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Sample records for subfamily reveals expanded

  1. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matus, José Tomás; Aquea, Felipe; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2008-01-01

    Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions. PMID:18647406

  2. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

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    Arce-Johnson Patricio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions.

  3. Functional interactome of Aquaporin 1 sub-family reveals new physiological functions in Arabidopsis Thaliana

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    Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins found in plasma membranes and intercellular membranes of different cellular compartments, facilitate the water flux, solutes and gases across the cellular plasma membranes. The present study highlights the sub-family plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP predicting the 3-D structure and analyzing the functional interactome of it homologs. PIP1 homologs integrate with many proteins with different plant physiological roles in Arabidopsis thaliana including; PIP1A and PIP1B: facilitate the transport of water, diffusion of amino acids and/or peptides from the vacuolar compartment to the cytoplasm, play a role in the control of cell turgor and cell expansion and involved in root water uptake respectively. In addition we found that PIP1B plays a defensive role against Pseudomonas syringae infection through the interaction with the plasma membrane Rps2 protein. Another substantial function of PIP1C via the interaction with PIP2E is the response to nematode infection. Generally, PIP1 sub-family interactome controlling many physiological processes in plant cell like; osmoregulation in plants under high osmotic stress such as under a high salt, response to nematode, facilitate the transport of water across cell membrane and regulation of floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  4. Molecular phylogeny of the highly diversified catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) reveals incongruences with morphological classification.

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    Covain, Raphaël; Fisch-Muller, Sonia; Oliveira, Claudio; Mol, Jan H; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I; Dray, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The Loricariinae belong to the Neotropical mailed catfish family Loricariidae, the most species-rich catfish family. Among loricariids, members of the Loricariinae are united by a long and flattened caudal peduncle and the absence of an adipose fin. Despite numerous studies of the Loricariidae, there is no comprehensive phylogeny of this morphologically highly diversified subfamily. To fill this gap, we present a molecular phylogeny of this group, including 350 representatives, based on the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes (8426 positions). The resulting phylogeny indicates that Loricariinae are distributed into two sister tribes: Harttiini and Loricariini. The Harttiini tribe, as classically defined, constitutes a paraphyletic assemblage and is here restricted to the three genera Harttia, Cteniloricaria, and Harttiella. Two subtribes are distinguished within Loricariini: Farlowellina and Loricariina. Within Farlowellina, the nominal genus formed a paraphyletic group, as did Sturisoma and Sturisomatichthys. Within Loricariina, Loricaria, Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria are also paraphyletic. To solve these issues, and given the lack of clear morphological diagnostic features, we propose here to synonymize several genera (Quiritixys with Harttia; East Andean members of Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria with Rhadinoloricaria; Ixinandria, Hemiloricaria, Fonchiiichthys, and Leliella with Rineloricaria), to restrict others (Crossoloricaria, and Sturisomatichthys to the West Andean members, and Sturisoma to the East Andean species), and to revalidate the genus Proloricaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sook; Cestaro, Alessandro; Troggio, Michela; Main, Dorrie; Zheng, Ping; Cho, Ilhyung; Folta, Kevin M; Sosinski, Bryon; Abbott, Albert; Celton, Jean-Marc; Arús, Pere; Shulaev, Vladimir; Verde, Ignazio; Morgante, Michele; Rokhsar, Daniel; Velasco, Riccardo; Sargent, Daniel James

    2012-04-04

    Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA) algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  6. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Pavia); (Lund); (Southern Research)

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  7. Whole genome comparisons of Fragaria, Prunus and Malus reveal different modes of evolution between Rosaceous subfamilies

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    Jung Sook

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rosaceae include numerous economically important and morphologically diverse species. Comparative mapping between the member species in Rosaceae have indicated some level of synteny. Recently the whole genome of three crop species, peach, apple and strawberry, which belong to different genera of the Rosaceae family, have been sequenced, allowing in-depth comparison of these genomes. Results Our analysis using the whole genome sequences of peach, apple and strawberry identified 1399 orthologous regions between the three genomes, with a mean length of around 100 kb. Each peach chromosome showed major orthology mostly to one strawberry chromosome, but to more than two apple chromosomes, suggesting that the apple genome went through more chromosomal fissions in addition to the whole genome duplication after the divergence of the three genera. However, the distribution of contiguous ancestral regions, identified using the multiple genome rearrangements and ancestors (MGRA algorithm, suggested that the Fragaria genome went through a greater number of small scale rearrangements compared to the other genomes since they diverged from a common ancestor. Using the contiguous ancestral regions, we reconstructed a hypothetical ancestral genome for the Rosaceae 7 composed of nine chromosomes and propose the evolutionary steps from the ancestral genome to the extant Fragaria, Prunus and Malus genomes. Conclusion Our analysis shows that different modes of evolution may have played major roles in different subfamilies of Rosaceae. The hypothetical ancestral genome of Rosaceae and the evolutionary steps that lead to three different lineages of Rosaceae will facilitate our understanding of plant genome evolution as well as have a practical impact on knowledge transfer among member species of Rosaceae.

  8. Plastome-Wide Nucleotide Substitution Rates Reveal Accelerated Rates in Papilionoideae and Correlations with Genome Features Across Legume Subfamilies.

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    Schwarz, Erika N; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Weng, Mao-Lun; Khiyami, Mohammad A; Sabir, Jamal S M; Hajarah, Nahid H; Alharbi, Njud S; Rabah, Samar O; Jansen, Robert K

    2017-04-01

    This study represents the most comprehensive plastome-wide comparison of nucleotide substitution rates across the three subfamilies of Fabaceae: Caesalpinioideae, Mimosoideae, and Papilionoideae. Caesalpinioid and mimosoid legumes have large, unrearranged plastomes compared with papilionoids, which exhibit varying levels of rearrangement including the loss of the inverted repeat (IR) in the IR-lacking clade (IRLC). Using 71 genes common to 39 legume taxa representing all the three subfamilies, we show that papilionoids consistently have higher nucleotide substitution rates than caesalpinioids and mimosoids, and rates in the IRLC papilionoids are generally higher than those in the IR-containing papilionoids. Unsurprisingly, this pattern was significantly correlated with growth habit as most papilionoids are herbaceous, whereas caesalpinioids and mimosoids are largely woody. Both nonsynonymous (dN) and synonymous (dS) substitution rates were also correlated with several biological features including plastome size and plastomic rearrangements such as the number of inversions and indels. In agreement with previous reports, we found that genes in the IR exhibit between three and fourfold reductions in the substitution rates relative to genes within the large single-copy or small single-copy regions. Furthermore, former IR genes in IR-lacking taxa exhibit accelerated rates compared with genes contained in the IR.

  9. Expression analysis of two gene subfamilies encoding the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia reveals the major transport functions of this enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriau, L; Michelet, B; Bogaerts, P; Lambert, L; Michel, A; Oufattole, M; Boutry, M

    1999-07-01

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase couples ATP hydrolysis to proton transport, thereby establishing the driving force for solute transport across the plasma membrane. In Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, this enzyme is encoded by at least nine pma (plasma membrane H+-ATPase) genes. Four of these are classified into two gene subfamilies, pma1-2-3 and pma4, which are the most highly expressed in plant species. We have isolated genomic clones for pma2 and pma4. Mapping of their transcript 5' end revealed the presence of a long leader that contained small open reading frames, regulatory features typical of other pma genes. The gusA reporter gene was then used to determine the expression of pma2, pma3 and pma4 in N. tabacum. These data, together with those obtained previously for pma1, led to the following conclusions. (i) The four pma-gusA genes were all expressed in root, stem, leaf and flower organs, but each in a cell-type specific manner. Expression in these organs was confirmed at the protein level, using subfamily-specific antibodies. (ii) pma4-gusA was expressed in many cell types and notably in root hair and epidermis, in companion cells, and in guard cells, indicating that in N. plumbaginifolia the same H+-ATPase isoform might be involved in mineral nutrition, phloem loading and control of stomata aperture. (iii) The second gene subfamily is composed, in N. plumbaginifolia, of a single gene (pma4) with a wide expression pattern and, in Arabidopsis thaliana, of three genes (aha1, aha2, aha3), at least two of them having a more restrictive expression pattern. (iv) Some cell types expressed pma2 and pma4 at the same time, which encode H+-ATPases with different enzymatic properties.

  10. Mapping evaporative water loss in desert passerines reveals an expanding threat of lethal dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Thomas P; Mutiibwa, Denis; Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Talbot, William A; O'Neill, Jacqueline J; McKechnie, Andrew E; Wolf, Blair O

    2017-02-28

    Extreme high environmental temperatures produce a variety of consequences for wildlife, including mass die-offs. Heat waves are increasing in frequency, intensity, and extent, and are projected to increase further under climate change. However, the spatial and temporal dynamics of die-off risk are poorly understood. Here, we examine the effects of heat waves on evaporative water loss (EWL) and survival in five desert passerine birds across the southwestern United States using a combination of physiological data, mechanistically informed models, and hourly geospatial temperature data. We ask how rates of EWL vary with temperature across species; how frequently, over what areas, and how rapidly lethal dehydration occurs; how EWL and die-off risk vary with body mass; and how die-off risk is affected by climate warming. We find that smaller-bodied passerines are subject to higher rates of mass-specific EWL than larger-bodied counterparts and thus encounter potentially lethal conditions much more frequently, over shorter daily intervals, and over larger geographic areas. Warming by 4 °C greatly expands the extent, frequency, and intensity of dehydration risk, and introduces new threats for larger passerine birds, particularly those with limited geographic ranges. Our models reveal that increasing air temperatures and heat wave occurrence will potentially have important impacts on the water balance, daily activity, and geographic distribution of arid-zone birds. Impacts may be exacerbated by chronic effects and interactions with other environmental changes. This work underscores the importance of acute risks of high temperatures, particularly for small-bodied species, and suggests conservation of thermal refugia and water sources.

  11. Mystery Montage: A Holistic, Visual, and Kinesthetic Process for Expanding Horizons and Revealing the Core of a Teaching Philosophy

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    Ennis, Kim; Priebe, Carly; Sharipova, Mayya; West, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Revealing the core of a teaching philosophy is the key to a concise and meaningful philosophy statement, but it can be an elusive goal. This paper offers a visual, kinesthetic, and holistic process for expanding the horizons of self-reflection, self-analysis, and self-knowledge. Mystery montage, a variation of visual mapping, storyboarding, and…

  12. Tetrahymena metallothioneins fall into two discrete subfamilies.

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    Silvia Díaz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Metallothioneins are ubiquitous small, cysteine-rich, multifunctional proteins which can bind heavy metals.We report the results of phylogenetic and gene expression analyses that include two new Tetrahymena thermophila metallothionein genes (MTT3 and MTT5. Sequence alignments of all known Tetrahymena metallothioneins have allowed us to rationalize the structure of these proteins. We now formally subdivide the known metallothioneins from the ciliate genus Tetrahymena into two well defined subfamilies, 7a and 7b, based on phylogenetic analysis, on the pattern of clustering of Cys residues, and on the pattern of inducibility by the heavy metals Cd and Cu. Sequence alignment also reveals a remarkably regular, conserved and hierarchical modular structure of all five subfamily 7a MTs, which include MTT3 and MTT5. The former has three modules, while the latter has only two. Induction levels of the three T. thermophila genes were determined using quantitative real time RT-PCR. Various stressors (including heavy metals brought about dramatically different fold-inductions for each gene; MTT5 showed the highest fold-induction. Conserved DNA motifs with potential regulatory significance were identified, in an unbiased way, upstream of the start codons of subfamily 7a MTs. EST evidence for alternative splicing in the 3' UTR of the MTT5 mRNA with potential regulatory activity is reported.The small number and remarkably regular structure of Tetrahymena MTs, coupled with the experimental tractability of this model organism for studies of in vivo function, make it an attractive system for the experimental dissection of the roles, structure/function relationships, regulation of gene expression, and adaptive evolution of these proteins, as well as for the development of biotechnological applications for the environmental monitoring of toxic substances.

  13. Structures of Adnectin/Protein Complexes Reveal an Expanded Binding Footprint

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    Ramamurthy, Vidhyashankar; Krystek, Jr., Stanley R.; Bush, Alexander; Wei, Anzhi; Emanuel, Stuart L.; Gupta, Ruchira Das; Janjua, Ahsen; Cheng, Lin; Murdock, Melissa; Abramczyk, Bozena; Cohen, Daniel; Lin, Zheng; Morin, Paul; Davis, Jonathan H.; Dabritz, Michael; McLaughlin, Douglas C.; Russo, Katie A.; Chao, Ginger; Wright, Martin C.; Jenny, Victoria A.; Engle, Linda J.; Furfine, Eric; Sheriff, Steven (BMS)

    2014-10-02

    Adnectins are targeted biologics derived from the tenth type III domain of human fibronectin ({sup 10}Fn3), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Target-specific binders are selected from libraries generated by diversifying the three {sup 10}Fn3 loops that are analogous to the complementarity determining regions of antibodies. The crystal structures of two Adnectins were determined, each in complex with its therapeutic target, EGFR or IL-23. Both Adnectins bind different epitopes than those bound by known monoclonal antibodies. Molecular modeling suggests that some of these epitopes might not be accessible to antibodies because of the size and concave shape of the antibody combining site. In addition to interactions from the Adnectin diversified loops, residues from the N terminus and/or the {beta} strands interact with the target proteins in both complexes. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis confirmed the calculated binding energies of these {beta} strand interactions, indicating that these nonloop residues can expand the available binding footprint.

  14. Social phenotype extended to communities: expanded multilevel social selection analysis reveals fitness consequences of interspecific interactions.

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    Campobello, Daniela; Hare, James F; Sarà, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes. Here, we propose a novel social selection based approach integrating the role of all social interactions at the community level. We extended multilevel selection analysis by including a term accounting for the group phenotype of heterospecifics. We analyzed nest activity as a model social trait common to two species, the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and jackdaw (Corvus monedula), nesting in either single- or mixed-species colonies. By recording reproductive outcome as a measure of relative fitness, our results reveal an asymmetric system wherein only jackdaw breeding performance was affected by the activity phenotypes of both conspecific and heterospecific neighbors. Our model incorporating heterospecific social phenotypes is applicable to animal communities where interacting species share a common social trait, thus allowing an assessment of the selection pressure imposed by interspecific interactions in nature. Finally, we discuss the potential role of ecological limitations accounting for random or preferential assortments among interspecific social phenotypes, and the implications of such processes to community evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. The PANTHER database of protein families, subfamilies, functions and pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Mi, Huaiyu; Lazareva-Ulitsky, Betty; Loo, Rozina; Kejariwal, Anish; Vandergriff, Jody; Rabkin, Steven; Guo, Nan; Muruganujan, Anushya; Doremieux, Olivier; Campbell, Michael J.; Kitano, Hiroaki; Thomas, Paul D.

    2004-01-01

    PANTHER is a large collection of protein families that have been subdivided into functionally related subfamilies, using human expertise. These subfamilies model the divergence of specific functions within protein families, allowing more accurate association with function (ontology terms and pathways), as well as inference of amino acids important for functional specificity. Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are built for each family and subfamily for classifying additional protein sequences. The l...

  16. Taxonomic Study of the Subfamily Lycorininae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae from Korea

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    Jong-Wook Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean species of the subfamily Lycorininae Cushman & Rohwer are reviewed. This subfamily along with three species, Lycorina triangulifera Holmgren, 1859, L. spilonotae Chao, 1980, and L. ruficornis Kasparyan, 2007, are reported for the first time from Korea. In this genus, five species have been reported from the Eastern Palaearctic region, six species from China and two species from Japan. Some species of this subfamily is known as parasitoids of Crambidae and Tortricidae. We report three newly recorded species from Korea, Lycorina triangulifera, L. spilonotae, and L. ruficornis, and provide diagnoses with photographs of lycorinine species and a key to the Korean species.

  17. Plastid Genome Evolution in the Early-Diverging Legume Subfamily Cercidoideae (Fabaceae

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    Yin-Huan Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Cercidoideae is an early-branching legume lineage, which consists of 13 genera distributed in the tropical and warm temperate Northern Hemisphere. A previous study detected two plastid genomic variations in this subfamily, but the limited taxon sampling left the overall plastid genome (plastome diversification across the subfamily unaddressed, and phylogenetic relationships within this clade remained unresolved. Here, we assembled eight plastomes from seven Cercidoideae genera and conducted phylogenomic-comparative analyses in a broad evolutionary framework across legumes. The plastomes of Cercidoideae all exhibited a typical quadripartite structure with a conserved gene content typical of most angiosperm plastomes. Plastome size ranged from 151,705 to 165,416 bp, mainly due to the expansion and contraction of inverted repeat (IR regions. The order of genes varied due to the occurrence of several inversions. In Tylosema species, a plastome with a 29-bp IR-mediated inversion was found to coexist with a canonical-type plastome, and the abundance of the two arrangements of isomeric molecules differed between individuals. Complete plastome data were much more efficient at resolving intergeneric relationships of Cercidoideae than the previously used selection of only a few plastid or nuclear loci. In sum, our study revealed novel insights into the structural diversification of plastomes in an early-branching legume lineage, and, thus, into the evolutionary trajectories of legume plastomes in general.

  18. Molecular Evolutionary Characterization of a V1R Subfamily Unique to Strepsirrhine Primates

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    Yoder, Anne D.; Chan, Lauren M.; dos Reis, Mario; Larsen, Peter A.; Campbell, C. Ryan; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Barrett, Meredith; Roos, Christian; Kappeler, Peter; Bielawski, Joseph; Yang, Ziheng

    2014-01-01

    Vomeronasal receptor genes have frequently been invoked as integral to the establishment and maintenance of species boundaries among mammals due to the elaborate one-to-one correspondence between semiochemical signals and neuronal sensory inputs. Here, we report the most extensive sample of vomeronasal receptor class 1 (V1R) sequences ever generated for a diverse yet phylogenetically coherent group of mammals, the tooth-combed primates (suborder Strepsirrhini). Phylogenetic analysis confirms our intensive sampling from a single V1R subfamily, apparently unique to the strepsirrhine primates. We designate this subfamily as V1Rstrep. The subfamily retains extensive repertoires of gene copies that descend from an ancestral gene duplication that appears to have occurred prior to the diversification of all lemuriform primates excluding the basal genus Daubentonia (the aye-aye). We refer to the descendent clades as V1Rstrep-α and V1Rstrep-β. Comparison of the two clades reveals different amino acid compositions corresponding to the predicted ligand-binding site and thus potentially to altered functional profiles between the two. In agreement with previous studies of the mouse lemur (genus, Microcebus), the majority of V1Rstrep gene copies appear to be intact and under strong positive selection, particularly within transmembrane regions. Finally, despite the surprisingly high number of gene copies identified in this study, it is nonetheless probable that V1R diversity remains underestimated in these nonmodel primates and that complete characterization will be limited until high-coverage assembled genomes are available. PMID:24398377

  19. Correlation between Ureaplasma subgroup 2 and genitourinary tract disease outcomes revealed by an expanded multilocus sequence typing (eMLST) scheme.

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    Zhang, Jun; Kong, Yingying; Ruan, Zhi; Huang, Jun; Song, Tiejun; Song, Jingjuan; Jiang, Yan; Yu, Yunsong; Xie, Xinyou

    2014-01-01

    The multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme of Ureaplasma based on four housekeeping genes (ftsH, rpL22, valS, and thrS) was described in our previous study; here we introduced an expanded MLST (eMLST) scheme with improved discriminatory power, which was developed by adding two putative virulence genes (ureG and mba-np1) to the original MLST scheme. To evaluate the discriminatory power of eMLST, a total of 14 reference strains of Ureaplasma serovars and 269 clinical strains (134 isolated from symptomatic patients and 135 obtained from asymptomatic persons) were investigated. Our study confirmed that all 14 serotype strains could successfully be differentiated into 14 eMLST STs (eSTs), while some of them could not even be differentiated by the MLST, and a total of 136 eSTs were identified among the clinical isolates we investigated. In addition, phylogenetic analysis indicated that two genetically significantly distant clusters (cluster I and II) were revealed and most clinical isolates were located in cluster I. These findings were in accordance with and further support for the concept of two well-known genetic lineages (Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum) in our previous study. Interestingly, although both clusters were associated with clinical manifestation, the sub-group 2 of cluster II had pronounced and adverse effect on patients and might be a potential risk factor for clinical outcomes. In conclusion, the eMLST scheme offers investigators a highly discriminative typing tool that is capable for precise epidemiological investigations and clinical relevance of Ureaplasma.

  20. Correlation between Ureaplasma subgroup 2 and genitourinary tract disease outcomes revealed by an expanded multilocus sequence typing (eMLST scheme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available The multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme of Ureaplasma based on four housekeeping genes (ftsH, rpL22, valS, and thrS was described in our previous study; here we introduced an expanded MLST (eMLST scheme with improved discriminatory power, which was developed by adding two putative virulence genes (ureG and mba-np1 to the original MLST scheme. To evaluate the discriminatory power of eMLST, a total of 14 reference strains of Ureaplasma serovars and 269 clinical strains (134 isolated from symptomatic patients and 135 obtained from asymptomatic persons were investigated. Our study confirmed that all 14 serotype strains could successfully be differentiated into 14 eMLST STs (eSTs, while some of them could not even be differentiated by the MLST, and a total of 136 eSTs were identified among the clinical isolates we investigated. In addition, phylogenetic analysis indicated that two genetically significantly distant clusters (cluster I and II were revealed and most clinical isolates were located in cluster I. These findings were in accordance with and further support for the concept of two well-known genetic lineages (Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum in our previous study. Interestingly, although both clusters were associated with clinical manifestation, the sub-group 2 of cluster II had pronounced and adverse effect on patients and might be a potential risk factor for clinical outcomes. In conclusion, the eMLST scheme offers investigators a highly discriminative typing tool that is capable for precise epidemiological investigations and clinical relevance of Ureaplasma.

  1. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  2. Trichomes morphology as a taxonomic marker in the subfamily heliotropioideae (boraginaceae from Pakistan and Kashmir)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, A.

    2009-01-01

    Trichomes morphology of the subfamily heliotropioideae (Boraginaceae representing by 18 spectes has been examined by light and scanning microscope. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae trichomes are generally eglandular rarely glandular as in Heliotropium ohioglossum Boiss. Within the subfamily Heliotropoideae 1-celled unicellular and two celled uniseriate trichomes are observed. Shape of the trichomes usually comical with pointed tims and distinct trichomes base. However few species have indistinct trichome base. The data is significantly useful at specific and generic level within the subfamily Heliotropioideae. (author)

  3. The tomato RLK superfamily: phylogeny and functional predictions about the role of the LRRII-RLK subfamily in antiviral defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tetsu; Deguchi, Michihito; Brustolini, Otávio J B; Santos, Anésia A; Silva, Fabyano F; Fontes, Elizabeth P B

    2012-12-02

    Receptor-like kinases (RLKs) play key roles during development and in responses to the environment. Despite the relevance of the RLK family and the completion of the tomato genome sequencing, the tomato RLK family has not yet been characterized, and a framework for functional predictions of the members of the family is lacking. To generate a complete list of all the members of the tomato RLK family, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using the Arabidopsis family as a template. A total of 647 RLKs were identified in the tomato genome, which were organized into the same subfamily clades as Arabidopsis RLKs. Only eight of 58 RLK subfamilies exhibited specific expansion/reduction compared to their Arabidopsis counterparts. We also characterized the LRRII-RLK family by phylogeny, genomic analysis, expression profile and interaction with the virulence factor from begomoviruses, the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP). The LRRII subfamily members from tomato and Arabidopsis were highly conserved in both sequence and structure. Nevertheless, the majority of the orthologous pairs did not display similar conservation in the gene expression profile, indicating that these orthologs may have diverged in function after speciation. Based on the fact that members of the Arabidopsis LRRII subfamily (AtNIK1, AtNIK2 and AtNIK3) interact with the begomovirus nuclear shuttle protein (NSP), we examined whether the tomato orthologs of NIK, BAK1 and NsAK genes interact with NSP of Tomato Yellow Spot Virus (ToYSV). The tomato orthologs of NSP interactors, SlNIKs and SlNsAK, interacted specifically with NSP in yeast and displayed an expression pattern consistent with the pattern of geminivirus infection. In addition to suggesting a functional analogy between these phylogenetically classified orthologs, these results expand our previous observation that NSP-NIK interactions are neither virus-specific nor host-specific. The tomato RLK superfamily is made-up of 647 proteins that form a

  4. The tomato RLK superfamily: phylogeny and functional predictions about the role of the LRRII-RLK subfamily in antiviral defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakamoto Tetsu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Receptor-like kinases (RLKs play key roles during development and in responses to the environment. Despite the relevance of the RLK family and the completion of the tomato genome sequencing, the tomato RLK family has not yet been characterized, and a framework for functional predictions of the members of the family is lacking. Results To generate a complete list of all the members of the tomato RLK family, we performed a phylogenetic analysis using the Arabidopsis family as a template. A total of 647 RLKs were identified in the tomato genome, which were organized into the same subfamily clades as Arabidopsis RLKs. Only eight of 58 RLK subfamilies exhibited specific expansion/reduction compared to their Arabidopsis counterparts. We also characterized the LRRII-RLK family by phylogeny, genomic analysis, expression profile and interaction with the virulence factor from begomoviruses, the nuclear shuttle protein (NSP. The LRRII subfamily members from tomato and Arabidopsis were highly conserved in both sequence and structure. Nevertheless, the majority of the orthologous pairs did not display similar conservation in the gene expression profile, indicating that these orthologs may have diverged in function after speciation. Based on the fact that members of the Arabidopsis LRRII subfamily (AtNIK1, AtNIK2 and AtNIK3 interact with the begomovirus nuclear shuttle protein (NSP, we examined whether the tomato orthologs of NIK, BAK1 and NsAK genes interact with NSP of Tomato Yellow Spot Virus (ToYSV. The tomato orthologs of NSP interactors, SlNIKs and SlNsAK, interacted specifically with NSP in yeast and displayed an expression pattern consistent with the pattern of geminivirus infection. In addition to suggesting a functional analogy between these phylogenetically classified orthologs, these results expand our previous observation that NSP-NIK interactions are neither virus-specific nor host-specific. Conclusions The tomato RLK

  5. Identification and characterization of a novel gene differentially expressed in zebrafish cross-subfamily cloned embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ya-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species nuclear transfer has been shown to be a potent approach to retain the genetic viability of a certain species near extinction. However, most embryos produced by cross-species nuclear transfer were compromised because that they were unable to develop to later stages. Gene expression analysis of cross-species cloned embryos will yield new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in cross-species nuclear transfer and embryonic development. Results A novel gene, K31, was identified as an up-regulated gene in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos using SSH approach and RACE method. K31 complete cDNA sequence is 1106 base pairs (bp in length, with a 342 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a putative protein of 113 amino acids (aa. Comparative analysis revealed no homologous known gene in zebrafish and other species database. K31 protein contains a putative transmembrane helix and five putative phosphorylation sites but without a signal peptide. Expression pattern analysis by real time RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH shows that it has the characteristics of constitutively expressed gene. Sub-cellular localization assay shows that K31 protein can not penetrate the nuclei. Interestingly, over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality in the epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC cells in cell culture, which gave hint to the inefficient reprogramming events occurred in cloned embryos. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicated that K31 gene is a novel gene differentially expressed in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos and over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality of cultured fish cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the determination of novel genes involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction of fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos.

  6. Expandable stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, J C; Carrasco, H

    1996-05-01

    Expandable metallic stents are effective in selected patients with malignant or benign airway stenoses. When used for malignant lesions, the primary purpose of the stent is to improve the quality of life; stents are usually chosen for palliation of symptoms in recognition of the low likelihood of success for other therapy. For patients with benign stenoses, the stents provide a permanent source of structural support to alleviate the narrowed segment. The advantages of the expandable metallic stents are as follows: (1) they can be inserted through an endotracheal tube or under local anesthesia with relative simplicity under fluoroscopic guidance; (2) they do not impair the drainage of sputum because ciliary movement is not interrupted; (3) over a period of a few weeks, the meshwork is gradually covered with mucosa as the stent becomes incorporated into the airway wall; (4) ventilation usually is not impaired if the metallic mesh stent covers another nonstenosed bronchus, because the interstices of the stent are nonobstructive; and (5) they are dynamic and continue to expand over time, particularly if concurrent treatment achieves an effect on the lesion that caused stenosis. Disadvantages of the expandable stent include (1) they often are only temporarily effective for tracheobronchial stenosis due to intraluminal tumor or granulation tissue, both of which can grow between the wires; (2) they are considered permanent stents because removal is difficult; and (3) they can be poorly positioned during placement or can become displaced by progressive migration after placement, and they cannot be repositioned. A relative contraindication to insertion is an inflammatory process or infection that can predispose to granulation formation, particularly at the points of maximal contact pressure of the stent to the airway mucosa. In the presence of inflammation, it may be better to use a silicone prosthesis until the inflammatory process subsides and fibrosis occurs. Granulation

  7. Expander Codes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 1. Expander Codes - The Sipser–Spielman Construction. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 10 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore 560 012, India.

  8. Identification of multiple distinct Snf2 subfamilies with conserved structural motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaus, Andrew; Martin, David M A; Barton, Geoffrey J; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The Snf2 family of helicase-related proteins includes the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes found in all eukaryotes. These act to regulate the structure and dynamic properties of chromatin and so influence a broad range of nuclear processes. We have exploited progress in genome sequencing to assemble a comprehensive catalogue of over 1300 Snf2 family members. Multiple sequence alignment of the helicase-related regions enables 24 distinct subfamilies to be identified, a considerable expansion over earlier surveys. Where information is known, there is a good correlation between biological or biochemical function and these assignments, suggesting Snf2 family motor domains are tuned for specific tasks. Scanning of complete genomes reveals all eukaryotes contain members of multiple subfamilies, whereas they are less common and not ubiquitous in eubacteria or archaea. The large sample of Snf2 proteins enables additional distinguishing conserved sequence blocks within the helicase-like motor to be identified. The establishment of a phylogeny for Snf2 proteins provides an opportunity to make informed assignments of function, and the identification of conserved motifs provides a framework for understanding the mechanisms by which these proteins function.

  9. Expanded functional diversity of shaker K(+ channels in cnidarians is driven by gene expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Jegla

    Full Text Available The genome of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis (starlet sea anemone provides a molecular genetic view into the first nervous systems, which appeared in a late common ancestor of cnidarians and bilaterians. Nematostella has a surprisingly large and diverse set of neuronal signaling genes including paralogs of most neuronal signaling molecules found in higher metazoans. Several ion channel gene families are highly expanded in the sea anemone, including three subfamilies of the Shaker K(+ channel gene family: Shaker (Kv1, Shaw (Kv3 and Shal (Kv4. In order to better understand the physiological significance of these voltage-gated K(+ channel expansions, we analyzed the function of 18 members of the 20 gene Shaker subfamily in Nematostella. Six of the Nematostella Shaker genes express functional homotetrameric K(+ channels in vitro. These include functional orthologs of bilaterian Shakers and channels with an unusually high threshold for voltage activation. We identified 11 Nematostella Shaker genes with a distinct "silent" or "regulatory" phenotype; these encode subunits that function only in heteromeric channels and serve to further diversify Nematostella Shaker channel gating properties. Subunits with the regulatory phenotype have not previously been found in the Shaker subfamily, but have evolved independently in the Shab (Kv2 family in vertebrates and the Shal family in a cnidarian. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that regulatory subunits were present in ancestral cnidarians, but have continued to diversity at a high rate after the split between anthozoans and hydrozoans. Comparison of Shaker family gene complements from diverse metazoan species reveals frequent, large scale duplication has produced highly unique sets of Shaker channels in the major metazoan lineages.

  10. Unequal subfamily proportions among honey bee queen and worker brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley; Oldroyd

    1997-12-01

    Queens from three colonies of feral honey bees, Apis mellifera were removed and placed in separate nucleus colonies. For each colony, eggs and larvae were taken from the nucleus and placed in the main hive on each of 3-4 consecutive weeks. Workers in the queenless parts selected young larvae to rear as queens. Queen pupae, together with the surrounding worker pupae, were removed from each colony and analysed at two to three microsatellite loci to determine their paternity. In all three colonies, the paternity of larvae chosen by the bees to rear as queens was not a random sample of the paternities in the worker brood, with certain subfamilies being over-represented in queens. These results support an important prediction of kin selection theory: when colonies are queenless, unequal relatedness within colonies could lead to the evolution of reproductive competition, that is some subfamilies achieving greater reproductive success than others. The mechanism by which such dominance is achieved could be through a system of kin recognition and nepotism, but we conclude that genetically based differential attractiveness of larvae for rearing as queens is more likely.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  11. Partition expanders

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gavinsky, Dmitry; Pudlák, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2017), s. 378-395 ISSN 1432-4350 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : expanders * pseudorandomness * communication complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00224-016-9738-5

  12. Subfamily logos: visualization of sequence deviations at alignment positions with high information content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beitz Eric

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.

  13. Expanded spatial extent of the Medieval Climate Anomaly revealed in lake-sediment records across the boreal region in northwest Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Kathleen R; Haig, Heather A; Ma, Susan; Kingsbury, Melanie V; Brown, Thomas A; Lewis, C F Michael; Oglesby, Robert J; Cumming, Brian F

    2012-09-01

    Multi-decadal to centennial-scale shifts in effective moisture over the past two millennia are inferred from sedimentary records from six lakes spanning a ~250 km region in northwest Ontario. This is the first regional application of a technique developed to reconstruct drought from drainage lakes (open lakes with surface outlets). This regional network of proxy drought records is based on individual within-lake calibration models developed using diatom assemblages collected from surface sediments across a water-depth gradient. Analysis of diatom assemblages from sediment cores collected close to the near-shore ecological boundary between benthic and planktonic diatom taxa indicated this boundary shifted over time in all lakes. These shifts are largely dependent on climate-driven influences, and can provide a sensitive record of past drought. Our lake-sediment records indicate two periods of synchronous signals, suggesting a common large-scale climate forcing. The first is a period of prolonged aridity during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, c. 900-1400 CE). Documentation of aridity across this region expands the known spatial extent of the MCA megadrought into a region that historically has not experienced extreme droughts such as those in central and western north America. The second synchronous period is the recent signal of the past ~100 years, which indicates a change to higher effective moisture that may be related to anthropogenic forcing on climate. This approach has the potential to fill regional gaps, where many previous paleo-lake depth methods (based on deeper centrally located cores) were relatively insensitive. By filling regional gaps, a better understanding of past spatial patterns in drought can be used to assess the sensitivity and realism of climate model projections of future climate change. This type of data is especially important for validating high spatial resolution, regional climate models. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus Zn-glyoxalase I: new subfamily of glyoxalase I family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirgadze, Yuri N. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region, Russia; Boshkova, Eugenia A. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region, Russia; Battaile, Kevin P. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, IMCA-CAT, Argonne, IL 60439, USA; Mendes, Vitor G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK; Lam, Robert [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Chan, Tiffany S. Y. [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Romanov, Vladimir [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Pai, Emil F. [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y. [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; X-CHIP Technologies Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    2017-01-16

    The crystal structures of protein SA0856 from Staphylococcus aureus in its apo-form and in complex with a Zn2+-ion have been presented. The 152 amino acid protein consists of two similar domains with α + β topology. In both crystalline state and in solution, the protein forms a dimer with monomers related by a twofold pseudo-symmetry rotation axis. A sequence homology search identified the protein as a member of the structural family Glyoxalase I. We have shown that the enzyme possesses glyoxalase I activity in the presence of Zn2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, and Co2+, in this order of preference. Sequence and structure comparisons revealed that human glyoxalase I should be assigned to a subfamily A, while S. aureus glyoxalase I represents a new subfamily B, which includes also proteins from other bacteria. Both subfamilies have a similar protein chain fold but rather diverse sequences. The active sites of human and staphylococcus glyoxalases I are also different: the former contains one Zn-ion per chain; the latter incorporates two of these ions. In the active site of SA0856, the first Zn-ion is well coordinated by His58, Glu60 from basic molecule and Glu40*, His44* from adjacent symmetry-related molecule. The second Zn3-ion is coordinated only by residue His143 from protein molecule and one acetate ion. We suggest that only single Zn1-ion plays the role of catalytic center. The newly found differences between the two subfamilies could guide the design of new drugs against S. aureus, an important pathogenic micro-organism.

  15. Alu Sb2 subfamily is present in all higher primates but was most succesfully amplified in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, C.; Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. [Universite de Montreal, Que (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Alu repeats can be classified into subfamilies which amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. A young Alu subfamily, Sb2, with a characteristic 7-nucleotide duplication at position 256, has been described in seven human loci. An Sb2 insertion found near the HD gene was unique to two HD families, indicating that Sb2 was still retropositionally active. Here, we have shown that the Sb2 insertion in the CHOL locus was similarly rare, being absent in 120 individuals of Caucasian, Oriental and Black origin. In contrast, Sb2 inserts in five other loci were found fixed (non-polymorphic), based on measurements in the same population sample, but absent from orthologous positions in higher apes. This suggest that Sb2 repeats spread relatively early in the human lineage following divergence from other primates and that these elements may be human-specific. By quantitative PCR, we investigated the presence of Sb2 sequences in different primate DNA, using one PCR primer anchored at the 5{prime} Alu-end and the other complementary to the duplicated Sb2-specific segment. With an Sb2-containing plasmid as a standard, we estimated the number of Sb2 repeats at 1500-1800 copies per human haploid equivalent; corresponding numbers in chimpanzee and gorilla were almost two orders of magnitude lower, while the signal observed in orangutan and gibbon DNAs was consistent with the presence of a single copy. The analysis of 22 human, 11 chimpanzee and 10 gorilla sequences indicates that the Alu Sb2 dispersed independently in these three primate lineages; gorilla consensus differs from the human Sb2 sequence by one position, while all chimpanzee repeats have their linker expanded by up to eight A-residues. Should they be thus considered as separate subfamilies? It is possible that sequence modifications with respect to the human consensus are responsible for poor retroposition of Sb2 in apes.

  16. Comparative analysis of the predicted secretomes of Rosaceae scab pathogens Venturia inaequalis and V. pirina reveals expanded effector families and putative determinants of host range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Cecilia H; Plummer, Kim M; Jones, Darcy A B; Mesarich, Carl H; Shiller, Jason; Taranto, Adam P; Robinson, Andrew J; Kastner, Patrick; Hall, Nathan E; Templeton, Matthew D; Bowen, Joanna K

    2017-05-02

    Fungal plant pathogens belonging to the genus Venturia cause damaging scab diseases of members of the Rosaceae. In terms of economic impact, the most important of these are V. inaequalis, which infects apple, and V. pirina, which is a pathogen of European pear. Given that Venturia fungi colonise the sub-cuticular space without penetrating plant cells, it is assumed that effectors that contribute to virulence and determination of host range will be secreted into this plant-pathogen interface. Thus the predicted secretomes of a range of isolates of Venturia with distinct host-ranges were interrogated to reveal putative proteins involved in virulence and pathogenicity. Genomes of Venturia pirina (one European pear scab isolate) and Venturia inaequalis (three apple scab, and one loquat scab, isolates) were sequenced and the predicted secretomes of each isolate identified. RNA-Seq was conducted on the apple-specific V. inaequalis isolate Vi1 (in vitro and infected apple leaves) to highlight virulence and pathogenicity components of the secretome. Genes encoding over 600 small secreted proteins (candidate effectors) were identified, most of which are novel to Venturia, with expansion of putative effector families a feature of the genus. Numerous genes with similarity to Leptosphaeria maculans AvrLm6 and the Verticillium spp. Ave1 were identified. Candidates for avirulence effectors with cognate resistance genes involved in race-cultivar specificity were identified, as were putative proteins involved in host-species determination. Candidate effectors were found, on average, to be in regions of relatively low gene-density and in closer proximity to repeats (e.g. transposable elements), compared with core eukaryotic genes. Comparative secretomics has revealed candidate effectors from Venturia fungal plant pathogens that attack pome fruit. Effectors that are putative determinants of host range were identified; both those that may be involved in race-cultivar and host

  17. Comparative Mitogenomic Analysis of Species Representing Six Subfamilies in the Family Tenebrionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Li Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the architecture and evolution of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome, mitogenomes of ten specimens representing six subfamilies in Tenebrionidae were selected, and comparative analysis of these mitogenomes was carried out in this study. Ten mitogenomes in this family share a similar gene composition, gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage. In addition, our results show that nucleotide bias was strongly influenced by the preference of codon usage for A/T rich codons which significantly correlated with the G + C content of protein coding genes (PCGs. Evolutionary rate analyses reveal that all PCGs have been subjected to a purifying selection, whereas 13 PCGs displayed different evolution rates, among which ATPase subunit 8 (ATP8 showed the highest evolutionary rate. We inferred the secondary structure for all RNA genes of Tenebrio molitor (Te2 and used this as the basis for comparison with the same genes from other Tenebrionidae mitogenomes. Some conserved helices (stems and loops of RNA structures were found in different domains of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs and the cloverleaf structure of transfer RNAs (tRNAs. With regard to the AT-rich region, we analyzed tandem repeat sequences located in this region and identified some essential elements including T stretches, the consensus motif at the flanking regions of T stretch, and the secondary structure formed by the motif at the 3′ end of T stretch in major strand, which are highly conserved in these species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses using mitogenomic data strongly support the relationships among six subfamilies: ((Tenebrionidae incertae sedis + (Diaperinae + Tenebrioninae + (Pimeliinae + Lagriinae, which is consistent with phylogenetic results based on morphological traits.

  18. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustelids (Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms. It is the most diversity family in Carnivora, and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae. However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens (Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra (Eira and wolverine (Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, 1841, but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, 1825. This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons (Galictis, Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon, marbled polecat (Vormela and striped weasels (Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, 1921, but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, 1921. The subfamily that includes ferret badgers (Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, 1865, because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus. Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided.

  19. Phantoms of Gondwana?-phylogeny of the spider subfamily Mynogleninae (Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Holger; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    This is the first genus-level phylogeny of the subfamily Mynogleninae. It is based on 190 morphological characters scored for 44 taxa: 37 mynoglenine taxa (ingroup) representing 15 of the 17 known genera and seven outgroup taxa representing the subfamilies Stemonyphantinae, Linyphiinae (Linyphiin...

  20. Molecular systematics of selected genera of subfamily mimosoidae-fabaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinwari, Z.K.; Jamil, K.; Zahra, N.B.

    2014-01-01

    Family Mimosoidae-Fabaceae is of economic importance to local communities for its medicinal usage. It has commercial value, but the parts sold in the market are difficult to identify on the basis of morphological characters and therefore needs molecular systematics approaches. Hence, the utility of potential DNA barcodes for selected Acacia and Albizia species by using three cpDNA regions rbcL, matK and trnH-psbA was tested in this study. Our study suggests that the rbcL region can be used to identify these species and discriminate among them more effectively than matK and trnH-psbA. The latter regions proved to be less successful in sequencing particularly trnH-psbA. Therefore, rbcL is an improved and efficient tool for species identification of these medicinal plants and may be recommended for a broad series of subfamily Mimosoideae (Family: Fabaceae) plants, making it a potential DNA barcode for these taxa. Sequence data obtained from rbcL and matK also indicated that Acacia and Albizia are polyphyletic. The phylogenetic analysis on the basis of rbcL proved that Acacia nilotica and Acacia nilotica ssp. hemispherica are closely related as they form the sister groups. (author)

  1. Anatomy of 31 species from Mimosoideae (Leguminosae) subfamily on Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, H; Williams, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about the wood anatomy of 31 species, belonging to 17 genera, of the Mimosoideae subfamily (Leguminosae), proceeding from different geographical regions of Venezuela. For each species, one to five individuals were studied. The descriptions were realized according to the IAWA Committee(1989). The studied species may be divided in two groups according to the presence or absence of septate fibers. All species of Inga showed septate fibers, whereas Albizia and Enterolobium included species with septate fibers and also species with non-septate fibers. The quantitative characteristics of the vessels and the width of rays showed sufficient variation as to be considered important characteristics from ataxonomic point of view. The most common parenchyma type was vasicetric, aliform and confluent. In Calliandra laxa, Prosopis juliflora and Zygia longifolia the main parenchyma type was in wide bands; whereas in Cedrelinga cateniformis, the main parenchyma type was thin vasicentric. All species studied, with the exception of Cedrelinga cateniformis, presented prismatic crystals in the parenchymatous axials cells. In spite of finding certain anatomical uniformity, it was possible to elaborate a key for the identification of the studied species.

  2. Mid-tertiary dispersal, not gondwanan vicariance explains distribution patterns in the wax palm subfamily (Ceroxyloideae: Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, Philipp; Gustafsson, Mats H.G.; Baker, William J.

    2007-01-01

    The Ceroxyloideae is a small but heterogeneous subfamily of palms (Arecaceae, Palmae). It includes a Caribbean lineage (tribe Cyclospathae), a southern hemisphere disjunction (tribe Ceroxyleae), and an amphi-Andean element (tribe Phytelepheae), until recently considered a distinct subfamily (Phyt...

  3. Analysis of Comparative Sequence and Genomic Data to Verify Phylogenetic Relationship and Explore a New Subfamily of Bacterial Lipases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Masomian

    Full Text Available Thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant enzymes have significant potential in a wide range of synthetic reactions in industry due to their inherent stability at high temperatures and their ability to endure harsh organic solvents. In this study, a novel gene encoding a true lipase was isolated by construction of a genomic DNA library of thermophilic Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus strain HZ into Escherichia coli plasmid vector. Sequence analysis revealed that HZ lipase had 62% identity to putative lipase from Bacillus pseudomycoides. The closely characterized lipases to the HZ lipase gene are from thermostable Bacillus and Geobacillus lipases belonging to the subfamily I.5 with ≤ 57% identity. The amino acid sequence analysis of HZ lipase determined a conserved pentapeptide containing the active serine, GHSMG and a Ca(2+-binding motif, GCYGSD in the enzyme. Protein structure modeling showed that HZ lipase consisted of an α/β hydrolase fold and a lid domain. Protein sequence alignment, conserved regions analysis, clustal distance matrix and amino acid composition illustrated differences between HZ lipase and other thermostable lipases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this lipase represented a new subfamily of family I of bacterial true lipases, classified as family I.9. The HZ lipase was expressed under promoter Plac using IPTG and was characterized. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 65 °C and retained ≥ 97% activity after incubation at 50 °C for 1h. The HZ lipase was stable in various polar and non-polar organic solvents.

  4. Synopsis Of The subfamily Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) In Colombia, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas Gomez, Hilda del Carmen; Fernandez Alonso, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    As second and last contribution to the synoptic treatment of the Spiranthoideae for Colombia, the synopsis of the tribes Spirantheae (subtribes Cyclopogoninae: 3 genera, 41 species and Stenorrhynchidinae: 9 genera, 15 species) and Cranichideae (5 genera, 53 species), is presented. The most diverse genera in these tribes are: Cranichis (20 species), Cyclopogon (17), Ponthieva (15) and Pelexia (14). As part of the results of this study: a)- The transfer of Cybebus from the subtribe Spiranthinae (where it was commonly placed) to the subtribe Stenorhinchidinae, is proposed, based on the floral morphology (the rostellum and viscidium structure). b)- two genera are reported for Colombia as new records, each one with one species: Lyroglossa (L. grisebachii) and Helonoma; for the latter the new combination Helonoma peruviana (Szlach.) Salazar, Duenas and Fern. Alonso is proposed. c) New records in the previously known list of Colombian orchids are presented: Coccineorchis (C. cristata, C. navarrensis), Cyclopogon (C. maldonadoanus, C. olivaceus, C. rimbachii), Pelexia (P. hirta, P. palmorchidis), Ponthieva (P. venusta), and Sarcoglottis (S. grandiflora, S. maasorum, S. neglecta, S. stergiosii). d)- And additional 19 new records of species belonging to Aspidogyne and Microchilus, not reported in Duenas and Fernandez-Alonso (2007), are also included. e)- Finally an analysis of the distribution and diversity of the genera of this subfamily, according to altitude ranges in Colombia is presented. This group has predominant Andean distribution, being found mainly between 1300 and 3600 m of altitude. Genera broadly distributed as Microchilus, Gomphichis, Cyclopogon, Pelexia, Sarcoglottis, Coccineorchis, Stenorrhynchos, Cranichis and Ponthieva, are found almost from the level up to 3000 m, in all the regions of the country. In contrast, Beloglottis, Brachystele, Cybebus, Eltroplectris, Hapalorchis, Helonoma, Lankesterella, Lyroglossa, Kreodanthus, Pteroglossa and Sauroglossum

  5. Current knowledge on bioacoustics of the subfamily Lophyohylinae (Hylidae, Anura and description of Ocellated treefrog Itapotihyla langsdorffii vocalizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Rodriguez Forti

    2018-05-01

    , while the second is usually related to species-recognition process. Here we review and expand the acoustic knowledge of the subfamily Lophyohylinae, highlighting areas and species for future research.

  6. Molecular Evolution of the CYP2D Subfamily in Primates: Purifying Selection on Substrate Recognition Sites without the Frequent or Long-Tract Gene Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 gene is a member of the CYP2D gene subfamily, along with the CYP2D7P and CYP2D8P pseudogenes. Although the CYP2D6 enzyme has been studied extensively because of its clinical importance, the evolution of the CYP2D subfamily has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to reveal the evolutionary process of the human drug metabolic system. Here, we investigate molecular evolution of the CYP2D subfamily in primates by comparing 14 CYP2D sequences from humans to New World monkey genomes. Window analysis and statistical tests revealed that entire genomic sequences of paralogous genes were extensively homogenized by gene conversion during molecular evolution of CYP2D genes in primates. A neighbor-joining tree based on genomic sequences at the nonsubstrate recognition sites showed that CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes were clustered together due to gene conversion. In contrast, a phylogenetic tree using amino acid sequences at substrate recognition sites did not cluster the CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes, suggesting that the functional constraint on substrate specificity is one of the causes for purifying selection at the substrate recognition sites. Our results suggest that the CYP2D gene subfamily in primates has evolved to maintain the regioselectivity for a substrate hydroxylation activity between individual enzymes, even though extensive gene conversion has occurred across CYP2D coding sequences. PMID:25808902

  7. Homologous subfamilies of human alphoid repetitive DNA on different nucleolus organizing chromosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, A.L.; Bostock, C.J.; Bak, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    The organization of alphoid repeated sequences on human nucleolus-organizing (NOR) chromosomes 13, 21, and 22 has been investigated. Analysis of hybridization of alphoid DNA probes to Southern transfers of restriction enzyme-digested DNA fragments from hybrid cells containing single human chromosomes shows that chromosomes 13 and 21 share one subfamily of alphoid repeats, whereas a different subfamily may be held in common by chromosomes 13 and 22. The sequences of cloned 680-base-pair EcoRI fragments of the alphoid DNA from chromosomes 13 and 21 show that the basic unit of this subfamily is indistinguishable on each chromosome. The sequence of cloned 1020-base-pair Xba I fragments from chromosome 22 is related to, but distinguishable from, that of the 680-base-pair EcoRI alphoid subfamily of chromosomes 13 and 21. These results suggest that, at some point after they originated and were homogenized, different subfamilies of alphoid sequences must have exchanged between chromosomes 13 and 21 and separately between chromosomes 13 and 22

  8. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Xiaoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe 1. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV, which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this

  9. Sonorensin: an antimicrobial peptide, belonging to the heterocycloanthracin subfamily of bacteriocins, from a new marine isolate, Bacillus sonorensis MT93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Lipsy; Singh, Gurdeep; Choudhary, Vikas; Sahoo, Debendra K

    2014-05-01

    Marine environments are the greatest fronts of biodiversity, representing a resource of unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received great attention recently due to their applications as food preservatives and therapeutic agents. A new marine soil isolate producing an AMP was identified as Bacillus sonorensis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It produced an AMP that showed a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The peptide, named sonorensin, was purified to homogeneity using a combination of chromatographic techniques. The intact molecular mass of the purified peptide, 6,274 Da, as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), was in agreement with Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis. A PCR array of primers was used to identify AMP structural genes, which allowed the successful amplification of the related genes from strain MT93. The putative open reading frame of sonorensin was amplified, cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector, expressed as a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion protein in Escherichia coli, and then purified. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the bacteriocin being reported could belong to new subfamily of bacteriocins, heterocycloanthracin. The peptide indicated its potential as a biocontrol agent or food antimicrobial agent, due to its antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of the production, purification, and characterization of wild-type and recombinant bacteriocin by B. sonorensis and the first bacteriocin of the heterocycloanthracin subfamily to be characterized.

  10. Characterization of ppGalNAc-T18, a member of the vertebrate-specific Y subfamily of UDP-N-acetyl-α-D-galactosamine:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Wang, Jing; Li, Wei; Xu, Yingjiao; Shao, Dong; Xie, Yinyin; Xie, Wenxian; Kubota, Tomomi; Narimatsu, Hisashi; Zhang, Yan

    2012-05-01

    The first step of mucin-type O-glycosylation is catalyzed by members of the UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (ppGalNAc-T; EC 2.4.1.41) family. Each member of this family has unique substrate specificity and expression profiles. In this report, we describe a new subfamily of ppGalNAc-Ts, designated the Y subfamily. The Y subfamily consists of four members, ppGalNAc-T8, -T9, -T17 and -T18, in which the conserved YDX(5)WGGENXE sequence in the Gal/GalNAc-T motif of ppGalNAc-Ts is mutated to LDX(5)YGGENXE. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the Y subfamily members only exist in vertebrates. All four Y subfamily members lack in vitro GalNAc-transferase activity toward classical substrates possibly because of the UDP-GalNAc-binding pocket mutants. However, ppGalNAc-T18, the newly identified defining member, was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum rather than the Golgi apparatus in lung carcinoma cells. The knockdown of ppGalNAc-T18 altered cell morphology, proliferation potential and changed cell O-glycosylation. ppGalNAc-T18 can also modulate the in vitro GalNAc-transferase activity of ppGalNAc-T2 and -T10, suggesting that it may be a chaperone-like protein. These findings suggest that the new Y subfamily of ppGalNAc-Ts plays an important role in protein glycosylation; characterizing their functions will provide new insight into the role of ppGalNAc-Ts.

  11. Identification and Structure-Function Analysis of Subfamily Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Kristoff T.; Larimore, Kelly M.; Elkins, Jonathan M.; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Tesmer, John J.G. [Michigan; (Oxford)

    2015-02-13

    Selective inhibitors of individual subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) would serve as useful chemical probes as well as leads for therapeutic applications ranging from heart failure to Parkinson’s disease. To identify such inhibitors, differential scanning fluorimetry was used to screen a collection of known protein kinase inhibitors that could increase the melting points of the two most ubiquitously expressed GRKs: GRK2 and GRK5. Enzymatic assays on 14 of the most stabilizing hits revealed that three exhibit nanomolar potency of inhibition for individual GRKs, some of which exhibiting orders of magnitude selectivity. Most of the identified compounds can be clustered into two chemical classes: indazole/dihydropyrimidine-containing compounds that are selective for GRK2 and pyrrolopyrimidine-containing compounds that potently inhibit GRK1 and GRK5 but with more modest selectivity. The two most potent inhibitors representing each class, GSK180736A and GSK2163632A, were cocrystallized with GRK2 and GRK1, and their atomic structures were determined to 2.6 and 1.85 Å spacings, respectively. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase inhibitor, binds to GRK2 in a manner analogous to that of paroxetine, whereas GSK2163632A, developed as an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, occupies a novel region of the GRK active site cleft that could likely be exploited to achieve more selectivity. However, neither compound inhibits GRKs more potently than their initial targets. This data provides the foundation for future efforts to rationally design even more potent and selective GRK inhibitors.

  12. Systematics of the subfamily Poeciliinae Bonaparte (Cyprinodontiformes: Poeciliidae, with an emphasis on the tribe Cnesterodontini Hubbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Franco Lucinda

    Full Text Available Osteological and soft anatomical features of representatives of poeciliine genera were studied to test the monophyly of the poeciliine tribes and to advance a hypothesis of relationships within the subfamily. The resultant hypothesis supports the proposal of a new classification for the subfamily Poeciliinae. Diagnoses are provided for suprageneric clades. The tribe Tomeurini is resurrected and the new tribes Brachyrhaphini and Priapichthyini as well as the supertribe Poeciliini are described. New usages of old tribe names are proposed based on the phylogenetic framework.

  13. Flora of subfamily Prunoideae of family Rosaceae in botanical garden of Dnipropetrovsk university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Opanasenko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The present state of genofond of the 24 taxa collection of subfamily Prunoideae Focke (family Rosaceae Juss in DNU botanical garden has been analysed. Valuable genotypes for practical use in the development of landscape, farm horticulture and further selection were marked out. The ways of further exploit was planned.

  14. Seed morphology and anatomy and its utility in recognizing subfamilies and tribes of Zingiberaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2015-11-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.

  15. First contact pheromone identified for a longhorned beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Prioninae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Spikes; Matthew A. Paschen; Jocelyn G. Miller; Jardel A. Moreira; Paul B. Hamel; Nathan M. Schiff; Matthew D. Ginzel

    2010-01-01

    Little is known of the reproductive behavior of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the subfamily Prioninae. Mallodon dasystomus (Say), the hardwood stump borer, is a widely distributed prionine that is native to the southern U.S. Here, we explored the chemically-mediated mating behavior of M dasystomus, and tested the hypothesis that males recognize...

  16. Generic revision of the subfamily Cenocoeliinae Szépligeti (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1994-01-01

    The genera of the subfamily Cenocoeliinae Szépligeti are revised, keyed and illustrated. The genera Capitonius Brullé, 1846, Aulacodes Cresson, 1865, Lestricus Reinhard, 1866, Promachus Cresson, 1887, and Evaniomorpha Szépligeti, 1901, are re-instated. One new genus is described and illustrated:

  17. Wood anatomy of the Euphorbiaceae, in particular of the subfamily Phyllanthoideae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The great variety in wood structure of the large family Euphorbiaceae makes it impossible to describe briefly a general wood pattern. Nevertheless, a more or less clear division into four anatomical groups can be made. A short overview is given of the wood structure of the uni-ovulate subfamilies

  18. Revision of the subfamily Euphorinae (excluding the tribe Meteorini Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    The subfamily Euphorinae (excluding the tribe Meteorini Cresson) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from China is revised. In total 150 species, belonging to 24 genera, are treated and keyed. One genus (Heia gen. nov.; type species: Heia robustipes spec. nov.) and 69 species are described as new to science.

  19. Towards a molecular taxonomic key of the Aurantioideae subfamily using chloroplastic SNP diagnostic markers of the main clades genotyped by competitive allele-specific PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Amel; Ollitrault, Frederique; Baraket, Ghada; Salhi-Hannachi, Amel; Navarro, Luis; Ollitrault, Patrick

    2016-08-18

    Chloroplast DNA is a primary source of molecular variations for phylogenetic analysis of photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, the sequencing and analysis of multiple chloroplastic regions is difficult to apply to large collections or large samples of natural populations. The objective of our work was to demonstrate that a molecular taxonomic key based on easy, scalable and low-cost genotyping method should be developed from a set of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) diagnostic of well-established clades. It was applied to the Aurantioideae subfamily, the largest group of the Rutaceae family that includes the cultivated citrus species. The publicly available nucleotide sequences of eight plastid genomic regions were compared for 79 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily to search for SNPs revealing taxonomic differentiation at the inter-tribe, inter-subtribe, inter-genus and interspecific levels. Diagnostic SNPs (DSNPs) were found for 46 of the 54 clade levels analysed. Forty DSNPs were selected to develop KASPar markers and their taxonomic value was tested by genotyping 108 accessions of the Aurantioideae subfamily. Twenty-seven markers diagnostic of 24 clades were validated and they displayed a very high rate of transferability in the Aurantioideae subfamily (only 1.2 % of missing data on average). The UPGMA from the validated markers produced a cladistic organisation that was highly coherent with the previous phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence data of the eight plasmid regions. In particular, the monophyletic origin of the "true citrus" genera plus Oxanthera was validated. However, some clarification remains necessary regarding the organisation of the other wild species of the Citreae tribe. We validated the concept that with well-established clades, DSNPs can be selected and efficiently transformed into competitive allele-specific PCR markers (KASPar method) allowing cost-effective highly efficient cladistic analysis in large collections at

  20. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) genes and the evolutionary significance of the NR1O subfamily in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duck-Hyun; Kim, Hui-Su; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hagiwara, Atsushi; Lee, Jae-Seong; Jeong, Chang-Bum

    2017-10-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large family of transcription factors that are involved in many fundamental biological processes. NRs are considered to have originated from a common ancestor, and are highly conserved throughout the whole animal taxa. Therefore, the genome-wide identification of NR genes in an animal taxon can provide insight into the evolutionary tendencies of NRs. Here, we identified all the NR genes in the monogonont rotifer Brachionus spp., which are considered an ecologically key species due to their abundance and world-wide distribution. The NR family was composed of 40, 32, 29, and 32 genes in the genomes of the rotifers B. calyciflorus, B. koreanus, B. plicatilis, and B. rotundiformis, respectively, which were classified into seven distinct subfamilies. The composition of each subfamily was highly conserved between species, except for NR1O genes, suggesting that they have undergone sporadic evolutionary processes for adaptation to their different environmental pressures. In addition, despite the dynamics of NR evolution, the significance of the conserved endocrine system, particularly for estrogen receptor (ER)-signaling, in rotifers was discussed on the basis of phylogenetic analyses. The results of this study may help provide a better understanding the evolution of NRs, and expand our knowledge of rotifer endocrine systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Artful Universe Expanded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, B A

    2005-01-01

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great beauty. (book review)

  2. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, B A [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-29

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  3. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ A. DE FREITAS PACHECO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  4. What Expands in an Expanding Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, José A De Freitas

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, the possible effects of the expansion of the Universe on systems bonded either by gravitational or electromagnetic forces, are reconsidered. It will be shown that the acceleration (positive or negative) of the expanding background, is the determinant factor affecting planetary orbits and atomic sizes. In the presently accepted cosmology (ΛCDM) all bonded systems are expanding at a decreasing rate that tends to be zero as the universe enters in a de Sitter phase. It is worth mentioning that the estimated expansion rates are rather small and they can be neglected for all practical purposes.

  5. Sequence Analysis and Characterization of Active Human Alu Subfamilies Based on the 1000 Genomes Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, Miriam K; Walker, Jerilyn A; Hotard, Ashley B; Ranck, Megan C; Fontenot, Catherine C; Storer, Jessica; Stewart, Chip; Marth, Gabor T; Batzer, Mark A

    2015-08-29

    The goal of the 1000 Genomes Consortium is to characterize human genome structural variation (SV), including forms of copy number variations such as deletions, duplications, and insertions. Mobile element insertions, particularly Alu elements, are major contributors to genomic SV among humans. During the pilot phase of the project we experimentally validated 645 (611 intergenic and 34 exon targeted) polymorphic "young" Alu insertion events, absent from the human reference genome. Here, we report high resolution sequencing of 343 (322 unique) recent Alu insertion events, along with their respective target site duplications, precise genomic breakpoint coordinates, subfamily assignment, percent divergence, and estimated A-rich tail lengths. All the sequenced Alu loci were derived from the AluY lineage with no evidence of retrotransposition activity involving older Alu families (e.g., AluJ and AluS). AluYa5 is currently the most active Alu subfamily in the human lineage, followed by AluYb8, and many others including three newly identified subfamilies we have termed AluYb7a3, AluYb8b1, and AluYa4a1. This report provides the structural details of 322 unique Alu variants from individual human genomes collectively adding about 100 kb of genomic variation. Many Alu subfamilies are currently active in human populations, including a surprising level of AluY retrotransposition. Human Alu subfamilies exhibit continuous evolution with potential drivers sprouting new Alu lineages. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughenour, Jennifer M; Simmons, Mark P; Lombardi, Julio A; Yakobson, Kendra; Archer, Robert H

    2011-05-01

    The phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae (∼ 100 species and 19 genera in the Old and New World tropics) was inferred using morphological characters together with plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. The subfamily is easily recognized by the synapomorphies of transversely flattened, deeply lobed capsules and seeds with membranous basal wings or narrow stipes together with bisexual, 5-merous flowers that generally have an extrastaminal disk and three stamens. Hippocrateoideae, like Salacioideae, are inferred to have an Old World origin. The narrow stipes of Neotropical species that are water-dispersed are inferred to be derived within the subfamily from ancestral species with wind-dispersed winged seeds. Helictonema, a monotypic genus endemic to tropical Africa, has a small, white, spongy aril that is located at the base of the seed wing and appears to be unique within Hippocrateoideae. Our inference that Helictonema is sister to the remaining members of the subfamily, considered in the context of Sarawakodendron being sister to Salacioideae, suggests that small arils and capsular fruit were primitive within both subfamilies. The aril became dramatically enlarged within Salacioideae, in which the fruits are berries, and lost entirely within Hippocrateoideae, in which the fruits are transversely flattened capsules. All five Old World taxa of Prionostemma and all eight currently recognized species within Simirestis are transferred to Pristimera, one South African variety of Pristimera is raised to species level, and all three taxa in Pristimera subgenus Trochantha are transferred to the new genus Trochantha. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Two ways of legumin-precursor processing in conifers. Characterization and evolutionary relationships of Metasequoia cDNAs representing two divergent legumin gene subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häger, K P; Wind, C

    1997-06-15

    Subunit monomers and oligomers of crystalloid-type legumins are major components of SDS-soluble fractions from Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Dawn redwood, Taxodiaceae) seed proteins. The subunits are made up of disulfide linked alpha-polypeptides and beta-polypeptides with molecular masses of 33 kDa and 23-25 kDa, respectively. Unusually for legumins, those from Metasequoia are glycosylated and the carbohydrate moieties are residing in the C-terminal region of the respective beta-polypeptides. A Metasequoia endosperm cDNA library has been constructed and legumin-encoding transcripts representing two divergent gene subfamilies have been characterized. Intersubfamily comparisons reveal 75% identity at the amino acid level and the values range from 53-35% when the legumin precursors deduced were compared with those from angiosperms. The predicted sequences together with data from amino acid sequencing prove that post-translational processing of Metasequoia prolegumins is directed to two different processing sites, each of them specific for one of the legumin subfamilies. The sites involved differ in their relative position and in the junction to be cleaved: Metasequoia legumin precursors MgLeg18 and MgLeg26 contain the conventional post-translational Asn-Gly processing site, which is generally regarded as highly conserved. In contrast, the MgLeg4 precursor is lacking this site and post-translational cleavage is directed to an unusual Asn-Thr processing site located in its hypervariable region, causing N-terminal extension of the beta-polypeptide relative to those hitherto known. Evidence is given that the unusual variant of processing also occurs in other conifers. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the precursors concerned as representatives of a distinct legumin subfamily, originating from duplication of an ancestral gene prior to or at the beginning of Taxodiaceae diversification.

  8. Nine novel microsatellite markers for the army ant Simopelta pergandei (subfamily Ponerinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, D.J.C.; Boomsma, J.J.; Pierce, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Simopelta (subfamily Ponerinae) army ants are specialized predators of other ants in New World tropical forests. Although they show a striking convergence in overall life-history with the well known army ants of the subfamilies Aenictinae, Dorylinae, and Ecitoninae, the genus has been little...... studied. We developed and characterized nine novel microsatellite loci for S. pergandei with 2-8 observed alleles (mean: 5.2) and expected heterozygosities between 0.16 and 0.87 (mean: 0.68). Three of these loci reliably cross-amplified in a second species, S. pentadentata, with 4-8 alleles (mean: 8.......0) and expected heterozygosities between 0.32 and 0.85 (mean: 0.65). These genetic markers will be useful in studying the sociobiology and molecular ecology of Simopelta army ants and in elucidating convergent evolutionary trajectories that have culminated in the army ant lifestyle...

  9. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Anne-Maria; Demetrowitsch, Tobias J.; Schwarz, Karin; Ober, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid. PMID:29250094

  10. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maria Wesseling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid.

  11. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Serranid Subfamily Epinephelinae: Speciation and Biogeography in a Nearshore Marine Fish Clade

    OpenAIRE

    Craig, Matthew T,

    2005-01-01

    The processes that shape present day distributions of marine organisms have remained a central topic in evolutionary biology, conservation biology, and ecology. In this thesis, genetic data from mitochondrial and nuclear genes were used to create a phylogenetic hypothesis for the groupers of the subfamily Epinephelinae as a means of evaluating the current taxonomy of the group and the geography of speciation in marine organisms. The molecular phylogenetic hypothesis presented in Chap...

  12. Gene Structures, Classification, and Expression Models of the DREB Transcription Factor Subfamily in Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified 75 dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB protein genes in Populus trichocarpa. We analyzed gene structures, phylogenies, domain duplications, genome localizations, and expression profiles. The phylogenic construction suggests that the PtrDREB gene subfamily can be classified broadly into six subtypes (DREB A-1 to A-6 in Populus. The chromosomal localizations of the PtrDREB genes indicated 18 segmental duplication events involving 36 genes and six redundant PtrDREB genes were involved in tandem duplication events. There were fewer introns in the PtrDREB subfamily. The motif composition of PtrDREB was highly conserved in the same subtype. We investigated expression profiles of this gene subfamily from different tissues and/or developmental stages. Sixteen genes present in the digital expression analysis had high levels of transcript accumulation. The microarray results suggest that 18 genes were upregulated. We further examined the stress responsiveness of 15 genes by qRT-PCR. A digital northern analysis showed that the PtrDREB17, 18, and 32 genes were highly induced in leaves under cold stress, and the same expression trends were shown by qRT-PCR. Taken together, these observations may lay the foundation for future functional analyses to unravel the biological roles of Populus’ DREB genes.

  13. Pollen morphology of the subfamily arecoideae griff. (family-arecaceae) from pakistan and kashmir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasheed, A.A.; Perveen, A.; Abid, R.

    2016-01-01

    Pollen morphological characters are potentially informative in the systematic of monocotyledons including (Arecaceae), at supra and infra familial level. The pollen morphology of 8 species (subfamily Arecoideae) clearly shows that the qualitative pollen characters (such as aperture, exine pattern and shape) are found to be taxonomically important as compared to the quantitative characters (such as size of the grain and exine thickness).Considerable pollen variations have been found within the subfamily Arecoideae with regard to size, shape, aperture type and exine pattern. For instance, 7 out of 8 species have monosulcate pollen (i.e., 87.5%) and a remaining species (viz., Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) have trichotomosulcate pollen. The pollen are frequently elliptical, but in some cases rounded-triangular pollen were also found. Similarly, there is a great diversity in exine pattern such as punctate, reticulate, vermiculate, spinose, rugulate and perforate or combination of these types have also been found, but the most predominant pattern is the reticulate type. On the basis of pollen aperture, size and exine pattern, four pollen types have been recognized such as Areca-type, Dypsis-type, Cocos-type and Elaies-type. The data obtained from the palynological studies have been analyzed by Agglomerative cluster analysis choosing the Euclidean distance and Ward's method for a group linkage method. The objective of the present work is to classify studied taxa on the basis of pollen characters and to quantify the species relationships representing the subfamily Arecoideae based on numerical techniques. (author)

  14. The BBX subfamily IV: additional cogs and sprockets to fine-tune light-dependent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Felipe

    2013-04-01

    Plants depend on light during all phases of its life cycle, and have evolved a complex signaling network to constantly monitor its surroundings. Photomorphogenesis, a process during which the plant reprograms itself in order to dwell life in presence of light is one of the most studied phenomena in plants. Recent mutant analyses using model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and protein interaction assays have unraveled a new set of players, an 8-member subfamily of B-box proteins, known as BBX subfamily IV. For the members of this subfamily, positive (BBX21, BBX22) as well as negative (BBX24) functions have been described for its members, showing a strong association to two major players of the photomorphogenic cascade, HY5 and COP1. The roles of these new BBX regulators are not restricted to photomorphogenesis, but also have functions in other facets of light-dependent development. Therefore this newly identified set of regulators has opened up new insights into the understanding of the fine-tuning of this complex process.

  15. Expanding Thurston maps

    CERN Document Server

    Bonk, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is devoted to the study of the dynamics of expanding Thurston maps under iteration. A Thurston map is a branched covering map on a two-dimensional topological sphere such that each critical point of the map has a finite orbit under iteration. It is called expanding if, roughly speaking, preimages of a fine open cover of the underlying sphere under iterates of the map become finer and finer as the order of the iterate increases. Every expanding Thurston map gives rise to a fractal space, called its visual sphere. Many dynamical properties of the map are encoded in the geometry of this visual sphere. For example, an expanding Thurston map is topologically conjugate to a rational map if and only if its visual sphere is quasisymmetrically equivalent to the Riemann sphere. This relation between dynamics and fractal geometry is the main focus for the investigations in this work.

  16. Deep sequencing and flow cytometric characterization of expanded effector memory CD8+CD57+ T cells frequently reveals T-cell receptor Vβ oligoclonality and CDR3 homology in acquired aplastic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, Valentina; Feng, Xingmin; Lin, Zenghua; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Fanmao; Qiao, Wangmin; Ibanez, Maria Del Pilar Fernandez; Rios, Olga; Young, Neal S

    2018-05-01

    Oligoclonal expansion of CD8 + CD28 - lymphocytes has been considered indirect evidence for a pathogenic immune response in acquired aplastic anemia. A subset of CD8 + CD28 - cells with CD57 expression, termed effector memory cells, is expanded in several immune-mediated diseases and may have a role in immune surveillance. We hypothesized that effector memory CD8 + CD28 - CD57 + cells may drive aberrant oligoclonal expansion in aplastic anemia. We found CD8 + CD57 + cells frequently expanded in the blood of aplastic anemia patients, with oligoclonal characteristics by flow cytometric Vβ usage analysis: skewing in 1-5 Vβ families and frequencies of immunodominant clones ranging from 1.98% to 66.5%. Oligoclonal characteristics were also observed in total CD8 + cells from aplastic anemia patients with CD8 + CD57 + cell expansion by T-cell receptor deep sequencing, as well as the presence of 1-3 immunodominant clones. Oligoclonality was confirmed by T-cell receptor repertoire deep sequencing of enriched CD8 + CD57 + cells, which also showed decreased diversity compared to total CD4 + and CD8 + cell pools. From analysis of complementarity-determining region 3 sequences in the CD8 + cell pool, a total of 29 sequences were shared between patients and controls, but these sequences were highly expressed in aplastic anemia subjects and also present in their immunodominant clones. In summary, expansion of effector memory CD8 + T cells is frequent in aplastic anemia and mirrors Vβ oligoclonal expansion. Flow cytometric Vβ usage analysis combined with deep sequencing technologies allows high resolution characterization of the T-cell receptor repertoire, and might represent a useful tool in the diagnosis and periodic evaluation of aplastic anemia patients. (Registered at clinicaltrials.gov identifiers: 00001620, 01623167, 00001397, 00071045, 00081523, 00961064 ). Copyright © 2018 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  17. Significant Microsynteny with New Evolutionary Highlights Is Detected through Comparative Genomic Sequence Analysis of Maize CCCH IX Gene Subfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CCCH zinc finger proteins, which are characterized by the presence of three cysteine residues and one histidine residue, play important roles in RNA processing in plants. Subfamily IX CCCH proteins were recently shown to function in stress tolerances. In this study, we analyzed CCCH IX genes in Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor. These genes, which are almost intronless, were divided into four groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Microsynteny analysis revealed microsynteny in regions of some gene pairs, indicating that segmental duplication has played an important role in the expansion of this gene family. In addition, we calculated the dates of duplication by Ks analysis, finding that all microsynteny blocks were formed after the monocot-eudicot divergence. We found that deletions, multiplications, and inversions were shown to have occurred over the course of evolution. Moreover, the Ka/Ks ratios indicated that the genes in these three grass species are under strong purifying selection. Finally, we investigated the evolutionary patterns of some gene pairs conferring tolerance to abiotic stress, laying the foundation for future functional studies of these transcription factors.

  18. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed

  19. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, A.; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A.; Ain, M. F.

    2015-03-01

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  20. Silicon microfabricated beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, A., E-mail: aliman@ppinang.uitm.edu.my; Ibrahim, M. N.; Hamzah, I. H.; Sulaiman, A. A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia, 40450, Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Ain, M. F. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Seri Ampangan, 14300,Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2015-03-30

    The feasibility design and development methods of silicon microfabricated beam expander are described. Silicon bulk micromachining fabrication technology is used in producing features of the structure. A high-precision complex 3-D shape of the expander can be formed by exploiting the predictable anisotropic wet etching characteristics of single-crystal silicon in aqueous Potassium-Hydroxide (KOH) solution. The beam-expander consist of two elements, a micromachined silicon reflector chamber and micro-Fresnel zone plate. The micro-Fresnel element is patterned using lithographic methods. The reflector chamber element has a depth of 40 µm, a diameter of 15 mm and gold-coated surfaces. The impact on the depth, diameter of the chamber and absorption for improved performance are discussed.

  1. Reassessment of Species Diversity of the Subfamily Denticollinae (Coleoptera: Elateridae through DNA Barcoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeman Han

    Full Text Available The subfamily Denticollinae is a taxonomically diverse group in the family Elateridae. Denticollinae includes many morphologically similar species and crop pests, as well as many undescribed species at each local fauna. To construct a rapid and reliable identification system for this subfamily, the effectiveness of molecular species identification was assessed based on 421 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI sequences of 84 morphologically identified species. Among the 84 morphospecies, molecular species identification of 60 species (71.4% was consistent with their morphological identifications. Six cryptic and/or pseudocryptic species with large genetic divergence (>5% were confirmed by their sympatric or allopatric distributions. However, 18 species, including a subspecies, had ambiguous genetic distances and shared overlapping intra- and interspecific genetic distances (range: 2.12%-3.67% suggesting incomplete lineage sorting, introgression of mitochondrial genome, or affection by endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia infection, between species and simple genetic variation within species. In this study, we propose a conservative threshold of 3.6% for convenient molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU identification in the subfamily Denticollinae based on the results of pairwise genetic distances analyses using neighbor-joining, mothur, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analysis, and tree-based species delimitation by Poisson Tree Processes analysis. Using the 3.6% threshold, we identified 87 MOTUs and found 8 MOTUs in the interval between 2.5% to 3.5%. Evaluation of MOTUs identified in this range requires integrative species delimitation, including review of morphological and ecological differences as well as sensitive genetic markers. From this study, we confirmed that COI sequence is useful for reassessing species diversity for polymorphic and polytypic species occurring in sympatric and allopatric distributions, and for a single species having

  2. Phylogeny and evolutionary patterns in the Dwarf crayfish subfamily (Decapoda: Cambarellinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pedraza-Lara

    Full Text Available The Dwarf crayfish or Cambarellinae, is a morphologically singular subfamily of decapod crustaceans that contains only one genus, Cambarellus. Its intriguing distribution, along the river basins of the Gulf Coast of United States (Gulf Group and into Central México (Mexican Group, has until now lacked of satisfactory explanation. This study provides a comprehensive sampling of most of the extant species of Cambarellus and sheds light on its evolutionary history, systematics and biogeography. We tested the impact of Gulf Group versus Mexican Group geography on rates of cladogenesis using a maximum likelihood framework, testing different models of birth/extinction of lineages. We propose a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci (3,833 bp using Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The phylogenetic structure found two phylogenetic groups associated to the two main geographic components (Gulf Group and Mexican Group and is partially consistent with the historical structure of river basins. The previous hypothesis, which divided the genus into three subgenera based on genitalia morphology was only partially supported (P = 0.047, resulting in a paraphyletic subgenus Pandicambarus. We found at least two cases in which phylogenetic structure failed to recover monophyly of recognized species while detecting several cases of cryptic diversity, corresponding to lineages not assigned to any described species. Cladogenetic patterns in the entire subfamily are better explained by an allopatric model of speciation. Diversification analyses showed similar cladogenesis patterns between both groups and did not significantly differ from the constant rate models. While cladogenesis in the Gulf Group is coincident in time with changes in the sea levels, in the Mexican Group, cladogenesis is congruent with the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Our results show how similar allopatric

  3. Current status of subfamily Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafiza, A. F.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, 25 genera and 38 species under 10 tribes (Alomyini, Compsophorini, Goedartiini, Heresiarchini, Ichneumonini, Ischnojoppini, Joppocryptini, Listrodromini, Oedicephalini and Platylabini) of the subfamily Ichneumoninae housed in the Centre for Insect Systematics, UKM and Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research (National University of Singapore) are reported from Malaysia and Singapore. The tribe Heresiarchini has the greatest number of species (13) followed by Ichneumonini with six species. Imeria is the largest genus which contains five species recorded. Six species in this study are new records for Malaysia.

  4. ExpandED Options: Learning beyond High School Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ExpandED Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Through ExpandED Options by TASC, New York City high school students get academic credit for learning career-related skills that lead to paid summer jobs. Too many high school students--including those most likely to drop out--are bored or see classroom learning as irrelevant. ExpandED Options students live the connection between mastering new…

  5. Convergent, Parallel and Correlated Evolution of Trophic Morphologies in the Subfamily Schizothoracinae from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Delin; Chao, Yan; Guo, Songchang; Zhao, Lanying; Li, Taiping; Wei, Fulei; Zhao, Xinquan

    2012-01-01

    Schizothoracine fishes distributed in the water system of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP) and adjacent areas are characterized by being highly adaptive to the cold and hypoxic environment of the plateau, as well as by a high degree of diversity in trophic morphology due to resource polymorphisms. Although convergent and parallel evolution are prevalent in the organisms of the QTP, it remains unknown whether similar evolutionary patterns have occurred in the schizothoracine fishes. Here, we constructed for the first time a tentative molecular phylogeny of the schizothoracine fishes based on the complete sequences of the cytochrome b gene. We employed this molecular phylogenetic framework to examine the evolution of trophic morphologies. We used Pagel's maximum likelihood method to estimate the evolutionary associations of trophic morphologies and food resource use. Our results showed that the molecular and published morphological phylogenies of Schizothoracinae are partially incongruent with respect to some intergeneric relationships. The phylogenetic results revealed that four character states of five trophic morphologies and of food resource use evolved at least twice during the diversification of the subfamily. State transitions are the result of evolutionary patterns including either convergence or parallelism or both. Furthermore, our analyses indicate that some characters of trophic morphologies in the Schizothoracinae have undergone correlated evolution, which are somewhat correlated with different food resource uses. Collectively, our results reveal new examples of convergent and parallel evolution in the organisms of the QTP. The adaptation to different trophic niches through the modification of trophic morphologies and feeding behaviour as found in the schizothoracine fishes may account for the formation and maintenance of the high degree of diversity and radiations in fish communities endemic to QTP. PMID:22470515

  6. Rediscovered and new perisphaerine cockroaches from SW China with a review of subfamilial diagnosis (Blattodea: Blaberidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Ran; Wang, Li-Li; Wang, Zong-Qing

    2018-04-17

    The taxonomic records of Chinese perisphaerine cockroaches were scattered in literature, and therefore a dedicated study is desired to update our knowledge. This paper reviews the subfamilial diagnosis and Chinese species, mostly from southwestern China. We provide high-definition habitus photos and drawings, the latter emphasizes the genitalia of both sexes, which are generalized with diagrams, abstracted from specimens examined. A total of 18 species are recorded in four genera, including Perisphaerus, or pill cockroach, the type genus of the subfamily. Two new genera and three new species are proposed: Achatiblatta achates gen. sp. nov., Frumentiforma frumentiformis gen. sp. nov., and Pseudoglomeris montana sp. nov.. Pseudoglomeris has five new junior synonyms: Corydidarum, Trichoblatta, Kurokia, Glomerexis, and Glomeriblatta; the following combinations are thus revived or new: Ps. aerea comb. nov., Ps. angustifolia comb. nov., Ps. beybienkoi comb. nov., Ps. fallax comb. nov., Ps. magnifica comb. rev., Ps. montshadskii comb. nov., Ps. nigra comb. nov., Ps. sculpta comb. nov., Ps. semisulcata comb. rev., Ps. tibetana comb. nov., and Ps. valida moderata comb. nov.. The following species are revalidated and combinations revived: Pe. pygmaeus comb. rev., Ps. dubia comb. sp. rev., and Ps. planiuscla comb. sp. rev.

  7. A consistent nomenclature of antimicrobial peptides isolated from frogs of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiche, Mohamed; Ladram, Ali; Nicolas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    A growing number of cationic antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from the skin of hylid frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily. The amino acid sequences of these peptides are currently located in several databases under identifiers with no consistent system of nomenclature to describe them. In order to provide a workable terminology for antimicrobial peptides from Phyllomedusid frogs, we have made a systematic effort to collect, analyze, and classify all the Phyllomedusid peptide sequences available in databases. We propose that frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily should be described by the species names set out in Amphibian Species of the World: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Multiple alignments analysis of at least 80 antimicrobial peptides isolated from 12 Phyllomedusinae species were distributed in seven distinct peptide families including dermaseptin, phylloseptin, plasticin, dermatoxin, phylloxin, hyposin and orphan peptides, and will be considered as the name of the headgroup of each family. The parent peptide's name should be followed by the first upper letter of the species for orthologous peptides and publication date determines priority. For example, the abbreviation B for bicolor and H for hypochondrialis. When two species begin with the same letter, two letters in upper case should be used (the first letter followed by the second or the third letter and so on). For example, the abbreviation DI for distincta, DU for duellmani, VA for vaillanti and VN for vanzolinii. Paralogous peptides should bear letter(s) in upper case followed by numbers.

  8. Two CRM protein subfamilies cooperate in the splicing of group IIB introns in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Bayraktar, Omer Ali; Barkan, Alice

    2008-11-01

    Chloroplast genomes in angiosperms encode approximately 20 group II introns, approximately half of which are classified as subgroup IIB. The splicing of all but one of the subgroup IIB introns requires a heterodimer containing the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase homolog CRS2 and one of two closely related proteins, CAF1 or CAF2, that harbor a recently recognized RNA binding domain called the CRM domain. Two CRS2/CAF-dependent introns require, in addition, a CRM domain protein called CFM2 that is only distantly related to CAF1 and CAF2. Here, we show that CFM3, a close relative of CFM2, associates in vivo with those CRS2/CAF-dependent introns that are not CFM2 ligands. Mutant phenotypes in rice and Arabidopsis support a role for CFM3 in the splicing of most of the introns with which it associates. These results show that either CAF1 or CAF2 and either CFM2 or CFM3 simultaneously bind most chloroplast subgroup IIB introns in vivo, and that the CAF and CFM subunits play nonredundant roles in splicing. These results suggest that the expansion of the CRM protein family in plants resulted in two subfamilies that play different roles in group II intron splicing, with further diversification within a subfamily to accommodate multiple intron ligands.

  9. Flight patterns and sex ratio of beetles of the subfamily Dynastinae (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Simões Corrêa de Albuquerque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dynastinae is one of the most representative subfamilies of Melolonthidae (Scarabaeoidea and has considerable ecological importance due mainly to interactions with plants of the families Araceae and Annonaceae. This relationship has led to the evolution of nocturnal activity patterns, which are influenced by environmental conditions. In the present study, abiotic factors were investigated to comprehend the influence on the flight patterns and identify the sex ratio of beetles from this subfamily. A study was conducted at Campo de Instrução Marechal Newton Cavalcanti in northeastern Brazil between December 2010 and November 2011. Thirteen species of Dynastinae were identified, most of which were from the genus Cyclocephala. Abundance and richness were greater in the dry season. Six species exhibited peak flight activity at specific periods of the night. More females than males were recorded for Cyclocephala distincta and C. paraguayensis. The present findings suggest that rainfall reduces the flight activity of these beetles and different time schedules may be related to mating behavior, foraging behavior and the avoidance of interspecific resource competition.

  10. A Rationally Designed Agonist Defines Subfamily IIIA Abscisic Acid Receptors As Critical Targets for Manipulating Transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Aditya S; Peterson, Francis C; Yarmolinsky, Dmitry; Merilo, Ebe; Verstraeten, Inge; Park, Sang-Youl; Elzinga, Dezi; Kaundal, Amita; Helander, Jonathan; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Otani, Masato; Wu, Kevin; Jensen, Davin R; Kollist, Hannes; Volkman, Brian F; Cutler, Sean R

    2017-11-17

    Increasing drought and diminishing freshwater supplies have stimulated interest in developing small molecules that can be used to control transpiration. Receptors for the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) have emerged as key targets for this application, because ABA controls the apertures of stomata, which in turn regulate transpiration. Here, we describe the rational design of cyanabactin, an ABA receptor agonist that preferentially activates Pyrabactin Resistance 1 (PYR1) with low nanomolar potency. A 1.63 Å X-ray crystallographic structure of cyanabactin in complex with PYR1 illustrates that cyanabactin's arylnitrile mimics ABA's cyclohexenone oxygen and engages the tryptophan lock, a key component required to stabilize activated receptors. Further, its sulfonamide and 4-methylbenzyl substructures mimic ABA's carboxylate and C6 methyl groups, respectively. Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements show that cyanabactin's compact structure provides ready access to high ligand efficiency on a relatively simple scaffold. Cyanabactin treatments reduce Arabidopsis whole-plant stomatal conductance and activate multiple ABA responses, demonstrating that its in vitro potency translates to ABA-like activity in vivo. Genetic analyses show that the effects of cyanabactin, and the previously identified agonist quinabactin, can be abolished by the genetic removal of PYR1 and PYL1, which form subclade A within the dimeric subfamily III receptors. Thus, cyanabactin is a potent and selective agonist with a wide spectrum of ABA-like activities that defines subfamily IIIA receptors as key target sites for manipulating transpiration.

  11. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  12. Expanding the HAWC Observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Johanna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-17

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma-Ray Observatory is expanding its current array of 300 water tanks to include 350 outrigger tanks to increase sensitivity to gamma rays above 10 TeV. This involves creating and testing hardware with which to build the new tanks, including photomultiplier tubes, high voltage supply units, and flash analog to digital converters. My responsibilities this summer included preparing, testing and calibrating that equipment.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae based on the mitochondrial COI gene and the 18S and the 5' end of the 28S rRNA genes indicates that several genera are polyphyletic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Matsuda

    Full Text Available The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825-1,901 bp and 28S (the 5' end of 646-743 bp rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp. As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered.

  14. Women Engineering Faculty: Expanding the Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greni, Nadene Deiterman

    2006-01-01

    The purpose for this case study was to explore the features of undergraduate engineering departmental and college support that influenced the persistence of women students. Women engineering faculty members were among the participants at three Land Grant universities in the Midwest. The data revealed the theme, Expanding the Pipeline, and…

  15. Identification and analysis of evolutionary selection pressures acting at the molecular level in five forkhead subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Christina D; Rannala, Bruce; Walter, Michael A

    2008-09-24

    Members of the forkhead gene family act as transcription regulators in biological processes including development and metabolism. The evolution of forkhead genes has not been widely examined and selection pressures at the molecular level influencing subfamily evolution and differentiation have not been explored. Here, in silico methods were used to examine selection pressures acting on the coding sequence of five multi-species FOX protein subfamily clusters; FoxA, FoxD, FoxI, FoxO and FoxP. Application of site models, which estimate overall selection pressures on individual codons throughout the phylogeny, showed that the amino acid changes observed were either neutral or under negative selection. Branch-site models, which allow estimated selection pressures along specified lineages to vary as compared to the remaining phylogeny, identified positive selection along branches leading to the FoxA3 and Protostomia clades in the FoxA cluster and the branch leading to the FoxO3 clade in the FoxO cluster. Residues that may differentiate paralogs were identified in the FoxA and FoxO clusters and residues that differentiate orthologs were identified in the FoxA cluster. Neutral amino acid changes were identified in the forkhead domain of the FoxA, FoxD and FoxP clusters while positive selection was identified in the forkhead domain of the Protostomia lineage of the FoxA cluster. A series of residues under strong negative selection adjacent to the N- and C-termini of the forkhead domain were identified in all clusters analyzed suggesting a new method for refinement of domain boundaries. Extrapolation of domains among cluster members in conjunction with selection pressure information allowed prediction of residue function in the FoxA, FoxO and FoxP clusters and exclusion of known domain function in residues of the FoxA and FoxI clusters. Consideration of selection pressures observed in conjunction with known functional information allowed prediction of residue function and

  16. Identification and analysis of evolutionary selection pressures acting at the molecular level in five forkhead subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rannala Bruce

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the forkhead gene family act as transcription regulators in biological processes including development and metabolism. The evolution of forkhead genes has not been widely examined and selection pressures at the molecular level influencing subfamily evolution and differentiation have not been explored. Here, in silico methods were used to examine selection pressures acting on the coding sequence of five multi-species FOX protein subfamily clusters; FoxA, FoxD, FoxI, FoxO and FoxP. Results Application of site models, which estimate overall selection pressures on individual codons throughout the phylogeny, showed that the amino acid changes observed were either neutral or under negative selection. Branch-site models, which allow estimated selection pressures along specified lineages to vary as compared to the remaining phylogeny, identified positive selection along branches leading to the FoxA3 and Protostomia clades in the FoxA cluster and the branch leading to the FoxO3 clade in the FoxO cluster. Residues that may differentiate paralogs were identified in the FoxA and FoxO clusters and residues that differentiate orthologs were identified in the FoxA cluster. Neutral amino acid changes were identified in the forkhead domain of the FoxA, FoxD and FoxP clusters while positive selection was identified in the forkhead domain of the Protostomia lineage of the FoxA cluster. A series of residues under strong negative selection adjacent to the N- and C-termini of the forkhead domain were identified in all clusters analyzed suggesting a new method for refinement of domain boundaries. Extrapolation of domains among cluster members in conjunction with selection pressure information allowed prediction of residue function in the FoxA, FoxO and FoxP clusters and exclusion of known domain function in residues of the FoxA and FoxI clusters. Conclusion Consideration of selection pressures observed in conjunction with known

  17. Identification and expression analysis of zebrafish polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase Y-subfamily genes during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Naosuke; Kawai, Tamiko; Kaneda, Eiichi; Takahashi, Yui; Miyake, Ayumi; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Kurosaka, Akira

    2014-09-01

    Mucin-type glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications of secretory and membrane proteins and has diverse physiological functions. The initial biosynthesis of mucin-type carbohydrates is catalyzed by UDP-GalNAc: polypeptide α-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) encoded by GALNT genes. Among these, GalNAc-T8, -T9, -T17, and -T18 form a characteristic subfamily called "Y-subfamily" and have no or very low in vitro transferase activities when assayed with typical mucin peptides as acceptor substrates. Although the Y-subfamily isozymes have been reported to be possibly involved in various diseases, their in vivo functions have not been reported. Here, we isolated zebrafish Y-subfamily galnt genes, and determined their spatial and temporal expressions during the early development of zebrafish. Our study demonstrated that all the Y-subfamily isozymes were well conserved in zebrafish with GalNAc-T18 having two orthologs, galnt18a and galnt18b, and with the other three isozymes each having a corresponding ortholog, galnt8, galnt9, and galnt17. The galnt8 was expressed in the cephalic mesoderm and hatching gland during early developmental stages, and differently expressed in the head, somatic muscles, and liver in the later stages. The other three orthologs also exhibited the characteristic expression patterns, although their expressions were generally strong in the nervous systems. In addition to the expression in the brain, galnt17 and galnt18a were expressed in the somitic muscles, and galnt18a and galnt18b in the notochord. These expression patterns may contribute to the functional analysis of the Y-subfamily, whose physiological roles still remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relevance of the NR4A sub-family of nuclear orphan receptors in trophoblastic BeWo cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sudha Saryu; Gupta, Satish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Nur-77, a member of the NR4A sub-family of nuclear orphan receptors, is downregulated in the placentae of pre-eclamptic women. Here, we investigate the relevance of Nor-1, Nurr-1 and Nur-77 in trophoblastic cell differentiation. Their transcript levels were found to be significantly upregulated in BeWo cells treated with forskolin. The maximum increase was observed after 2 h, with a second peak in the expression levels after 48 h. The expression of NR4A sub-family members was also found to be upregulated in BeWo cells after treatment with hCG and GnRH. A similar significant increase was observed at the respective protein levels after 2 and 48 h of treatment with forskolin, hCG or GnRH. Silencing Nor-1, Nurr-1 or Nur-77 individually did not show any effect on forskolin-, hCG- and/or GnRH-mediated BeWo cell fusion and/or hCG secretion. After silencing any one member of the NR4A sub-family, an increase in the transcript levels of the other sub-family members was observed, indicating a compensatory effect due to their functional redundancy. Simultaneously silencing all three NR4A sub-family members significantly downregulated forskolin- and hCG-mediated BeWo cell fusion and/or hCG secretion. However, a considerable amount of cell death occurred after forskolin or hCG treatment as compared to the control siRNA-transfected cells. These results suggest that the NR4A sub-family of nuclear orphan receptors has a role in trophoblastic cell differentiation.

  19. Transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily member 2 cation channel regulates detrimental immune cell invasion in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Melzer, Nico; Schattling, Benjamin; Göb, Eva; Hicking, Gordon; Arunachalam, Priyadharshini; Bittner, Stefan; Ufer, Friederike; Herrmann, Alexander M; Bernreuther, Christian; Glatzel, Markus; Gerloff, Christian; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Meuth, Sven G; Friese, Manuel A; Magnus, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Brain injury during stroke results in oxidative stress and the release of factors that include extracellular Ca(2+), hydrogen peroxide, adenosine diphosphate ribose, and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate. These alterations of the extracellular milieu change the activity of transient receptor potential melastatin subfamily member 2 (TRPM2), a nonselective cation channel expressed in the central nervous system and the immune system. Our goal was to evaluate the contribution of TRPM2 to the tissue damage after stroke. In accordance with current quality guidelines, we independently characterized Trpm2 in a murine ischemic stroke model in 2 different laboratories. Gene deficiency of Trpm2 resulted in significantly improved neurological outcome and decreased infarct size. Besides an already known moderate neuroprotective effect of Trpm2 deficiency in vitro, ischemic brain invasion by neutrophils and macrophages was particularly reduced in Trpm2-deficient mice. Bone marrow chimeric mice revealed that Trpm2 deficiency in the peripheral immune system is responsible for the protective phenotype. Furthermore, experiments with mixed bone marrow chimeras demonstrated that Trpm2 is essential for the migration of neutrophils and, to a lesser extent, also of macrophages into ischemic hemispheres. Notably, the pharmacological TRPM2 inhibitor, N-(p-amylcinnamoyl)anthranilic acid, was equally protective in the stroke model. Although a neuroprotective effect of TRPM2 in vitro is well known, we can show for the first time that the detrimental role of TRPM2 in stroke primarily depends on its role in activating peripheral immune cells. Targeting TRPM2 systemically represents a promising therapeutic approach for ischemic stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. A novel fractal approach for predicting G-protein-coupled receptors and their subfamilies with support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Guoping; Li, Yong; Wang, Feichi; Wang, Siwen; Hu, Xuehai

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven membrane-spanning proteins and regulate many important physiological processes, such as vision, neurotransmission, immune response and so on. GPCRs-related pathways are the targets of a large number of marketed drugs. Therefore, the design of a reliable computational model for predicting GPCRs from amino acid sequence has long been a significant biomedical problem. Chaos game representation (CGR) reveals the fractal patterns hidden in protein sequences, and then fractal dimension (FD) is an important feature of these highly irregular geometries with concise mathematical expression. Here, in order to extract important features from GPCR protein sequences, CGR algorithm, fractal dimension and amino acid composition (AAC) are employed to formulate the numerical features of protein samples. Four groups of features are considered, and each group is evaluated by support vector machine (SVM) and 10-fold cross-validation test. To test the performance of the present method, a new non-redundant dataset was built based on latest GPCRDB database. Comparing the results of numerical experiments, the group of combined features with AAC and FD gets the best result, the accuracy is 99.22% and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) is 0.9845 for identifying GPCRs from non-GPCRs. Moreover, if it is classified as a GPCR, it will be further put into the second level, which will classify a GPCR into one of the five main subfamilies. At this level, the group of combined features with AAC and FD also gets best accuracy 85.73%. Finally, the proposed predictor is also compared with existing methods and shows better performances.

  1. On the entomofauna of Mt. Durmitor (Northern Montenegro: Braconid wasps of the subfamily Opiinae (Braconidae, Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajković M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Braconids are primary parasites of other insects and their eggs, larvae, and adults, and species have been recently discovered that lay their eggs in plant seeds. Classified into about 25 genera, more than 1,400 species of Opiinae are known at the present time in the world fauna. They have been registered in all zoogeographic regions. The Opiinae are solitary endoparasites of the larvae of cyclorhaphous Diptera, most often those of species belonging to the families Agromyzidae, Tephritidae, Anthomyiidae Ephydridae. In investigations conducted on Mt. Durmitor since 1982, we have up to now established 10 species of braconids of the subfamily Opiinae (Opius peterseni Fi., O. caudatus Wesm., O. parvungula Th., O. levisWesm., O. pallipesWesm., O. quasiquisti Fi., O. exilis Hal., O. filicornis Th., O. lugens Hal., and O. meracus Fi, eight of which are new for the fauna of Serbia and Montenegro.

  2. Molecular phylogeny of moth-specialized spider sub-family Cyrtarachninae, which includes bolas spiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Akio; Shinkai, Akira; Miyashita, Tadashi

    2014-11-01

    The evolutionary process of the unique web architectures of spiders of the sub-family Cyrtarachninae, which includes the triangular web weaver, bolas spider, and webless spider, is thought to be derived from reduction of orbicular 'spanning-thread webs' resembling ordinal orb webs. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was conducted to explore this hypothesis using orbicular web spiders Cyrtarachne, Paraplectana, Poecilopachys, triangular web spider Pasilobus, bolas spiders Ordgarius and Mastophora, and webless spider Celaenia. The phylogeny inferred from partial sequences of mt-COI, nuclear 18S-rRNA and 28S-rRNA showed that the common ancestor of these spiders diverged into two clades: a spanning-thread web clade and a bolas or webless clade. This finding suggests that the triangular web evolved by reduction of an orbicular spanning web, but that bolas spiders evolved in the early stage, which does not support the gradual web reduction hypothesis.

  3. A Taxonomic Review of the Sword-tailed Cricket Subfamily Trigonidiinae (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Gryllidae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Woo Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Korean population of the sword-tailed cricket subfamily Trigonidiinae is reviewed for the first time. Four members of the crickets are confirmed based on the examined material, those are Metioche japonica (Ichikawa, 2001, Svistella bifasciata (Shiraki, 1911, Homoeoxipha obliterata (Caudell, 1927 and Natula matsuurai Sugimoto, 2001, each of them belonging to a different genera. Among them, the former two are reconfirmed since earlier records, and latter two are newly recognized genera and species from the far southern provinces Jeollanam-do and Jeju-do Island in Korea. The type locality of both crickets is Japan, and are also only previously referred to in Japan, but their distributional ranges include neighboring South Korea. A key to the species, descriptions, photographs, figures, and oscillograms of male’s calling sounds are provided to aid their identification.

  4. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  5. Expanding Your Horizon 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Kaltenhauser, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Expanding your horizons is a bi-annual “Science Day” for girls aged 11 to 14, held at the University of Geneva on 14 November. The girls had the opportunity to take part in hands-on workshops held by local professional women in the field of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. For the fourth time, CERN was part of this event, offering three workshops as well as a booth at the Discovery Fair, including Higgnite, an interactive visualization of the Higgs Field.

  6. The nuclear receptor gene family in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, contains a novel subfamily group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Susanne; Galloway, Tamara S; Lyons, Brett P; Bean, Tim P

    2014-05-15

    Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of transcription factors important in key biological, developmental and reproductive processes. Several of these receptors are ligand- activated and through their ability to bind endogenous and exogenous ligands, are potentially vulnerable to xenobiotics. Molluscs are key ecological species in defining aquatic and terrestrial habitats and are sensitive to xenobiotic compounds in the environment. However, the understanding of nuclear receptor presence, function and xenobiotic disruption in the phylum Mollusca is limited. Here, forty-three nuclear receptor sequences were mined from the genome of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. They include members of NR0-NR5 subfamilies, notably lacking any NR6 members. Phylogenetic analyses of the oyster nuclear receptors have been conducted showing the presence of a large novel subfamily group not previously reported, which is named NR1P. Homologues to all previous identified nuclear receptors in other mollusc species have also been determined including the putative heterodimer partner retinoid X receptor, estrogen receptor and estrogen related receptor. C. gigas contains a highly diverse set of nuclear receptors including a novel NR1 group, which provides important information on presence and evolution of this transcription factor superfamily in invertebrates. The Pacific oyster possesses two members of NR3, the sex steroid hormone receptor analogues, of which there are 9 in humans. This provides increasing evidence that steroid ligand specific expansion of this family is deuterostome specific. This new knowledge on divergence and emergence of nuclear receptors in C. gigas provides essential information for studying regulation of molluscan gene expression and the potential effects of xenobiotics.

  7. Molecular characterization of two sub-family specific monoclonal antibodies to meningococcal Factor H binding protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Lo Passo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Factor H binding protein (FHbp is a component of two licensed vaccines for prevention of sepsis and meningitis caused by serogroup B meningococci. FHbp binds human Factor H (FH, which contributes to evasion of host immunity and FHbp sequence variants can be classified into two sub-families. Antibodies against FHbp elicit complement-mediated killing and can inhibit recruitment of FH to the bacterial surface. We report epitope mapping studies of two murine IgG mAbs, designated JAR 31 and JAR 36, isolated from a mouse immunized with FHbp in sub-family A, which is present in ∼30–40% of invasive isolates. In the present study, we tested the reactivity of mAbs JAR 31 and JAR 36 with seven natural FHbp sequence variants from different phylogenic groups. We screened bacteriophage-displayed peptide libraries to identify amino acid residues contributing to the JAR 36 epitope. Based on the reactivities of mAbs JAR 31 and JAR 36 with the seven FHbp variants, and the frequent occurrences of aspartate (D and lysine (K residues in the JAR 36-bound phage peptides, we selected six residues in the carboxyl-terminal region of FHbp for replacement with alanine (A. The D201A and K203A substitutions respectively eliminated and decreased binding of mAbs JAR 31 and JAR 36 to FHbp. These substitutions did not affect binding of the control mAb JAR 33 or of human FH. JAR 31 or JAR 36 mediated cooperative complement-mediated bactericidal activity with other anti-FHbp mAbs. The identification of two amino acid residues involved in the epitopes recognized by these anti-FHbp mAbs may contribute to a more complete understanding of the spatial requirements for cooperative anti-FHbp mAb bactericidal activity. Keywords: Biochemistry, Immunology, Microbiology, Molecular biology

  8. Bigelow Expandable Activity Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Bigelow Expandable Activity Module (BEAM) project is a NASA-industry partnership with Bigelow Aerospace (BA) that has developing the first human-rated expandable...

  9. Tissue expander infections in children: look beyond the expander pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A C; Davison, S P; Manders, E K

    1999-11-01

    Infection of the expander pocket is the most common complication encountered with soft-tissue expansion. It is usually due to direct inoculation with skin flora either at the time of expander insertion or from extrusion of the device. The authors report two cases of infection of tissue expanders in which the children had concomitant infected sites distant from the prosthesis. Etiological bacteria of common pediatric infections like otitis media and pharyngitis were cultured from the infected expander pocket, raising suspicion that translocation of the organism to the expander had occurred. Aggressive antibiotic treatment, removal of the prosthesis, and flap advancement is advocated.

  10. Regulation of protease-activated receptor 1 signaling by the adaptor protein complex 2 and R4 subfamily of regulator of G protein signaling proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Buxin; Siderovski, David P; Neubig, Richard R; Lawson, Mark A; Trejo, Joann

    2014-01-17

    The G protein-coupled protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) is irreversibly proteolytically activated by thrombin. Hence, the precise regulation of PAR1 signaling is important for proper cellular responses. In addition to desensitization, internalization and lysosomal sorting of activated PAR1 are critical for the termination of signaling. Unlike most G protein-coupled receptors, PAR1 internalization is mediated by the clathrin adaptor protein complex 2 (AP-2) and epsin-1, rather than β-arrestins. However, the function of AP-2 and epsin-1 in the regulation of PAR1 signaling is not known. Here, we report that AP-2, and not epsin-1, regulates activated PAR1-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis via two different mechanisms that involve, in part, a subset of R4 subfamily of "regulator of G protein signaling" (RGS) proteins. A significantly greater increase in activated PAR1 signaling was observed in cells depleted of AP-2 using siRNA or in cells expressing a PAR1 (420)AKKAA(424) mutant with defective AP-2 binding. This effect was attributed to AP-2 modulation of PAR1 surface expression and efficiency of G protein coupling. We further found that ectopic expression of R4 subfamily members RGS2, RGS3, RGS4, and RGS5 reduced activated PAR1 wild-type signaling, whereas signaling by the PAR1 AKKAA mutant was minimally affected. Intriguingly, siRNA-mediated depletion analysis revealed a function for RGS5 in the regulation of signaling by the PAR1 wild type but not the AKKAA mutant. Moreover, activation of the PAR1 wild type, and not the AKKAA mutant, induced Gαq association with RGS3 via an AP-2-dependent mechanism. Thus, AP-2 regulates activated PAR1 signaling by altering receptor surface expression and through recruitment of RGS proteins.

  11. Frames of exponentials:lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies, and approximation of the inverse frame operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Lindner, Alexander M

    2001-01-01

    We give lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies of a frame of exponentials {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ in L-2(-pi,pi). We also present a method for approximation of the inverse frame operator corresponding to {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ, where knowledge of the frame bounds for...

  12. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  13. Australian water mites of the subfamily Notoaturinae Besch (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Aturidae), with the description of 24 new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.

    2010-01-01

    New data are presented on the subfamily Notoaturinae from Australia. Twenty-four new species are described: Austraturus aculeatus n. sp., A. canaliculatus n. sp., A. lamingtonensis n. sp., A. longigenitalis n. sp., A. montanus n. sp., A. otwayensis n. sp., A. tasmanicus n. sp., Azugaturus

  14. Checklist of the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae in western parts of Kerman Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shamsi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A faunal study was carried out on the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae from different parts of western Kerman Province on various host plants. In total 16 species belonging to 14 genera were collected and identified from different host plants and localities.

  15. Whole genome identification, phylogeny and evolution of the cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP2) sub-families in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily defends organisms from endogenous and noxious environmental compounds, and thus is crucial for survival. However, beyond mammals the molecular evolution of CYP2 subfamilies is poorly understood. Here, we characterized the CYP2 family across 48 novel avian who...

  16. Discovery of Uniformly Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Saul Perlmutter and the Brian Schmidt – Adam Riess teams reported that their Friedmann-model GR-based analysis of their supernovae magnitude-redshift data re- vealed a new phenomenon of “dark energy” which, it is claimed, forms 73% of the energy / matter density of the present-epoch universe, and which is linked to the further claim of an accelerating expansion of the universe. In 2011 Perlmutter, Schmidt and Riess received the Nobel Prize in Physics “for the discovery of the accelerating ex- pansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae”. Here it is shown that (i a generic model-independent analysis of this data reveals a uniformly expanding universe, (ii their analysis actually used Newtonian gravity, and finally (iii the data, as well as the CMB fluctuation data, does not require “dark energy” nor “dark matter”, but instead reveals the phenomenon of a dynamical space, which is absent from the Friedmann model.

  17. The expanding EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    In this paper I try to explore whether the EU can go on expanding and thereby become culturally ever more diversified, and at the same retain its stability. The answer is, in principle, affirmative. Europe has always been much diversified, and therefore it is not possible to define a European...... identity in terms of particular cultural traditions. However, in spite of their diversity, the EU-member countries are united by their adherence to the principles of democracy, rule by law and human rights. Countries which do not share this basic consensus would not be accepted as members, nor is it likely...... that they would apply for it. An essential part is the willingness of member states to accept a reduction of national sovereignty on some important policy fields. The EU project is basically about lifting the principles of democracy and rule by law on the international level, most and foremost among the member...

  18. Expanding hollow metal rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Harold B [Evans, GA; Imrich, Kenneth J [Grovetown, GA

    2009-03-17

    A sealing device that may expand more planar dimensions due to internal thermal expansion of a filler material. The sealing material is of a composition such that when desired environment temperatures and internal actuating pressures are reached, the sealing materials undergoes a permanent deformation. For metallic compounds, this permanent deformation occurs when the material enters the plastic deformation phase. Polymers, and other materials, may be using a sealing mechanism depending on the temperatures and corrosivity of the use. Internal pressures are generated by either rapid thermal expansion or material phase change and may include either liquid or solid to gas phase change, or in the gaseous state with significant pressure generation in accordance with the gas laws. Sealing material thickness and material composition may be used to selectively control geometric expansion of the seal such that expansion is limited to a specific facing and or geometric plane.

  19. Functional characterization of AGAMOUS-subfamily members from cotton during reproductive development and in response to plant hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moura, Stéfanie Menezes; Artico, Sinara; Lima, Cássio; Nardeli, Sarah Muniz; Berbel, Ana; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio

    2017-03-01

    Expression analysis of the AG -subfamily members from G. hirsutum during flower and fruit development. Reproductive development in cotton, including the fruit and fiber formation, is a complex process; it involves the coordinated action of gene expression regulators, and it is highly influenced by plant hormones. Several studies have reported the identification and expression of the transcription factor family MADS-box members in cotton ovules and fibers; however, their roles are still elusive during the reproductive development in cotton. In this study, we evaluated the expression profiles of five MADS-box genes (GhMADS3, GhMADS4, GhMADS5, GhMADS6 and GhMADS7) belonging to the AGAMOUS-subfamily in Gossypium hirsutum. Phylogenetic and protein sequence analyses were performed using diploid (G. arboreum, G. raimondii) and tetraploid (G. barbadense, G. hirsutum) cotton genomes, as well as the AG-subfamily members from Arabidopsis thaliana, Petunia hybrida and Antirrhinum majus. qPCR analysis showed that the AG-subfamily genes had high expression during flower and fruit development in G. hirsutum. In situ hybridization analysis also substantiates the involvement of AG-subfamily members on reproductive tissues of G. hirsutum, including ovule and ovary. The effect of plant hormones on AG-subfamily genes expression was verified in cotton fruits treated with gibberellin, auxin and brassinosteroid. All the genes were significantly regulated in response to auxin, whereas only GhMADS3, GhMADS4 and GhMADS7 genes were also regulated by brassinosteroid treatment. In addition, we have investigated the GhMADS3 and GhMADS4 overexpression effects in Arabidopsis plants. Interestingly, the transgenic plants from both cotton AG-like genes in Arabidopsis significantly altered the fruit size compared to the control plants. This alteration suggests that cotton AG-like genes might act regulating fruit formation. Our results demonstrate that members of the AG-subfamily in G. hirsutum

  20. The expanding plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, M.C.M. van den.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis concerns the fundamental aspects of an argon plasma expanding from a cascaded arc. This type of plasma is not only used for fundamental research but also for technologically orientated research on plasma deposition and plasma sources. The important characteristics of the plasma are a strong supersonic expansion in which the neutral particle and ion densities decrease three orders of magnitude, followed by a stationary shock front. After the shock front the plasma expands further subsonically. A part of this thesis is devoted to the discussion of a newly constructed combined Thomson-Rayleigh scattering set up. With this set up the electron density, the electron temperature and the neutral particle density are measured locally in the plasma for different conditions. In the analysis of the measured spectra weak coherent effects and the measured apparatus profile are included. The inaccuracies are small, ranging from 1 to 4 percent for the electron density and 2 to 6 percent for the electron temperature, depending on the plasma conditions. The inaccuracy of the neutral particle density determination is larger and ranges from 10 to 50 percent. The detection limits for the electron and neutral particle density are 7.10 17 m -3 and 1.10 20 m -3 respectively. A side path in this thesis is the derivation of the Saha equation for a two-temperature plasma. The reason for this derivation was the dispute in the literature about the correct form of this equation. In this thesis it is shown, from the correct extension of the second law of thermodynamics and from the non-equilibrium formalism of Zubarev, That in the limit of m e /m h ->0 the generalized Saha equation depends on the electron temperature only. (author). 221 refs.; 54 figs.; 13 tabs

  1. Structure and dynamics of the human pleckstrin DEP domain: distinct molecular features of a novel DEP domain subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civera, Concepcion; Simon, Bernd; Stier, Gunter; Sattler, Michael; Macias, Maria J

    2005-02-01

    Pleckstrin1 is a major substrate for protein kinase C in platelets and leukocytes, and comprises a central DEP (disheveled, Egl-10, pleckstrin) domain, which is flanked by two PH (pleckstrin homology) domains. DEP domains display a unique alpha/beta fold and have been implicated in membrane binding utilizing different mechanisms. Using multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic tree reconstructions, we find that 6 subfamilies of the DEP domain exist, of which pleckstrin represents a novel and distinct subfamily. To clarify structural determinants of the DEP fold and to gain further insight into the role of the DEP domain, we determined the three-dimensional structure of the pleckstrin DEP domain using heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. Pleckstrin DEP shares main structural features with the DEP domains of disheveled and Epac, which belong to different DEP subfamilies. However, the pleckstrin DEP fold is distinct from these structures and contains an additional, short helix alpha4 inserted in the beta4-beta5 loop that exhibits increased backbone mobility as judged by NMR relaxation measurements. Based on sequence conservation, the helix alpha4 may also be present in the DEP domains of regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins, which are members of the same DEP subfamily. In pleckstrin, the DEP domain is surrounded by two PH domains. Structural analysis and charge complementarity suggest that the DEP domain may interact with the N-terminal PH domain in pleckstrin. Phosphorylation of the PH-DEP linker, which is required for pleckstrin function, could regulate such an intramolecular interaction. This suggests a role of the pleckstrin DEP domain in intramolecular domain interactions, which is distinct from the functions of other DEP domain subfamilies found so far.

  2. Plastid phylogenomics of the cool-season grass subfamily: clarification of relationships among early-diverging tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Jeffery M; Wysocki, William P; Barrett, Craig F; Soreng, Robert J; Davis, Jerrold I; Clark, Lynn G; Kelchner, Scot A; Pires, J Chris; Edger, Patrick P; Mayfield, Dustin R; Duvall, Melvin R

    2015-05-04

    Whole plastid genomes are being sequenced rapidly from across the green plant tree of life, and phylogenetic analyses of these are increasing resolution and support for relationships that have varied among or been unresolved in earlier single- and multi-gene studies. Pooideae, the cool-season grass lineage, is the largest of the 12 grass subfamilies and includes important temperate cereals, turf grasses and forage species. Although numerous studies of the phylogeny of the subfamily have been undertaken, relationships among some 'early-diverging' tribes conflict among studies, and some relationships among subtribes of Poeae have not yet been resolved. To address these issues, we newly sequenced 25 whole plastomes, which showed rearrangements typical of Poaceae. These plastomes represent 9 tribes and 11 subtribes of Pooideae, and were analysed with 20 existing plastomes for the subfamily. Maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian inference (BI) robustly resolve most deep relationships in the subfamily. Complete plastome data provide increased nodal support compared with protein-coding data alone at nodes that are not maximally supported. Following the divergence of Brachyelytrum, Phaenospermateae, Brylkinieae-Meliceae and Ampelodesmeae-Stipeae are the successive sister groups of the rest of the subfamily. Ampelodesmeae are nested within Stipeae in the plastome trees, consistent with its hybrid origin between a phaenospermatoid and a stipoid grass (the maternal parent). The core Pooideae are strongly supported and include Brachypodieae, a Bromeae-Triticeae clade and Poeae. Within Poeae, a novel sister group relationship between Phalaridinae and Torreyochloinae is found, and the relative branching order of this clade and Aveninae, with respect to an Agrostidinae-Brizinae clade, are discordant between MP and ML/BI trees. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses strongly support Airinae and Holcinae as the successive sister groups of a Dactylidinae

  3. Species-specific evolution of class I MHC genes in iguanas (order: Squamata; subfamily: Iguaninae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-07-01

    Over the last few decades, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) has emerged as a model for understanding the influence of natural selection on genetic diversity in populations as well as for investigating the genetic basis of host resistance to pathogens. However, many vertebrate taxa remain underrepresented in the field of MHC research, preventing its application to studies of disease, evolution, and conservation genetics in these groups. This is particularly true for squamates, which are by far the most diversified order of non-avian reptiles but have not been the subject of any recent MHC studies. In this paper, we present MHC class I complementary DNA data from three squamate species in the subfamily Iguaninae (iguanas): the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), the Galápagos land iguana (Conolophus subcristatus), and the green iguana (Iguana iguana). All sequences obtained are related to the few published class I genes from other squamates. There is evidence for multiple loci in each species, and the conserved alpha-3 domain appears to be evolving in a species-specific manner. Conversely, there is some indication of shared polymorphism between species in the peptide-binding alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains, suggesting that these two regions have different phylogenetic histories. The great similarity between alpha-3 sequences in marine iguanas in particular suggests that concerted evolution is acting to homogenize class I loci within species. However, while less likely, the data are also compatible with a birth and death model of evolution.

  4. Out of Africa:Miocene Dispersal, Vicariance, and Extinction within Hyacinthaceae Subfamily Urgineoideae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Shujait Ali; Martin Pfosser; Wolfgang Wetschnig; Mario MartnezAzorn; Manuel B. Crespo; Yan Yu

    2013-01-01

    Disjunct distribution patterns in plant lineages are usually explained according to three hypotheses:vicariance, geodispersal, and long-distance dispersal. The role of these hypotheses is tested in Urgineoideae (Hyacinthaceae), a subfamily disjunctly distributed in Africa, Madagascar, India, and the Mediterranean region. The potential ancestral range, dispersal routes, and factors responsible for the current distribution in Urgineoideae are investigated using divergence time estimations. Urgineoideae originated in Southern Africa approximately 48.9 Mya. Two independent dispersal events in the Western Mediterranean region possibly occurred during Early Oligocene and Miocene (29.9-8.5 Mya) via Eastern and Northwestern Africa. A dispersal from Northwestern Africa to India could have occurred between 16.3 and 7.6 Mya. Vicariance and extinction events occurred approximately 21.6 Mya. Colonization of Madagascar occurred between 30.6 and 16.6 Mya, after a single transoceanic dispersal event from Southern Africa. The current disjunct distributions of Urgineoideae are not satisfactorily explained by Gondwana fragmentation or dispersal via boreotropical forests, due to the younger divergence time estimates. The flattened winged seeds of Urgineoideae could have played an important role in long-distance dispersal by strong winds and big storms, whereas geodispersal could have also occurred from Southern Africa to Asia and the Mediterranean region via the so-called arid and high-altitude corridors.

  5. Low dose trichloroethylene alters cytochrome P450 - 2C subfamily expression in the developing chick heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Om; Ahles, Lauren; Lencinas, Alejandro; Selmin, Ornella I.; Runyan, Raymond B.

    2013-01-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an organic solvent and common environmental contaminant. TCE exposure is associated with heart defects in humans and animal models. Primary metabolism of TCE in adult rodent models is by specific hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes (Lash et al., 2000). As association of TCE exposure with cardiac defects is in exposed embryos prior to normal liver development, we investigated metabolism of TCE in the early embryo. Developing chick embryos were dosed in ovo with environmentally relevant doses of TCE (8 ppb and 800 ppb) and RNA was extracted from cardiac and extra-cardiac tissue (whole embryo without heart). Real time PCR showed upregulation of CYP2H1 transcripts in response to TCE exposure in the heart. No detectable cytochrome expression was found in extra-cardiac tissue. As seen previously, the dose response was non-monotonic and 8ppb elicited stronger upregulation than 800 ppb. Immunostaining for CYP2C subfamily expression confirmed protein expression and showed localization in both myocardium and endothelium. TCE exposure increased protein expression in both tissues. These data demonstrate that the earliest embryonic expression of phase I detoxification enzymes is in the developing heart. Expression of these CYPs is likely to be relevant to the susceptibility of the developing heart to environmental teratogens. PMID:22855351

  6. A novel MSCRAMM sub-family in Coagulase negative staphylococcal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srishtee eArora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase negative staphylococci are important opportunistic pathogens. Staphylococcus epidermidis, a coagulase negative staphylococcus, is the third leading cause of nosocomial infections in the US. Surface proteins like Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs are major virulence factors of pathogenic gram positive bacteria. Here, we identified a new chimeric protein; SesJ in S. epidermidis, which represents a prototype of a new subfamily of MSCRAMMs. Structural predictions show that SesJ has structural features characteristic of a MSCRAMM along with a N-Terminal repeat region and an Aspartic acid containing repeat region, features that have not been previously observed in staphylococcal MSCRAMMs but have been found in other surface proteins from gram positive bacteria. We identified and analyzed structural homologs of SesJ in three other coagulase negative staphylococci. These homologs of SesJ have an identical structural organization but varying sequence identities within the domains. Using flow cytometry, we also show that SesJ is expressed constitutively on the surface of a representative S. epidermidis strain, from early exponential to stationary growth phase. Thus SesJ is positioned to interact with protein targets in the environment and play a role in S. epidermidis virulence.

  7. Crusticorallina gen. nov., a nongeniculate genus in the subfamily Corallinoideae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Katharine R; Gabrielson, Paul W; P Jensen, Cassandra; Martone, Patrick T

    2016-12-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA (SSU) gene sequences confirm the placement of Crusticorallina gen. nov. in Corallinoideae, the first nongeniculate genus in an otherwise geniculate subfamily. Crusticorallina is distinguished from all other coralline genera by the following suite of morpho-anatomical characters: (i) sunken, uniporate gametangial and bi/tetrasporangial conceptacles, (ii) cells linked by cell fusions, not secondary pit connections, (iii) an epithallus of 1 or 2 cell layers, (iv) a hypothallus that occupies 50% or more of the total thallus thickness, (v) elongate meristematic cells, and (vi) trichocytes absent. Four species are recognized based on rbcL, psbA and COI-5P sequences, C. painei sp. nov., the generitype, C. adhaerens sp. nov., C. nootkana sp. nov. and C. muricata comb. nov., previously known as Pseudolithophyllum muricatum. Type material of Lithophyllum muricatum, basionym of C. muricata, in TRH comprises at least two taxa, and therefore we accept the previously designated lectotype specimen in UC that we sequenced to confirm its identity. Crusticorallina species are very difficult to distinguish using morpho-anatomical and/or habitat characters, although at specific sites, some species may be distinguished by a combination of morpho-anatomy, habitat and biogeography. The Northeast Pacific now boasts six coralline endemic genera, far more than any other region of the world. © 2016 Phycological Society of America.

  8. Markiana nigripinnis (Perugia, 1891 as a putative member of the subfamily Stevardiinae (Characiformes: Characidae: spermatic evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarianna Martins Baicere-Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Markiana was until recently recognized as incertae sedis in the family Characidae, even though alternative placements for this genus have been advanced since its original description. More recently, it was hypothesized that Markiana nigripinnis is part of a clade informally named the Astyanax clade, indicating the putative close relationship of Markiana with the genus Astyanax. Examination of sperm ultrastructure of representatives of Astyanax and M. nigripinnis shows no evidence for this hypothesized close relationship. Rather, the spermatozoa of M. nigripinnis share characters found in spermatozoa of the non-inseminating members of the subfamily Stevardiinae, such as an angle of nuclear rotation equal to 85º resulting in a lateral position of the double nuclear fossa and flagellum. As with the non-inseminating Stevardiinae, sperm nuclei are also slightly elongate toward the flagellum, the proximal centriole is partially inside the nuclear fossa and anterior and oblique to the distal centriole, and the midpiece is short and strongly asymmetric. Additionally, M. nigripinnis shares with the other members of the Stevardiinae the presence of only four teeth in the inner row of the premaxillary and a short triangular ectopterygoid, which is never more than twice the length of the palatine.

  9. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  10. Crystal structures of two transcriptional regulators from Bacillus cereus define the conserved structural features of a PadR subfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guntur Fibriansah

    Full Text Available PadR-like transcriptional regulators form a structurally-related family of proteins that control the expression of genes associated with detoxification, virulence and multi-drug resistance in bacteria. Only a few members of this family have been studied by genetic, biochemical and biophysical methods, and their structure/function relationships are still largely undefined. Here, we report the crystal structures of two PadR-like proteins from Bacillus cereus, which we named bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 (products of gene loci BC4206 and BCE3449 in strains ATCC 14579 and ATCC 10987, respectively. BC4206, together with its neighboring gene BC4207, was previously shown to become significantly upregulated in presence of the bacteriocin AS-48. DNA mobility shift assays reveal that bcPadR1 binds to a 250 bp intergenic region containing the putative BC4206-BC4207 promoter sequence, while in-situ expression of bcPadR1 decreases bacteriocin tolerance, together suggesting a role for bcPadR1 as repressor of BC4206-BC4207 transcription. The function of bcPadR2 (48% identical in sequence to bcPadR1 is unknown, but the location of its gene just upstream from genes encoding a putative antibiotic ABC efflux pump, suggests a role in regulating antibiotic resistance. The bcPadR proteins are structurally similar to LmrR, a PadR-like transcription regulator in Lactococcus lactis that controls expression of a multidrug ABC transporter via a mechanism of multidrug binding and induction. Together these proteins define a subfamily of conserved, relatively small PadR proteins characterized by a single C-terminal helix for dimerization. Unlike LmrR, bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 lack a central pore for ligand binding, making it unclear whether the transcriptional regulatory roles of bcPadR1 and bcPadR2 involve direct ligand recognition and induction.

  11. Taxonomy of the genus Brachyteles Spix, 1823 and its phylogenetic position within the subfamily Atelinae Gray, 1825

    OpenAIRE

    José Eduardo Serrano Villavicencio

    2016-01-01

    Muriquis, genus Brachyteles Spix, 1823, are the largest of the extant New World primates, and they are one of the three extant genera of the subfamily Atelinae along with Ateles (spider monkeys) and Lagothrix (wooly monkeys). The taxonomy of Brachyteles has constantly changed since its first description in the 19th century. First treated as a monotypic genus, and after several modifications in the number of species, Brachyteles currently contains two species, B. arachnoides (Southern muriqui)...

  12. Origin and evolution of GALA-LRR, a new member of the CC-LRR subfamily: from plants to bacteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V Kajava

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum encodes type III effectors, called GALA proteins, which contain F-box and LRR domains. The GALA LRRs do not perfectly fit any of the previously described LRR subfamilies. By applying protein sequence analysis and structural prediction, we clarify this ambiguous case of LRR classification and assign GALA-LRRs to CC-LRR subfamily. We demonstrate that side-by-side packing of LRRs in the 3D structures may control the limits of repeat variability within the LRR subfamilies during evolution. The LRR packing can be used as a criterion, complementing the repeat sequences, to classify newly identified LRR domains. Our phylogenetic analysis of F-box domains proposes the lateral gene transfer of bacterial GALA proteins from host plants. We also present an evolutionary scenario which can explain the transformation of the original plant LRRs into slightly different bacterial LRRs. The examination of the selective evolutionary pressure acting on GALA proteins suggests that the convex side of their horse-shoe shaped LRR domains is more prone to positive selection than the concave side, and we therefore hypothesize that the convex surface might be the site of protein binding relevant to the adaptor function of the F-box GALA proteins. This conclusion provides a strong background for further functional studies aimed at determining the role of these type III effectors in the virulence of R. solanacearum.

  13. RINL, guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rab5-subfamily, is involved in the EphA8-degradation pathway with odin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kajiho

    Full Text Available The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases plays a vital role in membrane trafficking. Its active GTP-bound state is driven by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs. Ras and Rab interactor (or Ras interaction/interference-like (RINL, which contains a conserved VPS9 domain critical for GEF action, was recently identified as a new Rab5 subfamily GEF in vitro. However, its detailed function and interacting molecules have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we found that RINL has GEF activity for the Rab5 subfamily proteins by measuring their GTP-bound forms in cultured cells. We also found that RINL interacts with odin, a member of the ankyrin-repeat and sterile-alpha motif (SAM domain-containing (Anks protein family. In addition, the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA8 formed a ternary complex with both RINL and odin. Interestingly, RINL expression in cultured cells reduced EphA8 levels in a manner dependent on both its GEF activity and interaction with odin. In addition, knockdown of RINL increased EphA8 level in HeLa cells. Our findings suggest that RINL, as a GEF for Rab5 subfamily, is implicated in the EphA8-degradation pathway via its interaction with odin.

  14. The Expanding Universe: Dark Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoln, Don [Fermilab; Nord, Brian [Fermilab

    2014-09-01

    In 1998, observations of distant supernovae led physicists that not only was the universe expanding, but the expansion was speeding up. In this article, we describe the evidence for an expanding universe and describe what physicists and cosmologists have learned in the intervening years. The target audience for this article is high school physics teachers and college physics professors at teaching institutions.

  15. The expanding universe: an introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Pössel, Markus

    2017-01-01

    An introduction to the physics and mathematics of the expanding universe, using no more than high-school level / undergraduate mathematics. Covered are the basics of scale factor expansion, the dynamics of the expanding universe, various distance concepts and the generalized redshift-luminosity relation, among other topics.

  16. Multilocus molecular phylogeny of the suckermouth armored catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) with a focus on subfamily Hypostominae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Nathan K; Armbruster, Jonathan W; Lovejoy, Nathan R; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae is the fifth most species-rich vertebrate family on Earth, with over 800 valid species. The Hypostominae is its most species-rich, geographically widespread, and ecomorphologically diverse subfamily. Here, we provide a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of genus-level relationships in the Hypostominae based on our sequencing and analysis of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (4293bp total). Our most striking large-scale systematic discovery was that the tribe Hypostomini, which has traditionally been recognized as sister to tribe Ancistrini based on morphological data, was nested within Ancistrini. This required recognition of seven additional tribe-level clades: the Chaetostoma Clade, the Pseudancistrus Clade, the Lithoxus Clade, the 'Pseudancistrus' Clade, the Acanthicus Clade, the Hemiancistrus Clade, and the Peckoltia Clade. Results of our analysis, which included type- and non-type species for every valid genus in Hypostominae, support the reevaluation and restriction of several historically problematic genera, including Baryancistrus, Cordylancistrus, Hemiancistrus, and Peckoltia. Much of the deep lineage diversity in Hypostominae is restricted to Guiana Shield and northern Andean drainages, with three tribe-level clades still largely restricted to the Guiana Shield. Of the six geographically widespread clades, a paraphyletic assemblage of three contain lineages restricted to drainages west of the Andes Mountains, suggesting that early diversification of the Hypostominae predated the late Miocene surge in Andean uplift. Our results also highlight examples of trophic ecological diversification and convergence in the Loricariidae, including support for three independent origins of highly similar and globally unique morphological specializations for eating wood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparative anatomy of the cheek muscles within the Centromochlinae subfamily (Ostariophysi, Siluriformes, Auchenipteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento-Soares, Luisa Maria; Porto, Marcovan

    2006-02-01

    Glanidium melanopterum Miranda Ribeiro, a typical representative of the subfamily Centromochlinae (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae), is herein described myologically and compared to other representative species within the group, Glanidium ribeiroi, G. leopardum, Tatia neivai, T. intermedia, T. creutzbergi, Centromochlus heckelii, and C. existimatus. The structure of seven pairs of striated cephalic muscles was compared anatomically: adductor mandibulae, levator arcus palatini, dilatator operculi, adductor arcus palatini, extensor tentaculi, retractor tentaculi, and levator operculi. We observed broad adductor mandibulae muscles in both Glanidium and Tatia, catfishes with depressed heads and smaller eyes. Similarities between muscles were observed: the presence of a large aponeurotic insertion for the levator arcus palatini muscle; an adductor arcus palatini muscle whose origin spread over the orbitosphenoid, pterosphenoid, and parasphenoid; and the extensor tentaculi muscle broadly attached to the autopalatine. There is no retractor tentaculi muscle in either the Glanidium or Tatia species. On the other hand, in Centromochlus, with forms having large eyes and the tallest head, the adductor mandibulae muscles are slim; there is a thin aponeurotic or muscular insertion for the levator arcus palatini muscle; the adductor arcus palatini muscle originates from a single osseous process, forming a keel on the parasphenoid; the extensor tentaculi muscle is loosely attached to the autopalatine, permitting exclusive rotating and sliding movements between this bone and the maxillary. The retractor tentaculi muscle is connected to the maxilla through a single tendon, so that both extensor and retractor tentaculi muscles contribute to a wide array of movements of the maxillary barbels. A discussion on the differences in autopalatine-maxillary movements among the analyzed groups is given. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Unusual evolutionary conservation and further species-specific adaptations of a large family of nonclassical MHC class Ib genes across different degrees of genome ploidy in the amphibian subfamily Xenopodinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Goyos, Ana; Taran, Joseph; De Jesús Andino, Francisco; Ohta, Yuko; Robert, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Nonclassical MHC class Ib (class Ib) genes are a family of highly diverse and rapidly evolving genes wherein gene numbers, organization, and expression markedly differ even among closely related species rendering class Ib phylogeny difficult to establish. Whereas among mammals there are few unambiguous class Ib gene orthologs, different amphibian species belonging to the anuran subfamily Xenopodinae exhibit an unusually high degree of conservation among multiple class Ib gene lineages. Comparative genomic analysis of class Ib gene loci of two divergent (~65 million years) Xenopodinae subfamily members Xenopus laevis (allotetraploid) and Xenopus tropicalis (diploid) shows that both species possess a large cluster of class Ib genes denoted as Xenopus/Silurana nonclassical (XNC/SNC). Our study reveals two distinct phylogenetic patterns among these genes: some gene lineages display a high degree of flexibility, as demonstrated by species-specific expansion and contractions, whereas other class Ib gene lineages have been maintained as monogenic subfamilies with very few changes in their nucleotide sequence across divergent species. In this second category, we further investigated the XNC/SNC10 gene lineage that in X. laevis is required for the development of a distinct semi-invariant T cell population. We report compelling evidence of the remarkable high degree of conservation of this gene lineage that is present in all 12 species of the Xenopodinae examined, including species with different degrees of ploidy ranging from 2, 4, 8 to 12 N. This suggests that the critical role of XNC10 during early T cell development is conserved in amphibians.

  19. Revision of Drusinae subfamily (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: divergence by paraproct and paramere: speciation in isolation by integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, János

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have described over 70 new incipient sibling limnephild species applying the discovered Trichoptera speciation traits of the paraproct and paramere for species recognition and delimitation. In this revision on Drusinae subfamily, comprising 177 species, we have applied these subtle, but rapid and stable speciation traits and described 49 new sibling species from the “well studied” European mountain ranges. Discussing the theoretical background we have elaborated and adapted a new character state ranking system of phenomics to revise the long-neglected taxonomy of the Drusinae subfamily and synonymised the Cryptothrix, Monocentra, Metanoea, Leptodrusus, Anomalopterygella, Hadimina genera with the Drusus genus. These old genera of artificial constructs were established exclusively by divergences of secondary sexual traits known already to have only species level ranking value. According to our new character ranking system in the Drusinae subfamily, beside the Drusus genus, only the Ecclisopteryx genus has been retained having robust generic level divegences of paraproct loss and ancestral duplication of spine organising centre on the paramere pattern. Speciation trait function of the peg-packed surface on the paraproct head in Drusus genus moved to the gonopod apices and integrated into variously shaped stimulatory organ in the Ecclisopteryx genus. In the Drusus genus the ancestral divergence of the single spine organising centre has integrated 11 species groups with remarkably stable paramere spine pattern. Based upon ancestral divergences in the paraproct architecture we have differenciated 28 species complexes inside the 11 species groups. The delineation of the 163 mostly incipient siblings species, inside the 28 species complexes with 44 new Drusus species, was based primarily on the divergences of speciation trait, that is in the stimulatory head shape of the apical arms on the dorsal branches of the paraproct

  20. MoEDAL expands

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The MoEDAL collaboration deployed a test array of 18 plastic Nuclear Track Etch Detector (NTD) stacks – covering an area of 1 m2 – in the MoEDAL/VELO cavern at Point 8 of the LHC ring in November 2009. This small array was supplemented by a further 110 stacks this past January. The MoEDAL test array, which now covers an area of 8 m2, will reveal its secrets early in 2013. The full MoEDAL detector will be installed in the next long shutdown of the LHC in 2013.   View of the MoEDAL detectors installed at Point 8 of the LHC ring in January 2011. MoEDAL (Monopole and Exotics Detector At the LHC), the seventh LHC experiment, was approved by the CERN Research Board at the end of 2009. Its goal is to search for very specific exotics such as highly ionising massive stable (or pseudo-stable) particles with conventional electrical charge and magnetic monopoles. “The main LHC experiments are designed to detect conventionally charged particles, with conventional ionisation patte...

  1. A REVISION OF THE PLIOCENE NATICIDS OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL ITALY. II. THE SUBFAMILY NATICINAE: ADDITIONS TO COCHLIS, TANEA AND TECTONATICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA PEDRIALI

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is the second in a series devoted to the revision of the Pliocene naticids of Northern and Central Italy. It concludes the section covering the calcareous operculum-bearing Naticinae and expands to 18 the total number of species and subspecies of this subfamily recovered so far from the Pliocene deposits of Italy. Of the six taxa considered in this study, two (epigloafuniculata and fredianii fully match the characters of the genus Cochlis Röding, 1798, one (koeneni is assigned to the genus Tanea Marwick, 1931, the rest (astensis, prietoi and tectula belong to the genus Tectonatica Sacco, 1890. All the six taxa considered in this paper are described and commented in the systematic account. One, Cochlis fredianii, is proposed as new. In the chapter treating the generic assignment of the studied taxa, the range of Tanea, hitherto used to allocate several Indo-Pacific species, is extended to the Mediterranean Basin as well, and the relations between Tectonatica and Cryptonatica Dall, 1892 are discussed. This study further demonstrates that the morphological characters of the teleoconch are of low significance in species recognition. In fact, should the characters be ranked, the operculum comes first and is the primary element, sufficient to distinguish each species. The protoconch and the color pattern are the second and third relevant attributes that can be used diagnostically for several taxa, but not always. The other shell features appear to be useful tools in separating species only occasionally. Some species lack distinctive shell characters and do require operculate specimens in order to be confidently 

  2. An ATP-binding cassette subfamily G full transporter is essential for the retention of leaf water in both wild barley and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Nawrath, Christiane; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Tagiri, Akemi; Hu, Yin-Gang; Sameri, Mohammad; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Nair, Sudha; Wang, Ning; Miyao, Akio; Sakuma, Shun; Yamaji, Naoki; Zheng, Xiuting; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-07-26

    Land plants have developed a cuticle preventing uncontrolled water loss. Here we report that an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G (ABCG) full transporter is required for leaf water conservation in both wild barley and rice. A spontaneous mutation, eibi1.b, in wild barley has a low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. Map-based cloning revealed that Eibi1 encodes an HvABCG31 full transporter. The gene was highly expressed in the elongation zone of a growing leaf (the site of cutin synthesis), and its gene product also was localized in developing, but not in mature tissue. A de novo wild barley mutant named "eibi1.c," along with two transposon insertion lines of rice mutated in the ortholog of HvABCG31 also were unable to restrict water loss from detached leaves. HvABCG31 is hypothesized to function as a transporter involved in cutin formation. Homologs of HvABCG31 were found in green algae, moss, and lycopods, indicating that this full transporter is highly conserved in the evolution of land plants.

  3. New generation expandable sand screens

    OpenAIRE

    Syltøy, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering This thesis aims to give a general insight into sand control and various sorts of sand control measures and applications of sand control tools. Special focus will be given to expandable sand screens – a technology which came about in the late 1990’s through the use of flexible, expandable tubulars as base pipe in sand screens. More specifically Darcy’s Hydraulic Endurance Screens, a compliant sand screen system using hydraulic activation, and the fu...

  4. Neutrinos in an expanding Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigmans, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The Universe contains several billion neutrinos for each nucleon. In this paper, we follow the history of these relic neutrinos as the Universe expanded. At present, their typical velocity is a few hundred km/s and, therefore, their spectra are affected by gravitational forces. This may have led to a phenomenon that could explain two of todays great mysteries: The large-scale structure of the Universe and the increasing rate at which it expands. (paper)

  5. Freyinae, a major new subfamily of Neotropical jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, G B

    2015-11-02

    Freyinae, new subfamily, is described for a group of genera of Neotropical jumping spiders that can be distinguished from other non-ant mimic salticoid Neotropical salticids by having the following three morphological features: a slightly more elongate carapace, a distinctive prolateral tibial macrosetae arrangement (medially placed subdistal and subproximal macrosetae, with a subdorsal medial macroseta in some males), and an unusual dorsoventrally thick tegulum basal division (although one or two of these features are sometimes lost). It includes 20 genera previously considered valid, of which 19 are retained: Akela Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Aphirape C.L. Koch, 1850, Asaracus C.L. Koch, 1846, Capidava Simon, 1902, Chira Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Edilemma Ruiz & Brescovit, 2006, Eustiromastix Simon, 1902, Freya C.L. Koch, 1850, Frigga C.L. Koch, 1850, Kalcerrytus Galiano, 2000, Nycerella Galiano, 1982, Onofre Ruiz & Brescovit, 2007, Pachomius Peckham & Peckham, 1896, Phiale C.L. Koch, 1846, Rishaschia Makhan, 2006, Sumampattus Galiano, 1983, Trydarssus Galiano, 1995, Tullgrenella Mello‑Leitão, 1941, and Wedoquella Galiano, 1984. Romitia Caporiacco, 1947 (and its synonym Uspachus Galiano, 1995) is synonymized with Pachomius, new synonymy. New genera described in the subfamily are: Drizztius, Leptofreya, Megafreya, Philira, Tarkas, Triggella, and Xanthofreya. The following nomenclatorial changes are made: New synonyms: Freya demarcata Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 = Freya (sub Cyrene) albosignata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Freya (sub Cyrene) grisea (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) = Freya (sub Cyrene) infuscata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Freya (sub Cyrene) emarginata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901) and Nycerella (sub Heraclea) sanguinea paradoxa (Peckham & Peckham, 1896) = Nycerella (sub Heraclea) sanguinea (Peckham & Peckham, 1896); Pachomius (sub Phiale) maculosus (Chickering, 1946) = Phiale (sub Cyrene) bilobata (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1901); Phiale (sub Cyrene) mediocava (F

  6. Rupture of an expander prosthesis mimics axillary cancer recurrence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismael, T

    2005-10-01

    Regional silicone gel migration from a ruptured breast implant has been reported at different locations including the upper extremity, chest wall muscles, axilla and back. We report a patient who presented with an axillary mass that mimicked a regional recurrence 5 years after breast cancer reconstruction with a latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flap and silicon gel expander-prosthesis. Surgical exploration revealed that the mass contained silicone gel around the port of the breast expander that had ruptured. The mass was confluent with an intracapsular silicone leak through a tract along the tube of the expander port.

  7. Sea snakes in Australian waters (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae)—a review with an updated identification key

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate Laura; Guinea, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Sea snakes (Elapidae, subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) reach high species richness in the South China Sea and in the Australian region; however, most countries in the two regions still lack up-to-date checklists and identification tools for these snakes. We present an updated reviewed...... checklist and a new complete identification key to sea snakes in Australian waters. The identification key includes 29 species documented and 4 possibly occurring taxa and is based mostly on easy-to-use external characters. We find no evidence for breeding populations of Laticauda in Australian waters...

  8. Cloning of MASK, a novel member of mammalian germinal center kinase-III subfamily, with apoptosis-inducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Ippeita; Ong, Shao-En; Watanabe, Norinobu M

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned a novel human GCK family kinase that has been designated as MASK (Mst3 and SOK1-related kinase). MASK is widely expressed and encodes a protein of 416 amino acid residues, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a unique C-terminal region. Like other GCK-III subfamily kinases, MASK do...... apoptosis upon overexpression in mammalian cells that is abrogated by CrmA, suggesting involvement of MASK in the apoptotic machinery in mammalian cells. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Feb-22...

  9. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  10. The first mitochondrial genome for the fishfly subfamily Chauliodinae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Megaloptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Wang

    Full Text Available Megaloptera are a basal holometabolous insect order with larvae exclusively predacious and aquatic. The evolutionary history of Megaloptera attracts great interest because of its antiquity and important systematic status in Holometabola. However, due to the difficulties identifying morphological apomorphies for the group, controversial hypotheses on the monophyly and higher phylogeny of Megaloptera have been proposed. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt genome of a fishfly species, Neochauliodes punctatolosus Liu & Yang, 2006, representing the first mt genome of the subfamily Chauliodinae. A phylogenomic analysis was carried out based on the mt genomic sequences of 13 mt protein-coding genes (PCGs and two rRNA genes of nine Neuropterida species, comprising all three orders of Neuropterida and all families and subfamilies of Megaloptera. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support the monophyly of Megaloptera, which was recovered as the sister of Neuroptera. Within Megaloptera, the sister relationship between Corydalinae and Chauliodinae was corroborated. The divergence time estimation suggests that stem lineage of Neuropterida and Coleoptera separated in the Early Permian. The interordinal divergence within Neuropterida might have occurred in the Late Permian.

  11. Role for ribosome-associated complex and stress-seventy subfamily B (RAC-Ssb) in integral membrane protein translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Sampson, Ligia; Döring, Kristina; Lin, Yuping; Yu, Vivian Y; Bukau, Bernd; Kramer, Günter; Cate, Jamie H D

    2017-12-01

    Targeting of most integral membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum is controlled by the signal recognition particle, which recognizes a hydrophobic signal sequence near the protein N terminus. Proper folding of these proteins is monitored by the unfolded protein response and involves protein degradation pathways to ensure quality control. Here, we identify a new pathway for quality control of major facilitator superfamily transporters that occurs before the first transmembrane helix, the signal sequence recognized by the signal recognition particle, is made by the ribosome. Increased rates of translation elongation of the N-terminal sequence of these integral membrane proteins can divert the nascent protein chains to the ribosome-associated complex and stress-seventy subfamily B chaperones. We also show that quality control of integral membrane proteins by ribosome-associated complex-stress-seventy subfamily B couples translation rate to the unfolded protein response, which has implications for understanding mechanisms underlying human disease and protein production in biotechnology. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Stability of expanded plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the stabilization of the expanded plasma focus formed by 4.5 kJ plasma focus device of Mather type by magnetic field is presented. The experimental results of the induced axial magnetic field and electric probe measurements of the expanded plasma focus show that, the plasma consists of three plasmoids, electron temperature measurements off the plasmoids at a point close to the muzzle are 26 eV, 30 eV and 27 eV respectively and the electron densities are 6.6 x 10 14 , 6.1 x 10 14 / cm 3 respectively. The presence of external axial magnetic field (B 2 = 1.6 kg) at the mid distance between the breech and the muzzle has a less effect on the stability of expanded focus and it causes a restriction for the plasma motion. the electron temperature of the three plasmoids are found to increase in that case by 23%, 18.5% respectively. When this axial magnetic field is applied at the muzzle end, it leads to a more stable expanded plasma focus which consists mainly of one plasmoid with electron temperature of 39 eV and density of 3.4 x 10 14 / cm 3 . 5 figs

  13. 'In situ' expanded graphite extinguishant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Qixin; Shou Yuemei; He Bangrong

    1987-01-01

    This report is concerning the development of the extinguishant for sodium fire and the investigation of its extinguishing property. The experiment result shows that 'in situ' expanded graphite developed by the authors is a kind of extinguishant which extinguishes sodium fire quickly and effectively and has no environment pollution during use and the amount of usage is little

  14. EFFECT OF INCORPORATING EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of ... structure. [1] reported that the standard workability tests are not suitable for the polystyrene aggregate concrete since they are sensitive to the unit weight of concrete. [2] made ...

  15. Expanding the Universe of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Elizabeth

    1996-01-01

    Definitions of "education" and "rural" are debunked and expanded. The three major tasks of rural education are educating people to understand their own needs, the unavoidable changes that will transform rural Australia within their lifetimes, and the range of technologies that can enhance their well-being. Presents a strategy…

  16. HCV Proteins and Immunoglobulin Variable Gene (IgV Subfamilies in HCV-Induced Type II Mixed Cryoglobulinemia: A Concurrent Pathogenetic Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Sautto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  17. HCV proteins and immunoglobulin variable gene (IgV) subfamilies in HCV-induced type II mixed cryoglobulinemia: a concurrent pathogenetic role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sautto, Giuseppe; Mancini, Nicasio; Solforosi, Laura; Diotti, Roberta A; Clementi, Massimo; Burioni, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The association between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type II mixed cryoglobulinemia (MCII) is well established, but the role played by distinct HCV proteins and by specific components of the anti-HCV humoral immune response remains to be clearly defined. It is widely accepted that HCV drives the expansion of few B-cell clones expressing a restricted pool of selected immunoglobulin variable (IgV) gene subfamilies frequently endowed with rheumatoid factor (RF) activity. Moreover, the same IgV subfamilies are frequently observed in HCV-transformed malignant B-cell clones occasionally complicating MCII. In this paper, we analyze both the humoral and viral counterparts at the basis of cryoglobulins production in HCV-induced MCII, with particular attention reserved to the single IgV subfamilies most frequently involved.

  18. Expanding the Game Design Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Majgaard, Gunver

    2016-01-01

    This article considers game design research in educational settings. Its focus is on how undergraduate students – particularly engineering students – learn computer game design. From observations conducted during our game design courses we have developed a model of expanded game design space...... layer establishes correspondence between formal elements of computer games and the structure of problem-based creativity. It addresses how game design challenges should be formulated and how creative solutions can be measured. The fourth and final layer demonstrates how clear framing can act....... It encapsulates the entire development process from the first ideas to the final game with emphasis on game design thinking. Our model of expanded game design space consists of four separate – yet interconnected – layers in the process of game development. The first layer addresses the importance of framing...

  19. Seal-less cryogenic expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, L.E.; Christopher, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    In an expander for use in a split Stirling cycle refrigeration system of the type wherein a displacer moves with reciprocating motion inside an expander housing, and wherein a plunger force and a regenerator force are formed on the displacer, the plunger force cyclically varying and having a time of minimum and maximum plunger force amplitude, and the regenerator force cyclically varying and having a time of minimum and maximum regenerator force amplitude, the improvement is described comprising: (a) means for maintaining displacer forces, such that the maximum plunger force amplitude is substantially equal to the maximum regenerator force amplitude; and (b) means for adjusting a time difference, the time difference being the time between the time of maximum plunger force and the time of maximum regenerator force such that a measure of the cooling power of the refrigeration system is maximized

  20. Sex difference in induction of hepatic CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzymes by nicardipine and nifedipine in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, Yoshihiro; Sekimoto, Masashi; Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Degawa, Masakuni

    2004-01-01

    Male and female of F344 rats were treated per os with nicardipine (Nic) and nifedipine (Nif), and changes in the levels of mRNA and protein of hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, CYP2B1, CYP2B2, CYP3A1, CYP3A2, CYP3A9, and CYP3A18 were examined. Furthermore, hepatic microsomal activities for pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylation (PROD) and nifedipine oxidation, which are mainly mediated by CYP2B and CYP3A subfamily enzymes, respectively, were measured. Analyses of RT-PCR and Western blotting revealed that Nic and Nif induced predominantly CYP3A and CYP2B enzymes, respectively. As for the gene activation of CYP2B enzymes, especially CYP2B1, Nif showed high capacity in both sexes of rats, whereas Nic did a definite capacity in the males but little in the females. Gene activations of CYP3A1, CYP3A2, and CYP3A18 by Nic occurred in both sexes of rats, although that of CYP3A9 did only in the male rats. Although gene activations of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 by Nif were observed in both sexes of rats, a slight activation of the CYP3A9 gene occurred only in female rats, and the CYP3A18 gene activation, in neither male nor female rats. Thus, changes in levels of the mRNA or protein of CYP2B and CYP3A enzymes, especially CYP2B1 and CYP3A2, were closely correlated with those in hepatic PROD and nifedipine oxidation activities, respectively. The present findings demonstrate for the first time the sex difference in the Nic- and Nif-mediated induction of hepatic P450 enzymes in rats and further indicate that Nic and Nif show different specificities and sex dependencies in the induction of hepatic P450 enzymes

  1. Potential role of melastatin-related transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M gene expression in the pathogenesis of urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Gülay Güleç; Önalan, Ebru Etem; Kuloğlu, Tuncay; Aydoğ, Gülten; Keleş, İbrahim; Tonyali, Şenol; Ceylan, Cavit

    2016-12-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the urinary tract. Ion channels and calcium homeostasis are involved in almost all basic cellular mechanisms. The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M (TRPM) takes its name from the melastatin protein, which is classified as potential tumor suppressor. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous studies in the literature investigating the role of these ion channels in bladder cancer. The present study aimed to determine whether bladder cancer is associated with mRNA expression levels of TRPM ion channel genes, and whether there is the potential to conduct further studies to establish novel treatment modalities. The present study included a total of 47 subjects, of whom 40 were bladder cancer patients and 7 were controls. Following the histopathological evaluation for bladder carcinoma, the mRNA and protein expression of TRPM were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and immunohistochemistry in tumor and normal tissues, in order to determine whether there is a difference in the expression of these channels in tumor and normal tissues. Immunoreactivity for TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPM8 was observed in epithelial bladder cells in the two groups. RT-qPCR revealed a significant increase in TRPM7 expression in bladder cancer tissue compared to the controls (healthy bladder tissue), whereas no differences in TRPM2 or TRPM4 expression levels were observed. There were significant reductions in the expression levels of TRPM5 and TRPM8 in bladder cancer tissues. In the present study, the effects of TRP ion channels on the formation of bladder cancer was investigated. This study is instructive for TRPM2, TRPM4, TRPM5, TRPM7 and TRPM8 and their therapeutic role in bladder cancer. The results support the fact that these gens can be novel targets and can also be tested for during the treatment of bladder cancer.

  2. Selective ATP-Binding Cassette Subfamily C Gene Expression and Proinflammatory Mediators Released by BEAS-2B after PM2.5, Budesonide, and Cotreated Exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarline Encarnación-Medina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette subfamily C (ABCC genes code for phase III metabolism proteins that translocate xenobiotic (e.g., particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 and drug metabolites outside the cells. IL-6 secretion is related with the activation of the ABCC transporters. This study assesses ABCC1–4 gene expression changes and proinflammatory cytokine (IL-6, IL-8 release in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B exposed to PM2.5 organic extract, budesonide (BUD, used to control inflammation in asthmatic patients, and a cotreatment (Co-T: PM2.5 and BUD. A real-time PCR assay shows that ABCC1 was upregulated in BEAS-2B exposed after 6 and 7 hr to PM2.5 extract or BUD but downregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T. ABCC3 was downregulated after 6 hr of BUD and upregulated after 6 hr of the Co-T exposures. ABCC4 was upregulated after 5 hr of PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T exposures. The cytokine assay revealed an increase in IL-6 release by BEAS-2B exposed after 5 hr to PM2.5 extract, BUD, and the Co-T. At 7 hr, the Co-T decreases IL-6 release and IL-8 at 6 hr. In conclusion, the cotreatment showed an opposite effect on exposed BEAS-2B as compared with BUD. The results suggest an interference of the BUD therapeutic potential by PM2.5.

  3. DISRUPTIVE TECHNOLOGIES: AN EXPANDED VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    JAMES M. UTTERBACK; HAPPY J. ACEE

    2005-01-01

    The term "disruptive technology" as coined by Christensen (1997, The Innovator's Dilemma; How New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail. Harvard Business School Press) refers to a new technology having lower cost and performance measured by traditional criteria, but having higher ancillary performance. Christensen finds that disruptive technologies may enter and expand emerging market niches, improving with time and ultimately attacking established products in their traditional markets. This...

  4. Entropy in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frautschi, S.

    1982-01-01

    The question of how the observed evolution of organized structures from initial chaos in the expanding universe can be reconciled with the laws of statistical mechanics is studied, with emphasis on effects of the expansion and gravity. Some major sources of entropy increase are listed. An expanding causal region is defined in which the entropy, though increasing, tends to fall further and further behind its maximum possible value, thus allowing for the development of order. The related questions of whether entropy will continue increasing without limit in the future, and whether such increase in the form of Hawking radiation or radiation from positronium might enable life to maintain itself permanently, are considered. Attempts to find a scheme for preserving life based on solid structures fail because events such as quantum tunneling recurrently disorganize matter on a very long but fixed time scale, whereas all energy sources slow down progressively in an expanding universe. However, there remains hope that other modes of life capable of maintaining themselves permanently can be found

  5. Combining Amplification Typing of L1 Active Subfamilies (ATLAS) with High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbari, Raheleh; Badge, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of new generations of high-throughput sequencing technologies, the catalog of human genome variants created by retrotransposon activity is expanding rapidly. However, despite these advances in describing L1 diversity and the fact that L1 must retrotranspose in the germline or prior to germline partitioning to be evolutionarily successful, direct assessment of de novo L1 retrotransposition in the germline or early embryogenesis has not been achieved for endogenous L1 elements. A direct study of de novo L1 retrotransposition into susceptible loci within sperm DNA (Freeman et al., Hum Mutat 32(8):978-988, 2011) suggested that the rate of L1 retrotransposition in the germline is much lower than previously estimated (ATLAS L1 display technique (Badge et al., Am J Hum Genet 72(4):823-838, 2003) to investigate de novo L1 retrotransposition in human genomes. In this chapter, we describe how we combined a high-coverage ATLAS variant with high-throughput sequencing, achieving 11-25× sequence depth per single amplicon, to study L1 retrotransposition in whole genome amplified (WGA) DNAs.

  6. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Alex; McKelvy, Alexander D; Grismer, L Lee; Bell, Charles D; Lailvaux, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    With over 3,500 species encompassing a diverse range of morphologies and ecologies, snakes make up 36% of squamate diversity. Despite several attempts at estimating higher-level snake relationships and numerous assessments of generic- or species-level phylogenies, a large-scale species-level phylogeny solely focusing on snakes has not been completed. Here, we provide the largest-yet estimate of the snake tree of life using maximum likelihood on a supermatrix of 1745 taxa (1652 snake species + 7 outgroup taxa) and 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nuclear, 5 mitochondrial), including previously unsequenced genera (2) and species (61). Increased taxon sampling resulted in a phylogeny with a new higher-level topology and corroborate many lower-level relationships, strengthened by high nodal support values (> 85%) down to the species level (73.69% of nodes). Although the majority of families and subfamilies were strongly supported as monophyletic with > 88% support values, some families and numerous genera were paraphyletic, primarily due to limited taxon and loci sampling leading to a sparse supermatrix and minimal sequence overlap between some closely-related taxa. With all rogue taxa and incertae sedis species eliminated, higher-level relationships and support values remained relatively unchanged, except in five problematic clades. Our analyses resulted in new topologies at higher- and lower-levels; resolved several previous topological issues; established novel paraphyletic affiliations; designated a new subfamily, Ahaetuliinae, for the genera Ahaetulla, Chrysopelea, Dendrelaphis, and Dryophiops; and appointed Hemerophis (Coluber) zebrinus to a new genus, Mopanveldophis. Although we provide insight into some distinguished problematic nodes, at the deeper phylogenetic scale, resolution of these nodes may require sampling of more slowly-evolving nuclear genes.

  7. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvy, Alexander D.; Grismer, L. Lee; Bell, Charles D.; Lailvaux, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    Background With over 3,500 species encompassing a diverse range of morphologies and ecologies, snakes make up 36% of squamate diversity. Despite several attempts at estimating higher-level snake relationships and numerous assessments of generic- or species-level phylogenies, a large-scale species-level phylogeny solely focusing on snakes has not been completed. Here, we provide the largest-yet estimate of the snake tree of life using maximum likelihood on a supermatrix of 1745 taxa (1652 snake species + 7 outgroup taxa) and 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nuclear, 5 mitochondrial), including previously unsequenced genera (2) and species (61). Results Increased taxon sampling resulted in a phylogeny with a new higher-level topology and corroborate many lower-level relationships, strengthened by high nodal support values (> 85%) down to the species level (73.69% of nodes). Although the majority of families and subfamilies were strongly supported as monophyletic with > 88% support values, some families and numerous genera were paraphyletic, primarily due to limited taxon and loci sampling leading to a sparse supermatrix and minimal sequence overlap between some closely-related taxa. With all rogue taxa and incertae sedis species eliminated, higher-level relationships and support values remained relatively unchanged, except in five problematic clades. Conclusion Our analyses resulted in new topologies at higher- and lower-levels; resolved several previous topological issues; established novel paraphyletic affiliations; designated a new subfamily, Ahaetuliinae, for the genera Ahaetulla, Chrysopelea, Dendrelaphis, and Dryophiops; and appointed Hemerophis (Coluber) zebrinus to a new genus, Mopanveldophis. Although we provide insight into some distinguished problematic nodes, at the deeper phylogenetic scale, resolution of these nodes may require sampling of more slowly-evolving nuclear genes. PMID:27603205

  8. Characterization of the bovine type I IFN locus: rearrangements, expansions, and novel subfamilies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Angela M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Type I interferons (IFN have major roles in the innate immune response to viruses, a function that is believed to have led to expansion in the number and complexity of their genes, although these genes have remained confined to single chromosomal region in all mammals so far examined. IFNB and IFNE define the limits of the locus, with all other Type I IFN genes except IFNK distributed between these boundaries, strongly suggesting that the locus has broadened as IFN genes duplicated and then evolved into a series of distinct families. Results The Type I IFN locus in Bos taurus has undergone significant rearrangement and expansion compared to mouse and human, however, with the constituent genes separated into two sub-loci separated by >700 kb. The IFNW family is greatly expanded, comprising 24 potentially functional genes and at least 8 pseudogenes. The IFNB (n = 6, represented in human and mouse by one copy, are also present as multiple copies in Bos taurus. The IFNT, which encode a non-virally inducible, ruminant-specific IFN secreted by the pre-implantation conceptus, are represented by three genes and two pseudogenes. The latter have sequences intermediate between IFNT and IFNW. A new Type I IFN family (IFNX of four members, one of which is a pseudogene, appears to have diverged from the IFNA lineage at least 83 million years ago, but is absent in all other sequenced genomes with the possible exception of the horse, a non-ruminant herbivore. Conclusion In summary, we have provided the first comprehensive annotation of the Type I IFN locus in Bos taurus, thereby providing an insight into the functional evolution of the Type I IFN in ruminants. The diversity and global spread of the ruminant species may have required an expansion of the Type I IFN locus and its constituent genes to provide broad anti-viral protection required for foraging and foregut fermentation.

  9. Self-expanding/shrinking structures by 4D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodaghi, M.; Damanpack, A. R.; Liao, W. H.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to create adaptive structures capable of self-expanding and self-shrinking by means of four-dimensional printing technology. An actuator unit is designed and fabricated directly by printing fibers of shape memory polymers (SMPs) in flexible beams with different arrangements. Experiments are conducted to determine thermo-mechanical material properties of the fabricated part revealing that the printing process introduced a strong anisotropy into the printed parts. The feasibility of the actuator unit with self-expanding and self-shrinking features is demonstrated experimentally. A phenomenological constitutive model together with analytical closed-form solutions are developed to replicate thermo-mechanical behaviors of SMPs. Governing equations of equilibrium are developed for printed structures based on the non-linear Green-Lagrange strain tensor and solved implementing a finite element method along with an iterative incremental Newton-Raphson scheme. The material-structural model is then applied to digitally design and print SMP adaptive lattices in planar and tubular shapes comprising a periodic arrangement of SMP actuator units that expand and then recover their original shape automatically. Numerical and experimental results reveal that the proposed planar lattice as meta-materials can be employed for plane actuators with self-expanding/shrinking features or as structural switches providing two different dynamic characteristics. It is also shown that the proposed tubular lattice with a self-expanding/shrinking mechanism can serve as tubular stents and grippers for bio-medical or piping applications.

  10. First record of the subfamily Anoplophilinae (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae) from Russia with description of a new species of the genus Alpinanoplophilus Ishikawa, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhenko, Sergey Yu

    2015-06-17

    The subfamily Anoplophilinae (Rhaphidophopridae) is recorded from Russia for the first time. Alpinanoplophilus kurilensis Storozhenko, sp. nov. is described from Kunashir Island. The holotype of the new species is deposited in the Zoological Institute of Russian Academy of Science (St. Petersburg, Russia). A revised key to the species of the genus Alpinanoplophilus Ishikawa, 1993 is provided.

  11. Structure, computational and biochemical analysis of PcCel45A endoglucanase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium and catalytic mechanisms of GH45 subfamily C members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godoy, Andre S.; Pereira, Caroline S.; Ramia, Marina Paglione

    2018-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) of carbohydrate modifying enzymes is mostly comprised of ß-1,4-endoglucanases. Significant diversity between the GH45 members has prompted the division of this family into three subfamilies: A, B and C, which may differ in terms of the mechanism, general a...

  12. Phylogenetic and functional characterization of ten P450 genes from the CYP6AE subfamily of Helicoverpa armigera involved in xenobiotic metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Yu; Wang, Huidong; Liu, Zhi

    2018-01-01

    450s in this subfamily can metabolise imidacloprid, but with lower efficiency than Bemisia tabaci CYP6CM1vQ. CYP6AE20 had virtually no metabolic competence to these four compounds but could metabolise several model fluorogenic substrates. These results showed the broad substrate spectrum of H...

  13. Morphology of dental bones and teeth of selected representatives of the subfamily Anguinae (Squamata, Anguidae); Morfologia dentalnej kosti a zubov vybranych zastupcov podcelade Anguinae (Squamata, Anguinae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobiasova, K [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra ekologie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    The present study is focused on the comparative morphology of dental bones and teeth of all genuses of the subfamily Anguinae. The research did not show any relevant difference, which would serve as the basis for the return use of the original generic names. (authors)

  14. Differential epigenetic regulation of TOX subfamily high mobility group box genes in lung and breast cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathewos Tessema

    Full Text Available Aberrant cytosine methylation affects regulation of hundreds of genes during cancer development. In this study, a novel aberrantly hypermethylated CpG island in cancer was discovered within the TOX2 promoter. TOX2 was unmethylated in normal cells but 28% lung (n = 190 and 23% breast (n = 80 tumors were methylated. Expression of two novel TOX2 transcripts identified was significantly reduced in primary lung tumors than distant normal lung (p<0.05. These transcripts were silenced in methylated lung and breast cancer cells and 5-Aza-2-deoxycytidine treatment re-expressed both. Extension of these assays to TOX, TOX3, and TOX4 genes that share similar genomic structure and protein homology with TOX2 revealed distinct methylation profiles by smoking status, histology, and cancer type. TOX was almost exclusively methylated in breast (43% than lung (5% cancer, whereas TOX3 was frequently methylated in lung (58% than breast (30% tumors. TOX4 was unmethylated in all samples and showed the highest expression in normal lung. Compared to TOX4, expression of TOX, TOX2 and TOX3 in normal lung was 25, 44, and 88% lower, respectively, supporting the premise that reduced promoter activity confers increased susceptibility to methylation during lung carcinogenesis. Genome-wide assays revealed that siRNA-mediated TOX2 knockdown modulated multiple pathways while TOX3 inactivation targeted neuronal development and function. Although these knockdowns did not result in further phenotypic changes of lung cancer cells in vitro, the impact on tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, and cell differentiation pathways suggest a potential role for TOX2 in modulating tumor microenvironment.

  15. The phylogeny of the family Lacertidae (Reptilia) based on nuclear DNA sequences: convergent adaptations to arid habitats within the subfamily Eremiainae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Werner; Pavlicev, Mihaela

    2007-09-01

    The family Lacertidae encompasses more than 250 species distributed in the Palearctis, Ethiopis and Orientalis. Lacertids have been subjected in the past to several morphological and molecular studies to establish their phylogeny. However, the problems of convergent adaptation in morphology and of excessively variable molecular markers have hampered the establishment of well supported deeper phylogenetic relationships. Particularly the adaptations to xeric environments have often been used to establish a scenario for the origin and radiation of major lineages within lacertids. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear marker genes and representatives of 37 lacertid genera and distinct species groups (as in the case of the collective genus Lacerta). Roughly 1600 bp of the nuclear rag1 and c-mos genes were sequenced and analyzed. While the results provide good support to the hitherto suggested main subfamilies of Gallotiinae (Gallotia and Psammodromus), Eremiainae and Lacertinae [Harris, D.J., Arnold, E.N., Thomas, R.H., 1998. Relationships of lacertid lizards (Reptilia: Lacertidae) estimated from mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 265, 1939-1948], they also suggest unexpected relationships. In particular, the oriental genus Takydromus, previously considered the sister-group to the three subfamilies, is nested within Lacertinae. Moreover, the genera within the Eremiainae are further divided into two groups, roughly corresponding to their respective geographical distributions in the Ethiopian and the Saharo-Eurasian ranges. The results support an independent origin of adaptations to xeric conditions in different subfamilies. The relationships within the subfamily Lacertinae could not be resolved with the markers used. The species groups of the collective genus Lacerta show a bush-like topology in the inferred Bayesian tree, suggesting rapid radiation. The composition of the subfamilies Eremiainae and Lacertinae

  16. A multilocus phylogeny of Podoctidae (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores) and parametric shape analysis reveal the disutility of subfamilial nomenclature in armored harvestman systematics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sharma, P. P.; Santiago, M. A.; Kriebel, R.; Lipps, S. M.; Buenavente, P. A. C.; Diesmos, A. C.; Janda, Milan; Boyer, S. L.; Clouse, R. M.; Wheeler, W. C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, JAN 01 (2017), s. 164-173 ISSN 1055-7903 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : grassatores * morphology * comparative methods Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 4.419, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1055790316302445

  17. Structure of Human B12 Trafficking Protein CblD Reveals Molecular Mimicry and Identifies a New Subfamily of Nitro-FMN Reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuhiro; Gherasim, Carmen; Banerjee, Ruma; Koutmos, Markos

    2015-12-04

    In mammals, B12 (or cobalamin) is an essential cofactor required by methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. A complex intracellular pathway supports the assimilation of cobalamin into its active cofactor forms and delivery to its target enzymes. MMADHC (the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type D protein), commonly referred to as CblD, is a key chaperone involved in intracellular cobalamin trafficking, and mutations in CblD cause methylmalonic aciduria and/or homocystinuria. Herein, we report the first crystal structure of the globular C-terminal domain of human CblD, which is sufficient for its interaction with MMADHC (the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C protein), or CblC, and for supporting the cytoplasmic cobalamin trafficking pathway. CblD contains an α+β fold that is structurally reminiscent of the nitro-FMN reductase superfamily. Two of the closest structural relatives of CblD are CblC, a multifunctional enzyme important for cobalamin trafficking, and the activation domain of methionine synthase. CblD, CblC, and the activation domain of methionine synthase share several distinguishing features and, together with two recently described corrinoid-dependent reductive dehalogenases, constitute a new subclass within the nitro-FMN reductase superfamily. We demonstrate that CblD enhances oxidation of cob(II)alamin bound to CblC and that disease-causing mutations in CblD impair the kinetics of this reaction. The striking structural similarity of CblD to CblC, believed to be contiguous in the cobalamin trafficking pathway, suggests the co-option of molecular mimicry as a strategy for achieving its function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Expander for Thin-Wall Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessin, R.

    1983-01-01

    Tool locally expands small-diameter tubes. Tube expander locally expands and deforms tube: Compressive lateral stress induced in elastomeric sleeve by squeezing axially between two metal tool parts. Adaptable to situations in which tube must have small bulge for mechanical support or flow control.

  19. Instability of expanding bacterial droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Andrey; Rubio, Leonardo Dominguez; Brady, John F; Aranson, Igor S

    2018-04-03

    Suspensions of motile bacteria or synthetic microswimmers, termed active matter, manifest a remarkable propensity for self-organization, and formation of large-scale coherent structures. Most active matter research deals with almost homogeneous in space systems and little is known about the dynamics of strongly heterogeneous active matter. Here we report on experimental and theoretical studies on the expansion of highly concentrated bacterial droplets into an ambient bacteria-free fluid. The droplet is formed beneath a rapidly rotating solid macroscopic particle inserted in the suspension. We observe vigorous instability of the droplet reminiscent of a violent explosion. The phenomenon is explained in terms of continuum first-principle theory based on the swim pressure concept. Our findings provide insights into the dynamics of active matter with strong density gradients and significantly expand the scope of experimental and analytic tools for control and manipulation of active systems.

  20. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David

    2016-03-01

    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  1. SHEAR ACCELERATION IN EXPANDING FLOWS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieger, F. M. [ZAH, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Duffy, P., E-mail: frank.rieger@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: peter.duffy@ucd.ie [University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2016-12-10

    Shear flows are naturally expected to occur in astrophysical environments and potential sites of continuous non-thermal Fermi-type particle acceleration. Here we investigate the efficiency of expanding relativistic outflows to facilitate the acceleration of energetic charged particles to higher energies. To this end, the gradual shear acceleration coefficient is derived based on an analytical treatment. The results are applied to the context of the relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. The inferred acceleration timescale is investigated for a variety of conical flow profiles (i.e., power law, Gaussian, Fermi–Dirac) and compared to the relevant radiative and non-radiative loss timescales. The results exemplify that relativistic shear flows are capable of boosting cosmic-rays to extreme energies. Efficient electron acceleration, on the other hand, requires weak magnetic fields and may thus be accompanied by a delayed onset of particle energization and affect the overall jet appearance (e.g., core, ridge line, and limb-brightening).

  2. Nonlinear beam expander for ESNIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusthoi, D.P.; Blind, B.; Garnett, R.W.; Hanna, D.S.; Jason, A.J.; Kraus, R.H. Jr.; Neri, F.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the design of a beam-redistribution and expansion system for the Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) Energy Selective Neutron Irradiation Test Facility (ESNIT). The system tailors the beam exiting a deuteron accelerator at energies from 20 to 35 MeV for deposition on a lithium neutron-production target. A uniform beam-intensity distribution in a well-defined irradiation area is inquired at the target and is achieved by the use of nonlinear elements. The design of the high-energy beam transport (HEBT) for ESNIT includes a 90 degree achromatic bend, a matching section with an energy-compacting cavity, a nonlinear beam expander, a target imager, a shielding dipole, and an rf-cavity system to add energy spread to the beam before it impinges on the target. The system meets performance requirements at multiple energies and currents, and for different spot sizes on target

  3. Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab Is Conferred by Mutations in an ABC Transporter Subfamily A Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wee Tek Tay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of conventional chemical insecticides and bacterial toxins to control lepidopteran pests of global agriculture has imposed significant selection pressure leading to the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. Transgenic crops (e.g., cotton expressing the Bt Cry toxins are now used world wide to control these pests, including the highly polyphagous and invasive cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. Since 2004, the Cry2Ab toxin has become widely used for controlling H. armigera, often used in combination with Cry1Ac to delay resistance evolution. Isolation of H. armigera and H. punctigera individuals heterozygous for Cry2Ab resistance in 2002 and 2004, respectively, allowed aspects of Cry2Ab resistance (level, fitness costs, genetic dominance, complementation tests to be characterised in both species. However, the gene identity and genetic changes conferring this resistance were unknown, as was the detailed Cry2Ab mode of action. No cross-resistance to Cry1Ac was observed in mutant lines. Biphasic linkage analysis of a Cry2Ab-resistant H. armigera family followed by exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC marker mapping and candidate gene sequencing identified three independent resistance-associated INDEL mutations in an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC transporter gene we named HaABCA2. A deletion mutation was also identified in the H. punctigera homolog from the resistant line. All mutations truncate the ABCA2 protein. Isolation of further Cry2Ab resistance alleles in the same gene from field H. armigera populations indicates unequal resistance allele frequencies and the potential for Bt resistance evolution. Identification of the gene involved in resistance as an ABC transporter of the A subfamily adds to the body of evidence on the crucial role this gene family plays in the mode of action of the Bt Cry toxins. The structural differences between the ABCA2, and that of the C subfamily required for Cry1Ac toxicity, indicate differences in the

  4. Microbial Biofilms and Breast Tissue Expanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa J. Karau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously developed and validated a vortexing-sonication technique for detection of biofilm bacteria on the surface of explanted prosthetic joints. Herein, we evaluated this technique for diagnosis of infected breast tissue expanders and used it to assess colonization of breast tissue expanders. From April 2008 to December 2011, we studied 328 breast tissue expanders at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Of seven clinically infected breast tissue expanders, six (85.7% had positive cultures, one of which grew Propionibacterium species. Fifty-two of 321 breast tissue expanders (16.2%, 95% CI, 12.3–20.7% without clinical evidence of infection also had positive cultures, 45 growing Propionibacterium species and ten coagulase-negative staphylococci. While vortexing-sonication can detect clinically infected breast tissue expanders, 16 percent of breast tissue expanders appear to be asymptomatically colonized with normal skin flora, most commonly, Propionibacterium species.

  5. The molecular evolution of the p120-catenin subfamily and its functional associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert H Carnahan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available p120-catenin (p120 is the prototypical member of a subclass of armadillo-related proteins that includes δ-catenin/NPRAP, ARVCF, p0071, and the more distantly related plakophilins 1-3. In vertebrates, p120 is essential in regulating surface expression and stability of all classical cadherins, and directly interacts with Kaiso, a BTB/ZF family transcription factor.To clarify functional relationships between these proteins and how they relate to the classical cadherins, we have examined the proteomes of 14 diverse vertebrate and metazoan species. The data reveal a single ancient δ-catenin-like p120 family member present in the earliest metazoans and conserved throughout metazoan evolution. This single p120 family protein is present in all protostomes, and in certain early-branching chordate lineages. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that gene duplication and functional diversification into "p120-like" and "δ-catenin-like" proteins occurred in the urochordate-vertebrate ancestor. Additional gene duplications during early vertebrate evolution gave rise to the seven vertebrate p120 family members. Kaiso family members (i.e., Kaiso, ZBTB38 and ZBTB4 are found only in vertebrates, their origin following that of the p120-like gene lineage and coinciding with the evolution of vertebrate-specific mechanisms of epigenetic gene regulation by CpG island methylation.The p120 protein family evolved from a common δ-catenin-like ancestor present in all metazoans. Through several rounds of gene duplication and diversification, however, p120 evolved in vertebrates into an essential, ubiquitously expressed protein, whereas loss of the more selectively expressed δ-catenin, p0071 and ARVCF are tolerated in most species. Together with phylogenetic studies of the vertebrate cadherins, our data suggest that the p120-like and δ-catenin-like genes co-evolved separately with non-neural (E- and P-cadherin and neural (N- and R-cadherin cadherin lineages, respectively. The

  6. Molecular Docking Analysis of Ginger Active Compound on Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 1 (TRPV1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifteen Aprila Fajrin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginger had been reported to ameliorate painful diabetic neuropathy (PDN in an animal model. Gingerol and shogaol were active compounds of ginger that potentially act on transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1, a key receptor in PDN. This study aims to predict the binding of gingerol and shogaol to TRPV1 using an in silico model. The ligands of the docking study were 3 chemical compounds of each gingerol and shogaol, i.e. 6-shogaol, 8-shogaol, 10-shogaol, 6-gingerol, 8 gingerol and 10-gingerol. Capsaicin, a TRPV1 agonist, was used as a native ligand. The TRPV1 structure was taken from Protein Data Bank (ID 3J9J. The docking analysis was performed using Autodock Vina. The result showed that among the ginger active compounds, 6-shogaol had the strongest binding energy (-7.10 kcal/mol to TRPV1. The 6-shogaol lacked the potential hydrogen bond to Ile265 of TRPV1 protein, which capsacin had. However, it's binding energy towards TRPV1 was not significantly different compared to capsaicin. Therefore, 6-shogaol had potential to be developed as a treatment for PDN.

  7. Paralog-divergent Features May Help Reduce Off-target Effects of Drugs: Hints from Glucagon Subfamily Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhining Sa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Side effects from targeted drugs remain a serious concern. One reason is the nonselective binding of a drug to unintended proteins such as its paralogs, which are highly homologous in sequences and have similar structures and drug-binding pockets. To identify targetable differences between paralogs, we analyzed two types (type-I and type-II of functional divergence between two paralogs in the known target protein receptor family G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs at the amino acid level. Paralogous protein receptors in glucagon-like subfamily, glucagon receptor (GCGR and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R, exhibit divergence in ligands and are clinically validated drug targets for type 2 diabetes. Our data showed that type-II amino acids were significantly enriched in the binding sites of antagonist MK-0893 to GCGR, which had a radical shift in physicochemical properties between GCGR and GLP-1R. We also examined the role of type-I amino acids between GCGR and GLP-1R. The divergent features between GCGR and GLP-1R paralogs may be helpful in their discrimination, thus enabling the identification of binding sites to reduce undesirable side effects and increase the target specificity of drugs.

  8. The phylogeny of the social wasp subfamily Polistinae: evidence from microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strassmann Joan E

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social wasps in the subfamily Polistinae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae have been important in studies of the evolution of sociality, kin selection, and within colony conflicts of interest. These studies have generally been conducted within species, because a resolved phylogeny among species is lacking. We used nuclear DNA microsatellite flanking sequences, mitochondrial COI sequence, and morphological characters to generate a phylogeny for the Polistinae (Hymenoptera using 69 species. Results Our phylogeny is largely concordant with previous phylogenies at higher levels, and is more resolved at the species level. Our results support the monophyly of the New World subgenera of Polistini, while the Old World subgenera are a paraphyletic group. All genera for which we had more than one exemplar were supported as monophyletic except Polybia which is not resolved, and may be paraphyletic. Conclusion The combination of DNA sequences from flanks of microsatellite repeats with mtCOI sequences and morphological characters proved to be useful characters establishing relationships among the different subgenera and species of the Polistini. This is the first detailed hypothesis for the species of this important group.

  9. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinases of the GRK4 Protein Subfamily Phosphorylate Inactive G Protein-coupled Receptors (GPCRs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingyong; Homan, Kristoff T; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Manglik, Aashish; Tesmer, John J G; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Gurevich, Eugenia V

    2015-04-24

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play a key role in homologous desensitization of GPCRs. It is widely assumed that most GRKs selectively phosphorylate only active GPCRs. Here, we show that although this seems to be the case for the GRK2/3 subfamily, GRK5/6 effectively phosphorylate inactive forms of several GPCRs, including β2-adrenergic and M2 muscarinic receptors, which are commonly used as representative models for GPCRs. Agonist-independent GPCR phosphorylation cannot be explained by constitutive activity of the receptor or membrane association of the GRK, suggesting that it is an inherent ability of GRK5/6. Importantly, phosphorylation of the inactive β2-adrenergic receptor enhanced its interactions with arrestins. Arrestin-3 was able to discriminate between phosphorylation of the same receptor by GRK2 and GRK5, demonstrating preference for the latter. Arrestin recruitment to inactive phosphorylated GPCRs suggests that not only agonist activation but also the complement of GRKs in the cell regulate formation of the arrestin-receptor complex and thereby G protein-independent signaling. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Evolution of the miR5200-FLOWERING LOCUS T flowering time regulon in the temperate grass subfamily Pooideae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Meghan; Schubert, Marian; Preston, Jill C; Fjellheim, Siri

    2017-09-01

    Flowering time is a carefully regulated trait controlled primarily through the action of the central genetic regulator, FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT). Recently it was demonstrated that a microRNA, miR5200, targets the end of the second exon of FT under short-day photoperiods in the grass subfamily Pooideae, thus preventing FT transcripts from reaching threshold levels under non-inductive conditions. Pooideae are an interesting group in that they rapidly diversified from the tropics into the northern temperate region during a major global cooling event spanning the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We hypothesize that miR5200 photoperiod-sensitive regulation of Pooideae flowering time networks assisted their transition into northern seasonal environments. Here, we test predictions derived from this hypothesis that miR5200, originally found in bread wheat and later identified in Brachypodium distachyon, (1) was present in the genome of the Pooideae common ancestor, (2) is transcriptionally regulated by photoperiod, and (3) is negatively correlated with FT transcript abundance, indicative of miR5200 regulating FT. Our results demonstrate that miR5200 did evolve at or around the base of Pooideae, but only acquired photoperiod-regulated transcription within the Brachypodium lineage. Based on expression profiles and previous data, we posit that the progenitor of miR5200 was co-regulated with FT by an unknown mechanism. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genome wide identification and expression analysis of Homeodomain leucine zipper subfamily IV (HDZ IV gene family from Musa accuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh ePandey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The homedodomain zipper family (HD-ZIP of transcription factors is present only in plants and plays important role in the regulation of plant-specific processes. The subfamily IV of HDZ transcription factors (HD-ZIP IV has primarily been implicated in the regulation of epidermal structure development. Though this gene family is present in all lineages of land plants, members of this gene family have not been identified in banana, which is one of the major staple fruit crops. In the present work, we identified 21 HDZIV genes in banana by the computational analysis of banana genome resource. Our analysis suggested that these genes putatively encode proteins having all the characteristic domains of HDZIV transcription factors. The phylogenetic analysis of the banana HDZIV family genes further confirmed that after separation from a common ancestor, the banana and poales lineages might have followed distinct evolutionary paths. Further, we conclude that segmental duplication played a major role in the evolution of banana HDZIV genes. All the identified banana HDZIV genes expresses in different banana tissue, however at varying levels. The transcript levels of some of the banana HDZIV genes were also detected in banana fruit pulp, suggesting their putative role in fruit attributes. A large number of genes of this family showed modulated expression under drought and salinity stress. Taken together, the present work lays a foundation for elucidation of functional aspects of the banana HDZIV genes and for their possible use in the banana improvement programs.

  12. Vaccinomics Approach for Designing Potential Peptide Vaccine by Targeting Shigella spp. Serine Protease Autotransporter Subfamily Protein SigA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafat Rahman Oany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis, a bacillary dysentery, is closely associated with diarrhoea in human and causes infection of 165 million people worldwide per year. Casein-degrading serine protease autotransporter of enterobacteriaceae (SPATE subfamily protein SigA, an outer membrane protein, exerts both cytopathic and enterotoxic effects especially cytopathic to human epithelial cell type-2 (HEp-2 and is shown to be highly immunogenic. In the present study, we have tried to impose the vaccinomics approach for designing a common peptide vaccine candidate against the immunogenic SigA of Shigella spp. At first, 44 SigA proteins from different variants of S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, S. boydii, and S. sonnei were assessed to find the most antigenic protein. We retrieved 12 peptides based on the highest score for human leukocyte antigen (HLA supertypes analysed by NetCTL. Initially, these peptides were assessed for the affinity with MHC class I and class II alleles, and four potential core epitopes VTARAGLGY, FHTVTVNTL, HTTWTLTGY, and IELAGTLTL were selected. From these, FHTVTVNTL and IELAGTLTL peptides were shown to have 100% conservancy. Finally, IELAGTLTL was shown to have the highest population coverage (83.86% among the whole world population. In vivo study of the proposed epitope might contribute to the development of functional and unique widespread vaccine, which might be an operative alleyway to thwart dysentery from the world.

  13. BOOK REVIEW: The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, B. A.

    2005-07-01

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music—a new type of `cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson,\\endcolumn hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature’s code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one’s mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  14. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  15. Expanding the grid in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, M. [AltaLink Management Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed some of the changes and strategies that are currently being adopted by AltaLink to expand Alberta's electricity grid in relation to wind power development. The company is Alberta's largest transmission facility operator. Wind power currently accounts for approximately 5 percent of the province's generation mix. Applications for new wind farms will increase Alberta's 629 MW of wind power generation capacity to 5530 MW. Alberta's transmission regulation requires that 100 percent of in-merit generation can occur when transmission facilities are in service, and that 95 percent of in-merit generation can occur under abnormal operating conditions. A new transmission line is being constructed in the Pincher Creek and Lethbridge region as part of a southern Alberta transmission reinforcement project. The Alberta Electric System Operator (AESO) and Canadian Wind Energy Association (CanWEA) are working together to ensure that adequate resources are available while system reliability is maintained. The Ardenville wind farm is the first wind power project to be energized under the new connection model launched by the AESO. The connection model was developed to identify, connect, and construct new energy projects. The project will also identify connection routes with the lowest overall impact on the province. Alberta will also continue to implement technologies that ensure the development of a smart grid. tabs., figs.

  16. Attitudes toward expanding nurses' authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzman, Hana; Van Dijk, Dina; Eizenberg, Limor; Khaikin, Rut; Phridman, Shoshi; Siman-Tov, Maya; Goldberg, Shoshi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of care procedures previously under the physician's authority have been placed in the hands of registered nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of nurses towards expanding nurses' authority and the relationships between these attitudes and job satisfaction facets, professional characteristics, and demographics. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 in three major medical centers in Israel. Participants included 833 nurses working in 89 departments. Attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority were assessed by self-report questionnaire, as well as job satisfaction facets including perception of professional autonomy, nurse-physician working relations, workload and burnout, perceptions of quality of care, and nursing staff satisfaction at work. Nurses reported positive attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority and moderate attitudes for interpretation of diagnostic tests in selected situations. The results of multivariate regression analyses demonstrate that the nurses' satisfaction from professional autonomy and work relations were the most influential factors in explaining their attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority. In addition, professionally young nurses tend to be more positive regarding changes in nurses' authority. In the Israeli reality of a nurse's shortage, we are witnessing professional transitions toward expansion of the scope of nurses' accountability and decision-making authority. The current research contributes to our understanding of attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority among the nursing staffs. The findings indicate the necessity of redefining the scope of nursing practice within the current professional context.

  17. Using Typography to Expand the Design Space of Data Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Brath

    Full Text Available This article is a systematic exploration and expansion of the data visualization design space focusing on the role of text. A critical analysis of text usage in data visualizations reveals gaps in existing frameworks and practice. A cross-disciplinary review including the fields of typography, cartography, and coding interfaces yields various typographic techniques to encode data into text, and provides scope for an expanded design space. Mapping new attributes back to well understood principles frames the expanded design space and suggests potential areas of application. From ongoing research created with our framework, we show the design, implementation, and evaluation of six new visualization techniques. Finally, a broad evaluation of a number of visualizations, including critiques from several disciplinary experts, reveals opportunities as well as areas of concern, and points towards additional research with our framework.

  18. Expanding the knowledge translation metaphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Eivind; Sandset, Tony Joakim; Ødemark, John

    2017-03-13

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a buzzword in modern medical science. However, there has been little theoretical reflection on translation as a process of meaning production in KT. In this paper, we argue that KT will benefit from the incorporation of a more theoretical notion of translation as an entangled material, textual and cultural process. We discuss and challenge fundamental assumptions in KT, drawing on theories of translation from the human sciences. We show that the current construal of KT as separate from and secondary to the original scientific message is close to the now deeply compromised literary view of translation as the simple act of copying the original. Inspired by recent theories of translation, we claim that KT can be more adequately understood in terms of a 'double supplement' - on the one hand, KT offers new approaches to the communication of scientific knowledge to different groups in the healthcare system with the aim of supplementing a lack of knowledge among clinicians (and patients). On the other, it demonstrates that a textual and cultural supplement, namely a concern with target audiences (clinicians and patients), is inevitable in the creation of an 'autonomous' science. Hence, the division between science and its translation is unproductive and impossible to maintain. We discuss some possible implications of our suggested shift in concept by drawing on pharmaceutical interventions for the prevention of HIV as a case. We argue that such interventions are based on a supplementary and paradoxical relation to the target audiences, both presupposing and denying their existence. More sophisticated theories of translation can lay the foundation for an expanded model of KT that incorporates a more adequate and reflective description of the interdependency of scientific, cultural, textual and material practices.

  19. Gene surfing in expanding populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R

    2008-02-01

    Large scale genomic surveys are partly motivated by the idea that the neutral genetic variation of a population may be used to reconstruct its migration history. However, our ability to trace back the colonization pathways of a species from their genetic footprints is limited by our understanding of the genetic consequences of a range expansion. Here, we study, by means of simulations and analytical methods, the neutral dynamics of gene frequencies in an asexual population undergoing a continual range expansion in one dimension. During such a colonization period, lineages can fix at the wave front by means of a "surfing" mechanism [Edmonds, C.A., Lillie, A.S., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., 2004. Mutations arising in the wave front of an expanding population. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 975-979]. We quantify this phenomenon in terms of (i) the spatial distribution of lineages that reach fixation and, closely related, (ii) the continual loss of genetic diversity (heterozygosity) at the wave front, characterizing the approach to fixation. Our stochastic simulations show that an effective population size can be assigned to the wave that controls the (observable) gradient in heterozygosity left behind the colonization process. This effective population size is markedly higher in the presence of cooperation between individuals ("pushed waves") than when individuals proliferate independently ("pulled waves"), and increases only sub-linearly with deme size. To explain these and other findings, we develop a versatile analytical approach, based on the physics of reaction-diffusion systems, that yields simple predictions for any deterministic population dynamics. Our analytical theory compares well with the simulation results for pushed waves, but is less accurate in the case of pulled waves when stochastic fluctuations in the tip of the wave are important.

  20. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  1. Cloning and characterization of PAK5, a novel member of mammalian p21-activated kinase-II subfamily that is predominantly expressed in brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A.; Dan, I.; Kristiansen, T.Z.

    2002-01-01

    cloned a novel human PAK family kinase that has been designated as PAK5. PAK5 contains a CDC42/Rac1 interactive binding (CRIB) motif at the N-terminus and a Ste20-like kinase domain at the C-terminus. PAK5 is structurally most related to PAK4 and PAK6 to make up the PAK-II subfamily. We have shown...

  2. Geothermal ORC Systems Using Large Screw Expanders

    OpenAIRE

    Biederman, Tim R.; Brasz, Joost J.

    2014-01-01

    Geothermal ORC Systems using Large Screw Expanders Tim Biederman Cyrq Energy Abstract This paper describes a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle Power Recovery system with a screw expander a derivative of developed of Kaishan's line of screw compressors, as its power unit. The screw expander design is a modified version of its existing refrigeration compressor used on water-cooled chillers. Starting the ORC development program with existing refrigeration screw compre...

  3. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2017-11-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  4. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams

    2017-09-22

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  5. Expanding the genetic heterogeneity of intellectual disability

    KAUST Repository

    Anazi, Shams; Maddirevula, Sateesh; Salpietro, Vincenzo; Asi, Yasmine T.; Alsahli, Saud; Alhashem, Amal; Shamseldin, Hanan E.; AlZahrani, Fatema; Patel, Nisha; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous M.; Hashem, Mais; Alhashmi, Nadia; Al Murshedi, Fathiya; Al Kindy, Adila; Alshaer, Ahmad; Rumayyan, Ahmed; Al Tala, Saeed; Kurdi, Wesam; Alsaman, Abdulaziz; Alasmari, Ali; Banu, Selina; Sultan, Tipu; Saleh, Mohammed M.; Alkuraya, Hisham; Salih, Mustafa A.; Aldhalaan, Hesham; Ben-Omran, Tawfeg; Al Musafri, Fatima; Ali, Rehab; Suleiman, Jehan; Tabarki, Brahim; El-Hattab, Ayman W.; Bupp, Caleb; Alfadhel, Majid; Al Tassan, Nada; Monies, Dorota; Arold, Stefan T.; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Lashley, Tammaryn; Houlden, Henry; Faqeih, Eissa; Alkuraya, Fowzan S.

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a common morbid condition with a wide range of etiologies. The list of monogenic forms of ID has increased rapidly in recent years thanks to the implementation of genomic sequencing techniques. In this study, we describe the phenotypic and genetic findings of 68 families (105 patients) all with novel ID-related variants. In addition to established ID genes, including ones for which we describe unusual mutational mechanism, some of these variants represent the first confirmatory disease-gene links following previous reports (TRAK1, GTF3C3, SPTBN4 and NKX6-2), some of which were based on single families. Furthermore, we describe novel variants in 14 genes that we propose as novel candidates (ANKHD1, ASTN2, ATP13A1, FMO4, MADD, MFSD11, NCKAP1, NFASC, PCDHGA10, PPP1R21, SLC12A2, SLK, STK32C and ZFAT). We highlight MADD and PCDHGA10 as particularly compelling candidates in which we identified biallelic likely deleterious variants in two independent ID families each. We also highlight NCKAP1 as another compelling candidate in a large family with autosomal dominant mild intellectual disability that fully segregates with a heterozygous truncating variant. The candidacy of NCKAP1 is further supported by its biological function, and our demonstration of relevant expression in human brain. Our study expands the locus and allelic heterogeneity of ID and demonstrates the power of positional mapping to reveal unusual mutational mechanisms.

  6. The expanding universe of noncoding RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, G J; Rivas, F V; Murchison, E P; Steitz, J A

    2006-01-01

    The 71st Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology celebrated the numerous and expanding roles of regulatory RNAs in systems ranging from bacteria to mammals. It was clearly evident that noncoding RNAs are undergoing a renaissance, with reports of their involvement in nearly every cellular process. Previously known classes of longer noncoding RNAs were shown to function by every possible means-acting catalytically, sensing physiological states through adoption of complex secondary and tertiary structures, or using their primary sequences for recognition of target sites. The many recently discovered classes of small noncoding RNAs, generally less than 35 nucleotides in length, most often exert their effects by guiding regulatory complexes to targets via base-pairing. With the ability to analyze the RNA products of the genome in ever greater depth, it has become clear that the universe of noncoding RNAs may extend far beyond the boundaries we had previously imagined. Thus, as much as the Symposium highlighted exciting progress in the field, it also revealed how much farther we must go to understand fully the biological impact of noncoding RNAs.

  7. Molecular cloning and 3D model of first cytochrome P450 from CYP3A subfamily in saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Rabia

    2017-10-18

    Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) play critical role in oxidative metabolism of numerous xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. The first CYP3A subfamily member in saltwater crocodile has been cloned and modelled for three-dimensional (3D) structure. The full-length cDNA was obtained employing reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) strategy and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The cDNA sequence of 1659 nucleotides includes 132 nucleotides from 5' untranslated region (UTR), an open reading frame of 1527 nucleotides encoding 509 amino acids designated as CYP3A163. The alignment of CYP3A163 sequence with CYP3A subfamily across the lineages exhibit the loss of 1 residue in birds and 7 residues in mammals in comparison to reptiles suggesting the adaptation processes during evolution. The amino acid identity of CYP3A163 with Alligator mississippiensis CYP3A77 and Homo sapiens CYP3A4 is 91% and 62% respectively. The 3D structure of CYP3A163 modelled using human CYP3A4 structure as a template with Phyre 2 software, represents high similarity with its functionally important motifs and catalytic domain. Both sequence and structure of CYP3A163 display the common and conserved features of CYP3A subfamily. Overall, this study provides primary molecular and structural data of CYP3A163 required to investigate the xenobiotic metabolism in saltwater crocodiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Morphological "primary homology" and expression of AG-subfamily MADS-box genes in pines, podocarps, and yews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Marie; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Engström, Peter; Vergara-Silva, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The morphological variation among reproductive organs of extant gymnosperms is remarkable, especially among conifers. Several hypotheses concerning morphological homology between various conifer reproductive organs have been put forward, in particular in relation to the pine ovuliferous scale. Here, we use the expression patterns of orthologs of the ABC-model MADS-box gene AGAMOUS (AG) for testing morphological homology hypotheses related to organs of the conifer female cone. To this end, we first developed a tailored 3'RACE procedure that allows reliable amplification of partial sequences highly similar to gymnosperm-derived members of the AG-subfamily of MADS-box genes. Expression patterns of two novel conifer AG orthologs cloned with this procedure-namely PodAG and TgAG, obtained from the podocarp Podocarpus reichei and the yew Taxus globosa, respectively-are then further characterized in the morphologically divergent female cones of these species. The expression patterns of PodAG and TgAG are compared with those of DAL2, a previously discovered Picea abies (Pinaceae) AG ortholog. By treating the expression patterns of DAL2, PodAG, and TgAG as character states mapped onto currently accepted cladogram topologies, we suggest that the epimatium-that is, the podocarp female cone organ previously postulated as a "modified" ovuliferous scale-and the canonical Pinaceae ovuliferous scale can be legitimally conceptualized as "primary homologs." Character state mapping for TgAG suggests in turn that the aril of Taxaceae should be considered as a different type of organ. This work demonstrates how the interaction between developmental-genetic data and formal cladistic theory could fruitfully contribute to gymnosperm systematics. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Expanding/Extending English: Interdisciplinarity and Internationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Avrom

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the recent efforts to expand literary studies into numerous allied fields and the possible effects that such attempts toward interdisciplinarity and internationalism might have. Warns against possible negative consequences of interdisciplinary approaches. Calls for an expanded view of English as a field of study. (HB)

  11. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  12. The reprogramming factor nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 cannot replace octamer-binding transcription factor 4 function in the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyeng-Won; Oh, Hye-Rim; Lee, Jaeyoung; Lim, Bobae; Han, Yong-Mahn; Oh, Junseo; Kim, Jungho

    2014-02-01

    Although octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct-4) is one of the most intensively studied factors in mammalian development, no cellular genes capable of replacing Oct-4 function in embryonic stem (ES) cells have been found. Recent data show that nuclear receptor subfamily 5, group A, member 2 (Nr5a2) is able to replace Oct-4 function in the reprogramming process; however, it is unclear whether Nr5a2 can replace Oct-4 function in ES cells. In this study, the ability of Nr5a2 to maintain self-renewal and pluripotency in ES cells was investigated. Nr5a2 localized to the nucleus in ES cells, similarly to Oct-4. However, expression of Nr5a2 failed to rescue the stem cell phenotype or to maintain the self-renewal ability of ES cells. Furthermore, as compared with Oct-4-expressing ES cells, Nr5a2-expressing ES cells showed a reduced number of cells in S-phase, did not expand normally, and did not remain in an undifferentiated state. Ectopic expression of Nr5a2 in ES cells was not able to activate transcription of ES cell-specific genes, and gene expression profiling demonstrated differences between Nr5a2-expressing and Oct-4-expressing ES cells. In addition, Nr5a2-expressing ES cells were not able to form teratomas in nude mice. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the gene regulation properties of Nr5a2 and Oct-4 and their abilities to confer self-renewal and pluripotency of ES cells differ. The present study provides strong evidence that Nr5a2 cannot replace Oct-4 function in ES cells. © 2013 FEBS.

  13. Screw expander for light duty diesel engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary selection and sizing of a positive displacement screw compressor-expander subsystem for a light-duty adiabatic diesel engine; development of a mathematical model to describe overall efficiencies for the screw compressor and expander; simulation of operation to establish overall efficiency for a range of design parameters and at given engine operating points; simulation to establish potential net power output at light-duty diesel operating points; analytical determination of mass moments of inertia for the rotors and inertia of the compressor-expander subsystem; and preparation of engineering layout drawings of the compressor and expander are discussed. As a result of this work, it was concluded that the screw compressor and expander designed for light-duty diesel engine applications are viable alternatives to turbo-compound systems, with acceptable efficiencies for both units, and only a moderate effect on the transient response.

  14. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Amal Najihah M; Corstanje, Ron; Harris, Jim A; Grafius, Darren R; Siriwardena, Gavin M

    2017-06-01

    Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow ( Passer montanus ) and Yellow-vented bulbul ( Pycnonotus goiavier ) in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines). The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance) were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such models for

  15. PROFAM expands Mexican family planning clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Mexico's private, nonprofit social marketing company, known as PROFAM, intends to expand its family planning clinics to marginal urban areas. The clinics are part of PROFAM's push to diversify social marketing outlets for contraceptive products and other birth control methods. PROFAM expects to establish 3 new clinics, possibly including a pregnancy test laboratory, a small 1-doctor clinic, and a large clinic housing an operating room. 1 clinic will be located outside the Mexico City area, the program's traditional boundaries. The company currently runs 2 small clinics and a pregnancy testing laboratory in Ciudad Netzahualcoyti, a community of 3.5 million on Mexico City's outskirts. PROFAM recently obtaine d government approval to sell condoms in food stores, which should increase distribtuion and sales. Currently, the company sells over 1 million high quality, lubricated condoms each month, accounting for over half of the Mexican market. Distribution covers 85% of the country's drugstore. Program setbacks occurred in 1981, when the Mexican government cancelled PROFAM's sales permits for all contraceptive products except condoms. Cancelled products included an oral contraceptive and 3 vaginal spermicides. These 4 products had provided nearly 100,000 couple years of protection in 1979 and an estimated 120,000 CYP 1980. During 1979 and 1980, condoms provided about 27,000 and 60,000 CYP, respectively. PROFAM had relied heavily on the pill and spermicides because its early studies showed condoms had a negative image in Mexico, due largely to the product's association with extramarital affairs. To counter this, PROFAM launched a widespread, free product sampling program in 1979, along with a continuing educational and advertising drive. Subsequent consumer surveys revealed a marked increase in product acceptance, with PROFAM's condom becoming the most widely known brand available in Mexico.

  16. Ecological connectivity networks in rapidly expanding cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Najihah M. Nor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban expansion increases fragmentation of the landscape. In effect, fragmentation decreases connectivity, causes green space loss and impacts upon the ecology and function of green space. Restoration of the functionality of green space often requires restoring the ecological connectivity of this green space within the city matrix. However, identifying ecological corridors that integrate different structural and functional connectivity of green space remains vague. Assessing connectivity for developing an ecological network by using efficient models is essential to improve these networks under rapid urban expansion. This paper presents a novel methodological approach to assess and model connectivity for the Eurasian tree sparrow (Passer montanus and Yellow-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier in three cities (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Jakarta, Indonesia and Metro Manila, Philippines. The approach identifies potential priority corridors for ecological connectivity networks. The study combined circuit models, connectivity analysis and least-cost models to identify potential corridors by integrating structure and function of green space patches to provide reliable ecological connectivity network models in the cities. Relevant parameters such as landscape resistance and green space structure (vegetation density, patch size and patch distance were derived from an expert and literature-based approach based on the preference of bird behaviour. The integrated models allowed the assessment of connectivity for both species using different measures of green space structure revealing the potential corridors and least-cost pathways for both bird species at the patch sites. The implementation of improvements to the identified corridors could increase the connectivity of green space. This study provides examples of how combining models can contribute to the improvement of ecological networks in rapidly expanding cities and demonstrates the usefulness of such

  17. Expanding beyond individualism: Engaging critical perspectives on occupation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Alison J; Teachman, Gail; Laliberte-Rudman, Debbie; Aldrich, Rebecca M; Huot, Suzanne

    2018-01-01

    Perspectives that individualize occupation are poorly aligned with socially responsive and transformative occupation-focused research, education, and practice. Their predominant use in occupational therapy risks the perpetuation, rather than resolution, of occupational inequities. In this paper, we problematize taken-for-granted individualistic analyses of occupation and illustrate how critical theoretical perspectives can reveal the ways in which structural factors beyond an individual's immediate control and environment shape occupational possibilities and occupational engagement. Using a critically reflexive approach, we draw on three distinct qualitative research studies to examine the potential of critical theorizing for expanding beyond a reliance on individualistic analyses and practices. Our studies highlight the importance of addressing the socio-historical and political contexts of occupation and demonstrate the contribution of critical perspectives to socially responsive occupational therapy. In expanding beyond individualistic analyses of occupation, critical perspectives advance research and practices towards addressing socio-political mediators of occupational engagement and equity.

  18. A-coupled-expanding and distributional chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cholsan; Ju, Hyonhui; Chen, Minghao; Raith, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The concept of A-coupled-expanding maps is one of the more natural and useful ideas generalized from the horseshoe map which is commonly known as a criterion of chaos. It is well known that distributional chaos is one of the concepts which reflect strong chaotic behavior. In this paper, we focus on the relationship between A-coupled-expanding and distributional chaos. We prove two theorems which give sufficient conditions for a strictly A-coupled-expanding map to be distributionally chaotic in the senses of two kinds, where A is an m × m irreducible transition matrix

  19. Subcellular location of Arabidopsis thaliana subfamily a1 β-galactosidases and developmental regulation of transcript levels of their coding genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneo-Sánchez, María; Izquierdo, Lucía; Martín, Ignacio; Labrador, Emilia; Dopico, Berta

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work is to gain insight into the six members of the a1 subfamily of the β-galactosidases (BGAL) from Arabidopsis thaliana. First, the subcellular location of all these six BGAL proteins from a1 subfamily has been established in the cell wall by the construction of transgenic plants producing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fused to the BGAL proteins. BGAL12 is also located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our study of the AtBGAL transcript accumulation along plant development indicated that all AtBGAL transcript appeared in initial stages of development, both dark- and light-grown seedlings, being AtBGAL1, AtBGAL2 and AtBGAL3 transcripts the predominant ones in the latter condition, mainly in the aerial part and with levels decreasing with age. The high accumulation of transcript of AtBGAL4 in basal internodes and in leaves at the end of development, and their strong increase after treatment both with BL and H 3 BO 3 point to an involvement of BGAL4 in cell wall changes leading to the cease of elongation and increased rigidity. The changes of AtBGAL transcript accumulation in relation to different stages and conditions of plant development, suggest that each of the different gene products have a plant-specific function and provides support for the proposed function of the subfamily a1 BGAL in plant cell wall remodelling for cell expansion or for cell response to stress conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. The subfamily-specific interaction between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 subunits is determined by interactions between the N- and C-termini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Bocksteins

    Full Text Available The "silent" voltage-gated potassium (KvS channel subunit Kv6.4 does not form electrically functional homotetramers at the plasma membrane but assembles with Kv2.1 subunits, generating functional Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramers. The N-terminal T1 domain determines the subfamily-specific assembly of Kv1-4 subunits by preventing interactions between subunits that belong to different subfamilies. For Kv6.4, yeast-two-hybrid experiments showed an interaction of the Kv6.4 N-terminus with the Kv2.1 N-terminus, but unexpectedly also with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. We confirmed this interaction by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP using N-terminal Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 fragments. However, full-length Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 subunits do not form heterotetramers at the plasma membrane. Therefore, additional interactions between the Kv6.4 and Kv2.1 subunits should be important in the Kv2.1/Kv6.4 subfamily-specificity. Using FRET and co-IP approaches with N- and C-terminal fragments we observed that the Kv6.4 C-terminus physically interacts with the Kv2.1 N-terminus but not with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. The N-terminal amino acid sequence CDD which is conserved between Kv2 and KvS subunits appeared to be a key determinant since charge reversals with arginine substitutions abolished the interaction between the N-terminus of Kv2.1 and the C-terminus of both Kv2.1 and Kv6.4. In addition, the Kv6.4(CKv3.1 chimera in which the C-terminus of Kv6.4 was replaced by the corresponding domain of Kv3.1, disrupted the assembly with Kv2.1. These results indicate that the subfamily-specific Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramerization is determined by interactions between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 that involve both the N- and C-termini in which the conserved N-terminal CDD sequence plays a key role.

  1. Helium turbo-expander with an alternator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Yoshitane

    1980-01-01

    Study was made on a helium turbo-expander, the heart of helium refrigerator systems, in order to develop a system which satisfies the required conditions. A helium turbo-expander with externally pressurized helium gas bearings at the temperature of liquid nitrogen and an alternator as a brake have been employed. The essential difference between a helium turbo-expander and a nitrogen turbo-expander was clarified. The gas bearing lubricated with nitrogen at room temperature and the gas bearing lubricated with helium at low temperature were tested. The flow rate of helium in a helium refrigerator for a large superconducting magnet is comparatively small, therefore a helium turbine must be small, but the standard for large turbine design can be applied to such small turbine. Using the alternator as a brake, the turbo-expander was easily controllable electrically. The prototype turbo-expander was made, and the liquefaction test with it and MHD power generation test were carried out. (Kako, I.)

  2. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae from Hunan (China, including thirty-six new species and two new genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xi-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from Hunan (Oriental China are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., A. striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., C. postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., O. monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. songi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. youi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., O. zengi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma acuticlypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P.angiclypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. antenervalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. depressiclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. flavisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. nigrisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. protuberator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. rugulifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Li & van Achterberg, P. striatinota Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., P. vermiculifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis latipennis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. maculosa Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., R. obliqua Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., R. sculpturator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Utetes longicarinatus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. and Xynobius notauliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. Areotetes van Achterberg & Li, gen. n. (type species: Areotetes carinuliferus sp. n. and Coleopioides van Achterberg & Li, gen. n. (type species: Coleopioides

  3. Does partial expander deflation exacerbate the adverse effects of radiotherapy in two-stage breast reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celet Ozden, Burcu; Guven, Erdem; Aslay, Isik; Kemikler, Gonul; Olgac, Vakur; Soluk Tekkesin, Merva; Serarslan, Bengul; Tumerdem Ulug, Burcak; Bilgin Karabulut, Aylin; Arinci, Atilla; Emekli, Ufuk

    2012-02-20

    The optimum protocol for expander volume adjustment with respect to the timing and application of radiotherapy remains controversial. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. Metallic port integrated anatomic breast expanders of 250 cc were implanted on the back of each animal and controlled expansion was performed. Group I underwent radiotherapy with full expanders while in Group II, expanders were partially deflated immediately prior to radiotherapy. Control group did not receive radiotherapy.The changes in blood flow at different volume adjustments were investigated in Group II by laser Doppler flowmetry. Variations in the histopathologic properties of the irradiated tissues including the skin, capsule and the pocket floor, were compared in the biopsy specimens taken from different locations in each group. A significant increase in skin blood flow was detected in Group II with partial expander deflation. Overall, histopathologic exam revealed aggravated findings of chronic radiodermatitis (epidermal atrophy, dermal inflammation and fibrosis, neovascularisation and vascular changes as well as increased capsule thickness) especially around the lower expander pole, in Group II. Expander deflation immediately prior to radiotherapy, may augment the adverse effects, especially in the lower expander pole, possibly via enhanced radiosensitization due to a relative increase in the blood flow and tissue oxygenation.

  4. Does partial expander deflation exacerbate the adverse effects of radiotherapy in two-stage breast reconstruction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celet Ozden Burcu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimum protocol for expander volume adjustment with respect to the timing and application of radiotherapy remains controversial. Methods Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. Metallic port integrated anatomic breast expanders of 250 cc were implanted on the back of each animal and controlled expansion was performed. Group I underwent radiotherapy with full expanders while in Group II, expanders were partially deflated immediately prior to radiotherapy. Control group did not receive radiotherapy. The changes in blood flow at different volume adjustments were investigated in Group II by laser Doppler flowmetry. Variations in the histopathologic properties of the irradiated tissues including the skin, capsule and the pocket floor, were compared in the biopsy specimens taken from different locations in each group. Results A significant increase in skin blood flow was detected in Group II with partial expander deflation. Overall, histopathologic exam revealed aggravated findings of chronic radiodermatitis (epidermal atrophy, dermal inflammation and fibrosis, neovascularisation and vascular changes as well as increased capsule thickness especially around the lower expander pole, in Group II. Conclusions Expander deflation immediately prior to radiotherapy, may augment the adverse effects, especially in the lower expander pole, possibly via enhanced radiosensitization due to a relative increase in the blood flow and tissue oxygenation.

  5. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H, H', and F are members of a ubiquitously expressed subfamily of related but distinct proteins encoded by genes mapping to different chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vorum, H

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cDNA cloning, two-dimensional gel immunoblotting, and amino acid microsequencing identified three sequence-unique and distinct proteins that constitute a subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins corresponding to hnRNPs H, H', and F. These proteins share...... epitopes and sequence identity with two other proteins, isoelectric focusing sample spot numbers 2222 (37.6 kDa; pI 6.5) and 2326 (39.5 kDa; pI 6.6), indicating that the subfamily may contain additional members. The identity between hnRNPs H and H' is 96%, between H and F 78%, and between H' and F 75......%, respectively. The three proteins contain three repeats, which we denote quasi-RRMs (qRRMs) since they have a remote similarity to the RNA recognition motif (RRM). The three qRRMs of hnRNP H, with a few additional NH2-terminal amino acids, were constructed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and used...

  6. pocketZebra: a web-server for automated selection and classification of subfamily-specific binding sites by bioinformatic analysis of diverse protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Kirilin, Eugeny; Arbatsky, Mikhail; Takhaveev, Vakil; Svedas, Vytas

    2014-07-01

    The new web-server pocketZebra implements the power of bioinformatics and geometry-based structural approaches to identify and rank subfamily-specific binding sites in proteins by functional significance, and select particular positions in the structure that determine selective accommodation of ligands. A new scoring function has been developed to annotate binding sites by the presence of the subfamily-specific positions in diverse protein families. pocketZebra web-server has multiple input modes to meet the needs of users with different experience in bioinformatics. The server provides on-site visualization of the results as well as off-line version of the output in annotated text format and as PyMol sessions ready for structural analysis. pocketZebra can be used to study structure-function relationship and regulation in large protein superfamilies, classify functionally important binding sites and annotate proteins with unknown function. The server can be used to engineer ligand-binding sites and allosteric regulation of enzymes, or implemented in a drug discovery process to search for potential molecular targets and novel selective inhibitors/effectors. The server, documentation and examples are freely available at http://biokinet.belozersky.msu.ru/pocketzebra and there are no login requirements. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    NSWC TR 86-32 DTIC THE EXPANDED LARGE SCALE GAP TEST BY T. P. LIDDIARD D. PRICE RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT ’ ~MARCH 1987 Ap~proved for public...arises, to reduce the spread in the LSGT 50% gap value.) The worst charges, such as those with the highest or lowest densities, the largest re-pressed...Arlington, VA 22217 PE 62314N INS3A 1 RJ14E31 7R4TBK 11 TITLE (Include Security CIlmsilficatiorn The Expanded Large Scale Gap Test . 12. PEIRSONAL AUTHOR() T

  8. Semiclassical expanding discrete space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, W.K.; Smalley, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    Given the close ties between general relativity and geometry one might reasonably expect that quantum effects associated with gravitation might also be tied to the geometry of space-time, namely, to some sort of discreteness in space-time itself. In particular it is supposed that space-time consists of a discrete lattice of points rather than the usual continuum. Since astronomical evidence seems to suggest that the universe is expanding, the lattice must also expand. Some of the implications of such a model are that the proton should presently be stable, and the universe should be closed although the mechanism for closure is quantum mechanical. (author)

  9. Theoretical models for recombination in expanding gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avron, Y.; Kahane, S.

    1978-09-01

    In laser isotope separation of atomic uranium, one is confronted with the theoretical problem of estimating the concentration of thermally ionized uranium atoms. To investigate this problem theoretical models for recombination in an expanding gas and in the absence of local thermal equilibrium have been constructed. The expansion of the gas is described by soluble models of the hydrodynamic equation, and the recombination by rate equations. General results for the freezing effect for the suitable ranges of the gas parameters are obtained. The impossibility of thermal equilibrium in expanding two-component systems is proven

  10. Revision of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Hunan (China), including thirty-six new species and two new genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Ying; van Achterberg, Cornelis; Tan, Ji-Cai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The species of the subfamily Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Hunan (Oriental China) are revised and illustrated. Thirty-six new species are described: Apodesmia bruniclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Apodesmia melliclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes albiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes carinuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Areotetes striatiferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides diversinotum Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Coleopioides postpectalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Fopius dorsopiferus Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Indiopius chenae Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus aulaciferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opiognathus brevibasalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius crenuliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius malarator Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Opius monilipalpis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius pachymerus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius songi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius youi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Opius zengi Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma acuticlypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma angiclypeata Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma antenervalis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma depressiclypealis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma flavisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma nigrisoma Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma protuberator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma rugulifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Li & van Achterberg,Phaedrotoma striatinota Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Phaedrotoma vermiculifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis latipennis Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis longicaudifera Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis maculosa Li, van Achterberg & Tan, sp. n., Rhogadopsis obliqua Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Rhogadopsis sculpturator Li & van Achterberg, sp. n., Utetes longicarinatus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. and Xynobius notauliferus Li & van Achterberg, sp. n. Areotetes

  11. Cryo-electron Microscopy Structures of Expanded Poliovirus with VHHs Sample the Conformational Repertoire of the Expanded State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Mike; Schotte, Lise; Karunatilaka, Krishanthi S; Filman, David J; Hogle, James M

    2017-02-01

    By using cryo-electron microscopy, expanded 80S-like poliovirus virions (poliovirions) were visualized in complexes with four 80S-specific camelid VHHs (Nanobodies). In all four complexes, the VHHs bind to a site on the top surface of the capsid protein VP3, which is hidden in the native virus. Interestingly, although the four VHHs bind to the same site, the structures of the expanded virus differ in detail in each complex, suggesting that each of the Nanobodies has sampled a range of low-energy structures available to the expanded virion. By stabilizing unique structures of expanded virions, VHH binding permitted a more detailed view of the virus structure than was previously possible, leading to a better understanding of the expansion process that is a critical step in infection. It is now clear which polypeptide chains become disordered and which become rearranged. The higher resolution of these structures also revealed well-ordered conformations for the EF loop of VP2, the GH loop of VP3, and the N-terminal extensions of VP1 and VP2, which, in retrospect, were present in lower-resolution structures but not recognized. These structural observations help to explain preexisting mutational data and provide insights into several other stages of the poliovirus life cycle, including the mechanism of receptor-triggered virus expansion. When poliovirus infects a cell, it undergoes a change in its structure in order to pass RNA through its protein coat, but this altered state is short-lived and thus poorly understood. The structures of poliovirus bound to single-domain antibodies presented here capture the altered virus in what appear to be intermediate states. A careful analysis of these structures lets us better understand the molecular mechanism of infection and how these changes in the virus lead to productive-infection events. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Two Types of Expanding Lie Algebra and New Expanding Integrable Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Yang Jiming; Wang Hui

    2010-01-01

    From a new Lie algebra proposed by Zhang, two expanding Lie algebras and its corresponding loop algebras are obtained. Two expanding integrable systems are produced with the help of the generalized zero curvature equation. One of them has complex Hamiltion structure with the help of generalized Tu formula (GTM). (general)

  13. Analysis of a rotating spool expander for Organic Rankine Cycle applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Abhinav

    Increasing interest in recovering or utilizing low-grade heat for power generation has prompted a search for ways in which the power conversion process may be enhanced. Amongst the conversion systems, the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has generated an enormous amount of interest amongst researchers and system designers. Nevertheless, component level technologies need to be developed and match the range of potential applications. In particular, technical challenges associated with scaling expansion machines (turbines) from utility scale to commercial scale have prevented widespread adoption of the technology. In this regard, this work focuses on a novel rotating spool expansion machine at the heart of an Organic Rankine Cycle. A comprehensive, deterministic simulation model of the rotating spool expander is developed. The comprehensive model includes a detailed geometry model of the spool expander and the suction valve mechanism. Sub-models for mass flow, leakage, heat transfer and friction within the expander are also developed. Apart from providing the ability to characterize the expander in a particular system, the model provides a valuable tool to study the impact of various design variables on the performance of the machine. The investigative approach also involved an experimental program to assess the performance of a working prototype. In general, the experimental data showed that the expander performance was sub-par, largely due to the mismatch of prevailing operating conditions and the expander design criteria. Operating challenges during the shakedown tests and subsequent sub-optimal design changes also detracted from performance. Nevertheless, the results of the experimental program were sufficient for a proof-of-concept assessment of the expander and for model validation over a wide range of operating conditions. The results of the validated model reveal several interesting details concerning the expander design and performance. For example, the match

  14. Technical Note: Effect of Incorporating Expanded Polystyrene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incorporating expanded polystyrene granules in concrete matrix can produce lightweight polystyrene aggregate concrete of various densities. Workability which is an important property of concrete, aects the rate of placement and the degree of compaction of concrete. Inadequate compaction leads to reduction in both ...

  15. Expanding economic opportunities in protracted displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Miki Takahashi; Michael Moroz; Jonathan Peters; Jason Pronyk; Richard Barltrop

    2018-01-01

    Welcome progress has been made towards realising commitments made by international donors and host country governments to expand economic opportunities for Syrian refugees and host communities in neighbouring countries. However targets and commitments also bring new challenges, and evidence must underpin new policies.

  16. Custom Ontologies for Expanded Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    for Expanded Network Analysis. In Visualising Network Information (pp. 6-1 – 6-10). Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-IST-063, Paper 6. Neuilly-sur-Seine...Even to this day, current research groups are working to develop an approach that involves taking all available text, video, imagery and audio and

  17. Expanding Your Horizons Conference in Geneva

    CERN Multimedia

    Chromek-Burckhart, Doris

    2011-01-01

    CERN and its experiments participated in Expanding Your Horizons (EYH) in Science and Mathematics conference in Geneva on 12th November. EYH nurture girls' interest in science and math courses to encourage them to consider careers in science, technology, engineering, and math.

  18. Expanding economic opportunities in protracted displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Takahashi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Welcome progress has been made towards realising commitments made by international donors and host country governments to expand economic opportunities for Syrian refugees and host communities in neighbouring countries. However targets and commitments also bring new challenges, and evidence must underpin new policies.

  19. Circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homburg, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of skew product maps defined by circle diffeomorphisms forced by expanding circle maps. We construct an open class of such systems that are robustly topologically mixing and for which almost all points in the same fiber converge under iteration. This property follows from the

  20. Expanding the Audience for the Performing Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Alan R.

    Becoming involved in the arts is a process that involves movement through several stages, from disinterest to active attendance at and enthusiasm for performing arts events. Since target consumers at any time will differ in their placement on this continuum, marketing programs to expand arts audiences must first identify where each target segment…

  1. Expanded austenite, crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The identity of expanded austenite as developing during low temperature nitriding and/or carburising of austenitic stainless steel has been under debate since the very first observation of this phase. In the present article, recent results obtained with (a) homogeneous samples of various uniform ...

  2. Expanded austenite; crystallography and residual stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The identity of expanded austenite as developing during low temperature nitriding and/or carburizing of austenitic stainless steel has been under debate since the very first observation of this phase. In the present article recent results obtained with i) homogeneous samples of various uniform co...

  3. Expanding Greenland’s Glacial Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørk, Anders Anker

    . On order to expand the glacial history of Greenland, this thesis explores physical and geological archives for evidence of the glaciers’ past response to climatic variations. Using aerial photographs, the dynamic history of the Greenland Ice Sheet is extended back to 1900 C.E. Glacier changes covering...

  4. An Expanding Universe in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, David

    1991-01-01

    Two computer-generated star charts that can be used as overlay transparencies to show an expanding universe are presented. Directions on how to use the star charts to determine the Hubble constant and the age of the universe are provided. (KR)

  5. Hubble, Hubble's Law and the Expanding Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    H ubble's nam e is associated closely w ith the idea of an expanding universe as he discovered the relation between the recession velocity and the distances of galaxies. H ubble also did a lot of pioneering w ork on the distribution of galaxies in the universe. In this article we take a look at H ubble's law and discuss how it ...

  6. Expanding CEP290 mutational spectrum in ciliopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travaglini, Lorena; Brancati, Francesco; Attie-Bitach, Tania; Audollent, Sophie; Bertini, Enrico; Kaplan, Josseline; Perrault, Isabelle; Iannicelli, Miriam; Mancuso, Brunella; Rigoli, Luciana; Rozet, Jean-Michel; Swistun, Dominika; Tolentino, Jerlyn; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Valente, Enza Maria; Zankl, A.; Leventer, R.; Grattan-Smith, P.; Janecke, A.; D'Hooghe, M.; Sznajer, Y.; van Coster, R.; Demerleir, L.; Dias, K.; Moco, C.; Moreira, A.; Kim, C. Ae; Maegawa, G.; Petkovic, D.; Abdel-Salam, G. M. H.; Abdel-Aleem, A.; Zaki, M. S.; Marti, I.; Quijano-Roy, S.; Sigaudy, S.; de Lonlay, P.; Romano, S.; Touraine, R.; Koenig, M.; Lagier-Tourenne, C.; Messer, J.; Collignon, P.; Wolf, N.; Philippi, H.; Kitsiou Tzeli, S.; Halldorsson, S.; Johannsdottir, J.; Ludvigsson, P.; Phadke, S. R.; Udani, V.; Stuart, B.; Magee, A.; Lev, D.; Michelson, M.; Ben-Zeev, B.; Fischetto, R.; Benedicenti, F.; Stanzial, F.; Borgatti, R.; Accorsi, P.; Battaglia, S.; Fazzi, E.; Giordano, L.; Pinelli, L.; Boccone, L.; Bigoni, S.; Ferlini, A.; Donati, M. A.; Caridi, G.; Divizia, M. T.; Faravelli, F.; Ghiggeri, G.; Pessagno, A.; Briguglio, M.; Briuglia, S.; Salpietro, C. D.; Tortorella, G.; Adami, A.; Castorina, P.; Lalatta, F.; Marra, G.; Riva, D.; Scelsa, B.; Spaccini, L.; Uziel, G.; del Giudice, E.; Laverda, A. M.; Ludwig, K.; Permunian, A.; Suppiej, A.; Signorini, S.; Uggetti, C.; Battini, R.; Di Giacomo, M.; Cilio, M. R.; Di Sabato, M. L.; Leuzzi, V.; Parisi, P.; Pollazzon, M.; Silengo, M.; de Vescovi, R.; Greco, D.; Romano, C.; Cazzagon, M.; Simonati, A.; Al-Tawari, A. A.; Bastaki, L.; Mégarbané, A.; Sabolic Avramovska, V.; de Jong, M. M.; Stromme, P.; Koul, R.; Rajab, A.; Azam, M.; Barbot, C.; Martorell Sampol, L.; Rodriguez, B.; Pascual-Castroviejo, I.; Teber, S.; Anlar, B.; Comu, S.; Karaca, E.; Kayserili, H.; Yüksel, A.; Akcakus, M.; Al Gazali, L.; Sztriha, L.; Nicholl, D.; Woods, C. G.; Bennett, C.; Hurst, J.; Sheridan, E.; Barnicoat, A.; Hennekam, R.; Lees, M.; Blair, E.; Bernes, S.; Sanchez, H.; Clark, A. E.; DeMarco, E.; Donahue, C.; Sherr, E.; Hahn, J.; Sanger, T. D.; Gallager, T. E.; Dobyns, W. B.; Daugherty, C.; Krishnamoorthy, K. S.; Sarco, D.; Walsh, C. A.; McKanna, T.; Milisa, J.; Chung, W. K.; de Vivo, D. C.; Raynes, H.; Schubert, R.; Seward, A.; Brooks, D. G.; Goldstein, A.; Caldwell, J.; Finsecke, E.; Maria, B. L.; Holden, K.; Cruse, R. P.; Swoboda, K. J.; Viskochil, D.

    2009-01-01

    Ciliopathies are an expanding group of rare conditions characterized by multiorgan involvement, that are caused by mutations in genes encoding for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus. Among these genes, CEP290 bears an intriguing allelic spectrum, being commonly mutated in Joubert

  7. Expanding CTE Opportunities through Blended Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The global economy, 21st century skills, knowledge society, college and career readiness, digital and project-based learning are all common terms to educators who are expanding their learning environments beyond the classroom to meet the needs of all students. It is common knowledge that the rapid technological advances of this century have…

  8. Bank Directors’ Perceptions of Expanded Auditor's Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boolaky, Pran Krishansing; Quick, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    Subsequent to the financial crisis, standard setters developed suggestions for enhancing the audit function, in order to increase financial stability. One related idea is to expand the audit report disclosed to the public, to ensure that it is fit for purpose. This study investigates the impact o...

  9. iNR-PhysChem: a sequence-based predictor for identifying nuclear receptors and their subfamilies via physical-chemical property matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Xiao

    Full Text Available Nuclear receptors (NRs form a family of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate a wide variety of biological processes, such as homeostasis, reproduction, development, and metabolism. Human genome contains 48 genes encoding NRs. These receptors have become one of the most important targets for therapeutic drug development. According to their different action mechanisms or functions, NRs have been classified into seven subfamilies. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the postgenomic age, we are facing the following challenging problems. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, how can we identify whether it is a nuclear receptor? If it is, what subfamily it belongs to? To address these problems, we developed a predictor called iNR-PhysChem in which the protein samples were expressed by a novel mode of pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC whose components were derived from a physical-chemical matrix via a series of auto-covariance and cross-covariance transformations. It was observed that the overall success rate achieved by iNR-PhysChem was over 98% in identifying NRs or non-NRs, and over 92% in identifying NRs among the following seven subfamilies: NR1--thyroid hormone like, NR2--HNF4-like, NR3--estrogen like, NR4--nerve growth factor IB-like, NR5--fushi tarazu-F1 like, NR6--germ cell nuclear factor like, and NR0--knirps like. These rates were derived by the jackknife tests on a stringent benchmark dataset in which none of protein sequences included has ≥60% pairwise sequence identity to any other in a same subset. As a user-friendly web-server, iNR-PhysChem is freely accessible to the public at either http://www.jci-bioinfo.cn/iNR-PhysChem or http://icpr.jci.edu.cn/bioinfo/iNR-PhysChem. Also a step-by-step guide is provided on how to use the web-server to get the desired results without the need to follow the complicated mathematics involved in developing the predictor. It is anticipated that iNR-PhysChem may

  10. The Exiguobacterium sibiricum 255-15 GtfC Enzyme Represents a Novel Glycoside Hydrolase 70 Subfamily of 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoiti, Joana; Pijning, Tjaard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-01-15

    The glycoside hydrolase 70 (GH70) family originally was established for glucansucrase enzymes found solely in lactic acid bacteria synthesizing α-glucan polysaccharides from sucrose (e.g., GtfA). In recent years, we have characterized GtfB and related Lactobacillus enzymes as 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes. These GtfB-type enzymes constitute the first GH70 subfamily of enzymes that are unable to act on sucrose as a substrate but are active with maltodextrins and starch, cleave α1→4 linkages, and synthesize linear α1→6-glucan chains. The GtfB disproportionating type of activity results in the conversion of malto-oligosaccharides into isomalto/malto-polysaccharides with a relatively high percentage of α1→6 linkages. This paper reports the identification of the members of a second GH70 subfamily (designated GtfC enzymes) and the characterization of the Exiguobacterium sibiricum 255-15 GtfC enzyme, which is also inactive with sucrose and displays 4,6-α-glucanotransferase activity with malto-oligosaccharides. GtfC differs from GtfB in synthesizing isomalto/malto-oligosaccharides. Biochemically, the GtfB- and GtfC-type enzymes are related, but phylogenetically, they clearly constitute different GH70 subfamilies, displaying only 30% sequence identity. Whereas the GtfB-type enzyme largely has the same domain order as glucansucrases (with α-amylase domains A, B, and C plus domains IV and V), this GtfC-type enzyme differs in the order of these domains and completely lacks domain V. In GtfC, the sequence of conserved regions I to IV of clan GH-H is identical to that in GH13 (I-II-III-IV) but different from that in GH70 (II-III-IV-I because of a circular permutation of the (β/α)8 barrel. The GtfC 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes thus represent structurally and functionally very interesting evolutionary intermediates between α-amylase and glucansucrase enzymes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Refrigeration generation using expander-generator units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Koryagin, A. V.; Baidakova, Yu. O.

    2016-05-01

    The problems of using the expander-generator unit (EGU) to generate refrigeration, along with electricity were considered. It is shown that, on the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows using the EGU, one can provide the refrigeration supply of the different consumers: ventilation and air conditioning plants and industrial refrigerators and freezers. The analysis of influence of process parameters on the cooling power of the EGU, which depends on the parameters of the gas expansion process in the expander and temperatures of cooled environment, was carried out. The schematic diagram of refrigeration generation plant based on EGU is presented. The features and advantages of EGU to generate refrigeration compared with thermotransformer of steam compressive and absorption types were shown, namely: there is no need to use the energy generated by burning fuel to operate the EGU; beneficial use of the heat delivered to gas from the flow being cooled in equipment operating on gas; energy production along with refrigeration generation, which makes it possible to create, using EGU, the trigeneration plants without using the energy power equipment. It is shown that the level of the temperatures of refrigeration flows, which can be obtained by using the EGU on existing technological decompression stations of the transported gas, allows providing the refrigeration supply of various consumers. The information that the refrigeration capacity of an expander-generator unit not only depends on the parameters of the process of expansion of gas flowing in the expander (flow rate, temperatures and pressures at the inlet and outlet) but it is also determined by the temperature needed for a consumer and the initial temperature of the flow of the refrigeration-carrier being cooled. The conclusion was made that the expander-generator units can be used to create trigeneration plants both at major power plants and at small energy.

  12. ATP-binding cassette subfamily A, member 4 intronic variants c.4773+3A>G and c.5461-10T>C cause Stargardt disease due to defective splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Frida; Westin, Ida Maria; Österman, Lennart; Sandgren, Ola; Burstedt, Marie; Holmberg, Monica; Golovleva, Irina

    2018-02-20

    Inherited retinal dystrophies (IRDs) represent a group of progressive conditions affecting the retina. There is a great genetic heterogeneity causing IRDs, and to date, more than 260 genes are associated with IRDs. Stargardt disease, type 1 (STGD1) or macular degeneration with flecks, STGD1 represents a disease with early onset, central visual impairment, frequent appearance of yellowish flecks and mutations in the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A, member 4 (ABCA4) gene. A large number of intronic sequence variants in ABCA4 have been considered pathogenic although their functional effect was seldom demonstrated. In this study, we aimed to reveal how intronic variants present in patients with Stargardt from the same Swedish family affect splicing. The splicing of the ABCA4 gene was studied in human embryonic kidney cells, HEK293T, and in human retinal pigment epithelium cells, ARPE-19, using a minigene system containing variants c.4773+3A>G and c.5461-10T>C. We showed that both ABCA4 variants, c.4773+3A>G and c.5461-10T>C, cause aberrant splicing of the ABCA4 minigene resulting in exon skipping. We also demonstrated that splicing of ABCA4 has different outcomes depending on transfected cell type. Two intronic variants c.4773+3A>G and c.5461-10T>C, both predicted to affect splicing, are indeed disease-causing mutations due to skipping of exons 33, 34, 39 and 40 of ABCA4 gene. The experimental proof that ABCA4 mutations in STGD patients affect protein function is crucial for their inclusion to future clinical trials; therefore, functional testing of all ABCA4 intronic variants associated with Stargardt disease by minigene technology is desirable. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Getting from A to B-exploring the activation motifs of the class B adhesion G protein-coupled receptor subfamily G member 4/GPR112

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelia Peeters, Miriam; Mos, Iris; Lenselink, Eelke B

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (ADGRs/class B2 G protein-coupled receptors) constitute an ancient family of G protein-coupled receptors that have recently been demonstrated to play important roles in cellular and developmental processes. Here, we describe a first insight...... into the structure-function relationship of ADGRs using the family member ADGR subfamily G member 4 (ADGRG4)/GPR112 as a model receptor. In a bioinformatics approach, we compared conserved, functional elements of the well-characterized class A and class B1 secretin-like G protein-coupled receptors with the ADGRs. We...... identified several potential equivalent motifs and subjected those to mutational analysis. The importance of the mutated residues was evaluated by examining their effect on the high constitutive activity of the N-terminally truncated ADGRG4/GPR112 in a 1-receptor-1-G protein Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  14. A new species of Glaphyropoma: the first subterranean copionodontine catfish and the first occurrence of opercular odontodes in the subfamily (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elina Bichuette

    Full Text Available A new species of the rare copionodontine genus Glaphyropoma is described from subterranean waters in the Diamantina Plateau, Bahia State, central northeastern Brazil. This is the first troglomorphic species in the subfamily Copionodontinae. It is distinguished from all other copionodontines by the presence of opercular odontodes, and further distinguished from its only congener, G. rodriguesi, by the reduction of dark integumentary pigmentation. The new species shares the single synapomorphy previously proposed for Glaphyropoma, the marked narrowing of the first hypobranchial and indirect character evidence also supports its inclusion in the genus. The presence of opercular odontodes in the new species, in combination with a reviewed hypothesis of sister group relationship between Copionodontinae and Trichogeninae, indicate that the absence of opercular odontodes in previously-known copionodontines is secondary, rather than primitive.

  15. The effects of IL-20 subfamily cytokines on reconstituted human epidermis suggest potential roles in cutaneous innate defense and pathogenic adaptive immunity in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Susan M; Valdez, Patricia A; Wu, Jianfeng; Jung, Kenneth; Zhong, Fiona; Hall, Linda; Kasman, Ian; Winer, Jane; Modrusan, Zora; Danilenko, Dimitry M; Ouyang, Wenjun

    2007-02-15

    IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, IL-24, and IL-26 are members of the IL-10 family of cytokines that have been shown to be up-regulated in psoriatic skin. Contrary to IL-10, these cytokines signal using receptor complex R1 subunits that are preferentially expressed on cells of epithelial origin; thus, we henceforth refer to them as the IL-20 subfamily cytokines. In this study, we show that primary human keratinocytes (KCs) express receptors for these cytokines and that IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 induce acanthosis in reconstituted human epidermis (RHE) in a dose-dependent manner. These cytokines also induce expression of the psoriasis-associated protein S100A7 and keratin 16 in RHE and cause persistent activation of Stat3 with nuclear localization. IL-22 had the most pronounced effects on KC proliferation and on the differentiation of KCs in RHE, inducing a decrease in the granular cell layer (hypogranulosis). Furthermore, gene expression analysis performed on cultured RHE treated with these cytokines showed that IL-19, IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 regulate many of these same genes to variable degrees, inducing a gene expression profile consistent with inflammatory responses, wound healing re-epithelialization, and altered differentiation. Many of these genes have also been found to be up-regulated in psoriatic skin, including several chemokines, beta-defensins, S100 family proteins, and kallikreins. These results confirm that IL-20 subfamily cytokines are important regulators of epidermal KC biology with potentially pivotal roles in the immunopathology of psoriasis.

  16. Crystal Structure of Perakine Reductase, Founding Member of a Novel Aldo-Keto Reductase (AKR) Subfamily That Undergoes Unique Conformational Changes during NADPH Binding*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lianli; Chen, Yixin; Rajendran, Chitra; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Wang, Meitian; Mindnich, Rebekka; Rosenthal, Cindy; Penning, Trevor M.; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Perakine reductase (PR) catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of the aldehyde perakine to yield the alcohol raucaffrinoline in the biosynthetic pathway of ajmaline in Rauvolfia, a key step in indole alkaloid biosynthesis. Sequence alignment shows that PR is the founder of the new AKR13D subfamily and is designated AKR13D1. The x-ray structure of methylated His6-PR was solved to 2.31 Å. However, the active site of PR was blocked by the connected parts of the neighbor symmetric molecule in the crystal. To break the interactions and obtain the enzyme-ligand complexes, the A213W mutant was generated. The atomic structure of His6-PR-A213W complex with NADPH was determined at 1.77 Å. Overall, PR folds in an unusual α8/β6 barrel that has not been observed in any other AKR protein to date. NADPH binds in an extended pocket, but the nicotinamide riboside moiety is disordered. Upon NADPH binding, dramatic conformational changes and movements were observed: two additional β-strands in the C terminus become ordered to form one α-helix, and a movement of up to 24 Å occurs. This conformational change creates a large space that allows the binding of substrates of variable size for PR and enhances the enzyme activity; as a result cooperative kinetics are observed as NADPH is varied. As the founding member of the new AKR13D subfamily, PR also provides a structural template and model of cofactor binding for the AKR13 family. PMID:22334702

  17. Functional diversity for biomass deconstruction in family 5 subfamily 5 (GH5_5) of fungal endo-β1,4-glucanases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bingyao; Walton, Jonathan D

    2017-05-01

    Endo-β1,4-glucanases in glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GH5) are ubiquitous enzymes in the multicellular fungi and are common components of enzyme cocktails for biomass conversion. We recently showed that an endo-glucanase of subfamily 5 of GH5 (GH5_5) from Sporotrichum thermophile (StCel5A) was more effective at releasing glucose from pretreated corn stover, when part of an eight-component synthetic enzyme mixture, compared to its closely related counterpart from Trichoderma reesei, TrCel5A. StCel5A and TrCel5A belong to different clades of GH5_5 (GH5_5_1 and GH5_5_2, respectively). To test whether the superior activity of StCel5A was a general property of all enzymes in the GH5_5_2 clade, StCel5A, TrCel5A, and two additional members of each subfamily were expressed in a common host that had been engineered to suppress its native cellulases (T. reesei Δxyr1) and compared against each other alone on pure substrates, in synthetic mixtures on pure substrates, and against each other in synthetic mixtures on real biomass. The results indicated that superiority is a unique property of StCel5A and not of GH5_5_2 generally. The six Cel5A enzymes had significant differences in relative activities on different substrates, in specific activities, and in sensitivities to mannan inhibition. Importantly, the behavior of the six endo-glucanases on pure cellulose substrates did not predict their behavior in combination with other cellulolytic enzymes on a real lignocellulosic biomass substrate.

  18. Serine Proteolytic Pathway Activation Reveals an Expanded Ensemble of Wound Response Genes in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Rachel A.; Juarez, Michelle T.; Hermann, Anita; Sasik, Roman; Hardiman, Gary; McGinnis, William

    2013-01-01

    After injury to the animal epidermis, a variety of genes are transcriptionally activated in nearby cells to regenerate the missing cells and facilitate barrier repair. The range and types of diffusible wound signals that are produced by damaged epidermis and function to activate repair genes during epidermal regeneration remains a subject of very active study in many animals. In Drosophila embryos, we have discovered that serine protease function is locally activated around wound sites, and is also required for localized activation of epidermal repair genes. The serine protease trypsin is sufficient to induce a striking global epidermal wound response without inflicting cell death or compromising the integrity of the epithelial barrier. We developed a trypsin wounding treatment as an amplification tool to more fully understand the changes in the Drosophila transcriptome that occur after epidermal injury. By comparing our array results with similar results on mammalian skin wounding we can see which evolutionarily conserved pathways are activated after epidermal wounding in very diverse animals. Our innovative serine protease-mediated wounding protocol allowed us to identify 8 additional genes that are activated in epidermal cells in the immediate vicinity of puncture wounds, and the functions of many of these genes suggest novel genetic pathways that may control epidermal wound repair. Additionally, our data augments the evidence that clean puncture wounding can mount a powerful innate immune transcriptional response, with different innate immune genes being activated in an interesting variety of ways. These include puncture-induced activation only in epidermal cells in the immediate vicinity of wounds, or in all epidermal cells, or specifically in the fat body, or in multiple tissues. PMID:23637905

  19. Landscape movements of migratory birds and bats reveal an expanded scale of stopover.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D Taylor

    Full Text Available Many species of birds and bats undertake seasonal migrations between breeding and over-wintering sites. En-route, migrants alternate periods of flight with time spent at stopover--the time and space where individuals rest and refuel for subsequent flights. We assessed the spatial scale of movements made by migrants during stopover by using an array of automated telemetry receivers with multiple antennae to track the daily location of individuals over a geographic area ~20 × 40 km. We tracked the movements of 322 individuals of seven migratory vertebrate species (5 passerines, 1 owl and 1 bat during spring and fall migratory stopover on and adjacent to a large lake peninsula. Our results show that many individuals leaving their capture site relocate within the same landscape at some point during stopover, moving as much as 30 km distant from their site of initial capture. We show that many apparent nocturnal departures from stopover sites are not a resumption of migration in the strictest sense, but are instead relocations that represent continued stopover at a broader spatial scale.

  20. Expanded target-chemical analysis reveals extensive mixed-organic-contaminant exposure in USA streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Romanok, Kristin; Barber, Larry B.; Buxton, Herbert T.; Foreman, William T.; Furlong, Edward T.; Glassmeyer, Susan T.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Jones, Daniel K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Loftin, Keith A.; Mills, Marc A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Orlando, James L.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Surface water from 38 streams nationwide was assessed using 14 target-organic methods (719 compounds). Designed-bioactive anthropogenic contaminants (biocides, pharmaceuticals) comprised 57% of 406 organics detected at least once. The 10 most-frequently detected anthropogenic-organics included eight pesticides (desulfinylfipronil, AMPA, chlorpyrifos, dieldrin, metolachlor, atrazine, CIAT, glyphosate) and two pharmaceuticals (caffeine, metformin) with detection frequencies ranging 66–84% of all sites. Detected contaminant concentrations varied from less than 1 ng L–1 to greater than 10 μg L–1, with 77 and 278 having median detected concentrations greater than 100 ng L–1 and 10 ng L–1, respectively. Cumulative detections and concentrations ranged 4–161 compounds (median 70) and 8.5–102 847 ng L–1, respectively, and correlated significantly with wastewater discharge, watershed development, and toxic release inventory metrics. Log10 concentrations of widely monitored HHCB, triclosan, and carbamazepine explained 71–82% of the variability in the total number of compounds detected (linear regression; p-values: environment application (pesticides), designed-bioactive organics (median 41 per site at μg L–1 cumulative concentrations) in developed watersheds present aquatic health concerns, given their acknowledged potential for sublethal effects to sensitive species and lifecycle stages at low ng L–1.

  1. Psoriasis or not? Review of 51 clinically confirmed cases reveals an expanded histopathologic spectrum of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Thinh; Parsi, Kory K; Ogawa, Toru; Kiuru, Maija; Konia, Thomas; Li, Chin-Shang; Fung, Maxwell A

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is usually diagnosed clinically, so only non-classic or refractory cases tend to be biopsied. Diagnostic uncertainty persists when dermatopathologists encounter features regarded as non-classic for psoriasis. Define and document classic and non-classic histologic features in skin biopsies from patients with clinically confirmed psoriasis. Minimal clinical diagnostic criteria were informally validated and applied to a consecutive series of biopsies histologically consistent with psoriasis. Clinical confirmation required 2 of the following criteria: (1) classic morphology, (2) classic distribution, (3) nail pitting, and (4) family history, with #1 and/or #2 as 1 criterion in every case RESULTS: Fifty-one biopsies from 46 patients were examined. Classic features of psoriasis included hypogranulosis (96%), club-shaped rete ridges (96%), dermal papilla capillary ectasia (90%), Munro microabscess (78%), suprapapillary plate thinning (63%), spongiform pustules (53%), and regular acanthosis (14%). Non-classic features included irregular acanthosis (84%), junctional vacuolar alteration (76%), spongiosis (76%), dermal neutrophils (69%), necrotic keratinocytes (67%), hypergranulosis (65%), neutrophilic spongiosis (61%), dermal eosinophils (49%), compact orthokeratosis (37%), papillary dermal fibrosis (35%), lichenoid infiltrate (25%), plasma cells (16%), and eosinophilic spongiosis (8%). Psoriasis exhibits a broader histopathologic spectrum. The presence of some non-classic features does not necessarily exclude the possibility of psoriasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Expanding Advanced Civilizations in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, C.

    The 1950 lunch-table remark by Enrico Fermi `Where is everybody' has started intensive scientific and philosophical discussions about what we call nowadays the `Fermi paradox': If there had been ever a single advanced civilization in the cosmological history of our galaxy, dedicated to expansion, it would have had plenty of time to colonize the entire galaxy via exponential growth. No evidence of present or past alien visits to earth are known to us, leading to the standard conclusion that no advanced expanding civilization has ever existed in the milky-way. This conclusion rest fundamentally on the ad-hoc assumption, that any alien civilizations dedicated to expansion at one time would remain dedicated to expansions forever. Considering our limited knowledge about alien civilizations we need however to relax this basic assumption. Here we show that a substantial and stable population of expanding advanced civilization might consequently exist in our galaxy.

  3. Black holes in an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Gary W; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2010-04-02

    An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P = w rho with -1 < or = for all w < or = 1). It is an exact solution of the Einstein-scalar-Maxwell system, in which we have two Maxwell-type U(1) fields coupled to the scalar field. The potential of the scalar field is an exponential. We find a regular horizon, which depends on one parameter [the ratio of the energy density of U(1) fields to that of the scalar field]. The horizon is static because of the balance on the horizon between gravitational attractive force and U(1) repulsive force acting on the scalar field. We also calculate the black hole temperature.

  4. Parameter estimation for an expanding universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieci Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We study the parameter estimation for excitations of Dirac fields in the expanding Robertson–Walker universe. We employ quantum metrology techniques to demonstrate the possibility for high precision estimation for the volume rate of the expanding universe. We show that the optimal precision of the estimation depends sensitively on the dimensionless mass m˜ and dimensionless momentum k˜ of the Dirac particles. The optimal precision for the ratio estimation peaks at some finite dimensionless mass m˜ and momentum k˜. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by choosing the probe state as an eigenvector of the hamiltonian. This occurs because the largest quantum Fisher information is obtained by performing projective measurements implemented by the projectors onto the eigenvectors of specific probe states.

  5. Gravitational instability in a multicomponent expanding medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'eva, L.V.; Nurgaliev, I.S.

    1985-01-01

    In the Newtonian approximation we consider the gravitational instability of a two- or N-component medium in an expanding universe. The system of density-perturbation equations is solved in the short- and long-wave limits. For small values of the wave vector k, a result obtained for the stationary case continues to hold true: at most there can exist only one unstable mode. If k is kept fixed, the introduction of a perturbation component delta/sub i/ will speed the growth of fluctuations delta/sub j/, provided the adiabatic indices γ/sub i/>γ/sub j/. In the large-k limit, ordinary acoustic waves result. Other components will begin to manifest themselves in the first-order terms when the oscillation amplitude is expanded in powers of k -1 : provided γ/sub j/>γ/sub i/> or =4/3, the ith-component amplitude will decay more slowly than otherwise

  6. Expander graphs in pure and applied mathematics

    OpenAIRE

    Lubotzky, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Expander graphs are highly connected sparse finite graphs. They play an important role in computer science as basic building blocks for network constructions, error correcting codes, algorithms and more. In recent years they have started to play an increasing role also in pure mathematics: number theory, group theory, geometry and more. This expository article describes their constructions and various applications in pure and applied mathematics.

  7. GWDC Expands High-End Market Share

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ It is a decision of great significance for GWDC to expand high-end market share in order to realize its transformation of development strategy and improve its development quality. As an important step of GWDC to explore high-end market, Oman PDO Project marks the first time that the Chinese petroleum engineering service team cooperates with the transnational petroleum corporations ranking first three in the world.

  8. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include inexpen...... was characterized in human colon carcinoma xenograft bearing nude mice. A tumor specific accumulation of HES 450 was observed, which proves it’s potential as carrier for passive tumor targeting....

  9. Short wavelength striations on expanding plasma clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The growth and evolution of short wavelength (< ion gyroradius) flute modes on a plasma expanding across an ambient magnetic field have been actively studied in recent years, both by means of experiments in the laboratory as well as in space and through numerical simulations. We review the relevant observations and simulations results, discuss the instability mechanism and related linear theory, and describe recent work to bring experiments and theory into better agreement. 30 refs., 6 figs

  10. Inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dafermos, Mihalis [University of Cambridge, Department of Pure Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Rendall, Alan D [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm (Germany)

    2005-12-07

    A new criterion for inextendibility of expanding cosmological models with symmetry is presented. It is applied to derive a number of new results and to simplify the proofs of existing ones. In particular, it shows that the solutions of the Einstein-Vlasov system with T{sup 2} symmetry, including the vacuum solutions, are inextendible in the future. The technique introduced adds a qualitatively new element to the available tool-kit for studying strong cosmic censorship. (letter to the editor)

  11. Intermittency Statistics in the Expanding Solar Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, M. E.; Parashar, T. N.; Matthaeus, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    The solar wind is observed to be turbulent. One of the open questions in solar wind research is how the turbulence evolves as the solar wind expands to great distances. Some studies have focused on evolution of the outer scale but not much has been done to understand how intermittency evolves in the expanding wind beyond 1 AU (see [1,2]). We use magnetic field data from Voyager I spacecraft from 1 to 10AU to study the evolution of statistics of magnetic discontinuities. We perform various statistical tests on these discontinuities and make connections to the physical processes occurring in the expanding wind.[1] Tsurutani, Bruce T., and Edward J. Smith. "Interplanetary discontinuities: Temporal variations and the radial gradient from 1 to 8.5 AU." Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics 84.A6 (1979): 2773-2787.[2] Greco, A., et al. "Evidence for nonlinear development of magnetohydrodynamic scale intermittency in the inner heliosphere." The Astrophysical Journal 749.2 (2012): 105.

  12. Transcriptional analysis of the HeT-A retrotransposon in mutant and wild type stocks reveals high sequence variability at Drosophila telomeres and other unusual features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piñeyro David

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telomere replication in Drosophila depends on the transposition of a domesticated retroelement, the HeT-A retrotransposon. The sequence of the HeT-A retrotransposon changes rapidly resulting in differentiated subfamilies. This pattern of sequence change contrasts with the essential function with which the HeT-A is entrusted and brings about questions concerning the extent of sequence variability, the telomere contribution of different subfamilies, and whether wild type and mutant Drosophila stocks show different HeT-A scenarios. Results A detailed study on the variability of HeT-A reveals that both the level of variability and the number of subfamilies are higher than previously reported. Comparisons between GIII, a strain with longer telomeres, and its parental strain Oregon-R indicate that both strains have the same set of HeT-A subfamilies. Finally, the presence of a highly conserved splicing pattern only in its antisense transcripts indicates a putative regulatory, functional or structural role for the HeT-A RNA. Interestingly, our results also suggest that most HeT-A copies are actively expressed regardless of which telomere and where in the telomere they are located. Conclusions Our study demonstrates how the HeT-A sequence changes much faster than previously reported resulting in at least nine different subfamilies most of which could actively contribute to telomere extension in Drosophila. Interestingly, the only significant difference observed between Oregon-R and GIII resides in the nature and proportion of the antisense transcripts, suggesting a possible mechanism that would in part explain the longer telomeres of the GIII stock.

  13. Looking for trouble? Diagnostics expanding disease and producing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2018-05-23

    Novel tests give great opportunities for earlier and more precise diagnostics. At the same time, new tests expand disease, produce patients, and cause unnecessary harm in overdiagnosis and overtreatment. How can we evaluate diagnostics to obtain the benefits and avoid harm? One way is to pay close attention to the diagnostic process and its core concepts. Doing so reveals 3 errors that expand disease and increase overdiagnosis. The first error is to decouple diagnostics from harm, eg, by diagnosing insignificant conditions. The second error is to bypass proper validation of the relationship between test indicator and disease, eg, by introducing biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease before the tests are properly validated. The third error is to couple the name of disease to insignificant or indecisive indicators, eg, by lending the cancer name to preconditions, such as ductal carcinoma in situ. We need to avoid these errors to promote beneficial testing, bar harmful diagnostics, and evade unwarranted expansion of disease. Accordingly, we must stop identifying and testing for conditions that are only remotely associated with harm. We need more stringent verification of tests, and we must avoid naming indicators and indicative conditions after diseases. If not, we will end like ancient tragic heroes, succumbing because of our very best abilities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Sobre um novo gênero neotrópico da subfamília Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae On a new neotropical genus of the subfamily Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião José de Oliveira

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new neotropical genus and a new species of a non-biting midge for the subfamily Tanypodinae from Brazil are described. The new genus is near Tanypus Meigen, 1803 and Procladius Skuse, 1889, but differs of both by wings and male terminalia.

  15. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

  16. Submission to GenBank of the Plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) Subfamily in Cotton – GenBank Accession No. GU998827-GU998830 and GenBank Accession TPA;inferential No. BK007045-BK007052

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP) are one of the five aquaporin protein subfamilies. Aquaporin proteins are known to facilitate water transport through biological membranes. In order to identify NIP aquaporin gene candidates in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), in silico and molecular clon...

  17. Expanding perspectives on cognition in humans, animals, and machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Marin, Alex; Mainen, Zachary F

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade neuroscience has been attacking the problem of cognition with increasing vigor. Yet, what exactly is cognition, beyond a general signifier of anything seemingly complex the brain does? Here, we briefly review attempts to define, describe, explain, build, enhance and experience cognition. We highlight perspectives including psychology, molecular biology, computation, dynamical systems, machine learning, behavior and phenomenology. This survey of the landscape reveals not a clear target for explanation but a pluralistic and evolving scene with diverse opportunities for grounding future research. We argue that rather than getting to the bottom of it, over the next century, by deconstructing and redefining cognition, neuroscience will and should expand rather than merely reduce our concept of the mind. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Expanding P450 catalytic reaction space through evolution and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, John A.; Farwell, Christopher C.; Arnold, Frances H.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in protein and metabolic engineering have led to wider use of enzymes to synthesize important molecules. However, many desirable transformations are not catalyzed by any known enzyme, driving interest in understanding how new enzymes can be created. The cytochrome P450 enzyme family, whose members participate in xenobiotic metabolism and natural products biosynthesis, catalyzes an impressive range of difficult chemical reactions that continues to grow as new enzymes are characterized. Recent work has revealed that P450-derived enzymes can also catalyze useful reactions previously accessible only to synthetic chemistry. The evolution and engineering of these enzymes provides an excellent case study for how to genetically encode new chemistry and expand biology’s reaction space. PMID:24658056

  19. Emergence of oscillons in an expanding background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhi, E.; Guth, A. H.; Iqbal, N.; Graham, N.; Rosales, R. R.; Stamatopoulos, N.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a (1+1) dimensional scalar field theory that supports oscillons, which are localized, oscillatory, stable solutions to nonlinear equations of motion. We study this theory in an expanding background and show that oscillons now lose energy, but at a rate that is exponentially small when the expansion rate is slow. We also show numerically that a universe that starts with (almost) thermal initial conditions will cool to a final state where a significant fraction of the energy of the universe--on the order of 50%--is stored in oscillons. If this phenomenon persists in realistic models, oscillons may have cosmological consequences.

  20. Expanding the Bethe/Gauge dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol; Lukowski, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We expand the Bethe/Gauge dictionary between the XXX Heisenberg spin chain and 2d N = (2, 2) supersymmetric gauge theories to include aspects of the algebraic Bethe ansatz. We construct the wave functions of off-shell Bethe states as orbifold defects in the A-twisted supersymmetric gauge theory and study their correlation functions. We also present an alternative description of off-shell Bethe states as boundary conditions in an effective N = 4 supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Finally, we interpret spin chain R-matrices as correlation functions of Janus interfaces for mass parameters in the supersymmetric quantum mechanics.

  1. Angular momentum conservation for uniformly expanding flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Sean A

    2007-01-01

    Angular momentum has recently been defined as a surface integral involving an axial vector and a twist 1-form, which measures the twisting around the spacetime due to a rotating mass. The axial vector is chosen to be a transverse, divergence-free, coordinate vector, which is compatible with any initial choice of axis and integral curves. Then a conservation equation expresses the rate of the change of angular momentum along a uniformly expanding flow as a surface integral of angular momentum densities, with the same form as the standard equation for an axial Killing vector, apart from the inclusion of an effective energy tensor for gravitational radiation

  2. Expandable tubulars for use in geologic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray, Jeffery A.; Svedeman, Steven; Walter, David; Mckeighan, Peter; Siebanaler, Shane; Dewhurst, Peter; Hobson, Steven; Foss, Doug; Wirz, Holger; Sharpe, Aaron; Apostal, Michael

    2014-08-12

    An expandable tubular includes a plurality of leaves formed from sheet material that have curved surfaces. The leaves extend around a portion or fully around the diameter of the tubular structure. Some of the adjacent leaves of the tubular are coupled together. The tubular is compressed to a smaller diameter so that it can be inserted through previously deployed tubular assemblies. Once the tubular is properly positioned, it is deployed and coupled or not coupled to a previously deployed tubular assembly. The tubular is useful for all types of wells and boreholes.

  3. Expanding Technological Frames Towards Mediated Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Scupola, Ada; Fitzgerald, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of technological and social factors leading to the successful adoption of groupware in a virtual team in educational setting. Drawing on a theoretical framework based on the concept of technological frames, we conducted an action research study to analyze...... the chronological sequence of events leading to groupware adoption. We argue that groupware adoption can be conceptualized as a three-step process of expanding and aligning individual technological frames towards groupware: The first step comprises activities facilitating participants in articulation and evaluation...... collaborative practice and use of technology, and that this activity cannot take place at the outset....

  4. Endotracheal expandable metallic stent placement in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, S; Tanabe, Y; Fujiwara, Y; Koyama, T; Tanigawa, N; Kobayashi, M; Katsube, Y; Nakamura, H [Tottori Univ. School of Medicine, Yonago (Japan). Dept. of Radiology Research Inst. for Microbial Diseases, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1991-01-01

    Various types of Gianturco zig-zag wire stent were implanted into the tracheas of 4 dogs to define the suitable characteristics of the endotracheal wire stent in these animals. These stents were constructed of 0.45, and 0.33 mm stainless steel wire. The diameter of the fully expanded stents was 3 cm and their lengths were 2, 3, and 4 cm. The 2 cm stent constructed of 0.33 mm wire showed minimum pathologic changes of the trachea of the dog compared to the other stents, and at the same time had a complete covering of ciliated columnar epithelium over the stent surface. (orig.).

  5. [Treatment of tracheobronchomalacia with expandable metallic stents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón-Pacheco Sánchez, J; García Vázquez, A; Cuadros García, J; Cano Novillo, I; Villafruela Sanz, M; Berchi García, F J

    2002-10-01

    Tracheomalacia is an unfrequent disease that causes tracheal collapse during breathing. It is generally associated to esophageal atresia, but cases of primary tracheomalacia and others secondary to extrinsic compression, have also been described. Spontaneous resolution is generally the rule and only a few cases need surgical treatment. When this therapy fails or is not indicated for any reason, endoluminal tracheobronchial stents may be used. We have treated two patients with four expandable metallic stents: one had severe tracheomalacia associated to esophageal atresia and the other tracheobronchomalacia secondary to cardiomegaly. Results have been good in both cases.

  6. Multiparticle dynamics in an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James L.

    1995-11-01

    Approximate equations of motion for multiparticle systems in an expanding Einstein-deSitter universe are derived from the Einstein-Maxwell field equations using the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann surface integral method. At the Newtonian level of approximation one finds that, in comoving coordinates, both the Newtonian gravitational and Coulomb interactions in these equations are multiplied by the inverse third power of the scale factor R(t) appearing in the Einstein-deSitter field and they acquire a cosmic ``drag'' term. Nevertheless, both the period and luminosity size of bound two-body systems whose period is small compared to the Hubble time are found to be independent of t.

  7. Gravitational mass in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannan, S.

    1986-01-01

    A test for the Hawking definition of mass is given in a Tolman--Bondi model that asymptotically approaches the open Friedmann universe. An expanding universe filled with dustlike matter of zero pressure is considered. The matter distribution is spherically symmetric but nonhomogeneous. With appropriate boundary conditions, the calculation yields a finite and nonzero value for the Hawking mass, measured as a deviation from a ''renormalized'' zero mass in the unperturbed Friedmann model. These boundary conditions are more restrictive than those found for a model with gravitational radiation

  8. Expandable antivibration bar for a steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, H.O.

    1986-01-01

    A steam generator tube support structure comprises expandable antivibration bars positioned between rows of tubes in the steam generator and attached to retaining rings surrounding the bundle of tubes. The antivibration bars have adjacent bar sections with mating surfaces formed as inclined planes which upon relative longitudinal motion between the upper and lower bars provides a means to increase the overall thickness across the structure to the required value. The bar section is retained against longitudinal movement in take-up assembly whereas the bar section is movable longitudinally by rotation of a nut. (author)

  9. Comparison of self-expandable and balloon-expanding stents for hybrid ductal stenting in hypoplastic left heart complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreczny, Sebastian; Qureshi, Shakeel A; Rosenthal, Eric; Krasemann, Thomas; Nassar, Mohamed S; Anderson, David R; Morgan, Gareth J

    2017-07-01

    We aimed to compare the procedural and mid-term performance of a specifically designed self-expanding stent with balloon-expandable stents in patients undergoing hybrid palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome and its variants. The lack of specifically designed stents has led to off-label use of coronary, biliary, or peripheral stents in the neonatal ductus arteriosus. Recently, a self-expanding stent, specifically designed for use in hypoplastic left heart syndrome, has become available. We carried out a retrospective cohort comparison of 69 neonates who underwent hybrid ductal stenting with balloon-expandable and self-expanding stents from December, 2005 to July, 2014. In total, 43 balloon-expandable stents were implanted in 41 neonates and more recently 47 self-expanding stents in 28 neonates. In the balloon-expandable stents group, stent-related complications occurred in nine patients (22%), compared with one patient in the self-expanding stent group (4%). During follow-up, percutaneous re-intervention related to the ductal stent was performed in five patients (17%) in the balloon-expandable stent group and seven patients (28%) in self-expanding stents group. Hybrid ductal stenting with self-expanding stents produced favourable results when compared with the results obtained with balloon-expandable stents. Immediate additional interventions and follow-up re-interventions were similar in both groups with complications more common in those with balloon-expandable stents.

  10. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and characterisation of the second identified CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A78 from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Crittenden, Tamara A; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2011-11-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. Previously, we cloned and characterised the CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4B gene subfamilies from marsupials and demonstrated important species-differences in both activity and tissue expression of these CYP enzymes. Recently, we isolated the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. Here we have cloned and characterised the second identified member of marsupial CYP3A gene subfamily, CYP3A78 from the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). In addition, we have examined the gender-differences in microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity (a CYP3A marker) and CYP3A protein expression across test marsupial species. Significant differences in hepatic erythromycin N-demethylation activity were observed between male and female koalas, with the activity detected in female koalas being 2.5-fold higher compared to that in male koalas (p<0.01). No gender-differences were observed in tammar wallaby or Eastern grey kangaroo. Immunoblot analysis utilising anti-human CYP3A4 antibody detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test male and female marsupials including the koala, tammar wallaby, and Eastern grey kangaroo, with no gender-differences detected across test marsupials. A 1610 bp koala hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A78, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches. It displays 64% nucleotide and 57% amino acid sequence identity to the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. The CYP3A78 cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acids, shares approximately 68% nucleotide and 56% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP3A4, and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala hepatic CYP3A78 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP

  11. Expanded Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of Retrochiasmatic Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanzo, Justin R; Goyal, Neerav; Zacharia, Brad E

    2018-02-01

    This video abstract demonstrates the use of the expanded endoscopic endonasal approach for the resection of a retrochiasmatic craniopharyngioma. These tumors are notoriously difficult to treat, and many approaches have been tried to facilitate safe and effective resection. The endoscopic endonasal approach has been increasingly utilized for selected sellar/suprasellar pathology. We present the case of a 39-year-old man who was found to have a cystic, partially calcified suprasellar mass consistent with a craniopharyngioma. To facilitate robust skull base repair, a vascularized nasoseptal flap was harvested. A wide sphenoidotomy was performed and the sella and tuberculum were exposed. After the dural opening and arachnoid dissection, the stalk was identified, merging seamlessly with the tumor capsule. The lesion was then internally debulked with the use of an ultrasonic aspirator. The capsule was then dissected off of the optic chiasm, thalamus, and hypothalamus. The cavity was inspected with an angled endoscope to ensure complete resection. A multilayered reconstruction was performed using autologous fascia lata, the previously harvested nasoseptal flap, and dural sealant. Postoperatively, the patient did have expected panhypopituitarism but remained neurologically intact and had improvement in his vision. In conclusion, this video demonstrates how an expanded endonasal approach can be used to safely resect a craniopharyngioma, even when in close proximity to delicate structures such as the optic chiasm. The link to the video can be found at: https://youtu.be/tahjHmrXhc4 .

  12. Hybrid Scenarios, Transmedia Storytelling, Expanded Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Domínguez Figaredo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of social scenarios due to the impact of digital technologies, introduces new possibilities for ethnographic research. Once the initial approaches focused on the dichotomy of “physical-virtual spaces” have been overcame, it comes a stage of maturity that allows the ethnographers to open new avenues for conceptual and analytical methodology applied in techno-social scenarios. This article discusses the evolution of some key dimensions of ethnography according to the new social and epistemological framework. The discussion is based on the analysis of expanded practices that take place in the new techno-social spaces, defined as hybrid environments, where technologies are embedded in the physical life of the subjects. On the one hand, we consider the production of actions based on the assembly of ideas, meanings and objects through digital mediation devices. It is also analysed the transmedia component of the narratives that make sense to allow the experiments. Underlying the analysis, some elements are introduced for discussion on the scope of expanded ethnographic research, the influence of transmedia phenomenon in the notion of “field” and the methods for determining the significance through digital storytelling.

  13. Electromagnetic fields in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, P.A.; Ellis, G.F.R.

    1989-01-01

    The asymptotic form of the electromagnetic field due to a bounded distribution of charge current in an open, expanding Friedmann--Lemaitre--Robertson--Walker universe is studied. The technique used is to first describe a mechanism for passing from a solution of Maxwell's vacuum field equations on Minkowskian space-time to a solution of Maxwell's field equations in a region free of charge current on the cosmological background. This is tested on the field of an accelerating point charge and then applied to the rigorous treatment of the asymptotic electromagnetic field of a bounded charge-current distribution in Minkowskian space-time given by Goldberg and Kerr [J. Math. Phys. 5, 172 (1964)]. A ''peeling expansion'' of the electromagnetic field in the expanding universe is obtained in inverse powers of a parameter that is proportional to the area distance along the generators of future null cones with vertices on the world line of a fundamental observer. The algebraic character of the two leading coefficients in the expansion is the same as that of the two leading coefficients in the Goldberg--Kerr expansion in Minkowskian space-time. In addition, bounds can be calculated, at any instant in the history of a fundamental observer, on all the coefficients in the peeling expansion, as a consequence of the evaluation of such bounds by Goldberg and Kerr in the case treated by them

  14. Chinese IP expands with self-reliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    In 1999, program officers from JOICFP visited five of 10 projects where JOICFP has provided direct assistance during 1993-95 to enhance health education in China's integrated family planning, maternal-child health programs. The JOICFP team and three members of the Chinese National Steering Committee of the Integrated Projects visited project areas in remote and mountainous areas that are characterized by underdevelopment, low income rates, low rates of hospital deliveries, and high rates of parasitic infection. The monitoring team found that all project areas continued the projects after completion of the 3-year period and even expanded efforts to cover other areas. By 1998, more than a million people had been served, which is quadruple the initial target number. The team found that the program could benefit from additional assistance in training new staff to interact with the public and to use IEC (information, education, communication) materials appropriately. One project area, Shaowu City, opened a new Family Health Service Center in August 1998 with a grant from the Japanese Grant Assistance for Grassroots Projects and assistance from its provincial and local government. This Center serves women and children and adolescents on a fee-charged basis and hopes to expand its service area.

  15. Magnetic fields in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie

    2014-01-01

    We find a solution to 4D Einstein–Maxwell theory coupled to a massless dilaton field, for all values of the dilaton coupling, describing a Melvin magnetic field in an expanding universe with ‘stiff matter’ equation of state parameter w = +1. As the universe expands, magnetic flux becomes more concentrated around the symmetry axis for dilaton coupling a<1/√3 and more dispersed for a>1/√3. An electric field circulates around the symmetry axis in the direction determined by Lenz's law. For a = 0 the magnetic flux through a disc of fixed comoving radius is proportional to the proper area of the disc. This result disagrees with the usual expectation based on a test magnetic field that this flux should be constant, and we show why this difference arises. We also find a Melvin solution in an accelerating universe with w = −7/9 for a dilaton field with a certain exponential potential. (paper)

  16. Historical Notes on the Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Michael J.; Belenkyi, Ari; Nussbaumer, Harry; Peacock, John

    2014-01-01

    The article Measuring the Hubble constant by Mario Livio and Adam Riess (Physics Today, October 2013, page 41) reviewed studies of the expanding universe from the 1920s to the present. Although the history of the subject underwent considerable compression to fit the length of a magazine article, we think it may leave a misleading impression of some of the key steps to our current understanding. We therefore offer the following clarifications. Most significantly, papers by Arthur Eddington and by Willem de Sitter in 1930, who successfully promoted Georges Lematres 1927 article for the Scientific Society of Brussels, effected a paradigm shift in interpretation of extragalactic redshifts in 1930. Before then, the astronomical community was generally unaware of the existence of nonstatic cosmological solutions and did not broadly appreciate that redshifts could be thought of locally as Doppler shifts in an expanding matter distribution. Certainly, in 1929 Edwin Hubble referred only to the de Sitter solution of 1917. At the time, the relation between distance and redshift predicted in that model was generally seen purely as a manifestation of static spacetime curvature.

  17. Expanded newborn screening: social and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, Jean-Louis

    2010-10-01

    Newborn screening and genetic testing have expanded rapidly in the last decade with the advent of multiplex (e.g., tandem mass spectrometry) and/or DNA technologies. However, screening panels include a large number of disorders, which may not meet all of the traditional screening criteria, established in late 1960s, and used for years to justify screening programs. After a period of expansion driven by technological advances, many reports have reconsidered the justification of expanded programs. Many factors have contributed to test-panel discrepancies between countries. The test-panel review methodology, the way health benefits are weighed against harms, and the socioeconomic-political environment all play a role. Expansion of screening also requires reconsideration of the infrastructure (ideally, in the context of national plans for rare diseases) to support testing, counselling, education, treatment, and follow-up. Consequently, economic aspects cannot be ignored and can be a limitation for expansion. New ethical questions have emerged: risks of discrimination or stigmatization, respect of the autonomy of persons to make decisions, parental anxiety resulting from a false positive test (especially when reporting to parents screening results for untreatable conditions identified as by-products of screening), etc. For disorders where there is not yet confirmation of benefit, it may be prudent to recommend pilot screening and to have a mechanism that can be used to adapt or even to stop a program.

  18. A Rapidly Expanding Bose-Einstein Condensate: An Expanding Universe in the Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, S.; Kumar, A.; Jacobson, T.; Spielman, I. B.; Campbell, G. K.

    2018-04-01

    We study the dynamics of a supersonically expanding, ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate both experimentally and theoretically. The expansion redshifts long-wavelength excitations, as in an expanding universe. After expansion, energy in the radial mode leads to the production of bulk topological excitations—solitons and vortices—driving the production of a large number of azimuthal phonons and, at late times, causing stochastic persistent currents. These complex nonlinear dynamics, fueled by the energy stored coherently in one mode, are reminiscent of a type of "preheating" that may have taken place at the end of inflation.

  19. A Rapidly Expanding Bose-Einstein Condensate: An Expanding Universe in the Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckel

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamics of a supersonically expanding, ring-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate both experimentally and theoretically. The expansion redshifts long-wavelength excitations, as in an expanding universe. After expansion, energy in the radial mode leads to the production of bulk topological excitations—solitons and vortices—driving the production of a large number of azimuthal phonons and, at late times, causing stochastic persistent currents. These complex nonlinear dynamics, fueled by the energy stored coherently in one mode, are reminiscent of a type of “preheating” that may have taken place at the end of inflation.

  20. A novel MADS-box gene subfamily with a sister-group relationship to class B floral homeotic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A; Kaufmann, K; Freialdenhoven, A; Vincent, C; Li, M-A; Saedler, H; Theissen, G

    2002-02-01

    Class B floral homeotic genes specify the identity of petals and stamens during the development of angiosperm flowers. Recently, putative orthologs of these genes have been identified in different gymnosperms. Together, these genes constitute a clade, termed B genes. Here we report that diverse seed plants also contain members of a hitherto unknown sister clade of the B genes, termed B(sister) (B(s)) genes. We have isolated members of the B(s) clade from the gymnosperm Gnetum gnemon, the monocotyledonous angiosperm Zea mays and the eudicots Arabidopsis thaliana and Antirrhinum majus. In addition, MADS-box genes from the basal angiosperm Asarum europaeum and the eudicot Petunia hybrida were identified as B(s) genes. Comprehensive expression studies revealed that B(s) genes are mainly transcribed in female reproductive organs (ovules and carpel walls). This is in clear contrast to the B genes, which are predominantly expressed in male reproductive organs (and in angiosperm petals). Our data suggest that the B(s) genes played an important role during the evolution of the reproductive structures in seed plants. The establishment of distinct B and B(s) gene lineages after duplication of an ancestral gene may have accompanied the evolution of male microsporophylls and female megasporophylls 400-300 million years ago. During flower evolution, expression of B(s) genes diversified, but the focus of expression remained in female reproductive organs. Our findings imply that a clade of highly conserved close relatives of class B floral homeotic genes has been completely overlooked until recently and awaits further evaluation of its developmental and evolutionary importance. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer Link server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-001-0615-8.

  1. First order phase transition of expanding matter and its fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikazumi, Shinpei; Iwamoto, Akira

    2002-01-01

    Using an expanding matter model with a Lennard-Jones potential, the instability of the expanding system is investigated. The pressure, the temperature, and the density fluctuations are calculated as functions of density during the time evolution of the expanding matter, which are compared to the coexistence curve calculated by the Gibbs ensemble. The expanding matter undergoes the first order phase transition in the limit of the quasistatic expansion. The resultant fragment mass distributions are also investigated. (author)

  2. The Expanding Marketplace for Applied Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, N.; Sirles, P.

    2012-12-01

    While the image of geophysics for the proverbial "layman" often seems limited to volcanoes and earthquakes, and to the geoscientist this image enlarges to include oil or minerals exploration and whole earth studies, there has been a steady increase in the application of geophysics into the realm of "daily life", such as real estate deals, highway infrastructure, and flood protection. This expansion of applications can be attributed to the improved economics from advances in equipment and interpretation. Traditional geophysical methods that at one time often only fit within the budgets of oil, gas, and minerals exploration programs can now be economically applied to much smaller scale needs like contaminant mapping, landfill delineation, and levee investigations. A real-world, economic example of this expanding marketplace is our company, which began very small and was aimed almost exclusively at the minerals exploration market. Most of our growth has been in the last 10 years, when we have expanded to five offices and a staff with almost 40 geoscientist degrees (21 in geophysics); much of this growth has been in the non-oil, non-minerals arenas. While much of our work still includes minerals exploration, other projects this year include wind-farm foundation studies, cavity detection above underground nuclear tests, landfill studies, acid mine drainage problems, and leaks in evaporation ponds. A methodology example of this expanding market is the induced polarization (IP) survey, once primarily used for minerals exploration, particularly large porphyry copper deposits, but now efficient enough to also use in environmental studies. The IP method has been particularly useful in delineating and characterizing old, poorly documented landfills, and recent research suggests it may also be useful in monitoring the accelerated biodegradation processes used in some cases to rehabilitate the sites. Compared to temperature monitoring systems, IP may be more useful in providing

  3. Karyotypic variation in Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 and comparative analysis with representatives of two subfamilies of Phyllostomidae (Chiroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gomes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The family Phyllostomidae belongs to the most abundant and diverse group of bats in the Neotropics with more morphological traits variation at the family level than any other group within mammals. In this work, we present data of chromosome banding (G, C and Ag-NOR and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH for representatives of Rhinophylla pumilio Peters, 1865 collected in four states of Brazil (Amazonas, Bahia, Mato Grosso and Pará. Two karyomorphs were found in this species: 2n=34, FN=64 in populations from western Pará and Mato Grosso states and 2n=34, FN=62 from Amazonas, Bahia, and northeastern Pará and Marajó Island (northern. Difference in the Fundamental Number is determined by variation in the size of the Nucleolar Organizer Region (NOR accompanied with heterochromatin on chromosomes of pair 16 or, alternatively, a pericentric inversion. The C-banding technique detected constitutive heterochromatin in the centromeric regions of all chromosomes and on the distal part of the long arm of pair 15 of specimens from all localities. FISH with a DNA telomeric probe did not show any interstitial sequence, and an 18S rDNA probe and silver staining revealed the presence of NOR in the long arm of the pair 15, associated with heterochromatin, and in the short arm of the pair 16 for all specimens. The intra-specific analysis using chromosome banding did not show any significant difference between the samples. The comparative analyses using G-banding have shown that nearly all chromosomes of R. pumilio were conserved in the chromosome complements of Glossophaga soricina Pallas, 1766, Phyllostomus hastatus Pallas, 1767, Phyllostomus discolor Wagner, 1843 and Mimon crenulatum Geoffroy, 1801, with a single chromosomal pair unique to R. pumilio (pair 15. However, two chromosomes of M. crenulatum are polymorphic for two independent pericentric inversions. The karyotype with 2n=34, NF=62 is probably the ancestral one for the other karyotypes

  4. Modelling and mutational analysis of Aspergillus nidulans UreA, a member of the subfamily of urea/H+ transporters in fungi and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Manuel; Amillis, Sotiris; Pantano, Sergio; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Ramón, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We present the first account of the structure–function relationships of a protein of the subfamily of urea/H+ membrane transporters of fungi and plants, using Aspergillus nidulans UreA as a study model. Based on the crystal structures of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vSGLT) and of the Nucleobase-Cation-Symport-1 benzylhydantoin transporter from Microbacterium liquefaciens (Mhp1), we constructed a three-dimensional model of UreA which, combined with site-directed and classical random mutagenesis, led to the identification of amino acids important for UreA function. Our approach allowed us to suggest roles for these residues in the binding, recognition and translocation of urea, and in the sorting of UreA to the membrane. Residues W82, Y106, A110, T133, N275, D286, Y388, Y437 and S446, located in transmembrane helixes 2, 3, 7 and 11, were found to be involved in the binding, recognition and/or translocation of urea and the sorting of UreA to the membrane. Y106, A110, T133 and Y437 seem to play a role in substrate selectivity, while S446 is necessary for proper sorting of UreA to the membrane. Other amino acids identified by random classical mutagenesis (G99, R141, A163, G168 and P639) may be important for the basic transporter's structure, its proper folding or its correct traffic to the membrane. PMID:24966243

  5. Role of NH2-terminal hydrophobic motif in the subcellular localization of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D: Common features in eukaryotic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Asaka; Asahina, Kota; Okamoto, Takumi; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Kostsin, Dzmitry G.; Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Takanashi, Kojiro; Yazaki, Kazufumi; Imanaka, Tsuneo; Morita, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ABCD proteins classifies based on with or without NH 2 -terminal hydrophobic segment. • The ABCD proteins with the segment are targeted peroxisomes. • The ABCD proteins without the segment are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum. • The role of the segment in organelle targeting is conserved in eukaryotic organisms. - Abstract: In mammals, four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 possesses the NH 2 -terminal hydrophobic region and are targeted to peroxisomes, while ABCD4 lacking the region is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on hydropathy plot analysis, we found that several eukaryotes have ABCD protein homologs lacking the NH 2 -terminal hydrophobic segment (H0 motif). To investigate whether the role of the NH 2 -terminal H0 motif in subcellular localization is conserved across species, we expressed ABCD proteins from several species (metazoan, plant and fungi) in fusion with GFP in CHO cells and examined their subcellular localization. ABCD proteins possessing the NH 2 -terminal H0 motif were localized to peroxisomes, while ABCD proteins lacking this region lost this capacity. In addition, the deletion of the NH 2 -terminal H0 motif of ABCD protein resulted in their localization to the ER. These results suggest that the role of the NH 2 -terminal H0 motif in organelle targeting is widely conserved in living organisms

  6. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  7. Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 5 (TRPC5) is a cold-transducer in the peripheral nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Lennerz, Jochen K; Hein, Alexander; Link, Andrea S; Kaczmarek, J Stefan; Delling, Markus; Uysal, Serdar; Pfeifer, John D; Riccio, Antonio; Clapham, David E

    2011-11-01

    Detection and adaptation to cold temperature is crucial to survival. Cold sensing in the innocuous range of cold (>10-15 °C) in the mammalian peripheral nervous system is thought to rely primarily on transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels, most notably the menthol receptor, TRPM8. Here we report that TRP cation channel, subfamily C member 5 (TRPC5), but not TRPC1/TRPC5 heteromeric channels, are highly cold sensitive in the temperature range 37-25 °C. We found that TRPC5 is present in mouse and human sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia, a substantial number of peripheral nerves including intraepithelial endings, and in the dorsal lamina of the spinal cord that receives sensory input from the skin, consistent with a potential TRPC5 function as an innocuous cold transducer in nociceptive and thermosensory nerve endings. Although deletion of TRPC5 in 129S1/SvImJ mice resulted in no temperature-sensitive behavioral changes, TRPM8 and/or other menthol-sensitive channels appear to underpin a much larger component of noxious cold sensing after TRPC5 deletion and a shift in mechanosensitive C-fiber subtypes. These findings demonstrate that highly cold-sensitive TRPC5 channels are a molecular component for detection and regional adaptation to cold temperatures in the peripheral nervous system that is distinct from noxious cold sensing.

  8. A new member of the GM130 golgin subfamily is expressed in the optic lobe anlagen of the metamorphosing brain of Manduca sexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Miin Wang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During metamorphosis of the insect brain, the optic lobe anlagen generate the proliferation centers for the visual cortices. We show here that, in the moth Manduca sexta, an 80 kDa Golgi complex protein (Ms-golgin80 is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the optic lobe anlagen and proliferation centers. The predicted amino acid sequence for Ms-golgin80 is similar to that of several members of the GM130 subfamily of Golgi-associated proteins, including rat GM130 and human golgin-95. Homologs of Ms-golgin80 from Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Brugia malayi were identified through homology sequence search. Sequence similarities are present in three regions: the N-terminus, an internal domain of 89 amino acids, and another domain of 89 amino acids near the C-terminus. Structural similarities further suggest that these molecules play the same cellular role as GM130. GM130 is involved in the docking and fusion of coatomer (COP I coated vesicles to the Golgi membranes; it also regulates the fragmentation and subsequent reassembly of the Golgi complex during mitosis. Abundant expression of Ms-golgin80 in neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells and its reduced expression in the neuronal progeny of these cells suggest that this protein may be involved in the maintenance of the proliferative state.

  9. AOX1-Subfamily Gene Members in Olea europaea cv. "Galega Vulgar"-Gene Characterization and Expression of Transcripts during IBA-Induced in Vitro Adventitious Rooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velada, Isabel; Grzebelus, Dariusz; Lousa, Diana; M Soares, Cláudio; Santos Macedo, Elisete; Peixe, Augusto; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; G Cardoso, Hélia

    2018-02-17

    Propagation of some Olea europaea L. cultivars is strongly limited due to recalcitrant behavior in adventitious root formation by semi-hardwood cuttings. One example is the cultivar "Galega vulgar". The formation of adventitious roots is considered a morphological response to stress. Alternative oxidase (AOX) is the terminal oxidase of the alternative pathway of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. This enzyme is well known to be induced in response to several biotic and abiotic stress situations. This work aimed to characterize the alternative oxidase 1 (AOX1)-subfamily in olive and to analyze the expression of transcripts during the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA)-induced in vitro adventitious rooting (AR) process. OeAOX1a (acc. no. MF410318) and OeAOX1d (acc. no. MF410319) were identified, as well as different transcript variants for both genes which resulted from alternative polyadenylation events. A correlation between transcript accumulation of both OeAOX1a and OeAOX1d transcripts and the three distinct phases (induction, initiation, and expression) of the AR process in olive was observed. Olive AOX1 genes seem to be associated with the induction and development of adventitious roots in IBA-treated explants. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the stimulus needed for the induction of adventitious roots may help to develop more targeted and effective rooting induction protocols in order to improve the rooting ability of difficult-to-root cultivars.

  10. Comparative studies of a new subfamily of human Ste20-like kinases: homodimerization, subcellular localization, and selective activation of MKK3 and p38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustein, Jason T; Xia, Liang; Kahlenburg, J Michelle; Robinson, Dan; Templeton, Dennis; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2003-09-18

    The Sterile-20 or Ste20 family of serine/threonine kinases is a group of signaling molecules whose physiological roles within mammalian cells are just starting to be elucidated. Here, in this report we present the characterization of three human Ste20-like kinases with greater than 90% similarity within their catalytic domains that define a novel subfamily of Ste20s. Members of this kinase family include rat thousand and one (TAO1) and chicken KFC (kinase from chicken). For the lack of a consensus nomenclature in the literature, in this report, we shall call this family hKFC (for their homology to chicken KFC) and the three members hKFC-A, hKFC-B, and hKFC-C, respectively. These kinases have many similarities including an aminoterminal kinase domain, a serine-rich region, and a coiled-coil configuration within the C-terminus. All three kinases are able to activate the p38 MAP kinase pathway through the specific activation of the upstream MKK3 kinase. We also offer evidence, both theoretical and biochemical, showing that these kinases can undergo self-association. Despite these similarities, these kinases differ in tissue distribution, apparent subcellular localization, and feature structural differences largely within the carboxyl-terminal sequence.

  11. Gravitational wave memory in an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the gravitational wave memory effect in an expanding FLRW spacetime. We find that if the gravitational field is decomposed into gauge-invariant scalar, vector, and tensor modes after the fashion of Bardeen, only the tensor mode gives rise to memory, and this memory can be calculated using the retarded Green's function associated with the tensor wave equation. If locally similar radiation source events occur on flat and FLRW backgrounds, we find that the resulting memories will differ only by a redshift factor, and we explore whether or not this factor depends on the expansion history of the FLRW universe. We compare our results to related work by Bieri, Garfinkle, and Yau.

  12. The Expanded Very Large Array Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Rick

    2012-10-01

    The Expanded Very Large Array Project, begun in 2001, is now completed -- on time, on budget, and ``on spec.'' The major goal of the project was to multiply the key observational capabilities of the Very Large Array -- the world's most powerful, versatile, and productive radio telescope -- by a factor of at least an order of magnitude by implementation of modern technologies. The result of the project is an operationally new telescope -- renamed the Jansky Very Large Array -- which is capable of new science unimagined in 1980, when the original VLA was completed. In this talk, I will review the goals of the project, and describe the new capabilities of the Jansky Very Large Array. Already, the array is providing fabulous new insights into the physics of the universe,and I will spend the majority of the time describing examples of new results.

  13. Ultrasonic velocity measurements in expanded liquid mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Inutake, M.; Fujiwaka, S.

    1977-10-01

    In this paper we present the first results of the sound velocity measurements in expanded liquid mercury. The measurements were made at temperatures up to 1600 0 C and pressures up to 1700 kg/cm 2 by means of an ultrasonic pulse transmission/echo technique which was newly developed for such high temperature/pressure condition. When the density is larger than 9 g/cm 3 , the observed sound velocity decreases linearly with decreasing density. At densities smaller than 9 g/cm 3 , the linear dependence on the density is no longer observed. The observed sound velocity approaches a minimum near the liquid-gas critical point (rho sub(cr) asymptotically equals 5.5 g/cm 3 ). The existing theories for sound velocity in liquid metals fail to explain the observed results. (auth.)

  14. Fabrication process of expanded cooling jackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention concerns the fabrication process of heat exchangers and in particular, the fabrication and assembly process of cooling jackets of the system driving the control rods used in nuclear reactors. The cooling jackets are assembled for cooling the stator of a tubular motor displacing the control rods. The fabrication and assembling of the cooling jacket is made up by the following operations: - a sleeve has an inner fluid inlet and outlet ways, - an external socket is fitted to the sleeve, - on the external socket a continuous welding is realized, which join the socket to the sleeve, and define a serie of parallel welded turns, - a pressure is established between the sleeve and the socket by a fluid through the outlet or inlet ways of the sleeve. When the other way is sealed up, the socket expands between the welded turns, and the fluid can pass through the jacket [fr

  15. Expanding forensic science through forensic intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribaux, Olivier; Talbot Wright, Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Research and Development ('R&D') in forensic science currently focuses on innovative technologies improving the efficiency of existing forensic processes, from the detection of marks and traces at the scene, to their presentation in Court. R&D approached from this perspective provides no response to doubts raised by recent criminological studies, which question the effective contribution of forensic science to crime reduction, and to policing in general. Traces (i.e. forensic case data), as remnants of criminal activity are collected and used in various forms of crime monitoring and investigation. The aforementioned doubts therefore need to be addressed by expressing how information is conveyed by traces in these processes. Modelling from this standpoint expands the scope of forensic science and provides new R&D opportunities. Twelve propositions for R&D are stated in order to pave the way. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The law and the expanding nursing role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, B

    1976-03-01

    Nursing has moved through two major phases in licensure. From 1900 to 1938 basic registration acts were passed and amended. In 1938 the goal became mandatory licensure for all those who nursed for hire. This move was linked with the stratification of the nursing role to include both practical and registered nurses. The third and current phase in licensure began in 1971 with the Idaho revision of the nurse practice act; 30 states have now revised their nurse practice acts to facilitate role expansion for registered nurses. Several approaches are being used in these laws including mandating new board regulations, expanding the definitions of nursing; increasing the power of physicians to delegate, and mandating the use of standardized protocols to guide the practice of nurses who are accepting new responsibilities.

  17. Expanding plasma jet in a vacuum vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chutov, Yu.I.; Kravchenko, A.Yu.; Yakovetskij, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    The paper deals with numerical calculations of parameters of a supersonic quasi-neutral argon plasma jet expanding into a cylindrical vacuum vessel and interacting with its inner surface. A modified method of large particles was used, the complex set of hydrodynamic equations being broken into simpler components, each of which describes a separate physical process. Spatial distributions of the main parameters of the argon plasma jet were simulated at various times after the jet entering the vacuum vessel, the parameters being the jet velocity field, the full plasma pressure, the electron temperature, the temperature of heavy particles, and the degree of ionization. The results show a significant effect of plasma jet interaction on the plasma parameters. The jet interaction with the vessel walls may result e.g. in excitation of shock waves and rotational plasma motions. (J.U.)

  18. Cosmic strings in an expanding spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.; Burd, A.B.

    1987-04-01

    We investigate the stability of a static, infinitely long and straight vacuum string solution under inhomogeneous axisymmetric time-dependent perturbations. We find it to be perturbatively stable. We further extend our work by finding a string solutions in an expanding Universe. The back reaction of the string on the gravitational field has been ignored. The background is assumed to be a Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. By numerically integrating the field equations in a radiation and matter dominated models, we discover oscillatory solutions. The possible damping of these oscillations is discussed. For late times the solution becomes identical to the static one studied in the first part of the paper. 19 refs., 8 figs

  19. Expanding the applicability of Heallth Technology Assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Draborg, Eva; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the presentation is to expand the foundations of input into policy decision making relying on health technology assessments (HTA). HTAs are primarily based on systematic reviews (SR) and thereby mostly on randomized controlled trials (RCT). RCTs can be distinguished on a continuum...... between explanatory and pragmatic trials according to their level of control over variables in the study besides the examined technology. In explanatory trials emphasis are placed on internal validity in order to test the efficacy of a technology under ideal conditions while pragmatic trials emphasizes...... external validity and the effectiveness of a technology in normal daily practice. SR and HTAs favors internal valid trials and thereby proofs of possible cause-effect relationship between a technology and outcomes but at the expense of the wider perspectives of a technology. HTA have a policy...

  20. The expanding universe of p53 targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez, Daniel; Inga, Alberto; Resnick, Michael A

    2009-10-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor is modified through mutation or changes in expression in most cancers, leading to the altered regulation of hundreds of genes that are directly influenced by this sequence-specific transcription factor. Central to the p53 master regulatory network are the target response element (RE) sequences. The extent of p53 transactivation and transcriptional repression is influenced by many factors, including p53 levels, cofactors and the specific RE sequences, all of which contribute to the role that p53 has in the aetiology of cancer. This Review describes the identification and functionality of REs and highlights the inclusion of non-canonical REs that expand the universe of genes and regulation mechanisms in the p53 tumour suppressor network.

  1. Painful Na-channelopathies: an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Stephen G

    2013-07-01

    The universe of painful Na-channelopathies--human disorders caused by mutations in voltage-gated sodium channels--has recently expanded in three dimensions. We now know that mutations of sodium channels cause not only rare genetic 'model disorders' such as inherited erythromelalgia and channelopathy-associated insensitivity to pain but also common painful neuropathies. We have learned that mutations of NaV1.8, as well as mutations of NaV1.7, can cause painful Na-channelopathies. Moreover, recent studies combining atomic level structural models and pharmacogenomics suggest that the goal of genomically guided pain therapy may not be unrealistic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Multifragment disintegrations of expanding nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbke, K.

    1993-01-01

    Two phase transitions are expected to exist in bulk nuclear matter: a liquid-gas phase transition and a deconfinement transition to a quark-gluon plasma. In studies of nucleus-nucleus collisions, conditions similar to those pertaining to phase transitions in infinite systems can be created, but the fundamental problem yet to be solved is the identification of remnant signatures uniquely related to either of these phase transitions. Nuclear systems at densities and temperatures corresponding to the liquid-gas coexistence region can be produced in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions; they are expected to decay into many intermediate mass fragments (IMF's: Z=3-20). Recent investigations with low-threshold electronic 4π detector arrays have firmly established the occurrence of multifragment disintegrations of hot nuclear systems and allowed to challenge various theoretical approaches. In this talk, an overview of pertinent experimental results on multifragmentation will be presented and discussed. it will be shown that current microscopic transport theories designed to treat the growth of density fluctuations predict fragment multiplicities much smaller than observed experimentally. Measurements of the time scales of fragment formation are consistent with statistical model calculations for expanding hot nuclear system which indicate that fragments may form during a rather narrow time interval after the system has cooled and expanded to a density below that of normal nuclear matter. The expansion rate (and hence the fragment multiplicity) is sensitive to the equation of state (EOS). However, a number of recent results provide increasing evidence that current theoretical treatments need to be refined to allow an experimental determination of the EOS

  3. Interactive Exploration for Continuously Expanding Neuron Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyu; Metaxas, Dimitris N; Lu, Aidong; Zhang, Shaoting

    2017-02-15

    This paper proposes a novel framework to help biologists explore and analyze neurons based on retrieval of data from neuron morphological databases. In recent years, the continuously expanding neuron databases provide a rich source of information to associate neuronal morphologies with their functional properties. We design a coarse-to-fine framework for efficient and effective data retrieval from large-scale neuron databases. In the coarse-level, for efficiency in large-scale, we employ a binary coding method to compress morphological features into binary codes of tens of bits. Short binary codes allow for real-time similarity searching in Hamming space. Because the neuron databases are continuously expanding, it is inefficient to re-train the binary coding model from scratch when adding new neurons. To solve this problem, we extend binary coding with online updating schemes, which only considers the newly added neurons and update the model on-the-fly, without accessing the whole neuron databases. In the fine-grained level, we introduce domain experts/users in the framework, which can give relevance feedback for the binary coding based retrieval results. This interactive strategy can improve the retrieval performance through re-ranking the above coarse results, where we design a new similarity measure and take the feedback into account. Our framework is validated on more than 17,000 neuron cells, showing promising retrieval accuracy and efficiency. Moreover, we demonstrate its use case in assisting biologists to identify and explore unknown neurons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Roots Air Management System with Integrated Expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretch, Dale [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Wright, Brad [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fortini, Matt [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States); Fink, Neal [Ballard Power Systems, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Ramadan, Bassem [Kettering Univ., Flint, MI (United States); Eybergen, William [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2016-07-06

    PEM fuel cells remain an emerging technology in the vehicle market with several cost and reliability challenges that must be overcome in order to increase market penetration and acceptance. The DOE has identified the lack of a cost effective, reliable, and efficient air supply system that meets the operational requirements of a pressurized PEM 80kW fuel cell as one of the major technological barriers that must be overcome. This project leveraged Roots positive displacement development advancements and demonstrated an efficient and low cost fuel cell air management system. Eaton built upon its P-Series Roots positive displacement design and shifted the peak efficiency making it ideal for use on an 80kW PEM stack. Advantages to this solution include: • Lower speed of the Roots device eliminates complex air bearings present on other systems. • Broad efficiency map of Roots based systems provides an overall higher drive cycle fuel economy. • Core Roots technology has been developed and validated for other transportation applications. Eaton modified their novel R340 Twin Vortices Series (TVS) Roots-type supercharger for this application. The TVS delivers more power and better fuel economy in a smaller package as compared to other supercharger technologies. By properly matching the helix angle with the rotor’s physical aspect ratio, the supercharger’s peak efficiency can be moved to the operating range where it is most beneficial for the application. The compressor was designed to meet the 90 g/s flow at a pressure ratio of 2.5, similar in design to the P-Series 340. A net shape plastic expander housing with integrated motor and compressor was developed to significantly reduce the cost of the system. This integrated design reduced part count by incorporating an overhung expander and motor rotors into the design such that only four bearings and two shafts were utilized.

  5. Expandable esophageal metallic stents coating with silicone rubber: An experimental study in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Young; Han, Young Min; Son, Myung Hee; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Ki Chul; Kuh, Ja Hong; Chae, Soo Wan [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Nam [Chungju Lee Rha Hospital, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-10-15

    To determine the effect of the expandable esophageal metallic stents on the esophagus, we constructed an expandable metallic stent. It was stainless steel wire formed in a zig-zag pattern in fully expanded diameter. Twenty stents were introduced in the normal esophagus through a 8.5 French-teflon sheath in 10 rabbits for 1 week to 12 weeks. Three out of the 20 stents migrated slightly. At 1 week after the placement of the stent, the mucosa partly revealed pressure necrosis and some regeneration, the muscle layer below the stent wires found compressed and thinned. At 8 weeks, the mucosa showed complete regeneration, and the stent wires were found covered by fibrous tissue.

  6. A classification scheme for alternative oxidases reveals the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary history of the enzyme in angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José Hélio; McDonald, Allison E; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; Fernandes de Melo, Dirce

    2014-11-01

    A classification scheme based on protein phylogenies and sequence harmony method was used to clarify the taxonomic distribution and evolutionary history of the alternative oxidase (AOX) in angiosperms. A large data set analyses showed that AOX1 and AOX2 subfamilies were distributed into 4 phylogenetic clades: AOX1a-c/1e, AOX1d, AOX2a-c and AOX2d. High diversity in AOX family compositions was found. While the AOX2 subfamily was not detected in monocots, the AOX1 subfamily has expanded (AOX1a-e) in the large majority of these plants. In addition, Poales AOX1b and 1d were orthologous to eudicots AOX1d and then renamed as AOX1d1 and 1d2. AOX1 or AOX2 losses were detected in some eudicot plants. Several AOX2 duplications (AOX2a-c) were identified in eudicot species, mainly in the asterids. The AOX2b originally identified in eudicots in the Fabales order (soybean, cowpea) was divergent from AOX2a-c showing some specific amino acids with AOX1d and then it was renamed as AOX2d. AOX1d and AOX2d seem to be stress-responsive, facultative and mutually exclusive among species suggesting a complementary role with an AOX1(a) in stress conditions. Based on the data collected, we present a model for the evolutionary history of AOX in angiosperms and highlight specific areas where further research would be most beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Expanding Music Listening Experience through Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yo-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Drawing while listening to music provides an opportunity for students to imagine and associate, leading to holistic listening experience. The personal qualitative listening experience triggered by music can be revealed in their drawings. In the process of representing of the listening experience through drawing, students can also increase their…

  8. Gravitomagnetic Instabilities in Anisotropically Expanding Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidis, Kostas; Kuiroukidis, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Demetrios B.; Vlahos, Loukas

    Gravitational instabilities in a magnetized Friedman-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe, in which the magnetic field was assumed to be too weak to destroy the isotropy of the model, are known and have been studied in the past. Accordingly, it became evident that the external magnetic field disfavors the perturbations' growth, suppressing the corresponding rate by an amount proportional to its strength. However, the spatial isotropy of the FRW universe is not compatible with the presence of large-scale magnetic fields. Therefore, in this paper we use the general-relativistic version of the (linearized) perturbed magnetohydrodynamic equations with and without resistivity, to discuss a generalized Jeans criterion and the potential formation of density condensations within a class of homogeneous and anisotropically expanding, self-gravitating, magnetized fluids in curved space-time. We find that, for a wide variety of anisotropic cosmological models, gravitomagnetic instabilities can lead to subhorizontal, magnetized condensations. In the nonresistive case, the power spectrum of the unstable cosmological perturbations suggests that most of the power is concentrated on large scales (small k), very close to the horizon. On the other hand, in a resistive medium, the critical wave-numbers so obtained, exhibit a delicate dependence on resistivity, resulting in the reduction of the corresponding Jeans lengths to smaller scales (well bellow the horizon) than the nonresistive ones, while increasing the range of cosmological models which admit such an instability.

  9. Expanding the usefulness of unit supply cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, M.B.; Petr, K.

    1992-01-01

    Unit supply cost is a widely used tool in the energy business for providing a one number-unit cost description. For example, controllable costs such as finding costs, development costs and operating costs have traditionally been described in an average cost per unit of reserves format for the oil and gas industry, however using this approach on more specific applications is not always informative. Projects with widely varying controllable parameters can still yield the same unit cost, making comparisons difficult. The application of unit supply cost can be readily expanded by adding a new unit cost component termed cost of capital. This element introduces the impacts of timing and return on investment into the supply cost determination through discounting annual costs. The cost of capital component adds the ability to represent a project's unique characteristics, particularly reserves' depletion rate and the timing or phasing of development. Introducing the cost of capital element into the supply cost analysis provides additional information and improves the likelihood of drawing correct conclusions when comparing and ranking projects. 4 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Potential Expanded Indications for Neprilysin Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Elizabeth; Vader, Justin M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review The goal of this article is to review potential expanded indications for neprilysin inhibitors. This article reviews the rationale and design for ongoing and future trials of sacubitril/valsartan in cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. Recent findings Randomized trial data are lacking for use of sacubitril/valsartan in acute heart failure and advanced heart failure. Mechanistic data from animal studies suggest a role for neprilysin inhibition in the treatment of post-myocardial infarction systolic dysfunction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Beyond the cardiovascular system, renal and neurological function may be impacted by neprilysin inhibition. Forthcoming randomized trials will address the clinical impact of sacubitril/valsartan on these conditions. Summary Neprolysin inhibition with sacubitril/valsartan offers a new therapeutic strategy with a broad range of potential therapeutic actions. In PARADIGM-HF, the combination of neprolysin and RAAS inhibition was proven to be superior to enalapril for patients with stable NYHA class II–III heart failure and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction. Preliminary data suggests it may also have a role in other cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular disease. Several ongoing and planned studies will determine the extent of its benefit for these other indications. PMID:28281174

  11. Homogeneous cosmology with aggressively expanding civilizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay Olson, S

    2015-01-01

    In the context of a homogeneous Universe, we note that the appearance of aggressively expanding advanced life is geometrically similar to the process of nucleation and bubble growth in a first-order cosmological phase transition. We exploit this similarity to describe the dynamics of life saturating the Universe on a cosmic scale, adapting the phase transition model to incorporate probability distributions of expansion and resource consumption strategies. Through a series of numerical solutions spanning several orders of magnitude in the input assumption parameters, the resulting cosmological model is used to address basic questions related to the intergalactic spreading of life, dealing with issues such as timescales, observability, competition between strategies, and first-mover advantage. Finally, we examine physical effects on the Universe itself, such as reheating and the backreaction on the evolution of the scale factor, if such life is able to control and convert a significant fraction of the available pressureless matter into radiation. We conclude that the existence of life, if certain advanced technologies are practical, could have a significant influence on the future large-scale evolution of the Universe. (paper)

  12. Withdrawal: Expanding a Key Addiction Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Megan E

    2015-12-01

    Withdrawal is an essential component of classical addiction theory; it is a vital manifestation of dependence and motivates relapse. However, the traditional conceptualization of withdrawal as a cohesive collection of symptoms that emerge during drug deprivation and decline with either the passage of time or reinstatement of drug use, may be inadequate to explain scientific findings or fit with modern theories of addiction. This article expands the current understanding of tobacco withdrawal by examining: (1) withdrawal variability; (2) underlying causes of withdrawal variability, including biological and person factors, environmental influences, and the influence of highly routinized behavioral patterns; (3) new withdrawal symptoms that allow for enhanced characterization of the withdrawal experience; and (4) withdrawal-related cognitive processes. These topics provide guidance regarding the optimal assessment of withdrawal and illustrate the potential impact modern withdrawal conceptualization and assessment could have on identifying treatment targets. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Expandable image compression system: A modular approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, B.K.T.; Lo, S.C.; Huang, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The full-frame bit-allocation algorithm for radiological image compression can achieve an acceptable compression ratio as high as 30:1. It involves two stages of operation: a two-dimensional discrete cosine transform and pixel quantization in the transformed space with pixel depth kept accountable by a bit-allocation table. The cosine transform hardware design took an expandable modular approach based on the VME bus system with a maximum data transfer rate of 48 Mbytes/sec and a microprocessor (Motorola 68000 family). The modules are cascadable and microprogrammable to perform 1,024-point butterfly operations. A total of 18 stages would be required for transforming a 1,000 x 1,000 image. Multiplicative constants and addressing sequences are to be software loaded into the parameter buffers of each stage prior to streaming data through the processor stages. The compression rate for 1K x 1K images is expected to be faster than one image per sec

  14. Expandable image compression system: A modular approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, B.K.T.; Chan, K.K.; Ishimitsu, Y.; Lo, S.C.; Huang, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    The full-frame bit allocation algorithm for radiological image compression developed in the authors' laboratory can achieve compression ratios as high as 30:1. The software development and clinical evaluation of this algorithm has been completed. It involves two stages of operations: a two-dimensional discrete cosine transform and pixel quantization in the transform space with pixel depth kept accountable by a bit allocation table. Their design took an expandable modular approach based on the VME bus system which has a maximum data transfer rate of 48 Mbytes per second and a Motorola 68020 microprocessor as the master controller. The transform modules are based on advanced digital signal processor (DSP) chips microprogrammed to perform fast cosine transforms. Four DSP's built into a single-board transform module can process an 1K x 1K image in 1.7 seconds. Additional transform modules working in parallel can be added if even greater speeds are desired. The flexibility inherent in the microcode extends the capabilities of the system to incorporate images of variable sizes. Their design allows for a maximum image size of 2K x 2K

  15. Expanding the role of internal facility assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolpa, R.L.; Levenson, J.B. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Weaver, M.A. [Headquarters Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) Environmental Compliance Assessment and Management Program (ECAMP) is an effective and comprehensive system to evaluate environmental compliance at individual USAF installations. The ECAMP assessment is typically performed by a team of experts from the installation`s Major Command (MAJCOM) Headquarters, and is often augmented with technical contractor support. As directed by Air Force policy, an external ECAMP assessment is required at a minimum of every three years for each installation. In the intervening years, each installation is required to perform an internal ECAMP assessment, with its own personnel and resources. Even though team composition differs, the internal and external ECAMP assessments are likely to be very similar in scope, objectives, and deliverables. For over nine years, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has supported several Air Force MAJCOMs in performing their external ECAMP assessments. More recently, ANL has also had the opportunity to provide technical support and training at individual installations during their preparation and conduct of internal ECAMP assessments. From that experience, the authors have learned that the quality and value of the internal assessment is enhanced by making it a vehicle for training, planning, and interaction among organizations. Various strategies and techniques have been successfully employed to derive maximum benefit and insight from the internal assessment process. Experiences that involve expanding the scope and objectives of internal assessments to meet specific goals are presented. The expansion of scope and objectives include preassessment training, planning, and evaluator interactions as part of the overall internal assessment process.

  16. Expanding solvent SAGD in heavy oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govind, P.A. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[ConocoPhillips Canada Resources Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Das, S.; Wheeler, T.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Srinivasan, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) projects have proven effective for the recovery of oil and bitumen. Expanding solvent (ES) SAGD pilot projects have also demonstrated positive results of improved performance. This paper presented the results of a simulation study that investigated several important factors of the ES-SAGD process, including solvent types; concentration; operating pressure; and injection strategy. The objectives of the study were to examine the effectiveness of the ES-SAGD process in terms of production acceleration and energy requirements; to optimize solvent selection; to understand the effect of dilation in unconsolidated oil sands and the directional impact on reservoir parameters and oil production rate in ES-SAGD; and to understand the impact of operating conditions such as pressure, solvent concentration, circulation preheating period and the role of conduction heating and grid size in this process. The advantages of ES-SAGD over SAGD were also outlined. The paper presented results of sensitivity studies that were conducted on these four factors. Conclusions and recommendations for operating strategy were also offered. It was concluded that dilation is an important factor for SAGD performance at high operating pressure. 8 refs., 15 figs.

  17. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases-including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep-have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  18. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C Watts

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C. Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI, bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE, and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  19. The expanding universe of prion diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Balachandran, Aru; Westaway, David

    2006-03-01

    Prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. These etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called PrP(C). Several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (BSE) the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. Unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. At least four novel prion diseases--including human diseases variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI), bovine amyloidotic spongiform encephalopathy (BASE), and Nor98 of sheep--have been identified in the last ten years, and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of North American deer (Odocoileus Specis) and Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) is undergoing a dramatic spread across North America. While amplification (BSE) and dissemination (CWD, commercial sourcing of cervids from the wild and movement of farmed elk) can be attributed to human activity, the origins of emergent prion diseases cannot always be laid at the door of humankind. Instead, the continued appearance of new outbreaks in the form of "sporadic" disease may be an inevitable outcome in a situation where the replicating pathogen is host-encoded.

  20. Expanding the Allowable TRUPACT-II Payload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St Michel, W.; Lott, S.

    2002-01-01

    The partnership between the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) and the TRU and Mixed Waste Focus Area (TMFA) was rewarded when several long-term projects came to fruition. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) removed some of the conservatism in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) with their approval of Revision 19. The SARP strictly limits the payload constituents to ensure that hydrogen gas and other flammable volatile organic compounds (VOCs) don't build up to flammable/explosive levels while the transuranic (TRU) waste is sealed in the container during shipment. The CBFO/TMFA development program was based on laboratory experiments with surrogate waste materials, real waste experiments, and theoretical modeling that were used to justify payload expansion. Future work to expand the shipping envelope of the TRUPACT-II focuses on increasing the throughput through the waste certification process and reducing the waste operations costs by removing the need for a repack aging and/or treatment capability or reducing the size of the needed repackaging/treatment capability

  1. Is expanding Medicare coverage cost-effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muennig Peter

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proposals to expand Medicare coverage tend to be expensive, but the value of services purchased is not known. This study evaluates the efficiency of the average private supplemental insurance plan for Medicare recipients. Methods Data from the National Health Interview Survey, the National Death Index, and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were analyzed to estimate the costs, changes in life expectancy, and health-related quality of life gains associated with providing private supplemental insurance coverage for Medicare beneficiaries. Model inputs included socio-demographic, health, and health behavior characteristics. Parameter estimates from regression models were used to predict quality-adjusted life years (QALYs and costs associated with private supplemental insurance relative to Medicare only. Markov decision analysis modeling was then employed to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Results Medicare supplemental insurance is associated with increased health care utilization, but the additional costs associated with this utilization are offset by gains in quality-adjusted life expectancy. The incremental cost-effectiveness of private supplemental insurance is approximately $24,000 per QALY gained relative to Medicare alone. Conclusion Supplemental insurance for Medicare beneficiaries is a good value, with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio comparable to medical interventions commonly deemed worthwhile.

  2. Massive Fermi gas in the expanding universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautner, Andreas, E-mail: atrautner@uni-bonn.de [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    The behavior of a decoupled ideal Fermi gas in a homogeneously expanding three-dimensional volume is investigated, starting from an equilibrium spectrum. In case the gas is massless and/or completely degenerate, the spectrum of the gas can be described by an effective temperature and/or an effective chemical potential, both of which scale down with the volume expansion. In contrast, the spectrum of a decoupled massive and non-degenerate gas can only be described by an effective temperature if there are strong enough self-interactions such as to maintain an equilibrium distribution. Assuming perpetual equilibration, we study a decoupled gas which is relativistic at decoupling and then is red-shifted until it becomes non-relativistic. We find expressions for the effective temperature and effective chemical potential which allow us to calculate the final spectrum for arbitrary initial conditions. This calculation is enabled by a new expansion of the Fermi-Dirac integral, which is for our purpose superior to the well-known Sommerfeld expansion. We also compute the behavior of the phase space density under expansion and compare it to the case of real temperature and real chemical potential. Using our results for the degenerate case, we also obtain the mean relic velocity of the recently proposed non-thermal cosmic neutrino background.

  3. Intragastric Dai-Kenchu-To, a Japanese herbal medicine, stimulates colonic motility via transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shibata, Chikashi; Imoto, Hirofumi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Miura, Koh; Unno, Michiaki

    2013-08-01

    Japanese herbal medicine, also known as Kampo, is used for various diseases in Japan. One of those medicines, Dai-Kenchu-To (DKT), is considered clinically effective for adhesive bowel obstruction and chronic constipation. Although scientific evidence of DKT to improve adhesive bowel obstruction was shown in several previous reports, mechanism of DKT to improve constipation remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effect of intragastric DKT on colonic motility and defecation, and the involvement of various receptors in DKT-induced colonic contractions. Five beagle dogs were instructed with serosal strain-gauge force transducers to measure circular muscle activity at the proximal, middle, and distal colon. Dogs are suitable for a present study to administer the drugs repeatedly to the same individual and look at its effect on colonic motility. We studied the effects of DKT (2.5 or 5 g) administered into the stomach on colonic motility. Muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamthonium, or 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist ondansetron was injected intravenously 10 min before DKT administration. Capsazepine, an antagonist to transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), was administered into the stomach 5 min before DKT administration. Intragastric DKT (2.5 or 5 g) induced colonic contractions within 10 min after administration but did not induce defecation. Pretreatment with atropine, hexamthonium, ondansetron, or capsazepine inhibited DKT-induced colonic contractions. These results indicate that orally administered DKT stimulates colonic motility via TRPV1, muscarinic, nicotinic, and 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptors, thereby providing scientific support for the efficacy of oral DKT in chronic constipation.

  4. Over-expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reconstitution in liposomes of the third member of the OCTN sub-family: The mouse carnitine transporter OCTN3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Pochini, Lorena [Department of Cell Biology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Indiveri, Cesare, E-mail: indiveri@unical.it [Department of Cell Biology, University of Calabria, Via P. Bucci 4c, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer mOCTN3 transport protein has been cloned in pET-21a(+) and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The expressed mOCTN3 has been purified to homogeneity by Ni-chelating chromatography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The protein solubilised in Triton X-100 has been reconstituted in liposomes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recombinant mOCTN3 catalyses transport of carnitine by a uniport mode. -- Abstract: pET-21a(+)-mOCTN3-6His was constructed and used for over-expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS. After IPTG induction a protein with apparent molecular mass of 53 kDa was collected in the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by Ni{sup 2+}-chelating chromatography with a yield of 2 mg/l of cell culture. The over-expressed protein was identified with mOCTN3 by anti-His antibody and reconstitution in liposomes. mOCTN3 required peculiar conditions for optimal expression and reconstitution in liposomes. The protein catalyzed a time dependent [{sup 3}H]carnitine uptake which was stimulated by intraliposomal ATP and nearly independent of the pH. The K{sub m} for carnitine was 36 {mu}M. [{sup 3}H]carnitine transport was inhibited by carnitine analogues and some Cys and NH{sub 2} reagents. This paper represents the first outcome in over-expressing, in active form, the third member of the OCTN sub-family, mOCTN3, in E. coli.

  5. Over-expression in Escherichia coli, purification and reconstitution in liposomes of the third member of the OCTN sub-family: The mouse carnitine transporter OCTN3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Galluccio, Michele; Pochini, Lorena; Indiveri, Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► mOCTN3 transport protein has been cloned in pET-21a(+) and over-expressed in Escherichia coli. ► The expressed mOCTN3 has been purified to homogeneity by Ni-chelating chromatography. ► The protein solubilised in Triton X-100 has been reconstituted in liposomes. ► Recombinant mOCTN3 catalyses transport of carnitine by a uniport mode. -- Abstract: pET-21a(+)-mOCTN3-6His was constructed and used for over-expression in Escherichia coli Rosetta(DE3)pLysS. After IPTG induction a protein with apparent molecular mass of 53 kDa was collected in the insoluble fraction of the cell lysate and purified by Ni 2+ -chelating chromatography with a yield of 2 mg/l of cell culture. The over-expressed protein was identified with mOCTN3 by anti-His antibody and reconstitution in liposomes. mOCTN3 required peculiar conditions for optimal expression and reconstitution in liposomes. The protein catalyzed a time dependent [ 3 H]carnitine uptake which was stimulated by intraliposomal ATP and nearly independent of the pH. The K m for carnitine was 36 μM. [ 3 H]carnitine transport was inhibited by carnitine analogues and some Cys and NH 2 reagents. This paper represents the first outcome in over-expressing, in active form, the third member of the OCTN sub-family, mOCTN3, in E. coli.

  6. Association with the Plasma Membrane Is Sufficient for Potentiating Catalytic Activity of Regulators of G Protein Signaling (RGS) Proteins of the R7 Subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntean, Brian S; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2016-03-25

    Regulators of G protein Signaling (RGS) promote deactivation of heterotrimeric G proteins thus controlling the magnitude and kinetics of responses mediated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). In the nervous system, RGS7 and RGS9-2 play essential role in vision, reward processing, and movement control. Both RGS7 and RGS9-2 belong to the R7 subfamily of RGS proteins that form macromolecular complexes with R7-binding protein (R7BP). R7BP targets RGS proteins to the plasma membrane and augments their GTPase-accelerating protein (GAP) activity, ultimately accelerating deactivation of G protein signaling. However, it remains unclear if R7BP serves exclusively as a membrane anchoring subunit or further modulates RGS proteins to increase their GAP activity. To directly answer this question, we utilized a rapidly reversible chemically induced protein dimerization system that enabled us to control RGS localization independent from R7BP in living cells. To monitor kinetics of Gα deactivation, we coupled this strategy with measuring changes in the GAP activity by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer-based assay in a cellular system containing μ-opioid receptor. This approach was used to correlate changes in RGS localization and activity in the presence or absence of R7BP. Strikingly, we observed that RGS activity is augmented by membrane recruitment, in an orientation independent manner with no additional contributions provided by R7BP. These findings argue that the association of R7 RGS proteins with the membrane environment provides a major direct contribution to modulation of their GAP activity. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. A tandem array of UDP-glycosyltransferases from the UGT73C subfamily glycosylate sapogenins, forming a spectrum of mono- and bisdesmosidic saponins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erthmann, Pernille Østerbye; Agerbirk, Niels; Bak, Søren

    2018-05-01

    This study identifies six UGT73Cs all able to glucosylate sapogenins at positions 3 and/or 28 which demonstrates that B. vulgaris has a much richer arsenal of UGTs involved in saponin biosynthesis than initially anticipated. The wild cruciferous plant Barbarea vulgaris is resistant to some insects due to accumulation of two monodesmosidic triterpenoid saponins, oleanolic acid 3-O-β-cellobioside and hederagenin 3-O-β-cellobioside. Insect resistance depends on the structure of the sapogenin aglycone and the glycosylation pattern. The B. vulgaris saponin profile is complex with at least 49 saponin-like metabolites, derived from eight sapogenins and including up to five monosaccharide units. Two B. vulgaris UDP-glycosyltransferases, UGT73C11 and UGT73C13, O-glucosylate sapogenins at positions 3 and 28, forming mainly 3-O-β-D-glucosides. The aim of this study was to identify UGTs responsible for the diverse saponin oligoglycoside moieties observed in B. vulgaris. Twenty UGT genes from the insect resistant genotype were selected and heterologously expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and/or Escherichia coli. The extracts were screened for their ability to glycosylate sapogenins (oleanolic acid, hederagenin), the hormone 24-epibrassinolide and sapogenin monoglucosides (hederagenin and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucosides). Six UGTs from the UGT73C subfamily were able to glucosylate both sapogenins and both monoglucosides at positions 3 and/or 28. Some UGTs formed bisdesmosidic saponins efficiently. At least four UGT73C genes were localized in a tandem array with UGT73C11 and possibly UGT73C13. This organization most likely reflects duplication events followed by sub- and neofunctionalization. Indeed, signs of positive selection on several amino acid sites were identified and modelled to be localized on the UGT protein surface. This tandem array is proposed to initiate higher order bisdesmosidic glycosylation of B. vulgaris saponins, leading to the recently discovered

  8. 2D or Not 2D? Testing the Utility of 2D Vs. 3D Landmark Data in Geometric Morphometrics of the Sculpin Subfamily Oligocottinae (Pisces; Cottoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buser, Thaddaeus J; Sidlauskas, Brian L; Summers, Adam P

    2018-05-01

    We contrast 2D vs. 3D landmark-based geometric morphometrics in the fish subfamily Oligocottinae by using 3D landmarks from CT-generated models and comparing the morphospace of the 3D landmarks to one based on 2D landmarks from images. The 2D and 3D shape variables capture common patterns across taxa, such that the pairwise Procrustes distances among taxa correspond and the trends captured by principal component analysis are similar in the xy plane. We use the two sets of landmarks to test several ecomorphological hypotheses from the literature. Both 2D and 3D data reject the hypothesis that head shape correlates significantly with the depth at which a species is commonly found. However, in taxa where shape variation in the z-axis is high, the 2D shape variables show sufficiently strong distortion to influence the outcome of the hypothesis tests regarding the relationship between mouth size and feeding ecology. Only the 3D data support previous studies which showed that large mouth sizes correlate positively with high percentages of elusive prey in the diet. When used to test for morphological divergence, 3D data show no evidence of divergence, while 2D data show that one clade of oligocottines has diverged from all others. This clade shows the greatest degree of z-axis body depth within Oligocottinae, and we conclude that the inability of the 2D approach to capture this lateral body depth causes the incongruence between 2D and 3D analyses. Anat Rec, 301:806-818, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Factors leading to tracheobronchial self-expandable metallic stent fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Fu-Tsai; Lin, Shu-Min; Chen, Hao-Cheng; Chou, Chun-Liang; Yu, Chih-Teng; Liu, Chien-Ying; Wang, Chun-Hua; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2008-11-01

    This retrospective study was to determine factors that contribute to self-expandable metallic stent fracture in patients with tracheobronchial disease. From 2001 to 2006, 139 patients (age, 62.1 +/- 15.4 years; range, 23-87 years) with benign (n = 62) and malignant (n = 77) tracheobronchial disease received 192 Ultraflex (Boston Scientific, Natick, Mass) self-expandable metallic stents (98 in patients with benign disease and 94 in patients with malignant disease). Seventeen fractured self-expandable metallic stents were found; the incidence was 12.2% (17/139 patients) among patients with tracheobronchial disease. Tortuous airway (odds ratio, 4.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-18.34; P = .04) independently predicted self-expandable metallic stent fracture. Most self-expandable metallic stent fractures (64.7%, 11/17) were detected 500 to 1000 days after self-expandable metallic stent implantation. Clinical presentations for patients with fractured self-expandable metallic stents included dyspnea exacerbation (70.6%, 12/17) and cough (23.5%, 4/17). Self-expandable metallic stent fracture is not uncommon in patients with tracheobronchial disease. Tortuous airway is an independent predictor for it. Although management of the fractured self-expandable metallic stent in our study was feasible and safe, self-expandable metallic stents should be restricted to a more select population.

  10. Anchored enrichment dataset for true flies (order Diptera) reveals insights into the phylogeny of flower flies (family Syrphidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrew Donovan; Lemmon, Alan R; Skevington, Jeffrey H; Mengual, Ximo; Ståhls, Gunilla; Reemer, Menno; Jordaens, Kurt; Kelso, Scott; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Hauser, Martin; De Meyer, Marc; Misof, Bernhard; Wiegmann, Brian M

    2016-06-29

    phylogenetic hypothesis for the syrphids. Subfamilial reconstruction is concordant with recent phylogenetic hypotheses, but with much higher support values. With the newly designed probe kit this analysis could be rapidly expanded with further sampling, opening the door to more comprehensive analyses targeting problem areas in syrphid phylogenetics and ecology.

  11. Expanding Awareness of Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara J. Meyer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant women do not currently meet the consensus recommendation for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA (≥200 mg/day. Pregnant women in Australia are not receiving information on the importance of DHA during pregnancy. DHA pregnancy education materials were developed using current scientific literature, and tested for readability and design aesthetics. The study aimed to evaluate their usefulness, the desire for pregnant women to receive these materials and whether a larger separate study (using a control group is warranted to evaluate the influence the materials may have on increasing DHA consumption in pregnant women in Australia. Pregnant women (N = 118 were recruited at antenatal clinics at two NSW hospitals. Participants completed a 16-item questionnaire and DHA educational materials (pamphlet and shopping card were provided. Participants were contacted via phone two weeks later and completed the second questionnaire (25-item, N = 74. Statistics were conducted in SPSS and qualitative data were analysed to identify common themes. Ninety three percent of women found the materials useful, with the main reason being it expanded their knowledge of DHA food sources. Only 34% of women had received prior information on DHA, yet 68% said they would like to receive information. Due to the small sample size and lack of a control group, this small study cannot provide a cause and effect relationship between the materials and nutrition related behaviours or knowledge, however the results indicate a potential positive influence towards increased fish consumption and awareness of DHA containing foods. This suggests a larger study, with a control group is warranted to identify the impact such materials could have on Australian pregnant women.

  12. Expanding the boundaries of local similarity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durno, W Evan; Hanson, Niels W; Konwar, Kishori M; Hallam, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Pairwise comparison of time series data for both local and time-lagged relationships is a computationally challenging problem relevant to many fields of inquiry. The Local Similarity Analysis (LSA) statistic identifies the existence of local and lagged relationships, but determining significance through a p-value has been algorithmically cumbersome due to an intensive permutation test, shuffling rows and columns and repeatedly calculating the statistic. Furthermore, this p-value is calculated with the assumption of normality -- a statistical luxury dissociated from most real world datasets. To improve the performance of LSA on big datasets, an asymptotic upper bound on the p-value calculation was derived without the assumption of normality. This change in the bound calculation markedly improved computational speed from O(pm²n) to O(m²n), where p is the number of permutations in a permutation test, m is the number of time series, and n is the length of each time series. The bounding process is implemented as a computationally efficient software package, FASTLSA, written in C and optimized for threading on multi-core computers, improving its practical computation time. We computationally compare our approach to previous implementations of LSA, demonstrate broad applicability by analyzing time series data from public health, microbial ecology, and social media, and visualize resulting networks using the Cytoscape software. The FASTLSA software package expands the boundaries of LSA allowing analysis on datasets with millions of co-varying time series. Mapping metadata onto force-directed graphs derived from FASTLSA allows investigators to view correlated cliques and explore previously unrecognized network relationships. The software is freely available for download at: http://www.cmde.science.ubc.ca/hallam/fastLSA/.

  13. Research on boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, C.A.; Steward, F.R.; Venart, J.E.S.

    A boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) is due to rapid boiling and expansion, with no ignition or chemical reaction involved. Research is being conducted to examine such questions as under what conditions tanks and their contents undergo BLEVE, what are the characteristics of tanks affected by BLEVE, and what alterations in tank design can be made to minimize the likelihood of BLEVEs. Experiments have been done with both propane and freon, using commercially available one-liter propane cylinders. Outdoor tests were conducted and designed to have the tank fail at a particular set of internal conditions. High speed photography was used to record the explosion, and computerized monitoring equipment to record temperature and pressure data. Tests were run to attempt to determine the relationship between temperature and BLEVEs, and to test the possibility that the occurrence of a BLEVE depends on the amount of vapor that could be produced when the tank was ruptured. Discussion is made of the role of pressure waves and rarefaction waves in the explosion. It is concluded that the superheat temperature limit, theorized as the minimum temperature below which no BLEVE can occur, cannot be used to predict BLEVEs. It has been shown that BLEVEs can occur below this temperature. There appears to be a relationship between liquid temperature, liquid volume, and the energy required to drive the BLEVE. Fireballs may occur after a BLEVE of flammable material, but are not part of the tank destruction. Rupture location (vapor vs liquid space) appears to have no effect on whether a container will undergo a BLEVE. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists: Expanding vistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Magon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists are derived from native GnRH by amino acid substitution which yields the agonist resistant to degradation and increases its half-life. The hypogonadotropic hypogonadal state produced by GnRH agonists has been often dubbed as "pseudomenopause" or "medical oophorectomy," which are both misnomers. GnRH analogues (GnRH-a work by temporarily "switching off" the ovaries. Ovaries can be "switched off" for the therapy and therapeutic trial of many conditions which include but are not limited to subfertility, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine leiomyomas, precocious puberty, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, chronic pelvic pain, or the prevention of menstrual bleeding in special clinical situations. Rapidly expanding vistas of usage of GnRH agonists encompass use in sex reassignment of male to female transsexuals, management of final height in cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and preserving ovarian function in women undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. Hypogonadic side effects caused by the use of GnRH agonists can be tackled with use of "add-back" therapy. Goserelin, leuprolide, and nafarelin are commonly used in clinical practice. GnRH-a have provided us a powerful therapeutic approach to the treatment of numerous conditions in reproductive medicine. Recent synthesis of GnRH antagonists with a better tolerability profile may open new avenues for both research and clinical applications. All stakeholders who are partners in women′s healthcare need to join hands to spread awareness so that these drugs can be used to realize their full potential.

  15. AstroCom NYC: Expanding the Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglione, Timothy; Ford, Saavik; Agueros, Marcel A.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Robbins, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    AstroCom NYC is an undergraduate mentoring program designed to improve urban minority student access to opportunities in astrophysical research by greatly enhancing partnerships between research astronomers in New York City (City University of New York - an MSI, American Museum of Natural History, and Columbia). AstroCom NYC provides centralized, personalized mentoring as well as financial and academic support, to CUNY undergraduates throughout their studies, plus the resources and opportunities to further CUNY faculty research with students. The goal is that students' residency at AMNH helps them build a sense of belonging in the field, and readies and inspires them for graduate study. AstroCom NYC provides a rigorous Methods of Scientific Research course developed specifically to this purpose, a laptop, research and career mentors, outreach activities, scholarships and stipends, Metrocards, and regular assessment for maximum effectiveness. Stipends in part alleviate the burdens at home typical for CUNY students so they may concentrate on their academic success. AMNH serves as the central hub for our faculty and students, who are otherwise dispersed among all five boroughs of the City. For our second cohort, we dramatically improved the application and screening process, implemented a number of tools to evaluate their potential for grad school, and began growing a network of potential hosts for summer internships around NY State and the US. We review these implementations and outcomes, as well as plans for Year 3, when we expect many of our current students to compete for external summer REUs, and after greatly expanding the program reach through a NASA community college initiative.

  16. Origin and dynamics of expanding neutral hydrogen supershells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnik, I.G.; Silich, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The evolutionary model of expanding supershells regulated by induced star formation is proposed. It is suggested that giant expanding shells are formed n superclouds at late evolutionary stage of star complexes. To understand the dynamics of the most huge supershells it is necessary to take into account that expanding shells can trigger star formation in cold dense pre-exosting cloudlets. Efficiency of induced star formation must be less than one percent to fit observational properties of supershells

  17. Expanding U.S. markets for Canadian crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.; Angevine, G.; Chan, K.; Renne, G.; Stariha, J.; MacKay, E.

    1993-01-01

    The quantities and types of Canadian, U.S. and competing foreign crudes flowing into U.S. market regions and the potential to retain and/or expand Canadian crude oil sales in each of those markets, was studied. The various pipeline system expansion/construction proposals were reviewed. Findings of the study with respect to prospects for crude oil sales into each of the U.S. market regions were presented. Opportunities and constraints with regard to the potential for incremental crude oil sales into each of the U.S. market regions were detailed. The study concluded that there was a substantial market in the U.S. for incremental sales of Canadian crudes. Most of the refineries in the U.S. market regions were more flexible in terms of their crude diet than they were before the rationalization and restructuring of the industry began. The market for crude oil in the U.S. was shown to be one of the most competitive in the world and the most volatile. The study also revealed that there were risks associated with large additions to the capacity to ship crude oil by pipeline from Western Canada, given the uncertainties surrounding future supply. 4 refs., figs., tabs

  18. Kinesin expands and stabilizes the GDP-microtubule lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Daniel R.; Burroughs, Nigel J.; Cross, Robert A.

    2018-05-01

    Kinesin-1 is a nanoscale molecular motor that walks towards the fast-growing (plus) ends of microtubules, hauling molecular cargo to specific reaction sites in cells. Kinesin-driven transport is central to the self-organization of eukaryotic cells and shows great promise as a tool for nano-engineering1. Recent work hints that kinesin may also play a role in modulating the stability of its microtubule track, both in vitro2,3 and in vivo4, but the results are conflicting5-7 and the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report a new dimension to the kinesin-microtubule interaction, whereby strong-binding state (adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-bound and apo) kinesin-1 motor domains inhibit the shrinkage of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) microtubules by up to two orders of magnitude and expand their lattice spacing by 1.6%. Our data reveal an unexpected mechanism by which the mechanochemical cycles of kinesin and tubulin interlock, and so allow motile kinesins to influence the structure, stability and mechanics of their microtubule track.

  19. Expanding the phenome and variome of skeletal dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddirevula, Sateesh; Alsahli, Saud; Alhabeeb, Lamees; Patel, Nisha; Alzahrani, Fatema; Shamseldin, Hanan E; Anazi, Shams; Ewida, Nour; Alsaif, Hessa S; Mohamed, Jawahir Y; Alazami, Anas M; Ibrahim, Niema; Abdulwahab, Firdous; Hashem, Mais; Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Monies, Dorota; Al Tassan, Nada; Alshammari, Muneera; Alsagheir, Afaf; Seidahmed, Mohammed Zain; Sogati, Samira; Aglan, Mona S; Hamad, Muddathir H; Salih, Mustafa A; Hamed, Ahlam A; Alhashmi, Nadia; Nabil, Amira; Alfadli, Fatima; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Alkuraya, Hisham; Peitee, Winnie Ong; Keng, W T; Qasem, Abdullah; Mushiba, Aziza M; Zaki, Maha S; Fassad, Mahmoud R; Alfadhel, Majid; Alexander, Saji; Sabr, Yasser; Temtamy, Samia; Ekbote, Alka V; Ismail, Samira; Hosny, Gamal Ahmed; Otaify, Ghada A; Amr, Khalda; Al Tala, Saeed; Khan, Arif O; Rizk, Tamer; Alaqeel, Aida; Alsiddiky, Abdulmonem; Singh, Ankur; Kapoor, Seema; Alhashem, Amal; Faqeih, Eissa; Shaheen, Ranad; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2018-04-05

    PurposeTo describe our experience with a large cohort (411 patients from 288 families) of various forms of skeletal dysplasia who were molecularly characterized.MethodsDetailed phenotyping and next-generation sequencing (panel and exome).ResultsOur analysis revealed 224 pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants (54 (24%) of which are novel) in 123 genes with established or tentative links to skeletal dysplasia. In addition, we propose 5 genes as candidate disease genes with suggestive biological links (WNT3A, SUCO, RIN1, DIP2C, and PAN2). Phenotypically, we note that our cohort spans 36 established phenotypic categories by the International Skeletal Dysplasia Nosology, as well as 18 novel skeletal dysplasia phenotypes that could not be classified under these categories, e.g., the novel C3orf17-related skeletal dysplasia. We also describe novel phenotypic aspects of well-known disease genes, e.g., PGAP3-related Toriello-Carey syndrome-like phenotype. We note a strong founder effect for many genes in our cohort, which allowed us to calculate a minimum disease burden for the autosomal recessive forms of skeletal dysplasia in our population (7.16E-04), which is much higher than the global average.ConclusionBy expanding the phenotypic, allelic, and locus heterogeneity of skeletal dysplasia in humans, we hope our study will improve the diagnostic rate of patients with these conditions.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 5 April 2018; doi:10.1038/gim.2018.50.

  20. Infrastructure Requirements for an Expanded Fuel Ethanol Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Robert E. [Downstream Alternatives, Inc., South Bend, IN (United States)

    2002-01-15

    This report provides technical information specifically related to ethanol transportation, distribution, and marketing issues. This report required analysis of the infrastructure requirements for an expanded ethanol industry.

  1. Safety of endoscopic removal of self-expandable stents after treatment of benign esophageal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Halsema, Emo E; Wong Kee Song, Louis M; Baron, Todd H; Siersema, Peter D; Vleggaar, Frank P; Ginsberg, Gregory G; Shah, Pari M; Fleischer, David E; Ratuapli, Shiva K; Fockens, Paul; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Rando, Giacomo; Repici, Alessandro; van Hooft, Jeanin E

    2013-01-01

    Temporary placement of self-expandable stents has been increasingly used for the management of benign esophageal diseases. To evaluate the safety of endoscopic removal of esophageal self-expandable stents placed for the treatment of benign esophageal diseases. Multicenter retrospective study. Six tertiary care centers in the United States and Europe. A total of 214 patients with benign esophageal diseases undergoing endoscopic stent removal. Endoscopic stent removal. Endoscopic techniques for stent removal, time to stent removal, and adverse events related to stent removal. A total of 214 patients underwent a total of 329 stent extractions. Stents were mainly placed for refractory strictures (49.2%) and fistulae (49.8%). Of the removed stents, 52% were fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMSs), 28.6% were partially covered self-expandable metal stents (PCSEMSs), and 19.5% were self-expandable plastic stents. A total of 35 (10.6%) procedure-related adverse events were reported, including 7 (2.1%) major adverse events. Multivariate analysis revealed that use of PCSEMSs (P stent removal. Favorable factors for successful stent removal were FCSEMSs (P ≤ .012) and stent migration (P = .010). No significant associations were found for stent indwelling time (P = .145) and stent embedding (P = .194). Retrospective analysis, only tertiary care centers. With an acceptable major adverse event rate of 2.1%, esophageal stent removal in the setting of benign disease was found to be a safe and feasible procedure. FCSEMSs were more successfully removed than self-expandable plastic stents and PCSEMSs. Adverse events caused by stent removal were not time dependent. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Orangutan Alu quiescence reveals possible source element: support for ancient backseat drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Jerilyn A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence analysis of the orangutan genome revealed that recent proliferative activity of Alu elements has been uncharacteristically quiescent in the Pongo (orangutan lineage, compared with all previously studied primate genomes. With relatively few young polymorphic insertions, the genomic landscape of the orangutan seemed like the ideal place to search for a driver, or source element, of Alu retrotransposition. Results Here we report the identification of a nearly pristine insertion possessing all the known putative hallmarks of a retrotranspositionally competent Alu element. It is located in an intronic sequence of the DGKB gene on chromosome 7 and is highly conserved in Hominidae (the great apes, but absent from Hylobatidae (gibbon and siamang. We provide evidence for the evolution of a lineage-specific subfamily of this shared Alu insertion in orangutans and possibly the lineage leading to humans. In the orangutan genome, this insertion contains three orangutan-specific diagnostic mutations which are characteristic of the youngest polymorphic Alu subfamily, AluYe5b5_Pongo. In the Homininae lineage (human, chimpanzee and gorilla, this insertion has acquired three different mutations which are also found in a single human-specific Alu insertion. Conclusions This seemingly stealth-like amplification, ongoing at a very low rate over millions of years of evolution, suggests that this shared insertion may represent an ancient backseat driver of Alu element expansion.

  3. Origins Of Magnetospheric Physics An Expanded Edition

    CERN Document Server

    Van Allen, James A

    2004-01-01

    Early in 1958, instruments on the space satellites Explorer I and Explorer III revealed the presence of radiation belts, enormous populations of energetic particles trapped in the magnetic field of the earth. Originally published in 1983 but long out of print until now, Origins of Magnetospheric Physics tells the story of this dramatic and hugely transformative period in scientific and Cold War history. Writing in an accessible style and drawing on personal journals, correspondence, published papers, and the recollections of colleagues, James Van Allen documents a trail-blazing era in space hi

  4. Expanded beam (macro-imaging) ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fried, M., E-mail: fried@mfa.kfki.h [Res. Inst. for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary); Juhasz, G.; Major, C.; Petrik, P.; Polgar, O. [Res. Inst. for Technical Physics and Materials Science (MFA), H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary); Horvath, Z. [Res. Inst. for Solid State Physics and Optics (SZFKI), H-1525 Budapest, POB 49 (Hungary); Nutsch, A. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Integrierte Systeme und Bauelementetechnologie IISB, Schottkystr. 10, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-02-28

    Our aim was to make possible to use spectroscopic ellipsometry for mapping purposes during one measuring cycle (minimum one rotation period of polarizer or analyzer) on many sample points. Our new technique uses non-collimated (non-parallel, mostly diffuse) illumination with an angle of incidence sensitive pinhole camera detector system and it works as an unusual kind of imaging ellipsometry. Adding multicolour supplemets, it provides spectral (a few wavelengths on a 2D image or a full spectrum along a line) information from rapid measurements of many points on a large (several dm2) area. This technique can be expanded by upscaling the geometry (upscaling the dimensions of the instrument, and characteristic imaging parameters such as focal lengths, distances, etc.). The lateral resolution is limited by the minimum resolved-angle determined by the detector system, mainly by the diameter of the pinhole. (The diameter of the pinhole is a compromise between the light intensity and the lateral resolution.) Small-aperture (25 mm diameter) polarizers are incorporated into both the polarization state generator (PSG) and polarization state detection (PSD) components of the instrument. The detection is almost without background because the pinhole serves as a filter against the scattered light. One rapid measuring cycle (less than 10 s) is enough to determine the polarization state at all the points inside the illuminated area. The collected data can be processed very fast (seconds) providing nearly real-time thicknesses and/or refractive index maps over many points of the sample surface even in the case of multilayer samples. The speed of the measuring system makes it suitable for using even on production lines. The necessary (in each sample-point different) angle-of-incidence and the mirror-effect calibration are made via well-known and optimized structures such as silicon/silicon-dioxide samples. The precision is suitable for detecting sub-nanometer thickness and a

  5. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  6. Vietnam seeks help expanding voluntary surgical contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piet-pelon, N J; Sukop, S

    1992-07-01

    Recent surveys by the Vietnamese Ministry of Health suggest that 60% of married women desire no more children. Yet only 2% of currently married women and less than 1/2 of 1% of their partners use sterilization. Underscoring the high unmet need for effective family planning, over 1 million abortions (legal in Vietnam for the past 20 years) are performed annually. This rate corresponds to 1 abortion for every live birth. The Ministry of Health has recently welcomed a variety of organizations, including AVSC, whose assistance can help expand the country's family planning programs. Sorely lacking in supplies, equipment, and trained personnel, Vietnam has merited priority status--2nd only to China and India--from the UNFPA, which has committed $36 million over the next 4 years. Other organizations currently working in Vietnam include the Population Council, the Population Crisis Committee, and the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Despite enormous casualties during the war years, and a decrease since the 1970s in average family size from 6 to 4 children, the population of Vietnam has continued to grow rapidly, far outpacing economic growth. Currently 67 million, the population is expected to reach 80 million by the year 2000. The average Vietnamese annual income is only $195, among the lowest in the world. Doi moi, the process of economic reform begun in 1986, coupled with new government incentives for families who have no more than 2 children, is changing the face of family planning in Vietnam. Newly opened pharmacies sell imported birth control pills and condoms (to those who can afford them), while government hospitals and health clinics provide mainly IUDs, in addition to limited supplies of pills and condoms. Throughout the country, some 8000 community-level health centers are staffed by nurse-midwives trained in family planning. Voluntary sterilization is available at the district, provincial, and national hospitals. All married women may obtain family

  7. Expanding Horizons Teachers and Scientists Collabortaing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teres, A.

    2017-12-01

    As a participant in PolarTrec, I joined the crew of NASA's Operation IceBridge in Greenland for the month of April 2017. As an active member of the team I learned the ins and outs of field research, and I learned about the work done by Operation IceBridge. As a result of participating in this project, I grew as a teacher and a scientist. I took my experiences and shared them with my classroom through stories, pictures, videos, and my lesson plans. By seeing the Artic through my experiences the class became enraptured by the subject matter. I was no longer talking about a distant or abstract place instead I was talking about an experience. This enabled my students to take an active part in the discussion and to feel like the cryosphere was part of their life too. Not only did I learn about the science but I leaned about logistics of field research. I reached out to my community and local communications outlets before and after my trip to Greenland to familiarize whomever I could connect with about my experience. I contacted a local news station and they did an interview with me about my trip. I emailed a local newspaper about my trip and was interviewed before I left and after I returned. Due to the newscast, I was contacted by my college sorority and was interviewed for the sorority's national newsletter which is distributed throughout the United States. Each connection helped to spread the word. I'm continuing to spread the word by volunteering to present my experience to schools throughout Broward County in Florida. I've already connected with teachers and schools to set up my presentation in the calendar. Having these types of experiences is critical for teachers to continue their growth within the scientific field and education. Effective teachers are those not constrained by the walls of their classroom. Having the opportunity to work with scientists and do research in the field has expanded my horizons. The people I met I am still in contact with and I am

  8. Expanded beam (macro-imaging) ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, M.; Juhasz, G.; Major, C.; Petrik, P.; Polgar, O.; Horvath, Z.; Nutsch, A.

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to make possible to use spectroscopic ellipsometry for mapping purposes during one measuring cycle (minimum one rotation period of polarizer or analyzer) on many sample points. Our new technique uses non-collimated (non-parallel, mostly diffuse) illumination with an angle of incidence sensitive pinhole camera detector system and it works as an unusual kind of imaging ellipsometry. Adding multicolour supplemets, it provides spectral (a few wavelengths on a 2D image or a full spectrum along a line) information from rapid measurements of many points on a large (several dm2) area. This technique can be expanded by upscaling the geometry (upscaling the dimensions of the instrument, and characteristic imaging parameters such as focal lengths, distances, etc.). The lateral resolution is limited by the minimum resolved-angle determined by the detector system, mainly by the diameter of the pinhole. (The diameter of the pinhole is a compromise between the light intensity and the lateral resolution.) Small-aperture (25 mm diameter) polarizers are incorporated into both the polarization state generator (PSG) and polarization state detection (PSD) components of the instrument. The detection is almost without background because the pinhole serves as a filter against the scattered light. One rapid measuring cycle (less than 10 s) is enough to determine the polarization state at all the points inside the illuminated area. The collected data can be processed very fast (seconds) providing nearly real-time thicknesses and/or refractive index maps over many points of the sample surface even in the case of multilayer samples. The speed of the measuring system makes it suitable for using even on production lines. The necessary (in each sample-point different) angle-of-incidence and the mirror-effect calibration are made via well-known and optimized structures such as silicon/silicon-dioxide samples. The precision is suitable for detecting sub-nanometer thickness and a

  9. In Vitro Comparison of Self-Expanding Versus Balloon-Expandable Stents in a Human Ex Vivo Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenacher, Lars; Rohde, Stefan; Gaenger, Ellen; Deutsch, Jochen; Kauffmann, Guenter W.; Richter, Goetz M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective was to compare the radial strength and expansile precision of self-expanding stents and balloon-expandable stents in a human cadaver bifurcation model. Seven different self-expanding (LUMINEXX, JOSTENT SelfX, JOSTENT SelfX hrf, Sinus-Repo, Sinus SuperFlex, Easy Wallstent, SMART) and four different balloon-expandable stent models (Palmaz, Sinus Stent, SAXX Medium, JOSTENT peripheral), each type 10 stents (total n = 110 stents) were implanted into the common iliac arteries of human cadaver corpses. The maximum stent diameter was 10 mm for all models. After stent implantation, the specimens were filled with silicone caoutchouc. After 24 h, the vascular walls including the stents were removed from the hardened casts. Diameters were taken and the weight of the cast cylinders was measured in air and in purified water to calculate the volume of the bodies (according to Archimedes Law) as a relative but precise degree for the radial strength of the implanted stents. The cylindrical casts of the self-expanding stents showed lower mean diameters (8.2 ± 1.0 mm) and mean volumes (0.60 ± 0.14 ml/cm) than in the balloon-expandable stent group (10.1 ± 0.3 mm and 0.71 ± 0.04 ml/cm, respectively; p < 0.01). The nominal maximum diameter of 10 mm was not achieved in any of the self-expanding stents, but this was achieved in more than 70% (29/40) of the balloon-expandable stent specimens (p < 0.05). The variation between achieved volumes was significantly larger in self-expanding (range: 0.23-0.78 ml/cm) than in balloon-expandable stents (range: 0.66-0.81 ml/cm; p < 0.05). Self-expanding stents presented considerably lower radial expansion force and lower degree of precision than balloon-expandable stents

  10. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  11. Influence of Particle Size on Properties of Expanded Graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurajica, S

    2010-02-01

    between the graphene layers due to oxidation and repulsion of positively charged layers. The increased width and reduced height of diffraction peaks were a consequence of small-sized ordered domains. The intercalation is partial, intercalated layers are divided by a considerable number of non-intercalated layers. FTIR spectra revealed that dominant intercalating species is perchloric acid.Thermo-gravimetric analysis revealed that deintercalation occurs in the temperature interval between 150 and 300 °C and that a mass loss in this temperature interval is dependent on particle diameter, i. e. the intercalation is more intensive for greater particles. The fact that deintercalation proceeds as a one-stage process indicates the existence of only one intercalating specie. Additional mass loss at higher temperatures is a consequence of graphite oxidation.The particles with a higher amount of interlcalant showed greater expansion volumes as well as specific surface area. The fraction with greatest particle diameter (315–425 µm showed expansion specific volume of v=86 cm3g–1. Weaker expansion of smaller particles is a consequence of intercalant thermal degradation gaseous products loss at the layer edges, as well as of lesser amount of intercalants due to their removal during washing.Adsorption-desorption isotherms of expanded graphite could be classified as type III, according to BDDT/IUPAC classification, characteristic for macro porous materials. Small variations in adsorption and desorption pressure for the same amount of adsorbed gas indicate that the macro pores are open. Specific surface area was calculated using BET equation and for sample 315–425 yields s = 36 m2 g–1.SEM micrographs revealed typical worm-like microstructure generated by exfoliation of graphene sheets. The areas of intense exfoliation forming typical pores, as well as less exfoliated sheets canbe observed.

  12. Fibrinogen estimates are influenced by methods of measurement and hemodilution with colloid plasma expanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger-Eriksen, Christian; Moore, Gary W; Rangarajan, Savita; Ingerslev, Jørgen; Sørensen, Benny

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of plasma fibrinogen is often required in critically ill patients or massively bleeding patients being resuscitated with colloid plasma expander. This study aimed at evaluating different assays of plasma fibrinogen after in vitro dilution with commonly used plasma expanders and challenged the hypothesis that levels of fibrinogen are estimated significantly higher in plasma diluted with colloid plasma expander compared with isotonic saline. Fibrinogen measurements were established in plasma samples each diluted in vitro to 30 or 50% with isotonic saline, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4, and human albumin. Fibrinogen levels were assessed using an antigen determination, three photo-optical Clauss methods, one mechanical Clauss method, a prothrombin-derived method, and viscoelastic measurement through thromboelastometry. Measurement of fibrinogen levels was significantly different when performed on alternate analytical platforms. By 30 and 50% dilution with HES 130/0.4 coagulation analyzers using the photo-optical Clauss methods significantly overestimated levels of fibrinogen. Dilution with human albumin did not affect fibrinogen levels except from one analyzer by 50% dilution level. Viscoelastic measurement of fibrin polymerization was reduced at both dilution levels and appeared to reflect the impairment of fibrin polymerization induced by HES 130/0.4 and to a lesser extent human albumin. This study demonstrated that different automated coagulation analyzers revealed significantly different levels of fibrinogen. The presence of colloid plasma expander gave rise to erroneous high levels of fibrinogen returned from some coagulation analyzers employing the method of Clauss. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. New York: Expanding Time, Increasing Opportunities for Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tiffany D.

    2014-01-01

    New York is poised to take an important step to improve student achievement by expanding learning time for students attending high-poverty, low-performing schools. Recent district- and state-level investments in expanded learning time--a promising strategy to close achievement and opportunity gaps--will give students more time to learn core…

  14. Conference Offers Girls Opportunity to Expand Career Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offers Girls Opportunity to Expand Career Horizons For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., Feb. 11, 1997 -- Expanding Your Horizons, a conference for girls grades 6 - 9 and Employed Women, Girls Incorporated of Metro Denver, King Soopers, McDonalds, the TCI Adult Program and the

  15. An Isothermal Steam Expander for an Industrial Steam Supplying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Kuang Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam is an essential medium used in the industrial process. To ensure steam quality, small and middle scale boilers are often adopted. However, because a higher steam pressure (compared to the necessary steam pressure is generated, the boiler’s steam pressure will be reduced via a pressure regulator before the steam is directed through the process. Unfortunately, pressure is somewhat wasted during the reducing process. Therefore, in order to promote energy efficiency, a pressure regulator is replaced by a steam expander. With this steam expander, the pressure will be transformed into mechanical energy and extracted during the expansion process. A new type of isothermal steam expander for an industrial steam supplying system will be presented in the paper. The isothermal steam expander will improve the energy efficiency of a traditional steam expander by replacing the isentropic process with an isothermal expansion process. With this, steam condensation will decrease, energy will increase, and steam quality will be improved. Moreover, the mathematical model of the isothermal steam expander will be established by using the Schmidt theory, the same principle used to analyze Stirling engines. Consequently, by verifying the correctness of the theoretical model for the isothermal steam expander using experimental data, a prototype of 100 c.c. isothermal steam expander is constructed.

  16. Principles of the fifth order tuning of beam expanders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meot, F.; Aniel, T.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical treatment of the third and fifth order optics of beam expanders is described, which allows precise tuning of the optical elements of the beam line, and efficient optimization of the beam uniformizing at the extended target. An application to a two-dimensional expander is given as an illustration. (authors)

  17. Influence Of Collapsing Matter On The Enveloping Expanding Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, A. Latif

    2005-01-01

    Using a collapsing matter model at the center of an expanding universe as described by Weinberg we assume a special type of generated pressure. This pressure transmits into the surrounding expanding universe. Under certain restriction the ensuing hubble parameter is positive. The deacceleration parameter fluctuates with time, indicating that the universe accelerates for certain time and decelerates for other time intervals.

  18. Backyard Telescopes Watch an Expanding Binary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    What can you do with a team of people armed with backyard telescopes and a decade of patience? Test how binary star systems evolve under Einsteins general theory of relativity!Unusual VariablesCataclysmic variables irregularly brightening binary stars consisting of an accreting white dwarf and a donor star are a favorite target among amateur astronomers: theyre detectable even with small telescopes, and theres a lot we can learn about stellar astrophysics by observing them, if were patient.Diagram of a cataclysmic variable. In an AM CVn, the donor is most likely a white dwarf as well, or a low-mass helium star. [Philip D. Hall]Among the large family of cataclysmic variables is one unusual type: the extremely short-period AM Canum Venaticorum (AM CVn) stars. These rare variables (only 40 are known) are unique in having spectra dominated by helium, suggesting that they contain little or no hydrogen. Because of this, scientists have speculated that the donor stars in these systems are either white dwarfs themselves or very low-mass helium stars.Why study AM CVn stars? Because their unusual configuration allows us to predict the behavior of their orbital evolution. According to the general theory of relativity, the two components of an AM CVn will spiral closer and closer as the system loses angular momentum to gravitational-wave emission. Eventually they will get so close that the low-mass companion star overflows its Roche lobe, beginning mass transfer to the white dwarf. At this point, the orbital evolution will reverse and the binary orbit will expand, increasing its period.CBA member Enrique de Miguel, lead author on the study, with his backyard telescope in Huelva, Spain. [Enrique de Miguel]Backyard Astronomy Hard at WorkMeasuring the evolution of an AM CVns orbital period is the best way to confirm this model, but this is no simple task! To observe this evolution, we first need a system with a period that can be very precisely measured best achieved with an

  19. Crystallization degree change of expanded graphite by milling and annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Qunwei; Wu Jihuai; Sun Hui; Fang Shijun

    2009-01-01

    Expanded graphite was ball milled with a planetary mill in air atmosphere, and subsequently thermal annealed. The samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that in the milling initial stage (less than 12 h), the crystallization degree of the expanded graphite declined gradually, but after milling more than 16 h, a recrystallization of the expanded graphite toke place, and ordered nanoscale expanded graphite was formed gradually. In the annealing initial stage, the non-crystallization of the graphite occurred, but, beyond an annealing time, recrystallizations of the graphite arise. Higher annealing temperature supported the recrystallization. The milled and annealed expanded graphite still preserved the crystalline structure as raw material and hold high thermal stability.

  20. Distant Supernovae Indicate Ever-Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    ESO Astronomers Contribute towards Resolution of Cosmic Puzzle Since the discovery of the expansion of the Universe by American astronomer Edwin Hubble in the 1920's, by measurement of galaxy velocities, astronomers have tried to learn how this expansion changes with time. Until now, most scientists have been considering two possibilities: the expansion rate is slowing down and will ultimately either come to a halt - whereafter the Universe would start to contract, or it will continue to expand forever. However, new studies by two independent research teams, based on observations of exploding stars ( supernovae ) by ESO astronomers [1] with astronomical telescopes at the La Silla Observatory as well as those of their colleagues at other institutions, appear to show that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating . The results take the discovery of the cosmological expansion one step further and challenge recent models of the Universe. If the new measurements are indeed correct, they show that the elusive "cosmological constant" , as proposed by Albert Einstein , contributes significantly to the evolution of the Universe. The existence of a non-zero cosmological constant implies that a repulsive force, counter-acting gravity, currently dominates the universal expansion , and consequently leads to an ever-expanding Universe. This new research is being named as the "Breakthrough of the Year" by the renowned US science journal Science in the December 18, 1998, issue. A Press Release is published by the journal on this occasion. "Fundamental Parameters" of the Universe Three fundamental parameters govern all cosmological models based on the theory of General Relativity. They are 1. the current expansion rate as described by Hubble's constant , i.e. the proportionality factor between expansion velocity and distance 2. the average matter density in the Universe, and 3. the amount of "other energy" present in space. From the measured values of these fundamental

  1. Dysphagia with malignant stricture of esophagogastric junction: treatment with self-expandable nitinol stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness, patency and safety of a self-expandable nitinol stent for palliative treatment of malignant stricture of gastroesophageal junction. An esophageal stent was inserted in five consecutive patients with malignant stricture of esophagogastric junction. Histologically, four cases were adenocarcinoma, and one was squamous cell carcinoma. The location and severity of stricture were evaluated with gastrografin just before stent insertion. In one patient with past subtotal gastrectomy, esophagography revealed fistulous fract at stricture site. No technical failure or procedural complications occurred, and improvement of dysphagia was noted in all patients soon after stent insertion. On follow up esophagograms performed 3 to 7 days after stent insertion, all stents were completely expanded and unchanged in positions. In one patient with fistulous connection at stricture site, esophagogram immediately after the procedure revealed complete occlusion of the fistula. Three patients died within 4, 7 and 8 consecutive months after stent insertion. Two patients are alive maintaining adequate body weight and passing most diet. Seft-expandable nitinol stent with it's good longitudinal flexibility and efficient radial force was effective in the palliative treatment of dysphagia in patient with malignant stricture at esophagogastric junction

  2. Dysphagia with malignant stricture of esophagogastric junction: treatment with self-expandable nitinol stent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-15

    To evaluate the effectiveness, patency and safety of a self-expandable nitinol stent for palliative treatment of malignant stricture of gastroesophageal junction. An esophageal stent was inserted in five consecutive patients with malignant stricture of esophagogastric junction. Histologically, four cases were adenocarcinoma, and one was squamous cell carcinoma. The location and severity of stricture were evaluated with gastrografin just before stent insertion. In one patient with past subtotal gastrectomy, esophagography revealed fistulous fract at stricture site. No technical failure or procedural complications occurred, and improvement of dysphagia was noted in all patients soon after stent insertion. On follow up esophagograms performed 3 to 7 days after stent insertion, all stents were completely expanded and unchanged in positions. In one patient with fistulous connection at stricture site, esophagogram immediately after the procedure revealed complete occlusion of the fistula. Three patients died within 4, 7 and 8 consecutive months after stent insertion. Two patients are alive maintaining adequate body weight and passing most diet. Seft-expandable nitinol stent with it's good longitudinal flexibility and efficient radial force was effective in the palliative treatment of dysphagia in patient with malignant stricture at esophagogastric junction.

  3. Thermal compatibility of Sodium Nitrate/Expanded Perlite composite phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruguang; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Cheng, Xiaomin; Li, Yuanyuan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Expanded Perlite/Sodium Nitrate composites hardly reported in thermal storage fields. • The thermal compatibility and adsorption of Expanded Perlite were investigated. • The thermo physic properties of composites were determined. • The thermal stability and long term enthalpy changes of composites were investigated. - Abstract: The present work focused on the preparation and characterization of a new thermal storage material applied in thermal energy management. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that Expanded Perlite (EP) has a good thermal stability varying from 300 °C to 900 °C. Morphology of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that sodium nitrate is uniformly encapsulated and embedded in the three-dimensional network structure of EP. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated that the EP is physically combined with the nitrate salt. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the composites have good thermal stability. The adsorption capacity of loose EP was 213.21%. When the EP mass fraction varying from 10% to 60%, thermal conductivity decreased with the content of EP increased, and the highest thermal conductivity is 1.14 W (m K)"−"1 at 300 °C. SEM revealed the network structure of EP provided thermal conduction paths which enhanced the thermal conductivity of the composites. All results indicated that EP could be a good adsorption material to be applied in the thermal storage fields.

  4. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila A Souza

    Full Text Available The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed.

  5. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Leila A; Ferreira, Rodrigo L; Senna, André R

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed.

  6. Using Earthquake Analysis to Expand the Oklahoma Fault Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J. C.; Evans, S. C.; Walter, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    The Oklahoma Geological Survey (OGS) is compiling a comprehensive Oklahoma Fault Database (OFD), which includes faults mapped in OGS publications, university thesis maps, and industry-contributed shapefiles. The OFD includes nearly 20,000 fault segments, but the work is far from complete. The OGS plans on incorporating other sources of data into the OFD, such as new faults from earthquake sequence analyses, geologic field mapping, active-source seismic surveys, and potential fields modeling. A comparison of Oklahoma seismicity and the OFD reveals that earthquakes in the state appear to nucleate on mostly unmapped or unknown faults. Here, we present faults derived from earthquake sequence analyses. From 2015 to present, there has been a five-fold increase in realtime seismic stations in Oklahoma, which has greatly expanded and densified the state's seismic network. The current seismic network not only improves our threshold for locating weaker earthquakes, but also allows us to better constrain focal plane solutions (FPS) from first motion analyses. Using nodal planes from the FPS, HypoDD relocation, and historic seismic data, we can elucidate these previously unmapped seismogenic faults. As the OFD is a primary resource for various scientific investigations, the inclusion of seismogenic faults improves further derivative studies, particularly with respect to seismic hazards. Our primal focus is on four areas of interest, which have had M5+ earthquakes in recent Oklahoma history: Pawnee (M5.8), Prague (M5.7), Fairview (M5.1), and Cushing (M5.0). Subsequent areas of interest will include seismically active data-rich areas, such as the central and northcentral parts of the state.

  7. Ex vivo-expanded bone marrow CD34(+) for acute myocardial infarction treatment: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunetti, Monica; Noghero, Alessio; Molla, Fabiola; Staszewsky, Lidia Irene; de Angelis, Noeleen; Soldo, Annarita; Russo, Ilaria; Errichiello, Edoardo; Frasson, Chiara; Rustichelli, Deborah; Ferrero, Ivana; Gualandris, Anna; Berger, Massimo; Geuna, Massimo; Scacciatella, Paolo; Basso, Giuseppe; Marra, Sebastiano; Bussolino, Federico; Latini, Roberto; Fagioli, Franca

    2011-10-01

    Bone marrow (BM)-derived cells appear to be a promising therapeutic source for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the quantity and quality of the cells to be used, along with the appropriate time of administration, still need to be defined. We thus investigated the use of BM CD34(+)-derived cells as cells suitable for a cell therapy protocol (CTP) in the treatment of experimental AMI. The need for a large number of cells was satisfied by the use of a previously established protocol allowing the expansion of human CD34(+) cells isolated from neonatal and adult hematopoietic tissues. We evaluated gene expression, endothelial differentiation potential and cytokine release by BM-derived cells during in vitro culture. Basal and expanded CD34(+) cells were used as a delivery product in a murine AMI model consisting of a coronary artery ligation (CAL). Cardiac function recovery was evaluated after injecting basal or expanded cells. Gene expression analysis of in vitro-expanded cells revealed that endothelial markers were up-regulated during culture. Moreover, expanded cells generated a CD14(+) subpopulation able to differentiate efficiently into VE-cadherin-expressing cells. In vivo, we observed a cardiac function recovery in mice sequentially treated with basal and expanded cells injected 4 h and 7 days after CAL, respectively. Our data suggest that combining basal and expanded BM-derived CD34(+) cells in a specific temporal pattern of administration might represent a promising strategy for a successful cell-based therapy.

  8. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    True, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world''s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia

  9. Treatment of Benign and Malignant Tracheobronchial Obstruction with Metal Wire Stents: Experience with a Balloon-Expandable and a Self-Expandable Stent Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, Johannes; Hautmann, Hubert; Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Weber, Cristoph; Treitl, Markus; Huber, R.M.; Pfeifer, Klaus-Juergen

    2004-01-01

    Over the last few years various types of metal wire stents have been increasingly employed in the treatment of both malignant and benign tracheobronchial obstruction. To date, however, few studies have investigated the in vivo properties of different stent types. We implanted 26 balloon-expandable tantalum Strecker stents (18 patients) and 18 self-expandable Wallstents (16 patients) into the tracheobronchial system of 30 patients with combined stenting in 4 patients. Mean age was 51 years (range: 0.5-79 years). Malignant disease was present in 23 patients, benign disease in seven patients. Both patients and individual stents were monitored clinically and radiographically. The probability of stents remaining within the tracheobronchial system, and of their remaining undislocated and uncompressed was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis for both stent types. Average stent follow-up time was 112 days until explantation and 115 days until patients' death or discharge. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a higher probability for the Wallstent to remain within the tracheobronchial system. Dislocation and compression occurred more rarely. Explantation, however, if desired, was more difficult compared to the Strecker stent. The Wallstent also led to the formation of granulation tissue, especially at the proximal stent end, frequently requiring reintervention. Both stent types proved to be effective therapeutic options in the management of obstructive tracheobronchial disease. The mechanical properties of the Strecker stent seem to be less favorable compared to the Wallstent but removal is easy. For benign disease, however, the Wallstent reveals limitations due to significant side effects

  10. A putative autonomous 20.5 kb-CACTA transposon insertion in an F3'H allele identifies a new CACTA transposon subfamily in Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodkin Lila

    2008-12-01

    in the gray trichome allele t*. Conclusion The molecular characterization of a 20.5 kb insertion in the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H gene of a soybean gray pubescence allele (t* identified the structure of a CACTA transposon designated Tgmt*. Besides the terminal inverted repeats and subterminal repeated motifs,Tgmt* encoded a large gene with two putative functions that are required for excision and transposition of a CACTA element, a transposase and the DNA binding protein known to associate to the subterminal repeated motifs. The degree of dissimilarity between Tgmt* transposase and subterminal repeated motifs with those of previously characterized defective CACTA elements (Tgm1-7 were evidence of the existence of two subfamilies of CACTA transposons in soybean, an observation not previously reported in other plants. In addition, our analyses of a genetically active and potentially autonomous element sheds light on the complete structure of a soybean element that is useful for annotation of the repetitive fraction of the soybean genome sequence and may prove useful for transposon tagging or transposon display experiments in different genetic lines.

  11. Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expanding Agricultural and Rural Extension Roles for Sustainable Extension ... privatization of the public sector of national economies of developing nations has ... include marketing extension, non-farm rural micro enterprise development, ...

  12. Virginia Bioinformatics Institute to expand cyberinfrastructure education and outreach project

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2008-01-01

    The National Science Foundation has awarded the Virginia Bioinformatics Institute at Virginia Tech $918,000 to expand its education and outreach program in Cyberinfrastructure - Training, Education, Advancement and Mentoring, commonly known as the CI-TEAM.

  13. Remedial Action Plan for Expanded Bioventing System Facility 6454

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This draft remedial action plan (RAP) presents the scope for an expanded bioventing system for in situ treatment of fuel-contaminated soils at Site 6454 at Vandenberg Air Force Base (AFB), California...

  14. Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size...

  15. Expanding Business Opportunities for African Youth in Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expanding Business Opportunities for African Youth in Agricultural Value ... sector actors who can help commercialize them and achieve large-scale impacts. ... CultiAF supports research to achieve long-term food security in Eastern and ...

  16. Scaling up: Expanding the impact of food security and nutrition ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-06

    Oct 6, 2016 ... IDRC invests in applied research projects to develop and test ... These solutions are products, technologies, methods, and practices with the ... The social business is expanding from the 55 franchises currently serving 25,000 ...

  17. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE's deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program

  18. Some design features of CO2 swing piston expander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan Haiqing; Ma Yitai; Li Minxia

    2006-01-01

    CO 2 is a potential substitute for synthesized refrigerants with favorable environmental properties. To improve the coefficient of performance (COP) of CO 2 heat pump systems, a swing piston expander prototype has been developed for replacing the throttling valve based on the thermodynamic analysis of the operating conditions of a CO 2 transcritical cycle. The measures on reducing the loss of friction and leakage are paramount important to improve the efficiency of the expander. The performance of the CO 2 swing expander prototype was actually tested in a CO 2 transcritical cycle water-to-water heat pump test rig, and the test results illustrate that the isentropic efficiency of the prototype can be more than 28% when running steadily and up to a maximum of about 44%. Some operating characteristics of the swing piston expander are presented according to the analysis of the test results

  19. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Kun Hyung [Korea Gas Corporation, Incheon, 406-130 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  20. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity.

  1. Nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Gwak, Kyung Hyun; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic study is performed on nitrogen expander cycles for large capacity liquefaction of natural gas. In order to substantially increase the capacity, a Brayton refrigeration cycle with nitrogen expander was recently added to the cold end of the reputable propane pre-cooled mixed-refrigerant (C3-MR) process. Similar modifications with a nitrogen expander cycle are extensively investigated on a variety of cycle configurations. The existing and modified cycles are simulated with commercial process software (Aspen HYSYS) based on selected specifications. The results are compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, liquefaction capacity, and estimated size of heat exchangers. The combination of C3-MR with partial regeneration and pre-cooling of nitrogen expander cycle is recommended to have a great potential for high efficiency and large capacity

  2. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  3. Endovascular therapy of carotid stenosis with self-expandable stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianmin; Huang Qinghai; Hong Bo; Xu Yi; Zhao Wenyuan; Zhang Yongwei; Zhang Long; Zhou Xiaoping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the experience of endovascular treatment of carotid stenosis with expandable stents. Methods: Fifty-two patients with carotid stenosis who experienced repeated transient ischemic attacks or cerebral infarction were admitted to our hospital. The stenosis was pre-expanded with undetachable balloon, and self-expandable stents were implanted across the stenosis. A balloon catheter was used to further expand stents in 29 patients. Results: The stent was accurately implanted, and total disappearance of stenosis was obtained in 34 patients, the degree of stenosis reduced more than 90% in 16 patients, and more than 70% in 2 patients. The patients recovered well and no complications related to the procedure occurred. None experienced TIA or infarction postoperatively in 52 cases and follow-up imaging in 19 patients (6 - 12 months) demonstrated no restenosis. Conclusion: Endovascular stenting may be a safe and valid choice for the treatment of extracranial carotid stenosis

  4. Expanding the Visibility of Women's Work: Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messias, DeAnne K. Hilfinger; Regev, Hanna; Im, Eun-Ok; Spiers, Judith A.; Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf Ibrahim

    1997-01-01

    Social conceptualization and media images of women's work affect health and social policy formation. Nurses can expand the visibility of women's work and promote gender-sensitive policies within and outside the profession. (SK)

  5. Expanded-boundary approach to impurity control in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.

    1981-01-01

    It is proposed to expand the outermost flux surfaces in tokamaks to divert the heat flux emerging from the plasma core. The expanded flux surfaces provide a large volume for radiative cooling. The radiative power at the boundary is enhanced by the effects of plasma flow as well as by a volumetric factor, and the resultant edge cooling and reduced heat load on the limiter may significantly retard impurity generation. Furthermore, it seems to be compatible with reactor engineering requirements. (author)

  6. Self-Expanding, Tough Biodegradable Elastomers for Wound Stasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    the civilian setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self- expanding polyurethane foam...setting, with no effective therapies available at point of injury. We previously reported that a self-expanding polyurethane foam significantly...care in accor- dance with the Guide of the Care and Use of Laboratory Ani- mals (Health, 2011 #17). 2.2. Instrumentation and monitoring All swine (n

  7. Solid expandable systems put deepwater targets within reach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Roca, Eduardo [Enventure Global Technology L.L.C., Houston, TX (United States). Latin America; Fristch, Jerry [Enventure Global Technology L.L.C., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Enabling technologies that take drilling operations to deeper objectives have made a significant impact on the practicality of many projects, especially deep water offshore targets. Increasing vertical depth and lateral reach requires adequate hole size to attain the desired objectives of the well bore. Solid expandable technology can maintain and retain hole size to address both the physical limitations and the economic feasibility of deep water operations. With each and every casing point, the potential for adequate hole size at total depth (TD) decreases. Solid expandable open hole liners and single-diameter systems reduce and eliminate, respectively, the well bore tapering that dictates hole size at TD and subsequent completion size. Successful mitigation of this tapering, whether through the entire well bore or through select zones, enables operators to gain access to previously unreachable reserves. Solid expandable systems have proven to be reliable and effective with over 1,000 installations in a myriad of conditions and environments worldwide. To date, over 115 of those applications have been in deep water environments. The current operating envelope for solid expandable systems include the deepest installation at {approx}28,750 ft (8,763 m) and the longest at 6,867 ft (2,083 m) in water depth over 3,150 ft (960 m). This record-length application consisted of an open hole liner installed and expanded in a single run. This paper will discuss the effectiveness of solid expandable systems in deep water operations and how the technology brings value to offshore projects especially when planned into the initial design. Case histories will be used to further illustrate the features, advantages, and benefits of expandable technology. In addition, this paper will examine the state of the solid expandable technology and its continuing evolution to provide even more drilling solutions. (author)

  8. Ecological and evolutionary processes at expanding range margins

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, C.D.; Bodsworth, E.J.; Wilson, R.J.; Simmons, A.D.; Davies, Z.G.; Musche, M.; Conradt, L.

    2001-01-01

    Many animals are regarded as relatively sedentary and specialized in marginal parts of their geographical distributions. They are expected to be slow at colonizing new habitats. Despite this, the cool margins of many species' distributions have expanded\\ud rapidly in association with recent climate warming3±10. We examined four insect species that have expanded their geographical\\ud ranges in Britain over the past 20 years. Here we report that two butterfly species have increased the variety ...

  9. The motion of an isolated gas group in expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Banggu

    1993-01-01

    The contraction of an isolated gas group in the expanding universe has been discussed. It is found that in addition to the contracted conditions of the static isolated gas group, the initial gas group is straticulate statistical uniform and the initial radius is larger than a critical value D γ -1 , the contracted conditions of expanding case also include that the Hubble constant H is smaller than a constant D t

  10. Free-piston reciprocating cryogenic expander utilizing phase controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeongmin; Park, Jiho; Kim, Kyungjoong; Jeong, Sangkwon

    2017-02-01

    In a free-piston expander which eliminates mechanical linkages, a prescribed behaviour of the free-piston movement is the key to an expander performance. In this paper, we have proposed an idea of reducing complexity of the free-piston expander. It is to replace both multiple solenoid valves and reservoirs that are indispensable in a previous machine with a combination of a single orifice-reservoir assembly. It functions as a phase controller like that of a pulse tube refrigerator so that it generates time-delay of pressure variation between the warm-end and the reservoir resulting in the intended expansion of the cold-end volume down to the pre-set reservoir pressure. The modeling of this unique free-piston reciprocating expander utilizing phase controller is developed to understand and predict the performance of the new-type expander. Additionally, the operating parameters are analysed at the specified conditions to enable one to develop a more efficient free-piston type cryogenic expander.

  11. Chronic expanding hematoma in the retroperitoneal space: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic expanding hematoma is a rare condition that develops after surgery, trauma, or injury. It can also develop at any location in the body in the absence of trauma. Clinical findings and various diagnostic imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of this condition. In general, hematomas are naturally reabsorbed and rarely cause serious problems. However, hematomas that develop slowly without a history of trauma, surgery, or bleeding disorders could be difficult to differentiate from soft tissue neoplasms. In the present case, we describe a patient, without any history or physical evidence of trauma, who exhibited a large chronic expanding hematoma in the retroperitoneal space that resulted in hydronephrosis because of the pressure exerted on the left ureter. Case presentation A 69-year-old man presented to our hospital with a swollen lesion in the left flank. A mass, 19 cm in diameter, was detected in the retroperitoneal space by computed tomography. We suspected the presence of a chronic expanding hematoma, soft tissue tumor, or left renal artery aneurysm. Surgical treatment was performed. However, postoperative histopathological examination indicated that the mass was a nonmalignant chronic expanding hematoma. No recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. Conclusion In patients without a history of trauma who present slowly growing masses, the differential diagnosis should include chronic expanding hematoma in addition to cysts and soft tissue tumors. Moreover, the use of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography is essential to differentiate between chronic expanding hematoma and soft tissue tumors. PMID:24237992

  12. A role for calcium in the regulation of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 3 (ABCC3) gene expression in a model of epidermal growth factor-mediated breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Azimi, Iman; Thompson, Erik W; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-03-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer metastasis, is associated with the transcriptional regulation of members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux pumps, and drug resistance in breast cancer cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is calcium signal dependent. In this study induction of EMT was shown to result in the transcriptional up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, which has a recognized role in multidrug resistance. Buffering of cytosolic free calcium inhibited EGF-mediated ABCC3 increases, indicating a calcium-dependent mode of regulation. Silencing of TRPM7 (an ion channel involved in EMT associated vimentin induction) did not inhibit ABCC3 up-regulation. Silencing of the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) pathway components ORAI1 and STIM1 also did not alter ABCC3 induction by EGF. However, the calcium permeable ion channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) appears to contribute to the regulation of both basal and EGF-induced ABCC3 mRNA. Improved understanding of the relationship between calcium signaling, EMT and the regulation of genes important in therapeutic resistance may help identify novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expanding arch aneurysm causing a "kink" in a Bentall graft and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mohaissen, Maha A; Skarsgard, Peter; Khoo, Clarence; Virani, Sean A; Munt, Brad; Leipsic, Jonathon; Ignaszewski, Andrew

    2012-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is associated with a high incidence of aortic root aneurysm and life-threatening aortic dissection. With the successful use of surgical aortic root replacement, dissection-related mortality has been significantly reduced. We present the case of a patient with Marfan syndrome who presented with heart failure secondary to an unusual graft-related complication 14 years after a Bentall procedure. Investigations revealed a supra-aortic stenosis resulting from a kink in the Bentall graft caused by pressure from an expanding aortic arch aneurysm. The patient underwent surgery with improvement in his ejection fraction and heart failure symptoms.

  14. Designing the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) as a service: Prioritising patients over administrative logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKnight, J.; Holt, D. B.

    2014-01-01

    -the-ground problems that mothers face in trying to vaccinate their children, while instead prioritising administrative processes. Our ethnographic analysis of 83 mothers who had not vaccinated their children reveals key barriers to vaccination from a 'customer' perspective. While mothers value vaccination......Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) vaccination rates remain well below herd immunity in regions of many countries despite huge international resources devoted to both financing and access. We draw upon service marketing theory, organisational sociology, development anthropology and cultural...... specific service problems from the mother's perspective and points towards simple service innovations that could improve vaccination rates in regions that have poor uptake....

  15. Evaluation of the stiffness characteristics of rapid palatal expander screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Lombardo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the mechanical properties of the screws used for rapid expansion of the upper jaw. Methods Ten types of expansion screw were assessed, seven with four arms: Lancer Philosophy 1, Dentaurum Hyrax Click Medium, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S”, Forestadent Anatomic Expander type “S” for narrow palates, Forestadent Memory, Leone A 2620-10 with telescopic guide, and Leone A 0630-10 with orthogonal arms; and three with two arms: Dentaurum Variety S.P., Target Baby REP Veltri, and Leone A 362113. A test expander with the mean dimensions taken from measurements on a sample of 100 expanders was constructed for each screw. The test expanders were connected to the supports of an Instron 4467 (Instron Corp., USA mechanical testing machine equipped with a 500 N load cell, and the compression force exerted after each activation was measured. The mean forces expressed by the two- and four-arm expanders were then compared. Results After five activations, the forces expressed by the two-arm devices were double than those expressed by the four-arm devices on average (224 ± 59.9 N vs. 103 ± 32.9 N, and such values remained high after subsequent activations. Conclusions The expanders tested demonstrated stiffness characteristics compatible with opening of the palatine sutures in pre-adolescent patients. The stiffness of such devices can be further increased during the construction phase.

  16. FDG-PET imaging for chronic expanding hematoma in pelvis with massive bone destruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Kenichiro [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Tracer Kinetics, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Myoui, Akira; Ueda, Takafumi; Tamai, Noriyuki; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Higuchi, Ichiro; Hatazawa, Jun [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Tracer Kinetics, Suita, Osaka (Japan); Inoue, Atsuo [Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    Chronic expanding hematoma is a rare presentation of a hematoma characterized by a persistent increase in size for more than a month after the initial hemorrhage. We present a 65-year-old man with a chronic expanding hematoma in his ilium who was receiving anticoagulant treatment. The patient had a delayed manifestation of a femoral neuropathy with massive bone destruction. 2-Deoxy-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging revealed an increased uptake in the rim of the mass in images acquired 1 h after FDG injection. FDG-PET scans were performed using a dedicated PET scanner (HeadtomeV/SET2400 W, Shimadzu, Kyoto, Japan), and the PET data for the most metabolically active region of interest (ROI) were analyzed. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was set to a cut-off point of 3.0 to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions. The SUVmax of the patient's lesion was 3.10, suggesting a malignant lesion. The characteristics of FDG-PET images of chronic expanding hematomas, including the uptake of FDG in the peripheral rim of the mass as a result of inflammation, should be recognized as a potential interpretive pitfall in mimicking a sarcoma. (orig.)

  17. Systematics and phylogeny of the Neotropical treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae Sistemática e filogenia das cigarrinhas neotropicais da subfamília Nicomiinae (Hemiptera, Membracidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse L. Albertson

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characters of adults of the treehopper subfamily Nicomiinae Haupt, 1929 (Hemiptera, Membracidae including seven genera (Eudonica gen. nov.; Euwalkeria Goding, 1926; Holdgatiella Evans, 1962; Nicomia Stål, 1858; Nodonica Dietrich, McKamey& Deitz, 2001; Stalomia gen. nov.; and Tolania Stål, 1858 and 22 species (16 new are described and illustrated. Keys are provided for genera and for species of Euwalkeria, Holdgatiella, and Nicomia. Nomenclatural changes, based on study of the primary type material of 15 species, include three new combinations, one new synonymy, and reinstatement of one junior synonym. Eudonica has one species, Eudonica nanella sp. nov.; Euwalkeria has five species, including four new species: E. colorata sp. nov., E. distincta sp. nov., E. perdita sp. nov., E. rubrica sp. nov.; Holdgatiella has two species, one of which is described as new: Holdgatiella chiloensis sp. nov.; Nicomia has twelve species, nine of which are described as new: N. buccina sp. nov., N. harenosa sp. nov., N. inscripta sp. nov., N. jucunda sp. nov., N. monticola sp. nov., N. nigrifasciata sp. nov., N. notidana sp. nov., N. pulchella sp. nov., N. serrata sp. nov.; Nodonica has one species, Nodonica bispinigera Dietrich, McKamey & Deitz; and Stalomia has one species, Stalomia veruta sp. nov. Tolania contains eleven previously described species and nearly 60 new species, which will be treated in a later publication. Three new combinations are proposed: one species described in Nicomia is placed in the tribe Abelini (Centrotinae as Abelus retrospinosus (Lethierry comb. nov.; one species previously placed in Nicomia is transferred to the genus Tolania as T. obliqua (Walker, 1858, comb. nov.; one species described in Holdgatiella is placed in the genus Tolania as T. stria (Cryan & Deitz, 2002, comb. nov. One new synonymy is proposed: Hoplophera [sic] cicadoides Walker, 1862, syn. nov., a junior synonym of Nicomia interrupta Stål, 1858. Nicomia

  18. Expanded benefits for humanity from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amelia; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Buckley, Nicole; Zell, Martin; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the International Space Station (ISS) (Fig. 1) partnership published the updated International Space Station Benefits for Humanity[1], a compilation of stories about the many benefits being realized in the areas of human health, Earth observations and disaster response, and global education. This compilation has recently been revised to include updated statistics on the impacts of the benefits, and new benefits that have developed since the first publication. Two new sections have also been added to the book, economic development of space and innovative technology. This paper will summarize the updates on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum, made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. The new section on "Economic Development of Space" highlights case studies from public-private partnerships that are leading to a new economy in low earth orbit (LEO). Businesses provide both transportation to the ISS as well as some research facilities and services. These relationships promote a paradigm shift of government-funded, contractor-provided goods and services to commercially-provided goods purchased by government agencies. Other examples include commercial firms spending research and development dollars to conduct investigations on ISS and commercial service providers selling services directly to ISS users. This section provides examples of ISS as a test bed for new business relationships, and illustrates successful partnerships. The second new section, "Innovative Technology," merges technology demonstration and physical science findings that promise to return Earth benefits through continued research. Robotic refueling concepts for life extensions of costly satellites in geo-synchronous orbit have applications to robotics in industry on Earth. Flame behavior experiments reveal insight into how fuel burns in microgravity leading to the possibility of improving engine efficiency on Earth. Nanostructures and smart fluids are

  19. Expanded Benefits for Humanity from the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amelia; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate-Brown, Judy; Buckley, Nicole; Zell, Martin; Tasaki, Kazuyuki; Karabadzhak, Georgy; Sorokin, Igor V.; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    In 2012, the International Space Station (ISS) partnership published the updated International Space Station Benefits for Humanity, 2nd edition, a compilation of stories about the many benefits being realized in the areas of human health, Earth observations and disaster response, and global education. This compilation has recently been revised to include updated statistics on the impacts of the benefits, and new benefits that have developed since the first publication. Two new sections have also been added to the book, economic development of space and innovative technology. This paper will summarize the updates on behalf of the ISS Program Science Forum, made up of senior science representatives across the international partnership. The new section on "Economic Development of Space" highlights case studies from public-private partnerships that are leading to a new economy in low earth orbit (LEO). Businesses provide both transportation to the ISS as well as some research facilities and services. These relationships promote a paradigm shift of government-funded, contractor-provided goods and services to commercially-provided goods purchased by government agencies. Other examples include commercial firms spending research and development dollars to conduct investigations on ISS and commercial service providers selling services directly to ISS users. This section provides examples of ISS as a test bed for new business relationships, and illustrates successful partnerships. The second new section, Innovative Technology, merges technology demonstration and physical science findings that promise to return Earth benefits through continued research. Robotic refueling concepts for life extensions of costly satellites in geo-synchronous orbit have applications to robotics in industry on Earth. Flame behavior experiments reveal insight into how fuel burns in microgravity leading to the possibility of improving engine efficiency on Earth. Nanostructures and smart fluids are

  20. The 11S Proteasomal Activator REGγ Impacts Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Aggregation and Motor Neuron Viability through Distinct Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M. Yersak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA is caused by expression of a polyglutamine (polyQ-expanded androgen receptor (AR. The inefficient nuclear proteasomal degradation of the mutant AR results in the formation of nuclear inclusions containing amino-terminal fragments of the mutant AR. PA28γ (also referred to as REGγ is a nuclear 11S-proteasomal activator with limited proteasome activation capabilities compared to its cytoplasmic 11S (PA28α, PA28β counterparts. To clarify the role of REGγ in polyQ-expanded AR metabolism, we carried out genetic and biochemical studies in cell models of SBMA. Overexpression of REGγ in a PC12 cell model of SBMA increased polyQ-expanded AR aggregation and contributed to polyQ-expanded AR toxicity in the presence of dihydrotestosterone (DHT. These effects of REGγ were independent of its association with the proteasome and may be due, in part, to the decreased binding of polyQ-expanded AR by the E3 ubiquitin-ligase MDM2. Unlike its effects in PC12 cells, REGγ overexpression rescued transgenic SBMA motor neurons from DHT-induced toxicity in a proteasome binding-dependent manner, suggesting that the degradation of a specific 11S proteasome substrate or substrates promotes motor neuron viability. One potential substrate that we found to play a role in mutant AR toxicity is the splicing factor SC35. These studies reveal that, depending on the cellular context, two biological roles for REGγ impact cell viability in the face of polyQ-expanded AR; a proteasome binding-independent mechanism directly promotes mutant AR aggregation while a proteasome binding-dependent mechanism promotes cell viability. The balance between these functions likely determines REGγ effects on polyQ-expanded AR-expressing cells.

  1. Strength analysis of expandable tubulars for well applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, A.C.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Fonseca, C.E. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Netto, T.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Solid expandable tube technology has many advantages when compared to conventional wells. The expansion of tubes in situ allows developing reserves in many of the challenging scenarios found in oil industry, as pre-salt layer, HPHT wells, deep reservoirs, or ultra-deep water. Besides, this procedure has good compatibility with directional and horizontal wells and facilitates side-tracks operations. Although the expansion of tubes is very attractive, a better understanding of its influence on the tube mechanical strength is necessary. In this work, experimental tests and numerical analyses were performed in order to determine the effect of parameters such as diameter-to-thickness ratio and expansion rate on the collapse resistance of expandable tubes. An experimental apparatus was designed and built to reproduce full-scale tube expansion. Three 2 meter long specimens were expanded 10% their original diameters and subjected to hydrostatic pressure inside a vessel until collapse. Three non-expanded tubes were also tested for comparison. At the same time, non-linear numerical models were developed using the finite element method. After calibration, they were used to further analyze the mechanical behavior of solid expandable tubes and the influence of expansion on its resistance against collapse. (author)

  2. Numerical simulation of a twin screw expander for performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papes, Iva; Degroote, Joris; Vierendeels, Jan

    2015-08-01

    With the increasing use of twin screw expanders in waste heat recovery applications, the performance prediction of these machines plays an important role. This paper presents a mathematical model for calculating the performance of a twin screw expander. From the mass and energy conservation laws, differential equations are derived which are then solved together with the appropriate Equation of State in the instantaneous control volumes. Different flow processes that occur inside the screw expander such as filling (accompanied by a substantial pressure loss) and leakage flows through the clearances are accounted for in the model. The mathematical model employs all geometrical parameters such as chamber volume, suction and leakage areas. With R245fa as working fluid, the Aungier Redlich-Kwong Equation of State has been used in order to include real gas effects. To calculate the mass flow rates through the leakage paths formed inside the screw expander, flow coefficients are considered as constant and they are derived from 3D Computational Fluid Dynamic calculations at given working conditions and applied to all other working conditions. The outcome of the mathematical model is the P-V indicator diagram which is compared to CFD results of the same twin screw expander. Since CFD calculations require significant computational time, developed mathematical model can be used for the faster performance prediction.

  3. Expanded tenses in the old English orosius a syntactic strengthening*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frančiška Trobevšek Drobnak

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The present chapter reports the investigation into certain aspects of the periphrastic construction to be +present participle (e.g. NE: "he is teaching"; OE. "he is laerende" viewed as an example of a syntactic strengthening. The construc­ tion is usually referred to as "continuous tenses/form" or "progressive tenses/form", whereas Nickel (1966 uses "expanded form". Coming closest to this latter term, the "expanded tenses" employed here seems a convenient label for two reasons: a  the use of expanded tenses is not restricted to the expression of verbal aspect (Aspekt or mode of verbal action (Aktionsart, which is implied by the use of either the term "continuous  tenses/form" or the term "progressive tenses/form"; b  the expanded tenses are integrated into the English tense system, in the sense that they can be substituted  with the respective non-expanded tenses without any change in the syntax of the clause, e.g.

  4. Theoretical investigation of flash vaporisation in a screw expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuthevan, Hanushan; Brümmer, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In the present study flash vaporisation of liquid injection in a twin screw expander for a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC) is examined theoretically. The TFC process comprises a pressure increase in the working fluid, followed by heating the liquid close to boiling point. The hot liquid is injected into the working chamber of a screw expander. During this process the pressure of the liquid drops below the saturation pressure, while the temperature of the liquid remains virtually constant. Hence the liquid is superheated and in a metastable state. The liquid jet seeks to achieve a stable state in thermodynamic equilibrium and is therefore partially vaporised. This effect is referred to as flash vaporisation. Accordingly, a two-phase mixture, consisting of vapour and liquid, exists in the working chamber. Thermodynamic simulations were carried out using water as the working fluid for representative screw expander geometry. The simulations presented are performed from two different aspects during the filling process of a screw expander. The first case is the vaporisation of the injected liquid in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium, whereby the two-phase mixture is treated entirely as a compressible and homogeneous gas. The second case considers flashing efficiency. It describes the quantity of flashed vapour and consists of a liquid and vapour domain. Both models are compared and analysed with respect to the operational behaviour of a screw expander.

  5. A Prospective Analysis of Dynamic Loss of Breast Projection in Tissue Expander-Implant Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren M Mioton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBreast projection is a critical element of breast reconstruction aesthetics, but little has been published regarding breast projection as the firm expander is changed to a softer implant. Quantitative data representing this loss in projection may enhance patient education and improve our management of patient expectations.MethodsFemale patients who were undergoing immediate tissue-expander breast reconstruction with the senior author were enrolled in this prospective study. Three-dimensional camera software was used for all patient photographs and data analysis. Projection was calculated as the distance between the chest wall and the point of maximal projection of the breast form. Values were calculated for final tissue expander expansion and at varying intervals 3, 6, and 12 months after implant placement.ResultsFourteen breasts from 12 patients were included in the final analysis. Twelve of the 14 breasts had a loss of projection at three months following the implant placement or beyond. The percentage of projection lost in these 12 breasts ranged from 6.30% to 43.4%, with an average loss of projection of 21.05%.ConclusionsThis study is the first prospective quantitative analysis of temporal changes in breast projection after expander-implant reconstruction. By prospectively capturing projection data with three-dimensional photographic software, we reveal a loss of projection in this population by three months post-implant exchange. These findings will not only aid in managing patient expectations, but our methodology provides a foundation for future objective studies of the breast form.

  6. The interaction properties of the human Rab GTPase family--comparative analysis reveals determinants of molecular binding selectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Stein

    Full Text Available Rab GTPases constitute the largest subfamily of the Ras protein superfamily. Rab proteins regulate organelle biogenesis and transport, and display distinct binding preferences for effector and activator proteins, many of which have not been elucidated yet. The underlying molecular recognition motifs, binding partner preferences and selectivities are not well understood.Comparative analysis of the amino acid sequences and the three-dimensional electrostatic and hydrophobic molecular interaction fields of 62 human Rab proteins revealed a wide range of binding properties with large differences between some Rab proteins. This analysis assists the functional annotation of Rab proteins 12, 14, 26, 37 and 41 and provided an explanation for the shared function of Rab3 and 27. Rab7a and 7b have very different electrostatic potentials, indicating that they may bind to different effector proteins and thus, exert different functions. The subfamily V Rab GTPases which are associated with endosome differ subtly in the interaction properties of their switch regions, and this may explain exchange factor specificity and exchange kinetics.We have analysed conservation of sequence and of molecular interaction fields to cluster and annotate the human Rab proteins. The analysis of three dimensional molecular interaction fields provides detailed insight that is not available from a sequence-based approach alone. Based on our results, we predict novel functions for some Rab proteins and provide insights into their divergent functions and the determinants of their binding partner selectivity.

  7. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  8. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  9. Key to the subfamilies, tribes and genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga Clave para los adultos de las subfamilias, tribus y géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Libonatti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dytiscids constitute the world's most speciose family of water beetles, whose identifi cation in Argentina is problematic with current keys. In this work, a key (both in English and Spanish to the eight subfamilies, 16 tribes and 31 genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina is presented. The key was constructed using stable qualitative characters of the external morphology and chaetotaxy, easily visualizable and interpretable. Characters such as size and shape of the body, color pattern and geographic distribution were also used. Illustrations of a great number of morphological structures as well as SEM micrographs were included to aid in the interpretation of the text. One subfamily (Hydrodytinae and fi ve genera (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp and an unpublished genus of the subfamily Laccophilinae are cited for the fi rst time for Argentina.Los ditíscidos constituyen la familia más numerosa de escarabajos acuáticos a nivel mundial, cuya identifi cación en la Argentina resulta problemática con las claves actuales. En este trabajo, se presenta una clave (en inglés y español para los adultos de las ocho subfamilias, 16 tribus y 31 géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina. La clave fue construida priorizando la inclusión de caracteres cualitativos estables de la morfología externa y quetotaxia, fácilmente visibles e interpretables. También, se utilizaron caracteres como el tamaño y la forma del cuerpo, el patrón de coloración y la distribución geográfi ca. Se incluyeron ilustraciones de un gran número de estructuras morfológicas y fotografías tomadas con el microscopio electrónico, para ayudar a la interpretación del texto. Se citan, por primera vez para la Argentina, una subfamilia (Hydrodytinae y cinco géneros (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp y un género inédito de la subfamilia Laccophilinae.

  10. Expandable Total Humeral Replacement in a Child with Osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Henderson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A right-handed 8-year-old female patient presented with a conventional, high-grade osteosarcoma involving her right humerus; through-shoulder amputation was recommended. After consultation, total humerus resection with expandable, total humeral endoprosthesis reconstruction was performed with a sleeve to encourage soft-tissue ingrowth. At three-year follow-up she has received one lengthening procedure and her functional scores are excellent. Conclusion. Total humeral resection and replacement in the pediatric population are rare and although early reports of expandable total humeral endoprosthesis outcomes demonstrate high failure rates, this patient’s success indicates that expandable total humeral replacement is a viable option.

  11. Esophagorespiratory fistula: treatment with self-expanding covered stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang Jian; Dou Yongchong; Wang Zheng; Kong Jian

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate self-expanding covered stent in the management of esophagorespiratory fistula. Methods: A self-expanding esophageal covered stent was implanted under fluoroscopic guidance in 13 patients with esophagorespiratory fistula. In this series patients aged 31-73 years (60.2 years in average). All patients had a pre-procedure fast of 6-41 days (17.3 days in average), in which 12 patients had pulmonary infection. Results: All fistulas were excluded and swallowing function was restored. No stend-related complication was observed. Pulmonary infection was managed in 10 patients out of 13. The mean survived time was 33.3 wks (1-178 wks) in follow-up. Conclusion: Covered self-expanding stent implantation is a safe and effective treatment of ERF

  12. Can microcarrier-expanded chondrocytes synthesize cartilaginous tissue in vitro?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surrao, Denver C; Khan, Aasma A; McGregor, Aaron J; Amsden, Brian G; Waldman, Stephen D

    2011-08-01

    Tissue engineering is a promising approach for articular cartilage repair; however, it is challenging to produce adequate amounts of tissue in vitro from the limited number of cells that can be extracted from an individual. Relatively few cell expansion methods exist without the problems of de-differentiation and/or loss of potency. Recently, however, several studies have noted the benefits of three-dimensional (3D) over monolayer expansion, but the ability of 3D expanded chondrocytes to synthesize cartilaginous tissue constructs has not been demonstrated. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the properties of engineered cartilage constructs from expanded cells (monolayer and 3D microcarriers) to those developed from primary chondrocytes. Isolated bovine chondrocytes were grown for 3 weeks in either monolayer (T-Flasks) or 3D microcarrier (Cytodex 3) expansion culture. Expanded and isolated primary cells were then seeded in high density culture on Millicell™ filters for 4 weeks to evaluate the ability to synthesize cartilaginous tissue. While microcarrier expansion was twice as effective as monolayer expansion (microcarrier: 110-fold increase, monolayer: 52-fold increase), the expanded cells (monolayer and 3D microcarrier) were not effectively able to synthesize cartilaginous tissue in vitro. Tissues developed from primary cells were substantially thicker and accumulated significantly more extracellular matrix (proteoglycan content: 156%-292% increase; collagen content: 70%-191% increase). These results were attributed to phenotypic changes experienced during the expansion phase. Monolayer expanded chondrocytes lost their native morphology within 1 week, whereas microcarrier-expanded cells were spreading by 3 weeks of expansion. While the use of 3D microcarriers can lead to large cellular yields, preservation of chondrogenic phenotype during expansion is required in order to synthesize cartilaginous tissue.

  13. Esophagojejunal anastomotic leak managed with self expandable metallic stent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Madurandagam Annapillai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophagealjejunal anastomotic leak after gastrectomy is a serious surgical emergency with high mortality. This report describes a 57-year-old male with esophagojejunal anastomotic leak following total gastrectomy for gastric cancer and was managed successfully with self-expandable metallic stent. To our knowledge this is the first such report from India. This case report highlights the need of interdisciplinary coordination in managing this difficult clinical situation. Endotherapy with self-expandable metallic stent (SEM provided twin benefits of improving respiratory embarrassment and the joy of eating. Therapy of such difficult cases must be individualized; however, and SEM stent usage is a viable option

  14. Functional Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Biliary Obstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2013-01-01

    Biliary stents are widely used not only for palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction but also for benign biliary diseases. Each plastic stent or self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has its own advantages, and a proper stent should be selected carefully for individual condition. To compensate and overcome several drawbacks of SEMS, functional self-expandable metal stent (FSEMS) has been developed with much progress so far. This article looks into the outcomes and defects of each stent type for benign biliary stricture and describes newly introduced FSEMSs according to their functional categories. PMID:24143314

  15. Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Daria; Latosh, Boris

    2018-02-01

    In this review we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on a black hole, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the gaps that must be filled.

  16. Dissipation and fluctuation of quantum fields in expanding universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, M.

    1990-01-01

    A stochastic dynamics of a long-wavelength part of a scalar field in an expanding universe is derived by using the influence functional method. Dissipation as well as fluctuation are derived for general parameters: a mass, a coupling to the scalar curvature, and a cutoff scale parameter. A dissipation-fluctuation relation is found with a temperature which is proportional to the Hawking temperature, but system dependent. The method is further applied to an expanding universe with a power law and yields the dispersion which agrees with that obtained by the regularization method. The back reaction to the background de Sitter space itself is also obtained

  17. Scalar-Tensor Black Holes Embedded in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tretyakova

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we focus our attention on scalar-tensor gravity models and their empirical verification in terms of black hole and wormhole physics. We focus on black holes, embedded in an expanding universe, describing both cosmological and astrophysical scales. We show that in scalar-tensor gravity it is quite common that the local geometry is isolated from the cosmological expansion, so that it does not backreact on the black hole metric. We try to extract common features of scalar-tensor black holes in an expanding universe and point out the issues that are not fully investigated.

  18. On the Propagation of Light in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Heymann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The equation of the propagation of light in an expanding Universe is derived based on the definition of comoving distances. A numerical method is proposed to solve this equation jointly with the Friedmann equation. As the equation of the propagation of light in an expanding Universe defines a horizon of the visible Universe, this puts a constraint on cosmological models in order to be consistent with an upper limit for redshifts observed from galaxies. This puzzle is challenging current expansionist cosmological models.

  19. Click chemistry-based tracking reveals putative cell wall-located auxin binding sites in expanding cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mravec, J.; Kračun, S. K.; Zemlyanskaya, E.; Rydahl, M. G.; Guo, X.; Pičmanová, M.; Sørensen, K.; Růžička, Kamil; Willats, W.G.T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 22 (2017), č. článku 15988. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : MEMBRANE H+-ATPASE * BIOLOGICAL-ACTIVITY * AZIDO AUXINS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Cell biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  20. Excess of mutational jackpot events in expanding populations revealed by spatial Luria–Delbrück experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Diana; Gralka, Matti; Kayser, Jona; Anderson, Alex; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    The genetic diversity of growing cellular populations, such as biofilms, solid tumours or developing embryos, is thought to be dominated by rare, exceptionally large mutant clones. Yet, the emergence of these mutational jackpot events is only understood in well-mixed populations, where they stem from mutations that arise during the first few cell divisions. To study jackpot events in spatially structured populations, we track mutant clones in microbial populations using fluorescence microscopy and population sequencing. High-frequency mutations are found to be massively enriched in microbial colonies compared with well-shaken liquid cultures, as a result of late-occurring mutations surfing at the edge of range expansions. Thus, jackpot events can be generated not only when mutations arise early but also when they occur at favourable locations, which exacerbates their role in adaptation and disease. In particular, because spatial competition with the wild type keeps most mutant clones in a quiescent state, strong selection pressures that kill the wild type promote drug resistance. PMID:27694797

  1. Excess of mutational jackpot events in expanding populations revealed by spatial Luria-Delbrück experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Diana; Gralka, Matti; Kayser, Jona; Anderson, Alex; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2016-10-03

    The genetic diversity of growing cellular populations, such as biofilms, solid tumours or developing embryos, is thought to be dominated by rare, exceptionally large mutant clones. Yet, the emergence of these mutational jackpot events is only understood in well-mixed populations, where they stem from mutations that arise during the first few cell divisions. To study jackpot events in spatially structured populations, we track mutant clones in microbial populations using fluorescence microscopy and population sequencing. High-frequency mutations are found to be massively enriched in microbial colonies compared with well-shaken liquid cultures, as a result of late-occurring mutations surfing at the edge of range expansions. Thus, jackpot events can be generated not only when mutations arise early but also when they occur at favourable locations, which exacerbates their role in adaptation and disease. In particular, because spatial competition with the wild type keeps most mutant clones in a quiescent state, strong selection pressures that kill the wild type promote drug resistance.

  2. Roberto Mantovani (1854-1933 and his ideas on the expanding Earth, as revealed by his correspondence and manuscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Scalera

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Roberto Mantovani (Parma, 25 March 1854-Paris, 10 January 1933 – a musician and geologist trained in the Duchy of Parma – was a Consul in the French island of La Réunion at the end of the nineteenth century. In 1878 drawing general conclusions from the similarity in shape between the facing banks of a river that flowed in a volcanic fracture, and the way in which the layers corresponded, Mantovani formulated a mobilistic theory, attributing the moving apart of the continents to the expansion of the entire planet. This theory is more general than that of Wegener from the first decades of the following century. Mantovani’s hypothesis was officially recognised by the French Geological Society in 1924, which incorporated it in its body of legitimate ideas. Encouraged by Bourcart in 1924, Wegener quoted the Italian in his famous book as one who offered ideas extraordinarily close to his own. A letter of Mantovani to Wegener, and the sceptical answer of the German scientist, have been recently found. In his letter Mantovani shows a greater awareness of the predecessors of the continental drift than Wegener

    himself. Mantovani continued to disseminate his idea up to the last years of his life. A final pamphlet, of 1930, was printed with this dedication: «to the mathematicians, physicists, astronomers, geologists, and anyone interested in the great enigmas of the Universe». is biography has been reconstructed thanks to the correspondences carefully conserved in the archives of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ethnographic Museum Luigi Pigorini, the Società Geografica Italiana, and in the private files of his direct descendants.


  3. Mass spectrometry analyses of normal and polyglutamine expanded ataxin-3 reveal novel interaction partners involved in mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line V.; Oppermann, Felix S.; Rauen, Matthias J.

    2018-01-01

    Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) play important roles in a variety of cellular processes, including regulation of protein homeostasis. The DUB ataxin-3 is an enzyme implicated in protein quality control mechanisms. In the neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), ataxin-3...

  4. Bronchobiliary Fistula Treated by Self-expanding ePTFE-Covered Nitinol Stent-Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, Roberto; Konda, Daniel; Tisone, Giuseppe; Pipitone, Vincenzo; Anselmo, Alessandro; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    A 71-year-old man, who had undergone right hepatectomy extended to the caudate lobe with terminolateral Roux-en-Y left hepatojejunostomy for a Klatskin tumor, developed bilioptysis 3 weeks postoperatively due to bronchobiliary fistula. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography revealed a non-dilated biliary system with contrast medium extravasation to the right subphrenic space through a resected anomalous right posterior segmental duct. After initial unsuccessful internal-external biliary drainage, the fistula was sealed with a VIATORR covered self-expanding nitinol stent-graft placed with its distal uncovered region in the hepatojejunal anastomosis and the proximal ePTFE-lined region in the left hepatic duct. A 10-month follow-up revealed no recurrence of bilioptysis and confirmed the complete exclusion of the bronchobiliary fistula

  5. Revealing effective classifiers through network comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to compare complex systems can provide new insight into the fundamental nature of the processes captured, in ways that are otherwise inaccessible to observation. Here, we introduce the n-tangle method to directly compare two networks for structural similarity, based on the distribution of edge density in network subgraphs. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently introduce comparative analysis into network science and opens the road for many new applications. For example, we show how the construction of a “phylogenetic tree” across animal taxa according to their social structure can reveal commonalities in the behavioral ecology of the populations, or how students create similar networks according to the University size. Our method can be expanded to study many additional properties, such as network classification, changes during time evolution, convergence of growth models, and detection of structural changes during damage.

  6. Species of the subfamily Triatominae Jeannel, 1919 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae present in the Collection of Chagas Disease Vectors (FIOCRUZ-COLVEC, State of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Moreira de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biological collections are depositories of information on different species and contribute to the knowledge, protection, conservation and maintenance of biodiversity. Methods A list of triatomine species currently included in the Collection of Chagas Disease Vectors (FIOCRUZ-COLVEC was prepared from the database made available by the Reference Center on Environmental Information. Results COLVEC curatorship houses 4,778 specimens of triatomines, of which 811 come from other American countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Costa Rica, the United States of America, Guatemala, Mexico, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela and 3,967 are autochthonous from Brazil. Altogether, 56 species of Chagas disease vectors are represented in the COLVEC: two species of the Tribe Cavernicolini Usinger, 1944; fifteen species of the tribe Rhodniini Pinto, 1926, of which 12 are of the genus Rhodnius and 3 are of the genus Psamolestes; and 39 species of the tribe Triatomini Jeannel, 1919, represented by the genus Dipetalogaster, two species of the genus Eratyrus, two of the genus Meccus, seven of the genus Panstrongylus and 27 of the genus Triatoma. Conclusions This list provides important data on the diversity of triatomines currently included in COLVEC, including the expanded area of Panstrongylus lutzi occurrence in the municipalities Pirapora and Januária, State of Minas Gerais. The maintenance and expansion of the collection ensures the preservation of biodiversity and further studies.

  7. A new genus and species of entocytherid ostracod (Ostracoda: Entocytheridae) from the John Day River Basin of Oregon, U.S.A., with a key to genera of the subfamily Entocytherinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Patricia G; Williams, Bronwyn W

    2017-06-07

    Targeted sampling efforts by the authors for the signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, from its native range in the John Day River Basin, Oregon, U.S.A. yielded entocytherid ostracods with a male copulatory complex so clearly different from other entocytherines that a new genus, Aurumcythere gen. nov. is proposed to receive them. This newly proposed, apparently nonsclerotized, genus with hook and spur-like prominences of the posteroventral end of the peniferum is the first new genus of the subfamily Entocytherinae named since Hobbs & Peters described Aphelocythere (= Waltoncythere) in 1977. Aurumcythere gen. nov. represents only the second genus of entocytherid known from the Pacific Northwest. Lack of sclerotization in Aurumcythere gen. nov. provides new insight into poorly understood mating behaviors of entocytherid ostracods.

  8. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  9. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  10. Aortic annulus eccentricity before and after transcatheter aortic valve implantation: Comparison of balloon-expandable and self-expanding prostheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuhbaeck, Annika; Weingartner, Christina; Arnold, Martin; Schmid, Jasmin; Pflederer, Tobias; Marwan, Mohamed; Rixe, Johannes; Nef, Holger; Schneider, Christian; Lell, Michael; Uder, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan; Feyrer, Richard; Weyand, Michael; Achenbach, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses is influenced by aortic valve calcification. • Balloon-expandable prostheses are more circular as compared to self-expanding prostheses. • The impact of post-implant geometry on valve function needs to be investigated. - Abstract: Introduction: The geometry of the aortic annulus and implanted transcatheter aortic valve prosthesis might influence valve function. We investigated the influence of valve type and aortic valve calcification on post-implant geometry of catheter-based aortic valve prostheses. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients with severe aortic valve stenosis (mean age 82 ± 6 years) underwent computed tomography before and after TAVI. Aortic annulus diameters were determined. Influence of prosthesis type and degree of aortic valve calcification on post-implant eccentricity were analysed. Results: Aortic annulus eccentricity was reduced in patients after TAVI (0.21 ± 0.06 vs. 0.08 ± 0.06, p < 0.0001). Post-TAVI eccentricity was significantly lower in 65 patients following implantation of a balloon-expandable prosthesis as compared to 15 patients who received a self-expanding prosthesis (0.06 ± 0.05 vs. 0.15 ± 0.07, p < 0.0001), even though the extent of aortic valve calcification was not different. After TAVI, patients with a higher calcium amount retained a significantly higher eccentricity compared to patients with lower amounts of calcium. Conclusions: Patients undergoing TAVI with a balloon-expandable prosthesis show a more circular shape of the implanted prosthesis as compared to patients with a self-expanding prosthesis. Eccentricity of the deployed prosthesis is affected by the extent of aortic valve calcification

  11. Observable phenomena that reveal medical students' clinical reasoning ability during expert assessment of their history taking: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haring, C.M.; Cools, B.M.; Gurp, P.J.M. van; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Postma, C.T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During their clerkships, medical students are meant to expand their clinical reasoning skills during their patient encounters. Observation of these encounters could reveal important information on the students' clinical reasoning abilities, especially during history taking. METHODS: A

  12. Hubble Diagram Test of Expanding and Static Cosmological Models: The Case for a Slowly Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo A. Marosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new redshift (RS versus photon travel time ( test including 171 supernovae RS data points. We extended the Hubble diagram to a range of z = 0,0141–8.1 in the hope that at high RSs, the fitting of the calculated RS/ diagrams to the observed RS data would, as predicted by different cosmological models, set constraints on alternative cosmological models. The Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM, the static universe model, and the case for a slowly expanding flat universe (SEU are considered. We show that on the basis of the Hubble diagram test, the static and the slowly expanding models are favored.

  13. Expanded-bed chromatography in primary protein purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspach, F B; Curbelo, D; Hartmann, R; Garke, G; Deckwer, W D

    1999-12-31

    Chromatography in stable expanded beds enables proteins to be recovered directly from cultivations of microorganisms or cells and preparations of disrupted cells, without the need for prior removal of suspended solids. The general performance of an expanded bed is comparable to a packed bed owing to reduced mixing of the adsorbent particles in the column. However, optimal operating conditions are more restricted than in a packed bed due to the dependence of bed expansion on the size and density of the adsorbent particles as well as the viscosity and density of the feedstock. The feedstock composition may become the most limiting restriction owing to interactions of adsorbent particles with cell surfaces, DNA and other substances, leading to their aggregation and consequently to bed instabilities and channeling. Despite these difficulties, expanded-bed chromatography has found widespread applications in the large scale purification of proteins from mammalian cell and microbial feedstocks in industrial bioprocessing. The basics and implementation of expanded-bed chromatography, its advantages as well as problems encountered in the use of this technique for the direct extraction of proteins from unclarified feedstocks are addressed.

  14. Interpreting and Expanding Confucius' Golden Mean through Neutrosophic Tetrad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yuhua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. There are many similarities between The Golden Mean and Neutrosophy. Chinese and international scholars need to toil towards expanding and developing The Golden Mean, towards its "modernization" and "globalization".

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF PACKAGING MATERIALS ALTERNATIVES TO EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report represents the second demonstration of cleaner technologies to support the goals of the 33/50 Program under the EPA Cooperative Agreement No. CR-821848. The report presents assessment results of alternative packaging materials which could potentially replace expanded...

  16. Expanded porphyrins as third order non-linear optical materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    function correlations ... An understanding of the structure–function corre- lations of these expanded porphyrins is an important first step for ... where χ (2) and χ (3) are the quadratic χ (2) (first- order) and χ (3) cubic (second-order) susceptibilities.

  17. Expanding horizons. Integrating environmental health in occupational health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B; Cox, A R

    1998-01-01

    1. Environmental hazards are ubiquitous. Many exist in the workplace or occur as a result of work process exposures. 2. Environmental health is a natural component of the expanding practice of occupational health nursing. 3. AAOHN's vision for occupational and environmental health will continue to set the standard and provide leadership in the specialty.

  18. Expanding Possibilities through Metaphor: Breaking Biases to Improve Crisis Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirka, Carol C.; Corrigall, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate that an exercise using metaphors to overcome cognitive biases helped students to proactively imagine and prepare for an expanded set of potential crises. The exercise complements traditional textbook approaches to crisis management and incorporates creativity skill building in a realistic context. Learning outcomes…

  19. Absorption of continuum radiation in a resonant expanding gaseous sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaparev, N Y

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with absorption of external continuum radiation in a self-similarly expanding gaseous sphere. Frequency probability and integral probability of radiation absorption in the resonance frequency range are determined depending on the expansion velocity gradient and thickness of the optical medium. It is shown that expansion results in a reduced optical thickness of the medium and enhanced integral absorption. (paper)

  20. Expanding the Oral Hygiene Curriculum in a Nursing Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Susan; Griego, Elizabeth

    A program was implemented to expand the curriculum materials within the Licensed Practical Nursing (LPN) Program at Clark County Community College (CCCC) which relate to oral hygiene care for the hospital patient. The instructional materials included a video tape and a written instructional packet which were researched, prepared, and presented by…

  1. Expanding Gerontology Enrollments: Successful Results of an Innovative Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Haley, William E.; Hyer, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    As state budget allocations for higher education decrease, "specialty" programs such as gerontology must continually demonstrate their productivity. State and private universities increasingly rely on student credit hours (SCH) or tuition generated, which is making it difficult for many gerontology programs to expand. The School of Aging Studies…

  2. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, C.C.; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F.; Schiffman, E.L.; Alstergren, P.; Anderson, G.C.; De Leeuw, R.; Jensen, R.; Michelotti, A.; Ohrbach, R.; Petersson, A.; List, T.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for

  3. The effectiveness of the Expanded Public Works Programme on job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of the Expanded Public Works Programme on job creation: a look at a South African ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... This paper reports of a study that examined how the eThekwini Municipality's EPWP has been ...

  4. Expanding Library Support of Faculty Research: Exploring Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeanne M.; Tucker, Cory

    2013-01-01

    The changing research and information environment requires a reexamination of library support for research. This study considers research-related attitudes and practices to identify elements indicating readiness or resistance to expanding the library's role in research support. A survey of faculty conducted at the University of Nevada Las Vegas…

  5. Tear Gas, Expanding Bullets and Plain-Clothed Personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiesener, Cornelius Rust

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the interplay between human rights law and humanitarian law in relation to riot control agents (such as tear gas), expanding bullets and plain-clothed forces. While outlawed under humanitarian law, they are widely used by police in peace time and not subject to similar bans...

  6. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  7. On the elusive crystal structure of expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Bastian; Ståhl, Kenny; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2017-01-01

    No consistent structural description exists for expanded austenite that accurately accounts for the hkl-dependent peak shifts and broadening observed in diffraction experiments. The best available description for homogeneous samples is a face-centered cubic lattice with stacking faults. Here Deby...

  8. Lattice expansion of carbon-stabilized expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hummelshøj, Thomas Strabo; Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The lattice parameter of expanded austenite was determined as a function of the content of interstitially dissolved carbon in homogeneous, carburized thin stainless steel foils. For the first time this expansion of the face-centered cubic lattice is determined on unstrained austenite. It is found...

  9. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility f...

  10. Validation of the Chinese Expanded Euthanasia Attitude Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin; Fok, Shiu-Yeu

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the validation of the Chinese version of an expanded 31-item Euthanasia Attitude Scale. A 4-stage validation process included a pilot survey of 119 college students and a randomized household survey with 618 adults in Hong Kong. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed a 4-factor structure of the scale, which can therefore be…

  11. Enrichment in Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) Schools. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caven, Meghan; Checkoway, Amy; Gamse, Beth; Luck, Rachel; Wu, Sally

    2012-01-01

    This brief highlights key information about enrichment activities, which represent one of the main components of the Massachusetts Expanded Learning Time (ELT) initiative. Over time, the ELT initiative has supported over two dozen schools across the Commonwealth. A comprehensive evaluation of the ELT initiative found that implementation of the…

  12. Diaspora, Migration, and Globalization: Expanding the Discourse of Adult Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfred, Mary V.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how notions of diaspora, migration, and globalization intersect to inform identities and social realities of those who leave their homeland and resettle in other nations. It calls for expanding the discourse of adult education to incorporate critical studies of the diaspora to make visible the inequality and imbalance of…

  13. Stability of a Bubble Expanding and Translating Through an Inviscid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A bubble expands adiabatically and translates in an incompressible and inviscid liquid. We investigate the number of equilibrium points of the bubble and the nature of stability of the bubble at these points. We find that there is only one equilibrium point and the bubble is stable there.

  14. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Food and Agriculture, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Obesity, poor health, and limited physical activity are major health concerns. The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) improves the health and well-being of limited resource families and youth. Additionally, EFNEP leads to public savings. Research shows that better health is associated with reduced health care costs, less…

  15. A self-adjusting expandable GPS collar for male elk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian L. Dick; Scott L. Findholt; Bruce K. Johnson

    2013-01-01

    It is a challenge to use collars on male cervids because their neck size can increase substantially during the rut and also because of growth as the animal matures. We describe how to build a self-adjusting expandable collar for yearling or adult male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) to which very high frequency transmitters and global...

  16. Expanding Sex-Role Definitions by Self-Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Sharon E.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    1980-01-01

    Counselors who stimulate client self-discovery may help these clients experience undeveloped parts of themselves and expand their definitions of themselves and their sex-role possibilities. Stimulation methods actively involve clients in the exploration of sex-role concerns to change restrictive self-concepts. (Author)

  17. Expanded cardiac rehabilitation in socially vulnerable patients with myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kathrine; Nielsen, Kirsten Melgaard; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has been shown to reduce cardiovascular risk. A research project performed at a university hospital in Denmark offered an expanded CR intervention to socially vulnerable patients. One-year follow-up showed significant improvements concerning medicine...

  18. Assessing Community Needs for Expanding Environmental Education Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, Carly J.; Lackey, Brenda K.

    2017-01-01

    Based on increased demand for educational programming, leadership at Schmeeckle Reserve, a campus natural area in Stevens Point, WI explored the needs for expanded environmental education efforts. In 2014, a three-phased needs assessment framework was employed to explore educational programming offered in the community. Results from interviews and…

  19. Afterloading intracavitary irradiation and expanding stent for malignant biliary obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Tetsuya and others

    1989-02-01

    A double lumen catheter was developed as an apllicator for the remote afterloading (RALS) of /sup 60/Co source for the intracavitary irradiation of an obstructed common bile duct caused by carcinoma of the gallbladder. This was followed by the placement of nylon-covered expandable metallic stents to maintain patency. This combination effectively provided palliation. (author).

  20. New expanded bed adsorbents for the recovery of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theodossiou, Irini; Olander, M. A.; Sondergaard, M.

    2000-01-01

    A 20-40 mum pellicular high density (similar to3.7 g cm(-3)) expanded bed material has been designed for the capture of DNA and other large macromolecules. Anion exchangers fashioned out of these supports exhibited dramatically enhanced DNA binding capacities over commercial anion exchange...

  1. Malignant biliary obstruction: percutaneous use of self-expandable stents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laméris, J. S.; Stoker, J.; Nijs, H. G.; Zonderland, H. M.; Terpstra, O. T.; van Blankenstein, M.; Schütte, H. E.

    1991-01-01

    A total of 83 self-expandable metallic stents were placed percutaneously in 69 patients for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction. Stent diameter was 1 cm; length, 3.5-10.5 cm. Of the 41 patients with common bile duct obstruction, 27 died 0.2-12 months (median, 3.2 months) after stent

  2. Fire Resistance of Concrete Constructions with Expanded Clay Aggregate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes briefly a series of full-scale tests made as documentation for extending the field of application of the reduced cross section method from the structural codes to constructions based on expanded clay aggregate. As a special result the tests verify that slabs with a short ancho...

  3. Browsing Your Virtual Library: The Case of Expanding Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Wayne; Enright, Jeanne; Mackenzie, Scott

    1997-01-01

    Describes "Expanding Universe: a classified search tool for amateur astronomy," a Web site maintained by the Metropolitan Toronto Reference Library which uses a modified form of the Dewey Decimal Classification to organize a large file of astronomy hotlinks. Highlights include structure, HTML coding, design requirements, and future…

  4. Gravitational instantons and separation of an expanding Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Instanton, describing the separation of closed small-size classically inflating Universe from the plane Universe, was found in the model of gravitational field, interacting with matter fields. Existence of such instantons provides the possibility of expanding Universe self-birth

  5. Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Expanding Access to Insurance by the Poor : Policy, Regulation and Supervision of Micro Insurance. This project aims to facilitate poor people's access to insurance products and services as a means of addressing their vulnerability to risk. It will do so by carrying out case studies in five countries. Potential candidates ...

  6. Dynamical 3-Space: Black Holes in an Expanding Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rothall D. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Black holes are usually studied without including effects of the expanding universe. However in some recent studies black holes have been embedded in an expanding universe, in order to determine the interplay, if any, of these two dynamical processes. Dynamical 3-space theory contains time independent solutions for black holes, which are spatial in-flows, and separately the time dependent Hubble expansion. This theory has explained numerous puzzles in observational astrophysics and contains 3 constants; G, - which from experimental data turns out to be the fine structure constant, and - which is a small but nonzero distance, possibly a Planck-type length. The Hubble expansion in the dynamical 3-space theory cannot be “switched o”, forcing the study, first, of isolated black holes coexisting with the expanding universe. It is shown that a time dependent black hole and expanding universe solution exists. The nature and implications of these solutions are discussed as they evolve over time. A dynamical network of black holes and induced linking cosmic filaments forming bubble structures is discussed, as a consequence of dynamical 3-space undergoing a dynamical breakdown of homogeneity and isotropy, even in the absence of baryonic matter.

  7. Expanded clinical spectrum of enhanced S-cone syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yzer, Suzanne; Barbazetto, Irene; Allikmets, Rando; van Schooneveld, Mary J.; Bergen, Arthur; Tsang, Stephen H.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    New funduscopic findings in patients with enhanced S-cone syndrome (ESCS) may help clinicians in diagnosing this rare autosomal recessive retinal dystrophy. To expand the clinical spectrum of ESCS due to mutations in the NR2E3 gene. Retrospective, noncomparative case series of 31 patients examined

  8. Gravitational Clustering of Galaxies in an Expanding Universe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-12-08

    Dec 8, 2006 ... Abstract. We inquire the phenomena of clustering of galaxies in an expanding universe from a theoretical point of view on the basis of ther- modynamics and correlation functions. The partial differential equation is developed both for the point mass and extended mass structures of a two-point correlation ...

  9. Expanding Doctoral Education in South Africa: Pipeline or Pipedream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Chaya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss both the status of the PhD in South Africa and the feasibility of the country's aspiration to increase by fivefold the production of PhDs by 2025. Based on the first empirical studies on doctoral education in South Africa, it argues that in order to move towards this target, an expanded and coordinated…

  10. The tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) subfamily of Eucalyptus grandis: Characterization of EgTIP2, a root-specific and osmotic stress-responsive gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcela I; Bravo, Juliana P; Sassaki, Flávio T; Severino, Fábio E; Maia, Ivan G

    2013-12-01

    Aquaporins have important roles in various physiological processes in plants, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, a gene encoding a root-specific tonoplast intrinsic aquaporin (TIP) from Eucalyptus grandis (named EgTIP2) was investigated. The root-specific expression of EgTIP2 was validated over a panel of five eucalyptus organ/tissues. In eucalyptus roots, EgTIP2 expression was significantly induced by osmotic stress imposed by PEG treatment. Histochemical analysis of transgenic tobacco lines (Nicotiana tabacum SR1) harboring an EgTIP2 promoter:GUS reporter cassette revealed major GUS staining in the vasculature and in root tips. Consistent with its osmotic-stress inducible expression in eucalyptus, EgTIP2 promoter activity was up-regulated by mannitol treatment, but was down-regulated by abscisic acid. Taken together, these results suggest that EgTIP2 might be involved in eucalyptus response to drought. Additional searches in the eucalyptus genome revealed the presence of four additional putative TIP coding genes, which could be individually assigned to the classical TIP1-5 groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Operation of an organic Rankine cycle dependent on pumping flow rates and expander torques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xufei; Xu, Jinliang; Miao, Zheng; Zou, Jinghuang; Yu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    An ORC (organic Rankine cycle) was developed with R123 as the working fluid. The heat capacity is in ∼100 kW. The match between pump and expander is investigated. Lower pump frequencies (f 10 Hz) adapt low expander torques only, and cause unstable flow and pump cavitation for larger expander torques. Ultra-low expander torques generate sufficiently high vapor superheatings to decrease expander efficiencies. Ultra-high expander torques achieve saturation vapor at the expander inlet, causing liquid droplets induced shock wave to worsen expander performance. An optimal range of expander torques exists to have better expander performance. A liquid subcooling of 20 °C is necessary to avoid pump cavitation. Expander powers and efficiencies show parabola shapes versus expander torques, or vapor superheatings at the expander inlet. The optimal vapor superheating is 13 °C. The cavitation mechanisms and measures to avoid cavitation are analyzed. This paper notes the overestimation of ORC performance by equilibrium thermodynamic analysis. Assumptions should be dependent on experiments. Future studies are suggested on organic fluid flow, heat transfer and energy conversion in various components. - Highlights: • The match between pump and expander is investigated. • A liquid subcooling of 20 °C is needed at pump inlet. • A vapor superheating of 13 °C is necessary at expander inlet. • Cavitation in pumps and expanders are analyzed. • The equilibrium thermodynamics overestimate ORC performances.

  12. Expanded Endonasal Endoscopic Approach for Resection of an Infrasellar Craniopharyngioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Al-Shaar, Hussam; Blitz, Ari M; Rodriguez, Fausto J; Ishii, Masaru; Gallia, Gary L

    2016-11-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are uncommon benign locally aggressive epithelial tumors mostly located in the sellar and suprasellar regions. An infrasellar origin of these tumors is rare. The authors report a 22-year-old male patient with a purely infrasellar adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma centered in the nasopharynx with extension into the posterior nasal septum, sphenoid sinus, and clivus. Gross total resection was achieved using an expanded endonasal endoscopic transethmoidal, transsphenoidal, transpterygoid, and transclival approach. Follow-up at one year demonstrated no evidence of disease recurrence. Infrasellar craniopharyngioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of sinonasal masses even in the absence of sellar extension. Expanded endonasal endoscopic approaches provide excellent access to and visualization of such lesions and may obviate the need for postoperative radiotherapy when gross total resection is achieved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Einstein's conversion from his static to an expanding universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaumer, Harry

    2014-02-01

    In 1917 Einstein initiated modern cosmology by postulating, based on general relativity, a homogenous, static, spatially curved universe. To counteract gravitational contraction he introduced the cosmological constant. In 1922 Alexander Friedman showed that Albert Einstein's fundamental equations also allow dynamical worlds, and in 1927 Georges Lemaître, backed by observational evidence, concluded that our universe was expanding. Einstein impetuously rejected Friedman's as well as Lemaître's findings. However, in 1931 he retracted his former static model in favour of a dynamic solution. This investigation follows Einstein on his hesitating path from a static to the expanding universe. Contrary to an often advocated belief the primary motive for his switch was not observational evidence, but the realisation that his static model was unstable.

  14. Caudal Regression and Encephalocele: Rare Manifestations of Expanded Goldenhar Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella D’Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum, or Goldenhar Syndrome, is a condition characterized by variable degrees of uni- or bilateral involvement of craniofacial structures, ocular anomalies, and vertebral defects. Its expressivity is variable; therefore, the term “expanded Goldenhar complex” has been coined. The Goldenhar Syndrome usually involves anomalies in craniofacial structures, but it is known that nervous system anomalies, including encephalocele or caudal regression, may, rarely, occur in this condition. We report two rare cases of infants affected by Goldenhar Syndrome, associated with neural tube defects, specifically caudal regression syndrome and nasal encephaloceles, to underline the extremely complex and heterogeneous clinical features of this oculoauriculovertebral spectrum. These additional particular cases could increase the number of new variable spectrums to be included in the “expanded Goldenhar complex.”

  15. Expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements by GM counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankovic, K.; Arandjic, D.; Lazarevic, Dj.; Osmokrovic, P.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with possible ways of obtaining expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements for four types of GM counters with a same counter's tube, in cases when the contributors of these uncertainties are cosmic background radiation and induced overvoltage phenomena. Nowadays, as a consequence of electromagnetic radiation, the latter phenomenon is especially marked in urban environments. Based on experimental results obtained, it has been established that the uncertainties of an influenced random variable 'number of pulses from background radiation' and 'number of pulses induced by overvoltage' depend on the technological solution of the counter's reading system and contribute in different ways to the expanded and combined uncertainty in measurements of the applied types of GM counters. (author)

  16. Basic Study on Engine with Scroll Compressor and Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Etsuo; Kitora, Yoshihisa; Nishida, Mitsuhiro

    Scroll compressors are becoming popular in air conditioning and refrigeration. This is primarily due to their higher efficiency and low noise/vibration characteristics. The scroll principle can be applied also to the steam expander and the Brayton cycle engine,as shown in the past literature. The Otto cycle spark-ignition engine with a scroll compressor and expander is studied in this report. The principle and basic structure of the scroll engine are explained,and the engine characteristic are calculated based on the idealized cycles and processes. A prototype model has been proposed and constructed. The rotary type engine has always had a problem with sealing. The scroll engine might overcome this shortcoming with its much lower rubbing speed compared to its previous counterparts,and is therefore worth investigating.

  17. Tunneling in expanding Universe: Euclidean and Hamiltonian approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.S.; Linde, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The theory of the false vacuum decay in de Sitter space and in the inflationary Universe, and also the theory of the Universe creation ''from nothing'' are discussed. This explained why tunneling in the inflationary Universe differs from that in de Sitter space and cannot be exactly homogeneous. It is shown that in several important cases the Euclidean approach should be considerably modified or is absolutely inapplicable for the description of tunneling in the expanding Universe and of the process of the quantum creation of the Universe. The Hamiltonian approach to the theory of tunneling in expanding Universe is developed. The results obtained by this method are compared with the results obtained by the Euclidean approach

  18. The expanded "BAT" flap for treatment of male pattern baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R D

    1993-11-01

    A new combination of expanded simultaneous transposition and advancement flaps is reported for the treatment of extensive male pattern baldness. Although vertical transposition and parieto-occipital advancement flaps in themselves are not new, their combination and simultaneous bilateral use combined with the use of expansion is new. The advantages of the expanded bilateral advancement transposition flap procedure are presented, along with the technique and results. The results are predictable, providing a more pleasing result, with a natural immediate temporal recession, avoidance of temporal dog-ears, and desirable anterior-superior direction of hair growth. Although flaps do require surgical skill and training, and there are risks and possible complications involved, the results are achieved in a relatively short time compared with grafting techniques. Flaps also provide the advantages of a full and natural hairline contrasted with the sparse look afforded by multiple grafts. The described procedures are very effective and reliable when properly planned and properly executed.

  19. Adipose tissue expandability and the early origins of PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zegher, Francis; Lopez-Bermejo, Abel; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2009-11-01

    The most prevalent phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are characterized by insulin resistance and androgen excess. The adipose tissue (AT) expandability hypothesis explains the development of insulin resistance in obesity and in cases of AT deficit. In line with this hypothesis, we propose that hyperinsulinemic androgen excess in PCOS is often underpinned by exhaustion of the capacity to expand subcutaneous AT in a metabolically safe way. Such exhaustion might occur when a positive energy imbalance meets a normal fat-storage capacity and/or when a normal energy balance faces a low fat storage capacity. This concept thus explains how PCOS phenotypes might result from obesity, prenatal growth restraint or a genetic lipodystrophy, or, experimentally, from prenatal androgen excess.

  20. Interpreting and Expanding Confucius' Golden Mean through Neutrosophic Tetrad

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Yuhua

    2015-01-01

    Neutrosophy is a new branch of philosophy that studies the origin, nature, and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. There are many similarities between The Golden Mean and Neutrosophy. Chinese and international schol-ars need to toil towards expanding and developing The Golden Mean, towards its "modernization" and "globalization". Not only Chinese contemporary popular ideas and methods, but also international contemporary popular ideas and me...