP), metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT), and reference lists of articles up to 27 May 2015. We also contacted researchers and organizations in the field. Selection criteria Individually randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs that compared the effects of hand washing interventions on diarrhoea episodes in children and adults with no intervention. Data collection and analysis Three review authors independently assessed trial eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We stratified the analyses for child day-care centres or schools, community, and hospital-based settings. Where appropriate, incidence rate ratios (IRR) were pooled using the generic inverse variance method and random-effects model with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the GRADE approach to assess the quality of evidence. Main results We included 22 RCTs: 12 trials from child day-care centres or schools in mainly high-income countries (54,006 participants), nine community-based trials in LMICs (15,303 participants), and one hospital-based trial among people with acquired immune deficiency

  15. Hunting happiness or promoting health? Why positive psychology deserves a place in health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Torill

    2008-09-01

    This commentary asks the question of whether positive psychology represents an egoistic pursuit of happiness, which is in conflict with basic values within health promotion. A look at key concepts and research findings within positive psychology reveals common ground with health promotion. Similarities are evident in conceptualization of health, resource focus, value focus and consequences for policy. Some influences of happiness on health and functioning are described.

  16. Promoters of Escherichia coli versus promoter islands: function and structure comparison.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy V Panyukov

    Full Text Available Expression of bacterial genes takes place under the control of RNA polymerase with exchangeable σ-subunits and multiple transcription factors. A typical promoter region contains one or several overlapping promoters. In the latter case promoters have the same or different σ-specificity and are often subjected to different regulatory stimuli. Genes, transcribed from multiple promoters, have on average higher expression levels. However, recently in the genome of Escherichia coli we found 78 regions with an extremely large number of potential transcription start points (promoter islands, PIs. It was shown that all PIs interact with RNA polymerase in vivo and are able to form transcriptionally competent open complexes both in vitro and in vivo but their transcriptional activity measured by oligonucleotide microarrays was very low, if any. Here we confirmed transcriptional defectiveness of PIs by analyzing the 5'-end specific RNA-seq data, but showed their ability to produce short oligos (9-14 bases. This combination of functional properties indicated a deliberate suppression of transcriptional activity within PIs. According to our data this suppression may be due to a specific conformation of the DNA double helix, which provides an ideal platform for interaction with both RNA polymerase and the histone-like nucleoid protein H-NS. The genomic DNA of E.coli contains therefore several dozen sites optimized by evolution for staying in a heterochromatin-like state. Since almost all promoter islands are associated with horizontally acquired genes, we offer them as specific components of bacterial evolution involved in acquisition of foreign genetic material by turning off the expression of toxic or useless aliens or by providing optimal promoter for beneficial genes. The putative molecular mechanism underlying the appearance of promoter islands within recipient genomes is discussed.

  17. Food for creativity: tyrosine promotes deep thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colzato, Lorenza S; de Haan, Annelies M; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-09-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that creative people sometimes use food to overcome mental blocks and lack of inspiration, but empirical support for this possibility is still lacking. In this study, we investigated whether creativity in convergent- and divergent-thinking tasks is promoted by the food supplement L-Tyrosine (TYR)-a biochemical precursor of dopamine, which is assumed to drive cognitive control and creativity. We found no evidence for an impact of TYR on divergent thinking ("brainstorming") but it did promote convergent ("deep") thinking. As convergent thinking arguably requires more cognitive top-down control, this finding suggests that TYR can facilitate control-hungry creative operations. Hence, the food we eat may affect the way we think.

  18. [Work as a promoter of health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Claudia Osorio; Ramminger, Tatiana

    2014-12-01

    Studies on the relation between health and work tend to highlight the negative and pathological aspects, as if work produces only sickness and alienation. On the contrary, our proposal is to stress how work can also produce health. Based on Canguillem's concept of health, and from the contributions of the so-called "work clinics", we intend to analyze the purpose of work as a promoter of health. Canguilhem affirms that health is not adaptive, as such it does not involve adapting well to the world, but to the creation of tenets of life. For their part, the work clinics provide tools to approximate us to the know-how-to-do produced by workers in their daily work, namely not only how workers adapt to work, but how they create and recreate it permanently Thus, we can think work as a promoter of health where there is room for collective and personal creation, as well as recognition of workers in their activity.

  19. Mobile computer application for promoting physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Siobhan; Vankipuram, Mithra; Fleury, Julie

    2013-04-01

    Despite evidence that physical activity reduces the risk of falls and other causes of disability and death, the majority of older adults do not engage in physical activity on a regular basis. Mobile technology applications have emerged as potential resources for promoting physical activity behavior. This article describes features of a new application, Ready∼Steady, highlighting approaches used in its design and development, and implications for clinical practice. Iterative processes enabled the design, development, implementation, and evaluation of the application consistent with the wellness motivation theory, as well as established user-specific strategies and theoretical design principles. Implications in terms of potential benefits and constraints are discussed. Integrating technology that promotes health and wellness in the form of mobile computer applications is a promising adjunct to nursing practice. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Health promotion by social cognitive means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    2004-04-01

    This article examines health promotion and disease prevention from the perspective of social cognitive theory. This theory posits a multifaceted causal structure in which self-efficacy beliefs operate together with goals, outcome expectations, and perceived environmental impediments and facilitators in the regulation of human motivation, behavior, and well-being. Belief in one's efficacy to exercise control is a common pathway through which psychosocial influences affect health functioning. This core belief affects each of the basic processes of personal change--whether people even consider changing their health habits, whether they mobilize the motivation and perseverance needed to succeed should they do so, their ability to recover from setbacks and relapses, and how well they maintain the habit changes they have achieved. Human health is a social matter, not just an individual one. A comprehensive approach to health promotion also requires changing the practices of social systems that have widespread effects on human health.

  1. PARTICULARS OF PROMOTING IN THE SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian, MOROZAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The classical promotional media, especially the television, have been often criticized for the contradictory effects that they have on the consumers. Compared to those, the Internet and social networks that support them represent an interactive environment, because consumers have more time and space to evaluate the products compared with the traditional seconds or tens of seconds of the TV spots or the few printed lines in newspapers. The promotion on the web and social media have an important role in consumers' informing, by providing the data they need for the purchasing decision, by providing feedback from others etc. For example, in the discussion groups and social networking sites, such products/services and software news are discussed and carefully evaluated by a permanent feedback from users, their responses being made posted on the internet.

  2. Duality of Health Promotion and Sustainable Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kirsten Bransholm; Land, Birgit; Kjærgård, Bente

    2015-01-01

    reduction and how these strategies affect the prospects for promoting health and sustainable food production and consumption. Danish food waste reduction strategies are used as examples with references to selected policy documents on food waste reduction strategies launched by international organisations...... sustainability and, vice versa, sustainability conditions health. Thus, to avoid unintended, negative effects the strategies directed towards sustainable development must be correlated with strategies for health promotion. The conceptual model is used to take a closer look at the complexities of food waste...... such as FAO, WHO, and the UN. We conclude that the strategies directed towards reducing food waste ignore the health and sustainability problems related to the oversupply of food. Neither do the Danish proponents of food waste reduction strategies explicitly articulate the built-in option to reduce the supply...

  3. Health Promotion & Counselling in Context of Mixedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    with the health promotion, problem prevention and counselling for the distressed couples. The theoretical framework combines intersectionality approach with life course perspective and the everyday life practices. The diasporic identity and transnational relations are also included. The explorative study is based...... contribute to mental well being of couples in mixed marriages. A simultaneous focus on the merits and perils, opportunities and limitations of such relationships contributes to suggestions for relevant mental health promotion, problem prevention and counselling for distressed couples. Experiences from...... “visibly different, which requires assessment of their ethnic / racial awareness and their negotiation of differences counselling by the professional. Thus the professionals´ qualities, couple’s relationship, extended family, the transnational relations of the diaspora partner and the in...

  4. Evidence for designing health promoting pocket parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschardt, Karin Kragsig; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.

    2014-01-01

    The use of urban green environments has repeatedly been associated with improved health and well-being for people living in cities. This study focuses on the health promoting potential of pocket parks in the dense city area of Copenhagen. A natural experiment was conducted, which evaluated one...... pocket park, Dantes Plads, before and after a redesign. Six people were interviewed about their perception of the change. First of all, the results show that Dantes Plads is primarily used for ‘rest and restitution’. Furthermore, the interviewees prefer to have the presence of sun, shade and planting....... The findings add to existing knowledge on the design of health promoting pocket parks for ‘rest and restitution’ in dense city areas....

  5. Social diversity promotes cooperation in spatial multigames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiahu; Chen, Yaming; Kang, Yu; Perc, Matjaž

    2017-04-01

    Social diversity is omnipresent in the modern world. Here we introduce this diversity into spatial multigames and study its impact on the evolution of cooperation. Multigames are characterized by two or more different social dilemmas being contested among players in the population. When a fraction of players plays the prisoner's dilemma game while the remainder plays the snowdrift game cooperation becomes a difficult proposition. We show that social diversity, determined by the payoff scaling factors from the uniform, exponential or power-law distribution, significantly promotes cooperation. In particular, the stronger the social diversity, the more widespread cooperative behavior becomes. Monte Carlo simulations on the square lattice reveal that a power-law distribution of social diversity is in fact optimal for socially favorable states, thus resonating with findings previously reported for single social dilemmas. We also show that the same promotion mechanism works in time-varying environments, thus further generalizing the important role of social diversity for cooperation in social dilemmas.

  6. The Policy to Promote Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosdahl, Anders

    thinking, a vision for the Danish welfare society. An inclusive labour market is one with “a place for everyone”, i.e. also for persons with a reduced working capacity, disabled, ethnic minorities and long-term unemployed – that is persons who have traditionally had difficulties in obtaining or remaining...... viewpoints in the current Danish debate (section 4). Section 5 includes some concluding remarks. Encouraging social responsibility of enterprises is one of the means to promote what in Denmark today is termed an inclusive labour market. The inclusive labour market is, according to current governmental...... in employment. An inclusive labour market is adapted to the needs and capabilities of diverse human beings, also employees, who should be able to reconcile work and family life. The policy to increase the social responsibility of enterprises and to promote an inclusive labour market includes several specific...

  7. Using evaluation strategically to promote active learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    Rationale: The challenge presented here is how to utilise evaluation to promote active learning. The method used is constructive alignment (Biggs & Tang, 2007) of learning objectives, learning and evaluation along with further considerations including which competences are promoted, the time...... the principle of inductive learning (Prince & Felder, 2006) with the students being presented with the case from the beginning and subsequently achieving the tools to perform the projects. This is both frustrating and motivating for the students as they know why they need to have the tools, but they feel...... they get them too late. The students have formerly been assessed through two group reports (each 25% of final grade) and an individual oral examination (50% of final grade). The students work a lot and learn a lot through working with the reports, but it is also very time consuming to write them as well...

  8. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  9. Positive feelings reward and promote prosocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aknin, Lara B; Van de Vondervoort, Julia W; Hamlin, J Kiley

    2017-08-12

    Humans are extraordinarily prosocial. What inspires and reinforces a willingness to help others? Here we focus on the role of positive feelings. Drawing on functional accounts of positive emotion, which suggest that positive emotional states serve to alert actors to positive experiences and encourage similar action in the future, we summarize evidence demonstrating that positive feelings promote and reward prosocial behavior throughout development. Specifically, we highlight new and classic evidence from both child and adult research showing first, that various positive states prompt prosocial behavior, and second, prosocial action leads to positive states. We also consider the possibility of a positive feedback loop, wherein the emotional rewards of giving promote future prosociality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the article is to analyse the Danish policies used to promote entrepreneurship during the last 30 years. The initiatives to promote entrepreneurship have been implemented as part of Danish industrial policy. The initiatives are presented and ordered according to a model of planned...... social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether...... the target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action....

  11. NOTCH pathway inactivation promotes bladder cancer progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraver, Antonio; Fernandez-Marcos, Pablo J.; Cash, Timothy P.; Mendez-Pertuz, Marinela; Dueñas, Marta; Maietta, Paolo; Martinelli, Paola; Muñoz-Martin, Maribel; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Cañamero, Marta; Roncador, Giovanna; Martinez-Torrecuadrada, Jorge L.; Grivas, Dimitrios; de la Pompa, Jose Luis; Valencia, Alfonso; Paramio, Jesús M.; Real, Francisco X.; Serrano, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    NOTCH signaling suppresses tumor growth and proliferation in several types of stratified epithelia. Here, we show that missense mutations in NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 found in human bladder cancers result in loss of function. In murine models, genetic ablation of the NOTCH pathway accelerated bladder tumorigenesis and promoted the formation of squamous cell carcinomas, with areas of mesenchymal features. Using bladder cancer cells, we determined that the NOTCH pathway stabilizes the epithelial phenotype through its effector HES1 and, consequently, loss of NOTCH activity favors the process of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Evaluation of human bladder cancer samples revealed that tumors with low levels of HES1 present mesenchymal features and are more aggressive. Together, our results indicate that NOTCH serves as a tumor suppressor in the bladder and that loss of this pathway promotes mesenchymal and invasive features. PMID:25574842

  12. Reciprocity Outperforms Conformity to Promote Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Angelo; Balliet, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Evolutionary psychologists have proposed two processes that could give rise to the pervasiveness of human cooperation observed among individuals who are not genetically related: reciprocity and conformity. We tested whether reciprocity outperformed conformity in promoting cooperation, especially when these psychological processes would promote a different cooperative or noncooperative response. To do so, across three studies, we observed participants' cooperation with a partner after learning (a) that their partner had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials and (b) that their group members had behaved cooperatively (or not) on several previous trials with that same partner. Although we found that people both reciprocate and conform, reciprocity has a stronger influence on cooperation. Moreover, we found that conformity can be partly explained by a concern about one's reputation-a finding that supports a reciprocity framework.

  13. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    Abstract The primary objective of this paper is to analyse some initiatives used to promote entrepreneurship during the last 30 years of Danish Industrial Policy. A statistical description is given of the development that the Danish society has undergone, from an agricultural society through...... and Frazier's (1982) model of planned social change, examining whether initiatives can be a means of creating change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? The basic idea underlying Sheth and Frazier's model is that different strategies can be used to bring about socially desirable attitudes and behaviour...... and thus a target for planned social change. However, the model introduced by Sheth and Frazier has never been used to analyse how this socially desirable action can be promoted. Undertaking such an analysis is the ambition of this paper, and based on this analysis, the paper will, will conclude...

  14. Phytotherapy natural products: Promotional mix features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of products takes into account organized and controlled planning of changes of inner self and toward the environment. That means the creation of an active force, which should bring changes in other words, it should change the person who participates in the process of creation or in the consumption of the product. It tried to induce customers to purchase through methodologies and promotion strategies which stand to our sen'ice by the change in the way of thinking of the medical and pharmaceutical profession and users of helpful means. The input of marketing within the control of the outcomes, leaders techniques and promotion strategies by the production of helpful healthy means has a very big meaning.

  15. Promoting entrepreneurship through University-Industry cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Cardoso, Eduardo Luís; Carvalho, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been considered, by different academics and policy makers, as a mean to foster economic development and job creation, but also as an ability to promote a more dynamic, creative, innovative, competitive and sustainable society. Overcoming difficulties in the development of academic entrepreneurship are included in the required objectives of bridging the gap between research and innovation in Europe and, thus, is a challenge for universities. The prevailing f...

  16. Application and promotion of wireless charging technology

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Kaijun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to study wireless charging technology and analyze the application and promotion of each technology. This technology is based on Faraday’s electromagnetic in 1830s. It is not a new technology but it is developing high speed nowadays. This thesis introduces four mainstream types of wireless charging technology and three main-stream standards, and analyzes their features and development status. Wireless charging technology has been applied to some products, suc...

  17. Oral Health and Oral Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Artnik, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    World Health Organization recognizes oral health as an important component of general health, and furthermore, oral health is essential for well-being. The majority of oral diseases is related to lifestyles and reducing these mostly chronic diseases relies much on changing behaviour. Changes for the better in behaviour can and do occur, but require commitment and expertise within health promotion. Customs, practices and lifestyle issues play a role in the oral health of a community and should...

  18. Enriching Arithmetic Learning by Promoting Relational Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Molina, Marta; Castro, Encarnación; Ambrose, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    Following the Early Algebra proposal of integrating algebraic thinking in elementary mathematics, we focus our attention on the development of relational thinking within arithmetic contexts. This thinking encourages exploring relations between numbers and between operations promoting a meaningful learning of Arithmetic and the development of a good foundation for the formal study of Algebra. In this document we present data from a study of third grade students who developed relational thinkin...

  19. Inducing Peer Pressure to Promote Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Ankur Mani; Iyad Rahwan; Alex Pentland

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation in a large society of self-interested individuals is notoriously difficult to achieve when the externality of one individual's action is spread thin and wide on the whole society. This leads to the ‘tragedy of the commons’ in which rational action will ultimately make everyone worse-off. Traditional policies to promote cooperation involve Pigouvian taxation or subsidies that make individuals internalize the externality they incur. We introduce a new approach to achieving global co...

  20. Firefly luciferase gene contains a cryptic promoter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vopálenský, V.; Mašek, T.; Horváth, Ondřej; Vicenová, B.; Mokrejš, M.; Pospíšek, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 9 (2008), s. 1720-1729 ISSN 1355-8382 Grant - others:GAČR(CZ) GA204/03/1487; GAČR(CZ) GA301/07/0607; Mšk(CZ) LC06066 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : luciferase * cryptic promoter * hepatitis C virus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.018, year: 2008

  1. Leukocytic promotion of prostate cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Kristy L; Begley, Lesa A; Mor-Vaknin, Nirit; Markovitz, David M; Macoska, Jill A

    2010-03-01

    Histological evidence of pervasive inflammatory infiltrate has been noted in both benign prostatic hyperplasia/hypertrophy (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Cytokines known to attract particular leukocyte subsets are secreted from prostatic stroma consequent to aging and also from malignant prostate epithelium. Therefore, we hypothesized that leukocytes associated with either acute or chronic inflammation attracted to the prostate consequent to aging or tumorigenesis may promote the abnormal cellular proliferation associated with BPH and PCa. An in vitro system designed to mimic the human prostatic microenvironment incorporating prostatic stroma (primary and immortalized prostate stromal fibroblasts), epithelium (N15C6, BPH-1, LNCaP, and PC3 cells), and inflammatory infiltrate (HL-60 cells, HH, and Molt-3 T-lymphocytes) was developed. Modified Boyden chamber assays were used to test the ability of prostate stromal and epithelial cells to attract leukocytes and to test the effect of leukocytes on prostate cellular proliferation. Antibody arrays were used to identify leukocyte-secreted cytokines mediating prostate cellular proliferation. Leukocytic cells migrated towards both prostate stromal and epithelial cells. CD4+ T-lymphocytes promoted the proliferation of both transformed and non-transformed prostate epithelial cell lines tested, whereas CD8+ T-lymphocytes as well as dHL-60M macrophagic and dHL-60N neutrophilic cells selectively promoted the proliferation of PCa cells. The results of these studies show that inflammatory cells can be attracted to the prostate tissue microenvironment and can selectively promote the proliferation of non-transformed or transformed prostate epithelial cells, and are consistent with differential role(s) for inflammatory infiltrate in the etiologies of benign and malignant proliferative disease in the prostate. Prostate 70: 377-389, 2010. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Promotion and resignation in employee networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Jia; Zhang, Qian-Ming; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Linyan; Wan, Xue-Song; Yu, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Enterprises have put more and more emphasis on data analysis so as to obtain effective management advices. Managers and researchers are trying to dig out the major factors that lead to employees' promotion and resignation. Most previous analyses were based on questionnaire survey, which usually consists of a small fraction of samples and contains biases caused by psychological defense. In this paper, we successfully collect a data set consisting of all the employees' work-related interactions...

  3. RENEWABLE RESOURCES PROMOTION BY SUPPORT MECHANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    MONICA-VIORICA NEDELCU

    2012-01-01

    The energy from renewable sources complies with several strategic objectives of the EU policy such as environment negative impact reduction (conformation to the provisions of Kyoto Protocol approved on March 5, 2002), increase of the security in terms of energy supply and competitiveness enhancement. The main concern, especially on medium and long term, is the production of electrical and thermal energy based on renewable sources. In order to promote the renewable energy resources, the suppor...

  4. Plant growth promoting rhizobia: challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Gopalakrishnan, Subramaniam; Sathya, Arumugam; Vijayabharathi, Rajendran; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar; Gowda, C. L. Laxmipathi; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan

    2014-01-01

    Modern agriculture faces challenges, such as loss of soil fertility, fluctuating climatic factors and increasing pathogen and pest attacks. Sustainability and environmental safety of agricultural production relies on eco-friendly approaches like biofertilizers, biopesticides and crop residue return. The multiplicity of beneficial effects of microbial inoculants, particularly plant growth promoters (PGP), emphasizes the need for further strengthening the research and their use in modern agricu...

  5. Ethics, equality and evidence in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2014-01-01

    -informed disease prevention and health promotion. Results: Despite declared intentions of prioritizing social equality in health, these intentions are largely absent from most of the packages.When health inequalities are mentioned, focus is on the disadvantaged or the marginalized. Several interventions...... are recommended, where there is no evidence to support them, notwithstanding the ambition of interventions being evidence-informed. Ethical considerations are scanty, scattered and unsystematically integrated. Further, although some packages mention the importance of avoiding stigmatization, there is little...

  6. Tobacco Control and Health Promotion Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Spasovski, Mome; Donev, Doncho; Arnikov, Aleksandar; Karadzinski, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    The use of tobacco is considered as one of the main risk factors for numerous chronic diseases, such as: lung diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. 4.9 million deaths per year worldwide are tobacco related, having an increasing trend that will lead to double death toll by 2020. WHO is one of the leading organizations in the world actively involved in the health promotion activities related to tobacco consumption reduction and tobacco control. In this regard WHO prepared the Framework...

  7. Secreted Reporters for Monitoring Multiple Promoter Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashgari, Ghazal; Kantar, Rami S; Tannous, Bakhos A

    2017-01-01

    Secreted reporter proteins are reliable modalities for monitoring of different biological processes, which can be measured longitudinally in conditioned medium of cultured cells or body fluids such as blood and urine, ex vivo. In this chapter, we will explore established secreted reporters and their applications and limitations for monitoring of promoter function. We will also describe both cell-based and blood-based assays for detecting three commonly used reporters: secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP ), Gaussia luciferase (Gluc), and Vargula luciferase (Vluc).

  8. Promoting Science in Secondary School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiovitti, Anthony; Duncan, Jacinta C; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-06-01

    Engaging secondary school students with science education is crucial for a society that demands a high level of scientific literacy in order to deal with the economic and social challenges of the 21st century. Here we present how parasitology could be used to engage and promote science in secondary school students under the auspice of a 'Specialist Centre' model for science education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Online Tourism Promotion in the TRNC

    OpenAIRE

    Amca, Hasan; İlkan, Mustafa; Varoğlu, Ekrem; Yağlı, Cem

    2002-01-01

    The paper discusses the effect of web usage on businesses with emphasis on tourism promotion. A detailed solution method is proposed for connecting the small tourism facilities in the TRNC to the Internet, which, can not built their on-line Internet infrastructure. The role of individual customers, companies and the government offices in realizing this project is well explained. The possible mutual benefits of such an implementation, is outlined.

  10. A Delayed Promotion Policy for Parity Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Benerecetti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Parity games are two-player infinite-duration games on graphs that play a crucial role in various fields of theoretical computer science. Finding efficient algorithms to solve these games in practice is widely acknowledged as a core problem in formal verification, as it leads to efficient solutions of the model-checking and satisfiability problems of expressive temporal logics, e.g., the modal muCalculus. Their solution can be reduced to the problem of identifying sets of positions of the game, called dominions, in each of which a player can force a win by remaining in the set forever. Recently, a novel technique to compute dominions, called priority promotion, has been proposed, which is based on the notions of quasi dominion, a relaxed form of dominion, and dominion space. The underlying framework is general enough to accommodate different instantiations of the solution procedure, whose correctness is ensured by the nature of the space itself. In this paper we propose a new such instantiation, called delayed promotion, that tries to reduce the possible exponential behaviours exhibited by the original method in the worst case. The resulting procedure not only often outperforms the original priority promotion approach, but so far no exponential worst case is known.

  11. STRATEGIES TO PROMOTE TOURISM IN BUCOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana HÎNCU

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Practicing tourism in Bucovina is a way to counteract the problems and restore them by finding solutions for economic, social, moral and political issues by natural and anthropogenic tourism potential. Promoting the area of Bucovina has various economic implications, and the increased volume and complexity of the supply of tourism generated the development of a true industry of tourism trips, which implies treating tourism phenomenon as a distinct branch of the national economy, a component of the tertiary sector . We want to make an analysis on identifying the position makers to promote tourism and their level of information on the promotion, strategies, tourism and tourists. Through this analysis we want to find information on the position of those involved in tourism for the practice of tourism, whether they are aware of the benefits that will be brought to the locality where they operate tourism, the benefits to the local mayoralty and then the whole tourist areas if they have information on the many tourist services available to tourists.

  12. Noisy signaling through promoter logic gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstung, Moritz; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study the influence of noisy transcription factor signals on cis-regulatory promoter elements. These elements process the probability of binary binding events analogous to computer logic gates. At equilibrium, this probability is given by the so-called input function. We show that transcription factor noise causes deviations from the equilibrium value due to the nonlinearity of the input function. For a single binding site, the correction is always negative resulting in an occupancy below the mean-field level. Yet for more complex promoters it depends on the correlation of the transcription factor signals and the geometry of the input function. We present explicit solutions for the basic types of AND and OR gates. The correction size varies among these different types of gates and signal types, mainly being larger in AND gates and for correlated fluctuations. In all cases we find excellent agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. We also study the E. coli Lac operon as an example of an AND NOR gate. We present a consistent mathematical method that allows one to separate different sources of noise and quantifies their effect on promoter occupation. A surprising result of our analysis is that Poissonian molecular fluctuations, in contrast to external fluctuations, do no contribute to the correction.

  13. Promoting information spreading by using contact memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Wei; Shu, Panpan; Gao, Hui; Braunstein, Lidia A.

    2017-04-01

    Promoting information spreading is a booming research topic in network science community. However, the existing studies about promoting information spreading seldom took into account the human memory, which plays an important role in the spreading dynamics. In this letter we propose a non-Markovian information spreading model on complex networks, in which every informed node contacts a neighbor by using the memory of neighbor's accumulated contact numbers in the past. We systematically study the information spreading dynamics on uncorrelated configuration networks and a group of 22 real-world networks, and find an effective contact strategy of promoting information spreading, i.e., the informed nodes preferentially contact neighbors with a small number of accumulated contacts. According to the effective contact strategy, the high-degree nodes are more likely to be chosen as the contacted neighbors in the early stage of the spreading, while in the late stage of the dynamics, the nodes with small degrees are preferentially contacted. We also propose a mean-field theory to describe our model, which qualitatively agrees well with the stochastic simulations on both artificial and real-world networks.

  14. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-10-11

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons.

  15. A promoter-level mammalian expression atlas

    KAUST Repository

    Forest, Alistair R R

    2014-03-26

    Regulated transcription controls the diversity, developmental pathways and spatial organization of the hundreds of cell types that make up a mammal. Using single-molecule cDNA sequencing, we mapped transcription start sites (TSSs) and their usage in human and mouse primary cells, cell lines and tissues to produce a comprehensive overview of mammalian gene expression across the human body. We find that few genes are truly ‘housekeeping’, whereas many mammalian promoters are composite entities composed of several closely separated TSSs, with independent cell-type-specific expression profiles. TSSs specific to different cell types evolve at different rates, whereas promoters of broadly expressed genes are the most conserved. Promoter-based expression analysis reveals key transcription factors defining cell states and links them to binding-site motifs. The functions of identified novel transcripts can be predicted by coexpression and sample ontology enrichment analyses. The functional annotation of the mammalian genome 5 (FANTOM5) project provides comprehensive expression profiles and functional annotation of mammalian cell-type-specific transcriptomes with wide applications in biomedical research.

  16. Cu(II) promotes amyloid pore formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hangyu, E-mail: hangyuz@uw.edu [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Rochet, Jean-Christophe [Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Stanciu, Lia A. [Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); School of Materials Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-08-14

    The aggregation of α-synuclein is associated with dopamine neuron death in Parkinson's disease. There is controversy in the field over the question of which species of the aggregates, fibrils or protofibrils, are toxic. Moreover, compelling evidence suggested the exposure to heavy metals to be a risk of PD. Nevertheless, the mechanism of metal ions in promoting PD remains unclear. In this research, we investigated the structural basis of Cu(II) induced aggregation of α-synuclein. Using transmission electron microscopy experiments, Cu(II) was found to promote in vitro aggregation of α-synuclein by facilitating annular protofibril formation rather than fibril formation. Furthermore, neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils accompanied by considerable decrease of β-sheet content. These results strongly support the hypothesis that annular protofibrils are the toxic species, rather than fibrils, thereby inspiring us to search novel therapeutic strategies for the suppression of the toxic annular protofibril formation. - Highlights: • Cu(II) promoted the annular protofibril formation of α-synuclein in vitro. • Cu(II) postponed the in vitro fibrillization of α-synuclein. • Neuroprotective baicalein disaggregated annular protofibrils.

  17. Promoting Systems Thinking through Biology Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riess, Werner; Mischo, Christoph

    2010-04-01

    This study's goal was to analyze various teaching approaches within the context of natural science lessons, especially in biology. The main focus of the paper lies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods in promoting systems thinking in the field of Education for Sustainable Development. The following methods were incorporated into the study: special lessons designed to promote systems thinking, a computer-simulated scenario on the topic "ecosystem forest," and a combination of both special lessons and the computer simulation. These groups were then compared to a control group. A questionnaire was used to assess systems thinking skills of 424 sixth-grade students of secondary schools in Germany. The assessment differentiated between a conceptual understanding (measured as achievement score) and a reflexive justification (measured as justification score) of systems thinking. The following control variables were used: logical thinking, grades in school, memory span, and motivational goal orientation. Based on the pretest-posttest control group design, only those students who received both special instruction and worked with the computer simulation showed a significant increase in their achievement scores. The justification score increased in the computer simulation condition as well as in the combination of computer simulation and lesson condition. The possibilities and limits of promoting various forms of systems thinking by using realistic computer simulations are discussed.

  18. Prison staff and the health promoting prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixey, Rachael; Woodall, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss some of the obstacles to implementing policy and strategy related to health promoting prisons. It focuses on the role of prison officers and raises issues concerning their conditions of service, training and organisational culture in a situation where the prison system faces security issues, overcrowding and high levels of ill health among prisoners. This paper emerged as a result of significant overlapping themes between two separate studies conducted by the authors. The paper draws on the authors' qualitative data from these studies. The findings demonstrate the ambiguities and tensions in changing organisational cultures and among prison staff. Alongside the qualitative data, the paper draws on theory regarding policy implementation at the micro-level to show how staff can block or speed up that implementation. Prison officers are an essential part of health promoting prisons, but have been relatively ignored in the discussion of how to create healthier prisons. The contribution that prison staff make to creating health promoting prisons has been under-explored, yet pertinent theory can show how they can be more effectively involved in making changes in organisational culture.

  19. Health promotion in school environment in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Rogério Lessa; Andersen, Cristine Scattolin; Pinto, Raquel Oliveira; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Oliveira-Campos, Maryane; de Andreazzi, Marco Antonio Ratzsch; Malta, Deborah Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Evaluate the school environments to which ninth-year students are exposed in Brazil and in the five regions of the country according to health promotion guidelines. METHODS Cross-sectional study from 2012, with a representative sample of Brazil and its macroregions. We interviewed ninth-year schoolchildren and managers of public and private schools. We proposed a score of health promotion in the school environment (EPSAE) and estimated the distribution of school members according to this score. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were used, by ordinal regression, to determine the schoolchildren and schools with higher scores, according to the independent variables. RESULTS A student is more likely to attend a school with a higher EPSAE in the South (OR = 2.80; 95%CI 2.67–2.93) if the school is private (OR = 4.52; 95%CI 4.25–4.81) and located in a state capital, as well as if the student is 15 years of age or older, has a paid job, or has parents with higher education. CONCLUSIONS The inequalities among the country’s regions and schools are significant, demonstrating the need for resources and actions that promote greater equity. PMID:28380209

  20. Dialogues between agroecology and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Santos Navolar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify aspects that relates ecological family farming and health promotion of farmers belonging to the Association for the Development of Agroecology in Paraná - AOPA. Methods: A qualitative and exploratory research. Semi-structured interviews were conducted during October-November 2007, with six of AOPA farmers, based on an interview guide with questions about the factors that motivated the transition to agroecology and on the perception of participants on possible changes in diet and the health of families related to the insertion in this productive system. Results: We observed that the main reasons for transition to agroecology were issues related to health, especially the occurrence of pesticide poisoning. About the health of families, were emphasized both self care and the use of natural health practices. In relation to family feeding, it was registered the increase of food production for consumption. Conclusion: According to the perception of farmers were identified relevant issues and in line with some of the fields of Health Promotion, particularly linked to the creation of a favorable environment for the development of personal abilities and reinforcement of community action, which indicate that the practice of ecological family farming can be considered an action of health promotion for the farmers and their families.

  1. The impact of promotion in franchising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Buljubašić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Franchising is a model of company growth, which significantly reduces uncertainty in the riskiest stages of growth: business start–up and growth phase. The impact of promotion in franchising has not been investigated in relevant literature. Therefore, this paper examines the impact of promotion on franchising through unconventional marketing on the example of private company X which is the main context of the present study. This private company X was chosen as a relevant example because it was selected in 2012 as one of the most successful Croatian franchisee companies in the segment of automotive industry and also because of the quality of service. The results show that the most successful promotional tool is “word of mouth” that attracts the largest number of clients. However, it must be emphasized that conventional marketing is very important, too, because it contributes to the visibility of the company. Conventional marketing is a diverse field which includes many forms of advertising like print, broadcast, direct mail, telemarketing etc. and is still widely recognized by the audience.

  2. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis. PMID:27167761

  3. Stress promotes Arabidopsis - Piriformospora indica interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Khabat; Dorcheh, Sedigheh Karimi; Monajembashi, Shamci; Westermann, Martin; Reichelt, Michael; Falkenberg, Daniela; Hemmerich, Peter; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf

    2016-05-03

    The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact. Lower nutrient availability down-regulates and higher nutrient availability up-regulates the plant defense system including the expression of pathogenesis-related genes in roots. High light, osmotic and salt stresses support the beneficial interaction between the plant and the fungus. P. indica reduces stomata closure and H2O2 production after Alternaria brassicae infection in leaves and suppresses the defense-related accumulation of the phytohormone jasmonic acid. Thus, shifting the growth conditions toward a stress promotes the mutualistic interaction, while optimal supply with nutrients or low stress diminishes the benefits for the plant in the symbiosis.

  4. Humor: a pedagogical tool to promote learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabeli, M

    2008-09-01

    It has become critical that learners are exposed to varied methods of teaching and assessment that will promote critical thinking of learners. Humor creates a relaxed atmosphere where learning can be enhanced and appreciated. When learners are relaxed, thinking becomes eminent. Authoritative and tense environment hinders thinking. This paper seeks to explore the perceptions of nurse teacher learners regarding the use of humor as a pedagogical tool to promote learning. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was employed (Burns & Grove, 2001:61; Mouton, 1996:103). 130 naive sketches were collected from nurse teacher learners who volunteered to take part in the study (Giorgi in_Omery, 1983:52) Follow up interviews were conducted to verify the findings. A qualitative, open-coding method of content analysis was done Tesch (in Creswell, 1994:155). Measures to ensure trustworthiness of the study were taken in accordance with the protocol of (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:290-326). The findings of the study will assist the nurse educators to create a positive, affective, psychological and social learning environment through the use of humor in a positive manner. Nurse educators will appreciate the fact that integration of humor to the learning content will promote the learners' critical thinking and emotional intelligence. Negative humor has a negative impact on learning. Learner nurses who become critical thinkers will be able to be analytical and solve problems amicably in practice.

  5. Carcinogenicity/tumour promotion by NDL PCB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrenk, D. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Food Chemistry and Environmental Toxicology

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) belong to the group of persistent environmental pollutants exhibiting neurotoxic, teratogenic and tumour-promoting effects in experimental animal models. PCB congeners can be divided into 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners on the basis of their ability to act as aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Like the most toxic dioxin congener 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) 'dioxinlike' PCBs bind to the AhR and show characteristic effects on the expression of AhR-regulated genes including the induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1. On the other hand, 'non-dioxinlike' PCB congeners have a lower or no binding affinity to the AhR, but exhibit a 'phenobarbital-type' induction of CYP 2B1/2 activity. A carcinogenic potential of PCBs has been demonstrated with technical mixtures such as Aroclors or Clophens. In these studies the liver and the thyroid gland were found to be the principal target organs of PCB-mediated carcinogenesis in rodents. No studies have been published, however, on the carcinogenicity of individual congeners. In two-stage initiation-promotion protocols in rats, both technical mixtures and individual 'dioxinlike' and 'non-dioxinlike' congeners were reported to act as liver tumour promoters.

  6. [Public participation and empowerment in Health Promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Naoko; Tomoyama, Gyokuren; Watanabe, Tsukiko; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Hoshi, Tanji

    2002-05-01

    A new model for Health Promotion was proposed by WHO in 1986. The purpose of this paper is to review public participation and empowerment in Health Promotion by reviewing case reports and original papers. The main results can be divided into two categories, public participation, and empowerment, The main results are as follows; 1) Health promotion involves the population as a whole in their everyday lives, rather than focusing on people who are sick or at risk for specific diseases. 2) The use of participatory and empowering approaches in the evaluation process has the potential to strengthen the public's capacity for organizational learning and improve their own health status. 3) It is possible to improve health conditions by using empowerment interventions: 1. The need to adopt an ecological approach that simultaneously addresses empowerment. 2. Policy-makers need to take a longer-term approach to empowerment interventions, including proper longitudinal studies to enhance the evidence base for such interventions. 4) Satisfaction is central to the delivery of health and human services. The most critical factor in service delivery is providing quality care and user merit. 5) In developing people-oriented health technologies, priority should be given to the availability of lay resources and to indigenously developed health practices. 6) Empowerment is the most important idea within health promotion. It is often a difficult concept for health professionals to grasp since most have been trained to consider health care providers as experts and the patient as a recipient of this expertise. 7) Health care specialists can contribute considerably to the development of a collaborative, family-oriented approach in the development of self care. The possibilities for such an undertaking depend on the establishment of working relationships at two interfaces: between the health care specialist and his/her client families. A framework for developing these relationships is

  7. Document and author promotion strategies in the secure wiki model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Kasper; Jensen, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    , thus determining what other documents that the author can edit. This collaborative filtering mechanism, determines the promotion and demotion of documents and authors in the Secure Wiki Model. The original Secure Wiki Model only considers explicit promotion and demotion of documents, authors...... are implicitly promoted/demoted depending on the promotion/demotion of the documents that they contribute. In this paper, we revisit the question of promotion of documents and authors and propose a new security policy with explicit promotion of authors. This policy also incorporates a new collaborative filtering...

  8. Engineering Promoter Architecture in Oleaginous Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabbir Hussain, Murtaza; Gambill, Lauren; Smith, Spencer; Blenner, Mark A

    2016-03-18

    Eukaryotic promoters have a complex architecture to control both the strength and timing of gene transcription spanning up to thousands of bases from the initiation site. This complexity makes rational fine-tuning of promoters in fungi difficult to predict; however, this very same complexity enables multiple possible strategies for engineering promoter strength. Here, we studied promoter architecture in the oleaginous yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica. While recent studies have focused on upstream activating sequences, we systematically examined various components common in fungal promoters. Here, we examine several promoter components including upstream activating sequences, proximal promoter sequences, core promoters, and the TATA box in autonomously replicating expression plasmids and integrated into the genome. Our findings show that promoter strength can be fine-tuned through the engineering of the TATA box sequence, core promoter, and upstream activating sequences. Additionally, we identified a previously unreported oleic acid responsive transcription enhancement in the XPR2 upstream activating sequences, which illustrates the complexity of fungal promoters. The promoters engineered here provide new genetic tools for metabolic engineering in Y. lipolytica and provide promoter engineering strategies that may be useful in engineering other non-model fungal systems.

  9. Estimation of soil and vegetation temperatures with multiangular thermal infrared observations: IMGRASS, HEIFE, and SGP 1997 experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.; Jia, L.; Li, Z.L.; Djepa, V.; Wang, J.; Stoll, M.P.; Su, Z.; Rast, M.

    2001-01-01

    The potential of directional observations in the thermal infrared region for land surface studies is a largely uncharted area of research. The availability of the dual-view Along Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR) observations led to explore new opportunities in this direction. In the context of

  10. Seven years of aerosol scattering hygroscopic growth measurements from SGP: Factors influencing water uptake: Aerosol Scattering Hygroscopic Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, A. [Cooperative Institute of Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Earth Systems Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder Colorado USA; Hageman, D. [Cooperative Institute of Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder Colorado USA; Earth Systems Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder Colorado USA; Morrow, H. [Earth Systems Research Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder Colorado USA; Science and Technology Corporation, Boulder Colorado USA; Mei, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA; Watson, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton New York USA

    2017-09-11

    Long-term measurements of changes in the aerosol scattering coefficient hygroscopic growth at the U.S. Department of Energy Southern Great Plains site provide information on the seasonal as well as size and chemical dependence of aerosol hygroscopic growth. Annual average sub 10 um fRH values (the ratio of aerosol scattering at 85%/40% RH) were 1.75 and 1.87 for the gamma and kappa fit algorithms, respectively. The study found higher growth rates in the winter and spring seasons that correlated with high aerosol nitrate mass fraction. FRH, exhibited strong, but differing correlations with the scattering Ångström exponent and backscatter fraction, two optical size-dependent parameters. The aerosol organic fraction had a strong influence, with fRH decreasing with increases in the organic mass fraction and absorption Ångström exponent and increasing with the aerosol single scatter albedo. Uncertainty analysis if the fit algorithms revealed high uncertainty at low scattering coefficients and slight increases in uncertainty at high RH and fit parameters values.

  11. Promoting health in rural Transylvania, Romania. a descriptive analysis of health promotion activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Cătălin O; Brînzaniuc, Alexandra; Sirlincan, Emanuela O; Cherecheş, Răzvan M

    2010-12-01

    Even though efforts are made to reduce health disparities, promote health for all social groups and improve health outcomes, inconsistencies still exist. Existing evidence shows that lack of funding, lack of properly trained workforce, as well as heavy workload on health care workers, are the most employed explanations for the limited number of health promotion interventions in the area. This paper presents the results of a descriptive study that pursues to render a comprehensive image of health promotion efforts undertaken in rural Transylvania, Romania. This descriptive analysis is conducted on data extracted from a larger dataset, obtained through a study which pursues a cross-sectional design, with a quantitative strategy of inquiry on access to health information in rural Transylvania. The instrument used for data collection is a questionnaire administered by telephone to a sample of medical doctors working in rural medical offices in the studied area (n = 226). Results show overall low rates of health promotion activities in the area, as well as low levels of collaboration with other local actors. In the context of behavioral risk factors, this study clearly shows the need of targeted health promotion activities in rural Transylvania in order to improve health outcomes and mitigate health disparities.

  12. Promoting health and preventing disease: an international perspective on youth health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutbeam, D

    1997-05-01

    To advocate strategies to promote the health of young people that include action to create supportive social and economic conditions, alongside more traditional actions to strengthen individual capacity to protect health. Analysis of different strategies for youth health promotion from different countries, including education, public policies, laws, and regulations that protect young people from exploitation and physical harm, and enhance their capacity to make healthy lifestyle choices. Access to education and the promotion of basic literacy are, in their own right, important public health goals. Beyond this, efforts to promote health through schools should focus on the creation of an integrated and mutually reinforcing set of experiences for young people, including classroom health education, the creation of a safe and healthy physical environment, and provision of appropriate school health services. The creation of supportive social and economic conditions are also essential, and require political action through the development of public policy. Such policies include restricting access to tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs, improving access to essential health services; and regulation of economic exploitation of young people. Health promotion is inherently political. Health professionals have to find ways to become more effective political advocates for young people. This should be reflected in the education of health professionals and educators, and in the work of agencies and professional associations.

  13. Nurses' roles in health promotion practice: an integrative review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kemppainen, Virpi; Tossavainen, Kerttu; Turunen, Hannele

    2013-01-01

    Nurses play an important role in promoting public health. Traditionally, the focus of health promotion by nurses has been on disease prevention and changing the behaviour of individuals with respect to their health...

  14. A Feminist Approach to Health Promotion for Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; Ploeg, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    Uses a feminist analysis to critique health promotion, identifying gender, class, race, and age biases that influence older women's health and recommends changes in health promotion theory, research, practice, and education. (Author/JOW)

  15. Testing a pedagogy for promoting historical contextualization in classrooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijgen, Tim; Holthuis, Paul; van Boxtel, Carla; van de Grift, Wim

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and testing of a pedagogy aimed at promoting students’ ability to perform historical contextualization. Promoting historical contextualization was conceptualized as three different pedagogical principles: 1) the awareness of the consequences of a present-oriented

  16. Gender, occupation, and promotion to management in the nonprofit sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, M.; Heyse, L.; Mills, M.

    2014-01-01

    Although one can assume the work values within nonprofit organizations promote gender equality in promotion decisions, there is preliminary evidence that in the nonprofit sector women are underrepresented in higher management positions. Whereas the mechanisms resulting in underrepresentation of

  17. Bioactive foods in promoting health: probiotics and prebiotics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Ronald R; Preedy, Victor R

    2010-01-01

    "Bioactive Foods in Health Promotion: Probiotics and Prebiotics brings together experts working on the different aspects of supplementation, foods, and bacterial preparations, in health promotion and disease prevention, to provide...

  18. Impact of promotion children’s savings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Ribić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Promotion activities directed at specific target groups can vary according to their type and intensity. In modern banking, where competition is very strong, it is the task of marketing experts to decide which activities to push in a specific situation depending on bank interests and financial resources available. Bank marketing in current circumstances is gaining another dimension, not only because the clients who use banking services are becoming more educated and sophisticated but also due to new legislation, intended to protect their best interests. High competition creates strong pressures on the market so banks and marketing experts must be able to produce untraditional and innovative solutions in response to a greater challenge. Through banking history, insufficient attention was paid to children entirely for the reasons of very low profitability in this segment. This area was poorly explored so there are very few researches of the activities aimed at promoting the banking products created especially for children. This paper includes a review of the researches available to the author that focus on the marketing activities directed at children through the historical development of the banking sector. By using case study methods, it describes the way in which two promotional campaigns were planned, and analyzes the course of their performance. The chosen campaigns show similarities in some elements but also certain differences that indicate the complexity of the problem of their approach, along with the need to apply greater creativity. The key elements for the (lack of success in the campaigns with children as the target groups are identified as well as what needs to be done in order to maintain the banking market share and reinforce the bank’s image.

  19. KSHV Rta promoter specification and viral reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eGuito

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are obligate intracellular pathogens whose biological success depends upon replication and packaging of viral genomes, and transmission of progeny viruses to new hosts. The biological success of herpesviruses is enhanced by their ability to reproduce their genomes without producing progeny viruses or killing the host cells, a process called latency. Latency permits a herpesvirus to remain undetected in its animal host for decades while maintaining the potential to reactivate, or switch, to a productive life cycle when host conditions are conducive to generating viral progeny. Direct interactions between many host and viral molecules are implicated in controlling herpesviral reactivation, suggesting complex biological networks that control the decision. One viral protein that is necessary and sufficient to switch latent KSHV into the lytic infection cycle is called K-Rta. Rta is a transcriptional activator that specifies promoters by binding direct DNA directly and interacting with cellular proteins. Among these cellular proteins, binding of K-Rta to RBP-Jk is essential for viral reactivation.. In contrast to the canonical model for Notch signaling, RBP-Jk is not uniformly and constitutively bound to the latent KSHV genome, but rather is recruited to DNA by interactions with K-Rta. Stimulation of RBP-Jk DNA binding requires high affinity binding of Rta to repetitive and palindromic CANT DNA repeats in promoters, and formation of ternary complexes with RBP-Jk. However, while K-Rta expression is necessary for initiating KSHV reactivation, K-Rta’s role as the switch is inefficient. Many factors modulate K-Rta’s function, suggesting that KSHV reactivation can be significantly regulated post-Rta expression and challenging the notion that herpesviral reactivation is bistable. This review analyzes rapidly evolving research on KSHV K-Rta to consider the role of K-Rta promoter specification in regulating the progression of KSHV reactivation.

  20. Temporal Proximity Promotes Integration of Overlapping Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeithamova, Dagmar; Preston, Alison R

    2017-08-01

    Events with overlapping elements can be encoded as two separate representations or linked into an integrated representation, yet we know little about the conditions that promote one form of representation over the other. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the proximity of overlapping events would increase the probability of integration. Participants first established memories for house-object and face-object pairs; half of the pairs were learned 24 hr before an fMRI session, and the other half 30 min before the session. During scanning, participants encoded object-object pairs that overlapped with the initial pairs acquired on the same or prior day. Participants were also scanned as they made inference judgments about the relationships among overlapping pairs learned on the same or different day. Participants were more accurate and faster when inferring relationships among memories learned on the same day relative to those acquired across days, suggesting that temporal proximity promotes integration. Evidence for reactivation of existing memories-as measured by a visual content classifier-was equivalent during encoding of overlapping pairs from the two temporal conditions. In contrast, evidence for integration-as measured by a mnemonic strategy classifier from an independent study [Richter, F. R., Chanales, A. J. H., & Kuhl, B. A. Predicting the integration of overlapping memories by decoding mnemonic processing states during learning. Neuroimage, 124, 323-335, 2016]-was greater for same-day overlapping events, paralleling the behavioral results. During inference itself, activation patterns further differentiated when participants were making inferences about events acquired on the same day versus across days. These findings indicate that temporal proximity of events promotes integration and further influences the neural mechanisms engaged during inference.

  1. Health promoting factors in public work places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ylva Fjell

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Objectives: The main objective of this study was to explore potential health-promoting work factors and their specific associations with self-rated general and mental health, life satisfaction, and low levels of musculoskeletal pain among women and men employed in the public sector.

    Methods: A questionnaire based survey was conducted among 2523 public employees (87% women in 124 work places. The workplaces were distributed between five occupational sectors: the provincial hospital, schools, home care services, domestic/catering, and administrative services. The response rate was 92%. Analyses of variance were used to compare the mean scores of the groups. Spearman’s rank correlation test was used to assess the associations between the work factors and the health measures.

    Results:Many of the potential health promoting work factors were associated with the measures of self-rated health. However the correlations differed according to both gender and occupational sector. The main differences between the sectors were the characteristics of decision latitude-influence and learningdevelopment with the best conditions in the administrative services and schools, and the worst in home care services. Men rated higher in decision latitude-influence than women and had significantly better “opportunities to learn new and to develop in the profession”. Having enough time to complete the work tasks had the highest overall correlation with good health. In addition good relations with and support of supervisors were crucial for well-being among the employees.

    Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of high levels of decision latitude-influence, learningdevelopment, and a fair and impartial attitude among supervisors for the promotion of good health in public work places.

  2. How music may promote healthy behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batt-Rawden, Kari; Tellnes, Gunnar

    2011-03-01

    Using music to promote healthy behaviour may enhance coping mechanisms in spite of illness. 1) To explore the role and significance of music and musicking in the life of men and women with long-term illnesses in or through different life phases, situations, events, issues and contexts. 2) To increase knowledge on how participants, through exposure to and exchange of new musical materials and practices, may learn to use music as a ''technology of self '' in relation to health promotion and rehabilitation. This exploratory study sought to instigate narratives about music's role in supporting health through a pragmatic synthesis of elements of action-research, ethnography and grounded theory. Music CDs were conceived as an interactive and dialectical tool. This longitudinal study involved eight in-depth ethnographic interviews per participant, involving nine men and 13 women, aged between 35 and 65 with long-term illnesses. Music is a motivational device for moving our bodies, releasing anger or aggression and even transcending pain. Personal preferences in music seemed to be important for these participants while exercising, substantiated in the importance of well-being and pleasure in everyday activities and situations. This study has contributed to an increase in self-awareness and consciousness, well-being and health for the majority of the participants in the study. It has brought to the level of consciousness forms of ''expert'' practice that may otherwise have occurred tacitly. Implementation of future health promotion and rehabilitation programmes ought to strengthen their focus on musical, cultural and physical activity both at an individual level and within local communities.

  3. Exercise Promotes Healthy Aging of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartee, Gregory D; Hepple, Russell T; Bamman, Marcas M

    2016-01-01

    Primary aging is the progressive and inevitable process of bodily deterioration during adulthood. In skeletal muscle, primary aging causes defective mitochondrial energetics and reduced muscle mass. Secondary aging refers to additional deleterious structural and functional age-related changes...... caused by diseases and lifestyle factors. Secondary aging can exacerbate deficits in mitochondrial function and muscle mass, concomitant with the development of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. Exercise opposes deleterious effects of secondary aging by preventing the decline in mitochondrial...... respiration, mitigating aging-related loss of muscle mass and enhancing insulin sensitivity. This review focuses on mechanisms by which exercise promotes "healthy aging" by inducing modifications in skeletal muscle....

  4. Phytotherapy natural products: Promotional mix features

    OpenAIRE

    Dugalić Sretenka L.

    2002-01-01

    Development of products takes into account organized and controlled planning of changes of inner self and toward the environment. That means the creation of an active force, which should bring changes in other words, it should change the person who participates in the process of creation or in the consumption of the product. It tried to induce customers to purchase through methodologies and promotion strategies which stand to our sen'ice by the change in the way of thinking of the medical and...

  5. Promoting Spontaneous Second Harmonic Generation through Organogelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, A Belén; Aparicio, Fátima; Faour, Lara; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Morille, Yohann; Allain, Magali; Franco, Santiago; Andreu, Raquel; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Gindre, Denis; Canevet, David; Sallé, Marc

    2016-07-27

    An organogelator based on the Disperse Red nonlinear optical chromophore was synthesized according to a simple and efficient three-step procedure. The supramolecular gel organization leads to xerogels which display a spontaneous second harmonic generation (SHG) response without any need for preprocessing, and this SHG activity appears to be stable over several months. These findings, based on an intrinsic structural approach, are supported by favorable intermolecular supramolecular interactions, which promote a locally non-centrosymmetric NLO-active organization. This is in sharp contrast with most materials designed for SHG purposes, which generally require the use of expensive or heavy-to-handle external techniques for managing the dipoles' alignment.

  6. Loyalty Card Promotional Activity in Budget Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty card is one of the most commonly used promotional activities in business. Thus far, there are some research has been done on luxury hotel, but very few researches are on budget hotel. So, the purpose of the thesis is finding out the Swedish customers’ attitude and behavior towards budget hotel’s loyalty card; getting to know what factors influence Swedish customers’ response towards the loyalty card and budget hotels. In the thesis, the main research problem is “How do Swedish custome...

  7. Cyclodextrin promotes atherosclerosis regression via macrophage reprogramming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease linked to elevated blood cholesterol concentrations. Despite ongoing advances in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Continuous retention of apolipoprotein B...... that increases cholesterol solubility in preventing and reversing atherosclerosis. We showed that CD treatment of murine atherosclerosis reduced atherosclerotic plaque size and CC load and promoted plaque regression even with a continued cholesterol-rich diet. Mechanistically, CD increased oxysterol production...... of CD as well as for augmented reverse cholesterol transport. Because CD treatment in humans is safe and CD beneficially affects key mechanisms of atherogenesis, it may therefore be used clinically to prevent or treat human atherosclerosis....

  8. Promoting and supporting breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, J; Coombs, J

    2000-04-01

    The family physician can significantly influence a mother's decision to breast-feed. Prenatal support, hospital management and subsequent pediatric and maternal visits are all-important components of breast-feeding promotion. Prenatal encouragement increases breast-feeding rates and identifies potential problem areas. Hospital practices should focus on rooming-in, early and frequent breast-feeding, skilled support and avoidance of artificial nipples, pacifiers and formula. Infant follow-up should be two to four days postdischarge, with liberal use of referral and support groups, including lactation consultants and peer counselors.

  9. Promoting normal birth the easy way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidebotham, Mary

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing concern internationally about the continued rise in birth intervention. Caesarean section rates continue to rise within the international arena. Women are losing confidence in the birth process being natural and safe and often exhibit moderate to high levels of fear during pregnancy. Simultaneously midwives are in danger of losing their role as the guardians of normal birth. This paper presents an easy to follow, evidence based framework that midwives can use at a personal or organisational level to promote normal birth and support women to move back to feeling excited anticipation about birth.

  10. PROMOTION AND MARKETING OF BUCHAREST - PRAGUE TOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrica STEFAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its theme the marketing and promotion of tourism circuit between Bucharest and Prague, unique area in the world because there is a harmonious combination of potential natural and cultural values and historical tourism which attracts many tourists. Also due to the geographical potential tourists coming to Prague can practice sports activities both winter and summer.Both natural resources and the human touch are important sights to attract more tourists in the area, and in Prague, the potential exists.

  11. Plant growth promotion and Penicillium citrinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choo Yeon-Sik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endophytic fungi are known plant symbionts. They produce a variety of beneficial metabolites for plant growth and survival, as well as defend their hosts from attack of certain pathogens. Coastal dunes are nutrient deficient and offer harsh, saline environment for the existing flora and fauna. Endophytic fungi may play an important role in plant survival by enhancing nutrient uptake and producing growth-promoting metabolites such as gibberellins and auxins. We screened roots of Ixeris repenes (L. A. Gray, a common dune plant, for the isolation of gibberellin secreting endophytic fungi. Results We isolated 15 endophytic fungi from the roots of Ixeris repenes and screened them for growth promoting secondary metabolites. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 gave maximum plant growth when applied to waito-c rice and Atriplex gemelinii seedlings. Analysis of the culture filtrate of IR-3-3 showed the presence of physiologically active gibberellins, GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 (1.95 ng/ml, 3.83 ng/ml, 6.03 ng/ml and 2.35 ng/ml, respectively along with other physiologically inactive GA5, GA9, GA12, GA15, GA19, GA20 and, GA24. The plant growth promotion and gibberellin producing capacity of IR-3-3 was much higher than the wild type Gibberella fujikuroi, which was taken as control during present study. GA5, a precursor of bioactive GA3 was reported for the first time in fungi. The fungal isolate IR-3-3 was identified as a new strain of Penicillium citrinum (named as P. citrinum KACC43900 through phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA sequence. Conclusion Isolation of new strain of Penicillium citrinum from the sand dune flora is interesting as information on the presence of Pencillium species in coastal sand dunes is limited. The plant growth promoting ability of this fungal strain may help in conservation and revegetation of the rapidly eroding sand dune flora. Penicillium citrinum is already known for producing mycotoxin citrinin and cellulose digesting

  12. Promotion of HANARO Utilization for Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, J. M.; Kim, H. R.; Jun, B. J. (and others)

    2007-05-15

    To activate the HANARO utilization by expanding HANARO utilization fields, recruiting and training new users. In order to promote the HANARO utilization, the following activities have been performed. The neutron usage fee in HANARO. Achievements of HANARO utilization. Project for Activation of the Research using HANARO. HANARO Symposium. Survey of the HANARO User Satisfaction Index. Operation and Management of HANARO Server. Management of HANARO related committees. Training of HANARO users. Related activities of HANARO publicity. The related activities to activate HANARO utilization have been carried out successfully. This report summarized the detailed activities to activate the HANARO utilization. They will be useful for expanding HANARO utilization in the near future.

  13. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindqvist Kent

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Methods Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. Conclusion With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual

  14. What promotes sustainability in Safe Community programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, Cecilia; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent

    2009-01-08

    The theory and practice of safety promotion has traditionally focused on the safety of individuals. This study also includes systems, environments, and organizations. Safety promotion programmes are designed to support community health initiatives taking a bottom-up approach. This is a long-term and complex process. The aim of this study was to try to empirically identify factors that promote sustainability in the structures of programmes that are managed and coordinated by the local government. Four focus group sessions with local government politicians and administrators in designated Safe Communities were conducted and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Collaboration was found to be the basis for sustainability. Networks, enabling municipalities to exchange ideas, were reported to positively influence the programmes. Personal contacts rather than organizations themselves, determine whether collaboration is sustained. Participants reported an increase in cross-disciplinary collaboration among staff categories. Administrators and politicians were reported to collaborate well, which was perceived to speed up decision-making and thus to facilitate the programme work. Support from the politicians and the county council was seen as a prerequisite. Participants reported an increased willingness to share information between units, which, in their view, supports sustainability. A structure in which all local authorities' offices were located in close proximity to one another was considered to support collaboration. Appointing a public health coordinator responsible for the programme was seen as a way to strengthen the relational resources of the programme. With a public health coordinator, the 'external' negotiating power was concentrated in one person. Also, the 'internal' programme strength increased when the coordination was based on a bureaucratic function rather than on one individual. Increased relational resources facilitated the transfer of information

  15. Supermarket Competition through Price Promotions: A Cross Category Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Volpe, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    This study takes an important first step at quantifying the nature of competition between major supermarket chains through price promotions. Using data that covers virtually the entire product menus of supermarkets representing two major chains in 18 cities, I examine both the effect of direct competition on promotional intensity and the nature of promotional competition itself. In a counterintuitive finding, there appears to slightly less promotional activity in cities in which both chains c...

  16. Growth promoting effect of hyaluronan synthesis promoting substances on Japanese eel leptocephali.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kawakami

    Full Text Available Hyaluronans (HAs are glycosaminoglycans produced in the bodies of Anguilliform and Elopiform leptocephali, and play a role in metabolic energy. In mammals, HA synthesis-promoting substances (HASPS up-regulate the expression of HA synthase (HAS and increase the amount of HA in the body. In this study, Japanese eel leptocephali were fed a HASPS containing diet. We analyzed HAS1s and HAS2 expression, HA content, and their influence on growth. HASPS extracted from Grifola frondosa promoted HAS1s and HAS2 mRNA and HA content. Other than mammals, these results are first reported in vertebrate. Moreover, HASPS extracted from G. frondosa promoted leptocephalus growth. The relationship between growth and HA in the leptocephali is not yet clear. However, based on our results we hypothesize that HA is involved in the storage of energy, which is metabolized to sugars when needed for metabolic energy.

  17. Growth Promoting Effect of Hyaluronan Synthesis Promoting Substances on Japanese Eel Leptocephali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Yutaka; Nomura, Kazuharu; Tanaka, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronans (HAs) are glycosaminoglycans produced in the bodies of Anguilliform and Elopiform leptocephali, and play a role in metabolic energy. In mammals, HA synthesis-promoting substances (HASPS) up-regulate the expression of HA synthase (HAS) and increase the amount of HA in the body. In this study, Japanese eel leptocephali were fed a HASPS containing diet. We analyzed HAS1s and HAS2 expression, HA content, and their influence on growth. HASPS extracted from Grifola frondosa promoted HAS1s and HAS2 mRNA and HA content. Other than mammals, these results are first reported in vertebrate. Moreover, HASPS extracted from G. frondosa promoted leptocephalus growth. The relationship between growth and HA in the leptocephali is not yet clear. However, based on our results we hypothesize that HA is involved in the storage of energy, which is metabolized to sugars when needed for metabolic energy. PMID:24896609

  18. Subgenome parallel selection is associated with morphotype diversification and convergent crop domestication in Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Feng; Sun, Rifei; Hou, Xilin; Zheng, Hongkun; Zhang, Fenglan; Zhang, Yangyong; Liu, Bo; Liang, Jianli; Zhuang, Mu; Liu, Yunxia; Liu, Dongyuan; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Pingxia; Liu, Yumei; Lin, Ke; Bucher, Johan; Zhang, Ningwen; Wang, Yan; Wang, Hui; Deng, Jie; Liao, Yongcui; Wei, Keyun; Zhang, Xueming; Fu, Lixia; Hu, Yunyan; Liu, Jisheng; Cai, Chengcheng; Zhang, Shujiang; Zhang, Shifan; Li, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Jifang; Guo, Ning; Liu, Zhiyuan; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chao; Ma, Yuan; Zhang, Haijiao; Cui, Yang; Freeling, Micheal R.; Borm, Theo; Bonnema, Guusje; Wu, Jian; Wang, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Brassica species, including crops such as cabbage, turnip and oilseed, display enormous phenotypic variation. Brassica genomes have all undergone a whole-genome triplication (WGT) event with unknown effects on phenotype diversification. We resequenced 199 Brassica rapa and 119 Brassica oleracea

  19. Population genomic analysis reveals differential evolutionary histories and patterns of diversity across subgenomes and subpopulations of Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica napus (L.) is a crop of major economic importance that produces canola oil (seed), vegetables, fodder and animal meal. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources of this s...

  20. A consensus map in cultivated hexaploid oat reveals conserved grass synteny with substantial sub-genome rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexaploid oat (Avena sativa, 2n = 6x = 42) is a member of the Poaceae family with a very large genome (~13 Gb) containing 21 chromosome pairs: seven from each of two similar ancestral diploids (A and D) and seven from a more diverged ancestral diploid (C). Physical rearrangements among ancestral oat...

  1. SOX2 Inhibition Promotes Promoter Demethylation of CDX2 to Facilitate Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haijing; Jia, Yuchen; Li, Tao; Su, Bingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) is regarded as a premalignant lesion, conferring risks for gastric cancer development. An intestinal transcription factor, CDX2, plays a vital role in establishing and maintaining IM. SOX2, an HMG-box transcription factor, is expressed in normal gastric mucosa and downregulated in IM. Therefore, it is important to elucidate the mutual interaction of SOX2 and CDX2 in gastric IM. This study aims to evaluate the negative correlation between SOX2 and CDX2 in mRNA expression and promoter methylation and to illuminate the effect of SOX2 on the promoter methylation of CDX2. Immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to evaluate the expression and promoter methylation of SOX2 and CDX2 in IM tissues from patients. SOX2 knockdown and CDX2 overexpression were performed in GES-1 cells to further clarify the relationship between SOX2 and CDX2. A negative correlation between SOX2 and CDX2 was found in 120 gastric IM specimens. Additionally, significant DNA demethylation of CDX2 promoter in clinical IM specimens was observed concomitantly with partial methylation of the SOX2 promoter. Furthermore, SOX2 knockdown in GES-1 cells triggered promoter demethylation of CDX2. Finally, the phenotype shift of gastric intestinal metaplasia in GES-1 cells, marked by MUC2 expression, was effectively induced by the combination of SOX2 RNAi and CDX2 overexpression. Aberrant DNA methylation of SOX2 and CDX2 genes contributes to the development of IM. Notably, SOX2 may play a role in establishing and maintaining the methylation status of the CDX2 gene in gastric tissues and cells.

  2. 77 FR 15605 - Mobile Commerce and Personalization Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... 111 Mobile Commerce and Personalization Promotion AGENCY: Postal Service TM . ACTION: Final rule... the price reduction for the mobile commerce and personalization promotion, and the revised mailing... Commerce and Personalization Promotion 3.1 Program Description and Scope [Revise 3.1 by incorporating the...

  3. Book Promotion Efforts in Select Nigerian Newspapers Okere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Afam

    to promote their books by content analyzing 164 entries on book promotion in three national newspapers for a four-year .... Promotion delivers a brand marketing message to consumers' television screens, radios, in the stores where ... success of a book and even the publisher image. An essential marketing technique in.

  4. Ethical issues in public health promotion | Gardner | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health promotion is a key element of public health practice. Among strategies aiming to deal with public health problems, health promotion purports to help people achieve better health. Health promotion can significantly alter people's lifestyles, and three main ethical issues relate to it: (i) what are the ultimate goals for ...

  5. 37 CFR 4.1 - Complaints regarding invention promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... invention promoters. 4.1 Section 4.1 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL COMPLAINTS REGARDING INVENTION PROMOTERS § 4.1 Complaints regarding invention promoters. These regulations govern the Patent and Trademark Office's (Office...

  6. BioBrick Promoter Measurement Kit Instruction Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Instructions for inserting a test promoter into the measurement kit plasmid for characterization as well as instructions for measuring the activity of the test promoter in Standard Promoter Units (SPUs). These instructions were distributed to the teams participating in the International Genetically Engineered Machines competition (iGEM).

  7. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...

  8. Health Promotion in Schools: A Scoping Review of Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Roy; Pearson, Mark; Anderson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are an important setting for a wide variety of activities to promote health. The purpose of this paper is to map the different types of health promotion programmes and activities in schools, to estimate the amount of published evaluations of health promotion within UK schools, and to identify any provisional "candidate…

  9. 22 CFR 101.2 - Promotion of American interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Promotion of American interests. 101.2 Section... FUNCTIONS § 101.2 Promotion of American interests. Officers of the Foreign Service shall further the.... (g) By taking appropriate steps to facilitate the promotion of such import trade into the United...

  10. 7 CFR 987.33 - Research and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 987.33 Section 987.33... promotion. (a) The Committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects, including marketing promotion and paid advertising...

  11. 5 CFR 531.214 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Setting pay upon promotion. 531.214... Changes § 531.214 Setting pay upon promotion. (a) General. An agency must set an employee's payable rate of basic pay upon promotion following the rules in this section, consistent with 5 U.S.C. 5334(b...

  12. 7 CFR 930.48 - Research, market development and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research, market development and promotion. 930.48... Order Regulating Handling Research, Market Development and Promotion § 930.48 Research, market development and promotion. The Board, with the approval of the Secretary, may establish or provide for the...

  13. Health Promotion Education Politics and Schooling: The Greek Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifanti, Amalia A.; Argyriou, Andreas A.; Kalofonos, Haralabos P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the politics of health promotion as a continual process of public health globally and locally. Our main objective in this study is to present the health promotion education initiatives taken by the World Health Organization (WHO) at an international level and also to examine the politics of health promotion in Greece,…

  14. 7 CFR 966.48 - Research and promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and promotion. 966.48 Section 966.48... Regulating Handling Research and Development § 966.48 Research and promotion. The committee may, with the... research, marketing research and development projects, and marketing promotion including paid advertising...

  15. 7 CFR 987.104 - Major marketing promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major marketing promotion. 987.104 Section 987.104... IN RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules Definitions § 987.104 Major marketing promotion. A major marketing promotion program is one requiring the expenditure of more than $500 of Committee...

  16. Archaeal promoter architecture and mechanism of gene activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Nan; Ao, Xiang; Liang, Yun Xiang

    2011-01-01

    element named ara box directing arabinose-inducible expression and the basal promoter element TATA, serving as the binding site for the TATA-binding protein. Strikingly, these promoters possess a modular structure that allows an essentially inactive basal promoter to be strongly activated. The invoked...

  17. Promotion--A Controllable Marketing Tool of Continuing Education Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramblett, Larry R.

    1974-01-01

    Promotion is a controllable marketing tool of continuing education and extension administration and should be treated as such. By analyzing current promotional efforts and planning future promotional activities, the extension manager can communicate with his market with more efficiency and greater effectiveness. (Author)

  18. 78 FR 53728 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade... Promotion (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the Corporation for Travel Promotion on... will be selecting four individuals with the appropriate expertise and experience from specific sectors...

  19. 78 FR 44531 - Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... International Trade Administration Corporation for Travel Promotion (dba Brand USA) AGENCY: International Trade... Promotion (dba Brand USA). The purpose of the Board is to guide the Corporation for Travel Promotion on... expertise and experience from specific sectors of the travel and tourism industry to serve on the Board as...

  20. 5 CFR 9701.353 - Setting pay upon promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... upon promotion. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, upon an employee's promotion, DHS must provide an increase in the employee's rate of basic pay equal to at least 8 percent. The rate of... section in the case of— (1) An employee promoted from an Entry/Developmental band to a Full Performance...