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Sample records for subfamily nopinae araneae

  1. Phantoms of Gondwana?-phylogeny of the spider subfamily Mynogleninae (Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frick, Holger; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    and Micronetini), and Erigoninae, and a representative of the family Pimoidae, the sister-group to Linyphiidae. No fewer than 147 of the morphological characters used in this study are new and defined for this study, and come mainly from male and female genitalia. Parsimony analysis with equal weights resulted...... in three most parsimonious trees of length 871. The monophyly of the subfamily Mynogleninae and the genera Novafroneta, Parafroneta, Laminafroneta, Afroneta, Promynoglenes, Metamynoglenes, and Haplinis are supported, whereas Pseudafroneta is paraphyletic. The remaining seven mynoglenine genera are either...

  2. Taxonomia da subfamília Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae nas regiões neotropical e neártica Taxonomy of the subfamily Corinninae (Araneae, Corinnidae in neotropical and neartic regions

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    Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The subfamily Corinninae is characterized and diagnosed. Two synapomorphies are hypothesized for the subfamily, both regarding the male palpal reservoir, which is primarily coiled and presents a sclerotized distal sector. Seventeen genera are recognized, six of which are new: Abapeba (type species Corinna lacertosa Simon, Erendira (type species Corinna pallidoguttata Simon, Septentrinna (type species Corinna bicalcarata Simon, Simonestus (type species Diestus validus Simon, Tapixaua (type species T. callida sp. nov. and Tupirinna (type species T. rosae sp. nov.. The genera Creugas Thorell, Falconina Brignoli and Paradiestus Mello-Leitão are revalidated. Diestus Simon and Lausus Simon are newly synonymized with Corinna C. L. Koch. Chemmis Simon is included in the synonymy of Megalostrata Karsch. Hypsinotus L. Koch is removed from the synonymy of Corinna and included in the synonymy of Creugas. Thirteen new species are described: Septentrinna yucatan and S. potosi from Mexico; Tupirinna rosae from Venezuela and Brazil; Tapixaua callida from Brazil and Peru; Abapeba hoeferi, A. rioclaro, A. taruma, Corinna ducke, C. colombo, C. mourai, C. recurva and Parachemmis manauara from Brazil; Creugas lisei from Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Twenty seven species are redescribed. Fifty eight new combinations are presented: from Chemmis, Septentrinna steckleri (Gertsch; from Corinna, Abapeba abalosi (Mello-Leitão, A. cleonei (Petrunkevitch, A. echinus (Simon, A. grassima (Chickering, A. guanicae (Petrunkevitch, A. lacertosa (Simon, A. luctuosa (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, A. lugubris (Schenkel, A. pennata (Caporiacco, A. kochi (Petrunkevitch, A. saga (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, A. wheeleri (Petrunkevitch, Creugas annamae (Gertsch & Davis, C. apophysarius (Caporiacco, C. bajulus (Gertsch, C. bellator (L. Koch, C. bicuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. epicureanus (Chamberlin, C. falculus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. mucronatus (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, C. navus (F

  3. A genome-wide phylogeny of jumping spiders (Araneae, Salticidae, using anchored hybrid enrichment

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    Wayne P. Maddison

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the first genome-wide molecular phylogeny of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae, inferred from Anchored Hybrid Enrichment (AHE sequence data. From 12 outgroups plus 34 salticid taxa representing all but one subfamily and most major groups recognized in previous work, we obtained 447 loci totalling 96,946 aligned nucleotide sites. Our analyses using concatenated likelihood, parsimony, and coalescent methods (ASTRAL and SVDQuartets strongly confirm most previous results, resolving as monophyletic the Spartaeinae, Salticinae (with the hisponines sister, Salticoida, Amycoida, Saltafresia, and Simonida. The agoriines, previously difficult to place beyond subfamily, are finally placed confidently within the saltafresians as relatives of the chrysillines and hasariines. Relationships among the baviines, astioids, marpissoids, and saltafresians remain uncertain, though our analyses tentatively conclude the first three form a clade together. Deep relationships, among the seven subfamilies, appear to be largely resolved, with spartaeines, lyssomanines, and asemoneines forming a clade. In most analyses, Onomastus (representing the onomastines is strongly supported as sister to the hisponines plus salticines. Overall, the much-improved resolution of many deep relationships despite a relatively sparse taxon sample suggests AHE is a promising technique for salticid phylogenetics.

  4. Catalogus van de Nederlandse spinnen (Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, van P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Catalogue of the Dutch spiders (Araneae) This new catalogue is a revised edition of the catalogue of the spiders of the Netherlands of 1980. Newly published faunistic records have been added. A total of 640 species names pass in review, 20 of which (in brackets) concern former records now removed,

  5. Automated protein subfamily identification and classification.

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    Duncan P Brown

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Function prediction by homology is widely used to provide preliminary functional annotations for genes for which experimental evidence of function is unavailable or limited. This approach has been shown to be prone to systematic error, including percolation of annotation errors through sequence databases. Phylogenomic analysis avoids these errors in function prediction but has been difficult to automate for high-throughput application. To address this limitation, we present a computationally efficient pipeline for phylogenomic classification of proteins. This pipeline uses the SCI-PHY (Subfamily Classification in Phylogenomics algorithm for automatic subfamily identification, followed by subfamily hidden Markov model (HMM construction. A simple and computationally efficient scoring scheme using family and subfamily HMMs enables classification of novel sequences to protein families and subfamilies. Sequences representing entirely novel subfamilies are differentiated from those that can be classified to subfamilies in the input training set using logistic regression. Subfamily HMM parameters are estimated using an information-sharing protocol, enabling subfamilies containing even a single sequence to benefit from conservation patterns defining the family as a whole or in related subfamilies. SCI-PHY subfamilies correspond closely to functional subtypes defined by experts and to conserved clades found by phylogenetic analysis. Extensive comparisons of subfamily and family HMM performances show that subfamily HMMs dramatically improve the separation between homologous and non-homologous proteins in sequence database searches. Subfamily HMMs also provide extremely high specificity of classification and can be used to predict entirely novel subtypes. The SCI-PHY Web server at http://phylogenomics.berkeley.edu/SCI-PHY/ allows users to upload a multiple sequence alignment for subfamily identification and subfamily HMM construction. Biologists wishing to

  6. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanjšek, Rok; Kuntner, Matjaž

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe. PMID:25632258

  7. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Kostanjšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe.

  8. Menemerus fagei new to Malta and Europe (Araneae: Salticidae

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    Freudenschuss, Mario

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Menemerus fagei Berland & Millot 1941 (Araneae, Salticidae from the Maltese Islands is reported and discussed. It is the 20th jumping spider species for Malta and a new record for Europe.

  9. Species of Oniscidea and Araneae from the Movile Cave dirllings

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    Andrei Giurginca

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 21 species of Oniscidea and 9 species of Araneae are recorded from two drillings made nearby Movile Cave. Also, the authors present their chorology and variation according to depth and season.

  10. A revision of the spider genus Zaitunia (Araneae, Filistatidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sergei Zonstein; Yuri M. Marusik

    2016-01-01

    The spider genus Zaitunia Lehtinen, 1967 (Araneae, Filistatidae) is revised. It was found to include 24 species distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Central Asia: ♀ Z. afghana (Roewer, 1962) (Afghanistan), ♀ Z...

  11. A revision of the Afrotropical spider genus Cambalida Simon, 1909 (Araneae, Corinnidae

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    Charles Haddad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The non-mimetic Afrotropical spider genus Cambalida Simon, 1909, placed within a subfamily of predominantly ant-mimicking spiders (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae, is revised. Three species are transferred from Castianeira Keyserling, 1879 to Cambalida: C. deminuta (Simon, 1909, comb. n., C. fulvipes (Simon, 1896, comb. n. and C. loricifera (Simon, 1885, comb. n.. A fourth species, C. fagei (Caporiacco, 1939, comb. n., is transferred from Brachyphaea Simon, 1895 to Cambalida. Two species, Castianeira depygata Strand, 1916, syn. n. and C. mestrali Lessert, 1921, syn. n., are considered junior synonyms of C. fulvipes. The males of C. deminuta and C. loricifera are redescribed and their unknown females are described for the first time. The female and male of C. fulvipes and C. coriacea Simon, 1909 are also redescribed. The type material of the type species of the genus, C. insulana Simon, 1909 from Pagalu (Annobon Island, is lost, and only immature specimens have been subsequently collected from a nearby island. The species is regarded as a nomen dubium until fresh adult material can be collected. A replacement name, Cambalida simoni nom. n. is proposed for Cambalida fulvipes Simon, 1909, the latter being a secondary junior homonym of Cambalida fulvipes (Simon, 1896. The type material of this species is also lost and it is too considered nomen dubium. The following new species are described: C. compressa sp. n. from West Africa, C. dippenaarae sp. n. from southern Africa, C. griswoldi sp. n. and C. lineata sp. n. from Madagascar, and C. unica sp. n. from Cameroon. Notes are provided on the biology of each species and the distribution of the genus in the Afrotropical Region.

  12. Molecular evolution of the AP2 subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigyo, Mikao; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Ito, Motomi

    2006-02-01

    The AP2 (APETALA2)/EREBP (Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Protein) multigene family includes developmentally and physiologically important transcription factors. AP2/EREBP genes are divided into two subfamilies: AP2 genes with two AP2 domains and EREBP genes with a single AP2/ERF (Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Factor) domain. Based on previous phylogenetic analyses, AP2 genes can be divided into two clades, AP2 and ANT groups. To clarify the molecular evolution of the AP2 subfamily, we isolated and sequenced genes with two AP2 domains from three gymnosperms, Cycas revoluta, Ginkgo biloba, and Gnetum parvifolium,as well as from the moss Physcomitrella patens. Expressions of AP2-like genes, including AP2, in Arabidopsis thaliana are regulated by the microRNA miR172. We found that the target site of miR172 is significantly conserved in gymnosperm AP2 homologs, suggesting that regulatory mechanisms of gene expression using microRNA have been conserved over the three hundred million years since the divergence of gymnosperm and flowering plant lineages. We inferred a phylogenetic relationship of these genes with the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and seed-plant genes available in public DNA databases. The phylogenetic tree showed that the AP2 subfamily diverged into the AP2 and ANT groups before the last common ancestor of land plants and after C. reinhardtii diverged from the land-plant lineage. The tree also indicated that each AP2 and ANT group further diverged into several clades through gene duplications prior to the divergence of gymnosperms and angiosperms.

  13. A revision of the spider genus Zaitunia (Araneae, Filistatidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sergei Zonstein; Marusik, Yuri M.

    2016-01-01

    The spider genus Zaitunia Lehtinen, 1967 (Araneae, Filistatidae) is revised. It was found to include 24 species distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Central Asia: ♀ Z. afghana (Roewer, 1962) (Afghanistan), ♀ Z. alexandri Brignoli, 1982 (Iran), ♀ Z. akhanii Marusik & Zamani, 2015 (Iran), ♂♀ Z. annulipes (Kulczyński, 1908) (Cyprus), ♂♀ Z. beshkentica (Andreeva & Tyshchenko, 1969) (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan), ♀ Z. brignoliana sp. nov. (Iran), ♂♀ Z. ferghanensis sp. nov...

  14. Growth and Nest Hole Size Preferences in Immature Southern House Spiders (Araneae: Filistatidae): Are They Constrained Consumers?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James E. Carrel

    2015-01-01

    Summary In the laboratory, immature Kukulcania hibernalis (Hentz 1842) (Araneae: Filistatidae) exhibited a combination of isometric and positively allometric growth during the first 32 wk of life according to 9 measures of body size...

  15. De corticole fauna van platanen: i. Arachniden (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Berg, M.P.

    2001-01-01

    The corticolous fauna of plane trees: I. Arachnids (Arachnida: Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones, Acari) From February until September 2000 an inventory was made of the bark-dwelling arthropod fauna of more than 400 plane trees (Platanus hybrida), all over the Netherlands. Arthropods were collected from

  16. Taxonomic revision of the spider family Penestomidae (Araneae, Entelegynae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, J.A.; Griswold, C.E.; Haddad, C.R.

    2010-01-01

    Conflicting character evidence and a scarcity of male specimens has historically made placement of the spider subfamily Penestominae Simon problematic. The Penestominae was recently removed from the family Eresidae and promoted to family rank based on the results of a molecular phylogenetic study; a

  17. Cytogenetic studies of three Lycosidae species from Argentina (Arachnida, Araneae

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    María A. Chemisquy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic studies of the family Lycosidae (Arachnida: Araneae are scarce. Less than 4% of the described species have been analyzed and the male haploid chromosome numbers ranged from 8+X 1 X 2 to 13+X 1 X 2 . Species formerly classified as Lycosa were the most studied ones. Our aim in this work was to perform a comparative analysis of the meiosis in " Lycosa " erythrognatha Lucas, " Lycosa " pampeana Holmberg and Schizocosa malitiosa (Tullgren. We also compared male and female karyotypes and characterized the heterochromatin of " L. " erythrognatha . The males of the three species had 2n = 22, n = 10+X 1 X 2 , all the chromosomes were telocentric and there was generally a single chiasma per bivalent. In " Lycosa " pampeana , which is described cytogenetically for the first time herein, the bivalents and sex chromosomes showed a clustered arrangement at prometaphase I. The comparison of the male/female karyotypes (2n = 22/24 of " Lycosa " erythrognatha revealed that the sex chromosomes were the largest of the complement and that the autosomes decreased gradually in size. The analysis of the amount, composition and distribution of heterochromatin with C-banding and staining with DAPI- and CMA 3 - showed that " Lycosa " erythrognatha had little GC-rich heterochromatin in the pericentromeric region of all chromosomes. In addition, the actual occurrence of the genus Lycosa in the Southern Hemisphere is discussed.

  18. Designing exons for human olfactory receptor gene subfamilies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 35; Issue 3. Designing exons for human olfactory receptor gene subfamilies using a mathematical paradigm. Sk Sarif Hassan Pabitra Pal Choudhury Amita Pal R L Brahmachary Arunava Goswami. Articles Volume 35 Issue 3 September 2010 pp 389-393 ...

  19. Identification and characterization of the Populus AREB/ABF subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Lexiang; Wang, Jia; Ye, Meixia; Li, Ying; Guo, Bin; Chen, Zhong; Li, Hao; An, Xinmin

    2013-02-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone that plays an important role in responses to abiotic stresses. The ABA-responsive element binding protein/ABRE-binding factor (AREB/ABF) gene subfamily contains crucial transcription factors in the ABA-mediated signaling pathway. In this study, a total of 14 putative AREB/ABF members were identified in the Populus trichocarpa Torr. & Gray. genome using five AREB/ABF amino acid sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana L. as probes. The 14 putative Populus subfamily members showed high protein similarities, especially in the basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domain region. A neighbor-joining analysis combined with gene structure data revealed homology among the 14 genes. The expression patterns of the Populus AREB/ABF subfamily suggested that the most abundant transcripts of 11 genes occurred in leaf tissues, while two genes were most transcribed in root tissues. Significantly, eight Populus AREB/ABF gene members were upregulated after treatment with 100 μM exogenous ABA, while the other six members were downregulated. We identified the expression profiles of the subfamily members in Populus tissues and elucidated different response patterns of Populus AREB/ABF members to ABA stress. This study provided insight into the roles of Populus AREB/ABF homologues in plant response to abiotic stresses. © 2012 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. A revision of the spider genus Zaitunia (Araneae, Filistatidae

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    Sergei Zonstein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Zaitunia Lehtinen, 1967 (Araneae, Filistatidae is revised. It was found to include 24 species distributed in the Eastern Mediterranean, Middle East and Central Asia: ♀ Z. afghana (Roewer, 1962 (Afghanistan, ♀ Z. alexandri Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♀ Z. akhanii Marusik & Zamani, 2015 (Iran, ♂♀ Z. annulipes (Kulczyński, 1908 (Cyprus, ♂♀ Z. beshkentica (Andreeva & Tyshchenko, 1969 (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. brignoliana sp. nov. (Iran, ♂♀ Z. ferghanensis sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. feti sp. nov. (Turkmenistan, ♀ Z. halepensis sp. nov. (Syria, ♀ Z. huberi sp. nov. (Afghanistan, ♀ Z. inderensis Ponomarev, 2005 (Kazakhstan, ♂♀ Z. kunti sp. nov. (Cyprus, Turkey, ♂♀ Z. logunovi sp. nov. (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, ♂♀ Z. maracandica (Charitonov, 1946 (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, ♂♀ Z. martynovae (Andreeva & Tyshchenko, 1969 (Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, ♀ Z. medica Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♂♀ Z. minoica sp. nov. (Greece, ♀ Z. minuta sp. nov. (Uzbekistan, ♀ Z. persica Brignoli, 1982 (Iran, ♂ Z. psammodroma sp. nov. (Turkmenistan, ♂♀ Z. schmitzi (Kulczyński, 1911, the type species (Egypt, Israel, ♂♀ Z. spinimana sp. nov. (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, ♂♀ Z. wunderlichi sp. nov. (Kyrgyzstan and ♀ Z. zonsteini Fomichev & Marusik, 1969 (Kazakhstan. Twelve above-listed species are newly described, and males of Z. annulipes, Z. beshkentica, Z. maracandica and Z. martynovae are described for the first time. Two new combinations are established: Z. annulipes (Kulczyński, 1908 comb. nov., ex Filistata, and Pholcoides monticola (Spassky, 1941 comb. nov., ex Zaitunia. New data on distribution of the considered taxa are provided.

  1. Species conservation profile of the alpine stenoendemic spider Vesubia jugorum (Araneae, Lycosidae from the Maritime Alps

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    Stefano Mammola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vesubia jugorum (Simon, 1881 (Araneae: Lycosidae is a large-sized wolf spider that occurs in alpine rocky areas above 2,000 m altitude. The species is stenoendemic, with a limited number of populations documented in the literature from the Maritime Alps (Italy, France. Due to the climate change, the current observed extent of occurrence (EEO 4,412 km2 and the area of occupancy (AOO 835 km2 are declining.

  2. Chemical Control of Loxosceles intermedia (Araneae: Sicariidae) With Pyrethroids: Field and Laboratory Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro-Silva, MA; Duque, JEL; Ramires, EN; Andrade, CFS; E. Marques-da-Silva; Marques, FA; Delay, CE; Fontana, JD; Silva, ACS; Fraguas, GM

    2010-01-01

    Bites from the recluse or brown spiders (genus Loxosceles) can cause necrotic lesions and systemic effects in humans throughout the world. In the state of Parana, Brazil, loxoscelism is considered a serious public health problem, and Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitao (Araneae: Sicariidae) is associated with the majority of reported accidents. In the present research we evaluated the susceptibility of L. intermedia to pyrethroid insecticides currently used for the control of spiders in both f...

  3. A new species of Acanthoscurria (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae without stridulatory organ, from southern Peru

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    Nelson Ferretti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acanthoscurria sacsayhuaman sp. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae is described based on a male from Cusco, Peru. The new species is characterized by the absence of stridulatory bristles on retrolateral face of palpal trochanter. Moreover, it can be distinguished by morphology of the male palpal bulb and tibial apophysis of the first pair of legs. The genus is recorded for the first time for Peru.

  4. Systematics of the neotropical fish subfamily Glandulocaudinae (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae

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    Naércio A. Menezes

    Full Text Available The systematics of the Glandulocaudinae is reviewed in detail and justification for the recognition of the group as a subfamily is discussed. The subfamily Glandulocaudinae consists of three genera: Lophiobrycon with one species plesiomorphic in some anatomical features but some others exclusively derived relative to the species in the other genera; Glandulocauda with two species intermediate in phylogenetic derivation; and Mimagoniates with seven species (one new, all more phylogenetically derived concerning their pheromone producing caudal-fin organs and with other anatomical characters presumably more derived than in the species of the other genera. Glandulocauda melanogenys Eigenmann, 1911, is considered a junior synonym of Hyphessobrycon melanopleurus Ellis, 1911. A replacement name, Glandulocauda caerulea Menezes & Weitzman, is proposed for G. melanopleura Eigenmann, 1911. Gland cells found in the caudal-fin organs of all species are histologically indistinguishable from club cells and probably secrete a pheromone during courtship. The club cells are associated with somewhat modified to highly derived caudal scales forming a pheromone pumping organ in the more derived genera and species. This subfamily is distributed in freshwaters of eastern and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and northeastern Uruguay.

  5. La araneofauna (Araneae) reciente y fósil de Chiapas, México The extant and fossil spider fauna (Araneae) from Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel García-Villafuerte

    2009-01-01

    Se presenta una lista de las especies actuales y fósiles de arañas (Araneae) registradas para Chiapas. Hasta el momento se registran 464 especies actuales, distribuidas en 281 géneros y 56 familias. Las familias con mayor diversidad son Salticidae, Theridiidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae y Gnaphosidae. Se proporcionan los géneros y especies en sinonimia, así como los géneros y especies que han sido transferidos a otras familias, y las especies transferidas a otros géneros dentro de la misma fa...

  6. Revision of the spider genus Gippsicola Hogg, 1900 (Araneae: Segestriidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroti, André Marsola; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos

    2017-02-03

    Gippsicola Hogg is one of the four genera included in the family Segestriidae. Currently this monotypic Australian genus is represented by Gippsicola raleighi Hogg, 1900, a species described based on an immature specimen from Victoria, Australia. In this work we present a taxonomic revision of this genus, with an elucidative diagnosis, redescribing G. raleighi based on detailed morphologic characters of adult male specimens. Also, we are describing three new species: Gippsicola robusta n. sp. and G. lineata n. sp., both represented by males and females, and G. minuta n. sp., only known by the male. We provide some enlightenment on the systematics of Gippsicola and putative synapomorphies for the subfamily Segestriinae.

  7. La araneofauna (Araneae reciente y fósil de Chiapas, México The extant and fossil spider fauna (Araneae from Chiapas, Mexico

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    Miguel Ángel García-Villafuerte

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una lista de las especies actuales y fósiles de arañas (Araneae registradas para Chiapas. Hasta el momento se registran 464 especies actuales, distribuidas en 281 géneros y 56 familias. Las familias con mayor diversidad son Salticidae, Theridiidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae y Gnaphosidae. Se proporcionan los géneros y especies en sinonimia, así como los géneros y especies que han sido transferidos a otras familias, y las especies transferidas a otros géneros dentro de la misma familia. Se han registrado 36 especies fósiles incluidas en ámbar. La taxonomía de arañas actuales y la de fósiles no son disciplinas completamente independientes. El género Hemirrhagus (Teraphosidae es un nuevo registro para Chiapas.A list of the recent and extinct species of spiders (Araneae that have been recorded from Chiapas is presented. To date 464 recent species have been registered, distributed in 281 genera and 56 families. The most diverse families are Salticidae, Theridiidae, Araneidae, Tetragnathidae and Gnaphosidae. The genera and species in synonymy are listed, as are the genera and species that have been transferred to other families, and the species transferred to other genera within the same family. 36 fossil species included in amber have also been recorded. The taxonomy of recent and fossil spiders should not be independent. Genus Hemirrhagus (Teraphosidae is newly recorded from Chiapas.

  8. Generic revision of the ant subfamily Dorylinae (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Marek L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The generic classification of the ant subfamily Dorylinae is revised, with the aim of facilitating identification of easily-diagnosable monophyletic genera. The new classification is based on recent molecular phylogenetic evidence and a critical reappraisal of doryline morphology. New keys and diagnoses based on workers and males are provided, along with reviews of natural history and phylogenetic relationships, distribution maps, and a list of valid species for each lineage. Twenty-eight genera (27 extant and 1 extinct) are recognized within the subfamily, an increase from 20 in the previous classification scheme. Species classified in the polyphyletic Cerapachys and Sphinctomyrmex prior to this publication are here distributed among 9 and 3 different genera, respectively. Amyrmex and Asphinctanilloides are synonymized under Leptanilloides and the currently recognized subgenera are synonymized for Dorylus. No tribal classification is proposed for the subfamily, but several apparently monophyletic genus-groups are discussed. Valid generic names recognized here include: Acanthostichus (= Ctenopyga), Aenictogiton, Aenictus (= Paraenictus, Typhlatta), Cerapachys (= Ceratopachys), Cheliomyrmex, Chrysapace gen. rev., Cylindromyrmex (= Holcoponera, Hypocylindromyrmex, Metacylindromyrmex), Dorylus (= Alaopone syn. n., Anomma syn. n., Cosmaecetes, Dichthadia syn. n., Rhogmus syn. n., Shuckardia, Sphecomyrmex, Sphegomyrmex, Typhlopone syn. n.), Eburopone gen. n., Eciton (= Camptognatha, Holopone, Mayromyrmex), Eusphinctus gen. rev., Labidus (= Nycteresia, Pseudodichthadia), Leptanilloides (= Amyrmex syn. n., Asphinctanilloides syn. n.), Lioponera gen. rev. (= Neophyracaces syn. n., Phyracaces syn. n.), Lividopone, Neivamyrmex (= Acamatus, Woitkowskia), Neocerapachys gen. n., Nomamyrmex, Ooceraea gen. rev. (= Cysias syn. n.), Parasyscia gen. rev., †Procerapachys, Simopone, Sphinctomyrmex, Syscia gen. rev., Tanipone, Vicinopone, Yunodorylus gen. rev., Zasphinctus

  9. Erstnachweise der synanthropen Spinnenarten Steatoda grossa für Sachsen sowie Nesticodes rufipes und Uloborus plumipes für Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Araneae, Theridiidae, Uloboridae

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    Martin, Dieter

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available First records of the synanthropic spiders Steatoda grossa for Saxony as well as Nesticodes rufipes and Uloborus plumipes for Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Araneae, Theridiidae, Uloboridae

  10. Top-Down Clustering for Protein Subfamily Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eduardo P.; Vens, Celine; Blockeel, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel method for the task of protein subfamily identification; that is, finding subgroups of functionally closely related sequences within a protein family. In line with phylogenomic analysis, the method first builds a hierarchical tree using as input a multiple alignment of the protein sequences, then uses a post-pruning procedure to extract clusters from the tree. Differently from existing methods, it constructs the hierarchical tree top-down, rather than bottom-up and associates particular mutations with each division into subclusters. The motivating hypothesis for this method is that it may yield a better tree topology with more accurate subfamily identification as a result and additionally indicates functionally important sites and allows for easy classification of new proteins. A thorough experimental evaluation confirms the hypothesis. The novel method yields more accurate clusters and a better tree topology than the state-of-the-art method SCI-PHY, identifies known functional sites, and identifies mutations that alone allow for classifying new sequences with an accuracy approaching that of hidden Markov models. PMID:23700359

  11. Overview of the Anyphaenids (Araneae, Anyphaeninae, Anyphaenidae) spider fauna from the Chocó forest of Ecuador, with the description of thirteen new species

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Duperre; Elicio Tapia

    2016-01-01

    Nadine Duperre, Elicio Tapia (2016): Overview of the Anyphaenids (Araneae, Anyphaeninae, Anyphaenidae) spider fauna from the Chocó forest of Ecuador, with the description of thirteen new species. European Jornal of Taxonomy 255: 1-50, DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2016.255, URL: http://sciencepress.mnhn.fr/en/periodiques/european-journal-taxonomy/2016/overview-anyphaenids-araneae-anyphaeninae-anyphaenidae-spider-fauna-choco-forest-ecuador-description-thirteen-new-species

  12. Subfamily logos: visualization of sequence deviations at alignment positions with high information content

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    Beitz Eric

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.

  13. Phylogeny of seed dormancy in Convolvulaceae, subfamily Convolvuloideae (Solanales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, K M G Gehan; Baskin, Jerry M; Geneve, Robert L; Baskin, Carol C

    2009-01-01

    The water gap is an important morphoanatomical structure in seeds with physical dormancy (PY). It is an environmental signal detector for dormancy break and the route of water into the non-dormant seed. The Convolvulaceae, which consists of subfamilies Convolvuloideae (11 tribes) and Humbertoideae (one tribe, monotypic Humberteae), is the only family in the asterid clade known to produce seeds with PY. The primary aim of this study was to compare the morphoanatomical characteristics of the water gap in seeds of species in the 11 tribes of the Convolvuloideae and to use this information, and that on seed dormancy and storage behaviour, to construct a phylogenetic tree of seed dormancy for the subfamily. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to define morphological changes in the hilum area during dormancy break; hand and vibratome sections were taken to describe the anatomy of the water gap, hilum and seed coat; and dye tracking was used to identify the initial route of water entry into the non-dormant seed. Results were compared with a recent cladogram of the family. Species in nine tribes have (a) layer(s) of palisade cells in the seed coat, a water gap and orthodox storage behaviour. Erycibe (Erycibeae) and Maripa (Maripeae) do not have a palisade layer in the seed coat or a water gap, and are recalcitrant. The hilar fissure is the water gap in relatively basal Cuscuteae, and bulges adjacent to the micropyle serve as the water gap in the Convolvuloideae, Dicranostyloideae (except Maripeae) and the Cardiochlamyeae clades. Seeds from the Convolvuloideae have morphologically prominent bulges demarcated by cell shape in the sclereid layer, whereas the Dicranostyloideae and Cardiochlamyeae have non-prominent bulges demarcated by the number of sub-cell layers. The anatomy and morphology of the hilar pad follow the same pattern. PY in the subfamily Convolvuloideae probably evolved in the aseasonal tropics from an ancestor with recalcitrant non-dormant seeds, and

  14. Compositional changes in spider (Araneae) assemblages along an urbanisation gradient near a Danish town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horváth, R.; Elek, Zoltán; Lövei, Gabor L

    2014-01-01

    Spider (Araneae) assemblages were studied over two years by pitfall trapping along an urbanisation gradient of forested habitats (rural forest - suburban forest fragment - urban forest fragment) in a Danish town, using the Globenet protocol. During the two years, we collected 4340 individuals of 90...... species, with money spiders (Linyphiidae) and wolf spiders (Lycosidae) being most numerous. One species, Ero aphana, was new to the Danish fauna. In 2004, 45-47 species were captured in the habitats in various stages of urbanisation, while in 2005 (with a smaller collection effort), 28 (urban) - 37 (rural...

  15. Contribution to the knowledge of jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae from vicinity of Jagodina, Central Serbia

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    Stanković, B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During last 10 years, based on personal collectings, 21 species from 14 genera of Salticidae (Araneae are recorded from vicinity of Jagodina: Ballus chalybeius, Carrhotus xanthogramma, Evarcha arcuata, Evarcha falcata, Heliophanus auratus, Heliophanus cupreus, Heliophanus flavipes, Heliophanus kochii, Icius hamatus, Icius subinermis, Leptorchestes berolinensis, Macaroeris nidicolens, Marpissa muscosa, Marpissa nivoyi, Mendoza canestrinii, Pellenes tripunctatus, Phintella castriesiana, Phlegra fasciata, Pseudeuophrys erratica, Pseudeuophrys lanigera, Salticus scenicus. All those species are provided with habitat notes and global distribution. New records for the spider fauna of Serbia are Heliophanus kochii (Simon 1868, Icius subinermis (Simon, 1937, Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1846 and Mendoza canestrinii (Ninni, 1868.

  16. Male palp organ morphology of three species of ground spiders (Araneae, Gnaphosidae

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    Zakharov, Boris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A detailed morphological account of the male copulatory organs of three species of ground spiders, Sergiolus capulatus, Herpyllus propinquus and Callilepis pluto (Araneae, Gnaphosidae, is presented. The large sclerites (subtegulum, tegulum and embolus appear to be homologous in all spiders. Sergiolus and Zelanda have a plesiomorphic palp organization. The increased complexity in the male bulb organization creates a locking mechanism that fixes the male palp position during intercourse in Callilepis, as well as in Encoptarthria, Trachyzelotes and Zelotes. The palp of Herpyllus, together with Anzacia, Drassodes and Intruda, demonstrates progressive modification of the male bulb.

  17. Morphology of Some Species in the Subfamily Papilionoideae

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    Joan Adeola OWOLABI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological study of ten species in the subfamily Papilionoideae was carried out with the view to documenting diagnostic characters that would distinguish or group the species. The species studied belong to four tribes, namely: tribe Desmodieae – Desmodium tortuosum (Sw. DC., Desmodium scorpiurus (Sw. Desv., Desmodium adscendens (Sw. DC., tribe Phaseoleae – Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp., Calopogonium mucunoides Desv., Centrosema molle (Mart. ex. Benth., Mucuna pruriens (Linn. Walp., Vigna unguiculata (Linn. Walp., tribe Crotalarieae – Crotalaria retusa Linn., tribe Robinieae – Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Walp. Qualitative and quantitative traits which had not been documented in previous works, especially in Nigeria, were studied. These include plant life span; leaf/leaflet apex, base, margin and pubescence; stem type, colour, shape and pubescence; sepal colour and pubescence; nature of margin of petal standard and presence or absence of pedicel; fruit colour, pubescence, tip and shape; seed colour, shape, surface and presence or absence of prominent hilum on the seed; number of seeds per fruit; pedicel length; length and width of petal standard, keel and wing. Characters of taxonomic value documented in this study were leaf type, leaf shape, leaf base, petiole type, stem type, seed shape, petal standard length, petal keel length and petal wing width. Data were subjected to one - way analysis of variance using Duncan’s multiple range test. It was noted that the important characters that can be used in establishing taxonomic relationship in the sub-family Papilionoideae were leaf type, leaf shape, leaf base, petiole type, stem shape, petal colour, petal margin and seed shape.

  18. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of two Tetragnatha Spiders (Araneae: Tetragnathidae): Severe Truncation of tRNAs and Novel Gene Rearrangements in Araneae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-Liang; Li, Chao; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Mitogenomes can provide information for phylogenetic analysis and evolutionary biology. The Araneae is one of the largest orders of Arachnida with great economic importance. In order to develop mitogenome data for this significant group, we determined the complete mitogenomes of two long jawed spiders Tetragnatha maxillosa and T. nitens and performed the comparative analysis with previously published spider mitogenomes. The circular mitogenomes are 14578 bp long with A+T content of 74.5% in T. maxillosa and 14639 bp long with A+T content of 74.3% in T. nitens, respectively. Both the mitogenomes contain a standard set of 37 genes and an A+T-rich region with the same gene orientation as the other spider mitogenomes, with the exception of the different gene order by the rearrangement of two tRNAs (trnW and trnG). Most of the tRNAs lose TΨC arm stems and have unpaired amino acid acceptor arms. As interesting features, both trnSAGN and trnSUCN lack the dihydrouracil (DHU) arm and long tandem repeat units are presented in the A+T-rich region of both the spider mitogenomes. The phylogenetic relationships of 23 spider mitogenomes based on the concatenated nucleotides sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicated that the mitogenome sequences could be useful in resolving higher-level relationship of Araneae. The molecular information acquired from the results of this study should be very useful for future researches on mitogenomic evolution and genetic diversities in spiders. PMID:26722222

  19. Nine novel microsatellite markers for the army ant Simopelta pergandei (subfamily Ponerinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronauer, D.J.C.; Boomsma, J.J.; Pierce, N.E.

    2011-01-01

    Simopelta (subfamily Ponerinae) army ants are specialized predators of other ants in New World tropical forests. Although they show a striking convergence in overall life-history with the well known army ants of the subfamilies Aenictinae, Dorylinae, and Ecitoninae, the genus has been little stud...

  20. On the correct name for some subfamilies of Mustelidae (Mammalia, Carnivora

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    Fabio Oliveira do Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mustelids (Mustelidae exhibit a wide morphological and ecological diversity, ranging from aquatic to semi arboreal and fossorial forms. It is the most diversity family in Carnivora, and this has promoted a great number of taxonomic arrangements for subfamilies, which can range from two to 15 depending on the author. The relatively recent use of molecular data has helped to elucidate the classification of mustelids, and eight subfamilies are currently recognized: Mustelinae, Galictinae, Helictidinae, Martinae, Melinae, Mellivorinae, Taxidiinae and Lutrinae. However, some of these subfamilies have nomenclatural problems, not receiving the oldest available name. The subfamily that includes martens (Martes, Charronia and Pekania, tayra (Eira and wolverine (Gulo has received the name of Martinae Wagner, 1841, but the oldest available name is Guloninae Gray, 1825. This problem also occurs for the subfamily that includes the grisons (Galictis, Patagonian weasel (Lyncodon, marbled polecat (Vormela and striped weasels (Ictonyx and Poecilogale, which are known as Grisoninae Pocock, 1921, but the correct name for this group is Ictonychinae, Pocock, 1921. The subfamily that includes ferret badgers (Melogale retains the name Helictidinae Gray, 1865, because its validity is not affected when the type-genus of the subfamily becomes a junior synonym of another genus. Furthermore, a list of the extant subfamilies of Mustelidae and their respective synonyms and included genera is provided.

  1. Characterizing common substructures of ligands for GPCR protein subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguner, Bekir; Hattori, Masahiro; Goto, Susumu; Kanehisa, Minoru

    2010-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily is the largest class of proteins with therapeutic value. More than 40% of present prescription drugs are GPCR ligands. The high therapeutic value of GPCR proteins and recent advancements in virtual screening methods gave rise to many virtual screening studies for GPCR ligands. However, in spite of vast amounts of research studying their functions and characteristics, 3D structures of most GPCRs are still unknown. This makes target-based virtual screenings of GPCR ligands extremely difficult, and successful virtual screening techniques rely heavily on ligand information. These virtual screening methods focus on specific features of ligands on GPCR protein level, and common features of ligands on higher levels of GPCR classification are yet to be studied. Here we extracted common substructures of GPCR ligands of GPCR protein subfamilies. We used the SIMCOMP, a graph-based chemical structure comparison program, and hierarchical clustering to reveal common substructures. We applied our method to 850 GPCR ligands and we found 53 common substructures covering 439 ligands. These substructures contribute to deeper understanding of structural features of GPCR ligands which can be used in new drug discovery methods.

  2. Phylogeny of ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): are the subfamilies monophyletic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, A; Lecompte, E; Magné, F; Hemptinne, J-L; Crouau-Roy, B

    2010-03-01

    The Coccinellidae (ladybirds) is a highly speciose family of the Coleoptera. Ladybirds are well known because of their use as biocontrol agents, and are the subject of many ecological studies. However, little is known about phylogenetic relationships of the Coccinellidae, and a precise evolutionary framework is needed for the family. This paper provides the first phylogenetic reconstruction of the relationships within the Coccinellidae based on analysis of five genes: the 18S and 28S rRNA nuclear genes and the mitochondrial 12S, 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) genes. The phylogenetic relationships of 67 terminal taxa, representative of all the subfamilies of the Coccinellidae (61 species, 37 genera), and relevant outgroups, were reconstructed using multiple approaches, including Bayesian inference with partitioning strategies. The recovered phylogenies are congruent and show that the Coccinellinae is monophyletic but the Coccidulinae, Epilachninae, Scymninae and Chilocorinae are paraphyletic. The tribe Chilocorini is identified as the sister-group of the Coccinellinae for the first time. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. TBX2 subfamily suppression in lung cancer pathogenesis: a high-potential marker for early detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Athar A.; Sivakumar, Smruthy; Lucas, Frances Anthony San; McDowell, Tina; Lang, Wenhua; Tabata, Kazuhiro; Fujimoto, Junya; Yatabe, Yasushi; Spira, Avrum; Scheet, Paul; Nemer, Georges; Kadara, Humam

    2017-01-01

    The TBX2 subfamily (TBXs 2, 3, 4 and 5) transactivates or represses genes involved in lung organogenesis. Yet TBX2 subfamily expression in pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common lung malignancy, remains elusive. We sought to probe the expression profile of the TBX2 subfamily in early phases of NSCLC. Expression of TBX2 subfamily was analyzed in datasets of pan-normal specimens as well as NSCLCs and normal lung tissues. TBX2 subfamily expression in matched normal lungs, premalignant hyperplasias and NSCLCs was profiled by transcriptome sequencing. TBX2 subfamily expression was evaluated in the cancerization field consisting of matched NSCLCs and adjacent cytologically-normal airways relative to distant normal lungs and in a dataset of normal bronchial samples from smokers with indeterminate nodules suspicious for malignancy. Statistical analysis was performed using R. TBX2 subfamily expression was markedly elevated in normal lungs relative to other organ-specific normal tissues. Expression of the TBXs was significantly suppressed in NSCLCs relative to normal lungs (P cancer status (P cancer detection in high-risk smokers. PMID:28978111

  4. FAUNISTICAL DATA REGARDING SPIDERS (ARACHNIDA: ARANEAE FROM SOUTH-EASTERN ROMANIA WITH MENTION OF SOME RARE SPECIES

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    I. DUMA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the faunistical study made in the south-eastern Romania in the summers of 2004 and 2006. We found 118 species of araneae belonging to 21 families. Among them there were some rare species: Argiope lobata (Pallas, 1772 mentioned for the third time in Romania, Hariaeus melloteei (Simon, 1886 mentioned for the second time in our country and Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1890.

  5. Temporal variation in the spider assemblage (Arachnida, Araneae) in canopies of Callisthene fasciculata (Vochysiaceae) in the Brazilian Pantanal biome

    OpenAIRE

    Lúcia Yamazaki; Vindica,Vanessa F.; Antonio D. Brescovit; Marques, Marinez I.; Battirola,Leandro D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spiders are generalist predators and present a high diversity of capturing and foraging, as well as considerable species richness in tropical habitats. Although, generally, not presenting specific relations to the host plant, they can be influenced by its phenology, structure and resource availability. So, this study analyzed temporal variation on the structure and composition of Araneae assemblage in Callisthene fasciculata (Spr.) Mart. (Vochysiaceae) canopies, in an area of monodom...

  6. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyraporagen. n., Caribenagen. n., and Antillenagen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum's margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianaesp. n., Avicularia lynnaesp. n., and Avicularia caeisp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate

  7. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae with description of three new aviculariine genera01

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    Caroline Sayuri Fukushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818, Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 stat. n., A. minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920, Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, A. hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., A. lynnae sp. n., and A. caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected to accommodate former

  8. Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 is revised and all species are rediagnosed. The type species, described as Aranea avicularia Linnaeus, 1758, is the oldest mygalomorph species described and its taxonomic history is extensive and confusing. Cladistic analyses using both equal and implied weights were carried out with a matrix of 46 taxa from seven theraphosid subfamilies, and 71 morphological and ecological characters. The optimal cladogram found with Piwe and concavity = 6 suggests Avicularia and Aviculariinae are monophyletic. Subfamily Aviculariinae includes Avicularia Lamarck, 1818, Typhochlaena C. L. Koch, 1850, Tapinauchenius Ausserer, 1871, Stromatopelma Karsch, 1881, Ephebopus Simon, 1892, Psalmopoeus Pocock, 1895, Heteroscodra Pocock, 1899, Iridopelma Pocock, 1901, Pachistopelma Pocock, 1901, Ybyrapora gen. n., Caribena gen. n., and Antillena gen. n. The clade is supported by well-developed scopulae on tarsi and metatarsi, greatly extended laterally. Avicularia synapomorphies are juveniles bearing black tarsi contrasting with other lighter articles; spermathecae with an accentuated outwards curvature medially, and male palpal bulb with embolus medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Avicularia is composed of twelve species, including three new species: Avicularia avicularia (Linnaeus, 1818), Avicularia glauca Simon, 1891, Avicularia variegata (F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) stat. n., Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903, Avicularia taunayi (Mello-Leitão, 1920), Avicularia juruensis Mello-Leitão, 1923, Avicularia rufa Schiapelli & Gerschman, 1945, Avicularia purpurea Kirk, 1990, Avicularia hirschii Bullmer et al. 2006, Avicularia merianae sp. n., Avicularia lynnae sp. n., and Avicularia caei sp. n.. Avicularia species are distributed throughout Mexico, Costa Rica, Panama, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Brazil. Three new genera are erected

  9. Spiders (Araneae from Albania and Kosovo in the collection of Carl Friedrich Roewer

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    Vrenozi, Blerina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The spider collection (Arachnida: Araneae from Albania and Kosovo in the Senckenberg Research Institute, Frankfurt am Main is reviewed. A total of 122 adult specimens were found belonging to 73 species. Records of 48 species for Albania and 28 species for Kosovo, 20 of them new to Kosovo, are presented. Furthermore there are seven new country records for Albania: Platnickina nigropunctata, Erigone remota, Tenuiphantes tenebricola, Pardosa agrestis, Callobius claustrarius and Zelotes femellus. Additionally, Pardosa cavannae is the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. So far 381 species are known for Albania. A total of 106 species is known from Kosovo now; a list of the 86 spider species formerly known to Kosovo is included.

  10. Investigation of spiders (Araneae of the Nature Monument Jesličky (South Moravia, Czech Republic

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    Ondřej Košulič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Faunistic records of spiders (Araneae in the Nature Monument Jesličky (South Moravia, Czech Republic are presented. Spiders were collected by pitfall trapping in 2009 and by sweeping of the herb vegetation in 2011. During the both periods a total of 847 specimens were collected, from which 617 adult spiders were determined. We found 88 species belonging to 20 families. Seven species listed on the Red List of Invertebrates of the Czech Republic were recorded: Titanoeca schineri L. Koch, 1872, Scotina celans (Blackwall, 1841, Haplodrassus dalmatensis (L. Koch, 1866, Ozyptila pullata (Thorell, 1875, Ozyptila simplex (O.P-Cambridge, 1862 and Marpissa nivoyi (Lucas, 1846. To the most significant finding belongs a very rare and endangered (EN Micaria guttulata (C. L. Koch, 1839. A significant and rich finding of bioindicators of the well preserved steppe habitats Atypus piceus (Sulzer, 1776, Eresus kollari Rossi, 1846 and Alopecosa sulzeri (Pavesi, 1873 are to be mentioned.

  11. The oldest haplogyne spider (Araneae: Plectreuridae), from the Middle Jurassic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A.; Huang, Diying

    2010-05-01

    New fossil spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) from Middle Jurassic (ca. 165 Ma) strata of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China are described as Eoplectreurys gertschi gen. et sp. nov. and referred to the modern haplogyne family Plectreuridae. This small family is restricted to southwestern USA, Mexico, and the adjacent Caribbean area today and hitherto has only a sparse Cenozoic fossil record. The morphology of Eoplectreurys is remarkably similar to modern forms and thus demonstrates great evolutionary conservatism. This new discovery not only extends the fossil record of the family by at least 120 Ma to the Middle Jurassic but also supports the hypothesis of a different distribution of the family in the past than today and subsequent extinction over much of its former range.

  12. Web placement in sympatric linyphiid spiders ( Arachnida, Araneae): Individual foraging decisions reveal inter-specific competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberstein, Marie Elisabeth

    1998-02-01

    The distribution of two sympatric web spiders, Frontinellina frutetorum (C. L. Koch) and Neriene radiata (Walckenaer) (Araneae: Linyphiidae) was studied on an area of forest regrowth in eastern Austria. Both species utilised significantly different heights on young conifer trees to construct their webs. F. frutetorum selected higher vegetation layers, whereas N. radiata constructed its webs, closer to the ground. This distribution may either be evidence of competition for web space or it may reflect specific distribution patterns unrelated to spider density. An experiment showed that when spiders of either species were released onto vacant trees they selected similar vegetation heights for web construction. On trees already occupied by a heterospecific individual however, F. frutetorum placed its webs significantly higher and N. radiata significantly lower compared to web placement on vacant trees suggesting that F. frutetorum and N. radiata compete for web space.

  13. Subfamily specific conservation profiles for proteins based on n-gram patterns

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    Liu Xiong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new algorithm has been developed for generating conservation profiles that reflect the evolutionary history of the subfamily associated with a query sequence. It is based on n-gram patterns (NP{n,m} which are sets of n residues and m wildcards in windows of size n+m. The generation of conservation profiles is treated as a signal-to-noise problem where the signal is the count of n-gram patterns in target sequences that are similar to the query sequence and the noise is the count over all target sequences. The signal is differentiated from the noise by applying singular value decomposition to sets of target sequences rank ordered by similarity with respect to the query. Results The new algorithm was used to construct 4,248 profiles from 120 randomly selected Pfam-A families. These were compared to profiles generated from multiple alignments using the consensus approach. The two profiles were similar whenever the subfamily associated with the query sequence was well represented in the multiple alignment. It was possible to construct subfamily specific conservation profiles using the new algorithm for subfamilies with as few as five members. The speed of the new algorithm was comparable to the multiple alignment approach. Conclusion Subfamily specific conservation profiles can be generated by the new algorithm without aprioi knowledge of family relationships or domain architecture. This is useful when the subfamily contains multiple domains with different levels of representation in protein databases. It may also be applicable when the subfamily sample size is too small for the multiple alignment approach.

  14. The role of recombination in the origin and evolution of Alu subfamilies.

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    Ana Teixeira-Silva

    Full Text Available Alus are the most abundant and successful short interspersed nuclear elements found in primate genomes. In humans, they represent about 10% of the genome, although few are retrotransposition-competent and are clustered into subfamilies according to the source gene from which they evolved. Recombination between them can lead to genomic rearrangements of clinical and evolutionary significance. In this study, we have addressed the role of recombination in the origin of chimeric Alu source genes by the analysis of all known consensus sequences of human Alus. From the allelic diversity of Alu consensus sequences, validated in extant elements resulting from whole genome searches, distinct events of recombination were detected in the origin of particular subfamilies of AluS and AluY source genes. These results demonstrate that at least two subfamilies are likely to have emerged from ectopic Alu-Alu recombination, which stimulates further research regarding the potential of chimeric active Alus to punctuate the genome.

  15. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae), a novel spider species associated with Holm Oaks (Quercus ilex).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morano, Eduardo; Bonal, Raul

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel species Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. (Araneae, Eutichuridae) collected in the province of Toledo (Central Spain). It was found during a systematic sampling campaign carried out in an agricultural landscape with isolated Holm oaks Quercus ilex and small forest patches. Its morphology and affinities with other species of the genus are discussed. Furthermore, one mitochondrial gene was sequenced to confirm species membership and its differentiation from other Cheiracanthium species. The molecular phylogenies based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes showed a close relationship of Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei, with which it also shares morphological similarities. Nonetheless, the sparse sampling of the phylogeny, due to the low number of sequences available, impedes drawing any definitive conclusion about these relationships; it is first necessary to perform an extensive review of the genus worldwide and more thorough phylogenies. Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. also shares certain ecological and phenological characteristics with Cheiracanthium inclusum and Cheiracanthium mildei. Like them, Cheiracanthium ilicis sp. n. is an obligate tree dweller that prefers a tree canopy habitat and reproduces primarily in late spring and summer. From a conservation perspective, the present study suggests the need to preserve isolated trees in agricultural landscapes. They are not only the refuge of common forest organisms but also of novel species yet to be discovered.

  16. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H.O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2015-01-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience. PMID:25977817

  17. A summary of eight traits of Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Orthoptera and Araneae, occurring in grasslands in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossner, Martin M.; Simons, Nadja K.; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H. O.; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2015-03-01

    Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience.

  18. Struktur komunitas laba-laba (Arachnida: Araneae di Taman Nasional Bogani Nani Wartabone, Sulawesi Utara

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    Roni Koneri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park is a tropical low land rain forest. This region has high diversity of arthropods, i.e. spider. The aims of this study was to analyze the Community structure of spiders of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae in various types of habitat at Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park North Sulawesi. Sampling was carried out at three habitat types, namely primary, secondary, and farm. The research was conducted from March to May 2014 by using pitfall trap (to collect spiders that move on the ground and sweep net (to collect the spideron vegetation canopy. The number of spiders obtained during the study of was 1267 speciments. The specimens collected are consists 15 families, 71 genera, and 129 morphospecies. The Family which most individual abundance is family Tetragnathidae and the least was Ctenizidae. Salticidae were the most common family of species (30 species, while the least were Agelenidae, Ctenidae and Ctenizidae where each family has one species. Abundance, richness, diversity and evenness of species was higher in the farm, while the lowest in the secondary forest. The highest similarity index of spider communities was between primary forests and secondary forests. The results of this research can be used as a diversity database of spiders for conservation strategies in North Sulawesi.

  19. Antibacterial activity of venom from funnel web spider Agelena labyrinthica (Araneae: Agelenidae

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    M Benli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the number of microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics has been increasing steadily, the need for combating these pathogens requires new pharmaceutical agents. To produce these substances, new models have been developed in recent decades. In our study, the venom of Agelena labyrinthica (Clerck, 1757 (Araneae: Agelenidae was tested against ten bacterial strains, specifically, testing 1/100, 1/10 and 1/1 fractions of diluted venom against these bacteria. While the 1/100 dilution was successful in only one of ten bacterial strains, the 1/10 and the 1/1 were effective on six of ten bacterial strains. The most effective results, among these three different concentrations, were observed on Bacillus subtilis. The other five strains that were also sensitive to the dilutions showed similar inhibition zones. Morphological alterations on bacterial cells and comparison with normal cells were accomplished by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The venom-treated cells, due to their loss of cytoplasm, shrank and presented cell wall depression.

  20. Seed morphology and anatomy and its utility in recognizing subfamilies and tribes of Zingiberaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, John C; Smith, Selena Y; Collinson, Margaret E; Leong-Škorničková, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y

    2015-11-01

    Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  1. Seed morphology and anatomy and its utility in recognizing subfamilies and tribes of Zingiberaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedict, John C.; Smith, Selena Y.; Collinson, Margaret E.; Leong-Skornickova, Jana; Specht, Chelsea D.; Marone, Federica; Xiao, Xianghui; Parkinson, Dilworth Y.

    2015-11-01

    PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Recent phylogenetic analyses based on molecular data suggested that the monocot family Zingiberaceae be separated into four subfamilies and four tribes. Robust morphological characters to support these clades are lacking. Seeds were analyzed in a phylogenetic context to test independently the circumscription of clades and to better understand evolution of seed characters within Zingiberaceae. METHODS: Seventy-five species from three of the four subfamilies were analyzed using synchrotron based x-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) and scored for 39 morphoanatomical characters. KEY RESULTS: Zingiberaceae seeds are some of the most structurally complex seeds in angiosperms. No single seed character was found to distinguish each subfamily, but combinations of characters were found to differentiate between the subfamilies. Recognition of the tribes based on seeds was possible for Globbeae, but not for Alpinieae, Riedelieae, or Zingibereae, due to considerable variation. CONCLUSIONS: SRXTM is an excellent, nondestructive tool to capture morphoanatomical variation of seeds and allows for the study of taxa with limited material available. Alpinioideae, Siphonochiloideae, Tamijioideae, and Zingiberoideae are well supported based on both molecular and morphological data, including multiple seed characters. Globbeae are well supported as a distinctive tribe within the Zingiberoideae, but no other tribe could be differentiated using seeds due to considerable homoplasy when compared with currently accepted relationships based on molecular data. Novel seed characters suggest tribal affinities for two currently unplaced Zingiberaceae taxa: Siliquamomum may be related to Riedelieae and Monolophus to Zingibereae, but further work is needed before formal revision of the family.

  2. The Ptychanthoideae of Latin America: An Overview (Studies on Lejeuneaceae Subfamily Ptychanthoideae XVI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S. Rob

    1985-01-01

    Recent taxonomic studies on the Lejeuneaceae subfamily Ptychanthoideae indicate that there are 59 species in 21 genera in Latin America. The ptychanthoid flora is very different from that of the Old World and has much fewer species but is slightly richer in endemic genera. About one third of the

  3. A new record of the subfamily Isometopinae (Heteroptera: Miridae) from the Korean Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunghoon; Duwal, Ram K; Lee, Seunghwan

    2015-01-21

    The subfamily Isometopinae (Heteroptera: Miridae) is recognized for the first time in the Korean Peninsula based on a single female specimen, Isometopus amurensis Kerzhner. Herein, diagnosis of a female specimen, illustration of female genitalia, and habitus figures with biological notes are provided. 

  4. Some remarks on the wood structure of Pinzona and allied genera of the subfamily Tetraceroideae (Dilleniaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baretta-Kuipers, T.

    1972-01-01

    Included phloem of the concentric type is always present in the secondary wood of the genera Pinzona and Doliocarpus of the subfamily Tetraceroideae (Dilleniaceae). Raphide containing cells are found in the ray parenchyma of all genera of the Tetraceroideae, i.e. in Curatella, Davilla, Doliocarpus,

  5. Wood anatomy of the Euphorbiaceae, in particular of the subfamily Phyllanthoideae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennega, Alberta M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The great variety in wood structure of the large family Euphorbiaceae makes it impossible to describe briefly a general wood pattern. Nevertheless, a more or less clear division into four anatomical groups can be made. A short overview is given of the wood structure of the uni-ovulate subfamilies

  6. Generic revision of the subfamily Betylobraconinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and other groups with modified fore tarsus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1995-01-01

    The genera of the subfamilies Betylobraconinae, Hormiinae, Lysiterminae, Pambolinae-Chremylini, and Doryctinae-Ypsistocerini are revised. A key is given to the genera of groups belonging to the cyclostome grade including species with shortened and/or (partly) widened fore tarsus. Sixteen new genera

  7. The monosaccharide transporter gene family in land plants is ancient and shows differential subfamily expression and expansion across lineages

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    Thomas Michael A

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In plants, tandem, segmental and whole-genome duplications are prevalent, resulting in large numbers of duplicate loci. Recent studies suggest that duplicate genes diverge predominantly through the partitioning of expression and that breadth of gene expression is related to the rate of gene duplication and protein sequence evolution. Here, we utilize expressed sequence tag (EST data to study gene duplication and expression patterns in the monosaccharide transporter (MST gene family across the land plants. In Arabidopsis, there are 53 MST genes that form seven distinct subfamilies. We created profile hidden Markov models of each subfamily and searched EST databases representing diverse land plant lineages to address the following questions: 1 Are homologs of each Arabidopsis subfamily present in the earliest land plants? 2 Do expression patterns among subfamilies and individual genes within subfamilies differ across lineages? 3 Has gene duplication within each lineage resulted in lineage-specific expansion patterns? We also looked for correlations between relative EST database representation in Arabidopsis and similarity to orthologs in early lineages. Results Homologs of all seven MST subfamilies were present in land plants at least 400 million years ago. Subfamily expression levels vary across lineages with greater relative expression of the STP, ERD6-like, INT and PLT subfamilies in the vascular plants. In the large EST databases of the moss, gymnosperm, monocot and eudicot lineages, EST contig construction reveals that MST subfamilies have experienced lineage-specific expansions. Large subfamily expansions appear to be due to multiple gene duplications arising from single ancestral genes. In Arabidopsis, one or a few genes within most subfamilies have much higher EST database representation than others. Most highly represented (broadly expressed genes in Arabidopsis have best match orthologs in early divergent lineages

  8. Phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae inferred from morphological characters and nuclear and plastid loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughenour, Jennifer M; Simmons, Mark P; Lombardi, Julio A; Yakobson, Kendra; Archer, Robert H

    2011-05-01

    The phylogeny of Celastraceae subfamily Hippocrateoideae (∼ 100 species and 19 genera in the Old and New World tropics) was inferred using morphological characters together with plastid (matK, trnL-F) and nuclear (ITS and 26S rDNA) genes. The subfamily is easily recognized by the synapomorphies of transversely flattened, deeply lobed capsules and seeds with membranous basal wings or narrow stipes together with bisexual, 5-merous flowers that generally have an extrastaminal disk and three stamens. Hippocrateoideae, like Salacioideae, are inferred to have an Old World origin. The narrow stipes of Neotropical species that are water-dispersed are inferred to be derived within the subfamily from ancestral species with wind-dispersed winged seeds. Helictonema, a monotypic genus endemic to tropical Africa, has a small, white, spongy aril that is located at the base of the seed wing and appears to be unique within Hippocrateoideae. Our inference that Helictonema is sister to the remaining members of the subfamily, considered in the context of Sarawakodendron being sister to Salacioideae, suggests that small arils and capsular fruit were primitive within both subfamilies. The aril became dramatically enlarged within Salacioideae, in which the fruits are berries, and lost entirely within Hippocrateoideae, in which the fruits are transversely flattened capsules. All five Old World taxa of Prionostemma and all eight currently recognized species within Simirestis are transferred to Pristimera, one South African variety of Pristimera is raised to species level, and all three taxa in Pristimera subgenus Trochantha are transferred to the new genus Trochantha. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Redescription of three species of Filistatidae (Araneae) described by C.F. Roewer from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonstein, Sergei L; Marusik, Yuri M; Koponen, Seppo

    2013-12-03

    Types of three filistatid species described by Roewer (1960, 1962) from Afghanistan are redescribed and two of them transferred to other filistatid genera. The new combinations proposed are: Zaitunia afghana (Roewer 1962) comb. n. (ex. Filistata Latreille, 1810) and Tricalamus lindbergi (Roewer, 1962) comb. n. (ex. Pritha Lehtinen, 1967). The taxonomic position of Pholcoides afghana Roewer, 1960 is discussed and the species is placed in the filistatid subfamily Prithinae Gray, 1994.

  10. Evolution of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins. II. Domains of several subfamilies have diverse evolutionary histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, S.; Moncrief, N. D.; Kretsinger, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    In the first report in this series we described the relationships and evolution of 152 individual proteins of the EF-hand subfamilies. Here we add 66 additional proteins and define eight (CDC, TPNV, CLNB, LPS, DGK, 1F8, VIS, TCBP) new subfamilies and seven (CAL, SQUD, CDPK, EFH5, TPP, LAV, CRGP) new unique proteins, which we assume represent new subfamilies. The main focus of this study is the classification of individual EF-hand domains. Five subfamilies--calmodulin, troponin C, essential light chain, regulatory light chain, CDC31/caltractin--and three uniques--call, squidulin, and calcium-dependent protein kinase--are congruent in that all evolved from a common four-domain precursor. In contrast calpain and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SARC) each evolved from its own one-domain precursor. The remaining 19 subfamilies and uniques appear to have evolved by translocation and splicing of genes encoding the EF-hand domains that were precursors to the congruent eight and to calpain and to SARC. The rates of evolution of the EF-hand domains are slower following formation of the subfamilies and establishment of their functions. Subfamilies are not readily classified by patterns of calcium coordination, interdomain linker stability, and glycine and proline distribution. There are many homoplasies indicating that similar variants of the EF-hand evolved by independent pathways.

  11. Dramatic Number Variation of R Genes in Solanaceae Species Accounted for by a Few R Gene Subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunhua; Chen, Jiongjiong; Kuang, Hanhui

    2016-01-01

    Most disease resistance genes encode nucleotide-binding-site (NBS) and leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) domains, and the NBS-LRR encoding genes are often referred to as R genes. Using newly developed approach, 478, 485, 1,194, 1,665, 2,042 and 374 R genes were identified from the genomes of tomato Heinz1706, wild tomato LA716, potato DM1-3, pepper Zunla-1 and wild pepper Chiltepin and tobacco TN90, respectively. The majority of R genes from Solanaceae were grouped into 87 subfamilies, including 16 TIR-NBS-LRR (TNL) and 71 non-TNL subfamilies. Each subfamily was annotated manually, including identification of intron/exon structure and intron phase. Interestingly, TNL subfamilies have similar intron phase patterns, while the non-TNL subfamilies have diverse intron phase due to frequent gain of introns. Prevalent presence/absence polymorphic R gene loci were found among Solanaceae species, and an integrated map with 427 R loci was constructed. The pepper genome (2,042 in Chiltepin) has at least four times of R genes as in tomato (478 in Heinz1706). The high number of R genes in pepper genome is due to the amplification of R genes in a few subfamilies, such as the Rpi-blb2 and BS2 subfamilies. The mechanism underlying the variation of R gene number among different plant genomes is discussed.

  12. Identification and characterization of subfamily-specific signatures in a large protein superfamily by a hidden Markov model approach

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    Ikura Mitsuhiko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most profile and motif databases strive to classify protein sequences into a broad spectrum of protein families. The next step of such database studies should include the development of classification systems capable of distinguishing between subfamilies within a structurally and functionally diverse superfamily. This would be helpful in elucidating sequence-structure-function relationships of proteins. Results Here, we present a method to diagnose sequences into subfamilies by employing hidden Markov models (HMMs to find windows of residues that are distinct among subfamilies (called signatures. The method starts with a multiple sequence alignment (MSA of the subfamily. Then, we build a HMM database representing all sliding windows of the MSA of a fixed size. Finally, we construct a HMM histogram of the matches of each sliding window in the entire superfamily. To illustrate the efficacy of the method, we have applied the analysis to find subfamily signatures in two well-studied superfamilies: the cadherin and the EF-hand protein superfamilies. As a corollary, the HMM histograms of the analyzed subfamilies revealed information about their Ca2+ binding sites and loops. Conclusions The method is used to create HMM databases to diagnose subfamilies of protein superfamilies that complement broad profile and motif databases such as BLOCKS, PROSITE, Pfam, SMART, PRINTS and InterPro.

  13. Chromosome mapping of dragline silk genes in the genomes of widow spiders (Araneae, Theridiidae.

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    Yonghui Zhao

    Full Text Available With its incredible strength and toughness, spider dragline silk is widely lauded for its impressive material properties. Dragline silk is composed of two structural proteins, MaSp1 and MaSp2, which are encoded by members of the spidroin gene family. While previous studies have characterized the genes that encode the constituent proteins of spider silks, nothing is known about the physical location of these genes. We determined karyotypes and sex chromosome organization for the widow spiders, Latrodectus hesperus and L. geometricus (Araneae, Theridiidae. We then used fluorescence in situ hybridization to map the genomic locations of the genes for the silk proteins that compose the remarkable spider dragline. These genes included three loci for the MaSp1 protein and the single locus for the MaSp2 protein. In addition, we mapped a MaSp1 pseudogene. All the MaSp1 gene copies and pseudogene localized to a single chromosomal region while MaSp2 was located on a different chromosome of L. hesperus. Using probes derived from L. hesperus, we comparatively mapped all three MaSp1 loci to a single region of a L. geometricus chromosome. As with L. hesperus, MaSp2 was found on a separate L. geometricus chromosome, thus again unlinked to the MaSp1 loci. These results indicate orthology of the corresponding chromosomal regions in the two widow genomes. Moreover, the occurrence of multiple MaSp1 loci in a conserved gene cluster across species suggests that MaSp1 proliferated by tandem duplication in a common ancestor of L. geometricus and L. hesperus. Unequal crossover events during recombination could have given rise to the gene copies and could also maintain sequence similarity among gene copies over time. Further comparative mapping with taxa of increasing divergence from Latrodectus will pinpoint when the MaSp1 duplication events occurred and the phylogenetic distribution of silk gene linkage patterns.

  14. Chemical control of Loxosceles intermedia (Araneae: Sicariidae) with pyrethroids: field and laboratory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Silva, M A; Duque, J E L; Ramires, E N; Andrade, C F S; Marques-da-Silva, E; Marques, F A; Delay, C E; Fontana, J D; Silva, A C S; Fraguas, G M

    2010-02-01

    Bites from the recluse or brown spiders (genus Loxosceles) can cause necrotic lesions and systemic effects in humans throughout the world. In the state of Paraná, Brazil, loxoscelism is considered a serious public health problem, and Loxosceles intermedia Mello-Leitão (Araneae: Sicariidae) is associated with the majority of reported accidents. In the present research we evaluated the susceptibility of L. intermedia to pyrethroid insecticides currently used for the control of spiders in both field and laboratory conditions. In laboratory tests, the most active pesticides in descending order were microencapsulated lambda-cyhalothrin (LC50 = 0.023 mg/kg), nonmicroencapsulated lambda-cyhalothrin (LC50 = 0.047 mg/kg), deltamethrin (LC50 = 0.26 mg/kg), and cypermethrin (LC50 = 1.38 mg/kg). Cockroaches, Phoetalia circumvagans (Burmeister) (n = 30), killed with microencapsulated lambdacyalothrin, were offered to the spiders. L. intermedia fed on 63.3% of the dead cockroaches during the first 6 h of experiment; none of the spiders died during the subsequent 15 d. Microencapsulated lambdacyalothrin was chosen for application in two contiguous houses. The mean volume applied was 22.8 mg (AI)/m2. Dead spiders were found during all the inspections up to 60 d after the initial application. In total, 297 dead spiders were collected; 65.7% in the attic shared by the two homes, 10.8% inside the house that had most cracks and crevices sealed and 23.6% in the control house. The use of lambda-cyhalothrin-based products for L. intermedia control is discussed.

  15. Speciation on a conveyor belt: sequential colonization of the hawaiian islands by Orsonwelles spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Arnedo, Miquel; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2003-02-01

    Spiders of the recently described linyphiid genus Orsonwelles (Araneae, Linyphiidae) are one of the most conspicuous groups of terrestrial arthropods of Hawaiian native forests. There are 13 known Orsonwelles species, and all are single- island endemics. This radiation provides an excellent example of insular gigantism. We reconstructed the cladistic relationships of Orsonwelles species using a combination of morphological and molecular characters (both mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) within a parsimony framework. We explored and quantified the contribution of different character partitions and their sensitivity to changes in the traditional parameters (gap, transition, and transversion costs). The character data show a strong phylogenetic signal, robust to parameter changes. The monophyly of the genus Orsonwelles is strongly supported. The parsimony analysis of all character evidence combined recovered a clade with of all the non-Kauai Orsonwelles species; the species from Kauai form a paraphyletic assemblage with respect to the latter former clade. The biogeographic pattern of the Hawaiian Orsonwelles species is consistent with colonization by island progression, but alternative explanations for our data exist. Although the geographic origin of the radiation remains unknown, it appears that the ancestral colonizing species arrived first on Kauai (or an older island). The ambiguity in the area cladogram (i.e., post-Oahu colonization) is not derived from conflicting or unresolved phylogenetic signal among Orsonwelles species but rather from the number of taxa on the youngest islands. Speciation in Orsonwelles occurred more often within islands (8 of the 12 cladogenic events) than between islands. A molecular clock was rejected for the sequence data. Divergence times were estimated by using the nonparametric rate smoothing method of Sanderson (1997, Mol. Biol. Evol. 14:1218-1231) and the available geological data for calibration. The results suggest that the

  16. Type designations and taxonomic remarks for Nearctic sap beetles in the subfamily Carpophilinae Erichson (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gareth S; Cline, Andrew R

    2017-05-16

    The subfamily Carpophilinae, in particular the genus Carpophilus Stephens, represents one of the most speciose lineages within Nitidulidae. The subfamily is comprised of more than 250 described species that are found worldwide in every habitable region, and have been transported by man in stored products to remote islands and archipelagos (Ewing & Cline 2005; Parsons 1943). The ubiquitous Carpophilus dimidiatus (L.) is an example of a cosmopolitan species that has been reported from every continent except Antarctica, but likely has been transported there as well. Members of Carpophilinae are well recognized by their abbreviated elytra, compact bodies, and distinct three-segmented antennal club. Many taxa are present in fermenting food products and dried goods. Some members are also commonly found in flowering plants such as cacti, cycads, and agricultural plants such as atemoya (a hybrid of sugar-apple and cherimoya) (Nagel et al. 1989).

  17. [DNA-fingerprinting of representatives of Bovinae subfamilies using the telomere markers (TTAGGG)4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, S K; Vasil'ev, V A; Steklenev, E P; Prosniak, M I; Ryskov, A P

    1999-01-01

    The (TTAGGG)4 oligonucleotide homologous to telomeric tandem repeats of human chromosomes was used for the first time as a multilocus hybridization probe for the analysis of genome variability in the two genera (Bos and Bison) of the Bovinae subfamily. DNA profiles for cattle, banteng, aurochs, and bison were obtained. Hybridization spectra were represented by the discrete individual- and species-specific bands characterized by codominant inheritance. For comparison, DNA profiles of the same samples obtained using the bacteriophage M13 DNA probe are presented. The usefulness of the microsatellite examined for the testing of pedigrees, description of intra- and interbreed variability as well as for determining relationships and the origins of the species of the Bovinae subfamily is discussed.

  18. A new genus and four new species of subfamily Cyclocypridinae (Crustacea, Ostracoda) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savatenalinton, Sukonthip

    2017-03-15

    A new genus, Dentocypria n. gen., in the subfamily Cyclocypridinae Kaufmann, 1900 is described from Thailand. The main distinguishing characters of the new genus are the presence of an internal tooth on the antero-ventral part of the left valve, the marginal tubercles on the right valve, the very elongated terminal segment of the madibular palp, the absence of setae on the basal segment of the second thoracopod (T2), the unusually long e-seta of T2, the short terminal segment of the third thoracopod (T3), the long Sp seta of the caudal ramus and the morphology of prehensile palps and hemipenis. Four new species of the new genus are here described: Dentocypria mesquitai n. gen. n. sp., Dentocypria chantaranothaii n. gen. n. sp., Dentocypria smithi n. gen. n. sp. and Dentocypria aequiloba n. gen. n. sp. A brief discussion on the generic characters and a key to the genera of the subfamily are provided.

  19. Evolution of substrate recognition sites (SRSs) in cytochromes P450 from Apiaceae exemplified by the CYP71AJ subfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Bjørn; Krieger, Celia; Drew, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Large proliferations of cytochrome P450 encoding genes resulting from gene duplications can be termed as 'blooms', providing genetic material for the genesis and evolution of biosynthetic pathways. Furanocoumarins are allelochemicals produced by many of the species in Apiaceaous plants...... belonging to the Apioideae subfamily of Apiaceae and have been described as being involved in the defence reaction against phytophageous insects. Results: A bloom in the cytochromes P450 CYP71AJ subfamily has been identified, showing at least 2 clades and 6 subclades within the CYP71AJ subfamily. Two...

  20. Predaceous diving beetles in Maine: Faunal list and keys to subfamilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobar, L.R.; Spangler, P.J.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Hopkins, K.M.

    1998-01-01

    Records of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) collected in Maine are summarized. These records are augmented by field surveys of beetles in Aroostook Co., Maine during 1993-95. Keys to subfamilies are presented with color plates for selected species. A list of diving beetles that have been collected near Maine (state or province) is presented so that investigators will know what additional species might be expected in Maine. Basic taxonomy is presented to facilitate use of keys.

  1. The gymnosperm Pinus pinea contains both AOX gene subfamilies, AOX1 and AOX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, António Miguel; Zavattieri, Maria Amely; Campos, Maria Doroteia; Cardoso, Hélia Guerra; McDonald, Allison E; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit

    2009-12-01

    The gymnosperm Pinus pinea L. (stone pine) is a typical Mediterranean pine used for nuts and timber production, and as an ornamental around the world. Pine genomes are large in comparison to other species. The hypothesis that retrotransposons, such as gymny, made a large contribution to this alteration in genome size was recently confirmed. However, P. pinea is unique in other various aspects. P. pinea demonstrates a different pattern of gymny organization than other Pinus subgenera. Additionally, P. pinea has a highly recalcitrant behaviour in relation to standard conifer protocols for the induction of somatic embryogenesis or rooting. Because such types of cell reprogramming can be explained as a reaction of plant cells to external stress, it is of special interest to study sequence peculiarities in stress-inducible genes, such as the alternative oxidase (AOX). This is the first report containing molecular evidence for the existence of AOX in gymnosperms at the genetic level. P. pinea AOXs were isolated by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach and three genes were identified. Two of the genes belong to the AOX1 subfamily and one belongs to the AOX2 subfamily. The existence of both AOX subfamilies in gymnosperms is reported here for the first time. This discovery supports the hypothesis that AOX1 and AOX2 subfamilies arose prior to the separation of gymnosperms and angiosperms, and indicates that the AOX2 is absent in monocots because of subsequent gene loss events. Polymorphic P. pinea AOX1 sequences from a selected genetic clone are presented indicating non-allelic, non-synonymous and synonymous translation products.

  2. Gene Structures, Classification, and Expression Models of the DREB Transcription Factor Subfamily in Populus trichocarpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunlin; Zhang, Haizhen; Mao, Xuliang; Li, Chenghao

    2013-01-01

    We identified 75 dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) protein genes in Populus trichocarpa. We analyzed gene structures, phylogenies, domain duplications, genome localizations, and expression profiles. The phylogenic construction suggests that the PtrDREB gene subfamily can be classified broadly into six subtypes (DREB A-1 to A-6) in Populus. The chromosomal localizations of the PtrDREB genes indicated 18 segmental duplication events involving 36 genes and six redundant PtrDREB genes were involved in tandem duplication events. There were fewer introns in the PtrDREB subfamily. The motif composition of PtrDREB was highly conserved in the same subtype. We investigated expression profiles of this gene subfamily from different tissues and/or developmental stages. Sixteen genes present in the digital expression analysis had high levels of transcript accumulation. The microarray results suggest that 18 genes were upregulated. We further examined the stress responsiveness of 15 genes by qRT-PCR. A digital northern analysis showed that the PtrDREB17, 18, and 32 genes were highly induced in leaves under cold stress, and the same expression trends were shown by qRT-PCR. Taken together, these observations may lay the foundation for future functional analyses to unravel the biological roles of Populus' DREB genes. PMID:24324388

  3. Gene Structures, Classification, and Expression Models of the DREB Transcription Factor Subfamily in Populus trichocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlin Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We identified 75 dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB protein genes in Populus trichocarpa. We analyzed gene structures, phylogenies, domain duplications, genome localizations, and expression profiles. The phylogenic construction suggests that the PtrDREB gene subfamily can be classified broadly into six subtypes (DREB A-1 to A-6 in Populus. The chromosomal localizations of the PtrDREB genes indicated 18 segmental duplication events involving 36 genes and six redundant PtrDREB genes were involved in tandem duplication events. There were fewer introns in the PtrDREB subfamily. The motif composition of PtrDREB was highly conserved in the same subtype. We investigated expression profiles of this gene subfamily from different tissues and/or developmental stages. Sixteen genes present in the digital expression analysis had high levels of transcript accumulation. The microarray results suggest that 18 genes were upregulated. We further examined the stress responsiveness of 15 genes by qRT-PCR. A digital northern analysis showed that the PtrDREB17, 18, and 32 genes were highly induced in leaves under cold stress, and the same expression trends were shown by qRT-PCR. Taken together, these observations may lay the foundation for future functional analyses to unravel the biological roles of Populus’ DREB genes.

  4. A large-scale chloroplast phylogeny of the Lamiaceae sheds new light on its subfamilial classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Cantino, Philip D.; Olmstead, Richard G.; Bramley, Gemma L. C.; Xiang, Chun-Lei; Ma, Zhong-Hui; Tan, Yun-Hong; Zhang, Dian-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Lamiaceae, the sixth largest angiosperm family, contains more than 7000 species distributed all over the world. However, although considerable progress has been made in the last two decades, its phylogenetic backbone has never been well resolved. In the present study, a large-scale phylogenetic reconstruction of Lamiaceae using chloroplast sequences was carried out with the most comprehensive sampling of the family to date (288 species in 191 genera, representing approximately 78% of the genera of Lamiaceae). Twelve strongly supported primary clades were inferred, which form the phylogenetic backbone of Lamiaceae. Six of the primary clades correspond to the current recognized subfamilies Ajugoideae, Lamioideae, Nepetoideae, Prostantheroideae, Scutellarioideae, and Symphorematoideae, and one corresponds to a portion of Viticoideae. The other five clades comprise: 1) Acrymia and Cymaria; 2) Hymenopyramis, Petraeovitex, Peronema, and Garrettia; 3) Premna, Gmelina, and Cornutia; 4) Callicarpa; and 5) Tectona. Based on these results, three new subfamilies—Cymarioideae, Peronematoideae, and Premnoideae—are described, and the compositions of other subfamilies are updated based on new findings from the last decade. Furthermore, our analyses revealed five strongly supported, more inclusive clades that contain subfamilies, and we give them phylogenetically defined, unranked names: Cymalamiina, Scutelamiina, Perolamiina, Viticisymphorina, and Calliprostantherina. PMID:27748362

  5. Molecular Evolutionary Characterization of a V1R Subfamily Unique to Strepsirrhine Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Anne D.; Chan, Lauren M.; dos Reis, Mario; Larsen, Peter A.; Campbell, C. Ryan; Rasoloarison, Rodin; Barrett, Meredith; Roos, Christian; Kappeler, Peter; Bielawski, Joseph; Yang, Ziheng

    2014-01-01

    Vomeronasal receptor genes have frequently been invoked as integral to the establishment and maintenance of species boundaries among mammals due to the elaborate one-to-one correspondence between semiochemical signals and neuronal sensory inputs. Here, we report the most extensive sample of vomeronasal receptor class 1 (V1R) sequences ever generated for a diverse yet phylogenetically coherent group of mammals, the tooth-combed primates (suborder Strepsirrhini). Phylogenetic analysis confirms our intensive sampling from a single V1R subfamily, apparently unique to the strepsirrhine primates. We designate this subfamily as V1Rstrep. The subfamily retains extensive repertoires of gene copies that descend from an ancestral gene duplication that appears to have occurred prior to the diversification of all lemuriform primates excluding the basal genus Daubentonia (the aye-aye). We refer to the descendent clades as V1Rstrep-α and V1Rstrep-β. Comparison of the two clades reveals different amino acid compositions corresponding to the predicted ligand-binding site and thus potentially to altered functional profiles between the two. In agreement with previous studies of the mouse lemur (genus, Microcebus), the majority of V1Rstrep gene copies appear to be intact and under strong positive selection, particularly within transmembrane regions. Finally, despite the surprisingly high number of gene copies identified in this study, it is nonetheless probable that V1R diversity remains underestimated in these nonmodel primates and that complete characterization will be limited until high-coverage assembled genomes are available. PMID:24398377

  6. Life history, habitat use and dispersal of a dune wolf spider (Pordosa monticola (Clerck, 1757) Lycosidae, Araneae) in the Flemish coastal dunes (Belgium)

    OpenAIRE

    Bonte, D.; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Pardosa monticola (Araneae, Lycosidae) is a rare spider in Flanders. It is restricted to thermophilic mesotrophic (dune and heath) grasslands. Its life cycle and its habitat preference in the coastal dunes were analysed by interpreting data of more than 200 year-round pitfall-samplings. Viable populations are found in short dune grasslands (grazed by rabbits) and in mown young dune slacks. The life cycle is mixed annual-biannual and hibernation takes place in the juvenile or sub-adult instars...

  7. Neuropeptide discovery in the Araneae (Arthropoda, Chelicerata, Arachnida): elucidation of true spider peptidomes using that of the Western black widow as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Chi, Megan

    2015-03-01

    The public deposition of large transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) datasets for the Araneae (true spiders) provides a resource for determining the structures of the native neuropeptides present in members of this chelicerate order. Here, the Araneae TSA data were mined for putative peptide-encoding transcripts using the recently deduced neuropeptide precursors from the Western black widow Latrodectus hesperus as query templates. Neuropeptide-encoding transcripts from five spiders, Latrodectus tredecimguttatus, Stegodyphus mimosarum, Stegodyphus lineatus, Stegodyphus tentoriicola and Acanthoscurria geniculata, were identified, including ones encoding members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, diuretic hormone 44, eclosion hormone, FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP), GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, orcokinin, proctolin, short neuropeptide F, SIFamide, sulfakinin and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) families. A total of 156 distinct peptides were predicted from the precursor proteins deduced from the S. mimosarum transcripts, with 65, 26, 21 and 12 peptides predicted from those deduced from the A. geniculata, L. tredecimguttatus, S. lineatus and S. tentoriicola sequences, respectively. Among the peptides identified were variant isoforms of FLP, orcokinin and TRP, peptides whose structures are similar to ones previously identified from L. hesperus. The prediction of these atypical peptides from multiple spiders suggests that they may be broadly conserved within the Araneae rather than being species-specific variants. Taken collectively, the data described here greatly expand the number of known Araneae neuropeptides, providing a foundation for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in this important Chelicerate order. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Organization and evolution of two SIDER retroposon subfamilies and their impact on the Leishmania genome

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    Bringaud Frédéric

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently identified two large families of extinct transposable elements termed Short Interspersed DEgenerated Retroposons (SIDERs in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania major. The characterization of SIDER elements was limited to the SIDER2 subfamily, although members of both subfamilies have been shown to play a role in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Apparent functional domestication of SIDERs prompted further investigation of their characterization, dissemination and evolution throughout the Leishmania genus, with particular attention to the disregarded SIDER1 subfamily. Results Using optimized statistical profiles of both SIDER1 and SIDER2 subgroups, we report the first automated and highly sensitive annotation of SIDERs in the genomes of L. infantum, L. braziliensis and L. major. SIDER annotations were combined to in-silico mRNA extremity predictions to generate a detailed distribution map of the repeat family, hence uncovering an enrichment of antisense-oriented SIDER repeats between the polyadenylation and trans-splicing sites of intergenic regions, in contrast to the exclusive sense orientation of SIDER elements within 3'UTRs. Our data indicate that SIDER elements are quite uniformly dispersed throughout all three genomes and that their distribution is generally syntenic. However, only 47.4% of orthologous genes harbor a SIDER element in all three species. There is evidence for species-specific enrichment of SIDERs and for their preferential association, especially for SIDER2s, with different metabolic functions. Investigation of the sequence attributes and evolutionary relationship of SIDERs to other trypanosomatid retroposons reveals that SIDER1 is a truncated version of extinct autonomous ingi-like retroposons (DIREs, which were functional in the ancestral Leishmania genome. Conclusion A detailed characterization of the sequence traits for both SIDER subfamilies unveils

  9. Evolution of substrate recognition sites (SRSs) in cytochromes P450 from Apiaceae exemplified by the CYP71AJ subfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueholm, Bjørn; Krieger, Celia; Drew, Damian

    2015-01-01

    belonging to the Apioideae subfamily of Apiaceae and have been described as being involved in the defence reaction against phytophageous insects. Results: A bloom in the cytochromes P450 CYP71AJ subfamily has been identified, showing at least 2 clades and 6 subclades within the CYP71AJ subfamily. Two...... of the subclades were functionally assigned to the biosynthesis of furanocoumarins. Six substrate recognition sites (SRS1-6) important for the enzymatic conversion were investigated in the described cytochromes P450 and display significant variability within the CYP71AJ subfamily. Homology models underline...... a significant modification of the accession to the iron atom, which might explain the difference of the substrate specificity between the cytochromes P450 restricted to furanocoumarins as substrates and the orphan CYP71AJ. Conclusion: Two subclades functionally assigned to the biosynthesis of furanocoumarins...

  10. A new troglomorphic species of Harmonicon (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Dipluridae) from Pará, Brazil, with notes on the genus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Denis Rafael; Baptista, Renner Luiz Cerqueira

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Harmonicon F. O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896 (Araneae, Dipluridae) is described, from a medium-sized lateritic cave in Parauapebas, Pará, Brazil. The male holotype and only specimen known of H. cerberus sp. n. was found near the entrance of Pequiá cave. This taxon is the fourth species described and the southernmost record for the genus. The new species displays some troglomorphic characteristics, such as reduction and merging of the posterior median and both pairs of lateral eyes and pale yellow to light brown coloration. Both characters are diagnostic when compared to the normal separated eyes and reddish to dark brown of other Harmonicon species. Other diagnostic characteristics are isolated, long, rigid setae distal to the lyra and the shape of the copulatory bulb. This is the second troglomorphic mygalomorph species from Brazil and the first from the Amazonian region. PMID:24715775

  11. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the Northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

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    Eugen Nițu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalău" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous, 9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous, 125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- and necrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalău primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slătioara, Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles (Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing of species richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  12. Soil and saproxylic species (Coleoptera, Collembola, Araneae in primeval forests from the northern part of South-Easthern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Nitu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2006-2007 we carried out faunal investigations in the vernal, estival and autumnal seasons in the scientific reserve "Codrul Secular Giumalãu" using quantitative sampling methods. We identified 189 species of Coleoptera, 70 of Collembola and 20 of Araneae. Of these, 11 phytophagous, 18 myceto/xylo-mycetophagous,9 mixophagous, 18 xylo- and cambio-xylemophagous, 38 saproxylophagous,125 (55 Coleoptera, 70 Collembola detritivorous (sapro-, copro- andnecrophagous, 60 (40 Coleoptera, 20 Aranea predators/parasitoids. Hymenaphorura polonica Pomorski, 1990 (Collembola, and Leiodes rhaeticus Erichson, 1845 (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, are recorded for the first time in the Romanian fauna. The rare species and characteristic species for the old primeval spruce forests are analysed for each studied taxonomic group. The species richness and faunal diversity from the Giumalãu primeval spruce forest are compared with those of other very well preserved forests from the Carpathians scientific reserves (Codrul Secular Slãtioara,Pietrosul Rodnei. The species abundances were used to compute the similarity indexes between the sampled sectors of forest and to perform Cluster Analysis. We observed that the dead wood in the 2nd-6th phases of decomposition has a great influence not only on the saproxylic species but also on the soil fauna like ground beetles(Carabidae that use the logs as ecologic microrefuges (winter refugees or diurnal refugees. The structure of the soil fauna is influenced by wood extraction from the forest ecosystem or by natural perturbations, this consisting in the appearance of opportunistic species as Orchesella pontica (Collembola and in decreasing ofspecies richness of Carabidae (Coleoptera.

  13. Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae of the vegetation layer of the Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Pondoland region of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa is very poorly studied with regard to invertebrate diversity, particularly in the case of arachnids. Accordingly, and in view of proposed infrastructural and mining developments in this ecologically sensitive area of high plant endemism, baseline data are provided on spiders (Araneae of the vegetation layer (i.e. excluding the ground-dwelling fauna of the Mkambati Nature Reserve (MNR. Spiders were collected at 26 sites (six forest and 20 grassland sites in the MNR over an eight-day period, using sweep sampling and active searching of flowers in grassland and tree beating in forests, as part of a broader biodiversity survey. Additional specimens were collected with Malaise and pan traps. A total of 1275 specimens were sampled, representing 132 species (6.6% of the total number recorded in South Africa in 103 genera and 29 families. Theridiidae and Araneidae were the most diverse spider families in the reserve, represented by 22 species each (16.7% of the total, followed by Thomisidae with 19 species (14.4% and Salticidae with 18 species (13.6%. Grassland and forest had distinct spider faunas, with only 24.2% of species being recorded from both biomes. The average number of species sampled per site in grassland and forest was 26 species for both habitats, although values for the two biomes are not directly comparable because different sampling methods were used. All 132 species are new records for the reserve, of which 20 were new records for the Eastern Cape and at least eight spider species may be new to science. The spider diversity captured despite temporal and methodological limits indicates that many additional species are likely to occur in the reserve. Conservation implications: If the MNR is not adequately conserved at least five new species, which may be confined to the area, would be at high risk of extinction and 15 other species endemic to the Pondoland and Kwa

  14. Revision of the funnel-web spider genus Novalena (Araneae: Agelenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya-Morales, Julieta; Jiménez, María Luisa

    2017-05-05

    The Western Hemisphere genus Novalena Chamberlin & Ivie 1942 (Araneae: Agelenidae) is revised. The genus now includes a total of 53 species, of which 40 are new species from USA, Mexico, Guatemala, and Costa Rica: N. ajusco sp. nov. (♀), N. alamo sp. nov. (♂), N. alvarezi sp. nov. (♀), N. atzimbo sp. nov. (♀), N. bosencheve sp. nov. (♂), N. chamberlini sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. cieneguilla sp. nov. (♀), N. cintalapa sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. clara sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. comaltepec sp. nov. (♀), N. creel sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. dentata sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. divisadero sp. nov. (♀), N. durango sp. nov. (♀), N. franckei sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. garnica sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. gibarrai sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. irazu sp. nov. (♀), N. iviei sp. nov. (♂), N. ixtlan sp. nov. (♂), N. jiquilpan sp. nov. (♀), N. leonensis sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. mexiquensis sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. oaxaca sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. paricutin sp. nov. (♀), N. perote sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. plata sp. nov. (♀), N. poncei sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. popoca sp. nov. (♀), N. prieta sp. nov. (♀), N. puebla sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. punta sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. rothi sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. saltoensis sp. nov. (♀), N. sinaloa sp. nov. (♀), N. tacana sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. triunfo sp. nov. (♀), N. valdezi sp. nov. (♂ ♀), N. victoria sp. nov. (♀), and N. volcanes sp. nov. (♀). Nine are previously described species: N. annamae (Gertsch & Davis 1940), N. attenuata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1902), N. bipartita (Kraus 1955), N. calavera Chamberlin & Ivie 1942, N. costata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1902), N. laticava (Kraus 1955), N. orizaba (Banks 1898), N. shlomitae (García-Villafuerte 2009), and N. simplex (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge 1902). Four new synonyms are proposed: N. pina Chamberlin & Ivie 1942 = N. intermedia (Chamberlin & Gertsch 1930); N. idahoana (Gertsch 1934) and N. wawona Chamberlin & Ivie 1942 = N. lutzi (Gertsch 1933); N. tolucana (Gertsch & Davis 1940) = N. approximata

  15. Phylogeny and evolutionary patterns in the Dwarf crayfish subfamily (Decapoda: Cambarellinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pedraza-Lara

    Full Text Available The Dwarf crayfish or Cambarellinae, is a morphologically singular subfamily of decapod crustaceans that contains only one genus, Cambarellus. Its intriguing distribution, along the river basins of the Gulf Coast of United States (Gulf Group and into Central México (Mexican Group, has until now lacked of satisfactory explanation. This study provides a comprehensive sampling of most of the extant species of Cambarellus and sheds light on its evolutionary history, systematics and biogeography. We tested the impact of Gulf Group versus Mexican Group geography on rates of cladogenesis using a maximum likelihood framework, testing different models of birth/extinction of lineages. We propose a comprehensive phylogenetic hypothesis for the subfamily based on mitochondrial and nuclear loci (3,833 bp using Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood methods. The phylogenetic structure found two phylogenetic groups associated to the two main geographic components (Gulf Group and Mexican Group and is partially consistent with the historical structure of river basins. The previous hypothesis, which divided the genus into three subgenera based on genitalia morphology was only partially supported (P = 0.047, resulting in a paraphyletic subgenus Pandicambarus. We found at least two cases in which phylogenetic structure failed to recover monophyly of recognized species while detecting several cases of cryptic diversity, corresponding to lineages not assigned to any described species. Cladogenetic patterns in the entire subfamily are better explained by an allopatric model of speciation. Diversification analyses showed similar cladogenesis patterns between both groups and did not significantly differ from the constant rate models. While cladogenesis in the Gulf Group is coincident in time with changes in the sea levels, in the Mexican Group, cladogenesis is congruent with the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Our results show how similar allopatric

  16. Reassessment of Species Diversity of the Subfamily Denticollinae (Coleoptera: Elateridae through DNA Barcoding.

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    Taeman Han

    Full Text Available The subfamily Denticollinae is a taxonomically diverse group in the family Elateridae. Denticollinae includes many morphologically similar species and crop pests, as well as many undescribed species at each local fauna. To construct a rapid and reliable identification system for this subfamily, the effectiveness of molecular species identification was assessed based on 421 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI sequences of 84 morphologically identified species. Among the 84 morphospecies, molecular species identification of 60 species (71.4% was consistent with their morphological identifications. Six cryptic and/or pseudocryptic species with large genetic divergence (>5% were confirmed by their sympatric or allopatric distributions. However, 18 species, including a subspecies, had ambiguous genetic distances and shared overlapping intra- and interspecific genetic distances (range: 2.12%-3.67% suggesting incomplete lineage sorting, introgression of mitochondrial genome, or affection by endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia infection, between species and simple genetic variation within species. In this study, we propose a conservative threshold of 3.6% for convenient molecular operational taxonomic unit (MOTU identification in the subfamily Denticollinae based on the results of pairwise genetic distances analyses using neighbor-joining, mothur, Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery analysis, and tree-based species delimitation by Poisson Tree Processes analysis. Using the 3.6% threshold, we identified 87 MOTUs and found 8 MOTUs in the interval between 2.5% to 3.5%. Evaluation of MOTUs identified in this range requires integrative species delimitation, including review of morphological and ecological differences as well as sensitive genetic markers. From this study, we confirmed that COI sequence is useful for reassessing species diversity for polymorphic and polytypic species occurring in sympatric and allopatric distributions, and for a single species having

  17. Identification and characterization of a novel gene differentially expressed in zebrafish cross-subfamily cloned embryos

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    Wang Ya-Ping

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-species nuclear transfer has been shown to be a potent approach to retain the genetic viability of a certain species near extinction. However, most embryos produced by cross-species nuclear transfer were compromised because that they were unable to develop to later stages. Gene expression analysis of cross-species cloned embryos will yield new insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in cross-species nuclear transfer and embryonic development. Results A novel gene, K31, was identified as an up-regulated gene in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos using SSH approach and RACE method. K31 complete cDNA sequence is 1106 base pairs (bp in length, with a 342 bp open reading frame (ORF encoding a putative protein of 113 amino acids (aa. Comparative analysis revealed no homologous known gene in zebrafish and other species database. K31 protein contains a putative transmembrane helix and five putative phosphorylation sites but without a signal peptide. Expression pattern analysis by real time RT-PCR and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH shows that it has the characteristics of constitutively expressed gene. Sub-cellular localization assay shows that K31 protein can not penetrate the nuclei. Interestingly, over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality in the epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC cells in cell culture, which gave hint to the inefficient reprogramming events occurred in cloned embryos. Conclusion Taken together, our findings indicated that K31 gene is a novel gene differentially expressed in fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos and over-expression of K31 gene can cause lethality of cultured fish cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the determination of novel genes involved in nucleo-cytoplasmic interaction of fish cross-subfamily cloned embryos.

  18. Phylogeny of the fern subfamily Pteridoideae (Pteridaceae; Pteridophyta), with the description of a new genus: Gastoniella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Xin-Mao; Lu, Ngan Thi; Zhang, Li-Bing

    2017-04-01

    As the second most genera-rich fern family, Pteridaceae contain more than 1000 species contributing to ca. 10% of extant leptosporangiate fern diversity. The subfamily Pteridoideae is one of the five subfamilies often recognized. The circumscription of Pteridoideae has not been clear. A large number of species have not yet been included in any molecular analyses before. In this study, DNA sequences of six plastid loci of 154 accessions representing ca. 87 species in 14 genera of Pteridaceae subfam. Pteridoideae and four accessions representing two species in subfam. Parkerioideae and one species of subfam. Adiantoideae as outgroups were used to infer a phylogeny using maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony. Our analyses show that (1) Pteridoideae is monophyletic and the newly defined subfamily is composed of 14 genera including a newly described genus; (2) Pteridoideae is resolved into four strongly supported monophyletic clades: the Pteris clade, the Actiniopteris+Onychium clade, the JAPSTT clade, and the GAPCC clade, these being supported by not only molecular data but also morphological features and distribution information; (3) Onychium is confirmed as monophyletic and accessions of Onychium are resolved into two strongly supported clades, the O. cryptogrammoides clade and the O. siliculosum clade; and (4) Accessions of the traditionally defined Anogramma are resolved as paraphyletic in relation to Cerosora, Cosentinica, and Pityrogramma. Three species traditionally treated in Anogramma are in fact more closely related to Cerosora and Pityrogramma than they are to Anogramma. Gastoniella Li Bing Zhang & Liang Zhang, gen. nov. is described to accommodate these species and three new combinations are provided. Three currently known species of Gastoniella are distributed in the Ascension Island in South Atlantic Ocean, central Mexico, and tropical America, respectively. The new genus is distinct from Anogramma s.s. in having ultimate segments linear not obviously

  19. Current status of subfamily Ichneumoninae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) from Malaysia and Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafiza, A. F.; Idris, A. B.

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, 25 genera and 38 species under 10 tribes (Alomyini, Compsophorini, Goedartiini, Heresiarchini, Ichneumonini, Ischnojoppini, Joppocryptini, Listrodromini, Oedicephalini and Platylabini) of the subfamily Ichneumoninae housed in the Centre for Insect Systematics, UKM and Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research (National University of Singapore) are reported from Malaysia and Singapore. The tribe Heresiarchini has the greatest number of species (13) followed by Ichneumonini with six species. Imeria is the largest genus which contains five species recorded. Six species in this study are new records for Malaysia.

  20. A homologous subfamily of satellite III DNA on human chromosomes 14 and 22.

    OpenAIRE

    Choo, K H; Earle, E; McQuillan, C.

    1990-01-01

    We describe a new subfamily of human satellite III DNA that is represented on two different acrocentric chromosomes. This DNA is composed of a tandemly repeated array of diverged 5-base-pair monomer units of the sequence GGAAT or GGAGT. These monomers are organised into a 1.37-kilobase higher-order structure that is itself tandemly reiterated. Using a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing specific human chromosomes, this higher-order structure is demonstrated on chromosomes 14 and 22, but ...

  1. Haemonchus contortus acetylcholine receptors of the DEG-3 subfamily and their role in sensitivity to monepantel.

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    Lucien Rufener

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastro-intestinal nematodes in ruminants, especially Haemonchus contortus, are a global threat to sheep and cattle farming. The emergence of drug resistance, and even multi-drug resistance to the currently available classes of broad spectrum anthelmintics, further stresses the need for new drugs active against gastro-intestinal nematodes. A novel chemical class of synthetic anthelmintics, the Amino-Acetonitrile Derivatives (AADs, was recently discovered and the drug candidate AAD-1566 (monepantel was chosen for further development. Studies with Caenorhabditis elegans suggested that the AADs act via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR of the nematode-specific DEG-3 subfamily. Here we identify nAChR genes of the DEG-3 subfamily from H. contortus and investigate their role in AAD sensitivity. Using a novel in vitro selection procedure, mutant H. contortus populations of reduced sensitivity to AAD-1566 were obtained. Sequencing of full-length nAChR coding sequences from AAD-susceptible H. contortus and their AAD-1566-mutant progeny revealed 2 genes to be affected. In the gene monepantel-1 (Hco-mptl-1, formerly named Hc-acr-23H, a panel of mutations was observed exclusively in the AAD-mutant nematodes, including deletions at intron-exon boundaries that result in mis-spliced transcripts and premature stop codons. In the gene Hco-des-2H, the same 135 bp insertion in the 5' UTR created additional, out of frame start codons in 2 independent H. contortus AAD-mutants. Furthermore, the AAD mutants exhibited altered expression levels of the DEG-3 subfamily nAChR genes Hco-mptl-1, Hco-des-2H and Hco-deg-3H as quantified by real-time PCR. These results indicate that Hco-MPTL-1 and other nAChR subunits of the DEG-3 subfamily constitute a target for AAD action against H. contortus and that loss-of-function mutations in the corresponding genes may reduce the sensitivity to AADs.

  2. Two CRM protein subfamilies cooperate in the splicing of group IIB introns in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Yukari; Bayraktar, Omer Ali; Barkan, Alice

    2008-11-01

    Chloroplast genomes in angiosperms encode approximately 20 group II introns, approximately half of which are classified as subgroup IIB. The splicing of all but one of the subgroup IIB introns requires a heterodimer containing the peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase homolog CRS2 and one of two closely related proteins, CAF1 or CAF2, that harbor a recently recognized RNA binding domain called the CRM domain. Two CRS2/CAF-dependent introns require, in addition, a CRM domain protein called CFM2 that is only distantly related to CAF1 and CAF2. Here, we show that CFM3, a close relative of CFM2, associates in vivo with those CRS2/CAF-dependent introns that are not CFM2 ligands. Mutant phenotypes in rice and Arabidopsis support a role for CFM3 in the splicing of most of the introns with which it associates. These results show that either CAF1 or CAF2 and either CFM2 or CFM3 simultaneously bind most chloroplast subgroup IIB introns in vivo, and that the CAF and CFM subunits play nonredundant roles in splicing. These results suggest that the expansion of the CRM protein family in plants resulted in two subfamilies that play different roles in group II intron splicing, with further diversification within a subfamily to accommodate multiple intron ligands.

  3. The AFL subfamily of B3 transcription factors: evolution and function in angiosperm seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonero, Pilar; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Vicente-Carbajosa, Jesús

    2017-02-01

    Seed development follows zygotic embryogenesis; during the maturation phase reserves accumulate and desiccation tolerance is acquired. This is tightly regulated at the transcriptional level and the AFL (ABI3/FUS3/LEC2) subfamily of B3 transcription factors (TFs) play a central role. They alter hormone biosynthesis, mainly in regards to abscisic acid and gibberellins, and also regulate the expression of other TFs and/or modulate their downstream activity via protein-protein interactions. This review deals with the origin of AFL TFs, which can be traced back to non-vascular plants such as Physcomitrella patens and achieves foremost expansion in the angiosperms. In green algae, like the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii or the pluricellular Klebsormidium flaccidum, a single B3 gene and four B3 paralogous genes are annotated, respectively. However, none of them present with the structural features of the AFL subfamily, with the exception of the B3 DNA-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis groups the AFL TFs into four Major Clusters of Ortologous Genes (MCOGs). The origin and function of these genes is discussed in view of their expression patterns and in the context of major regulatory interactions in seeds of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Myosin Binding Protein-C Slow: An Intricate Subfamily of Proteins

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    Maegen A. Ackermann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myosin binding protein C (MyBP-C consists of a family of thick filament associated proteins. Three isoforms of MyBP-C exist in striated muscles: cardiac, slow skeletal, and fast skeletal. To date, most studies have focused on the cardiac form, due to its direct involvement in the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Here we focus on the slow skeletal form, discuss past and current literature, and present evidence to support that: (i MyBP-C slow comprises a subfamily of four proteins, resulting from complex alternative shuffling of the single MyBP-C slow gene, (ii the four MyBP-C slow isoforms are expressed in variable amounts in different skeletal muscles, (iii at least one MyBP-C slow isoform is preferentially found at the periphery of M-bands and (iv the MyBP-C slow subfamily may play important roles in the assembly and stabilization of sarcomeric M- and A-bands and regulate the contractile properties of the actomyosin filaments.

  5. A consistent nomenclature of antimicrobial peptides isolated from frogs of the subfamily Phyllomedusinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiche, Mohamed; Ladram, Ali; Nicolas, Pierre

    2008-11-01

    A growing number of cationic antimicrobial peptides have been isolated from the skin of hylid frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily. The amino acid sequences of these peptides are currently located in several databases under identifiers with no consistent system of nomenclature to describe them. In order to provide a workable terminology for antimicrobial peptides from Phyllomedusid frogs, we have made a systematic effort to collect, analyze, and classify all the Phyllomedusid peptide sequences available in databases. We propose that frogs belonging to the Phyllomedusinae subfamily should be described by the species names set out in Amphibian Species of the World: http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php, American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. Multiple alignments analysis of at least 80 antimicrobial peptides isolated from 12 Phyllomedusinae species were distributed in seven distinct peptide families including dermaseptin, phylloseptin, plasticin, dermatoxin, phylloxin, hyposin and orphan peptides, and will be considered as the name of the headgroup of each family. The parent peptide's name should be followed by the first upper letter of the species for orthologous peptides and publication date determines priority. For example, the abbreviation B for bicolor and H for hypochondrialis. When two species begin with the same letter, two letters in upper case should be used (the first letter followed by the second or the third letter and so on). For example, the abbreviation DI for distincta, DU for duellmani, VA for vaillanti and VN for vanzolinii. Paralogous peptides should bear letter(s) in upper case followed by numbers.

  6. Functional interactome of Aquaporin 1 sub-family reveals new physiological functions in Arabidopsis Thaliana

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    Mohamed Ragab Abdel Gawwad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins are channel proteins found in plasma membranes and intercellular membranes of different cellular compartments, facilitate the water flux, solutes and gases across the cellular plasma membranes. The present study highlights the sub-family plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP predicting the 3-D structure and analyzing the functional interactome of it homologs. PIP1 homologs integrate with many proteins with different plant physiological roles in Arabidopsis thaliana including; PIP1A and PIP1B: facilitate the transport of water, diffusion of amino acids and/or peptides from the vacuolar compartment to the cytoplasm, play a role in the control of cell turgor and cell expansion and involved in root water uptake respectively. In addition we found that PIP1B plays a defensive role against Pseudomonas syringae infection through the interaction with the plasma membrane Rps2 protein. Another substantial function of PIP1C via the interaction with PIP2E is the response to nematode infection. Generally, PIP1 sub-family interactome controlling many physiological processes in plant cell like; osmoregulation in plants under high osmotic stress such as under a high salt, response to nematode, facilitate the transport of water across cell membrane and regulation of floral initiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  7. Species tree of a recent radiation: the subfamily Delphininae (Cetacea, Mammalia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Ana R; Jackson, Jennifer A; Möller, Luciana M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Manuela Coelho, M

    2012-07-01

    Lineages undergoing rapid radiations provide exceptional opportunities for studying speciation and adaptation, but also represent a challenge for molecular systematics because retention of ancestral polymorphisms and the occurrence of hybridization can obscure relationships among lineages. Dolphins in the subfamily Delphininae are one such case. Non-monophyly, rapid speciation events, and discordance between morphological and molecular characters have made the inference of phylogenetic relationships within this subfamily very difficult. Here we approach this problem by applying multiple methods intended to estimate species trees using a multi-gene dataset for the Delphininae (Sousa, Sotalia, Stenella, Tursiops, Delphinus and Lagenodelphis). Incongruent gene trees obtained indicate that incomplete lineage sorting and possibly hybridization are confounding the inference of species history in this group. Nonetheless, using coalescent-based methods, we have been able to extract an underlying species-tree signal from divergent histories of independent genes. This is the first time a molecular study provides support for such relationships. This study further illustrates how methods of species-tree inference can be very sensitive both to the characteristics of the dataset and the evolutionary processes affecting the evolution of the group under study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Flight patterns and sex ratio of beetles of the subfamily Dynastinae (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae

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    Larissa Simões Corrêa de Albuquerque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dynastinae is one of the most representative subfamilies of Melolonthidae (Scarabaeoidea and has considerable ecological importance due mainly to interactions with plants of the families Araceae and Annonaceae. This relationship has led to the evolution of nocturnal activity patterns, which are influenced by environmental conditions. In the present study, abiotic factors were investigated to comprehend the influence on the flight patterns and identify the sex ratio of beetles from this subfamily. A study was conducted at Campo de Instrução Marechal Newton Cavalcanti in northeastern Brazil between December 2010 and November 2011. Thirteen species of Dynastinae were identified, most of which were from the genus Cyclocephala. Abundance and richness were greater in the dry season. Six species exhibited peak flight activity at specific periods of the night. More females than males were recorded for Cyclocephala distincta and C. paraguayensis. The present findings suggest that rainfall reduces the flight activity of these beetles and different time schedules may be related to mating behavior, foraging behavior and the avoidance of interspecific resource competition.

  9. A new genus of the subfamily Cillaeinae (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) from the Philippines and New Guinea with notes on the taxonomy and phylogeny of the subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirejtshuk, Alexander G; Kovalev, Alexey V

    2016-12-06

    Allenipeplus gen. nov. represented by A. philippinensis sp. nov., type species (Philippines, Luzon), A. alius sp. nov. (Philippines, Mindoro), A. harmonicus sp. nov. (Philippines, Mindanao) and A. vitellinus sp. nov. (Indonesian New Guinea), is described. This new genus combines characters with a mosaic spread among other cillaeine genera. We present a wide comparison of genera among the subfamily Cillaeinae, making it possible to elaborate a detailed diagnosis of the new genus and trace some order in character patterns and propose a hypothesis on the relationship of this genus to other groups known from the Indo-Malayan and Australian Regions. A detailed diagnosis of the new genus and key to the new species are given. The Adocimus-complex of the related genera including Allenipeplus gen. nov., Adocimus Murray, 1864, Ithyphenes Murray, 1864, Platynema Ritsema, 1885 and probably Brittonema Kirejtshuk, 2011 is defined. Some notes on the taxonomy of the genera Liparopeplus Murray, 1864 and Xanthopeplus Fairmaire, 1880, stat. nov. are given. Additionally, designation of a lectotype for Liparopeplus colastoides Murray, 1864 is made.

  10. Downregulation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 increases sensitivity to neoadjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced rectal carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Chang; Wang, Hao; Lao, Xin-Yuan; Chai, Rui; Gao, Xian-Hua; Cao, Guang-Wen; Fu, Chuan-Gang

    2013-05-01

    This study was designed to verify the effect of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 on radiosensitivity of locally advanced rectal carcinoma. The expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 protein in 121 pretreatment tissue samples from locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients was detected by immunohistochemistry. Pathological response to radiotherapy was evaluated according to tumor regression grading by postoperative histological examinations after they received long-course preoperative neoadjuvant radiotherapy, and the association between clinicopathological data and tumor regression grading was analyzed retrospectively. For further validation, short hairpin RNA was constructed and transfected into colorectal carcinoma cell line HT29. The knockdown efficiency was confirmed at both RNA and protein levels. The altered radiosensitivity was evaluated by methylthiazolyl tetrazolium assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, and Hoechst 33258 staining. Univariate analysis revealed that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 expression (p member 4 expression (p member 4 expression efficiently and persistently. Downregulation of ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 expression significantly enhanced inhibition of cell proliferation, decreased colony formation capacity, and increased cell apoptosis induced by irradiation, as examined by a series of experiments in vitro. In addition, radiobiological parameters calculated according to the single-hit multitarget model were also decreased significantly. Our data indicate that ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 4 may be a useful molecular marker in predicting radiosensitivity, and a potential target in improving the response to neoadjuvant radiotherapy in locally advanced rectal carcinoma patients.

  11. Marco Isaia, Mauro Paschetta, Enrico Lana, Paolo Pantini, Axel L. Schönhofer, Erhard Christian & Guido Bandino (2011: Aracnidi sotterranei delle Alpi Occidentali italiane/Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenker, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available book review: Marco Isaia, Mauro Paschetta, Enrico Lana, Paolo Pantini, Axel L. Schönhofer, Erhard Christian & Guido Bandino (2011: Aracnidi sotterranei delle Alpi Occidentali italiane/Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae, Opiliones, Palpigradi, Pseudoscorpiones

  12. Whole genome identification, phylogeny and evolution of the cytochrome P450 family 2 (CYP2) sub-families in birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Daniela; Maldonado, Emanuel; Khan, Imran

    2016-01-01

    genomes representing all major extant bird clades. Overall, 12 CYP2 subfamilies were identified, including the first description of the CYP2F, CYP2G and several CYP2AF genes in avian genomes. Some of the CYP2 genes previously described as being lineage-specific, such as CYP2K and CYP2W, are ubiquitous...... to all avian groups. Furthermore, we identified a large number of CYP2J copies, which have been associated previously with water reabsorption. We detected positive selection in the avian CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2H, CYP2J, CYP2K and CYP2AC subfamilies. Moreover, we identified new substrate recognition sites (SRS...... that there has been active enzyme site selection on CYP2 subfamilies and differential selection associated with different life history traits among birds....

  13. Key biosynthetic gene subfamily recruited for pheromone production prior to the extensive radiation of Lepidoptera

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    Johansson Tomas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moths have evolved highly successful mating systems, relying on species-specific mixtures of sex pheromone components for long-distance mate communication. Acyl-CoA desaturases are key enzymes in the biosynthesis of these compounds and to a large extent they account for the great diversity of pheromone structures in Lepidoptera. A novel desaturase gene subfamily that displays Δ11 catalytic activities has been highlighted to account for most of the unique pheromone signatures of the taxonomically advanced ditrysian species. To assess the mechanisms driving pheromone evolution, information is needed about the signalling machinery of primitive moths. The currant shoot borer, Lampronia capitella, is the sole reported primitive non-ditrysian moth known to use unsaturated fatty-acid derivatives as sex-pheromone. By combining biochemical and molecular approaches we elucidated the biosynthesis paths of its main pheromone component, the (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadien-1-ol and bring new insights into the time point of the recruitment of the key Δ11-desaturase gene subfamily in moth pheromone biosynthesis. Results The reconstructed evolutionary tree of desaturases evidenced two ditrysian-specific lineages (the Δ11 and Δ9 (18C>16C to have orthologs in the primitive moth L. capitella despite being absent in Diptera and other insect genomes. Four acyl-CoA desaturase cDNAs were isolated from the pheromone gland, three of which are related to Δ9-desaturases whereas the fourth cDNA clusters with Δ11-desaturases. We demonstrated that this transcript (Lca-KPVQ exclusively accounts for both steps of desaturation involved in pheromone biosynthesis. This enzyme possesses a Z11-desaturase activity that allows transforming the palmitate precursor (C16:0 into (Z-11-hexadecenoic acid and the (Z-9-tetradecenoic acid into the conjugated intermediate (Z,Z-9,11-tetradecadienoic acid. Conclusion The involvement of a single Z11-desaturase in pheromone

  14. On the entomofauna of Mt. Durmitor (Northern Montenegro: Braconid wasps of the subfamily Opiinae (Braconidae, Hymenoptera

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    Brajković M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Braconids are primary parasites of other insects and their eggs, larvae, and adults, and species have been recently discovered that lay their eggs in plant seeds. Classified into about 25 genera, more than 1,400 species of Opiinae are known at the present time in the world fauna. They have been registered in all zoogeographic regions. The Opiinae are solitary endoparasites of the larvae of cyclorhaphous Diptera, most often those of species belonging to the families Agromyzidae, Tephritidae, Anthomyiidae Ephydridae. In investigations conducted on Mt. Durmitor since 1982, we have up to now established 10 species of braconids of the subfamily Opiinae (Opius peterseni Fi., O. caudatus Wesm., O. parvungula Th., O. levisWesm., O. pallipesWesm., O. quasiquisti Fi., O. exilis Hal., O. filicornis Th., O. lugens Hal., and O. meracus Fi, eight of which are new for the fauna of Serbia and Montenegro.

  15. Effect of ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 on bovine blastocyst implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, M; Kuwano, T; Kamori, T; Isozaki, Y; Nishihara, T; Yamauchi, N; Hattori, M-A

    2014-03-15

    The ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) is an efflux transporter that excretes xenobiotics and waste matter. High expression of ABCB1 induced by forskolin (FSK) and rifampicin (RIF) in the bovine blastocysts reportedly improves the cellular quality. In the present study, interferon-α, similar to FSK and RIF, was highly potent in inducing the expression of ABCB1 in the bovine blastocysts but did not exhibit an additive effect with FSK and RIF. Bovine blastocysts stimulated by the combined treatment with FSK, RIF, and interferon-α to express high levels of ABCB1 displayed better freezing resistance as indicated by higher cell numbers in post thawing cultures. On transfer to recipients, such embryos established pregnancies with significantly higher frequencies in repeat breeder cows rather than normal ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Citrus (Rutaceae SNP Markers Based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR; Transferability Across the Aurantioideae Subfamily

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    Andres Garcia-Lor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers based on Competitive Allele-Specific PCR (KASPar were developed from sequences of three Citrus species. Their transferability was tested in 63 Citrus genotypes and 19 relative genera of the subfamily Aurantioideae to estimate the potential of SNP markers, selected from a limited intrageneric discovery panel, for ongoing broader diversity analysis at the intra- and intergeneric levels and systematic germplasm bank characterization. Methods and Results: Forty-two SNP markers were developed using KASPar technology. Forty-one were successfully genotyped in all of the Citrus germplasm, where intra- and interspecific polymorphisms were observed. The transferability and diversity decreased with increasing taxonomic distance. Conclusions: SNP markers based on the KASPar method developed from sequence data of a limited intrageneric discovery panel provide a valuable molecular resource for genetic diversity analysis of germplasm within a genus and should be useful for germplasm fingerprinting at a much broader diversity level.

  17. DNA Barcoding of the parasitoid wasp subfamily Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae from Chamela, Mexico

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    Daniela Gutiérrez-Arellano

    2015-05-01

    Results and conclusions. A total of 961 specimens were collected, from which 883 COI sequences were obtained. The sequences generated corresponded to 289 barcoding species and 30 identified genera. The most speciose genera were Heterospilus Haliday (170 spp., Ecphylus Förster (19 spp., Allorhogas Gahan (15 spp. and Callihormius Ashmead (14 spp.. Addition of previously collected material increased the diversity of the subfamily in the region to 34 genera and 290 species. Paraphyly of Heterospilus with respect to Neoheterospilus and Heterospathius was again recovered. Twenty new species and two new genera (Sabinita Belokobylskij, Zaldívar-Riverón et Martínez, Ficobolus Martínez, Belokobylskij et Zaldívar-Riverón have been described so far from the material collected in this work.

  18. Quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Unsoeld, Markus; Kavetska, Katarzyna; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2014-03-01

    The paper contains a review of quill mites of the subfamily Picobiinae (Acari: Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) associated with woodpeckers (Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Three new species are described: Picobia mentalis Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Picus mentalis Temminck, Neopicobia ea Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Celeus flavus (St. Mueller) (type host), C. elegans (St. Mueller), C. torquatus (Boddaert), and Neopicobia freya Skoracki et Unsoeld sp. nov. from Dryocopus galeatus (Temminck) (type host) and Piculus rubiginosus (Swainson). Additionally, six new host species for Picobia heeri Haller, 1878 and 12 new host species for Picobia dryobatis (Fritsch, 1956) are reported. A complete list of the picobiines parasitising birds of the family Picidae is presented in the tabular form.

  19. The strange case of Laetesia raveni n. sp., a green linyphiid spider from Eastern Australia with a preference for thorny plants (Araneae, Linyphiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hormiga, Gustavo; Scharff, Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    Laetesia raveni n. sp. (Araneae, Linyphiidae), is described based on specimens collected in New South Wales and Queensland (Australia). This new linyphiid species is of bright green colour, and it seems to have a preference to build its webs almost exclusively on two plant species, namely Calamus...... muelleri Wendland (Arecaceae) and Solanum inaequilaterum Domin, (Solanaceae), both of them densely covered with thorns. The epigynal morphology of Laetesia raveni n. sp. varies intraspecifically. Live individuals and several of their dome-shaped sheet webs are illustrated....

  20. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two cation chloride cotransporter subfamily members of Hydra vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anna-Maria; Pisella, Lucie I; Medina, Igor; Nothwang, Hans Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Cation Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) comprise secondary active membrane proteins mainly mediating the symport of cations (Na+, K+) coupled with chloride (Cl-). They are divided into K+-Cl- outward transporters (KCCs), the Na+-K+-Cl- (NKCCs) and Na+-Cl- (NCCs) inward transporters, the cation chloride cotransporter interacting protein CIP1, and the polyamine transporter CCC9. KCCs and N(K)CCs are established in the genome since eukaryotes and metazoans, respectively. Most of the physiological and functional data were obtained from vertebrate species. To get insights into the basal functional properties of KCCs and N(K)CCs in the metazoan lineage, we cloned and characterized KCC and N(K)CC from the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. HvKCC is composed of 1,032 amino-acid residues. Functional analyses revealed that hvKCC mediates a Na+-independent, Cl- and K+ (Tl+)-dependent cotransport. The classification of hvKCC as a functional K-Cl cotransporter is furthermore supported by phylogenetic analyses and a similar structural organization. Interestingly, recently obtained physiological analyses indicate a role of cnidarian KCCs in hyposmotic volume regulation of nematocytes. HvN(K)CC is composed of 965 amino-acid residues. Phylogenetic analyses and structural organization suggest that hvN(K)CC is a member of the N(K)CC subfamily. However, no inorganic ion cotransport function could be detected using different buffer conditions. Thus, hvN(K)CC is a N(K)CC subfamily member without a detectable inorganic ion cotransporter function. Taken together, the data identify two non-bilaterian solute carrier 12 (SLC12) gene family members, thereby paving the way for a better understanding of the evolutionary paths of this important cotransporter family.

  1. Molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two cation chloride cotransporter subfamily members of Hydra vulgaris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Maria Hartmann

    Full Text Available Cation Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs comprise secondary active membrane proteins mainly mediating the symport of cations (Na+, K+ coupled with chloride (Cl-. They are divided into K+-Cl- outward transporters (KCCs, the Na+-K+-Cl- (NKCCs and Na+-Cl- (NCCs inward transporters, the cation chloride cotransporter interacting protein CIP1, and the polyamine transporter CCC9. KCCs and N(KCCs are established in the genome since eukaryotes and metazoans, respectively. Most of the physiological and functional data were obtained from vertebrate species. To get insights into the basal functional properties of KCCs and N(KCCs in the metazoan lineage, we cloned and characterized KCC and N(KCC from the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. HvKCC is composed of 1,032 amino-acid residues. Functional analyses revealed that hvKCC mediates a Na+-independent, Cl- and K+ (Tl+-dependent cotransport. The classification of hvKCC as a functional K-Cl cotransporter is furthermore supported by phylogenetic analyses and a similar structural organization. Interestingly, recently obtained physiological analyses indicate a role of cnidarian KCCs in hyposmotic volume regulation of nematocytes. HvN(KCC is composed of 965 amino-acid residues. Phylogenetic analyses and structural organization suggest that hvN(KCC is a member of the N(KCC subfamily. However, no inorganic ion cotransport function could be detected using different buffer conditions. Thus, hvN(KCC is a N(KCC subfamily member without a detectable inorganic ion cotransporter function. Taken together, the data identify two non-bilaterian solute carrier 12 (SLC12 gene family members, thereby paving the way for a better understanding of the evolutionary paths of this important cotransporter family.

  2. Comparative Mitogenomic Analysis of Species Representing Six Subfamilies in the Family Tenebrionidae

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    Hong-Li Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the architecture and evolution of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome, mitogenomes of ten specimens representing six subfamilies in Tenebrionidae were selected, and comparative analysis of these mitogenomes was carried out in this study. Ten mitogenomes in this family share a similar gene composition, gene order, nucleotide composition, and codon usage. In addition, our results show that nucleotide bias was strongly influenced by the preference of codon usage for A/T rich codons which significantly correlated with the G + C content of protein coding genes (PCGs. Evolutionary rate analyses reveal that all PCGs have been subjected to a purifying selection, whereas 13 PCGs displayed different evolution rates, among which ATPase subunit 8 (ATP8 showed the highest evolutionary rate. We inferred the secondary structure for all RNA genes of Tenebrio molitor (Te2 and used this as the basis for comparison with the same genes from other Tenebrionidae mitogenomes. Some conserved helices (stems and loops of RNA structures were found in different domains of ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs and the cloverleaf structure of transfer RNAs (tRNAs. With regard to the AT-rich region, we analyzed tandem repeat sequences located in this region and identified some essential elements including T stretches, the consensus motif at the flanking regions of T stretch, and the secondary structure formed by the motif at the 3′ end of T stretch in major strand, which are highly conserved in these species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses using mitogenomic data strongly support the relationships among six subfamilies: ((Tenebrionidae incertae sedis + (Diaperinae + Tenebrioninae + (Pimeliinae + Lagriinae, which is consistent with phylogenetic results based on morphological traits.

  3. The spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea: a relimitation and revision at the generic level

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    Michael Rix

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The araneoid spider family Micropholcommatidae Hickman, previously containing 34 southern-temperate species in eight genera, is relimited and revised at the generic level to include 18 genera from Australia, Lord Howe Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea and Chile. Three subfamilies are proposed, and a new phylogenetic hypothesis for the family is presented as a result of two morphological cladistic analyses, used to test the phylogenetic position and phylogeny of the known micropholcommatid taxa. These cladistic analyses inferred a monophyletic Micropholcommatidae, belonging to the diverse araneoid symphytognathidan lineage, with the families Anapidae, Symphytognathidae and Micropholcommatidae further united by the newly proposed 'EbCY' clade. The genus Teutoniella Brignoli, previously included in the Micropholcommatidae, was found to be most closely related to an undescribed genus from South Africa, together forming a distinctive ‘teutoniellid’ lineage within the EbCY clade. The subfamily Micropholcommatinae Hickman, new rank contains the bulk of micropholcommatid diversity, with three tribes, 15 genera and 45 described species. The micropholcommatine tribe Micropholcommatini Hickman, new rank includes the nominate genus Micropholcomma Crosby & Bishop, along with three additional genera from Australasia and Chile: Micropholcomma has eight species, including the type, M. caeligenum Crosby & Bishop, and M. junee sp. n.; Pua Forster is monotypic, with P. novaezealandiae Forster; Tricellina Forster & Platnick is also monotypic, with T. gertschi (Forster & Platnick; and Austropholcomma gen. n. has two species, including the type A. florentine sp. n., and A. walpole sp. n. The micropholcommatine tribe Textricellini Hickman, new rank is a diverse and distinctive lineage, including all species previously described in the genus Textricella Hickman, which is hereby recognised as a junior generic synonym of Eterosonycha Butler syn. n

  4. Two new species and a new genus of neotropical mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae Swainson, 1838 (Pisces, Siluriformes, Loricariidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isbrücker, I.J.H.; Nijssen, H.

    1978-01-01

    A new monotypic genus and two new species of South American mailed catfishes of the subfamily Loricariinae are described and figured. A discussion of and comparative notes on related taxa are added. Ricola genus novum is established for the species originally described by Regan (1904) as Loricaria

  5. Cloning of MASK, a novel member of the mammalian germinal center kinase III subfamily, with apoptosis-inducing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Ippeita; Ong, Shao-En; Watanabe, Norinobu M

    2002-01-01

    We have cloned a novel human GCK family kinase that has been designated as MASK (Mst3 and SOK1-related kinase). MASK is widely expressed and encodes a protein of 416 amino acid residues, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a unique C-terminal region. Like other GCK-III subfamily kinases, MASK do...

  6. Frames of exponentials:lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies, and approximation of the inverse frame operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Lindner, Alexander M

    2001-01-01

    We give lower frame bounds for finite subfamilies of a frame of exponentials {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ in L-2(-pi,pi). We also present a method for approximation of the inverse frame operator corresponding to {e(i lambdak(.))}k is an element ofZ, where knowledge of the frame bounds for...

  7. Three new genera and nine new species of the subfamily Candoninae (Crustacea, Ostracoda, Podocopida) from the Pilbara region (Western Australia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanovic, Ivana; Marmonier, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Three new ostracod genera: Humphreyscandona n. gen., Pilbaracandona n. gen., and Notacandona n. gen., and nine new species are described from subterranean waters of the Pilbara Region, Western Australia. They belong to the subfamily Candoninae of the order Podocopida, and are characterized by a

  8. Checklist of the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae in western parts of Kerman Province, Iran

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    Mohsen Shamsi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A faunal study was carried out on the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae from different parts of western Kerman Province on various host plants. In total 16 species belonging to 14 genera were collected and identified from different host plants and localities.

  9. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  10. Australian water mites of the subfamily Notoaturinae Besch (Acari: Hydrachnidia: Aturidae), with the description of 24 new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, H.

    2010-01-01

    New data are presented on the subfamily Notoaturinae from Australia. Twenty-four new species are described: Austraturus aculeatus n. sp., A. canaliculatus n. sp., A. lamingtonensis n. sp., A. longigenitalis n. sp., A. montanus n. sp., A. otwayensis n. sp., A. tasmanicus n. sp., Azugaturus

  11. Specimen records of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) by monthly census for 3 years in forest areas of Yakushima Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yuki G; Suguro, Tatsumi; Naya, Noriaki; Yamauchi, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) are a classic indicator taxon for evaluating the health of natural environments. However, studies of spiders’ responses to forest succession under natural and anthropogenic disturbance regimes are lacking. Yakushima Island in southwestern Japan has a unique forest ecosystem, and part of the island is designated as a world natural heritage site by UNESCO. Approximately 90% of Yakushima is covered by forest, including both plantations and natural forests. New information We made an inventory of spiders on Yakushima Island by collecting specimens in five forests (two plantations and three natural forests) with Malaise and window traps from 2006 to 2008 (a total of 637 traps). We collected 3487 specimens, representing 31 families and 165 species or morphotypes, including undescribed and unidentified species. All specimens were preserved in 70% ethanol, and all data were gathered into a Darwin Core Archives as sample event data. The data set is available from the GBIF network (http://www.gbif.org/dataset/f851fd75-32b2-4a23-8046-9c8ae7013a3c). Because there have been no spider inventories based on such a systematic trapping survey in Japan, this data set provides new insight into the biodiversity on Yakushima Island. PMID:28848373

  12. Ultrastructural observations of spermatozoa and spermiogenesis in Wandella orana Gray, 1994 (Araneae: Filistatidae) with notes on their phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, P; Gray, M R; Alberti, G

    2003-10-01

    Spermatozoa and spermiogenesis of the prithine filistatid spider Wandella orana are described. The spider produces coenospermia, i.e. sperm aggregations that include several single sperm cells commonly surrounded by a secretion sheath. One sectioned coenospermium in W. orana contains at least five spermatozoa. During copulation many coenospermia are transferred into the female. Coenospermia are regarded as a peculiar transfer form of sperm which occurs in early derivative spiders such as Liphistiomorphae and Mygalomorphae. The only exception which was found in Araneomorphae until now was the filistatine spider Filistata insidiatrix. Our observation is the second case and supports the view that Filistatidae represent an early derivative taxon. Furthermore, the individual sperm cells show characteristics which also may be regarded as being plesiomorphic. There is a cone-shaped acrosomal vacuole, a very long acrosomal filament, a rather stout nucleus and a small implantation fossa. The axoneme shows the 9x2+3 pattern of microtubules which is synapomorphic in Megoperculata (Uropygi, Amblypygi and Araneae). The finding of coenospermia in two distant taxa of Filistatidae may have consequences for phylogenetic and systematic considerations.

  13. Influence of spider silk on refugia preferences of the recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa and Loxosceles laeta (Araneae: Sicariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2010-06-01

    In a previous experimental study, recluse spiders Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik and Loxosceles laeta (Nicolet) (Araneae: Sicariidae) preferred small cardboard refugia covered with conspecific silk compared with never-occupied refugia. Herein, we investigated some factors that might be responsible for this preference using similar cardboard refugia. When the two Loxosceles species were given choices between refugia previously occupied by their own and by the congeneric species, neither showed a species-specific preference; however, each chose refugia coated with conspecific silk rather than those previously inhabited by a distantly related cribellate spider, Metaltella simoni (Keyserling). When L. laeta spiders were offered refugia that were freshly removed from silk donors compared with heated, aged refugia from the same silk donor, older refugia were preferred. Solvent extracts of L. laeta silk were chosen approximately as often as control refugia when a range of solvents (methylene chloride:methanol, water, and hexane) were used. However, when acetone was used on similar silk, there was a statistical preference for the control, indicating that there might be a mildly repellent aspect to acetone-washed silk. Considering the inability to show attraction to chemical aspects of fresh silk, it seems that physical attributes may be more important for selection and that there might be repellency to silk of a recently vacated spider. These findings are discussed in regard to pest management strategies to control recluse spiders.

  14. SPIDER DIVERSITY (ARACHNIDA: ARANEAE OF THE TEA PLANTATION AT SERANG VILLAGE, KARANGREJA SUB-DISTRICT, DISTRICT OF PURBALINGGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianti Sibarani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Spiders are crucial in controlling insect pest population. The various cultivation managements such as fertilizer and pesticide application, weeding, pruning, harvesting, and cropping system affect their diversity. In the plantation, vegetation diversification has applied various practices, including monoculture, and intercropping, which influence the spider community. Thus, this study was intended to determine the spider abundance and diversity of the tea plantation, and the intercropping field (tea and strawberry at Serang village, Karangreja Sub-District, District of Purbalingga. A survey and purposive sampling techniques were conducted, then the spiders were hand collected. Shannon-Wiener diversity (H’, Evenness (E, Simpson’s dominance (D, and Sorensen’s similarity (IS indices were used to measure the spider diversity. The results revealed a total number of 575 individual spiders from 10 families, i.e., Araneae, Araneidae, Clubionidae, Linyphiidae, Lycosidae, Nephilidae, Oxyopidae, Salticidae, Tetragnathidae, Theridiidae, and Thomisidae. Araneidae was the most abundant in both fields. The total abundance of spiders in tea plantation (379 individuals, however, was greater than that in the intercropping field (196 individuals. Shannon-Wiener diversity reached H’= 1.873 in the plantation, and H’= 1.975 in the intercropping field.

  15. Arachnids submitted as suspected brown recluse spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae): Loxosceles spiders are virtually restricted to their known distributions but are perceived to exist throughout the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    An Internet offer was made to identify any spider in the United States perceived to be a brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik (Sicariidae). In total, 1,773 arachnids from 49 states represented three orders (Araneae, Solifugae, and Opiliones) and the identifiable spiders (Araneae) consisted of 38 families, 88 genera, and 158 recognizable species. Participants from states at least half within the known brown recluse distribution submitted Loxosceles spiders 32- 89% of the time, except Louisiana and Mississippi with no submissions. From 25 of 29 states completely or almost completely outside of the range of Loxosceles spiders, no recluse spiders were submitted. Only two discoveries of brown recluses and two of the worldwide tramp species Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour) were submitted from nonendemic Loxosceles areas. States on distribution margins of brown recluse or other native Loxosceles spiders were intermediate in their Loxosceles submissions. This study showed that 1) the general public perceives brown recluses to occur over wide-ranging areas of the United States; and 2) brown recluses are frequently submitted from endemic states and almost never from nonendemic states, and therefore are virtually limited to their known distributions. This study corroborates opinions that diagnosis of brown recluse spider bites is best restricted to areas historically supporting proven, widespread populations of Loxosceles spiders.

  16. A new subfamily of Feaellidae (Arachnida, Chelonethi, Feaelloidea) from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Mark L I

    2017-04-26

    The first extant representatives of the pseudoscorpion family Feaellidae from Southeast Asia are described. Cybella n. gen. is proposed for Cybella deharvengi n. sp. (type species), collected from an isolated limestone hill in Hon Chong Province, Vietnam, and C. bedosae n. sp., found in a limestone cave in Kampuchea, Cambodia. Cybella species seem to be restricted to karst formations and are probably troglophilic. The type localities of the two known species are threatened by quarrying activities, these being particularly pressing in the case of C. deharvengi n. sp. Cybella shows important differences from other Feaellidae that require a modification of the familial diagnosis and justify the erection of a new subfamily, Cybellinae. The discovery of this group provides insights into the evolution of the unusual morphology of the family, notably concerning the pleural plates of Feaellinae, which are lacking in Cybellinae. The smaller sclerites of the pleura of Pseudogarypidae and Feaellidae are shown to be muscle apodemes, which provide an additional synapomorphy for Feaelloidea. Two types of coxal spines, termed primary and secondary, are distinguished in Feaelloidea, based on the presence of a lumen within the primary spines and its absence in secondary spines. The new morphological term atrial plate is proposed for a sclerotized plate of the male genitalia, extending between the lateral rods and the lateral apodemes. Claims that the internal genital setae of males of non-chthonioid pseudoscorpions are secretory are reviewed and found to lack support.        Additional information concerning the fossil genus Protofeaella Henderickx, 2016 is provided, based on an adult male in amber from the Cretaceous (lowermost Cenomanian) of Myanmar. Protofeaella shares with Cybella the absence of pleural plates and the antiaxial position of the chemosensory setae of the movable chelal finger. However, it differs from both Cybellinae and Feaellinae in having relatively

  17. Diversity in subcellular targeting of the PP2A B'eta subfamily members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matre, Polina; Meyer, Christian; Lillo, Cathrine

    2009-10-01

    Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a serine/threonine-specific phosphatase comprising a catalytic subunit (C), a scaffolding subunit (A), and a regulatory subunit (B). The B subunits are believed to be responsible for substrate specificity and localization of the PP2A complex. In plants, three families of B subunits exist, i.e. B (B55), B', and B''. Here, we report differential subcellular targeting within the Arabidopsis B'eta subfamily, which consists of the close homologs B'eta, B'theta, B'gamma and B'zeta. Phenotypes of corresponding knockouts were observed, and particularly revealed delayed flowering for the B'eta knockout. The B' subunits were linked to fluorescent tags and transiently expressed in various tissues of onion, tobacco and Arabidopsis. B'eta and B'gamma targeted the cytosol and nucleus. B'zeta localized to the cytoplasm and partly co-localized with mitochondrial markers when the N-terminus was free. Provided its C-terminus was free, the B'theta subunit targeted peroxisomes. The importance of the C-terminal end for peroxisomal targeting was further confirmed by truncation of the C-terminus. The results revealed that the closely related B' subunits are targeting different organelles in plants, and exemplify the usage of the peptide serine-serine-leucine as a PTS1 peroxisomal signaling peptide.

  18. Crystal structure of a novel prolidase from Deinococcus radiodurans identifies new subfamily of bacterial prolidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Are, Venkata N; Jamdar, Sahayog N; Ghosh, Biplab; Goyal, Venuka Durani; Kumar, Ashwani; Neema, Sanchit; Gadre, Rekha; Makde, Ravindra D

    2017-12-01

    Xaa-Pro peptidases (XPP) are dinuclear peptidases of MEROPS M24B family that hydrolyze Xaa-Pro iminopeptide bond with a trans-proline at the second position of the peptide substrate. XPPs specific towards dipeptides are called prolidases while those that prefer longer oligopeptides are called aminopeptidases P. Though XPPs are strictly conserved in bacterial and archaeal species, the structural and sequence features that distinguish between prolidases and aminopeptidases P are not always clear. Here, we report 1.4 Å resolution crystal structure of a novel XPP from Deinococcus radiodurans (XPPdr). XPPdr forms a novel dimeric structure via unique dimer stabilization loops of N-terminal domains such that their C-terminal domains are placed far apart from each other. This novel dimerization is also the consequence of a different orientation of N-terminal domain in XPPdr monomer than those in other known prolidases. The enzymatic assays show that it is a prolidase with broad substrate specificity. Our structural, mutational, and molecular dynamics simulation analyses show that the conserved Arg46 of N-terminal domain is important for the dipeptide selectivity. Our BLAST search found XPPdr orthologs with conserved sequence motifs which correspond to unique structural features of XPPdr, thus identify a new subfamily of bacterial prolidases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Effect of habitat conditions and plant traits on leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzbergová, Zuzana; Skuhrovec, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Plant traits are the key factors that determine herbivore foraging selection. The traits serving as defense traits against herbivores represent a wide range of traits, such as chemical, physiological, morphological and life-history traits. While many studies considered plant defense traits at the within-species scale, much less is known from comparisons of a wide range of closely related species. The aim of this study was to identify factors responsible for the intensity of leaf damage in the Carduoideae subfamily of Asteraceae, which hosts many invasive species and thus is potential candidate plant species that could be controlled by biological control. Specifically, we wanted to see the relative importance of habitat characteristics, plant size and plants traits in determining the degree of folivory. The study identified several defense traits able to explain differences in herbivory between species after accounting for differences in the habitats in which the species occur and the plant size. Specifically, the most important traits were traits related to the quality of the leaf tissue expressed as the content of phosphorus, water and specific leaf area, which suggests that the leaf quality had a more important effect on the degree of herbivory than the presence of specific defense mechanisms such as spines and hair. Leaf quality is thus a candidate factor that drives herbivore choice when selecting which plant to feed on and should be considered when assessing the danger that a herbivore will switch hosts when introduced to a new range.

  20. The Eucalyptus Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein (TIP gene subfamily: genomic organization, structural features and expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Iara Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant aquaporins are water channels implicated in various physiological processes, including growth, development and adaptation to stress. In this study, the Tonoplast Intrinsic Protein (TIP gene subfamily of Eucalyptus, an economically important woody species, was investigated and characterized. A genome-wide survey of the Eucalyptus grandis genome revealed the presence of eleven putative TIP genes (referred as EgTIP, which were individually assigned by phylogeny to each of the classical TIP1–5 groups. Homology modelling confirmed the presence of the two highly conserved NPA (Asn-Pro-Ala motifs in the identified EgTIPs. Residue variations in the corresponding selectivity filters, that might reflect differences in EgTIP substrate specificity, were observed. All EgTIP genes, except EgTIP5.1, were transcribed and the majority of them showed organ/tissue-enriched expression. Inspection of the EgTIP promoters revealed the presence of common cis-regulatory elements implicated in abiotic stress and hormone responses pointing to an involvement of the identified genes in abiotic stress responses. In line with these observations, additional gene expression profiling demonstrated increased expression under polyethylene glycol-imposed osmotic stress. Overall, the results obtained suggest that these novel EgTIPs might be functionally implicated in eucalyptus adaptation to stress.

  1. Modulation of the Rat Hepatic Cytochrome P4501A Subfamily Using Biotin Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ronquillo-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have found that biotin favors glucose and lipid metabolism, and medications containing biotin have been developed. Despite the use of biotin as a pharmacological agent, few studies have addressed toxicity aspects including the possible interaction with cytochrome P450 enzyme family. This study analyzed the effects of pharmacological doses of biotin on the expression and activity of the cytochrome P4501A subfamily involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Wistar rats were treated daily with biotin (2 mg/kg, i.p., while the control groups were treated with saline. All of the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 1, 3, 5, or 7 days of treatment. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs were modified by biotin while enzyme activity and protein concentration were not affected. The lack of an effect of biotin on CYP1A activity was confirmed using other experimental strategies, including (i cotreatment of the animals with biotin and a known CYP1A inducer; (ii the addition of biotin to the reaction mixtures for the measurement of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 activities; and (iii the use of an S9 mixture that was prepared from control and biotin-treated rats to analyze the activation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP into mutagenic metabolites using the Ames test. The results suggest that biotin does not influence the CYP1A-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics.

  2. Cysteine-rich venom proteins from the snakes of Viperinae subfamily - molecular cloning and phylogenetic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramazanova, Anna S; Starkov, Vladislav G; Osipov, Alexey V; Ziganshin, Rustam H; Filkin, Sergey Yu; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2009-01-01

    Cysteine-rich proteins found in animal venoms (CRISP-Vs) are members of a large family of cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs). CRISP-Vs acting on different ion channels were found in venoms or mRNA (cDNA) encoding CRISP-Vs were cloned from snakes of three main families (Elapidae, Colubridae and Viperidae). About thirty snake CRISP-Vs were sequenced so far, however no complete sequence for CRISP-V from Viperinae subfamily was reported. We have cloned and sequenced for the first time cDNAs encoding CRISP-Vs from Vipera nikolskii and Vipera berus vipers (Viperinae). The deduced mature CRISP-V amino acid sequences consist of 220 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic analysis showed that viper proteins are closely related to those of Crotalinae snakes. The presence of CRISP-V in the V. berus venom was revealed using a combination of gel-filtration chromatography, electrophoresis and MALDI mass spectrometry. The finding of the putative channel blocker in viper venom may indicate its action on prey nervous system.

  3. Floral Development in the Tribe Cedreleae (Meliaceae, Sub-family Swietenioideae): Cedrela and Toona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouvêa, Cantídio Fernando; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier; Rodriguez, Adriana Pinheiro Martinelli

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Floral development of Cedrela and Toona, the genera comprising the basal tribe Cedreleae of the sub-family Swietenioideae of Meliaceae, is described. The focus was on three endangered, ecologically and economically important species: Cedrela fissilis, Cedrela odorata and Toona ciliata. The aims of the study were to characterize the patterns of floral development in the tribe and to establish apomorphic and plesiomorphic floral characters in relation to other taxa within the family based on the current molecular phylogeny of Meliaceae. Methods A detailed floral structural and developmental study was completed using both scanning electron microscopy and visualization of microtome sections with a light microscope. Key Results Twelve floral developmental stages were identified. The initial development of the pentamerous flowers of both Toona and Cedrela is strikingly similar. The morphological differences observed between them are due to differential patterns of organ elongation and adnation/connation occurring late in development. Additionally, the formation of functionally male and female flowers was found to occur at specific positions within the inflorescence. Conclusions Due to the basal position of the tribe Cedreleae in the phylogeny of Meliaceae, functionally either male or female pentamerous flowers and the presence of (at least partially) free stamens may be considered plesiomorphic traits within the family. In contrast, sympetaly and the absence of nectaries in Cedrela species are synapomorphies. PMID:17981877

  4. Markiana nigripinnis (Perugia, 1891 as a putative member of the subfamily Stevardiinae (Characiformes: Characidae: spermatic evidence

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    Clarianna Martins Baicere-Silva

    Full Text Available The genus Markiana was until recently recognized as incertae sedis in the family Characidae, even though alternative placements for this genus have been advanced since its original description. More recently, it was hypothesized that Markiana nigripinnis is part of a clade informally named the Astyanax clade, indicating the putative close relationship of Markiana with the genus Astyanax. Examination of sperm ultrastructure of representatives of Astyanax and M. nigripinnis shows no evidence for this hypothesized close relationship. Rather, the spermatozoa of M. nigripinnis share characters found in spermatozoa of the non-inseminating members of the subfamily Stevardiinae, such as an angle of nuclear rotation equal to 85º resulting in a lateral position of the double nuclear fossa and flagellum. As with the non-inseminating Stevardiinae, sperm nuclei are also slightly elongate toward the flagellum, the proximal centriole is partially inside the nuclear fossa and anterior and oblique to the distal centriole, and the midpiece is short and strongly asymmetric. Additionally, M. nigripinnis shares with the other members of the Stevardiinae the presence of only four teeth in the inner row of the premaxillary and a short triangular ectopterygoid, which is never more than twice the length of the palatine.

  5. A Suggested New Bacteriophage Genus, “Kp34likevirus”, within the Autographivirinae Subfamily of Podoviridae

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    Harald Eriksson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Klebsiella pneumoniae phages vB_KpnP_SU503 (SU503 and vB_KpnP_SU552A (SU552A are virulent viruses belonging to the Autographivirinae subfamily of Podoviridae that infect and kill multi-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates. Phages SU503 and SU552A show high pairwise nucleotide identity to Klebsiella phages KP34 (NC_013649, F19 (NC_023567 and NTUH-K2044-K1-1 (NC_025418. Bioinformatic analysis of these phage genomes show high conservation of gene arrangement and gene content, conserved catalytically active residues of their RNA polymerase, a common and specific lysis cassette, and form a joint cluster in phylogenetic analysis of their conserved genes. Also, we have performed biological characterization of the burst size, latent period, host specificity (together with KP34 and NTUH-K2044-K1-1, morphology, and structural genes as well as sensitivity testing to various conditions. Based on the analyses of these phages, the creation of a new phage genus is suggested within the Autographivirinae, called “Kp34likevirus” after their type phage, KP34. This genus should encompass the recently genome sequenced Klebsiella phages KP34, SU503, SU552A, F19 and NTUH-K2044-K1-1.

  6. A homologous subfamily of satellite III DNA on human chromosomes 14 and 22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, K H; Earle, E; McQuillan, C

    1990-10-11

    We describe a new subfamily of human satellite III DNA that is represented on two different acrocentric chromosomes. This DNA is composed of a tandemly repeated array of diverged 5-base-pair monomer units of the sequence GGAAT or GGAGT. These monomers are organised into a 1.37-kilobase higher-order structure that is itself tandemly reiterated. Using a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing specific human chromosomes, this higher-order structure is demonstrated on chromosomes 14 and 22, but not on the remaining acrocentric chromosomes. In situ hybridisation studies have localised the sequence to the proximal p-arm region of these chromosomes. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) reveals that 70-110 copies of the higher-order structure are tandemly organised on a chromosome into a major domain which appears to be flanked on both sides by non-tandemly repeated genomic DNA. In addition, some of the satellite III sequences are interspersed over a number of other PFGE fragments. This study provides fundamental knowledge on the structure and evolution of the acrocentric chromosomes, and should extend our understanding of the complex process of interchromosomal interaction which may be responsible for Robertsonian translocation and meiotic nondisjunction involving these chromosomes.

  7. Molecular phylogeny of the highly diversified catfish subfamily Loricariinae (Siluriformes, Loricariidae) reveals incongruences with morphological classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covain, Raphaël; Fisch-Muller, Sonia; Oliveira, Claudio; Mol, Jan H; Montoya-Burgos, Juan I; Dray, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The Loricariinae belong to the Neotropical mailed catfish family Loricariidae, the most species-rich catfish family. Among loricariids, members of the Loricariinae are united by a long and flattened caudal peduncle and the absence of an adipose fin. Despite numerous studies of the Loricariidae, there is no comprehensive phylogeny of this morphologically highly diversified subfamily. To fill this gap, we present a molecular phylogeny of this group, including 350 representatives, based on the analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear genes (8426 positions). The resulting phylogeny indicates that Loricariinae are distributed into two sister tribes: Harttiini and Loricariini. The Harttiini tribe, as classically defined, constitutes a paraphyletic assemblage and is here restricted to the three genera Harttia, Cteniloricaria, and Harttiella. Two subtribes are distinguished within Loricariini: Farlowellina and Loricariina. Within Farlowellina, the nominal genus formed a paraphyletic group, as did Sturisoma and Sturisomatichthys. Within Loricariina, Loricaria, Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria are also paraphyletic. To solve these issues, and given the lack of clear morphological diagnostic features, we propose here to synonymize several genera (Quiritixys with Harttia; East Andean members of Crossoloricaria, and Apistoloricaria with Rhadinoloricaria; Ixinandria, Hemiloricaria, Fonchiiichthys, and Leliella with Rineloricaria), to restrict others (Crossoloricaria, and Sturisomatichthys to the West Andean members, and Sturisoma to the East Andean species), and to revalidate the genus Proloricaria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A novel MSCRAMM sub-family in Coagulase negative staphylococcal species

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    Srishtee eArora

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase negative staphylococci are important opportunistic pathogens. Staphylococcus epidermidis, a coagulase negative staphylococcus, is the third leading cause of nosocomial infections in the US. Surface proteins like Microbial Surface Components Recognizing Adhesive Matrix Molecules (MSCRAMMs are major virulence factors of pathogenic gram positive bacteria. Here, we identified a new chimeric protein; SesJ in S. epidermidis, which represents a prototype of a new subfamily of MSCRAMMs. Structural predictions show that SesJ has structural features characteristic of a MSCRAMM along with a N-Terminal repeat region and an Aspartic acid containing repeat region, features that have not been previously observed in staphylococcal MSCRAMMs but have been found in other surface proteins from gram positive bacteria. We identified and analyzed structural homologs of SesJ in three other coagulase negative staphylococci. These homologs of SesJ have an identical structural organization but varying sequence identities within the domains. Using flow cytometry, we also show that SesJ is expressed constitutively on the surface of a representative S. epidermidis strain, from early exponential to stationary growth phase. Thus SesJ is positioned to interact with protein targets in the environment and play a role in S. epidermidis virulence.

  9. Subfamily Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae), with Description of One New Species from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Muhammad Hamid; Afzal, Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Ali, Shaukat; Kamran, Muhammad; Honey, Sabyan Faris

    2014-01-01

    The Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan are summarized in this paper. Two species of Scutascirus Den Heyer (S. pirgus Chaudhri and Akbar and S. tactus Chaudhri and Akbar), ten species of Coleoscirus Berlese (C. baptos (Chaudhri and Akbar), C. carex (Inayatullah and Shahid), C. carnus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. comis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. disparis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. irroratus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. mardi (Inatullah and Shahid), C. raviensis Afzal, Ashfaq and Khan, C. tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq, and Khan, and C. trudus Bashir, Afzal and Akbar), and three species of Pseudobonzia Smiley (P. ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal and Akbar, P. numida Chaudhri and Akbar, and P. parilus Chaudhri) have been previously reported. One new species of Pseudobonzia, Pseudobonzia bakeri sp. n., is herein described and illustrated. A key to the genera of the subfamily and keys to the species in each genus are given to incorporate the new species from Pakistan. Distribution records of all known species in Pakistan are also given.

  10. Phytolith indices as proxies of grass subfamilies on East African tropical mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremond, Laurent; Alexandre, Anne; Wooller, Matthew J.; Hély, Christelle; Williamson, David; Schäfer, Peter A.; Majule, Amos; Guiot, Joël

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to provide researchers that investigate fossil phytolith assemblages and model/data comparisons a new tool for estimating C 3/C 4 grass composition over time. We tested the reliability of modern soil phytolith assemblages and phytolith indices for tracing the dominance of different grass subfamilies and tree cover density. We analyzed modern soil phytolith assemblages from sites over elevation gradients on Mount Kenya (Kenya), Mount Rungwe and around Lake Masoko (southern Tanzania). These data were compared with available botanical data. A phytolith index named Ic, proved to be an effective proxy of the proportions of Pooideae, Arundinoideae and Bambusoideae grasses (mainly C 3 grasses) versus Panicoideae grasses (mainly C 4 grasses), increasing with elevation in East-Africa. When tropical mountains are covered by open habitats (e.g . grasses and shrublands), Ic should be a reliable proxy of the C 3/C 4 grass composition. These results highlight the value of the phytolith index Ic, when interpreting paleo-environmental records from tropical mountains, to: 1) better understand past local and regional C 3/C 4 grass distributions and associated climatic changes and 2) increase the set of C 3/C 4 data available for model/data comparisons.

  11. Modulation of the Rat Hepatic Cytochrome P4501A Subfamily Using Biotin Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo-Sánchez, M. D.; Camacho-Carranza, R.; Fernandez-Mejia, C.; Hernández-Ojeda, S.; Elinos-Baez, M.; Espinosa-Aguirre, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have found that biotin favors glucose and lipid metabolism, and medications containing biotin have been developed. Despite the use of biotin as a pharmacological agent, few studies have addressed toxicity aspects including the possible interaction with cytochrome P450 enzyme family. This study analyzed the effects of pharmacological doses of biotin on the expression and activity of the cytochrome P4501A subfamily involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Wistar rats were treated daily with biotin (2 mg/kg, i.p.), while the control groups were treated with saline. All of the rats were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 1, 3, 5, or 7 days of treatment. CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 mRNAs were modified by biotin while enzyme activity and protein concentration were not affected. The lack of an effect of biotin on CYP1A activity was confirmed using other experimental strategies, including (i) cotreatment of the animals with biotin and a known CYP1A inducer; (ii) the addition of biotin to the reaction mixtures for the measurement of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 activities; and (iii) the use of an S9 mixture that was prepared from control and biotin-treated rats to analyze the activation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) into mutagenic metabolites using the Ames test. The results suggest that biotin does not influence the CYP1A-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics. PMID:23984390

  12. DNA sequence data reveal a subfamily-level divergence within Thamnophilidae (Aves: Passeriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Gustavo A; Remsen, J V; Whitney, Bret M; Brumfield, Robb T

    2012-10-01

    The Thamnophilidae is a diverse radiation of insectivorous passerine birds that comprises nearly 220 species and is mostly restricted to the lowlands and lower montane forests of the Neotropics. Current classification within Thamnophilidae relies primarily on morphological variation, but recent incorporation of molecular and vocal data has promoted changes at various taxonomic levels. Here we demonstrate that the genus Terenura is polyphyletic because Terenura callinota, T. humeralis, T. spodioptila, and T. sharpei are phylogenetically distant from the type species of the genus, Terenura maculata. More importantly, the former four species are not particularly closely related to any other thamnophilids and represent a clade that is sister to all other members of the family. Because no genus name is available for this previously undetected lineage in the Thamnophilidae, we describe the genus Euchrepomis for callinota, humeralis, spodioptila, and sharpei, and erect the subfamily Euchrepomidinae. We discuss the taxonomic and evolutionary significance of this divergent lineage. This study highlights the importance of taxonomic coverage and the inclusion of type taxa to redefine classifications to reflect accurately evolutionary relationships. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Female genital morphology and mating behavior of Orchestina (Arachnida: Araneae: Oonopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Matthias; Izquierdo, Matías; Carrera, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The unusual reproductive biology of many spider species makes them compelling targets for evolutionary investigations. Mating behavior studies combined with genital morphological investigations help to understand complex spider reproductive systems and explain their function in the context of sexual selection. Oonopidae are a diverse spider family comprising a variety of species with complex internal female genitalia. Data on oonopid phylogeny are preliminary and especially studies on their mating behavior are very rare. The present investigation reports on the copulatory behavior of an Orchestina species for the first time. The female genitalia are described by means of serial semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy. Females of Orchestina sp. mate with multiple males. On average, copulations last between 15.4 and 23.54min. During copulation, the spiders are in a position taken by most theraphosids and certain members of the subfamily Oonopinae: the male pushes the female back and is situated under her facing the female's sternum. Males of Orchestina sp. possibly display post-copulatory mate-guarding behavior. The female genitalia are complex. The genital opening leads into the uterus externus from which a single receptaculum emerges. The dorsal wall of the receptaculum forms a sclerite serving as muscle attachment. A sclerotized plate with attached muscles lies in the posterior wall of the uterus externus. The plate might be used to lock the uterus during copulation. The present study gives no direct evidence for cryptic female choice in Orchestina sp. but suggests that sexual selection occurs in the form of sperm competition through sperm mixing.

  14. Analysis of Species-Selectivity of Human, Mouse and Rat Cytochrome P450 1A and 2B Subfamily Enzymes using Molecular Modeling, Docking and Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Bagavathy Shanmugam; Suvaithenamudhan, Suvaiyarasan; Akbarsha, Mohammad Abdulkader; Parthasarathy, Subbiah

    2017-03-29

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and 2B subfamily enzymes are important drug metabolizing enzymes, and are highly conserved across species in terms of sequence homology. However, there are major to minor structural and macromolecular differences which provide for species-selectivity and substrate-selectivity. Therefore, species-selectivity of CYP1A and CYP2B subfamily proteins across human, mouse and rat was analyzed using molecular modeling, docking and dynamics simulations when the chiral molecules quinine and quinidine were used as ligands. The three-dimensional structures of 17 proteins belonging to CYP1A and CYP2B subfamilies of mouse and rat were predicted by adopting homology modeling using the available structures of human CYP1A and CYP2B proteins as templates. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations of quinine and quinidine with CYP1A subfamily proteins revealed the existence of species-selectivity across the three species. On the other hand, in the case of CYP2B subfamily proteins, no role for chirality of quinine and quinidine in forming complexes with CYP2B subfamily proteins of the three species was indicated. Our findings reveal the roles of active site amino acid residues of CYP1A and CYP2B subfamily proteins and provide insights into species-selectivity of these enzymes across human, mouse, and rat.

  15. Mid-tertiary dispersal, not Gondwanan vicariance explains distribution patterns in the wax palm subfamily (Ceroxyloideae: Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trénel, Philipp; Gustafsson, Mats; Baker, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Ceroxyloideae is a small but heterogeneous subfamily of palms (Arecaceae, Palmae). It includes a Caribbean lineage (tribe Cyclospathae), a southern hemisphere disjunction (tribe Ceroxyleae), and an amphi-Andean element (tribe Phytelepheae), until recently considered a distinct subfamily (Phyt...... proposed. Radiation in this tribe coincides largely with the major uplift of the Andes, favoring Andean orogeny over Pleistocene climatic changes as a possible speciation-promoting factor in this tribe........ Austral interplate dispersal of Oraniopsis to Australia could have occurred, but apparently only in the mid-Eocene/early Oligocene interval after global cooling had begun. Our data do not support Pleistocene climatic changes as drivers for speciation in the Andean-centered Phytelepheae as previously...

  16. Spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal

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    Leandro D. Battirola

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes the composition and temporal variation of the spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Three V. divergens plants were sampled in 2004, at each seasonal period of the northern Pantanal (high water, receding water, dry season and rising water, using thermonebulization of the canopies with insecticide, totaling 396 m2 of sampled canopies. Analysis of abundance and richness of spider families were based on Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and Variance Analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA. A total of 7,193 spiders were collected (6,330 immatures; 88.0%; 863 adults, 12.0% distributed in 30 families. Araneidae (1,676 individuals, Anyphaenidae (1,631 individuals, Salticidae (1,542 individuals and Pisauridae (906 individuals, were predominant, representing 80.0% of the sample. Ten different guilds were registered: aerial hunters, orb-weavers, nocturnal aerial runners and diurnal space web weavers dominated, sharing most ecological niches. The spider assemblage is affected by changes in the habitat structure, especially by the seasonal hydrological regime and variations in the phenology of V. divergens . The assemblage is composed of different groups of spiders. The dominant taxa and behavioral guilds differ in the different seasonal periods. Spiders were more abundant during the dry and rising water seasons, most likely reflecting a greater supply of potential prey, associated with new foliage and flowering at the canopy. The displacement of soil dwelling spiders to the trunks and canopies before and during the seasonal floods can change the structure and composition of the canopy assemblages. Oonopidae, Gnaphosidae and Caponiidae, were more frequent during the rising and high water seasons, which indicates that these taxa use the canopies of V. divergens as a refuge during the seasonal flooding in the Pantanal.

  17. Crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus Zn-glyoxalase I: new subfamily of glyoxalase I family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chirgadze, Yuri N. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region, Russia; Boshkova, Eugenia A. [Institute of Protein Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Moscow Region, Russia; Battaile, Kevin P. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, IMCA-CAT, Argonne, IL 60439, USA; Mendes, Vitor G. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1GA, UK; Lam, Robert [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Chan, Tiffany S. Y. [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Romanov, Vladimir [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Pai, Emil F. [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; Chirgadze, Nickolay Y. [Campbell Family Cancer Research Institute, Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4, Canada; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A8, Canada; X-CHIP Technologies Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    2017-01-16

    The crystal structures of protein SA0856 from Staphylococcus aureus in its apo-form and in complex with a Zn2+-ion have been presented. The 152 amino acid protein consists of two similar domains with α + β topology. In both crystalline state and in solution, the protein forms a dimer with monomers related by a twofold pseudo-symmetry rotation axis. A sequence homology search identified the protein as a member of the structural family Glyoxalase I. We have shown that the enzyme possesses glyoxalase I activity in the presence of Zn2+, Mg2+, Ni2+, and Co2+, in this order of preference. Sequence and structure comparisons revealed that human glyoxalase I should be assigned to a subfamily A, while S. aureus glyoxalase I represents a new subfamily B, which includes also proteins from other bacteria. Both subfamilies have a similar protein chain fold but rather diverse sequences. The active sites of human and staphylococcus glyoxalases I are also different: the former contains one Zn-ion per chain; the latter incorporates two of these ions. In the active site of SA0856, the first Zn-ion is well coordinated by His58, Glu60 from basic molecule and Glu40*, His44* from adjacent symmetry-related molecule. The second Zn3-ion is coordinated only by residue His143 from protein molecule and one acetate ion. We suggest that only single Zn1-ion plays the role of catalytic center. The newly found differences between the two subfamilies could guide the design of new drugs against S. aureus, an important pathogenic micro-organism.

  18. Structural, biochemical, and evolutionary characterization of glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductases shows their division into two distinct subfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Jan; Shabalin, Ivan G; Matelska, Dorota; Handing, Katarzyna; Gasiorowska, Olga; Sroka, Piotr; Gorna, Maria W; Ginalski, Krzysztof; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Minor, Wladek

    2018-01-08

    The D-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase (2HADH) family illustrates a complex evolutionary history with multiple lateral gene transfers, gene duplications, and losses. As a result, the exact functional annotation of individual members can be extrapolated to a very limited extent. Here, we revise the previous simplified view on the classification of the 2HADH family; specifically, we show that the previously delineated glyoxylate/hydroxypyruvate reductase (GHPR) subfamily consists of two evolutionary separated GHRA and GHRB subfamilies. We compare two representatives of these subfamilies from Sinorhizobium meliloti (SmGhrA and SmGhrB), employing a combination of biochemical, structural, and bioinformatics approaches. Our kinetic results show that both enzymes reduce several 2-ketocarboxylic acids with overlapping, but not equivalent, substrate preferences. SmGhrA and SmGhrB show highest activity with glyoxylate and hydroxypyruvate, respectively; in addition, only SmGhrB reduces 2-keto-D-gluconate, and only SmGhrA reduces pyruvate (with low efficiency). We present nine crystal structures of both enzymes in apo-forms and in complexes with cofactors and substrates/substrate analogs. In particular, we determined a crystal structure of SmGhrB with 2-keto-D-gluconate, which is the biggest substrate crystallized with a 2HADH member. The structures reveal significant differences between SmGhrA and SmGhrB, both in the overall structure and within the substrate-binding pocket, offering insight into the molecular basis for the observed substrate preferences and subfamily differences. In addition, we provide an overview of all GHRA and GHRB structures complexed with a ligand in the active site.

  19. On the phylogeny of Mustelidae subfamilies: analysis of seventeen nuclear non-coding loci and mitochondrial complete genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Muyeong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mustelidae, as the largest and most-diverse family of order Carnivora, comprises eight subfamilies. Phylogenetic relationships among these Mustelidae subfamilies remain argumentative subjects in recent years. One of the main reasons is that the mustelids represent a typical example of rapid evolutionary radiation and recent speciation event. Prior investigation has been concentrated on the application of different mitochondrial (mt sequence and nuclear protein-coding data, herein we employ 17 nuclear non-coding loci (>15 kb, in conjunction with mt complete genome data (>16 kb, to clarify these enigmatic problems. Results The combined nuclear intron and mt genome analyses both robustly support that Taxidiinae diverged first, followed by Melinae. Lutrinae and Mustelinae are grouped together in all analyses with strong supports. The position of Helictidinae, however, is enigmatic because the mt genome analysis places it to the clade uniting Lutrinae and Mustelinae, whereas the nuclear intron analysis favores a novel view supporting a closer relationship of Helictidinae to Martinae. This finding emphasizes a need to add more data and include more taxa to resolve this problem. In addition, the molecular dating provides insights into the time scale of the origin and diversification of the Mustelidae subfamilies. Finally, the phylogenetic performances and limits of nuclear introns and mt genes are discussed in the context of Mustelidae phylogeny. Conclusion Our study not only brings new perspectives on the previously obscured phylogenetic relationships among Mustelidae subfamilies, but also provides another example demonstrating the effectiveness of nuclear non-coding loci for reconstructing evolutionary histories in a group that has undergone rapid bursts of speciation.

  20. The Cylapinae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera: Miridae) of India: review of the subfamily with description of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshwanth, H M; Chérot, F; Gorczyca, J; Wolski, A

    2016-02-26

    The subfamily Cylapinae (Insecta, Heteroptera: Miridae) from India is reviewed. Three tribes, seven genera and nineteen species are cited from the country, keyed and described. Six species are described as new: Fulvius kadapaensis sp. nov., Peritropis kodava sp. nov., Peritropis pathaki sp. nov., Peritropis sangai sp. nov., Peritropis yasunagai sp. nov. and Rhinomiris prathapani sp. nov. A new synonymy is published: Peritropis lewisi (Distant, 1904) (valid name) = Peritropis indicus Gorczyca, 2006b (new junior subjective synonym).

  1. RINL, guanine nucleotide exchange factor Rab5-subfamily, is involved in the EphA8-degradation pathway with odin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kajiho

    Full Text Available The Rab family of small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases plays a vital role in membrane trafficking. Its active GTP-bound state is driven by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs. Ras and Rab interactor (or Ras interaction/interference-like (RINL, which contains a conserved VPS9 domain critical for GEF action, was recently identified as a new Rab5 subfamily GEF in vitro. However, its detailed function and interacting molecules have not yet been fully elucidated. Here we found that RINL has GEF activity for the Rab5 subfamily proteins by measuring their GTP-bound forms in cultured cells. We also found that RINL interacts with odin, a member of the ankyrin-repeat and sterile-alpha motif (SAM domain-containing (Anks protein family. In addition, the Eph tyrosine kinase receptor EphA8 formed a ternary complex with both RINL and odin. Interestingly, RINL expression in cultured cells reduced EphA8 levels in a manner dependent on both its GEF activity and interaction with odin. In addition, knockdown of RINL increased EphA8 level in HeLa cells. Our findings suggest that RINL, as a GEF for Rab5 subfamily, is implicated in the EphA8-degradation pathway via its interaction with odin.

  2. Alternative splicing produces two transcripts encoding female-biased pheromone subfamily receptors in the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F Garczynski

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Insect odorant receptors are key sensors of environmental odors and members of the lepidopteran pheromone receptor subfamily are thought to play important roles in mate finding by recognizing sex pheromones. Much research has been done to identify putative pheromone receptors in lepidopteran males, but little attention has been given to female counterparts. In this study, degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed against a conserved amino acid region in the C-terminus of lepidopteran pheromone receptors were used in 3’ RACE reactions to identify candidate pheromone receptors expressed in the antennae of female navel orangeworm. Two near full-length transcripts of 1469 nt and 1302 nt encoding the complete open reading frames for proteins of 446 and 425 amino acids, respectively, were identified. Based on BLAST homology and phylogenetic analyses, the putative proteins encoded by these transcripts are members of the lepidopteran pheromone receptor subfamily. Characterization of these transcripts indicates that they are alternatively spliced products of a single gene. Tissue expression studies indicate that the transcripts are female-biased with detection mainly in female antennae. To the best of our knowledge, these transcripts represent the first detection of alternatively spliced female-biased members of the lepidopteran pheromone receptor subfamily.

  3. Origin and evolution of GALA-LRR, a new member of the CC-LRR subfamily: from plants to bacteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V Kajava

    Full Text Available The phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum encodes type III effectors, called GALA proteins, which contain F-box and LRR domains. The GALA LRRs do not perfectly fit any of the previously described LRR subfamilies. By applying protein sequence analysis and structural prediction, we clarify this ambiguous case of LRR classification and assign GALA-LRRs to CC-LRR subfamily. We demonstrate that side-by-side packing of LRRs in the 3D structures may control the limits of repeat variability within the LRR subfamilies during evolution. The LRR packing can be used as a criterion, complementing the repeat sequences, to classify newly identified LRR domains. Our phylogenetic analysis of F-box domains proposes the lateral gene transfer of bacterial GALA proteins from host plants. We also present an evolutionary scenario which can explain the transformation of the original plant LRRs into slightly different bacterial LRRs. The examination of the selective evolutionary pressure acting on GALA proteins suggests that the convex side of their horse-shoe shaped LRR domains is more prone to positive selection than the concave side, and we therefore hypothesize that the convex surface might be the site of protein binding relevant to the adaptor function of the F-box GALA proteins. This conclusion provides a strong background for further functional studies aimed at determining the role of these type III effectors in the virulence of R. solanacearum.

  4. Systematics of Australian Thrasorinae (Hymenoptera, Cynipoidea, Figitidae with descriptions of Mikeiinae, new subfamily, two new genera, and three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Paretas-Martínez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Thrasorinae are revised and Mikeius is transferred to Mikeiinae Paretas-Martínez & Pujade-Villar, subfam. n., and M. clavatus Pujade-Villar & Restrepo-Ortiz, sp. n., is described. Two new genera of Thrasorinae are erected: Cicatrix Paretas-Martínez, gen. n., including C. pilosiscutum (Girault, comb. n. from Amblynotus, C. schauffi (Buffington, comb. n. from Mikeius, and C. neumannoides Paretas-Martínez & Restrepo-Ortiz, sp. n.; and Palmiriella Pujade-Villar & Paretas-Martínez, gen. n., including P. neumanni (Buffington, comb. n. from Mikeius, Thrasorus rieki Paretas-Martínez & Pujade-Villar, sp. n., is also described. A phylogenetic analysis of 176 morphological and biological characters, including all these new taxa and all genera previously included in Thrasorinae, was conducted. All subfamilies were recovered as monophyletic, with the following relationships: Parnipinae (Euceroptrinae (Mikeiinae (Plectocynipinae (Thrasorinae. A worldwide key to the subfamilies of Figitidae is provided that includes the new subfamily, as well as a key to genera Thrasorinae.

  5. Identification and Structure-Function Analysis of Subfamily Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homan, Kristoff T.; Larimore, Kelly M.; Elkins, Jonathan M.; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Tesmer, John J.G. [Michigan; (Oxford)

    2015-02-13

    Selective inhibitors of individual subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) would serve as useful chemical probes as well as leads for therapeutic applications ranging from heart failure to Parkinson’s disease. To identify such inhibitors, differential scanning fluorimetry was used to screen a collection of known protein kinase inhibitors that could increase the melting points of the two most ubiquitously expressed GRKs: GRK2 and GRK5. Enzymatic assays on 14 of the most stabilizing hits revealed that three exhibit nanomolar potency of inhibition for individual GRKs, some of which exhibiting orders of magnitude selectivity. Most of the identified compounds can be clustered into two chemical classes: indazole/dihydropyrimidine-containing compounds that are selective for GRK2 and pyrrolopyrimidine-containing compounds that potently inhibit GRK1 and GRK5 but with more modest selectivity. The two most potent inhibitors representing each class, GSK180736A and GSK2163632A, were cocrystallized with GRK2 and GRK1, and their atomic structures were determined to 2.6 and 1.85 Å spacings, respectively. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase inhibitor, binds to GRK2 in a manner analogous to that of paroxetine, whereas GSK2163632A, developed as an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, occupies a novel region of the GRK active site cleft that could likely be exploited to achieve more selectivity. However, neither compound inhibits GRKs more potently than their initial targets. This data provides the foundation for future efforts to rationally design even more potent and selective GRK inhibitors.

  6. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E. (Cornell); (Pavia); (Lund); (Southern Research)

    2011-09-20

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an ?/? monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is {approx}7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  7. The crystal structure of Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase reveals a distinct subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Timothy H; Christoffersen, S; Allan, Paula W; Parker, William B; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I; Terreni, M; Ealick, Steven E

    2011-08-02

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2'-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 Å resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an α/β monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild-type SpUP showed that its substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is ∼7-fold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies of SpUP mutants showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that the negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4.

  8. Multilocus molecular phylogeny of the suckermouth armored catfishes (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) with a focus on subfamily Hypostominae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Nathan K; Armbruster, Jonathan W; Lovejoy, Nathan R; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2015-01-01

    The Neotropical catfish family Loricariidae is the fifth most species-rich vertebrate family on Earth, with over 800 valid species. The Hypostominae is its most species-rich, geographically widespread, and ecomorphologically diverse subfamily. Here, we provide a comprehensive molecular phylogenetic reappraisal of genus-level relationships in the Hypostominae based on our sequencing and analysis of two mitochondrial and three nuclear loci (4293bp total). Our most striking large-scale systematic discovery was that the tribe Hypostomini, which has traditionally been recognized as sister to tribe Ancistrini based on morphological data, was nested within Ancistrini. This required recognition of seven additional tribe-level clades: the Chaetostoma Clade, the Pseudancistrus Clade, the Lithoxus Clade, the 'Pseudancistrus' Clade, the Acanthicus Clade, the Hemiancistrus Clade, and the Peckoltia Clade. Results of our analysis, which included type- and non-type species for every valid genus in Hypostominae, support the reevaluation and restriction of several historically problematic genera, including Baryancistrus, Cordylancistrus, Hemiancistrus, and Peckoltia. Much of the deep lineage diversity in Hypostominae is restricted to Guiana Shield and northern Andean drainages, with three tribe-level clades still largely restricted to the Guiana Shield. Of the six geographically widespread clades, a paraphyletic assemblage of three contain lineages restricted to drainages west of the Andes Mountains, suggesting that early diversification of the Hypostominae predated the late Miocene surge in Andean uplift. Our results also highlight examples of trophic ecological diversification and convergence in the Loricariidae, including support for three independent origins of highly similar and globally unique morphological specializations for eating wood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Potassium Channel Subfamily K Member 3 (KCNK3) Contributes to the Development of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antigny, Fabrice; Hautefort, Aurélie; Meloche, Jolyane; Belacel-Ouari, Milia; Manoury, Boris; Rucker-Martin, Catherine; Péchoux, Christine; Potus, François; Nadeau, Valérie; Tremblay, Eve; Ruffenach, Grégoire; Bourgeois, Alice; Dorfmüller, Peter; Breuils-Bonnet, Sandra; Fadel, Elie; Ranchoux, Benoît; Jourdon, Philippe; Girerd, Barbara; Montani, David; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien; Simonneau, Gérald; Humbert, Marc; Perros, Frédéric

    2016-04-05

    Mutations in the KCNK3 gene have been identified in some patients suffering from heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). KCNK3 encodes an outward rectifier K(+) channel, and each identified mutation leads to a loss of function. However, the pathophysiological role of potassium channel subfamily K member 3 (KCNK3) in PAH is unclear. We hypothesized that loss of function of KCNK3 is a hallmark of idiopathic and heritable PAH and contributes to dysfunction of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and pulmonary artery endothelial cells, leading to pulmonary artery remodeling: consequently, restoring KCNK3 function could alleviate experimental pulmonary hypertension (PH). We demonstrated that KCNK3 expression and function were reduced in human PAH and in monocrotaline-induced PH in rats. Using a patch-clamp technique in freshly isolated (not cultured) pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and pulmonary artery endothelial cells, we found that KCNK3 current decreased progressively during the development of monocrotaline-induced PH and correlated with plasma-membrane depolarization. We demonstrated that KCNK3 modulated pulmonary arterial tone. Long-term inhibition of KCNK3 in rats induced distal neomuscularization and early hemodynamic signs of PH, which were related to exaggerated proliferation of pulmonary artery endothelial cells, pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell, adventitial fibroblasts, and pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Lastly, in vivo pharmacological activation of KCNK3 significantly reversed monocrotaline-induced PH in rats. In PAH and experimental PH, KCNK3 expression and activity are strongly reduced in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells. KCNK3 inhibition promoted increased proliferation, vasoconstriction, and inflammation. In vivo pharmacological activation of KCNK3 alleviated monocrotaline-induced PH, thus demonstrating that loss of KCNK3 is a key event in PAH pathogenesis and thus could be therapeutically targeted.

  10. Comparison of otoacoustic emissions within gecko subfamilies: morphological implications for auditory function in lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergevin, Christopher

    2011-04-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are sounds emitted by the ear and provide a non-invasive probe into mechanisms underlying peripheral auditory transduction. This study focuses upon a comparison of emission properties in two phylogenetically similar pairs of gecko: Gekko gecko and Hemidactylus turcicus and Eublepharis macularius and Coleonyx variegatus. Each pair consists of two closely related species within the same subfamily, with quantitatively known morphological properties at the level of the auditory sensory organ (basilar papilla) in the inner ear. Essentially, the comparison boils down to an issue of size: how does overall body size, as well as the inner-ear dimensions (e.g., papilla length and number of hair cells), affect peripheral auditory function as inferred from OAEs? Estimates of frequency selectivity derived from stimulus-frequency emissions (emissions evoked by a single low-level tone) indicate that tuning is broader in the species with fewer hair cells/shorter papilla. Furthermore, emissions extend outwards to higher frequencies (for similar body temperatures) in the species with the smaller body size/narrower interaural spacing. This observation suggests the smaller species have relatively improved high-frequency sensitivity, possibly related to vocalizations and/or aiding azimuthal sound localization. For one species (Eublepharis), emissions were also examined in both juveniles and adults. Qualitatively similar emission properties in both suggests that inner-ear function is adult like soon after hatching and that external body size (e.g., middle-ear dimensions and interaural spacing) has a relatively small impact upon emission properties within a species.

  11. Dynamic Distribution and Interaction of the Arabidopsis SRSF1 Subfamily Splicing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Nancy; Schloesser, Marie; Joris, Marine; Sauvage, Eric; Hanikenne, Marc; Motte, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    Ser/Arg-rich (SR) proteins are essential nucleus-localized splicing factors. Our prior studies showed that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RSZ22, a homolog of the human SRSF7 SR factor, exits the nucleus through two pathways, either dependent or independent on the XPO1 receptor. Here, we examined the expression profiles and shuttling dynamics of the Arabidopsis SRSF1 subfamily (SR30, SR34, SR34a, and SR34b) under control of their endogenous promoter in Arabidopsis and in transient expression assay. Due to its rapid nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and high expression level in transient assay, we analyzed the multiple determinants that regulate the localization and shuttling dynamics of SR34. By site-directed mutagenesis of SR34 RNA-binding sequences and Arg/Ser-rich (RS) domain, we further show that functional RRM1 or RRM2 are dispensable for the exclusive protein nuclear localization and speckle-like distribution. However, mutations of both RRMs induced aggregation of the protein whereas mutation in the RS domain decreased the stability of the protein and suppressed its nuclear accumulation. Furthermore, the RNA-binding motif mutants are defective for their export through the XPO1 (CRM1/Exportin-1) receptor pathway, but retain nucleocytoplasmic mobility. We performed a yeast two hybrid screen with SR34 as bait and discovered SR45 as a new interactor. SR45 is an unusual SR splicing factor bearing two RS domains. These interactions were confirmed in planta by FLIM-FRET and BiFC and the roles of SR34 domains in protein-protein interactions were further studied. Altogether, our report extends our understanding of shuttling dynamics of Arabidopsis SR splicing factors. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Dynamic Distribution and Interaction of the Arabidopsis SRSF1 Subfamily Splicing Factors1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankovic, Nancy; Schloesser, Marie; Joris, Marine; Sauvage, Eric; Hanikenne, Marc; Motte, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Ser/Arg-rich (SR) proteins are essential nucleus-localized splicing factors. Our prior studies showed that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RSZ22, a homolog of the human SRSF7 SR factor, exits the nucleus through two pathways, either dependent or independent on the XPO1 receptor. Here, we examined the expression profiles and shuttling dynamics of the Arabidopsis SRSF1 subfamily (SR30, SR34, SR34a, and SR34b) under control of their endogenous promoter in Arabidopsis and in transient expression assay. Due to its rapid nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and high expression level in transient assay, we analyzed the multiple determinants that regulate the localization and shuttling dynamics of SR34. By site-directed mutagenesis of SR34 RNA-binding sequences and Arg/Ser-rich (RS) domain, we further show that functional RRM1 or RRM2 are dispensable for the exclusive protein nuclear localization and speckle-like distribution. However, mutations of both RRMs induced aggregation of the protein whereas mutation in the RS domain decreased the stability of the protein and suppressed its nuclear accumulation. Furthermore, the RNA-binding motif mutants are defective for their export through the XPO1 (CRM1/Exportin-1) receptor pathway, but retain nucleocytoplasmic mobility. We performed a yeast two hybrid screen with SR34 as bait and discovered SR45 as a new interactor. SR45 is an unusual SR splicing factor bearing two RS domains. These interactions were confirmed in planta by FLIM-FRET and BiFC and the roles of SR34 domains in protein-protein interactions were further studied. Altogether, our report extends our understanding of shuttling dynamics of Arabidopsis SR splicing factors. PMID:26697894

  13. Revision of Drusinae subfamily (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae: divergence by paraproct and paramere: speciation in isolation by integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oláh, János

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years we have described over 70 new incipient sibling limnephild species applying the discovered Trichoptera speciation traits of the paraproct and paramere for species recognition and delimitation. In this revision on Drusinae subfamily, comprising 177 species, we have applied these subtle, but rapid and stable speciation traits and described 49 new sibling species from the “well studied” European mountain ranges. Discussing the theoretical background we have elaborated and adapted a new character state ranking system of phenomics to revise the long-neglected taxonomy of the Drusinae subfamily and synonymised the Cryptothrix, Monocentra, Metanoea, Leptodrusus, Anomalopterygella, Hadimina genera with the Drusus genus. These old genera of artificial constructs were established exclusively by divergences of secondary sexual traits known already to have only species level ranking value. According to our new character ranking system in the Drusinae subfamily, beside the Drusus genus, only the Ecclisopteryx genus has been retained having robust generic level divegences of paraproct loss and ancestral duplication of spine organising centre on the paramere pattern. Speciation trait function of the peg-packed surface on the paraproct head in Drusus genus moved to the gonopod apices and integrated into variously shaped stimulatory organ in the Ecclisopteryx genus. In the Drusus genus the ancestral divergence of the single spine organising centre has integrated 11 species groups with remarkably stable paramere spine pattern. Based upon ancestral divergences in the paraproct architecture we have differenciated 28 species complexes inside the 11 species groups. The delineation of the 163 mostly incipient siblings species, inside the 28 species complexes with 44 new Drusus species, was based primarily on the divergences of speciation trait, that is in the stimulatory head shape of the apical arms on the dorsal branches of the paraproct

  14. ERESUS CINNABARINUS (OLIVIER, 1789) (ARANEAE, ERESIDAE) ÖRÜMCEĞİNİN ZEHİR AYGITI ÜZERİNE MORFOLOJİK BİR ÇALIŞMA

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAVUŞOĞLU, Kültiğin

    2009-01-01

    A MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON THE VENOM APPARATUS OF THE SPIDER ERESUS CINNABARINUS (OLIVIER, 1789) (ARANEAE, ERESIDAE) Abstract: In this study, morphological structure of the venom apparatus of Eresus cinnabarinus was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Venom apparatus situated in the prosoma is composed of a pair of chelicerae and venom glands. Each chelicera consists of two parts, a stout basal part covered by hair, and a movable venom fang. A venom pore is situated on subt...

  15. Revision of the Australian Union-Jack wolf spiders, genus Tasmanicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae, Lycosinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framenau, Volker W; Baehr, Barbara C

    2016-12-23

    The Australian wolf spider (Lycosidae Sundevall, 1833) genus Tasmanicosa Roewer, 1959 with Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905 as type species is revised to include 14 species: T. godeffroyi (L. Koch, 1865), comb. nov. (= Lycosa tasmanica Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.; = Lycosa zualella Strand, 1907, syn. nov.; = Lycosa woodwardi Simon, 1909, syn. nov.); T. fulgor sp. nov.; T. gilberta (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov.; T. harmsi sp. nov.; T. hughjackmani sp. nov.; T. kochorum sp. nov.; T. leuckartii (Thorell, 1870), comb. nov. (= Lycosa molyneuxi Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. musgravei (McKay, 1974) comb. nov.; T. phyllis (Hogg, 1905) comb. nov. (= Lycosa stirlingae Hogg, 1905, syn. nov.); T. ramosa (L. Koch, 1877), comb. nov.; T. salmo sp. nov.; T. semicincta (L. Koch, 1877) comb. nov.; T. stella sp. nov.; and T. subrufa (Karsch, 1878) comb. nov. Within the Australian wolf spider fauna, the genus Tasmanicosa can be diagnosed by the distinct pattern of radiating light and dark lines forming a "Union-Jack" pattern on the carapace. Male pedipalp morphology identifies the genus as part of the subfamily Lycosinae Sundevall, 1833 due to the presence of a transverse tegular apophysis with dorsal groove guiding the embolus during copulation. However, genital morphology is variable and a synapomorphy based on male pedipalp or female epigyne morphology could not be identified. Members of Tasmanicosa are comparatively large spiders (body length ca. 12-30 mm), that build a shallow burrow, which is sometimes covered with a flimsy trapdoor. Species of Tasmanicosa are largely a Bassian faunal element with preference for open woodlands and/or floodplains, although some species can be found into the semi-arid Australian interior. Two Australian wolf spider species may represent Tasmanicosa based on their original descriptions, but due to immature types in combination with the somatic similarities of all Tasmanicosa species, cannot be identified with certainty. They are therefore considered nomina dubia

  16. A new genus of mites of the subfamily Platyseiinae associated with Azteca ant galleries in Cecropia trees in Costa Rica (Acari: Mesostigmata: Blattisociidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindquist, E.E; Moraza, M.L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Calyptoseius gen. nov. of the subfamily Platyseiinae Evans is described, based on adults and nymphs of one newly described species associated with ants of the genus Azteca occupying hollow stems of Cecropia in lowland rain...

  17. Cephalocteinae Mulsant et Rey, 1866 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera), a subfamily of Cydnidae new for the Italian fauna: first record of Cephalocteus scarabaeoides (Fabricius, 1807) from Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancello, Luca; Cillo, Davide; Bazzato, Erika

    2016-01-25

    Cephalocteus scarabaeoides is recorded from the south-western coast of Sardinia, in sandy habitat (marine dunes near the beach), for the first time. The species and the subfamily are new for the Italian fauna.

  18. The ability of spiderlings of the widow spider Latrodectus hesperus (Araneae: Theridiidae) to pass through different size mesh screen: implications for exclusion from air intake ducts and greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Flanders, Christopher P; Rust, Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Experiments tested the ability of newly emerged spiderlings of a black widow spider, Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie (Araneae: Theridiidae), to crawl through brass screen of various mesh size. The purpose was to determine whether immatures of these medically important spiders could be excluded from buildings. In horizontal orientation, black widow spiderlings were able to easily pass through mesh with openings of 0.83 mm and were prevented from passing in four of five tests with mesh of 0.59-mm openings. Spiderlings also readily pass through 0.83-mm mesh in vertical orientation. Our laboratory studies indicate that the mesh size sufficient for exclusion is too small for practical use in most cases, although there are some specialized situations where such small mesh might be useful. The results are discussed in regard to actual conditions found in typical commercial building situations.

  19. The complete mitochondrial genomes of two orb-weaving spider Cyrtarachne nagasakiensis (Strand, 1918) and Hypsosinga pygmaea (Sundevall, 1831) (Araneae: Araneidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Wang, Zheng-Liang; Fang, Wen-Yuan; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-07-01

    The complete mitogenomes of Cyrtarachne nagasakiensis and Hypsosinga pygmaea are determined to be 14,402 and 14,193 bp in length, with the A + T content of 75.7% and 76.1%, respectively. All protein-coding genes in both spiders start with the initiation codons (ATT, ATA, TTA or TTG) that are usually used in Araneae mitogenomes, and terminate with canonical stop codon TAA or TAG except for ND5 in both spiders and ND4L in H. pygmaea, which end with the incomplete codon TA or T instead. Most of the tRNAs lack the potential to form the typically cloverleaf-shaped secondary structures and none of tandem repeats are present in the control regions of both spider mitogenomes. The phylogenetic analysis based on the Bayesian inference dataset shows a good resolution of relationship of C. nagasakiensis and H. pygmaea in Araneidae.

  20. A redescription of the type species of the jumping spider genus Pseudomaevia (Araneae: Salticidae) from Lord Howe Island, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Barry J

    2014-06-04

    The genus Pseudomaevia Rainbow, 1920 presently includes three forms, P. cognata Rainbow, 1920, P. insulana Berland, 1942 and P. i. aorai Berland, 1942, all found in the western Pacific region (Platnick 2014). The type species, P. cognata, was only briefly described with some poor illustrations of the male, but no information was given on the female. This situation makes placing species in this genus, or the genus in a wider context, difficult. The present work describes and illustrates both sexes of the type species. The female genitalia are unusual in that the insemination duct joins the fertilization duct without any apparent spermatheca. The subfamilial placement of the genus is unknown.

  1. Preferencia alimentaria de arañas Misumenops pallidus (Araneae: Thomisidae sobre potenciales insectos presa de cultivos de alfalfa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Cheli

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la preferencia alimentaria de la araña Misumenops pallidus frente a diferentes potenciales insectos presas, algunos de los cuales son plaga en cultivos agrícolas. Se efectuaron pruebas de presentación simultánea de presas (n= 215 y de presa alternativa (n= 45, en condiciones normales de laboratorio. M. pallidus mostró predilección por insectos móviles, pequeños, de exoesqueleto delgado y sin glándulas repelentes. Se establecieron cuatro niveles de depredación. El grado máximo (> 55% correspondió a las moscas adultas Drosophila melanogaster. Hubo depredación intermedia (30%-55% de larvas desfoliadoras (Rachiplusia nu y heterópteros adultos (Horciasinus argentinus y Halticus spegazzinii; y depredación mínima (10%-30% de los crisomélidos Colaspis sp. y Diabrotica speciosa. Los pentatómidos Piezodorus guildinii, los curculiónidos Naupactus sp. y los áfidos Acyrthosiphom pisum, no fueron depredados. En el 82% de los casos, una vez que M. pallidus logra cazar su presa, no la cambia por otra (independientemente del tipo de presa considerada.Feeding preferences of the spider Misumenops pallidus (Araneae: Thomisidae on potential prey insects from alfalfa crops. The spider Misumenops pallidus (Thomisidae is commonly found in alfalfa crops. We studied its predatory preferences on potential insect prey, particularly regarding agroecosystems pests. Two kinds of tests were done under normal laboratory conditions: simultaneous presentation of prey (n= 215 and alternative prey test (n= 45. The spiders preferred insects that were mobile, small, without defensive glands and with thin exoskeletons. According to the amount of prey consumed, we established four predation levels: high (> 55%, on adult Drosophila melanogaster flies; intermediate (30% -55% on the defoliator larvae of Rachiplusia nu and adult heteropterans: Horciasinus argentinus and Halticus spegazzinii; and low (10%- 30% on the chrysomelids Colapsis sp. and Diabrotica

  2. Molecular phylogenetics of the spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae) using nuclear rRNA genes (18S and 28S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Michael G; Harvey, Mark S; Roberts, J Dale

    2008-03-01

    The spider family Micropholcommatidae is an enigmatic taxon of uncertain limits and uncertain affinities. Various phylogenetic hypotheses have been proposed for the family, but these hypotheses have never been tested with a robust phylogenetic analysis. The existence of similar Australasian and New World taxa, the possibility of morphological convergence associated with extreme 'smallness', and the apparent paucity of synapomorphic morphological characters, have all clouded generic relationships in this group. We used fragments from two nuclear ribosomal RNA genes (18S and 28S) to test the monophyly and phylogenetic position of the Micropholcommatidae. The analyses incorporated 50 ingroup spider species, including 23 micropholcommatid species and representatives from 14 other spider families. Ribosomal RNA secondary structures were inferred for the V3-V5 region of the 18S rRNA gene, and Domain II of the 28S rRNA gene of Hickmania troglodytes [Higgins, E.T., Petterd, W.F., 1883. Description of a new cave-inhabiting spider, together with notes on mammalian remains from a recently discovered cave in the Chudleigh district. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tasman. 1882, 191-192]. These secondary structures were used to guide multiple sequence alignments, and determine the position and nature of indels in different taxa. Secondary structure information was also incorporated into a structurally partitioned rRNA analysis in MrBayes Version 3.1.2, using a doublet model of nucleotide substitution. This structurally partitioned rRNA analysis provided a less resolved but more conservative and informative estimate of phylogeny than an otherwise identical, unpartitioned rDNA analysis. With the exception of the Chilean species Teutoniella cekalovici [Platnick, N.I., Forster, R.R., 1986. On Teutoniella, an American genus of the spider family Micropholcommatidae (Araneae, Palpimanoidea). Am. Mus. Novit. 2854, 1-9], the family Micropholcommatidae was found to be monophyletic with three

  3. Temporal variation in the spider assemblage (Arachnida, Araneae in canopies of Callisthene fasciculata (Vochysiaceae in the Brazilian Pantanal biome

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    Lúcia Yamazaki

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Spiders are generalist predators and present a high diversity of capturing and foraging, as well as considerable species richness in tropical habitats. Although, generally, not presenting specific relations to the host plant, they can be influenced by its phenology, structure and resource availability. So, this study analyzed temporal variation on the structure and composition of Araneae assemblage in Callisthene fasciculata (Spr. Mart. (Vochysiaceae canopies, in an area of monodominant vegetation, in the periods of high water, receding water, dry season and rising water in Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The collection was performed on 24 individuals of C. fasciculata, six in each seasonal period, in 2010 and 2011, making use of canopy fogging with insecticide. For that, ten nylon funnels were distributed under each canopy of C. fasciculata individuals, in a total of 240 m² of sampled canopies. In all, 3,610 spiders were collected and distributed in 24 families and 55 species. Anyphaenidae (43.3%; 6.5 ind./m2, Pisauridae (16.2%; 2.4 ind./m2, Araneidae (12.7%; 1.9 ind./m2 and Salticidae (12.4%; 1.9 ind./m2 were the most representative. Osoriella tahela Brescovit, 1998 was the most abundant species (12.2%. The nocturnal aerial runners of foliage (45.6%; 6.9 ind./m2, nocturnal aerial ambushers of foliage (17.3%; 2.6 ind./m2, aerial orb weavers (13.3%; 2.0 ind./m2 and the diurnal aerial runners of foliage (12.5%; 1.9 ind./m2 spiders represented the most abundant guilds. Significant differences were observed in the composition of families and behavioral guilds, as well as abundance and richness among seasonal periods. The assemblage showed the highest abundance in receding water and highest species richness in high water period, probably related to the hydrologic cycle of the area and its influence on C. fasciculata phenology, indicating the importance of this plant species for spider’s diversity maintenance in the Pantanal.

  4. Revision and phylogeny of the caddisfly subfamily Protoptilinae (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae) inferred from adult morphology and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Desiree R; Holzenthal, Ralph W

    2013-01-01

    Protoptilinae Ross, 1956, is the most diverse subfamily belonging to the saddle- or tortoise-case-making caddisfly family Glossosomatidae Wallengren, 1891. The subfamily has a disjunct distribution: 5 genera are known from the East Palae-arctic and Oriental regions; the remaining 13 are restricted to the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. Monophyly of Pro-toptilinae and each of 17 genera was tested using 80 taxa, 99 morphological characters, and mitochondrial DNA (COI). Additionally, homologies of morphological characters were assessed across genera and a standardized terminology for those structures was established. Mitochondrial DNA data were unavailable for 55 of the 80 taxa included in this study. To test the effects of the missing molecular data, 5 different datasets were analyzed using both parsimony and Bayesian methods. There was incongruence between the COI and morphological data, but results suggest the inclusion of COI data in a combined analysis, although incomplete, improved the overall phylogenetic signal. Bayesian and parsimony analyses of all 5 datasets strongly supported the monophyly of Protoptilinae. Monophyly of the following genera was also support-ed: Canoptila Mosely, 1939; Culoptila Mosely, 1954; Itauara Müller, 1888; Mastigoptila Flint, 1967; Mortoniella Ulmer, 1906; Protoptila Banks, 1904; and Tolhuaca Schmid, 1964. Several taxonomic changes were necessary for classification to reflect phylogeny accurately. Accordingly, Matrioptila Ross, 1938; Poeciloptila Schmid, 1991; Temburongpsyche Malicky, 1992; and Nepaloptila Kimmins, 1964, are designated new junior synonyms of Padunia Martynov, 1910. Addition-ally, the endemic Caribbean genera Campsiophora Flint, 1964, and Cubanoptila Sykora, 1973, are designated new junior synonyms of Cariboptila Flint, 1964. Diagnoses and a key to the subfamilies of Glossosomatidae and world genera of Protoptilinae incorporating these taxonomic changes are provided.

  5. Protein complex interactor analysis and differential activity of KDM3 subfamily members towards H3K9 methylation.

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    Michael Brauchle

    Full Text Available Histone modifications play an important role in chromatin organization and gene regulation, and their interpretation is referred to as epigenetic control. The methylation levels of several lysine residues in histone tails are tightly controlled, and JmjC domain-containing proteins are one class of broadly expressed enzymes catalyzing methyl group removal. However, several JmjC proteins remain uncharacterized, gaps persist in understanding substrate recognition, and the integration of JmjC proteins into signaling pathways is just emerging. The KDM3 subfamily is an evolutionarily conserved group of histone demethylase proteins, thought to share lysine substrate specificity. Here we use a systematic approach to compare KDM3 subfamily members. We show that full-length KDM3A and KDM3B are H3K9me1/2 histone demethylases whereas we fail to observe histone demethylase activity for JMJD1C using immunocytochemical and biochemical approaches. Structure-function analyses revealed the importance of a single amino acid in KDM3A implicated in the catalytic activity towards H3K9me1/2 that is not conserved in JMJD1C. Moreover, we use quantitative proteomic analyses to identify subsets of the interactomes of the 3 proteins. Specific interactor candidates were identified for each of the three KDM3 subfamily members. Importantly, we find that SCAI, a known transcriptional repressor, interacts specifically with KDM3B. Taken together, we identify substantial differences in the biology of KDM3 histone demethylases, namely enzymatic activity and protein-protein interactions. Such comparative approaches pave the way to a better understanding of histone demethylase specificity and protein function at a systems level and are instrumental in identifying the more subtle differences between closely related proteins.

  6. Members of rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subfamily are involved in arsenite permeability and tolerance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A; Kumar, Kundan; Chhikara, Sudesh; Mcdermott, Joseph; Liu, Zijuan; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2012-12-01

    Rice accumulates high level of arsenic (As) in its edible parts and thus plays an important role in the transfer of As into the food chain. However, the mechanisms of As uptake and its detoxification in rice are not well understood. Recently, members of the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of plant aquaporins were shown to transport arsenite in rice and Arabidopsis. Here we report that members of the rice plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily are also involved in As tolerance and transport. Based on the homology search with the mammalian AQP9 and yeast Fps1 arsenite transporters, we identified and cloned five rice PIP gene subfamily members. qRT-PCR analysis of PIPs in rice root and shoot tissues revealed a significant down regulation of transcripts encoding OsPIP1;2, OsPIP1;3, OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in response to arsenite treatment. Heterologous expression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Xenopus laevis oocytes significantly increased the uptake of arsenite. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis yielded enhanced arsenite tolerance and higher biomass accumulation. Further, these transgenic plants showed no significant accumulation of As in shoot and root tissues in long term uptake assays. Whereas, short duration exposure to arsenite caused both active influx and efflux of As in the roots. The data suggests a bidirectional arsenite permeability of rice PIPs in plants. These rice PIPs genes will be highly useful for engineering important food and biofuel crops for enhanced crop productivity on contaminated soils without increasing the accumulation of toxic As in the biomass or edible tissues.

  7. Alu Sb2 subfamily is present in all higher primates but was most succesfully amplified in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, C.; Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. [Universite de Montreal, Que (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Alu repeats can be classified into subfamilies which amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. A young Alu subfamily, Sb2, with a characteristic 7-nucleotide duplication at position 256, has been described in seven human loci. An Sb2 insertion found near the HD gene was unique to two HD families, indicating that Sb2 was still retropositionally active. Here, we have shown that the Sb2 insertion in the CHOL locus was similarly rare, being absent in 120 individuals of Caucasian, Oriental and Black origin. In contrast, Sb2 inserts in five other loci were found fixed (non-polymorphic), based on measurements in the same population sample, but absent from orthologous positions in higher apes. This suggest that Sb2 repeats spread relatively early in the human lineage following divergence from other primates and that these elements may be human-specific. By quantitative PCR, we investigated the presence of Sb2 sequences in different primate DNA, using one PCR primer anchored at the 5{prime} Alu-end and the other complementary to the duplicated Sb2-specific segment. With an Sb2-containing plasmid as a standard, we estimated the number of Sb2 repeats at 1500-1800 copies per human haploid equivalent; corresponding numbers in chimpanzee and gorilla were almost two orders of magnitude lower, while the signal observed in orangutan and gibbon DNAs was consistent with the presence of a single copy. The analysis of 22 human, 11 chimpanzee and 10 gorilla sequences indicates that the Alu Sb2 dispersed independently in these three primate lineages; gorilla consensus differs from the human Sb2 sequence by one position, while all chimpanzee repeats have their linker expanded by up to eight A-residues. Should they be thus considered as separate subfamilies? It is possible that sequence modifications with respect to the human consensus are responsible for poor retroposition of Sb2 in apes.

  8. New insights into evolutionary relationships within the subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae) based on pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) nuclear DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tilottama; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2015-10-01

    Lamioideae, one of the most species-rich subfamilies within Lamiaceae, exhibits a remarkable diversity in morphology and habit and is found in many temperate to subtropical regions across the globe. Previous studies based on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence data produced a tribal classification of Lamioideae, but so far this has not been confirmed with nuclear DNA loci. We investigated sequence variation in a low-copy nuclear pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) region and compared the phylogenetic results with previously published sequence data from a concatenated data set comprising four cpDNA loci. We incorporated representatives of all 10 lamioid tribes and some unclassified taxa, analyzed the data using phylogenetic inference, and estimated divergence times and ancestral areas for major nodes. Our results showed overall topological similarities between the cpDNA and PPR phylogenies with strong support for most tribes. However, we also observed incongruence in the circumscription of some tribes, including Gomphostemmateae and Pogostemoneae and in the relationships among tribes. Our results suggest an Oligocene-Miocene origin of the Lamioideae crown group. Asia and the Mediterranean region appear to have been centers of diversity and place of origin for many lamioid tribes. This study represents the first phylogeny of subfamily Lamioideae inferred from low-copy nuclear DNA data. We show that most lamioid tribes are corroborated, although the exact circumscription of two tribes is questioned. We have shed further light on the evolutionary relationships within Lamioideae, and this study demonstrates the utility of the PPR region for such subfamilial-level phylogenetic studies. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Sea snakes in Australian waters (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae)—a review with an updated identification key

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Sanders, Kate Laura; Guinea, Michael L

    2014-01-01

    Sea snakes (Elapidae, subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) reach high species richness in the South China Sea and in the Australian region; however, most countries in the two regions still lack up-to-date checklists and identification tools for these snakes. We present an updated reviewed...... checklist and a new complete identification key to sea snakes in Australian waters. The identification key includes 29 species documented and 4 possibly occurring taxa and is based mostly on easy-to-use external characters. We find no evidence for breeding populations of Laticauda in Australian waters...

  10. Sea snakes in Australian waters (Serpentes: subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae)--a review with an updated identification key.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Arne Redsted; Sanders, Kate Laura; Guinea, Michael L; Amey, Andrew P

    2014-10-02

    Sea snakes (Elapidae, subfamilies Hydrophiinae and Laticaudinae) reach high species richness in the South China Sea and in the Australian region; however, most countries in the two regions still lack up-to-date checklists and identification tools for these snakes. We present an updated reviewed checklist and a new complete identification key to sea snakes in Australian waters. The identification key includes 29 species documented and 4 possibly occurring taxa and is based mostly on easy-to-use external characters. We find no evidence for breeding populations of Laticauda in Australian waters, but include the genus on the list of possibly occurring taxa. 

  11. Markiana nigripinnis (Perugia, 1891 as a putative member of the subfamily Stevardiinae (Characiformes: Characidae: spermatic evidence

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    Clarianna Martins Baicere-Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Markiana was until recently recognized as incertae sedis in the family Characidae, even though alternative placements for this genus have been advanced since its original description. More recently, it was hypothesized that Markiana nigripinnis is part of a clade informally named the Astyanax clade, indicating the putative close relationship of Markiana with the genus Astyanax. Examination of sperm ultrastructure of representatives of Astyanax and M. nigripinnis shows no evidence for this hypothesized close relationship. Rather, the spermatozoa of M. nigripinnis share characters found in spermatozoa of the non-inseminating members of the subfamily Stevardiinae, such as an angle of nuclear rotation equal to 85º resulting in a lateral position of the double nuclear fossa and flagellum. As with the non-inseminating Stevardiinae, sperm nuclei are also slightly elongate toward the flagellum, the proximal centriole is partially inside the nuclear fossa and anterior and oblique to the distal centriole, and the midpiece is short and strongly asymmetric. Additionally, M. nigripinnis shares with the other members of the Stevardiinae the presence of only four teeth in the inner row of the premaxillary and a short triangular ectopterygoid, which is never more than twice the length of the palatine.O gênero Markiana até recentemente foi reconhecido como incertae sedis na família Characidae, apesar da localização alternativa para este gênero desde sua descrição original. Mais recentemente, surgiu a hipótese de que Markiana nigripinnis faz parte de um clado chamado informalmente de "Astyanax clade", indicando a suposta relação de Markiana com o gênero Astyanax. A análise da ultraestrutura dos espermatozoides de representantes do gênero Astyanax e M. nigripinnis não mostra nenhuma evidência de estreita relação. Pelo contrário, os espermatozóides de M. nigripinnis compartilham o padrão encontrado nos espermatozoides dos membros n

  12. The First Mitochondrial Genome for the Fishfly Subfamily Chauliodinae and Implications for the Higher Phylogeny of Megaloptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuyu; Liu, Xingyue; Winterton, Shaun L.; Yang, Ding

    2012-01-01

    Megaloptera are a basal holometabolous insect order with larvae exclusively predacious and aquatic. The evolutionary history of Megaloptera attracts great interest because of its antiquity and important systematic status in Holometabola. However, due to the difficulties identifying morphological apomorphies for the group, controversial hypotheses on the monophyly and higher phylogeny of Megaloptera have been proposed. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a fishfly species, Neochauliodes punctatolosus Liu & Yang, 2006, representing the first mt genome of the subfamily Chauliodinae. A phylogenomic analysis was carried out based on the mt genomic sequences of 13 mt protein-coding genes (PCGs) and two rRNA genes of nine Neuropterida species, comprising all three orders of Neuropterida and all families and subfamilies of Megaloptera. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support the monophyly of Megaloptera, which was recovered as the sister of Neuroptera. Within Megaloptera, the sister relationship between Corydalinae and Chauliodinae was corroborated. The divergence time estimation suggests that stem lineage of Neuropterida and Coleoptera separated in the Early Permian. The interordinal divergence within Neuropterida might have occurred in the Late Permian. PMID:23056623

  13. Structural and Functional Elucidation of Peptide Ts11 Shows Evidence of a Novel Subfamily of Scorpion Venom Toxins

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    Caroline M. Cremonez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To date, several families of peptide toxins specifically interacting with ion channels in scorpion venom have been described. One of these families comprise peptide toxins (called KTxs, known to modulate potassium channels. Thus far, 202 KTxs have been reported, belonging to several subfamilies of KTxs (called α, β, γ, κ, δ, and λ-KTxs. Here we report on a previously described orphan toxin from Tityus serrulatus venom, named Ts11. We carried out an in-depth structure-function analysis combining 3D structure elucidation of Ts11 and electrophysiological characterization of the toxin. The Ts11 structure is highlighted by an Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK type scaffold, completely devoid of the classical secondary structure elements (α-helix and/or β-strand. This has, to the best of our knowledge, never been described before for scorpion toxins and therefore represents a novel, 6th type of structural fold for these scorpion peptides. On the basis of their preferred interaction with voltage-gated K channels, as compared to all the other targets tested, it can be postulated that Ts11 is the first member of a new subfamily, designated as ε-KTx.

  14. The first mitochondrial genome for the fishfly subfamily Chauliodinae and implications for the higher phylogeny of Megaloptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Wang

    Full Text Available Megaloptera are a basal holometabolous insect order with larvae exclusively predacious and aquatic. The evolutionary history of Megaloptera attracts great interest because of its antiquity and important systematic status in Holometabola. However, due to the difficulties identifying morphological apomorphies for the group, controversial hypotheses on the monophyly and higher phylogeny of Megaloptera have been proposed. Herein, we describe the complete mitochondrial (mt genome of a fishfly species, Neochauliodes punctatolosus Liu & Yang, 2006, representing the first mt genome of the subfamily Chauliodinae. A phylogenomic analysis was carried out based on the mt genomic sequences of 13 mt protein-coding genes (PCGs and two rRNA genes of nine Neuropterida species, comprising all three orders of Neuropterida and all families and subfamilies of Megaloptera. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses highly support the monophyly of Megaloptera, which was recovered as the sister of Neuroptera. Within Megaloptera, the sister relationship between Corydalinae and Chauliodinae was corroborated. The divergence time estimation suggests that stem lineage of Neuropterida and Coleoptera separated in the Early Permian. The interordinal divergence within Neuropterida might have occurred in the Late Permian.

  15. [DNA fingerprinting of individual species and intergeneric and interspecific hybrids of genera Bos and Bison, subfamily Bovinae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, V A; Steklenev, E P; Morozova, E V; Semenova, S K

    2002-04-01

    Genome fingerprinting with a hypervariable minisatellite sequence of phage M13 DNA was used to study the genetic variation in individual species of the genera Bos and Bison (subfamily Bovinae) and in their interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. DNA fingerprints were obtained for domestic cow Bos taurus primigenius, vatussy Bos taurus macroceros, banteng Bos javanicus, gaur Bos gaurus, wisent Bison bonasus, bison Bison bison, and for the interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. Compared with the original species, most hybrids showed a greater variation in number and size of hybridization fragments. An association was revealed between the number of hybridization fragments and blood composition of interspecific hybrids resulting from unique crossing of domestic cow and banteng. Pairwise similarity coefficients were calculated to construct a dendrogram of genetic similarity, which reflected the relationships between the parental species and hybrids varying in blood composition. The applicability of the method for identifying interspecific and intergeneric hybrids and for studying the consequences of distant hybridization in the subfamily Bovinae is discussed.

  16. Checklist of helminth parasites of Goodeinae (Osteichthyes: Cyprinodontiformes: Goodeidae), an endemic subfamily of freshwater fishes from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aquino, Andrés; Mendoza-Palmero, Carlos A; Aguilar-Aguilar, Rogelio; Pérez-Ponce de León, Gerardo

    2014-08-22

    From August 2008 to July 2010, 1,471 fish belonging to the subfamily Goodeinae (representing 28 species) were collected from 47 localities across central Mexico and analyzed for helminth parasites. In addition, a database with all available published accounts of the helminth parasite fauna of goodeines was assembled. Based on both sources of information, a checklist containing all the records was compiled as a necessary first step to address future questions in the areas of ecology, evolutionary biology and biogeography of this host-parasite association. The checklist is presented in two tables, a parasite-host list and a host-parasite list. The checklist contains 51 nominal species, from 34 genera and 26 families of helminth parasites. It includes 8 species of adult digeneans, 9 metacercarie, 6 monogeneans, 3 adult cestodes, 9 metacestodes, 1 adult acanthocephalan, 1 cystacanth, 6 adult nematodes and 8 larval nematodes. Based on the amount of information contained in the checklist, we pose that goodeines, a subfamily of viviparous freshwater fishes endemic to central Mexico, might be regarded as the first group of wildlife vertebrate for which a complete inventory of their helminth parasite fauna has been completed.

  17. Analysis of Comparative Sequence and Genomic Data to Verify Phylogenetic Relationship and Explore a New Subfamily of Bacterial Lipases.

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    Malihe Masomian

    Full Text Available Thermostable and organic solvent-tolerant enzymes have significant potential in a wide range of synthetic reactions in industry due to their inherent stability at high temperatures and their ability to endure harsh organic solvents. In this study, a novel gene encoding a true lipase was isolated by construction of a genomic DNA library of thermophilic Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus strain HZ into Escherichia coli plasmid vector. Sequence analysis revealed that HZ lipase had 62% identity to putative lipase from Bacillus pseudomycoides. The closely characterized lipases to the HZ lipase gene are from thermostable Bacillus and Geobacillus lipases belonging to the subfamily I.5 with ≤ 57% identity. The amino acid sequence analysis of HZ lipase determined a conserved pentapeptide containing the active serine, GHSMG and a Ca(2+-binding motif, GCYGSD in the enzyme. Protein structure modeling showed that HZ lipase consisted of an α/β hydrolase fold and a lid domain. Protein sequence alignment, conserved regions analysis, clustal distance matrix and amino acid composition illustrated differences between HZ lipase and other thermostable lipases. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this lipase represented a new subfamily of family I of bacterial true lipases, classified as family I.9. The HZ lipase was expressed under promoter Plac using IPTG and was characterized. The recombinant enzyme showed optimal activity at 65 °C and retained ≥ 97% activity after incubation at 50 °C for 1h. The HZ lipase was stable in various polar and non-polar organic solvents.

  18. A REVIEW OF THE LEAF-BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE OF SUBFAMILIES ALTICINAE AND CASSIDINAE OF THE MONGOLIAN ALTAI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Guskova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A check-list for the subfamilies Alticinae, Cassidinae is provided. Currently, 59 species of 16 genera of these subfamilies are known from the Mongolian Altai. Nine species of leaf-beetles, Psylliodes macellaWeise, 1900, Argopus nigritarsis (Gebler, 1823, Altica tamaricis Schrank, 1785, A. balassogloi (Jacobson, 1892, Longitarsus violentus Weise, 1893, Hispa atra (Fabricius, 1775, Cassida murraea Linnaeus, 1767, C. berolinensisSuffrian, 1844 and Hypocassida subferruginea (Schrank, 1776 are new records for Bayan-Ulegei aimak, two species, Chaetocnema sahlbergii (Gyllenhal, 1827 and Ch. mannerheimi (Gyllenhal, 1827 are new for Hovd aimak and three species, Crepidodera plutus (Latreille, 1804, Longitarsus luridus (Scopoli, 1763 and Cassida berolinensis Suffrian, 1844 are new for Gobi-Altai aimak.

  19. Molecular Evidence that Only Two Opsin Subfamilies, the Blue Light- (SWS2) and Green Light-Sensitive (RH2), Drive Color Vision in Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søviknes, Anne Mette; Drivenes, Øyvind; Helvik, Jon Vidar

    2014-01-01

    Teleosts show a great variety in visual opsin complement, due to both gene duplication and gene loss. The repertoire ranges from one subfamily of visual opsins (scotopic vision) including rod opsin only retinas seen in many deep-sea species to multiple subfamilies of visual opsins in some pelagic species. We have investigated the opsin repertoire of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) using information in the recently sequenced cod genome and found that despite cod not being a deep sea species it lacks visual subfamilies sensitive towards the most extreme parts of the light spectra representing UV and red light. Furthermore, we find that Atlantic cod has duplicated paralogs of both blue-sensitive SWS2 and green-sensitive RH2 subfamilies, with members belonging to each subfamily linked in tandem within the genome (two SWS2-, and three RH2A genes, respectively). The presence of multiple cone opsin genes indicates that there have been duplication events in the cod ancestor SWS2 and RH2 opsins producing paralogs that have been retained in Atlantic. Our results are supported by expressional analysis of cone opsins, which further revealed an ontogenetic change in the array of cone opsins expressed. These findings suggest life stage specific programs for opsin regulation which could be linked to habitat changes and available light as the larvae is transformed into an early juvenile. Altogether we provide the first molecular evidence for color vision driven by only two families of cone opsins due to gene loss in a teleost. PMID:25551396

  20. Molecular evidence that only two opsin subfamilies, the blue light- (SWS2 and green light-sensitive (RH2, drive color vision in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Valen

    Full Text Available Teleosts show a great variety in visual opsin complement, due to both gene duplication and gene loss. The repertoire ranges from one subfamily of visual opsins (scotopic vision including rod opsin only retinas seen in many deep-sea species to multiple subfamilies of visual opsins in some pelagic species. We have investigated the opsin repertoire of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua using information in the recently sequenced cod genome and found that despite cod not being a deep sea species it lacks visual subfamilies sensitive towards the most extreme parts of the light spectra representing UV and red light. Furthermore, we find that Atlantic cod has duplicated paralogs of both blue-sensitive SWS2 and green-sensitive RH2 subfamilies, with members belonging to each subfamily linked in tandem within the genome (two SWS2-, and three RH2A genes, respectively. The presence of multiple cone opsin genes indicates that there have been duplication events in the cod ancestor SWS2 and RH2 opsins producing paralogs that have been retained in Atlantic. Our results are supported by expressional analysis of cone opsins, which further revealed an ontogenetic change in the array of cone opsins expressed. These findings suggest life stage specific programs for opsin regulation which could be linked to habitat changes and available light as the larvae is transformed into an early juvenile. Altogether we provide the first molecular evidence for color vision driven by only two families of cone opsins due to gene loss in a teleost.

  1. A multilocus phylogeny of Podoctidae (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores) and parametric shape analysis reveal the disutility of subfamilial nomenclature in armored harvestman systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prashant P; Santiago, Marc A; Kriebel, Ricardo; Lipps, Savana M; Buenavente, Perry A C; Diesmos, Arvin C; Janda, Milan; Boyer, Sarah L; Clouse, Ronald M; Wheeler, Ward C

    2017-01-01

    The taxonomy and systematics of the armored harvestmen (suborder Laniatores) are based on various sets of morphological characters pertaining to shape, armature, pedipalpal setation, and the number of articles of the walking leg tarsi. Few studies have tested the validity of these historical character systems in a comprehensive way, with reference to an independent data class, i.e., molecular sequence data. We examined as a test case the systematics of Podoctidae, a family distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific. We tested the validity of the three subfamilies of Podoctidae using a five-locus phylogeny, and examined the evolution of dorsal shape as a proxy for taxonomic utility, using parametric shape analysis. Here we show that two of the three subfamilies, Ibaloniinae and Podoctinae, are non-monophyletic, with the third subfamily, Erecananinae, recovered as non-monophyletic in a subset of analyses. Various genera were also recovered as non-monophyletic. As first steps toward revision of Podoctidae, the subfamilies Erecananinae Roewer, 1912 and Ibaloniinae Roewer, 1912 are synonymized with Podoctinae Roewer, 1912 new synonymies, thereby abolishing unsubstantiated subfamilial divisions within Podoctidae. We once again synonymize the genus Paralomanius Goodnight & Goodnight, 1948 with Lomanius Roewer, 1923 revalidated. We additionally show that eggs carried on the legs of male Podoctidae are not conspecific to the males, falsifying the hypothesis of paternal care in this group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular evidence that only two opsin subfamilies, the blue light- (SWS2) and green light-sensitive (RH2), drive color vision in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, Ragnhild; Edvardsen, Rolf Brudvik; Søviknes, Anne Mette; Drivenes, Øyvind; Helvik, Jon Vidar

    2014-01-01

    Teleosts show a great variety in visual opsin complement, due to both gene duplication and gene loss. The repertoire ranges from one subfamily of visual opsins (scotopic vision) including rod opsin only retinas seen in many deep-sea species to multiple subfamilies of visual opsins in some pelagic species. We have investigated the opsin repertoire of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) using information in the recently sequenced cod genome and found that despite cod not being a deep sea species it lacks visual subfamilies sensitive towards the most extreme parts of the light spectra representing UV and red light. Furthermore, we find that Atlantic cod has duplicated paralogs of both blue-sensitive SWS2 and green-sensitive RH2 subfamilies, with members belonging to each subfamily linked in tandem within the genome (two SWS2-, and three RH2A genes, respectively). The presence of multiple cone opsin genes indicates that there have been duplication events in the cod ancestor SWS2 and RH2 opsins producing paralogs that have been retained in Atlantic. Our results are supported by expressional analysis of cone opsins, which further revealed an ontogenetic change in the array of cone opsins expressed. These findings suggest life stage specific programs for opsin regulation which could be linked to habitat changes and available light as the larvae is transformed into an early juvenile. Altogether we provide the first molecular evidence for color vision driven by only two families of cone opsins due to gene loss in a teleost.

  3. (Araneae: Palpimanidae) on jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first detailed report on the natural prey and the prey-capture tactics of a Palpimanus sp. from Entebbe (Uganda). Although this species fed occasionally on insects, its dominant prey in the field was other spiders, especially jumping spiders (Salticidae) and their eggs. Encounters between Palpimanus sp. and ...

  4. Arañas (Arachnida: Araneae asociadas a dos bosques degradados del Chaco húmedo en Corrientes, Argentina

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    Gilberto Avalos

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El importante avance de la degradación de bosques en la Provincia Biogeográfica del Chaco, Argentina, conlleva una pérdida importante de su poco conocida biodiversidad. Se realizó un estudio de la fauna de arañas en dos bosques de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina, correspondientes al Distrito Oriental Húmedo del Chaco, en las localidades de Laguna Brava y El Perichón. Se realizaron muestreos estacionales entre los años 2001 y 2002. Las arañas recolectadas (2 067 individuos de 33 familias y 226 especies/morfoespecies fueron obtenidas por golpeteo del estrato arbustivo y tamizado de hojarasca. Las familias Araneidae, Anyphaenidae, Salticidae y Theridiidae fueron las más abundantes en los dos bosques. El gremio de arañas "constructoras de telas orbiculares" presentó el mayor número de individuos (n=382 y el de "cazadoras al acecho" la mayor riqueza (S=56. En Laguna Brava se observó mayor abundancia en el verano (n=287 y primavera (n=273 y en el Perichón en invierno (n=315. La riqueza específica y el valor de los índices de diversidad, fueron mayores en Laguna Brava (S=134, H´=4.23, E=0.86, D=0.023 que en El Perichón (S=127, H´=4.08, E=0.84, D=0.029. La similitud entre ambos bosques fue MH=0.611.Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae associated with two degraded forests in the humid Chaco of Corrientes, Argentina. The advancing degradation of the forest in the biogeographic Chaco province (Argentina produces an important loss of its little known biodiversity. We studied the spider biodiversity in two forests of Corrientes, Argentina’s "Distrito Oriental Húmedo del Chaco": Laguna Brava and El Perichón. Seasonal samplings of foliage and fallen leaves between 2001 and 2002 produced 2 067 individuals from 33 families and 226 species/ morphospecies. The families Araneidae, Anyphaenidae, Salticidae and Theridiidae were the most abundant in both forests. The "orb weavers" guild had the highest number of specimens (n=382 and "stalkers" the

  5. Comunidad de arañas (Arachnida, Araneae del cultivo de alfalfa (Medicago sativa en Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Andrea Armendano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En las últimas décadas se ha dado un interés creciente en el uso de enemigos naturales para controlar plagas de insectos, como arañas. Se estudió una comunidad de arañas en Argentina mediante un muestreo cada dos semanas durante el periodo 2004-2006 en lotes de una hectárea. En el estrato del suelo las arañas fueron colectadas con redes de arrastre y trampas de caída. Se recolecto un total de 6 229 ejemplares (15 familias y 50 especies. Siete familias se encuentran en el estrato herbáceo, las más abundantes fueron: Thomisidae (n=2 012, 32.30%, Araneidae (n=1 516, 24.33% y Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%. El suelo habían 14 familias, principalmente: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10% y Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%. Predominaron las arañas cazadoras: por emboscadas (32.99%, al acecho (11.77%, corredoras de suelo (10.84% y tejedoras orbiculares (27.56%. Los índices de diversidad fueron: H´=2.97, Dsp=0.11 y J=0.79, evidenciando una comunidad de arañas moderadamente diversa, con predominio de Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus, Lycosa poliostoma and L. erythrognatha. Las arañas estuvieron presentes durante el desarrollo fenológico del cultivo con picos de abundancia en primavera y verano.Spider community (Arachnida, Araneae of alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Over the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the use of natural enemies to control pest insects, including spiders. We studied a spider community in Argentina by sampling every two weeks during 2004-2006 in one-hectare lots. Soil stratum spiders were collected using nets and pitfall traps. A total of 6229 specimens were collected (15 families and 50 species. Seven families were found in the herbal stratum, the most abundant were Thomisidae (n=2012, 32.30%, Araneidae (n=1516, 24.33% and Oxyopidae (n=604, 9.70%. The soil had 14 families, mainly: Lycosidae (n=629, 10.10% and Linyphiidae (n=427, 6.85%. Hunting spiders predominated: ambushers (32

  6. Composición de la fauna de Araneae (Arachnida de la Reserva provincial Iberá, Corrientes, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Avalos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la composición y diversidad de la comunidad de arañas de la Reserva provincial iberá, Corrientes, Argentina. Se realizaron capturas en bosque y pastizal en Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza y Estancia Rincón por medio de las técnicas de muestreo: trampas "pit-fall", tamizado, golpeteo de follaje, observación directa y red de arrastre. Las arañas se agruparon en gremios y se compiló un inventario. La similitud entre localidades y unidades ambientales se midió con el índice de Jaccard, y se calcularon los índices de diversidad de Shannon, equitabilidad, dominancia de Berger-Parker, y la diversidad beta y gamma. Para estimar la riqueza de especies se utilizó Chao 1, Chao 2, Jackknife 1 y 2. En total se recolectaron 4 138 arañas, se identificaron 33 familias y 150 especies de Araneomorphae, y dos familias y dos especies de Mygalomorphae. Cinco especies son nuevos registros para Argentina y 11 para la provincia de Corrientes. Araneidae fue la familia más abundante (39.8%, seguida por Salticidae (10.9%, Anyphaenidae (7.9%, Tetragnathidae (7.4%, Lycosidae (5.5%, y las restantes familias representaron menos del 5% de la captura total. El gremio de arañas tejedoras de telas orbiculares fue el de mayor abundancia y riqueza de especies. Entre las unidades ambientales, la mayor abundancia, riqueza y diversidad se verificó en el bosque de Colonia Pellegrini y en el pastizal de Paraje Galarza. La diversidad a fue alta, representó el 89% de la diversidad gamma, y la diversidad ß constituyó el 11% restante. Según los diferentes índices se capturó entre el 67% y el 97% de las especies que están presentes en la Reserva.Composition of the Araneae (Arachnida fauna of the provincial Iberá Reserve, Corrientes, Argentina. A survey of the spider community composition and diversity was carried out in grasslands and woods in three localities: Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza and Estancia Rincón (iberá province Reserve. Pit fall

  7. Phylogenetic relationships of the Gorgoderidae (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda), including the proposal of a new subfamily (Degeneriinae n. subfam.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutmore, Scott C; Miller, Terrence L; Curran, Stephen S; Bennett, Michael B; Cribb, Thomas H

    2013-08-01

    Phylogenetic analyses of a range of gorgoderid trematodes based on ITS2 and partial 28S rDNA data lead us to propose the Degeneriinae n. subfam. for the genus Degeneria in recognition of its phylogenetic isolation and distinctive morphology and biology. The current concepts of the subfamilies Anaporrhutinae and Gorgoderinae were supported. Within the Gorgoderinae, the large genus Phyllodistomum is shown to be paraphyletic relative to Pseudophyllodistomum and Xystretrum. Notably, the clade of marine Phyllodistomum does not form a clade with the other marine genus, Xystretrum. Distinct clades within the Gorgoderinae correspond variously to identity of first intermediate host, form of cercaria and their marine or freshwater habitat. We are not yet in a position to propose separate genera for these clades.

  8. Sonorensin: an Antimicrobial Peptide, Belonging to the Heterocycloanthracin Subfamily of Bacteriocins, from a New Marine Isolate, Bacillus sonorensis MT93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Lipsy; Singh, Gurdeep; Choudhary, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Marine environments are the greatest fronts of biodiversity, representing a resource of unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received great attention recently due to their applications as food preservatives and therapeutic agents. A new marine soil isolate producing an AMP was identified as Bacillus sonorensis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It produced an AMP that showed a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The peptide, named sonorensin, was purified to homogeneity using a combination of chromatographic techniques. The intact molecular mass of the purified peptide, 6,274 Da, as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF), was in agreement with Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis. A PCR array of primers was used to identify AMP structural genes, which allowed the successful amplification of the related genes from strain MT93. The putative open reading frame of sonorensin was amplified, cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector, expressed as a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion protein in Escherichia coli, and then purified. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the bacteriocin being reported could belong to new subfamily of bacteriocins, heterocycloanthracin. The peptide indicated its potential as a biocontrol agent or food antimicrobial agent, due to its antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of the production, purification, and characterization of wild-type and recombinant bacteriocin by B. sonorensis and the first bacteriocin of the heterocycloanthracin subfamily to be characterized. PMID:24610839

  9. Phylogenetic analysis and expression patterns of Pax genes in the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli reveal a novel bilaterian Pax subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Franziska Anni; Schumann, Isabell; Hering, Lars; Mayer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Pax family genes encode a class of transcription factors that regulate various developmental processes. To shed light on the evolutionary history of these genes in Panarthropoda (Onychophora + Tardigrada + Arthropoda), we analyzed the Pax repertoire in the embryonic and adult transcriptomes of the onychophoran Euperipatoides rowelli. Our data revealed homologs of all five major bilaterian Pax subfamilies in this species, including Pax2/5/8, Pax4/6, Pox-neuro, Pax1/9/Pox-meso, and Pax3/7. In addition, we identified a new Pax member, pax-α, which does not fall into any other known Pax subfamily but instead clusters in the heterogenic Pax-α/β clade containing deuterostome, ecdysozoan, and lophotrochozoan gene sequences. These findings suggest that the last common bilaterian ancestor possessed six rather than five Pax genes, which have been retained in the panarthropod lineage. The expression data of Pax orthologs in the onychophoran embryo revealed distinctive patterns, some of which might be related to their ancestral roles in the last common panarthropod ancestor, whereas others might be specific to the onychophoran lineage. The derived roles include, for example, an involvement of pax2/5/8, pox-neuro, and pax3/7 in onychophoran nephridiogenesis, and an additional function of pax2/5/8 in the formation of the ventral and preventral organs. Furthermore, our transcriptomic analyses suggest that at least some Pax genes, including pax6 and pax-α, are expressed in the adult onychophoran head, although the corresponding functions remain to be clarified. The remarkable diversity of the Pax expression patterns highlights the functional and evolutionary plasticity of these genes in panarthropods. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Structural and Functional Analysis of a New Subfamily of Glycosyltransferases Required for Glycosylation of Serine-rich Streptococcal Adhesins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Fan; Erlandsen, Heidi; Ding, Lei; Li, Jingzhi; Huang, Ying; Zhou, Meixian; Liang, Xiaobo; Ma, Jinbiao; Wu, Hui (UAB)

    2011-09-16

    Serine-rich repeat glycoproteins (SRRPs) are a growing family of bacterial adhesins found in many streptococci and staphylococci; they play important roles in bacterial biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Glycosylation of this family of adhesins is essential for their biogenesis. A glucosyltransferase (Gtf3) catalyzes the second step of glycosylation of a SRRP (Fap1) from an oral streptococcus, Streptococcus parasanguinis. Although Gtf3 homologs are highly conserved in SRRP-containing streptococci, they share minimal homology with functionally known glycosyltransferases. We report here the 2.3 {angstrom} crystal structure of Gtf3. The structural analysis indicates that Gtf3 forms a tetramer and shares significant structural homology with glycosyltransferases from GT4, GT5, and GT20 subfamilies. Combining crystal structural analysis with site-directed mutagenesis and in vitro glycosyltransferase assays, we identified residues that are required for UDP- or UDP-glucose binding and for oligomerization of Gtf3 and determined their contribution to the enzymatic activity of Gtf3. Further in vivo studies revealed that the critical amino acid residues identified by the structural analysis are crucial for Fap1 glycosylation in S. parasanguinis in vivo. Moreover, Gtf3 homologs from other streptococci were able to rescue the gtf3 knock-out mutant of S. parasanguinis in vivo and catalyze the sugar transfer to the modified SRRP substrate in vitro, demonstrating the importance and conservation of the Gtf3 homologs in glycosylation of SRRPs. As the Gtf3 homologs only exist in SRRP-containing streptococci, we conclude that the Gtf3 homologs represent a unique subfamily of glycosyltransferases.

  11. Functional characterization of nine Norway Spruce TPS genes and evolution of gymnosperm terpene synthases of the TPS-d subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane M; Fäldt, Jenny; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-08-01

    Constitutive and induced terpenoids are important defense compounds for many plants against potential herbivores and pathogens. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), treatment with methyl jasmonate induces complex chemical and biochemical terpenoid defense responses associated with traumatic resin duct development in stems and volatile terpenoid emissions in needles. The cloning of (+)-3-carene synthase was the first step in characterizing this system at the molecular genetic level. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of nine additional terpene synthase (TPS) cDNAs from Norway spruce. These cDNAs encode four monoterpene synthases, myrcene synthase, (-)-limonene synthase, (-)-alpha/beta-pinene synthase, and (-)-linalool synthase; three sesquiterpene synthases, longifolene synthase, E,E-alpha-farnesene synthase, and E-alpha-bisabolene synthase; and two diterpene synthases, isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase, each with a unique product profile. To our knowledge, genes encoding isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and longifolene synthase have not been previously described, and this linalool synthase is the first described from a gymnosperm. These functionally diverse TPS account for much of the structural diversity of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced terpenoids in foliage, xylem, bark, and volatile emissions from needles of Norway spruce. Phylogenetic analyses based on the inclusion of these TPS into the TPS-d subfamily revealed that functional specialization of conifer TPS occurred before speciation of Pinaceae. Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. Similarities of TPS evolution in angiosperms and modeling of TPS protein structures are discussed.

  12. A Species-Level Phylogeny of Extant Snakes with Description of a New Colubrid Subfamily and Genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Alex; McKelvy, Alexander D; Grismer, L Lee; Bell, Charles D; Lailvaux, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    With over 3,500 species encompassing a diverse range of morphologies and ecologies, snakes make up 36% of squamate diversity. Despite several attempts at estimating higher-level snake relationships and numerous assessments of generic- or species-level phylogenies, a large-scale species-level phylogeny solely focusing on snakes has not been completed. Here, we provide the largest-yet estimate of the snake tree of life using maximum likelihood on a supermatrix of 1745 taxa (1652 snake species + 7 outgroup taxa) and 9,523 base pairs from 10 loci (5 nuclear, 5 mitochondrial), including previously unsequenced genera (2) and species (61). Increased taxon sampling resulted in a phylogeny with a new higher-level topology and corroborate many lower-level relationships, strengthened by high nodal support values (> 85%) down to the species level (73.69% of nodes). Although the majority of families and subfamilies were strongly supported as monophyletic with > 88% support values, some families and numerous genera were paraphyletic, primarily due to limited taxon and loci sampling leading to a sparse supermatrix and minimal sequence overlap between some closely-related taxa. With all rogue taxa and incertae sedis species eliminated, higher-level relationships and support values remained relatively unchanged, except in five problematic clades. Our analyses resulted in new topologies at higher- and lower-levels; resolved several previous topological issues; established novel paraphyletic affiliations; designated a new subfamily, Ahaetuliinae, for the genera Ahaetulla, Chrysopelea, Dendrelaphis, and Dryophiops; and appointed Hemerophis (Coluber) zebrinus to a new genus, Mopanveldophis. Although we provide insight into some distinguished problematic nodes, at the deeper phylogenetic scale, resolution of these nodes may require sampling of more slowly-evolving nuclear genes.

  13. Design factors that influence the performance of flight intercept traps for the capture of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae from the subfamilies Lamiinae and Cerambycinae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Allison

    Full Text Available In North America, cerambycid beetles can have significant ecological and economic effects on forest ecosystems, and the rate of introduction and/or detection of exotic species is increasing. Detection and survey programs rely on semiochemical-baited intercept traps which are often ineffective for large woodborers like cerambycid beetles. This study examined the effects of flight intercept trap design on the capture of cerambycid beetles in the subfamilies Lamiinae and Cerambycinae. These subfamilies are the two largest in the Cerambycidae and they include many of the most damaging cerambycid pests and species on regulatory watch lists in North America. This study demonstrates that intercept trap design, treatment of trap surfaces with a lubricant, and the type of collection cup all influence the capture of beetles from the subfamilies Lamiinae and Cerambycinae. It also demonstrates that the addition of a large lubricant-treated collar to the bottom funnel of a multiple-funnel trap significantly increases the capture of some Lamiinae. The best trap design for both subfamilies was a lubricant treated multiple-funnel [MF] trap equipped with a wet cup and lubricant treated large collar on the bottom funnel. This design captured between 4 and 14 times more Lamiinae and Cerambycinae than commercially-available MF and panel traps.

  14. The West Palaearctic species of the subfamily Paxylommatinae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae), with special reference to the genus Hybrizon Fallén

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.

    1999-01-01

    The West Palaearctic species of the subfamily Paxylommatinae are reviewed and the species of the genus Hybrizon Fallén, 1813, from the Palaearctic region are keyed. Hybrizon juncoi (Ceballos, 1957) is recognized as a valid species, a neotype is designated for Hybrizon latebricola Nees, 1834, and a

  15. Transfer of All Cybalomiinae to other Subfamilies (Crambidae: Pyraloidea: Lepidoptera: Elusia Schaus, Dichochroma Forbes, Schacontia Dyar, Cybalomia extorris Warren, and C. lojanalis Dognin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cybalomiinae contained 4 genera and 9 species in the Western Hemisphere, according to Munroe (1995). These species were morphologically compared with the type species, Cybalomia pentadalis Lederer, of Cybalomiinae. All species were found to belong to other subfamilies and the following new com...

  16. Design factors that influence the performance of flight intercept traps for the capture of longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) from the subfamilies Lamiinae and Cerambycinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jeremy D; Bhandari, Basu D; McKenney, Jessica L; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2014-01-01

    In North America, cerambycid beetles can have significant ecological and economic effects on forest ecosystems, and the rate of introduction and/or detection of exotic species is increasing. Detection and survey programs rely on semiochemical-baited intercept traps which are often ineffective for large woodborers like cerambycid beetles. This study examined the effects of flight intercept trap design on the capture of cerambycid beetles in the subfamilies Lamiinae and Cerambycinae. These subfamilies are the two largest in the Cerambycidae and they include many of the most damaging cerambycid pests and species on regulatory watch lists in North America. This study demonstrates that intercept trap design, treatment of trap surfaces with a lubricant, and the type of collection cup all influence the capture of beetles from the subfamilies Lamiinae and Cerambycinae. It also demonstrates that the addition of a large lubricant-treated collar to the bottom funnel of a multiple-funnel trap significantly increases the capture of some Lamiinae. The best trap design for both subfamilies was a lubricant treated multiple-funnel [MF] trap equipped with a wet cup and lubricant treated large collar on the bottom funnel. This design captured between 4 and 14 times more Lamiinae and Cerambycinae than commercially-available MF and panel traps.

  17. Evolution of C2H2-zinc finger genes and subfamilies in mammals: Species-specific duplication and loss of clusters, genes and effector domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubry Muriel

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background C2H2 zinc finger genes (C2H2-ZNF constitute the largest class of transcription factors in humans and one of the largest gene families in mammals. Often arranged in clusters in the genome, these genes are thought to have undergone a massive expansion in vertebrates, primarily by tandem duplication. However, this view is based on limited datasets restricted to a single chromosome or a specific subset of genes belonging to the large KRAB domain-containing C2H2-ZNF subfamily. Results Here, we present the first comprehensive study of the evolution of the C2H2-ZNF family in mammals. We assembled the complete repertoire of human C2H2-ZNF genes (718 in total, about 70% of which are organized into 81 clusters across all chromosomes. Based on an analysis of their N-terminal effector domains, we identified two new C2H2-ZNF subfamilies encoding genes with a SET or a HOMEO domain. We searched for the syntenic counterparts of the human clusters in other mammals for which complete gene data are available: chimpanzee, mouse, rat and dog. Cross-species comparisons show a large variation in the numbers of C2H2-ZNF genes within homologous mammalian clusters, suggesting differential patterns of evolution. Phylogenetic analysis of selected clusters reveals that the disparity in C2H2-ZNF gene repertoires across mammals not only originates from differential gene duplication but also from gene loss. Further, we discovered variations among orthologs in the number of zinc finger motifs and association of the effector domains, the latter often undergoing sequence degeneration. Combined with phylogenetic studies, physical maps and an analysis of the exon-intron organization of genes from the SCAN and KRAB domains-containing subfamilies, this result suggests that the SCAN subfamily emerged first, followed by the SCAN-KRAB and finally by the KRAB subfamily. Conclusion Our results are in agreement with the "birth and death hypothesis" for the evolution of

  18. miRNA-122 Protects Mice and Human Hepatocytes from Acetaminophen Toxicity by Regulating Cytochrome P450 Family 1 Subfamily A Member 2 and Family 2 Subfamily E Member 1 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Vivek; Teng, Kun-Yu; Thakral, Sharda; Zhang, Bo; Lin, Cho-Hao; Wani, Nissar; Bruschweiler-Li, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoli; James, Laura; Yang, Dakai; Junge, Norman; Brüschweiler, Rafael; Lee, William M; Ghoshal, Kalpana

    2017-12-01

    Acetaminophen toxicity is a leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF). We found that miRNA-122 (miR-122) is down-regulated in liver biopsy specimens of patients with ALF and in acetaminophen-treated mice. A marked decrease in the primary miR-122 expression occurs in mice on acetaminophen overdose because of suppression of its key transactivators, hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4α and HNF6. More importantly, the mortality rates of male and female liver-specific miR-122 knockout (LKO) mice were significantly higher than control mice when injected i.p. with an acetaminophen dose not lethal to the control. LKO livers exhibited higher basal expression of cytochrome P450 family 2 subfamily E member 1 (CYP2E1) and cytochrome P450 family 1 subfamily A member 2 (CYP1A2) that convert acetaminophen to highly reactive N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine. Upregulation of Cyp1a2 primary transcript and mRNA in LKO mice correlated with the elevation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and mediator 1 (MED1), two transactivators of Cyp1a2. Analysis of ChIP-seq data in the ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Element) database identified association of CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) with Ahr promoter in mouse livers. Both MED1 and CTCF are validated conserved miR-122 targets. Furthermore, depletion of Ahr, Med1, or Ctcf in Mir122 -/- hepatocytes reduced Cyp1a2 expression. Pulse-chase studies found that CYP2E1 protein level is upregulated in LKO hepatocytes. Notably, miR-122 depletion sensitized differentiated human HepaRG cells to acetaminophen toxicity that correlated with upregulation of AHR, MED1, and CYP1A2 expression. Collectively, these results reveal a critical role of miR-122 in acetaminophen detoxification and implicate its therapeutic potential in patients with ALF. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The phylogeny of the family Lacertidae (Reptilia) based on nuclear DNA sequences: convergent adaptations to arid habitats within the subfamily Eremiainae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Werner; Pavlicev, Mihaela

    2007-09-01

    The family Lacertidae encompasses more than 250 species distributed in the Palearctis, Ethiopis and Orientalis. Lacertids have been subjected in the past to several morphological and molecular studies to establish their phylogeny. However, the problems of convergent adaptation in morphology and of excessively variable molecular markers have hampered the establishment of well supported deeper phylogenetic relationships. Particularly the adaptations to xeric environments have often been used to establish a scenario for the origin and radiation of major lineages within lacertids. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear marker genes and representatives of 37 lacertid genera and distinct species groups (as in the case of the collective genus Lacerta). Roughly 1600 bp of the nuclear rag1 and c-mos genes were sequenced and analyzed. While the results provide good support to the hitherto suggested main subfamilies of Gallotiinae (Gallotia and Psammodromus), Eremiainae and Lacertinae [Harris, D.J., Arnold, E.N., Thomas, R.H., 1998. Relationships of lacertid lizards (Reptilia: Lacertidae) estimated from mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 265, 1939-1948], they also suggest unexpected relationships. In particular, the oriental genus Takydromus, previously considered the sister-group to the three subfamilies, is nested within Lacertinae. Moreover, the genera within the Eremiainae are further divided into two groups, roughly corresponding to their respective geographical distributions in the Ethiopian and the Saharo-Eurasian ranges. The results support an independent origin of adaptations to xeric conditions in different subfamilies. The relationships within the subfamily Lacertinae could not be resolved with the markers used. The species groups of the collective genus Lacerta show a bush-like topology in the inferred Bayesian tree, suggesting rapid radiation. The composition of the subfamilies Eremiainae and Lacertinae

  20. In silico cloning and characterization of the TGA (TGACG MOTIF-BINDING FACTOR) transcription factors subfamily in Carica papaya.

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    Idrovo Espín, Fabio Marcelo; Peraza-Echeverria, Santy; Fuentes, Gabriela; Santamaría, Jorge M

    2012-05-01

    The TGA transcription factors belong to the subfamily of bZIP group D that play a major role in disease resistance and development. Most of the TGA identified in Arabidopsis interact with the master regulator of SAR, NPR1 that controls the expression of PR genes. As a first approach to determine the possible involvement of these transcription factors in papaya defense, we characterized Arabidopsis TGA orthologs from the genome of Carica papaya cv. SunUp. Six orthologs CpTGA1 to CpTGA6, were identified. The predicted CpTGA proteins were highly similar to AtTGA sequences and probably share the same DNA binding properties and transcriptional regulation features. The protein sequences alignment evidenced the presence of conserved domains, characteristic of this group of transcription factors. The phylogeny showed that CpTGA evolved into three different subclades associated with defense and floral development. This is the first report of basal expression patterns assessed by RT-PCR, from the whole subfamily of CpTGA members in different tissues from papaya cv. Maradol mature plants. Overall, CpTGA1, CpTGA3 CpTGA6 and CpTGA4 showed a basal expression in all tissues tested; CpTGA2 expressed strongly in all tissues except in petioles while CpTGA5 expressed only in petals and to a lower extent in petioles. Although more detailed studies in anthers and other floral structures are required, we suggest that CpTGA5 might be tissue-specific, and it might be involved in papaya floral development. On the other hand, we report here for the first time, the expression of the whole family of CpTGA in response to salicylic acid (SA). The expression of CpTGA3, CpTGA4 and CpTGA6 increased in response to SA, what would suggest its involvement in the SAR response in papaya. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Insect Resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry2Ab Is Conferred by Mutations in an ABC Transporter Subfamily A Protein.

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    Wee Tek Tay

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of conventional chemical insecticides and bacterial toxins to control lepidopteran pests of global agriculture has imposed significant selection pressure leading to the rapid evolution of insecticide resistance. Transgenic crops (e.g., cotton expressing the Bt Cry toxins are now used world wide to control these pests, including the highly polyphagous and invasive cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. Since 2004, the Cry2Ab toxin has become widely used for controlling H. armigera, often used in combination with Cry1Ac to delay resistance evolution. Isolation of H. armigera and H. punctigera individuals heterozygous for Cry2Ab resistance in 2002 and 2004, respectively, allowed aspects of Cry2Ab resistance (level, fitness costs, genetic dominance, complementation tests to be characterised in both species. However, the gene identity and genetic changes conferring this resistance were unknown, as was the detailed Cry2Ab mode of action. No cross-resistance to Cry1Ac was observed in mutant lines. Biphasic linkage analysis of a Cry2Ab-resistant H. armigera family followed by exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC marker mapping and candidate gene sequencing identified three independent resistance-associated INDEL mutations in an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC transporter gene we named HaABCA2. A deletion mutation was also identified in the H. punctigera homolog from the resistant line. All mutations truncate the ABCA2 protein. Isolation of further Cry2Ab resistance alleles in the same gene from field H. armigera populations indicates unequal resistance allele frequencies and the potential for Bt resistance evolution. Identification of the gene involved in resistance as an ABC transporter of the A subfamily adds to the body of evidence on the crucial role this gene family plays in the mode of action of the Bt Cry toxins. The structural differences between the ABCA2, and that of the C subfamily required for Cry1Ac toxicity, indicate differences in the

  2. Modulating the function of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) with inhibitor cabozantinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Nan; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yi-Jun; Barbuti, Anna Maria; Zhu, Xi-Jun; Yu, Xin-Yue; Wen, Ai-Wen; Wurpel, John N D; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Cabozantinib (XL184) is a small molecule tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitor, which targets c-Met and VEGFR2. Cabozantinib has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat advanced medullary thyroid cancer and renal cell carcinoma. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of cabozantinib to modulate the function of the ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) by sensitizing cells that are resistant to ABCG2 substrate antineoplastic drugs. We used a drug-selected resistant cell line H460/MX20 and three ABCG2 stable transfected cell lines ABCG2-482-R2, ABCG2-482-G2, and ABCG2-482-T7, which overexpress ABCG2. Cabozantinib, at non-toxic concentrations (3 or 5μM), sensitized the ABCG2-overexpressing cells to mitoxantrone, SN-38, and topotecan. Our results indicate that cabozantinib reverses ABCG2-mediated multidrug resistance by antagonizing the drug efflux function of the ABCG2 transporter instead of downregulating its expression. The molecular docking analysis indicates that cabozantinib binds to the drug-binding site of the ABCG2 transporter. Overall, our findings demonstrate that cabozantinib inhibits the ABCG2 transporter function and consequently enhances the effect of the antineoplastic agents that are substrates of ABCG2. Cabozantinib may be a useful agent in anticancer treatment regimens for patients who are resistant to ABCG2 substrate drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Acridone suppresses the proliferation of human breast cancer cellsin vitrovia ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Licheng; Li, Shuyan; Liang, Zhi; Lin, Haixia; Fu, Rongzhan

    2018-02-01

    In the past decades, the tricyclic acridone ring system has become a focus of major research by medicinal chemists due to the biological significance of this moiety in drug design and discovery. Acridone has substantial bio-potential since it performs crucial functions, including antibacterial, antimalarial, antiviral and anti-neoplastic activities. However, the anticancer effect and the underlying mechanisms of acridone on breast cancer cells remains unclear. In the present study, the anti-tumor function and the underlying mechanisms of acridone were evaluated in vitro . Firstly, an MTT assay was used to evaluate the inhibitory effect of acridone. Subsequently, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) was performed to investigate whether ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) was associated with the function of acridone. Finally, western blotting was used to confirm the results of RT-qPCR. The present study demonstrated that acridone may decrease the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells dose-dependently. Further experiments revealed that acridone may downregulate the mRNA and protein expression levels of ABCG2, supporting the potential application of acridone in breast cancer treatment. These findings suggested that acridone is a potential agent in the treatment of human breast cancer.

  4. Overview of the Ferdina-like Goniasteridae (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) including a new subfamily, three new genera and fourteen new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Christopher L

    2017-05-25

    Recent assignment of some goniasterid-like Ophidiasteridae into the Goniasteridae has led to further re-evaluation of other ophidiasterids as possible goniasterids. This led to the discovery of new genera and species supported by a distinctive set of characteristics which support a new subfamily, the Ferdininae, a group originally outlined by Marsh and Price (1991) within the Goniasteridae. The historical Ophidiasteridae is paraphyletic and includes several nominal ophidiasterid genera (e.g., Fromia, Neoferdina, etc.). Newly described material has led to the inclusion of six genera,within this group, of which three, Bathyferdina n. gen., Eosaster n. gen., and Kanakaster n. gen., are newly described. Fourteen new species in five genera are described. This includes Bathyferdina aireyae n. gen., n. sp., Eosaster nadiae n. gen., n. sp., Ferdina mena n. sp., Kanakaster balutensis n. gen., n. sp., Kanakaster convexus n. gen., n. sp., Kanakaster discus n. gen., n. sp., Kanakaster larae n. gen., n. sp., Kanakaster plinthinos n. gen., n. sp., Kanakaster solidus n. gen., n. sp., Neoferdina annae n. sp., Neoferdina antigorum, n. sp., Neoferdina momo, n. sp., Neoferdina oni, n. sp., and Paraferdina plakos, n. sp. Identification keys, synopses, and description of these taxa are included.

  5. Insects of the Subfamily Scolytinae (Insecta: Coleoptera, Curculionidae Collected with Pitfall and Ethanol Traps in Primary Forests of Central Amazonia

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    Raimunda Liege Souza de Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a primary forest area of the Tropical Forest Experimental Station, 45 km from Manaus-Boa Vista Highway, in order to compare the insect fauna of the subfamily Scolytinae, in flight activity and on the ground. Five impact traps of the type Escolitideo/Curitiba, with ethanol baits, were installed at the height of 3 m above the ground, and five pitfall traps were buried in the same area of the above ground traps. The data collections were evaluated through abundance, richness, and Simpson diversity index, and, to compare these data with the pitfalls and the months collection, the ANOVA was used. The Pearson correlation test was also carried out to evaluate the meteorological factors (temperature and rainfall. From the total of 2,910 Scolytinae, 2,341 were captured in pitfall traps representing 80.45% and 569 with Escolitideo/Curitiba traps representing 19.55%. The most abundant species in the collections were Xyleborus volvulus Fabricius and Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and this was classified as constant in both habitats. The result of the analysis indicates that the Simpson’s index was high and that the abundance of insects was affected by the types of trap and by the month of collection. The analysis of correlation with meteorological factors showed that only Xyleborus spinulosus species presented significant correlation with temperature.

  6. Molecular and enzymatic characterization of a subfamily I.4 lipase from an edible oil-degrader Bacillus sp. HH-01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijo, Takashi; Saito, Akihiro; Ema, Sadaharu; Yoh, Inchi; Hayashi, Hiroko; Nagata, Ryo; Nagata, Yoshiho; Ando, Akikazu

    2011-02-01

    An edible-oil degrading bacterial strain HH-01 was isolated from oil plant gummy matter and was classified as a member of the genus Bacillus on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. A putative lipase gene and its flanking regions were cloned from the strain based on its similarity to lipase genes from other Bacillus spp. The deduced product was composed of 214 amino acids and the putative mature protein, consisting of 182 amino acids, exhibited 82% amino acid sequence identity with the subfamily I.4 lipase LipA of Bacillus subtilis 168. The recombinant product was successfully overproduced as a soluble form in Escherichia coli and showed lipase activity. The gene was, therefore, designated as lipA of HH-01. HH-01 LipA was stable at pH 4-11 and up to 30°C, and its optimum pH and temperature were 8-9 and 30°C, respectively. The enzyme showed preferential hydrolysis of the 1(3)-position ester bond in trilinolein. The activity was, interestingly, enhanced by supplementing with 1 mM CoCl(2), in contrast to other Bacillus lipases. The lipA gene seemed to be constitutively transcribed during the exponential growth phase, regardless of the presence of edible oil.

  7. Vaccinomics Approach for Designing Potential Peptide Vaccine by Targeting Shigella spp. Serine Protease Autotransporter Subfamily Protein SigA

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    Arafat Rahman Oany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis, a bacillary dysentery, is closely associated with diarrhoea in human and causes infection of 165 million people worldwide per year. Casein-degrading serine protease autotransporter of enterobacteriaceae (SPATE subfamily protein SigA, an outer membrane protein, exerts both cytopathic and enterotoxic effects especially cytopathic to human epithelial cell type-2 (HEp-2 and is shown to be highly immunogenic. In the present study, we have tried to impose the vaccinomics approach for designing a common peptide vaccine candidate against the immunogenic SigA of Shigella spp. At first, 44 SigA proteins from different variants of S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, S. boydii, and S. sonnei were assessed to find the most antigenic protein. We retrieved 12 peptides based on the highest score for human leukocyte antigen (HLA supertypes analysed by NetCTL. Initially, these peptides were assessed for the affinity with MHC class I and class II alleles, and four potential core epitopes VTARAGLGY, FHTVTVNTL, HTTWTLTGY, and IELAGTLTL were selected. From these, FHTVTVNTL and IELAGTLTL peptides were shown to have 100% conservancy. Finally, IELAGTLTL was shown to have the highest population coverage (83.86% among the whole world population. In vivo study of the proposed epitope might contribute to the development of functional and unique widespread vaccine, which might be an operative alleyway to thwart dysentery from the world.

  8. Variation in male reproductive system characters in Corydoradinae (Loricarioidei: Callichthyidae reflects the occurrence of different lineages in this subfamily

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    Maria A. Spadella

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Callichthyidae comprises a well-corroborated monophyletic group divided into two subfamilies: Corydoradinae and Callichthyinae. A recent proposal, based on molecular data, suggests that Corydoradinae is composed by nine monophyletic lineages, possibly genera. The species pertaining to those lineages have extensive modification in the size of genome, including diploid, tetraploid and octoploid species. Considering the occurrence of these monophyletic lineages and that the variations in DNA content may imply in significant alterations on the structure of spermatozoa, this study analyzed the morphology of the male reproductive system and the morphometry of the head of the spermatozoa of representatives of the nine lineages of Corydoradinae, seeking for particular characteristics of each lineage. Morphological data revealed a high intra-lineage variation, larger than that observed among species of different lineages. In contrast, morphometric data obtained for eight out of the nine lineages, revealed large congruency with the hypothesis that Corydoradinae is composed by different lineages. These results demonstrate that there is a correlation among variations in DNA content and the size of the spermatozoon head, thus providing additional subsides for the definition of the Corydoradinae lineages.

  9. Hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes belonging to the CYP2C subfamily from an Australian marsupial, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett R; El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2008-09-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. We have previously reported that the obligate Eucalyptus feeder koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) exhibits a higher hepatic CYP2C activity as compared to non-Eucalyptus feeders human or rat, with stimulation of CYP2C activity by cineole. In the present study, we examine CYP2C expression by immunohistochemistry and describe the identification and cloning of koala CYP2Cs. Utilising anti-rat CYP2C6 antibody, the expression of CYP2C was found to be uniform across the hepatic sections, being consistent with that observed in human and rat. Two 1647 and 1638 bp koala liver CYP2C complete cDNAs, designated CYP2C47 and CYP2C48 respectively, were cloned by cDNA library screening. The koala CYP2C cDNAs encode a protein of 495 amino acids. Three additional partial CYP2C sequences were also identified from the koala, indicating the multiplicity of the CYP2C subfamily in this unique marsupial species. The results of this study demonstrate the presence of koala hepatic CYP2Cs that share several common features with other published CYP2Cs; however CYP2C47 and CYP2C48 contain four extra amino acid residues at the NH2-terminal, a transmembrane anchor which was reported being a fundamentally conserved structure core of all eukaryote CYP enzymes.

  10. Paralog-divergent Features May Help Reduce Off-target Effects of Drugs: Hints from Glucagon Subfamily Analysis

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    Zhining Sa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Side effects from targeted drugs remain a serious concern. One reason is the nonselective binding of a drug to unintended proteins such as its paralogs, which are highly homologous in sequences and have similar structures and drug-binding pockets. To identify targetable differences between paralogs, we analyzed two types (type-I and type-II of functional divergence between two paralogs in the known target protein receptor family G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs at the amino acid level. Paralogous protein receptors in glucagon-like subfamily, glucagon receptor (GCGR and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R, exhibit divergence in ligands and are clinically validated drug targets for type 2 diabetes. Our data showed that type-II amino acids were significantly enriched in the binding sites of antagonist MK-0893 to GCGR, which had a radical shift in physicochemical properties between GCGR and GLP-1R. We also examined the role of type-I amino acids between GCGR and GLP-1R. The divergent features between GCGR and GLP-1R paralogs may be helpful in their discrimination, thus enabling the identification of binding sites to reduce undesirable side effects and increase the target specificity of drugs.

  11. Autoantibodies to transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 1 in a Japanese patient with melanoma-associated retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Yukiko; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Fujitsu, Youichiro; Enomoto, Atsushi; Ueno, Shinji; Kondo, Mineo; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2014-03-01

    To report a case of melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR) in a Japanese patient found to have autoantibodies to transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 1 (TRPM1). An 82-year-old man presented with blurred vision OS as well as night blindness and photopsia OU. Fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and spectral domain-optical coherence tomography findings were essentially normal. Goldmann perimetry revealed a relative central scotoma, including the blind spot in the right eye, as well as a relative scotoma around a blind spot OS. The full-field scotopic electroretinograms showed a "negative-type" pattern OU, suggestive of extensive bipolar cell dysfunction. Systemic examination revealed that the patient had malignant melanoma of the anus with lung metastasis. Autoantibodies to TRPM1 were detected in the serum of the patient by immunoblot analysis. Vitreous opacity developed during follow-up. The visual symptoms and vitreous opacity of the patient were markedly improved after oral prednisolone therapy. The patient died as a result of widespread metastasis of the melanoma at 11 months after his first visit. The present case is the first reported instance of MAR positive for autoantibodies to TRPM1 in an Asian patient.

  12. The Higher Classification of the Ant Subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), with a Review of Ponerine Ecology and Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C A; Shattuck, S O

    2014-06-18

    The tribal and generic classification of the diverse ant subfamily Ponerinae (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is revised to reflect recent molecular phylogenetic information and a reappraisal of ponerine morphological diversity. The monogeneric tribe Thaumatomyrmecini (Thaumatomyrmex) is newly synonymized under Ponerini (syn. nov.), and the diverse genus Pachycondyla is fragmented into 19 genera, largely along the lines of its junior synonyms: Bothroponera, Brachyponera (gen. rev.), Ectomomyrmex (gen. rev.), Euponera (gen. rev.), Hagensia (gen. rev.), Megaponera (gen. rev.), Mesoponera (gen. rev.), Neoponera (gen. rev.), Ophthalmopone (gen. rev.), Pachycondyla, Paltothyreus (gen. rev.), Pseudoneoponera (gen. rev.), Pseudoponera (gen. rev.), and 6 new genera: Austroponera (gen. nov.), Buniapone (gen. nov.), Fisheropone (gen. nov.), Mayaponera (gen. nov.), Parvaponera (gen. nov.) and Rasopone (gen. nov.). Some junior synonyms of Pachycondyla are transferred to junior synonym status under other genera: Wadeura as a junior synonym of Cryptopone (syn. nov.), and both Termitopone and Syntermitopone as junior synonyms of Neoponera (syn. nov.). A new genus, Iroponera (gen. nov.), based on the new species Iroponera odax (sp. nov.), is described from Australia. Molecular and morphological justifications for these taxonomic changes are given alongside discussions of phylogenetic relationships. Keys to the world genera of Ponerinae are provided, and morphological diagnoses and species lists are given for each genus. Finally, the available information on ponerine ecology and behavior is reviewed and synthesized.

  13. Genome wide identification and expression analysis of Homeodomain leucine zipper subfamily IV (HDZ IV gene family from Musa accuminata

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    Ashutosh ePandey

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The homedodomain zipper family (HD-ZIP of transcription factors is present only in plants and plays important role in the regulation of plant-specific processes. The subfamily IV of HDZ transcription factors (HD-ZIP IV has primarily been implicated in the regulation of epidermal structure development. Though this gene family is present in all lineages of land plants, members of this gene family have not been identified in banana, which is one of the major staple fruit crops. In the present work, we identified 21 HDZIV genes in banana by the computational analysis of banana genome resource. Our analysis suggested that these genes putatively encode proteins having all the characteristic domains of HDZIV transcription factors. The phylogenetic analysis of the banana HDZIV family genes further confirmed that after separation from a common ancestor, the banana and poales lineages might have followed distinct evolutionary paths. Further, we conclude that segmental duplication played a major role in the evolution of banana HDZIV genes. All the identified banana HDZIV genes expresses in different banana tissue, however at varying levels. The transcript levels of some of the banana HDZIV genes were also detected in banana fruit pulp, suggesting their putative role in fruit attributes. A large number of genes of this family showed modulated expression under drought and salinity stress. Taken together, the present work lays a foundation for elucidation of functional aspects of the banana HDZIV genes and for their possible use in the banana improvement programs.

  14. A Reconsideration of the Classification of the Spider Infraorder Mygalomorphae (Arachnida: Araneae) Based on Three Nuclear Genes and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason E.; Hendrixson, Brent E.; Hamilton, Chris A.; Hedin, Marshal

    2012-01-01

    Background The infraorder Mygalomorphae (i.e., trapdoor spiders, tarantulas, funnel web spiders, etc.) is one of three main lineages of spiders. Comprising 15 families, 325 genera, and over 2,600 species, the group is a diverse assemblage that has retained a number of features considered primitive for spiders. Despite an evolutionary history dating back to the lower Triassic, the group has received comparatively little attention with respect to its phylogeny and higher classification. The few phylogenies published all share the common thread that a stable classification scheme for the group remains unresolved. Methods and Findings We report here a reevaluation of mygalomorph phylogeny using the rRNA genes 18S and 28S, the nuclear protein-coding gene EF-1γ, and a morphological character matrix. Taxon sampling includes members of all 15 families representing 58 genera. The following results are supported in our phylogenetic analyses of the data: (1) the Atypoidea (i.e., antrodiaetids, atypids, and mecicobothriids) is a monophyletic group sister to all other mygalomorphs; and (2) the families Mecicobothriidae, Hexathelidae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Nemesiidae, Ctenizidae, and Dipluridae are not monophyletic. The Microstigmatidae is likely to be subsumed into Nemesiidae. Nearly half of all mygalomorph families require reevaluation of generic composition and placement. The polyphyletic family Cyrtaucheniidae is most problematic, representing no fewer than four unrelated lineages. Conclusions Based on these analyses we propose the following nomenclatural changes: (1) the establishment of the family Euctenizidae (NEW RANK); (2) establishment of the subfamily Apomastinae within the Euctenizidae; and (3) the transfer of the cyrtaucheniid genus Kiama to Nemesiidae. Additional changes include relimitation of Domiothelina and Theraphosoidea, and the establishment of the Euctenizoidina clade (Idiopidae + Euctenizidae). In addition to these changes, we propose a “road map” for

  15. Spinning gland transcriptomics from two main clades of spiders (order: Araneae--insights on their molecular, anatomical and behavioral evolution.

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    Francisco Prosdocimi

    Full Text Available Characterized by distinctive evolutionary adaptations, spiders provide a comprehensive system for evolutionary and developmental studies of anatomical organs, including silk and venom production. Here we performed cDNA sequencing using massively parallel sequencers (454 GS-FLX Titanium to generate ∼80,000 reads from the spinning gland of Actinopus spp. (infraorder: Mygalomorphae and Gasteracantha cancriformis (infraorder: Araneomorphae, Orbiculariae clade. Actinopus spp. retains primitive characteristics on web usage and presents a single undifferentiated spinning gland while the orbiculariae spiders have seven differentiated spinning glands and complex patterns of web usage. MIRA, Celera Assembler and CAP3 software were used to cluster NGS reads for each spider. CAP3 unigenes passed through a pipeline for automatic annotation, classification by biological function, and comparative transcriptomics. Genes related to spider silks were manually curated and analyzed. Although a single spidroin gene family was found in Actinopus spp., a vast repertoire of specialized spider silk proteins was encountered in orbiculariae. Astacin-like metalloproteases (meprin subfamily were shown to be some of the most sampled unigenes and duplicated gene families in G. cancriformis since its evolutionary split from mygalomorphs. Our results confirm that the evolution of the molecular repertoire of silk proteins was accompanied by the (i anatomical differentiation of spinning glands and (ii behavioral complexification in the web usage. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed to cluster most of the known spidroins in gene clades. This is the first large-scale, multi-organism transcriptome for spider spinning glands and a first step into a broad understanding of spider web systems biology and evolution.

  16. A reconsideration of the classification of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Arachnida: Araneae) based on three nuclear genes and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Jason E; Hendrixson, Brent E; Hamilton, Chris A; Hedin, Marshal

    2012-01-01

    The infraorder Mygalomorphae (i.e., trapdoor spiders, tarantulas, funnel web spiders, etc.) is one of three main lineages of spiders. Comprising 15 families, 325 genera, and over 2,600 species, the group is a diverse assemblage that has retained a number of features considered primitive for spiders. Despite an evolutionary history dating back to the lower Triassic, the group has received comparatively little attention with respect to its phylogeny and higher classification. The few phylogenies published all share the common thread that a stable classification scheme for the group remains unresolved. We report here a reevaluation of mygalomorph phylogeny using the rRNA genes 18S and 28S, the nuclear protein-coding gene EF-1γ, and a morphological character matrix. Taxon sampling includes members of all 15 families representing 58 genera. The following results are supported in our phylogenetic analyses of the data: (1) the Atypoidea (i.e., antrodiaetids, atypids, and mecicobothriids) is a monophyletic group sister to all other mygalomorphs; and (2) the families Mecicobothriidae, Hexathelidae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Nemesiidae, Ctenizidae, and Dipluridae are not monophyletic. The Microstigmatidae is likely to be subsumed into Nemesiidae. Nearly half of all mygalomorph families require reevaluation of generic composition and placement. The polyphyletic family Cyrtaucheniidae is most problematic, representing no fewer than four unrelated lineages. Based on these analyses we propose the following nomenclatural changes: (1) the establishment of the family Euctenizidae (NEW RANK); (2) establishment of the subfamily Apomastinae within the Euctenizidae; and (3) the transfer of the cyrtaucheniid genus Kiama to Nemesiidae. Additional changes include relimitation of Domiothelina and Theraphosoidea, and the establishment of the Euctenizoidina clade (Idiopidae + Euctenizidae). In addition to these changes, we propose a "road map" for future sampling across the infraorder with the aim

  17. A reconsideration of the classification of the spider infraorder Mygalomorphae (Arachnida: Araneae based on three nuclear genes and morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E Bond

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The infraorder Mygalomorphae (i.e., trapdoor spiders, tarantulas, funnel web spiders, etc. is one of three main lineages of spiders. Comprising 15 families, 325 genera, and over 2,600 species, the group is a diverse assemblage that has retained a number of features considered primitive for spiders. Despite an evolutionary history dating back to the lower Triassic, the group has received comparatively little attention with respect to its phylogeny and higher classification. The few phylogenies published all share the common thread that a stable classification scheme for the group remains unresolved. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We report here a reevaluation of mygalomorph phylogeny using the rRNA genes 18S and 28S, the nuclear protein-coding gene EF-1γ, and a morphological character matrix. Taxon sampling includes members of all 15 families representing 58 genera. The following results are supported in our phylogenetic analyses of the data: (1 the Atypoidea (i.e., antrodiaetids, atypids, and mecicobothriids is a monophyletic group sister to all other mygalomorphs; and (2 the families Mecicobothriidae, Hexathelidae, Cyrtaucheniidae, Nemesiidae, Ctenizidae, and Dipluridae are not monophyletic. The Microstigmatidae is likely to be subsumed into Nemesiidae. Nearly half of all mygalomorph families require reevaluation of generic composition and placement. The polyphyletic family Cyrtaucheniidae is most problematic, representing no fewer than four unrelated lineages. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these analyses we propose the following nomenclatural changes: (1 the establishment of the family Euctenizidae (NEW RANK; (2 establishment of the subfamily Apomastinae within the Euctenizidae; and (3 the transfer of the cyrtaucheniid genus Kiama to Nemesiidae. Additional changes include relimitation of Domiothelina and Theraphosoidea, and the establishment of the Euctenizoidina clade (Idiopidae + Euctenizidae. In addition to these changes, we propose a "road map

  18. Fourteen new generic and ten new specific synonymies in Pholcidae (Araneae), and transfer of Mystes Bristowe to Filistatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Bernhard A; Colmenares, Pío A; Ramirez, Martin J

    2014-08-08

    Between 1998 and 2011, the Venezuelan arachnologist Manuel Ángel González-Sponga (GS) published a series of taxonomic papers devoted to the Pholcidae of Venezuela. Of his 22 new genera, 20 were monotypic when described, suggesting a high percentage of synonyms. We studied his descriptions and as far as accessible his type specimens and propose the following new generic synonymies: Autana GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Ayomania GS, 2005 and Venezuela Koçak & Kemal, 2008 (new replacement names for Falconia GS, 2003) = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Carbonaria GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Caruaya GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Coroia GS, 2005 = Artema Walckenaer, 1837; Maimire GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Moraia GS, 2011 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Nasuta GS, 2009 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893; Portena GS, 2011 = Metagonia Simon, 1893; Rioparaguanus GS, 2005 = Mesabolivar GS, 1998; Tonoro GS, 2009 = Litoporus Simon, 1893; Sanluisi GS, 2003 = Mecolaesthus Simon, 1893. Three of the type species are also specific synonyms: Autana autanensis GS, 2011 = Mesabolivar aurantiacus (Mello-Leitão, 1930); Coroia magna GS, 2005 = Artema atlanta Walckenaer, 1837; Tonoro multispinae GS, 2009 = Litoporus uncatus (Simon, 1893). Six species that González-Sponga described under Blechroscelis (a genus previously synonymized with Priscula Simon, 1893) are all synonyms of Mesabolivar eberhardi Huber, 2000 (B. acuoso GS, 2011; B. araguanus GS, 2011; B. blechroscelis GS, 2011; B. copeyensis GS, 2011; B. cordillerano GS, 2011; B. andinensis GS, 2011). In addition, and unrelated to González-Sponga's work, we synonymize the Central Asian monotypic genus Ceratopholcus Spassky, 1934 with Crossopriza Simon, 1893; we synonymize the Chinese species Pholcus acerosus Peng & Zhang, 2011 with Pholcus fragillimus Strand, 1907 and remove the Malaysian monotypic genus Mystes Bristowe, 1938, previously thought to be the only East Asian representative of the subfamily Ninetinae, to the

  19. Estrous cycle and gestational age-dependent expression of members of the interleukin-36 subfamily in a semi-allogeneic model of infected and non-infected murine pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Martin Murrieta Coxca

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The IL-36 subfamily is a recently described group of cytokines with pro-inflammatory behavior, comprising three agonists (α, β and γ, its receptor (R and one antagonist (Ra. The expression and function of IL-36 subfamily members in the estrous cycle in healthy and infected pregnancy have not been described. We evaluated mRNA and protein expression of IL-36 family members during the estrous cycle, implantation, fetal development and post-labor periods in a model of allogenic pregnancy in mice. We also explored the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to modulate expression of IL-36 subfamily members during pregnancy. Expression of IL-36 subfamily members showed different expression during the estrous cycle and pregnancy, but was induced at estrous, 16.5 days post coitum (dpc, 18.5 dpc and labor. IL-36 subfamily members showed a characteristic distribution in the glandular epithelium, perimetrium, myometrium, and stratum vasculare. Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy induced strong production of IL-36 subfamily members, an observation that correlated with an increasing prevalence of fetal loss. Conclusions: IL-36 agonists showed specific patterns of mRNA and protein expression that might suggest functional specialization or specific target cells. Infection with Listeria monocytogenes during pregnancy induced strong production of IL-36 subfamily members.

  20. Estrous Cycle and Gestational Age-Dependent Expression of Members of the Interleukin-36 Subfamily in a Semi-Allogeneic Model of Infected and Non-Infected Murine Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrieta-Coxca, José Martin; Gómez-Chávez, Fernando; Baeza-Martínez, Damariz Adriana; Cancino-Diaz, Mario Eugenio; Cancino-Diaz, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Tapia, Sonia Mayra; Reyes-Maldonado, Elba; Rodríguez-Martínez, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The IL-36 subfamily is a recently described group of cytokines with pro-inflammatory behavior, comprising three agonists (α, β, and γ), its receptor (R), and one antagonist (Ra). The expression and function of IL-36 subfamily members in the estrous cycle in healthy and infected pregnancy has not been described. We evaluated mRNA and protein expression of IL-36 family members during the estrous cycle, implantation, fetal development, and post-labor periods in a model of allogenic pregnancy in mice. We also explored the ability of Listeria monocytogenes to modulate the expression of IL-36 subfamily members during pregnancy. Expression of IL-36 subfamily members showed different expression during the estrous cycle and pregnancy but was induced at estrous, 16.5 days post coitum (dpc), 18.5 dpc, and labor. IL-36 subfamily members showed a characteristic distribution in the glandular epithelium, perimetrium, myometrium, and stratum vasculare. Infection with L. monocytogenes during pregnancy induced strong production of IL-36 subfamily members, an observation that correlated with an increasing prevalence of fetal loss. In conclusion, IL-36 agonists showed specific patterns of mRNA and protein expression that might suggest functional specialization or specific target cells. Infection with L. monocytogenes during pregnancy induced strong production of IL-36 subfamily members. PMID:27713746

  1. Mus Spretus Line-1s in the Mus Musculus Domesticus Inbred Strain C57bl/6j Are from Two Different Mus Spretus Line-1 Subfamilies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Daggett, L. P.; Hardies, S. C.

    1996-01-01

    A LINE-1 element, L1C105, was found in the Mus musculus domesticus inbred strain, C57BL/6J. Upon sequencing, this element was found to belong to a M. spretus LINE-1 subfamily originating within the last 0.2 million years. This is the second spretus-specific LINE-1 subfamily found to be represented in C57BL/6J. Although it is unclear how these M. spretus LINE-1s transferred from M. spretus to M. m. domesticus, it is now clear that at least two different spretus LINE-1 sequences have recently transferred. The limited divergence between the C57BL/6J spretus-like LINE-1s and their closest spretus ancestors suggests that the transfer did not involve an exceptionally long lineage of sequential transpositions. PMID:8852852

  2. Araneofauna (Arachnida: Araneae en cultivos de algodón (Gossypium hirsutum transgénicos y convencionales en el norte de Santa Fe, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melina Soledad Almada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Las arañas tienen un valor potencial considerable por su rol depredador de insectos, estas son plagas de la agricultura. Durante la campaña agrícola 2005/06, en INTA Reconquista, Santa Fe (Argentina se estudio la composición de arañas presentes en cultivos de algodón transgénico y convencional, mediante un diseño experimental de bloques completos al azar, con tres repeticiones y tres tratamientos: algodón transgénico Bt (ALBt, algodón convencional sin control químico (ALCSC y con control químico (ALCCC. Semanalmente, se capturaron arañas, con una red entomológica de arrastre, paño vertical de 1m y trampas de caída. Asimismo se recolectaron 1 255 ejemplares (16 familias y 32 especies. Siete familias se presentaron en los tres tratamientos, donde predomino Thomisidae (n=1 051, 84.04% y Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%. El gremio cazadoras por emboscada (n=1 053, 83.91%, “Tejedoras de telas orbiculares” (n=85, 6.77% y “Cazadoras al acecho” (n=53, 4.22% fueron las más abundantes. No hubo diferencias significativas en los índices de diversidad entre tratamientos. Las arañas se presentaron durante todo el ciclo del cultivo, con picos en las semanas de floración y madurez de las capsulas, además la mayor abundancia la encontramos en el ALBt. Este trabajo constituye el primer registro sobre la comunidad de arañas en cultivos de algodón para Argentina.Arachnofauna (Araneae: Araneae in transgenic and conventional cotton crops (Gossypiumhirsutum in the North of Santa Fe, Argentina. Spiders have considerable potential importance for their role as predators to some pests in agricultural systems. The composition of spiders in transgenic and conventional cotton at the Research Station of INTA Reconquista (Santa Fe was studied during the 2005-2006 season. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with three replications and three treatments: transgenic Bt cotton (ALBt, conventional cotton without chemical control (ALCSC, and

  3. Comparative analysis of serine/arginine-rich proteins across 27 eukaryotes: insights into sub-family classification and extent of alternative splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale N Richardson

    Full Text Available Alternative splicing (AS of pre-mRNA is a fundamental molecular process that generates diversity in the transcriptome and proteome of eukaryotic organisms. SR proteins, a family of splicing regulators with one or two RNA recognition motifs (RRMs at the N-terminus and an arg/ser-rich domain at the C-terminus, function in both constitutive and alternative splicing. We identified SR proteins in 27 eukaryotic species, which include plants, animals, fungi and "basal" eukaryotes that lie outside of these lineages. Using RNA recognition motifs (RRMs as a phylogenetic marker, we classified 272 SR genes into robust sub-families. The SR gene family can be split into five major groupings, which can be further separated into 11 distinct sub-families. Most flowering plants have double or nearly double the number of SR genes found in vertebrates. The majority of plant SR genes are under purifying selection. Moreover, in all paralogous SR genes in Arabidopsis, rice, soybean and maize, one of the two paralogs is preferentially expressed throughout plant development. We also assessed the extent of AS in SR genes based on a splice graph approach (http://combi.cs.colostate.edu/as/gmap_SRgenes. AS of SR genes is a widespread phenomenon throughout multiple lineages, with alternative 3' or 5' splicing events being the most prominent type of event. However, plant-enriched sub-families have 57%-88% of their SR genes experiencing some type of AS compared to the 40%-54% seen in other sub-families. The SR gene family is pervasive throughout multiple eukaryotic lineages, conserved in sequence and domain organization, but differs in gene number across lineages with an abundance of SR genes in flowering plants. The higher number of alternatively spliced SR genes in plants emphasizes the importance of AS in generating splice variants in these organisms.

  4. Cloning and characterization of PAK5, a novel member of mammalian p21-activated kinase-II subfamily that is predominantly expressed in brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, A.; Dan, I.; Kristiansen, T.Z.

    2002-01-01

    cloned a novel human PAK family kinase that has been designated as PAK5. PAK5 contains a CDC42/Rac1 interactive binding (CRIB) motif at the N-terminus and a Ste20-like kinase domain at the C-terminus. PAK5 is structurally most related to PAK4 and PAK6 to make up the PAK-II subfamily. We have shown...

  5. Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae), parasites of the passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes) in Australia and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Two new mite species of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae Dubinin, 1957 (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae) are described from passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes): Harpirhynchoides artamus n. sp. from Artamus fuscus Vieillot (Artamidae) from an unknown locality in South Asia and Neharpyrhynchus domrowi n. sp. from three host species of the family Meliphagidae, Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (Latham) (type-host) from Australia (New South Walles), Ptiloprora perstriata (De Vis) and Myzomela rosenbergii Schlegel from Papua New Guinea.

  6. Molecular Evolution of the CYP2D Subfamily in Primates: Purifying Selection on Substrate Recognition Sites without the Frequent or Long-Tract Gene Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukochi, Yoshiki; Satta, Yoko

    2015-01-01

    The human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 gene is a member of the CYP2D gene subfamily, along with the CYP2D7P and CYP2D8P pseudogenes. Although the CYP2D6 enzyme has been studied extensively because of its clinical importance, the evolution of the CYP2D subfamily has not yet been fully understood. Therefore, the goal of this study was to reveal the evolutionary process of the human drug metabolic system. Here, we investigate molecular evolution of the CYP2D subfamily in primates by comparing 14 CYP2D sequences from humans to New World monkey genomes. Window analysis and statistical tests revealed that entire genomic sequences of paralogous genes were extensively homogenized by gene conversion during molecular evolution of CYP2D genes in primates. A neighbor-joining tree based on genomic sequences at the nonsubstrate recognition sites showed that CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes were clustered together due to gene conversion. In contrast, a phylogenetic tree using amino acid sequences at substrate recognition sites did not cluster the CYP2D6 and CYP2D8 genes, suggesting that the functional constraint on substrate specificity is one of the causes for purifying selection at the substrate recognition sites. Our results suggest that the CYP2D gene subfamily in primates has evolved to maintain the regioselectivity for a substrate hydroxylation activity between individual enzymes, even though extensive gene conversion has occurred across CYP2D coding sequences. PMID:25808902

  7. Identification and Characterization of Four Chrysanthemum MADS-Box Genes, Belonging to the APETALA1/FRUITFULL and SEPALLATA3 Subfamilies1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchennikova, Anna V.; Shulga, Olga A.; Immink, Richard; Skryabin, Konstantin G.; Angenent, Gerco C.

    2004-01-01

    Four full-length MADS-box cDNAs from chrysanthemum, designated Chrysanthemum Dendrathema grandiflorum MADS (CDM) 8, CDM41, CDM111, and CDM44, have been isolated and further functionally characterized. Protein sequence alignment and expression patterns of the corresponding genes suggest that CDM8 and CDM41 belong to the FRUITFULL (FUL) clade, CDM111 is a member of the APETALA1 (AP1) subfamily, and CDM44 is a member of the SEPALLATA3 (SEP3) subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors. Overexpression of CDM111 in Arabidopsis plants resulted in an aberrant phenotype that is reminiscent of the phenotype obtained by ectopic expression of the AP1 gene. In addition, CDM111 was able to partially complement the ap1-1 mutant from Arabidopsis, illustrating that CDM111 is the functional equivalent to AP1. Yeast two- and three-hybrid studies were performed to investigate the potential protein interactions and complexes in which these chrysanthemum MADS-box proteins are involved. Based on these studies, we conclude that CDM44 is most likely the SEP3 functional equivalent, because the CDM44 protein interacts with CDM proteins of the AP1/FUL and AG subfamilies, and as a higher order complex with the heterodimer between the presumed B-type CDM proteins. PMID:15064378

  8. Polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase and cytochrome p450 subfamily 19 genes predispose towards Madurella mycetomatis-induced mycetoma susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Wendy W J; Fahal, Ahmed; Tavakol, Mehri; van Belkum, Alex

    2010-11-01

    Mycetoma caused by Madurella mycetomatis is a devastating and neglected disease which primarily affects males. Since this predominance cannot be easily explained by behaviour differences between men and women, other factors, including sex hormones, could be the cause. To monitor for possible deficiencies in hormone synthesis among mycetoma patients, we investigated the types and allele frequencies of the genes encoding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), cytochrome p450 subfamily 1 (CYP1B1), cytochrome p450 subfamily 17 (CYP17), cytochrome p450 subfamily 19 (CYP19) and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3B (HSD3B). Significant differences in allele distribution were demonstrated for CYP19 (P=0.004) and COMT (P=0.005), as well as gender dimorphism for both CYP19 and COMT polymorphisms. The COMT polymorphism was associated with lesion size. The genotypes obtained for COMT and CYP19 were connected with higher 17β-estradiol production, which was confirmed by significantly elevated serum levels of 17β-estradiol in male patients. In contrast, lowered levels of dehydroepiandrosteron (DHEA) were found in mycetoma patients. The in vitro growth of M. mycetomatis was not influenced by 17β-estradiol, progesterone, DHEA and testosterone. The differences in hormone levels we noted between mycetoma patients and healthy controls did not directly affect the fungus itself. Indirect effects on the patients' hormone regulated immune states are the more likely explanations for mycetoma susceptibility.

  9. Dock6, a Dock-C subfamily guanine nucleotide exchanger, has the dual specificity for Rac1 and Cdc42 and regulates neurite outgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Yamauchi, Junji; Sanbe, Atsushi; Tanoue, Akito

    2007-02-15

    Small GTPases of the Rho family, Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, are critical regulators of the changes in the actin cytoskeleton. Rho GTPases are typically activated by Dbl-homology (DH)-domain-containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs). Recent genetic and biochemical studies revealed a new type of GEF for the Rho GTPases. This family is composed of 11 genes, designated as Dock1 to Dock11, and is structurally divided into four classes Dock-A, -B, -C, and -D. Dock-A and -B subfamilies are typically GEFs specific for Rac1, while the Dock-D subfamily is specific for Cdc42. Here we show that Dock6, a member of the Dock-C subfamily, exchanges GDP for GTP for Rac1 and Cdc42 in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we find that, in mouse N1E-115 neuroblastoma cells, expression of Dock6 is increased following differentiation. Transfection of the catalytic Dock Homology Region-2 (DHR-2) domain of Dock6 promotes neurite outgrowth mediated by Rac1 and Cdc42. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous Dock6 by small interference RNA reduces activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 and neurite outgrowth. Taken together, these results suggest that Dock6 differs from all of the identified Dock180-related proteins, in that it is the GEF specific for both Rac1 and Cdc42 and may be one of physiological regulators of neurite outgrowth.

  10. A review of the mite subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Harpirhynchidae)--parasites of New World birds (Aves: Neognathae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochkov, Andre V; OConnor, Barry M; Klompen, Hans

    2015-09-30

    Mites of the subfamily Harpirhynchinae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea: Harpirhynchidae) associated with neognathous birds (Aves: Neognathae) in the New World are revised. In all, 68 species in 8 genera are recorded. Among them, 27 new species and 1 new genus are described as new for science: Harpyrhynchoides gallowayi Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Columba livia (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from Canada (Manitoba), H. zenaida Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Zenaida macroura (Columbiformes: Columbidae) from USA (Michigan), H. calidris Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Calidris minutilla (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from USA (Kansas), H. actitis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Actitis macularius (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae) from Canada (British Columbia), H. charadrius Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Charadrius vociferus (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Texas), H. pluvialis Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Pluvialis dominica (Charadriiformes: Charadriidae) from USA (Ohio), H. bubulcus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Bubulcus ibis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Florida), H. ixobrychus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Ixobrychus exilis (Pelecaniformes: Ardeidae) from USA (Michigan), H. puffinus Mertins sp. nov. from Puffinus gravis (Procellariformes: Procellariidae) from USA (Florida), H. megascops Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Megascops asio (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Michigan), H. athene Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Athene canicularia (Strigiformes: Strigidae) from USA (Texas), H. coccyzus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Coccyzus americanus (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from USA (Michigan), H. crotophaga Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. from Crotophaga ani (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae) from Suriname; Crassacarus Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen, gen. nov.: Crassacarus alexfaini Bochkov, OConnor and Klompen sp. nov. (type of genus

  11. Insulin stimulates uric acid reabsorption via regulating urate transporter 1 and ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoki, Daigo; Shibata, Shigeru; Kuribayashi-Okuma, Emiko; Xu, Ning; Ishizawa, Kenichi; Hosoyamada, Makoto; Uchida, Shunya

    2017-09-01

    Accumulating data indicate that renal uric acid (UA) handling is altered in diabetes and by hypoglycemic agents. In addition, hyperinsulinemia is associated with hyperuricemia and hypouricosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate how diabetes and hypoglycemic agents alter the levels of renal urate transporters. In insulin-depleted diabetic rats with streptozotocin treatment, both UA excretion and fractional excretion of UA were increased, suggesting that tubular handling of UA is altered in this model. In the membrane fraction of the kidney, the expression of urate transporter 1 (URAT1) was significantly decreased, whereas that of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) was increased, consistent with the increased renal UA clearance. Administration of insulin to the diabetic rats decreased UA excretion and alleviated UA transporter-level changes, while sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) ipragliflozin did not change renal UA handling in this model. To confirm the contribution of insulin in the regulation of urate transporters, normal rats received insulin and separately, ipragliflozin. Insulin significantly increased URAT1 and decreased ABCG2 levels, resulting in increased UA reabsorption. In contrast, the SGLT2i did not alter URAT1 or ABCG2 levels, although blood glucose levels were similarly reduced. Furthermore, we found that insulin significantly increased endogenous URAT1 levels in the membrane fraction of NRK-52E cells, the kidney epithelial cell line, demonstrating the direct effects of insulin on renal UA transport mechanisms. These results suggest a previously unrecognized mechanism for the anti-uricosuric effects of insulin and provide novel insights into the renal UA handling in the diabetic state. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Insight into the AP2/ERF transcription factor superfamily in sesame and expression profiling of DREB subfamily under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Komivi; Wei, Xin; Li, Donghua; Fonceka, Daniel; Zhang, Yanxin; Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Boshou, Liao; Diouf, Diaga; Cissé, Ndiaga; Zhang, Xiurong

    2016-07-30

    Sesame is an important oilseed crop mainly grown in inclement areas with high temperatures and frequent drought. Thus, drought constitutes one of the major constraints of its production. The AP2/ERF is a large family of transcription factors known to play significant roles in various plant processes including biotic and abiotic stress responses. Despite their importance, little is known about sesame AP2/ERF genes. This constitutes a limitation for drought-tolerance candidate genes discovery and breeding for tolerance to water deficit. One hundred thirty-two AP2/ERF genes were identified in the sesame genome. Based on the number of domains, conserved motifs, genes structure and phylogenetic analysis including 5 relatives species, they were classified into 24 AP2, 41 DREB, 61 ERF, 4 RAV and 2 Soloist. The number of sesame AP2/ERF genes was relatively few compared to that of other relatives, probably due to gene loss in ERF and DREB subfamilies during evolutionary process. In general, the AP2/ERF genes were expressed differently in different tissues but exhibited the highest expression levels in the root. Mostly all DREB genes were responsive to drought stress. Regulation by drought is not specific to one DREB group but depends on the genes and the group A6 and A1 appeared to be more actively expressed to cope with drought. This study provides insights into the classification, evolution and basic functional analysis of AP2/ERF genes in sesame which revealed their putative involvement in multiple tissue-/developmental stages. Out of 20 genes which were significantly up- /down-regulated under drought stress, the gene AP2si16 may be considered as potential candidate gene for further functional validation as well for utilization in sesame improvement programs for drought stress tolerance.

  13. Distribution of transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1-expressing nerve fibers in mouse esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenjiro; Hosoya, Takuji; Ishikawa, Eriko; Tashima, Kimihito; Amagase, Kikuko; Kato, Shinichi; Murayama, Toshihiko; Horie, Syunji

    2014-12-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) plays a role in esophageal function. However, the distribution of TRPV1 nerve fibers in the esophagus is currently not well understood. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of TRPV1 and neurotransmitters released from TRPV1 nerve fibers in the mouse lower esophagus. Furthermore, we investigated changes in the presence of TRPV1 in the mouse model of esophagitis. Numerous TRPV1-immunoreactive nerve fibers were seen in both the submucosal layer and myenteric plexus of the lower esophagus and colocalized with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). TRPV1 colocalized with substance P in axons in the submucosal layer and myenteric plexus. TRPV1 colocalized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the myenteric plexus. We observed some colocalization of CGRP with the vesicular acetylcholine (ACh) transporter, packaging of ACh into synaptic vesicles after its synthesis in terminal cytoplasm, in the submucosal layer and myenteric plexus. In the esophagitis model, the number of the TRPV1 nerve fibers did not change, but their immunoreactive intensity increased compared with sham-operated mice. Inhibitory effect of exogenous capsaicin on electrically stimulated twitch contraction significantly increased in esophagitis model compared with the effect in sham-operated mice. Overall, these results suggest that TRPV1 nerve fibers projecting to both the submucosal and muscle layer of the esophagus are extrinsic spinal and vagal afferent neurons. Furthermore, TRPV1 nerve fibers contain CGRP, substance P, nitric oxide, and ACh. Therefore, acid influx-mediated TRPV1 activation may play a role in regulating esophageal relaxation.

  14. The Crystal Structure of Streptococcus pyogenes Uridine Phosphorylase Reveals a Distinct Subfamily of Nucleoside Phosphorylases†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Timothy H.; Christoffersen, S.; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Piskur, Jure; Serra, I.; Terreni, M.; Ealick, Steven E.

    2011-01-01

    Uridine phosphorylase (UP), a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway, catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine or 2′-deoxyuridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate or 2′-deoxyribose 1-phosphate. This enzyme belongs to the nucleoside phosphorylase I superfamily whose members show diverse specificity for nucleoside substrates. Phylogenetic analysis shows Streptococcus pyogenes uridine phosphorylase (SpUP) is found in a distinct branch of the pyrimidine subfamily of nucleoside phosphorylases. To further characterize SpUP, we determined the crystal structure in complex with the products, ribose 1-phosphate and uracil, at 1.8 Å resolution. Like Escherichia coli UP (EcUP), the biological unit of SpUP is a hexamer with an α/β monomeric fold. A novel feature of the active site is the presence of His169, which structurally aligns with Arg168 of the EcUP structure. A second active site residue, Lys162, is not present in previously determined UP structures and interacts with O2 of uracil. Biochemical studies of wild type SpUP showed that substrate specificity is similar to that of EcUP, while EcUP is about sevenfold more efficient than SpUP. Biochemical studies on active site mutant SpUP showed that mutations of His169 reduced activity, while mutation of Lys162 abolished all activity, suggesting that negative charge in the transition state resides mostly on uracil O2. This is in contrast to EcUP for which transition state stabilization occurs mostly at O4. PMID:21707079

  15. The relationship between diet breadth and geographic range size in the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae--a study of global scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Slove

    Full Text Available The "oscillation hypothesis" has been proposed as a general explanation for the exceptional diversification of herbivorous insect species. The hypothesis states that speciation rates are elevated through repeated correlated changes--oscillations--in degree of host plant specificity and geographic range. The aim of this study is to test one of the predictions from the oscillation hypothesis: a positive correlation between diet breadth (number of host plants used and geographic range size, using the globally distributed butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae. Data on diet breadth and global geographic range were collected for 182 Nymphalinae butterflies species and the size of the geographic range was measured using a GIS. We tested both diet breadth and geographic range size for phylogenetic signal to see if species are independent of each other with respect to these characters. As this test gave inconclusive results, data was analysed both using cross-species comparisons and taking phylogeny into account using generalised estimating equations as applied in the APE package in R. Irrespective of which method was used, we found a significant positive correlation between diet breadth and geographic range size. These results are consistent for two different measures of diet breadth and removal of outliers. We conclude that the global range sizes of Nymphalinae butterflies are correlated to diet breadth. That is, butterflies that feed on a large number of host plants tend to have larger geographic ranges than do butterflies that feed on fewer plants. These results lend support for an important step in the oscillation hypothesis of plant-driven diversification, in that it can provide the necessary fuel for future population fragmentation and speciation.

  16. Morphological "primary homology" and expression of AG-subfamily MADS-box genes in pines, podocarps, and yews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Marie; Carlsbecker, Annelie; Engström, Peter; Vergara-Silva, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The morphological variation among reproductive organs of extant gymnosperms is remarkable, especially among conifers. Several hypotheses concerning morphological homology between various conifer reproductive organs have been put forward, in particular in relation to the pine ovuliferous scale. Here, we use the expression patterns of orthologs of the ABC-model MADS-box gene AGAMOUS (AG) for testing morphological homology hypotheses related to organs of the conifer female cone. To this end, we first developed a tailored 3'RACE procedure that allows reliable amplification of partial sequences highly similar to gymnosperm-derived members of the AG-subfamily of MADS-box genes. Expression patterns of two novel conifer AG orthologs cloned with this procedure-namely PodAG and TgAG, obtained from the podocarp Podocarpus reichei and the yew Taxus globosa, respectively-are then further characterized in the morphologically divergent female cones of these species. The expression patterns of PodAG and TgAG are compared with those of DAL2, a previously discovered Picea abies (Pinaceae) AG ortholog. By treating the expression patterns of DAL2, PodAG, and TgAG as character states mapped onto currently accepted cladogram topologies, we suggest that the epimatium-that is, the podocarp female cone organ previously postulated as a "modified" ovuliferous scale-and the canonical Pinaceae ovuliferous scale can be legitimally conceptualized as "primary homologs." Character state mapping for TgAG suggests in turn that the aril of Taxaceae should be considered as a different type of organ. This work demonstrates how the interaction between developmental-genetic data and formal cladistic theory could fruitfully contribute to gymnosperm systematics. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The ZNF75 zinc finger gene subfamily: Isolation and mapping of the four members in humans and great apes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villa, A.; Strina, D.; Frattini, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy)] [and others

    1996-07-15

    We have previously reported the characterization of the human ZNF75 gene located on Xq26, which has only limited homology (less than 65%) to other ZF genes in the databases. Here, we describe three human zinc finger genes with 86 to 95% homology to ZNF75 at the nucleotide level, which represent all the members of the human ZNF75 subfamily. One of these, ZNF75B, is a pseudogene mapped to chromosome 12q13. The other two, ZNF75A and ZNF75C, maintain on ORF in the sequenced region, and at least the latter is expressed in the U937 cell line. They were mapped to chromosomes 16 and 11, respectively. All these genes are conserved in chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans. The ZNF75B homologue is a pseudogene in all three great apes, and in chimpanzee it is located on chromosome 10 (phylogenetic XII), at p13 (corresponding to the human 12q13). The chimpanzee homologue of ZNF75 is also located on the Xq26 chromosome, in the same region, as detected by in situ hybridization. As expected, nucleotide changes were clearly more abundant between human and organutan than between human and chimpanzee or gorilla homologues. Members of the same class were more similar to each other than to the other homologues within the same species. This suggests that the duplication and/or retrotranscription events occurred in a common ancestor long before great ape speciation. This, together with the existance of at least two genes in cows and horses, suggests a relatively high conservation of this gene family. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Identification and characterization of three TLR1 subfamily members from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Dong-Dong; Li, Xia; Mo, Ze-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in host defense against pathogen infection, are the most intensively studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we identified three novel TLR1 subfamily members, including TLR1 (EcTLR1b), TLR2 (EcTLR2b) and TLR14 (EcTLR14), from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b displayed low sequence identity with the previously reported grouper TLR1 (EcTLR1a) and TLR2 (EcTLR2a), respectively. The open reading frames (ORFs) of EcTLR1b, EcTLR2b and EcTLR14 contain 2484 bp, 2394 bp and 2640 bp, which encode the corresponding 827 amino acids (aa), 797 aa and 879 aa, respectively. All three TLRs have leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (including an LRR-NT (except for EcTLR1b), several LRR motifs and an LRR-CT), a trans-membrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The TIR domains of the three TLRs exhibited conserved boxes, namely box1, box2 and box3, and their 3D models were similar to those of human TLR1 or TLR2. Sequence alignment demonstrated that the TIR domains of the three TLRs shared higher sequence identity with those of other species than the full-length receptors. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EcTLR1s and EcTLR2s are characterized by their differing evolutionary status, whereas EcTLR14 was found to be in the same group as other piscine TLR14/18s. The three TLRs were ubiquitously expressed in seven tested tissues of healthy groupers, although their expression profiles were different. Post Cryptocaryon irritans infection, TLR1s expression was up-regulated in the gills. The expression of TLR2b was mainly increased in the spleen, but decreased in the gills, which was similar to the expression pattern of TLR2a post C. irritans infection. Unlike EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b, however, the grouper TLR14 transcript was substantially induced in both tissues post challenge. These findings may be helpful in understanding the innate immune mechanism of host

  19. WXG100 protein superfamily consists of three subfamilies and exhibits an α-helical C-terminal conserved residue pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Poulsen

    Full Text Available Members of the WXG100 protein superfamily form homo- or heterodimeric complexes. The most studied proteins among them are the secreted T-cell antigens CFP-10 (10 kDa culture filtrate protein, EsxB and ESAT-6 (6 kDa early secreted antigen target, EsxA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are encoded on an operon within a gene cluster, named as ESX-1, that encodes for the Type VII secretion system (T7SS. WXG100 proteins are secreted in a full-length form and it is known that they adopt a four-helix bundle structure. In the current work we discuss the evolutionary relationship between the homo- and heterodimeric WXG100 proteins, the basis of the oligomeric state and the key structural features of the conserved sequence pattern of WXG100 proteins. We performed an iterative bioinformatics analysis of the WXG100 protein superfamily and correlated this with the atomic structures of the representative WXG100 proteins. We find, firstly, that the WXG100 protein superfamily consists of three subfamilies: CFP-10-, ESAT-6- and sagEsxA-like proteins (EsxA proteins similar to that of Streptococcus agalactiae. Secondly, that the heterodimeric complexes probably evolved from a homodimeric precursor. Thirdly, that the genes of hetero-dimeric WXG100 proteins are always encoded in bi-cistronic operons and finally, by combining the sequence alignments with the X-ray data we identify a conserved C-terminal sequence pattern. The side chains of these conserved residues decorate the same side of the C-terminal α-helix and therefore form a distinct surface. Our results lead to a putatively extended T7SS secretion signal which combines two reported T7SS recognition characteristics: Firstly that the T7SS secretion signal is localized at the C-terminus of T7SS substrates and secondly that the conserved residues YxxxD/E are essential for T7SS activity. Furthermore, we propose that the specific α-helical surface formed by the conserved sequence pattern including Yxxx

  20. WXG100 Protein Superfamily Consists of Three Subfamilies and Exhibits an α-Helical C-Terminal Conserved Residue Pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Christian; Panjikar, Santosh; Holton, Simon J.; Wilmanns, Matthias; Song, Young-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Members of the WXG100 protein superfamily form homo- or heterodimeric complexes. The most studied proteins among them are the secreted T-cell antigens CFP-10 (10 kDa culture filtrate protein, EsxB) and ESAT-6 (6 kDa early secreted antigen target, EsxA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. They are encoded on an operon within a gene cluster, named as ESX-1, that encodes for the Type VII secretion system (T7SS). WXG100 proteins are secreted in a full-length form and it is known that they adopt a four-helix bundle structure. In the current work we discuss the evolutionary relationship between the homo- and heterodimeric WXG100 proteins, the basis of the oligomeric state and the key structural features of the conserved sequence pattern of WXG100 proteins. We performed an iterative bioinformatics analysis of the WXG100 protein superfamily and correlated this with the atomic structures of the representative WXG100 proteins. We find, firstly, that the WXG100 protein superfamily consists of three subfamilies: CFP-10-, ESAT-6- and sagEsxA-like proteins (EsxA proteins similar to that of Streptococcus agalactiae). Secondly, that the heterodimeric complexes probably evolved from a homodimeric precursor. Thirdly, that the genes of hetero-dimeric WXG100 proteins are always encoded in bi-cistronic operons and finally, by combining the sequence alignments with the X-ray data we identify a conserved C-terminal sequence pattern. The side chains of these conserved residues decorate the same side of the C-terminal α-helix and therefore form a distinct surface. Our results lead to a putatively extended T7SS secretion signal which combines two reported T7SS recognition characteristics: Firstly that the T7SS secretion signal is localized at the C-terminus of T7SS substrates and secondly that the conserved residues YxxxD/E are essential for T7SS activity. Furthermore, we propose that the specific α-helical surface formed by the conserved sequence pattern including YxxxD/E motif is a key

  1. Euophryine jumping spiders of the Afrotropical Region-new taxa and a checklist (Araneae: Salticidae: Euophryinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesołowska, Wanda; Azarkina, Galina N; Russell-Smith, Anthony

    2014-04-15

    Two new genera, Rumburak gen. nov. and Yimbulunga gen. nov., of euophryine jumping spiders are established from the Afrotropical Region. Thirty three new species included in this subfamily are diagnosed and described: Chinophrys trifasciata sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), Euophrys bifida sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. cochlea sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. elizabethae sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. falciger sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. gracilis sp. nov. (♂♀, Lesotho, South Africa), E. griswoldi sp. nov. (♂, Namibia), E. limpopo sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), E. maseruensis sp. nov. (♂, Lesotho), E. meridionalis sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), E. miranda sp. nov. (♀, South Africa), E. nana sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), E. recta sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), E. subtilis sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), Rumburak bellus sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), R. hilaris sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), R. lateripunctatus sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), R. mirabilis sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), R. tuberatus (♂, South Africa), R. virilis (♂♀, South Africa), Tanzania parvulus sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. striatus sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), Thyenula alotama sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. cheliceroides sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), T. clarosignata sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. dentatidens sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), T. haddadi (♂♀, South Africa), T. montana sp. nov. (♂, Lesotho), T. rufa sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa), T. tenebrica sp. nov. (♀, South Africa), T. virgulata sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), T. vulnifica sp. nov. (♂♀, South Africa) and Yimbulunga foordi sp. nov. (♂, South Africa). Two species names are newly synonymized: Thyenula hortensis Wesołowska & Cumming, 2008 with T. munda (Peckham & Peckham, 1903) and Thyenula nelshoogte Zhang & Maddison, 2012 with T. laxa Zhang & Maddison, 2012.  Three new combinations are proposed: Heliophanus kittenbergeri (Caporiacco, 1947) (ex Euophrys

  2. Classification, Natural History, and Evolution of Tarsosteninae (Coleoptera: Cleridae—Part I: Generic Composition of the Subfamily and Key and Phylogeny of Genera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weston Opitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four new genera and one new species of the subfamily Tarsosteninae (Coleoptera: Cleridae are described. The new genera are: Agapetilus Opitz, gen. nov., Fallopylus Opitz, gen., nov, Globoclava Opitz, gen. nov., and Pseudopylus Opitz, gen. nov. The new species involves Agapetilus vietus Opitz. sp. nov. Liostylus Fairmaire is synonymized with Rhophaloclerus Fairmaire. New combinations, Fallopylus pallipes (MacLeay, 1872, comb. nov., Globoclava quadrimaculata (Chevrolat, 1876, comb. nov., Parapylus sedlaceki (Kolibáč, 2003, comb. nov., Pseudopylus okei (Elston, 1929, comb. nov., and Rhophaloclerus pictus (Fairmaire, 1902, comb. nov., are established. A key and phylogeny of the genera of Tarsosteninae is provided.

  3. Biting midges of the subfamily Forcipomyiinae (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from the Middle East, with keys and descriptions of new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwin-Kownacka, Alicja; Szadziewski, Ryszard; Szwedo, Jacek

    2016-10-05

    Middle East biting midges of the genera Atrichopogon Kieffer and Forcipomyia Meigen, subfamily Forcipomyiinae Lenz, covering 41 species are reviewed. Two new species are described and illustrated: Forcipomyia (F.) siverekensis Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. and Forcipomyia (Microhelea) borkenti Alwin & Szadziewski sp. nov. The list includes 16 species of Atrichopogon and 25 of Forcipomyia. Nine species previously described by Vimmer and Kieffer from the Middle East are treated as nomina dubia and not included in the list.        Keys to identification of Atrichopogon and Forcipomyia species of the Middle East are also provided.

  4. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H, H', and F are members of a ubiquitously expressed subfamily of related but distinct proteins encoded by genes mapping to different chromosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Rasmussen, H H; Vorum, H

    1995-01-01

    Molecular cDNA cloning, two-dimensional gel immunoblotting, and amino acid microsequencing identified three sequence-unique and distinct proteins that constitute a subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins corresponding to hnRNPs H, H', and F. These proteins share......%, respectively. The three proteins contain three repeats, which we denote quasi-RRMs (qRRMs) since they have a remote similarity to the RNA recognition motif (RRM). The three qRRMs of hnRNP H, with a few additional NH2-terminal amino acids, were constructed by polymerase chain reaction amplification and used...

  5. The Exiguobacterium sibiricum 255-15 GtfC Enzyme Represents a Novel Glycoside Hydrolase 70 Subfamily of 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Gangoiti, Joana; Pijning, Tjaard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2016-01-01

    The glycoside hydrolase 70 (GH70) family originally was established for glucansucrase enzymes found solely in lactic acid bacteria synthesizing α-glucan polysaccharides from sucrose (e.g., GtfA). In recent years, we have characterized GtfB and related Lactobacillus enzymes as 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes. These GtfB-type enzymes constitute the first GH70 subfamily of enzymes that are unable to act on sucrose as a substrate but are active with maltodextrins and starch, cleave α1→4 linkages...

  6. The subfamily-specific interaction between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 subunits is determined by interactions between the N- and C-termini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Bocksteins

    Full Text Available The "silent" voltage-gated potassium (KvS channel subunit Kv6.4 does not form electrically functional homotetramers at the plasma membrane but assembles with Kv2.1 subunits, generating functional Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramers. The N-terminal T1 domain determines the subfamily-specific assembly of Kv1-4 subunits by preventing interactions between subunits that belong to different subfamilies. For Kv6.4, yeast-two-hybrid experiments showed an interaction of the Kv6.4 N-terminus with the Kv2.1 N-terminus, but unexpectedly also with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. We confirmed this interaction by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP using N-terminal Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 fragments. However, full-length Kv3.1 and Kv6.4 subunits do not form heterotetramers at the plasma membrane. Therefore, additional interactions between the Kv6.4 and Kv2.1 subunits should be important in the Kv2.1/Kv6.4 subfamily-specificity. Using FRET and co-IP approaches with N- and C-terminal fragments we observed that the Kv6.4 C-terminus physically interacts with the Kv2.1 N-terminus but not with the Kv3.1 N-terminus. The N-terminal amino acid sequence CDD which is conserved between Kv2 and KvS subunits appeared to be a key determinant since charge reversals with arginine substitutions abolished the interaction between the N-terminus of Kv2.1 and the C-terminus of both Kv2.1 and Kv6.4. In addition, the Kv6.4(CKv3.1 chimera in which the C-terminus of Kv6.4 was replaced by the corresponding domain of Kv3.1, disrupted the assembly with Kv2.1. These results indicate that the subfamily-specific Kv2.1/Kv6.4 heterotetramerization is determined by interactions between Kv2.1 and Kv6.4 that involve both the N- and C-termini in which the conserved N-terminal CDD sequence plays a key role.

  7. Key to larvae of the South American subfamilies of weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea Clave para larvas de las subfamilias sudamericanas de gorgojos (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA E. MARVALDI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea from South America are classsified into seven families and 28 subfamilies as follows: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae and Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae and Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae and Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae and Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae and Platypodinae. A dichotomous key for the larval stage is provided for identification of the families and subfamilies of Curculionoidea present in South America. The key is based on external morphological characters and contains data on larval feeding habitsLos gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea de Sudamérica están clasificados en siete familias y 28 subfamilias como se muestra a continuación: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae y Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae y Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae y Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae y Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae y Platypodinae. Se brinda una clave dicotómica para el estado de larva de Curculionoidea en Sudamérica, para su determinación a nivel de familias y subfamilias. La clave está basada sobre caracteres morfológicos externos y se presentan además datos de hábitos alimentarios

  8. pocketZebra: a web-server for automated selection and classification of subfamily-specific binding sites by bioinformatic analysis of diverse protein families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplatov, Dmitry; Kirilin, Eugeny; Arbatsky, Mikhail; Takhaveev, Vakil; Svedas, Vytas

    2014-07-01

    The new web-server pocketZebra implements the power of bioinformatics and geometry-based structural approaches to identify and rank subfamily-specific binding sites in proteins by functional significance, and select particular positions in the structure that determine selective accommodation of ligands. A new scoring function has been developed to annotate binding sites by the presence of the subfamily-specific positions in diverse protein families. pocketZebra web-server has multiple input modes to meet the needs of users with different experience in bioinformatics. The server provides on-site visualization of the results as well as off-line version of the output in annotated text format and as PyMol sessions ready for structural analysis. pocketZebra can be used to study structure-function relationship and regulation in large protein superfamilies, classify functionally important binding sites and annotate proteins with unknown function. The server can be used to engineer ligand-binding sites and allosteric regulation of enzymes, or implemented in a drug discovery process to search for potential molecular targets and novel selective inhibitors/effectors. The server, documentation and examples are freely available at http://biokinet.belozersky.msu.ru/pocketzebra and there are no login requirements. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. Uncharacterized conserved motifs outside the HD-Zip domain in HD-Zip subfamily I transcription factors; a potential source of functional diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabello Julieta V

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant HD-Zip transcription factors are modular proteins in which a homeodomain is associated to a leucine zipper. Of the four subfamilies in which they are divided, the tested members from subfamily I bind in vitro the same pseudopalindromic sequence CAAT(A/TATTG and among them, several exhibit similar expression patterns. However, most experiments in which HD-Zip I proteins were over or ectopically expressed under the control of the constitutive promoter 35S CaMV resulted in transgenic plants with clearly different phenotypes. Aiming to elucidate the structural mechanisms underlying such observation and taking advantage of the increasing information in databases of sequences from diverse plant species, an in silico analysis was performed. In addition, some of the results were also experimentally supported. Results A phylogenetic tree of 178 HD-Zip I proteins together with the sequence conservation presented outside the HD-Zip domains allowed the distinction of six groups of proteins. A motif-discovery approach enabled the recognition of an activation domain in the carboxy-terminal regions (CTRs and some putative regulatory mechanisms acting in the amino-terminal regions (NTRs and CTRs involving sumoylation and phosphorylation. A yeast one-hybrid experiment demonstrated that the activation activity of ATHB1, a member of one of the groups, is located in its CTR. Chimerical constructs were performed combining the HD-Zip domain of one member with the CTR of another and transgenic plants were obtained with these constructs. The phenotype of the chimerical transgenic plants was similar to the observed in transgenic plants bearing the CTR of the donor protein, revealing the importance of this module inside the whole protein. Conclusions The bioinformatical results and the experiments conducted in yeast and transgenic plants strongly suggest that the previously poorly analyzed NTRs and CTRs of HD-Zip I proteins play an important

  10. THE INDO-PACIFIC GEMMULA SPECIES IN THE SUBFAMILY TURRINAE: ASPECTS OF FIELD DISTRIBUTION, MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY, RADULAR ANATOMY AND FEEDING ECOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    KANTOR, YURI I.; ASTILLA, MARY ANNE Q.; LLUISMA, ARTURO O.; GERONIMO, ROLLAN; ALIÑO, PORFIRIO M.; WATKINS, MAREN; CORNELI, PATRICE SHOWERS; OLIVERA, BALDOMERO M.; SANTOS, AMEURFINA D.; CONCEPCION, GISELA P.

    2011-01-01

    The biology, feeding ecology and phylogenetic relationships of marine snails in the family Turridae remain poorly understood. Here we report our study on four deep-water species in the genus Gemmula, a major group in this family. The four species G. speciosa (Reeve 1843), G. sogodensis (Olivera 2005), G. kieneri (Doumet 1940) and G. diomedea (Powell 1964) were collected at five different sites in the Philippines, and their pattern of distribution in the sites, their feeding behaviour as well as their phylogenetic relationships with each other and with other members of the subfamily Turrinae were investigated. The radular morphology (of two Gemmula species) and potential prey (for one Gemmula species) were also examined. Actual feeding observations were also conducted for Gemmula speciosa and compared with two turrids from other genera. All four Gemmula species showed strikingly different patterns of distribution; each species was found to be relatively much more abundant at one site but not at the other sites. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 16S sequences correlated with previously reported 12S sequences and revealed that the four species all belong to a well-supported Gemmula clade within the subfamily Turrinae; and that this clade appeared more closely related to the clades Xenuroturris, Turris and Lophiotoma than to the other clades in the subfamily (i.e., Turridrupa, Unedogemmula and Polystira). Morphological analysis of the radula of both G. speciosa and G. sogodensis revealed that the radulae of the two species were similar but differed from the other turrids, Lophiotoma acuta and Unedogemmula bisaya, by the absence of central teeth, consistent with the separation of the Gemmula clade from the Lophiotoma and Unedogemmula clade. To identify the polychaete group that is targeted as prey by species of Gemmula, analysis of regurgitated food fragments was made; phylogenetic analysis of an mtCOI gene fragment that was PCR-amplified from the regurgitated

  11. The Exiguobacterium sibiricum 255-15 GtfC Enzyme Represents a Novel Glycoside Hydrolase 70 Subfamily of 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoiti, Joana; Pijning, Tjaard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert

    2015-11-20

    The glycoside hydrolase 70 (GH70) family originally was established for glucansucrase enzymes found solely in lactic acid bacteria synthesizing α-glucan polysaccharides from sucrose (e.g., GtfA). In recent years, we have characterized GtfB and related Lactobacillus enzymes as 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes. These GtfB-type enzymes constitute the first GH70 subfamily of enzymes that are unable to act on sucrose as a substrate but are active with maltodextrins and starch, cleave α1→4 linkages, and synthesize linear α1→6-glucan chains. The GtfB disproportionating type of activity results in the conversion of malto-oligosaccharides into isomalto/malto-polysaccharides with a relatively high percentage of α1→6 linkages. This paper reports the identification of the members of a second GH70 subfamily (designated GtfC enzymes) and the characterization of the Exiguobacterium sibiricum 255-15 GtfC enzyme, which is also inactive with sucrose and displays 4,6-α-glucanotransferase activity with malto-oligosaccharides. GtfC differs from GtfB in synthesizing isomalto/malto-oligosaccharides. Biochemically, the GtfB- and GtfC-type enzymes are related, but phylogenetically, they clearly constitute different GH70 subfamilies, displaying only 30% sequence identity. Whereas the GtfB-type enzyme largely has the same domain order as glucansucrases (with α-amylase domains A, B, and C plus domains IV and V), this GtfC-type enzyme differs in the order of these domains and completely lacks domain V. In GtfC, the sequence of conserved regions I to IV of clan GH-H is identical to that in GH13 (I-II-III-IV) but different from that in GH70 (II-III-IV-I because of a circular permutation of the (β/α)8 barrel. The GtfC 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes thus represent structurally and functionally very interesting evolutionary intermediates between α-amylase and glucansucrase enzymes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Efecto de las arañas (Arachnida: Araneae como depredadoras de insectos plaga en cultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Armendano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae as predators of insect pest in alfalfa crops (Medicago sativa (Fabaceae in Argentina. Spiders are predators that reduce insect pest populations in agroecosystems. Trials were conducted to measure the selectivity against different insect preys, the daily consumption, effect of predators alone and together with a known number of preys, and the indirect effect of predators on vegetation. For this, experimental units (1x1m were used covered with a fine plastic mesh. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus and Araneus sp. were used as generalist predators, and aphids, weevils, locusts, chrysomelids and Lepidoptera larvae as their potential preys. Among the preys offered, the spiders preferred Lepidoptera larvae compared to the other two pests groups (weevils and aphids. The maximum consumption rate was of 93.33% for Lepidoptera larvae, 25.33% for aphids and 11.67% for weevils. The Q Index values for the three species of spiders showed a positive selectivity only for defoliating larvae. O. salticus showed the highest values of consumption rates while Rachiplusia nu was the most consumed. The maximum value of consumption in 24 hours was showed by O. salticus on R. nu (C=2.8. The association of several species of predatory spiders increased the total number of insects captured, and also showed that the addition of spiders caused a decrease in the number of leaves damaged by the effect of lepidopterous larvae. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1651-1662. Epub 2011 December 01Las arañas son depredadoras capaces de reducir las poblaciones de insectos plaga en agroecosistemas. Para medir la selectividad frente a distintas presas, se realizaron ensayos de consumo diario, efecto de los depredadores aisladamente y en conjunto sobre el número de presas y efecto indirecto de los depredadores sobre la vegetación; se utilizaron jaulas experimentales de 1x1m cubiertas con una fina malla plástica. Misumenops pallidus, Oxyopes salticus y

  13. Identification of a GH110 subfamily of alpha 1,3-galactosidases: novel enzymes for removal of the alpha 3Gal xenotransplantation antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Yuan, Huaiping; Bennett, Eric P

    2008-01-01

    In search of alpha-galactosidases with improved kinetic properties for removal of the immunodominant alpha1,3-linked galactose residues of blood group B antigens, we recently identified a novel prokaryotic family of alpha-galactosidases (CAZy GH110) with highly restricted substrate specificity......,3-galactosidases that act equally well on both branched blood group B and linear alpha1,3Gal structures. We determined by one-dimensional (1)H NMR spectroscopy that GH110 enzymes function with an inverting mechanism, which is in striking contrast to all other known alpha-galactosidases that use a retaining...... mechanism. The novel GH110 subfamily offers enzymes with highly improved performance in enzymatic removal of the immunodominant alpha3Gal xenotransplantation epitope....

  14. Getting from A to B-exploring the activation motifs of the class B adhesion G protein-coupled receptor subfamily G member 4/GPR112

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelia Peeters, Miriam; Mos, Iris; Lenselink, Eelke B

    2016-01-01

    into the structure-function relationship of ADGRs using the family member ADGR subfamily G member 4 (ADGRG4)/GPR112 as a model receptor. In a bioinformatics approach, we compared conserved, functional elements of the well-characterized class A and class B1 secretin-like G protein-coupled receptors with the ADGRs. We...... screening system and was further confirmed in a transfected mammalian human embryonic kidney 293 cell line. We evaluated the results in light of the crystal structures of the class A adenosine A2A receptor and the class B1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1. ADGRG4 proved to have functionally...... important motifs resembling class A, class B, and combined elements, but also a unique highly conserved ADGR motif (H3.33). Given the high conservation of these motifs and residues across the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor family, it can be assumed that these are general elements of adhesion GPCR...

  15. Typification of taxa of subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss. from Siberia and Russian Far East based on materials kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE

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    G. A. Lazkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on type material of previously not typified taxa of the subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss., kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE are summarized in the paper. All relevant taxa including eight species (or subsequently accepted as species: Gastrolychnis violascens Tolm., Gypsophila stricta Bunge, Heterochroa petraea Bunge, Lychnis ajanensis var. villosula Trautv. [L. villosula (Trautv. Gorschk.], L. fulgens var. wilfordi Regel [L. wilfordi (Regel Maxim.], L. tristis Bunge, Melandrium olgae Maxim., Silene melandriiformis Maxim., five varieties (Melandrium affine var. Intermedium Tolm., Silene repens var. pratensis Kom., S. repens var. alpina Kom., S. repens var. angustifolia Turcz., S. repens var. latifolia Turcz., and one form (Silene repens f. densa Kom. are lectotypified.Key words: Caryophyllaceae, Silenoideae, type specimens, typification, Komarov Botanical Institute (LE, Siberia, Far East. 

  16. Frequency analysis of TRBV subfamily sjTRECs to characterize T-cell reconstitution in acute leukemia patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

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    Yang Lijian

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT leads to a prolonged state of immunodeficiency and requires reconstitution of normal T-cell immunity. Signal joint T-cell receptor excision DNA circles (sjTRECs are markers of developmental proximity to the thymus that have been used to evaluate thymic function related to T-cell immune reconstitution after HSCT. To assess the proliferative history in different T-cell receptor beta variable region (TRBV subfamilies of T cells after HSCT, expansion of TRBV subfamily-naive T cells was determined by analysis of a series of TRBV-BD1 sjTRECs. Methods sjTRECs levels were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from 43 Chinese acute leukemia patients who underwent allo-HSCT. Twenty-three TRBV-BD1 sjTRECs were amplified by semi-nested PCR. Sixteen age-matched healthy volunteers served as normal controls. Results sjTRECs levels were low or undetectable in the first 6 weeks after allo-HSCT and increased after 8 weeks post HSCT; however, sjTRECs levels at week 20 post-HSCT were still less than normal controls. Frequencies of TRBV subfamily sjTRECs in PBMCs from recipients at week 8 post-HSCT (29.17 ± 20.97% or at week 16 post-HSCT (38.33 ± 9.03% were significantly lower than those in donors (47.92 ± 13.82% or recipients at pre-HSCT (45.83 ± 14.03%. However, frequencies of TRBV subfamily sjTRECs in recipients at week 30 post-HSCT (42.71 ± 21.62% were similar to those in donors and recipients at pre-HSCT. sjTRECs levels in donors had a positive linear correlation with sjTRECs levels in recipients within 8-12 weeks post-HSCT. Patients with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD or chronic GVHD had profoundly reduced TRECs levels during the first year post-HSCT. Frequencies of BV22-BD1 sjTRECs and BV23-BD1 sjTRECs in patients with GVHD were significantly lower than those in recipients at pre-HSCT, and the

  17. A new species of Glaphyropoma: the first subterranean copionodontine catfish and the first occurrence of opercular odontodes in the subfamily (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae

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    Maria Elina Bichuette

    Full Text Available A new species of the rare copionodontine genus Glaphyropoma is described from subterranean waters in the Diamantina Plateau, Bahia State, central northeastern Brazil. This is the first troglomorphic species in the subfamily Copionodontinae. It is distinguished from all other copionodontines by the presence of opercular odontodes, and further distinguished from its only congener, G. rodriguesi, by the reduction of dark integumentary pigmentation. The new species shares the single synapomorphy previously proposed for Glaphyropoma, the marked narrowing of the first hypobranchial and indirect character evidence also supports its inclusion in the genus. The presence of opercular odontodes in the new species, in combination with a reviewed hypothesis of sister group relationship between Copionodontinae and Trichogeninae, indicate that the absence of opercular odontodes in previously-known copionodontines is secondary, rather than primitive.

  18. Have giant lobelias evolved several times independently? Life form shifts and historical biogeography of the cosmopolitan and highly diverse subfamily Lobelioideae (Campanulaceae

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    Antonelli Alexandre

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tendency of animals and plants to independently develop similar features under similar evolutionary pressures - convergence - is a widespread phenomenon in nature. In plants, convergence has been suggested to explain the striking similarity in life form between the giant lobelioids (Campanulaceae, the bellflower family of Africa and the Hawaiian Islands. Under this assumption these plants would have developed the giant habit from herbaceous ancestors independently, in much the same way as has been suggested for the giant senecios of Africa and the silversword alliance of Hawaii. Results Phylogenetic analyses based on plastid (rbcL, trnL-F and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer [ITS] DNA sequences for 101 species in subfamily Lobelioideae demonstrate that the large lobelioids from eastern Africa the Hawaiian Islands, and also South America, French Polynesia and southeast Asia, form a strongly supported monophyletic group. Ancestral state reconstructions of life form and distribution, taking into account phylogenetic uncertainty, indicate their descent from a woody ancestor that was probably confined to Africa. Molecular dating analyses using Penalized Likelihood and Bayesian relaxed clock approaches, and combining multiple calibration points, estimate their first diversification at ~25-33 million years ago (Ma, shortly followed by several long-distance dispersal events that resulted in the current pantropical distribution. Conclusion These results confidently show that lobelioid species, commonly called 'giant', are very closely related and have not developed their giant form from herbaceous ancestors independently. This study, which includes the hitherto largest taxon sampling for subfamily Lobelioideae, highlights the need for a broad phylogenetic framework for testing assumptions about morphological development in general, and convergent evolution in particular.

  19. Analysis of the grape MYB R2R3 subfamily reveals expanded wine quality-related clades and conserved gene structure organization across Vitis and Arabidopsis genomes

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    Arce-Johnson Patricio

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MYB superfamily constitutes the most abundant group of transcription factors described in plants. Members control processes such as epidermal cell differentiation, stomatal aperture, flavonoid synthesis, cold and drought tolerance and pathogen resistance. No genome-wide characterization of this family has been conducted in a woody species such as grapevine. In addition, previous analysis of the recently released grape genome sequence suggested expansion events of several gene families involved in wine quality. Results We describe and classify 108 members of the grape R2R3 MYB gene subfamily in terms of their genomic gene structures and similarity to their putative Arabidopsis thaliana orthologues. Seven gene models were derived and analyzed in terms of gene expression and their DNA binding domain structures. Despite low overall sequence homology in the C-terminus of all proteins, even in those with similar functions across Arabidopsis and Vitis, highly conserved motif sequences and exon lengths were found. The grape epidermal cell fate clade is expanded when compared with the Arabidopsis and rice MYB subfamilies. Two anthocyanin MYBA related clusters were identified in chromosomes 2 and 14, one of which includes the previously described grape colour locus. Tannin related loci were also detected with eight candidate homologues in chromosomes 4, 9 and 11. Conclusion This genome wide transcription factor analysis in Vitis suggests that clade-specific grape R2R3 MYB genes are expanded while other MYB genes could be well conserved compared to Arabidopsis. MYB gene abundance, homology and orientation within particular loci also suggests that expanded MYB clades conferring quality attributes of grapes and wines, such as colour and astringency, could possess redundant, overlapping and cooperative functions.

  20. Functional Characterization of Nine Norway Spruce TPS Genes and Evolution of Gymnosperm Terpene Synthases of the TPS-d Subfamily1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Diane M.; Fäldt, Jenny; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    Constitutive and induced terpenoids are important defense compounds for many plants against potential herbivores and pathogens. In Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst), treatment with methyl jasmonate induces complex chemical and biochemical terpenoid defense responses associated with traumatic resin duct development in stems and volatile terpenoid emissions in needles. The cloning of (+)-3-carene synthase was the first step in characterizing this system at the molecular genetic level. Here we report the isolation and functional characterization of nine additional terpene synthase (TPS) cDNAs from Norway spruce. These cDNAs encode four monoterpene synthases, myrcene synthase, (−)-limonene synthase, (−)-α/β-pinene synthase, and (−)-linalool synthase; three sesquiterpene synthases, longifolene synthase, E,E-α-farnesene synthase, and E-α-bisabolene synthase; and two diterpene synthases, isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and levopimaradiene/abietadiene synthase, each with a unique product profile. To our knowledge, genes encoding isopimara-7,15-diene synthase and longifolene synthase have not been previously described, and this linalool synthase is the first described from a gymnosperm. These functionally diverse TPS account for much of the structural diversity of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced terpenoids in foliage, xylem, bark, and volatile emissions from needles of Norway spruce. Phylogenetic analyses based on the inclusion of these TPS into the TPS-d subfamily revealed that functional specialization of conifer TPS occurred before speciation of Pinaceae. Furthermore, based on TPS enclaves created by distinct branching patterns, the TPS-d subfamily is divided into three groups according to sequence similarities and functional assessment. Similarities of TPS evolution in angiosperms and modeling of TPS protein structures are discussed. PMID:15310829

  1. Sobre um novo gênero neotrópico da subfamília Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae On a new neotropical genus of the subfamily Tanypodinae (Diptera, Chironomidae

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    Sebastião José de Oliveira

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new neotropical genus and a new species of a non-biting midge for the subfamily Tanypodinae from Brazil are described. The new genus is near Tanypus Meigen, 1803 and Procladius Skuse, 1889, but differs of both by wings and male terminalia.

  2. Leaf and stem CO/sub 2/ uptake in the three subfamilies of the Cactaceae. [Pereskia aculeata; Pereskia grandifolia; Maihuenia poeppigii; Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Coryphantha vivipara; Mammillaria dioica; Opuntia ficus-inidica; Pereskiopsis porteri; Quiabentia chacoensis; Austrocylindropuntia subulata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.; Hartsock, T.L.

    1986-04-01

    Net CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24-hour periods was examined for the leaves and for the stems of 11 species of cacti representing all three subfamilies. For Pereskia aculeata, Pereskia grandifolia, and Maihuenia poeppigii (subfamily Pereskioideae), all the net shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the leaves and during the daytime. In contrast, for the leafless species Carnegiea gigantea, Ferocactus acanthodes, Coryphantha vivipara, and Mammillaria dioica (subfamily Cactoideae), all the shoot net CO/sub 2/ uptake was by the stems and at night. Similarly, for leafless Opuntia ficus-indica (subfamily Opuntioideae), all net CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. For leafy members of the Opuntioideae (Pereskiopsis porteri, Quiabentia chacoensis, Austrocylindropuntia subulata), at least 88% of the shoot CO/sub 2/ uptake over 24 hours was by the leaves and some CO/sub 2/ uptake occurred at night. Leaves responded to the instantaneous level of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) during the daytime, as occurs for C/sub 3/ plants, whereas nocturnal CO/sub 2/ uptake by stems of O. ficus-indica and F. acanthodes responded to the total daily PAR, as occurs for Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants. Thus, under the well-watered conditions employed, the Pereskioideae behaved as C/sub 3/ plants, the Cactoideae behaved as CAM plants, and the Opuntioideae exhibited characteristics of both pathways.

  3. Cymapamphantus valentineorum, a new genus and species of Pamphantinae (Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Geocoridae) from the British Virgin Islands, with a checklist of the species and keys to the tribes and genera of the subfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    The new genus and new species Cymapamphantus valentineorum, belonging to the geocorid subfamily Pamphantinae, is described from one brachypterous male and six brachypterous females taken on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands. A dorsal habitus illustration, dorsal and lateral photographs of the ma...

  4. [Molecular criteria in insects systematics: bar-coding gene COI range of variability as a taxonomic criterion for genus, tribe, and subfamily, with Chironominae and Orthocladiinae midges (Chironomidae, Diptera) as a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polukonova, N V; Demin, A G; Miuge, N S

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary systematics of insects is based mainly on morphological traits. However, their usage is limited both by high variability and complications in comparisons of remote taxa due to low number of common traits. In whole, this leads to a somewhat subjective view when elaborating the system. Unlike morphological ones, molecular traits of taxa, revealed by use of marker genes such as gene cytochrome-c-oxidase I (COI), are less variable and more uniform, which allows them to be used as a criterion of genus, tribe, and subfamily for a wide range of organisms. Application of molecular criteria appears to be all the more important when constructing the system for groups of organisms with high morphological and specific diversity, such as midges (Chironomidae, Diptera). Last years, the DNA-sequence of gene COI is becoming widely used for species identification as a bar-coding one. Its use as a criterion for taxa of super-species level is hampered by its high nucleotide variability. We established the bounds of COI nucleotide and aminoacid divergence between midge species of Chironominae subfamily belonging to the same genus, same tribe, different tribes, as well as between species of Chironominae and Orthocladiinae subfamilies. It is shown that the level of aminoacid divergence reflects molecular boundaries of genus and tribe better than nucleotide one. It can be stated that if the level of aminoacid divergence falls within the limits from 0 to 1.7% then a pair of species compared belongs to the same genus; if it falls within the limits from 1.7 to 4.0% then they belong to the same tribe; within the limits from 4.6 to 6.3%--to different tribes; if it exceeds 7.9%--to different subfamilies. The accuracy of identification when using these ranges turns out to be not less than 75%. In this regard, bounds of COI sequence aminoacid divergence may be used as taxonomic criteria for midge genus, tribe or subfamily.

  5. Chilean Pitavia more closely related to Oceania and Old World Rutaceae than to Neotropical groups: evidence from two cpDNA non-coding regions, with a new subfamilial classification of the family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groppo, Milton; Kallunki, Jacquelyn A; Pirani, José Rubens; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The position of the plant genus Pitavia within an infrafamilial phylogeny of Rutaceae (rue, or orange family) was investigated with the use of two non-coding regions from cpDNA, the trnL-trnF region and the rps16 intron. The only species of the genus, Pitavia punctata Molina, is restricted to the temperate forests of the Coastal Cordillera of Central-Southern Chile and threatened by loss of habitat. The genus traditionally has been treated as part of tribe Zanthoxyleae (subfamily Rutoideae) where it constitutes the monogeneric tribe Pitaviinae. This tribe and genus are characterized by fruits of 1 to 4 fleshy drupelets, unlike the dehiscent fruits typical of the subfamily. Fifty-five taxa of Rutaceae, representing 53 genera (nearly one-third of those in the family) and all subfamilies, tribes, and almost all subtribes of the family were included. Parsimony and Bayesian inference were used to infer the phylogeny; six taxa of Meliaceae, Sapindaceae, and Simaroubaceae, all members of Sapindales, were also used as out-groups. Results from both analyses were congruent and showed Pitavia as sister to Flindersia and Lunasia, both genera with species scattered through Australia, Philippines, Moluccas, New Guinea and the Malayan region, and phylogenetically far from other Neotropical Rutaceae, such as the Galipeinae (Galipeeae, Rutoideae) and Pteleinae (Toddalieae, former Toddalioideae). Additionally, a new circumscription of the subfamilies of Rutaceae is presented and discussed. Only two subfamilies (both monophyletic) are recognized: Cneoroideae (including Dictyolomatoideae, Spathelioideae, Cneoraceae, and Ptaeroxylaceae) and Rutoideae (including not only traditional Rutoideae but also Aurantioideae, Flindersioideae, and Toddalioideae). As a consequence, Aurantioideae (Citrus and allies) is reduced to tribal rank as Aurantieae.

  6. Phylogenetic placement of the spider genus Nephila (Araneae: Araneoidea) inferred from rRNA and MaSp1 gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Chun; Zhou, Kai-Ya; Song, Da-Xiang; Qiu, Yang

    2004-03-01

    The family status of the genus Nephila, which belongs to Tetragnathidae currently but Araneidae formerly, was reexamined based on molecular phylogenetic analyses. In the present study, 12S and 18S rRNA gene fragments of eight species of spiders were amplified and sequenced. In addition, 3'-end partial cDNA of major ampullate spidroin-1 (MaSp1) gene of Argiope amoena was cloned and sequenced, and the 3'-end non-repetitive region's cDNA sequence of MaSp1 gene and the predicted amino acid sequence of C-terminal non-repetitive region of MaSp1 were aligned with some previously known sequences. The resulting phylogeny showed that Araneidae and Tetragnathidae are not a sister group in the superfamily Araneoidea, and the genus Nephila is closer to the genera of the family Araneidae rather than to those of Tetragnathidae. We suggest that the genus Nephila should be transferred back to Araneidae. Or the subfamily Nephilinae might be elevated to family level after it was redefined and redelimited. Furthermore, the study showed that 3'-end non-repetitive region's cDNA sequence of MaSp1 gene and C-terminal non-repetitive region's amino acid sequence of MaSp1 are useful molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis of spiders.

  7. Two-stage gene assembly/cloning of a member of the TspDTI subfamily of bifunctional restriction endonucleases, TthHB27I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krefft, Daria; Zylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Mulkiewicz, Ewa; Papkov, Aliaksei; Jezewska-Frackowiak, Joanna; Skowron, Piotr M

    2015-01-20

    The Thermus sp. family of bifunctional type IIS/IIG/IIC restriction endonucleases (REase)-methyltransferases (MTase) comprises thermo-stable TaqII, TspGWI, TspDTI, TsoI, Tth111II/TthHB27I enzymes as well as a number of putative enzymes/open reading frames (ORFs). All of the family members share properties including a large protein size (ca. 120kDa), amino acid (aa) sequence homologies, enzymatic activity modulation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), recognition of similar asymmetric cognate DNA sites and cleavage at a distance of 11/9 nt. Analysis of the enzyme aa sequences and domain/motif organisation led to further Thermus sp. family division into the TspDTI and TspGWI subfamilies. The latter exhibits an unprecedented phenomenon of DNA recognition change upon substitution of SAM by its analogue, sinefungin (SIN), towards a very frequent DNA cleavage. We report cloning in Escherichia coli (E. coli), using a two-stage procedure and a putative tthHB27IRM gene, detected by bioinformatics analysis of the Thermus thermophilus HB27 (T. thermophilus) genome. The functionality of a 3366 base pair (bp)-/1121 aa-long, high GC content ORF was validated experimentally through the expression in E. coli. Protein features corroborated with the reclassification of TthHB27I into the TspDTI subfamily, which manifested in terms of aa-sequence/motif homologies and insensitivity to SIN-induced specificity shift. However, both SAM and SIN stimulated the REase DNA cleavage activity by at least 16-32 times; the highest was observed for the Thermus sp. family. The availability of TthHB27I and the need to include SAM or SIN in the reaction in order to convert the enzyme from "hibernation" status to efficient DNA cleavage is of practical significance in molecular biotechnology, extending the palette of available REase specificities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. In vitro sulfoxidation of thioether compounds by human cytochrome P450 and flavin-containing monooxygenase isoforms with particular reference to the CYP2C subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmani, Khawja A; Karoly, Edward D; Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L

    2004-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) enzymes are major catalysts involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. The sulfoxidation of the thioether pesticides, phorate, disulfoton, sulprofos, and methiocarb, was investigated. Using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs), thioether compounds displayed similar affinities; however, phorate and disulfoton displayed higher intrinsic clearance rates than either sulprofos or methiocarb. The sulfoxidation of thioethers by HLMs was found to be predominantly P450-driven (85-90%) compared with FMO (10-15%). Among 16 cDNA-expressed human P450 isoforms and 3 human FMO isoforms examined, the following isoforms and their polymorphisms had the highest rates for sulfoxidation, as follows: phorate, CYP1A2, 3A4, 2B6, 2C9*1, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6*1, and FMO1; disulfoton, CYP1A2, 3A4, 2B6, 2C9*1, 2C9*2, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6*1, and FMO1; sulprofos, CYP1A1, 1A2, 3A4, 2C9*1, 2C9*2, 2C9*3, 2C18, 2C19, 2D6*1, and FMO1; methiocarb, CYP1A1, 1A2, 3A4, 2B6, 2C9*1, 2C19, 2D6*1, and FMO1. Among these isoforms, members of the CYP2C subfamily often had the highest affinities and clearance rates. Moreover, sulfaphenazole, a CYP2C9 competitive inhibitor, inhibited disulfoton sulfoxidation by CYP2C9 (IC50 0.84 microM) as well as in HLMs. Ticlopidine, a CYP2C19 mechanism-based inhibitor, inhibited disulfoton sulfoxidation by CYP2C19 (IC50 after coincubation, 43.5 microM; IC50 after preincubation, 4.3 microM) and also in HLMs. Our results indicate that current models of the substrate binding site of the CYP2C subfamily would not effectively predict thioether pesticide metabolism. Thus, the substrate specificity of CYP2Cs is more extensive than is currently believed, and some reevaluation of structure-activity relationships may be required.

  9. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and characterisation of the second identified CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A78 from koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Crittenden, Tamara A; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2011-11-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. Previously, we cloned and characterised the CYP2C, CYP4A, and CYP4B gene subfamilies from marsupials and demonstrated important species-differences in both activity and tissue expression of these CYP enzymes. Recently, we isolated the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. Here we have cloned and characterised the second identified member of marsupial CYP3A gene subfamily, CYP3A78 from the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). In addition, we have examined the gender-differences in microsomal erythromycin N-demethylation activity (a CYP3A marker) and CYP3A protein expression across test marsupial species. Significant differences in hepatic erythromycin N-demethylation activity were observed between male and female koalas, with the activity detected in female koalas being 2.5-fold higher compared to that in male koalas (pkoala, tammar wallaby, and Eastern grey kangaroo, with no gender-differences detected across test marsupials. A 1610 bp koala hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A78, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches. It displays 64% nucleotide and 57% amino acid sequence identity to the Eastern grey kangaroo CYP3A70. The CYP3A78 cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acids, shares approximately 68% nucleotide and 56% amino acid sequence identity to human CYP3A4, and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding koala hepatic CYP3A78 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. Given the significant role that CYP3A enzymes play in the metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous compounds, the clone provides an important step in elucidating the metabolic capacity of marsupials. Copyright © 2011

  10. Phylogenetic analysis and expression pattern of the AmphiCaBP-like gene from amphioxus, encoding a novel member of the calmodulin-like subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baojun; Lin, Yushuang; Zhang, Wei; Shao, Ming; Bian, Yuehong; Huang, Shuhong; Feng, Lijun; Zhang, Hongwei

    2007-06-01

    We characterized a novel gene, AmphiCaBP-like, encoding a putative Ca(2 + )-binding protein (CaBP) with three EF-hand motifs from amphioxus (Branchiostoma belcheri tsingtauense). It exhibits significant similarities with the calmodulin and troponin C proteins from other species. Results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that amphioxus AmphiCaBP-like falls on the base of the troponin C clade. It may be a novel member of the calmodulin-like subfamily. In situ hybridization and RT-PCR analysis showed that AmphiCaBP-like is expressed throughout early development except the stages around the blastula. From neurula stage onward, transcripts of the AmphiCaBP-like are detected in the neural plate, the neural tube, the differentiating somites and the splanchnopleure, as well as the epithelium of the pharynx and gut. It is also expressed in the presumptive, but not the well-developed notochord. In adult amphioxus, the transcripts are found in the epithelial cells of the gut and midgut diverticulus, the wall of coelom, the branchia, the neural cord and gonads.

  11. Comparative studies of a new subfamily of human Ste20-like kinases: homodimerization, subcellular localization, and selective activation of MKK3 and p38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yustein, Jason T; Xia, Liang; Kahlenburg, J Michelle; Robinson, Dan; Templeton, Dennis; Kung, Hsing-Jien

    2003-09-18

    The Sterile-20 or Ste20 family of serine/threonine kinases is a group of signaling molecules whose physiological roles within mammalian cells are just starting to be elucidated. Here, in this report we present the characterization of three human Ste20-like kinases with greater than 90% similarity within their catalytic domains that define a novel subfamily of Ste20s. Members of this kinase family include rat thousand and one (TAO1) and chicken KFC (kinase from chicken). For the lack of a consensus nomenclature in the literature, in this report, we shall call this family hKFC (for their homology to chicken KFC) and the three members hKFC-A, hKFC-B, and hKFC-C, respectively. These kinases have many similarities including an aminoterminal kinase domain, a serine-rich region, and a coiled-coil configuration within the C-terminus. All three kinases are able to activate the p38 MAP kinase pathway through the specific activation of the upstream MKK3 kinase. We also offer evidence, both theoretical and biochemical, showing that these kinases can undergo self-association. Despite these similarities, these kinases differ in tissue distribution, apparent subcellular localization, and feature structural differences largely within the carboxyl-terminal sequence.

  12. Giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) population dynamics and bamboo (subfamily Bambusoideae) life history: a structured population approach to examining carrying capacity when the prey are semelparous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.; Ackleh, A.S.; Leonard, B.P.; Wang, Hongfang

    1999-01-01

    The giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, is a highly specialized Ursid whose diet consists almost entirely of various species of bamboo. Bamboo (Bambusoideae) is a grass subfamily whose species often exhibit a synchronous semelparity. Synchronous semelparity can create local drops in carrying capacity for the panda. We modeled the interaction of pandas and their bamboo food resources with an age structured panda population model linked to a natural history model of bamboo biomass dynamics based on literature values of bamboo biomass, and giant panda life history dynamics. This paper reports the results of our examination of the interaction between pandas and their bamboo food resource and its implications for panda conservation. In the model all panda populations were well below the carrying capacity of the habitat. The giant panda populations growth was most sensitive to changes in birth rates and removal of reproductive aged individuals. Periodic starvation that has been documented in conjunction with bamboo die-offs is probably related to the inability to move to other areas within the region where bamboo is still available. Based on the results of this model, giant panda conservation should concentrate on keeping breeding individuals in the wild, keep corridors to different bamboo species open to pandas, and to concentrate research on bamboo life history.

  13. ABC Transporter Subfamily D: Distinct Differences in Behavior between ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 in Subcellular Localization, Function, and Human Disease

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    Kosuke Kawaguchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are one of the largest families of membrane-bound proteins and transport a wide variety of substrates across both extra- and intracellular membranes. They play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. To date, four ABC transporters belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 are localized to peroxisomes and lysosomes, respectively. ABCD1 and ABCD2 are involved in the transport of long and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA or their CoA-derivatives into peroxisomes with different substrate specificities, while ABCD3 is involved in the transport of branched chain acyl-CoA into peroxisomes. On the other hand, ABCD4 is deduced to take part in the transport of vitamin B12 from lysosomes into the cytosol. It is well known that the dysfunction of ABCD1 results in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a severe neurodegenerative disease. Recently, it is reported that ABCD3 and ABCD4 are responsible for hepatosplenomegaly and vitamin B12 deficiency, respectively. In this review, the targeting mechanism and physiological functions of the ABCD transporters are summarized along with the related disease.

  14. A new member of the GM130 golgin subfamily is expressed in the optic lobe anlagen of the metamorphosing brain of Manduca sexta

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    Chiou-Miin Wang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available During metamorphosis of the insect brain, the optic lobe anlagen generate the proliferation centers for the visual cortices. We show here that, in the moth Manduca sexta, an 80 kDa Golgi complex protein (Ms-golgin80 is abundantly expressed in the cytoplasm of neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells in the optic lobe anlagen and proliferation centers. The predicted amino acid sequence for Ms-golgin80 is similar to that of several members of the GM130 subfamily of Golgi-associated proteins, including rat GM130 and human golgin-95. Homologs of Ms-golgin80 from Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Brugia malayi were identified through homology sequence search. Sequence similarities are present in three regions: the N-terminus, an internal domain of 89 amino acids, and another domain of 89 amino acids near the C-terminus. Structural similarities further suggest that these molecules play the same cellular role as GM130. GM130 is involved in the docking and fusion of coatomer (COP I coated vesicles to the Golgi membranes; it also regulates the fragmentation and subsequent reassembly of the Golgi complex during mitosis. Abundant expression of Ms-golgin80 in neuroblasts and ganglion mother cells and its reduced expression in the neuronal progeny of these cells suggest that this protein may be involved in the maintenance of the proliferative state.

  15. Analysis of the formation of flower shapes in wild species and cultivars of tree peony using the MADS-box subfamily gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Qingyan; Wang, Liangsheng; Wu, Jie; Du, Hui; Liu, Zheng'an; Ren, Hongxu; Zhang, Jingjing

    2012-02-01

    Tree peony (Paeonia suffricotisa) cultivars have a unique character compared with wild species; the stamen petalody results in increased whorls of petals and generates different flower forms, which are one of the most important traits for cultivar classification. In order to investigate how petaloid stamens are formed, we obtained the coding sequence (666 bp) and genomic DNA sequence of the PsTM6 genes (belongs to B subfamily of MADS-box gene family) from 23 tree peony samples, Five introns and six exons consisted of the genomic DNA sequence. The analysis of cis-acting regulatory elements in the third and fourth intron indicated that they were highly conserved in all samples. Partial putative amino acids were analyzed and the results suggested that functional differentiation of PsTM6 paralogs apparently affected stamen petalody and flower shape formation due to due to amino acid substitution caused by differences in polarity and electronic charge. Sliding window analysis indicated that the different regions of PsTM6 were subjected to different selection forces, especially in the K domain. This is the first attempt to investigate genetic control of the stamen petalody based on the PsTM6 sequence. This will provide a basis for understanding the evolution of PsTM6 and its the function of in determining stamen morphology of tree peony. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. ABC Transporter Subfamily D: Distinct Differences in Behavior between ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 in Subcellular Localization, Function, and Human Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are one of the largest families of membrane-bound proteins and transport a wide variety of substrates across both extra- and intracellular membranes. They play a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. To date, four ABC transporters belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 and ABCD4 are localized to peroxisomes and lysosomes, respectively. ABCD1 and ABCD2 are involved in the transport of long and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) or their CoA-derivatives into peroxisomes with different substrate specificities, while ABCD3 is involved in the transport of branched chain acyl-CoA into peroxisomes. On the other hand, ABCD4 is deduced to take part in the transport of vitamin B12 from lysosomes into the cytosol. It is well known that the dysfunction of ABCD1 results in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy, a severe neurodegenerative disease. Recently, it is reported that ABCD3 and ABCD4 are responsible for hepatosplenomegaly and vitamin B12 deficiency, respectively. In this review, the targeting mechanism and physiological functions of the ABCD transporters are summarized along with the related disease. PMID:27766264

  17. Role of NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic motif in the subcellular localization of ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily D: Common features in eukaryotic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Asaka; Asahina, Kota; Okamoto, Takumi; Kawaguchi, Kosuke [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kostsin, Dzmitry G. [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Institute of Biophysics and Cell Engineering, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Academicheskaya Str. 27, Minsk 220072 (Belarus); Kashiwayama, Yoshinori [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Takanashi, Kojiro; Yazaki, Kazufumi [Laboratory of Plant Gene Expression, Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoko University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Imanaka, Tsuneo, E-mail: imanaka@pha.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Morita, Masashi [Department of Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • ABCD proteins classifies based on with or without NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic segment. • The ABCD proteins with the segment are targeted peroxisomes. • The ABCD proteins without the segment are targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum. • The role of the segment in organelle targeting is conserved in eukaryotic organisms. - Abstract: In mammals, four ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins belonging to subfamily D have been identified. ABCD1–3 possesses the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic region and are targeted to peroxisomes, while ABCD4 lacking the region is targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Based on hydropathy plot analysis, we found that several eukaryotes have ABCD protein homologs lacking the NH{sub 2}-terminal hydrophobic segment (H0 motif). To investigate whether the role of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif in subcellular localization is conserved across species, we expressed ABCD proteins from several species (metazoan, plant and fungi) in fusion with GFP in CHO cells and examined their subcellular localization. ABCD proteins possessing the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif were localized to peroxisomes, while ABCD proteins lacking this region lost this capacity. In addition, the deletion of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif of ABCD protein resulted in their localization to the ER. These results suggest that the role of the NH{sub 2}-terminal H0 motif in organelle targeting is widely conserved in living organisms.

  18. An ATP-binding cassette subfamily G full transporter is essential for the retention of leaf water in both wild barley and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; Ma, Jian Feng; Nawrath, Christiane; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Tagiri, Akemi; Hu, Yin-Gang; Sameri, Mohammad; Li, Xinrong; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Yubing; Li, Chao; Ma, Xiaoying; Wang, Aidong; Nair, Sudha; Wang, Ning; Miyao, Akio; Sakuma, Shun; Yamaji, Naoki; Zheng, Xiuting; Nevo, Eviatar

    2011-07-26

    Land plants have developed a cuticle preventing uncontrolled water loss. Here we report that an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) subfamily G (ABCG) full transporter is required for leaf water conservation in both wild barley and rice. A spontaneous mutation, eibi1.b, in wild barley has a low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. Map-based cloning revealed that Eibi1 encodes an HvABCG31 full transporter. The gene was highly expressed in the elongation zone of a growing leaf (the site of cutin synthesis), and its gene product also was localized in developing, but not in mature tissue. A de novo wild barley mutant named "eibi1.c," along with two transposon insertion lines of rice mutated in the ortholog of HvABCG31 also were unable to restrict water loss from detached leaves. HvABCG31 is hypothesized to function as a transporter involved in cutin formation. Homologs of HvABCG31 were found in green algae, moss, and lycopods, indicating that this full transporter is highly conserved in the evolution of land plants.

  19. The R3 receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase subfamily inhibits insulin signalling by dephosphorylating the insulin receptor at specific sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Takafumi; Higashi, Satoru; Takeuchi, Yasushi; Gaudio, Eugenio; Trapasso, Francesco; Fusco, Alfredo; Noda, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    The autophosphorylation of specific tyrosine residues occurs in the cytoplasmic region of the insulin receptor (IR) upon insulin binding, and this in turn initiates signal transduction. The R3 subfamily (Ptprb, Ptprh, Ptprj and Ptpro) of receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) is characterized by an extracellular region with 6-17 fibronectin type III-like repeats and a cytoplasmic region with a single phosphatase domain. We herein identified the IR as a substrate for R3 RPTPs by using the substrate-trapping mutants of R3 RPTPs. The co-expression of R3 RPTPs with the IR in HEK293T cells suppressed insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR. In vitro assays using synthetic phosphopeptides revealed that R3 RPTPs preferentially dephosphorylated a particular phosphorylation site of the IR: Y960 in the juxtamembrane region and Y1146 in the activation loop. Among four R3 members, only Ptprj was co-expressed with the IR in major insulin target tissues, such as the skeletal muscle, liver and adipose tissue. Importantly, the activation of IR and Akt by insulin was enhanced, and glucose and insulin tolerance was improved in Ptprj-deficient mice. These results demonstrated Ptprj as a physiological enzyme that attenuates insulin signalling in vivo, and indicate that an inhibitor of Ptprj may be an insulin-sensitizing agent. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  20. A systematic review of the subfamily Syringophilinae (Acari: Syringophilidae) of the Nearctic region. Part 1: quill mites associated with passerines (Aves: Passeriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoracki, Maciej; Spicer, Greg S; Oconnor, Barry M

    2016-02-29

    Quill mites belonging to the subfamily Syringophilinae Lavoipierre, 1953 associated with the Nearctic passeriform birds are revised. All of the 49 known species, which are grouped in seven genera, are recorded. Among them, four new species are described: Syringophiloidus audubioni sp. nov. from Spizella breweri (Cassini) (Emberizidae), Syringophilopsis catesbyi sp. nov. from Vireo olivaceus (Linnaeus) (Vireonidae), S. wilsoni sp. nov. from Pheucticus melanocephalus (Swainson) (Cardinalidae), and S. bartrami sp. nov. from Spizella passerina (Bechstein) (Emberizidae). The species Syringophilopsis hylocichlae Clark, 1964 syn. nov. is synonymized with Syringophilopsis turdus (Fritsch, 1958), and Syringophiloidus zonotrichia syn. nov. is synonymized with Betasyringophiloidus seiuri (Clark, 1964) comb. nov. Six species are recorded from the Nearctic region for the first time: Syringophiloidus delichonum Bochkov, 2001, S. glandarii (Fritsch, 1958), S. weiszii Skoracki et al., 2001, S. bombycillae Skoracki, 2002, Syringophilopsis mimidus Sikora et al., 2011, and Torotrogla merulae Skoracki et al., 2000. Data on Nearctic syringophiline species, their hosts and distribution are summarized and the keys to all species are constructed.

  1. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activates Human Multidrug Resistance Transporter 3/ATP-Binding Cassette Protein Subfamily B4 Transcription and Increases Rat Biliary Phosphatidylcholine Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonem, Nisanne S.; Ananthanarayanan, Meenakshisundaram; Soroka, Carol J.; Boyer, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance transporter 3/ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B4 (MDR3/ABCB4) is a critical determinant of biliary phosphatidylcholine (PC) secretion. Clinically, mutations and partial deficiencies in MDR3 result in cholestatic liver injury. Thus, MDR3 is a potential therapeutic target for cholestatic liver disease. Fenofibrate is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α ligand that has antiinflammatory actions and regulates bile acid detoxification. Here we examined the mechanism by which fenofibrate regulates MDR3 gene expression. Fenofibrate significantly up-regulated MDR3 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in primary cultured human hepatocytes, and stimulated MDR3 promoter activity in HepG2 cells. In silico analysis of 5′-upstream region of human MDR3 gene revealed a number of PPARα response elements (PPRE). Electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated specific binding of PPARα to the human MDR3 promoter. Targeted mutagenesis of three novel PPREs reduced inducibility of the MDR3 promoter by fenofibrate. In collagen sandwich cultured rat hepatocytes, treatment with fenofibrate increased secretion of fluorescent PC into bile canaliculi. Conclusion Fenofibrate transactivates MDR3 gene transcription by way of the binding of PPARα to three novel and functionally critical PPREs in the MDR3 promoter. Fenofibrate treatment further stimulates biliary phosphatidylcholine secretion in rat hepatocytes, thereby providing a functional correlate. We have established a molecular mechanism that may contribute to the beneficial use of fenofibrate therapy in human cholestatic liver disease. PMID:24122873

  2. Modelling and mutational analysis of Aspergillus nidulans UreA, a member of the subfamily of urea/H+ transporters in fungi and plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguinetti, Manuel; Amillis, Sotiris; Pantano, Sergio; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Ramón, Ana

    2014-01-01

    We present the first account of the structure–function relationships of a protein of the subfamily of urea/H+ membrane transporters of fungi and plants, using Aspergillus nidulans UreA as a study model. Based on the crystal structures of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium/galactose symporter (vSGLT) and of the Nucleobase-Cation-Symport-1 benzylhydantoin transporter from Microbacterium liquefaciens (Mhp1), we constructed a three-dimensional model of UreA which, combined with site-directed and classical random mutagenesis, led to the identification of amino acids important for UreA function. Our approach allowed us to suggest roles for these residues in the binding, recognition and translocation of urea, and in the sorting of UreA to the membrane. Residues W82, Y106, A110, T133, N275, D286, Y388, Y437 and S446, located in transmembrane helixes 2, 3, 7 and 11, were found to be involved in the binding, recognition and/or translocation of urea and the sorting of UreA to the membrane. Y106, A110, T133 and Y437 seem to play a role in substrate selectivity, while S446 is necessary for proper sorting of UreA to the membrane. Other amino acids identified by random classical mutagenesis (G99, R141, A163, G168 and P639) may be important for the basic transporter's structure, its proper folding or its correct traffic to the membrane. PMID:24966243

  3. Contributions to the knowledge of Formicidae (Hymenoptera, Aculeata: a new diagnosis of the family, the first global male-based key to subfamilies, and a treatment of early branching lineages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon E. Boudinot

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of the Formicidae is revised, including five new, unreversed apomorphies, of which one is a unique synapomorphy. The first global male-based key to all subfamilies is provided and illustrated, and all ant subfamilies are diagnosed for males on a global scale for the first time. Three lineages of “basal ants” are assessed in detail: the Amblyoponinae, Leptanillinae, and Martialinae. The males of Martialis heureka (Martialinae and Apomyrma (Amblyoponinae are described. The Martialinae and Leptanillinae are diagnosed based on males, and additional diagnostic traits for the male of Amblyoponinae and worker of Martialis are provided. The placement of Scyphodon and Noonilla in the Formicidae and Leptanillinae is confirmed. Morphological characters of the Amblyoponinae, the Leptanillinae, and the Martialinae are contrasted, and potentially homologous apomorphies are signaled.

  4. A review of the Geocoridae of Mexico (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea), with descriptions of four new species, new distributional records, and a key to the known subfamilies, tribes, genera and species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailovsky, Harry

    2016-10-06

    The family Geocoridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea) from Mexico is revised. Two subfamilies, one tribe, four genera, and fifteen species are treated in detail and descriptions or redescriptions are provided for all. Four new species of Geocoris are described: G. cervantesi (from Baja California), G. coahuilensis (from Coahuila), G. nuevoleonensis (from Nuevo Leon), and G. signoretae (from Aguascalientes, Hidalgo, and Puebla). The subspecies Geocoris thoracicus wickhami (Montandon) is considered a junior synonym of the nominal species G. thoracicus (Fieber). Key to subfamilies, tribes, genera and species recorded from Mexico are included. New distributional records for all of the previously known species are added. Isthmocoris slevini (Van Duzee) and I. tristis (Stål) are recorded for the first time from Mexico. Notes on the biology of most of the species are included. Color dorsal habitus photos, as well as drawings of the paramere, are included to aid in the identification of the species.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of the spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae based on the mitochondrial COI gene and the 18S and the 5' end of the 28S rRNA genes indicates that several genera are polyphyletic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Matsuda

    Full Text Available The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825-1,901 bp and 28S (the 5' end of 646-743 bp rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp. As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered.

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of the spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae) based on the mitochondrial COI gene and the 18S and the 5' end of the 28S rRNA genes indicates that several genera are polyphyletic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tomoko; Morishita, Maiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Gotoh, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825-1,901 bp) and 28S (the 5' end of 646-743 bp) rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp). As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus) appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered.

  7. Community structure and composition of litter spiders (Arachnida: Araneae and influence of macro-climatic factors on Parque Ecológico Jatobá Centenário, Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Castro Santana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spiders are a diverse group and are considered to be good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to variation in biotic and abiotic factors.  Despite this the taxonomy of the Araneae is poorly known, particularly in the tropical and subtropical regions.  The use of spider guilds can improve our understanding of the dynamics of spider communities, and in this paper we analyse the influence of climatic factors on guilds and species dominance of spiders within the leaf litter layer of a semi-deciduous forest in the tropical savanna Cerrado, Brazil. The study site was Parque Ecológico Jatobá Centenário, a fragment of 90ha, in Morrinhos, Goiás, Brazil.  Spiders were sampled from November 2006 to August 2007 using pitfall traps that remained open for seven days on each of four occasions.  Overall 4139 spiders from 35 families and 118 species were collected. The main families were Salticidae (28%, Linyphiidae (27%, Lycosidae (12% and Theridiidae (11%.  In terms of richness the main families were: Theridiidae, Salticidae, Corinnidae and Araneidae, with 18, 16, 15 and 13 species respectively. The overall Shannon-Wiener (H’ diversity was 3.6. The rainy season showed higher values than the dry season for abundance (2,868 and 1,271 respectively, richness (100 and 71 and diversity (3,296 and 3,237.  The families Theridiidae, Corinnidae and Salticidae presented more species in both dry and wet seasons.  Observed climatic variation (rainfall, humidity and temperature between seasons influenced the community structure of ground-dwelling spiders. 

  8. Downregulation of transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 contributes to drug resistance and high histological grade in ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xia; Zou, Jing; Su, Jie; Lu, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Li, Li; Yin, Fuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) participates in many physiological functions but has also been implicated in cancer development. However, little is known about the role of TRPC1 in ovarian cancer (OC), including the drug resistance of these tumors. In the present study, a significant and consistent downregulation of TRPC1 in drug-resistant OC tissues/cells was determined using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays and the microarrays deposited in Oncomine and Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) profiles. Protein/gene-protein/gene and protein-chemical interactions indicated that TRPC1 interacts with 14 proteins/genes and 6 chemicals, all of which are involved in the regulation of drug resistance in OC. Biological process annotation of TRPC1, OC, and drug resistance indicated a role for TRPC1 in drug-resistance-related functions in OC, mainly via the cell cycle, gene expression and cell growth and cell death. Analysis of mRNA-microRNA interactions showed that 8 out of 11 major pathways enriched from 38 predominant microRNAs targeting TRPC1 were involved in the regulation of drug resistance in OC, and 8 out of these top 10 microRNAs were implicated in the drug resistance in ovarian and other cancers. In a clinical analysis using data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas project (TCGA) cohort on 341 OC patients, TRPC1 expression was found to differ significantly between grade 2 and grade 3 tumors, with low-level expression correlating with higher tumor grade. This is the first report to show a potential association between the downregulation of TRPC1 and both drug resistance and high histological tumor grade in OC. Our results provide the basis for further investigations of the drug-resistance-related functions of TRPC1 in OC and other forms of cancer.

  9. Involvement of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily B member 1 in the augmentation of triacylglycerol excretion by Propionibacterium acnes in differentiated hamster sebocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koji; Akimoto, Noriko; Kawamura, Mina; Nakase, Keisuke; Noguchi, Norihisa; Sato, Takashi

    2017-12-01

    An onset of acne, a common inflammatory skin disease, is associated with excess sebum production and secretion in sebaceous glands. Because Propionibacterium acnes has been reported to augment intracellular sebum accumulation in sebaceous glands in hamsters, it remains unclear whether P. acnes influences sebum secretion from differentiated sebocytes. Both P. acnes culture media (Acnes73-CM) and formalin-killed P. acnes (F-Acnes73) dose-dependently increased the extracellular levels of triacylglycerol (TG), a major sebum component, and Rhodamine 123, a substrate of adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, from differentiated hamster sebocytes (DHS). In addition, the gene expression of the ABC subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) was dose-dependently augmented by adding Acnes73-CM and F-Acnes73 into DHS. Furthermore, the F-Acnes73-induced increase of TG excretion was suppressed by PSC833, a selective ABCB1 inhibitor. On the other hand, peptidoglycan (PGN), which is a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand in P. acnes, increased extracellular TG levels, transporter activity and ABCB1 mRNA expression in DHS. The PGN-augmented TG excretion was suppressed by PSC833. Thus, these results provide novel evidence that P. acnes facilitates sebum secretion due to the activation of ABCB1 concomitantly with the increased ABCB1 expression, which may result from the activation of the TLR2 pathway in DHS. Therefore, the ABCB1 inhibitor is likely to become a candidate as a possible therapeutic for the treatment of acne. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  10. Nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 inhibits extrinsic apoptosis and reduces caspase-8 activity in H2O2-induced human HUC-F2 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuri; Miyakura, Reiko; Otsuka, Yuzuru

    2015-03-01

    Apoptosis is characterized by distinct morphological and biochemical changes that occur upon activation of a family of serine proteases known as caspases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) induce apoptosis in many cell systems. Nuclear receptor subfamily 4, group A, member 1 (NR4A1) has been shown to induce apoptosis in a number of cell lineages, but can also paradoxically act as a death inhibitory factor. In the current study, we focused on the potential role of NR4A1 in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis of normal human umbilical cord fibroblast (HUC-F2) cells. Growth of HUC-F2 cells treated with H2O2 was measured by MTT assay. Analysis of gene expression was performed with a STEP ONE PLUS Real Time PCR system. Inactivation of NR4A1 was treated with siRNA. Apoptosis was measured by Beckman Coulter flow cytometer after inhibition of NR4A1 with siRNA and H2O2 treatment. Caspase -3, -8 and -9 was measured by caspase assay kit. H2O2 treatment led to enhanced NR4A1 expression. Moreover inhibition of NR4A1 with specific siRNA in HUC-F2 cells triggered an increase in apoptosis and caspase-8 and -3 activities following the addition of H2O2. Our results collectively suggest that NR4A1 is a regulator that inhibits extrinsic apoptosis in HUC-F2 cells during oxidative stress through reduction of caspase-8 and -3 activities.

  11. Alona iheringula Sinev & Kotov, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, Aloninae: life cycle and DNA barcode with implications for the taxonomy of the Aloninae subfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Knowledge of reproductive rates and life cycle of the Cladocera species is essential for population dynamic studies, secondary production and food webs, as well as the management and preservation of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to understand the life cycle and growth of Alona iheringula Kotov & Sinev, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, a Neotropical species, as well as its DNA barcoding, providing new information on the Aloninae taxonomy. The specimens were collected in the dammed portion of the Cabo Verde River (21°26'05″ S and 46°10'57″ W, in the Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Forty neonates were observed individually two or three times a day under controlled temperature (25±1°C, photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark and feeding (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at a concentration of 105 cells.mL-1 and a mixed suspension of yeast and fish feed in equal proportion. Individual body growth was measured daily under optical microscope using a micrometric grid and 40× magnification. The species had a mean size of 413(±29 µm, a maximum size of 510 µm and reached maturity at 3.24(±0.69 days of age. Mean fecundity was 2 eggs per female per brood and the mean number of eggs produced per female during the entire life cycle was 47.6(±6.3 eggs per female. The embryonic development time was 1.79(±0.23 days and the maximum longevity was 54 days. The species had eight instars throughout its life cycle and four instars between neonate and primipara stage. The present study using molecular data (a 461 bp smaller COI fragment demonstrated a deep divergence in the Aloninae subfamily.

  12. Regression of atherosclerosis with apple procyanidins by activating the ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Fumoto, Toshio; Masumoto, Saeko; Shoji, Toshihiko; Miura, Tomisato; Naraoka, Masato; Matsuda, Naoya; Imaizumi, Tadaatsu; Ohkuma, Hiroki

    2017-03-01

    Apple polyphenol contains abundant procyanidins, which have been associated with an anti-atherosclerosis and cholesterol-lowering effect. The aim of this study was to investigate whether apple procyanidins (APCs) feature therapeutic efficacy in terms of regressing atherosclerosis and whether this efficacy is due to mechanisms other than a cholesterol-lowering effect. After eight weeks on an atherogenic diet, rabbits were given a normal diet for another eight weeks to normalize the increased serum lipids level. The rabbits in the baseline group were sacrificed at this stage. The control group was subsequently fed a normal diet for eight weeks, while the APCs group was administrated 50 mg/kg/day of APCs in addition to the normal diet. Serum lipids and aortic intimal-medial thickness (IMT) were serially examined, and the resected aorta was examined histologically and through molecular biology. Aortic IMT on ultrasonography and the lipid accumulation area examined using Sudan IV staining were significantly reduced in the APCs group as compared to the control group. Serum lipid profiles were not different between the groups. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly decreased staining of an oxidative stress marker and significantly increased staining of ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1) in the APCs group. Western blotting and RT-PCR also showed increased expression of ABCA1 mRNA and its protein in the APCs group. This study revealed that APCs administration causes a regression of atherosclerosis. APCs might hold promise as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Intragastric Dai-Kenchu-To, a Japanese herbal medicine, stimulates colonic motility via transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Daisuke; Shibata, Chikashi; Imoto, Hirofumi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Miura, Koh; Unno, Michiaki

    2013-08-01

    Japanese herbal medicine, also known as Kampo, is used for various diseases in Japan. One of those medicines, Dai-Kenchu-To (DKT), is considered clinically effective for adhesive bowel obstruction and chronic constipation. Although scientific evidence of DKT to improve adhesive bowel obstruction was shown in several previous reports, mechanism of DKT to improve constipation remains unknown. Our aim was to study the effect of intragastric DKT on colonic motility and defecation, and the involvement of various receptors in DKT-induced colonic contractions. Five beagle dogs were instructed with serosal strain-gauge force transducers to measure circular muscle activity at the proximal, middle, and distal colon. Dogs are suitable for a present study to administer the drugs repeatedly to the same individual and look at its effect on colonic motility. We studied the effects of DKT (2.5 or 5 g) administered into the stomach on colonic motility. Muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamthonium, or 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptor antagonist ondansetron was injected intravenously 10 min before DKT administration. Capsazepine, an antagonist to transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), was administered into the stomach 5 min before DKT administration. Intragastric DKT (2.5 or 5 g) induced colonic contractions within 10 min after administration but did not induce defecation. Pretreatment with atropine, hexamthonium, ondansetron, or capsazepine inhibited DKT-induced colonic contractions. These results indicate that orally administered DKT stimulates colonic motility via TRPV1, muscarinic, nicotinic, and 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptors, thereby providing scientific support for the efficacy of oral DKT in chronic constipation.

  14. The Compromised Recognition of Turnip Crinkle Virus1 Subfamily of Microrchidia ATPases Regulates Disease Resistance in Barley to Biotrophic and Necrotrophic Pathogens1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Gregor; von Einem, Sabrina; Koch, Aline; Imani, Jafargholi; Pai, Subhash B.; Manohar, Murli; Ehlers, Katrin; Choi, Hyong Woo; Claar, Martina; Schmidt, Rebekka; Mang, Hyung-Gon; Bordiya, Yogendra; Kang, Hong-Gu; Klessig, Daniel F.; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2014-01-01

    MORC1 and MORC2, two of the seven members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Compromised Recognition of Turnip Crinkle Virus1 subfamily of microrchidia Gyrase, Heat Shock Protein90, Histidine Kinase, MutL (GHKL) ATPases, were previously shown to be required in multiple layers of plant immunity. Here, we show that the barley (Hordeum vulgare) MORCs also are involved in disease resistance. Genome-wide analyses identified five MORCs that are 37% to 48% identical on the protein level to AtMORC1. Unexpectedly, and in clear contrast to Arabidopsis, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of MORC in barley resulted in enhanced basal resistance and effector-triggered, powdery mildew resistance locus A12-mediated resistance against the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei), while MORC overexpression decreased resistance. Moreover, barley knockdown mutants also showed higher resistance to Fusarium graminearum. Barley MORCs, like their Arabidopsis homologs, contain the highly conserved GHKL ATPase and S5 domains, which identify them as members of the MORC superfamily. Like AtMORC1, barley MORC1 (HvMORC1) binds DNA and has Mn2+-dependent endonuclease activities, suggesting that the contrasting function of MORC1 homologs in barley versus Arabidopsis is not due to differences in their enzyme activities. In contrast to AtMORCs, which are involved in silencing of transposons that are largely restricted to pericentromeric regions, barley MORC mutants did not show a loss-of-transposon silencing regardless of their genomic location. Reciprocal overexpression of MORC1 homologs in barley and Arabidopsis showed that AtMORC1 and HvMORC1 could not restore each other’s function. Together, these results suggest that MORC proteins function as modulators of immunity, which can act negatively (barley) or positively (Arabidopsis) dependent on the species. PMID:24390392

  15. Solution Structure of the Cuz1 AN1 Zinc Finger Domain: An Exposed LDFLP Motif Defines a Subfamily of AN1 Proteins.

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    Zhen-Yu J Sun

    Full Text Available Zinc binding domains are common and versatile protein structural motifs that mediate diverse cellular functions. Among the many structurally distinct families of zinc finger (ZnF proteins, the AN1 domain remains poorly characterized. Cuz1 is one of two AN1 ZnF proteins in the yeast S. cerevisiae, and is a stress-inducible protein that functions in protein degradation through direct interaction with the proteasome and Cdc48. Here we report the solution structure of the Cuz1 AN1 ZnF which reveals a compact C6H2 zinc-coordinating domain that resembles a two-finger hand holding a tri-helical clamp. A central phenylalanine residue sits between the two zinc-coordinating centers. The position of this phenylalanine, just before the penultimate zinc-chelating cysteine, is strongly conserved from yeast to man. This phenylalanine shows an exceptionally slow ring-flipping rate which likely contributes to the high rigidity and stability of the AN1 domain. In addition to the zinc-chelating residues, sequence analysis of Cuz1 indicates a second highly evolutionarily conserved motif. This LDFLP motif is shared with three human proteins-Zfand1, AIRAP, and AIRAP-L-the latter two of which share similar cellular functions with Cuz1. The LDFLP motif, while embedded within the zinc finger domain, is surface exposed, largely uninvolved in zinc chelation, and not required for the overall fold of the domain. The LDFLP motif was dispensable for Cuz1's major known functions, proteasome- and Cdc48-binding. These results provide the first structural characterization of the AN1 zinc finger domain, and suggest that the LDFLP motif may define a sub-family of evolutionarily conserved AN1 zinc finger proteins.

  16. Alona iheringula Sinev & Kotov, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae, Aloninae): Life Cycle and DNA Barcode with Implications for the Taxonomy of the Aloninae Subfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Erika dos Santos; de Abreu, Cínthia Bruno; Orlando, Tereza Cristina; Wisniewski, Célio; dos Santos-Wisniewski, Maria José

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of reproductive rates and life cycle of the Cladocera species is essential for population dynamic studies, secondary production and food webs, as well as the management and preservation of aquatic ecosystems. The present study aimed to understand the life cycle and growth of Alona iheringula Kotov & Sinev, 2004 (Crustacea, Anomopoda, Chydoridae), a Neotropical species, as well as its DNA barcoding, providing new information on the Aloninae taxonomy. The specimens were collected in the dammed portion of the Cabo Verde River (21°26′05″ S and 46°10′57″ W), in the Furnas Reservoir, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Forty neonates were observed individually two or three times a day under controlled temperature (25±1°C), photoperiod (12 h light/12 h dark) and feeding (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata at a concentration of 105 cells.mL−1 and a mixed suspension of yeast and fish feed in equal proportion). Individual body growth was measured daily under optical microscope using a micrometric grid and 40× magnification. The species had a mean size of 413(±29) µm, a maximum size of 510 µm and reached maturity at 3.24(±0.69) days of age. Mean fecundity was 2 eggs per female per brood and the mean number of eggs produced per female during the entire life cycle was 47.6(±6.3) eggs per female. The embryonic development time was 1.79(±0.23) days and the maximum longevity was 54 days. The species had eight instars throughout its life cycle and four instars between neonate and primipara stage. The present study using molecular data (a 461 bp smaller COI fragment) demonstrated a deep divergence in the Aloninae subfamily. PMID:24878503

  17. Amphibious shelter-builder Oniscidea species from the New World with description of a new subfamily, a new genus and a new species from Brazilian cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae.

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    Leila A Souza

    Full Text Available The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed.

  18. Amphibious Shelter-Builder Oniscidea Species from the New World with Description of a New Subfamily, a New Genus and a New Species from Brazilian Cave (Isopoda, Synocheta, Styloniscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The new subfamily Iuiuniscinae, Styloniscidae, is erected for the new genus Iuiuniscus and the new species I. iuiuensis, which is described from cave of the State of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. A special ecological character is shown here for the first time for a New World Oniscidea: the construction of mud shelters. An introduction addressing the systematics of Synocheta with emphasis on Styloniscidae Vandel, 1952 is provided, as well as general comments about the dependence of water in some Oniscidea and ecological traits of amphibious Synocheta. The problems referring to nomenclature, taxonomy and the interrelationships in Styloniscidae are discussed. PMID:25992909

  19. A putative autonomous 20.5 kb-CACTA transposon insertion in an F3'H allele identifies a new CACTA transposon subfamily in Glycine max

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodkin Lila

    2008-12-01

    in the gray trichome allele t*. Conclusion The molecular characterization of a 20.5 kb insertion in the flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H gene of a soybean gray pubescence allele (t* identified the structure of a CACTA transposon designated Tgmt*. Besides the terminal inverted repeats and subterminal repeated motifs,Tgmt* encoded a large gene with two putative functions that are required for excision and transposition of a CACTA element, a transposase and the DNA binding protein known to associate to the subterminal repeated motifs. The degree of dissimilarity between Tgmt* transposase and subterminal repeated motifs with those of previously characterized defective CACTA elements (Tgm1-7 were evidence of the existence of two subfamilies of CACTA transposons in soybean, an observation not previously reported in other plants. In addition, our analyses of a genetically active and potentially autonomous element sheds light on the complete structure of a soybean element that is useful for annotation of the repetitive fraction of the soybean genome sequence and may prove useful for transposon tagging or transposon display experiments in different genetic lines.

  20. A role for calcium in the regulation of ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C, member 3 (ABCC3) gene expression in a model of epidermal growth factor-mediated breast cancer epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Azimi, Iman; Thompson, Erik W; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-03-13

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process implicated in cancer metastasis, is associated with the transcriptional regulation of members of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux pumps, and drug resistance in breast cancer cells. Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced EMT in MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cells is calcium signal dependent. In this study induction of EMT was shown to result in the transcriptional up-regulation of ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 3 (ABCC3), a member of the ABC transporter superfamily, which has a recognized role in multidrug resistance. Buffering of cytosolic free calcium inhibited EGF-mediated ABCC3 increases, indicating a calcium-dependent mode of regulation. Silencing of TRPM7 (an ion channel involved in EMT associated vimentin induction) did not inhibit ABCC3 up-regulation. Silencing of the store operated calcium entry (SOCE) pathway components ORAI1 and STIM1 also did not alter ABCC3 induction by EGF. However, the calcium permeable ion channel transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily C, member 1 (TRPC1) appears to contribute to the regulation of both basal and EGF-induced ABCC3 mRNA. Improved understanding of the relationship between calcium signaling, EMT and the regulation of genes important in therapeutic resistance may help identify novel therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Key to the subfamilies, tribes and genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga Clave para los adultos de las subfamilias, tribus y géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina (Coleoptera: Adephaga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Libonatti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Dytiscids constitute the world's most speciose family of water beetles, whose identifi cation in Argentina is problematic with current keys. In this work, a key (both in English and Spanish to the eight subfamilies, 16 tribes and 31 genera of adult Dytiscidae of Argentina is presented. The key was constructed using stable qualitative characters of the external morphology and chaetotaxy, easily visualizable and interpretable. Characters such as size and shape of the body, color pattern and geographic distribution were also used. Illustrations of a great number of morphological structures as well as SEM micrographs were included to aid in the interpretation of the text. One subfamily (Hydrodytinae and fi ve genera (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp and an unpublished genus of the subfamily Laccophilinae are cited for the fi rst time for Argentina.Los ditíscidos constituyen la familia más numerosa de escarabajos acuáticos a nivel mundial, cuya identifi cación en la Argentina resulta problemática con las claves actuales. En este trabajo, se presenta una clave (en inglés y español para los adultos de las ocho subfamilias, 16 tribus y 31 géneros de Dytiscidae de la Argentina. La clave fue construida priorizando la inclusión de caracteres cualitativos estables de la morfología externa y quetotaxia, fácilmente visibles e interpretables. También, se utilizaron caracteres como el tamaño y la forma del cuerpo, el patrón de coloración y la distribución geográfi ca. Se incluyeron ilustraciones de un gran número de estructuras morfológicas y fotografías tomadas con el microscopio electrónico, para ayudar a la interpretación del texto. Se citan, por primera vez para la Argentina, una subfamilia (Hydrodytinae y cinco géneros (Agaporomorphus Zimmermann, Bidessodes Régimbart, Hydrodytes Miller, Queda Sharp y un género inédito de la subfamilia Laccophilinae.

  2. Identification and characterization of CbeI, a novel thermostable restriction enzyme from Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM 6725 and a member of a new subfamily of HaeIII-like enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Dae-Hwan; Huddleston, Jennifer R; Farkas, Joel; Westpheling, Janet

    2011-11-01

    Potent HaeIII-like DNA restriction activity was detected in cell-free extracts of Caldicellulosiruptor bescii DSM 6725 using plasmid DNA isolated from Escherichia coli as substrate. Incubation of the plasmid DNA in vitro with HaeIII methyltransferase protected it from cleavage by HaeIII nuclease as well as cell-free extracts of C. bescii. The gene encoding the putative restriction enzyme was cloned and expressed in E. coli with a His-tag at the C-terminus. The purified protein was 38 kDa as predicted by the 981-bp nucleic acid sequence, was optimally active at temperatures between 75°C and 85°C, and was stable for more than 1 week when stored at 35°C. The cleavage sequence was determined to be 5'-GG/CC-3', indicating that CbeI is an isoschizomer of HaeIII. A search of the C. bescii genome sequence revealed the presence of both a HaeIII-like restriction endonuclease (Athe 2438) and DNA methyltransferase (Athe 2437). Preliminary analysis of other Caldicellulosiruptor species suggested that this restriction/modification activity is widespread in this genus. A phylogenetic analysis based on sequence alignment and conserved motif searches identified features of CbeI distinct from other members of this group and classified CbeI as a member of a novel subfamily of HaeIII-like enzymes.

  3. ETL, a novel seven-transmembrane receptor that is developmentally regulated in the heart. ETL is a member of the secretin family and belongs to the epidermal growth factor-seven-transmembrane subfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechiporuk, T; Urness, L D; Keating, M T

    2001-02-09

    Using differential display of rat fetal and postnatal cardiomyocytes, we have identified a novel seven-transmembrane receptor, ETL. The cDNA-predicted amino acid sequence of ETL indicated that it encodes a 738-aa protein composed of a large extracellular domain with epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats, a seven-transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. ETL belongs to the secretin family of G-protein-coupled peptide hormone receptors and the EGF-TM7 subfamily of receptors. The latter are characterized by a variable number of extracellular EGF and cell surface domains and conserved seven transmembrane-spanning regions. ETL mRNA expression is up-regulated in the adult rat and human heart. In situ hybridization analyses revealed expression in rat cardiomyocytes and abundant expression in vascular and bronchiolar smooth muscle cells. In COS-7 cells transfected with Myc-tagged rat ETL, rat ETL exists as a stable dimer and undergoes endoproteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. The proteolytic activity can be abolished by a specific mutation, T455A, in this domain. In transfected mammalian cells, ETL is associated with cell membranes and is also observed in cytoplasmic vesicles. ETL is the first seven-transmembrane receptor containing EGF-like repeats that is developmentally regulated in the heart.

  4. Expression levels of taste-related genes in palate and tongue tip, and involvement of transient receptor potential subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5) in taste sense in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yuta; Kawabata, Fuminori; Kawabata, Yuko; Nishimura, Shotaro; Tabata, Shoji

    2018-02-01

    The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the taste sense of chickens will contribute to improvements in poultry feeding, because the molecular mechanism of chickens' taste sense defines the feeding behavior of chickens. Here we focused on the gene expressions in two different oral tissues of chickens - the palate, which contains many taste buds, and the tongue tip, which contains few taste buds. Using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, we found that the molecular markers for taste buds of chickens, that is α-gustducin and vimentin, were expressed significantly highly in the palate compared to the tongue tip. Our analyses also revealed that transient receptor potential subfamily M member 5 (TRPM5), a cation channel involved in taste transduction in mammals, was also highly expressed in the palate compared to the tongue tip. Our findings demonstrated that the expression patterns of these genes were significantly correlated. We showed that the aversion to bitter solution was alleviated by a TRPM5 inhibitor in behavior of chickens. Taken together, our findings enabled us to develop a simple method for screening taste-related genes in chickens. The use of this method demonstrated that TRPM5 was involved in chickens' taste transduction, and that a TRPM5 inhibitor can alleviate chickens' bitter taste perception of feed ingredients. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Unkommentierte Liste der Spinnen Litauens (Araneae

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    Relys, Vygandas

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The checklist contains informations about all species of spiders in Lithuania recorded in 1930-1991 and includes a bibliography of the spider fauna of Lithuania. A total of 233 spider species is known from Lithuania.

  6. Checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonstein, Sergei; Marusik, Yuri M

    2013-01-01

    This checklist records 631 spider species and subspecies belonging to 49 families in Israel. Species distributions are given in both generalised (by main geographic areas of the country) and detailed (by localities) form. Twenty-seven records are considered as doubtful and another ten are based on misidentifications. A historical survey is provided. Each record is presented in its original combination. The list is dominated by members of the families Gnaphosidae and Salticidae (20.0% and 17.1% of total species, respectively). The level of regional endemism exceeds 37.0%.

  7. Unkommentierte Liste der Spinnen Litauens (Araneae)

    OpenAIRE

    Relys, Vygandas

    2011-01-01

    The checklist contains information about all species of spiders in Lithuania recorded in 1930-1992 and includes a bibliography of the spider fauna of Lithuania. A total of 233 spider species is known from Lithuania.

  8. Notes on Mediterranean Theridiidae (Araneae – II

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    Barbara Knoflach

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic and faunistic amendments are provided for 15 species and one subspecies of comb-footed spiders (Theridiidae of the Mediterranean region, in the genera Anatolidion, Episinus, Heterotheridion, Theridion and Theridula. The following taxonomic changes are proposed: Anatolidion osmani Wunderlich, 2008 and Theridion crinigerum Simon, 1881 are synonymised with T. gentile Simon, 1881, making it the type species of the monotypic genus Anatolidion Wunderlich, 2008. Episinus albescens Denis, 1965 is synonymised with E. algiricus Lucas, 1846, Theridion xinjiangense (Hu & Wu, 1989 with Heterotheridion nigrovariegatum (Simon, 1873. Theridion aelleni Hubert, 1970 is removed from synonymy of Theridion spinitarse O. P.-Cambridge, 1876 and transferred to Theridula. The recent transfer of Theridion pinicola Simon, 1873 and T. genistae Simon, 1873 into Paidiscura has to be rejected. Theridion genistae turanicum Charitonov, 1946 from Uzbekistan is raised to species level. New faunistic records are presented for Theridion pinicola from North Africa, Anatolidion gentile, Theridion genistae and T. hemerobium from Greece. Several poorly known (sub-species are redescribed: Anatolidion gentile, Episinus maculipes numidicus Kulczynski, 1905, Theridion genistae, T. glaucinum Simon, 1881, T. musivum Simon, 1873, T. pinicola, T. pyrenaeum Denis, 1944, T. semitinctum Simon, 1914 and T. spinitarse O. P.-Cambridge, 1876.

  9. Crossopriza lyoni new to Germany (Araneae: Pholcidae

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    Bauer, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first record of Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall, 1867 from Germany is presented. The species seems to be established at two localities in Stuttgart, Germany. Some information about the biology of the populations is given. The cosmopolitan distribution pattern and a possible route of introduction are discussed.

  10. Selten nachgewiesene Spinnenarten aus Deutschland (Arachnida: Araneae

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    Jäger, Peter

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Some interesting records collected from 1990 to 1999 are reported. First records of Holocnemus pluchei for Rheinland-Pfalz and Baden-Württemberg and of Uloborus plumipes for Hessen and Schleswig-Holstein are listed. The occurrence of Heteropoda venatoria in Germany is confirmed by recent records in warmhouses in Berlin. Pardosa saturatior is collected from the Bavarian part of the Alps (National Park Berchtesgaden. Information on biology and taxonomy of Pardosa saturatior, Holocnemus pluchei and Heteropoda venatoria are given.

  11. The spider family Filistatidae (Araneae in Iran

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    Yuri Marusik

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available All species of Filistatidae occurring in Iran are surveyed. Zaitunia akhanii sp. n. is described on the basis of female specimens collected in Tehran province, and the previously unknown male of Sahastata sinuspersica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 is described for the first time. Also, the endogynes of the holotypes of Z. alexandri Brignoli, 1982, Z. medica Brignoli, 1982 and Z. persica Brignoli, 1982 are illustrated. Including these results, the number of Iranian species of Filistatidae is increased to seven, which indicates the highest species-richness of this family in the Western Palaearctic.

  12. The spider family Filistatidae (Araneae) in Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marusik, Yuri M; Zamani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    All species of Filistatidae occurring in Iran are surveyed. Zaituniaakhanii sp. n. is described on the basis of female specimens collected in Tehran province, and the previously unknown male of Sahastatasinuspersica Marusik, Zamani...

  13. The spider family Filistatidae (Araneae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusik, Yuri M; Zamani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    All species of Filistatidae occurring in Iran are surveyed. Zaituniaakhanii sp. n. is described on the basis of female specimens collected in Tehran province, and the previously unknown male of Sahastatasinuspersica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 is described for the first time. Also, the endogynes of the holotypes of Zaituniaalexandri Brignoli, 1982, Zaituniamedica Brignoli, 1982 and Zaituniapersica Brignoli, 1982 are illustrated. Including these results, the number of Iranian species of Filistatidae is increased to seven, which indicates the highest species-richness of this family in the Western Palaearctic.

  14. The spider family Filistatidae (Araneae) in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Yuri Marusik; Alireza Zamani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All species of Filistatidae occurring in Iran are surveyed. Zaitunia akhanii sp. n. is described on the basis of female specimens collected in Tehran province, and the previously unknown male of Sahastata sinuspersica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 is described for the first time. Also, the endogynes of the holotypes of Zaitunia alexandri Brignoli, 1982, Zaitunia medica Brignoli, 1982 and Zaitunia persica Brignoli, 1982 are illustrated. Including these results, the number of Irani...

  15. Comportamiento sexual de Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae

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    Marco A. Benamú

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en cultivos de soja transgénica en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, revelaron que Alpaida veniliae es una de las especies más abundantes dentro del gremio de arañas orbiculares. Esta especie es un eficaz enemigo natural de las plagas de insectos de este cultivo. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo y cuantitativo de la conducta sexual (cortejo, cópula y post-cópula de A. veniliae. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en cultivos de soja transgénica ubicados en Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, (Buenos Aires, Argentina y criadas en condiciones de laboratorio. A partir de la formación de 20 parejas (con hembras vírgenes, se observaron las unidades de comportamiento de machos y hembras, en términos de posturas y movimientos, incluyendo los detalles de su duración y frecuencia en todas las etapas del apareamiento. El cortejo exhibió el mayor número y la mayor duración de las unidades de comportamiento en ambos sexos. La secuencia de unidades fue 16 en el macho y nueve en la hembra, siendo la frecuencia de repeticiones de las unidades significativamente mayor en el macho. La cópula fue breve y el macho usó un solo palpo transfiriendo esperma a una sola espermateca de la hembra. Hubo dos unidades de comportamiento en el macho y una en la hembra. Durante la post-cópula el macho tuvo tres y la hembra dos unidades de comportamiento. La duración media de todo el comportamiento sexual fue 541.90±123.1 segundos para el macho y 338.20±74.1 segundos para la hembra. La hembra de A. veniliae sólo excepcionalmente aceptó una segunda cópula con el mismo u otro macho, lo que indica una monogamia estricta. En el 46% de las cópulas observadas la hembra canibalizó al macho al terminar la misma. Debido a que a partir de este momento dejan de producir feromonas sexuales, se vuelven no receptivas y provocan una reducción del cortejo del macho. El alto costo del cortejo del macho, incluyendo el riesgo de canibalismo, reforzaría la selectividad de éstos hacia las hembras receptivas vírgenes.

  16. A revision of Neodiplothele (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Barychelidae

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    Hector M.O. Gonzalez-Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical Sasoninae Neodiplothele Mello-Leitão, 1917 is revised and now includes eight species. Neodiplothele can be distinguished from other Sasoninae by the absence of the posterior median spinnerets and differs Neotropical relatives as Cosmopelma by the absence of cuspules on coxae of leg I and Paracenobiopelma by the absence of cuspules on the labium. The male of N. irregularis Mello-Leitão, 1917 and N. picta Vellard, 1924 are described and illustrated for the first time. Neodiplothele leonardosi Mello-Leitão, 1939 is considered a junior synonym of N. irregularis. Five new species are described from Brazil: N. aureus sp. nov. from the states of Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, and Minas Gerais, N. itabaiana sp. nov. from Sergipe, N. martinsi sp. nov. from Bahia, Espírito Santo, and Minas Gerais, N. indicattii sp. nov. from Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and São Paulo, N. caucaia sp. nov. from Ceará, Goiás, and Mato Grosso do Sul. Two informal groups are proposed based on genitalia morphology: irregularis group and picta group. An identification key and new distribution records for all known species are given.

  17. Desarrollo postembrionario de Latrodectus variegatus (Araneae: Theridiidae

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    A González

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available The life cicle of Latrodectus variegatus from cocoons collected in Bariloche, Argentina, is described. In stage IV (first free stage 361 individually bred spiders were isolated and fed Drosophila melanogaster in the juvenile stage and Musca domestica after wards. "Stage I" is the stage following eclosion. For the study of survival, and average life expectancy, a week was taken as age interval, the first free stage was "age zero". The web is disordered, lacking a nest and located near the ground. The cocoon is pyriform, (similar to L. antheratus, but and with several layers of thread like L. mirabilis. It measures 14-18 mm, close to L. corallinus. The eggs are similar in size to other argentinian Lactrodectus. Each cocoon had a mean of 183 eggs (66% fertile, N° =549. In males, the number of moults to maturity is six in 78% of the cases and seven in 22% (similar to L. corallinus and L. antheratus. In females it is seven in 56% of the cases, eight in 39% and nine in 5%. When compared with other argentinian species females L. variegatus appear to be missing one moult. There are two critical periods of mortality: in stage IV, when specimens begin their webs to capture food and in stage VII when the male life cycle ends. The survival curves for several Latrodectus show a high mortality in the first stages of development. Nevertheless, the survival curves of L. variegatus, L. corallinus and L. diaguita share a sharp descent in the first age intervals followed by a gradual decline. This abrupt decrease is not known for L. mirabilis and L. antheratus. The life expectancy at age zero and maximum longevity in L. Variegatus are 17.32 and 73 weeks respectively, 9.01 and 54 in L. mirabilis, 5.36 and 81 in L. corallinus, 14.76 and 100 in L. antheratus and 7.76 and 62 in L. diaguita.

  18. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Spider Mite Sub-Family Tetranychinae (Acari: Tetranychidae) Based on the Mitochondrial COI Gene and the 18S and the 5′ End of the 28S rRNA Genes Indicates That Several Genera Are Polyphyletic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tomoko; Morishita, Maiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Gotoh, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The spider mite sub-family Tetranychinae includes many agricultural pests. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of mitochondrial DNA have been used for species identification and phylogenetic reconstruction within the sub-family Tetranychinae, although they have not always been successful. The 18S and 28S rRNA genes should be more suitable for resolving higher levels of phylogeny, such as tribes or genera of Tetranychinae because these genes evolve more slowly and are made up of conserved regions and divergent domains. Therefore, we used both the 18S (1,825–1,901 bp) and 28S (the 5′ end of 646–743 bp) rRNA genes to infer phylogenetic relationships within the sub-family Tetranychinae with a focus on the tribe Tetranychini. Then, we compared the phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes with that of the mitochondrial COI gene (618 bp). As observed in previous studies, our phylogeny based on the COI gene was not resolved because of the low bootstrap values for most nodes of the tree. On the other hand, our phylogenetic tree of the 18S and 28S genes revealed several well-supported clades within the sub-family Tetranychinae. The 18S and 28S phylogenetic trees suggest that the tribes Bryobiini, Petrobiini and Eurytetranychini are monophyletic and that the tribe Tetranychini is polyphyletic. At the genus level, six genera for which more than two species were sampled appear to be monophyletic, while four genera (Oligonychus, Tetranychus, Schizotetranychus and Eotetranychus) appear to be polyphyletic. The topology presented here does not fully agree with the current morphology-based taxonomy, so that the diagnostic morphological characters of Tetranychinae need to be reconsidered. PMID:25289639

  19. Characterization of the Paenibacillus beijingensis DSM 24997 GtfD and its glucan polymer products representing a new glycoside hydrolase 70 subfamily of 4,6-α-glucanotransferase enzymes.

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    Joana Gangoiti

    Full Text Available Previously we have reported that the Gram-negative bacterium Azotobacter chroococcum NCIMB 8003 uses the 4,6-α-glucanotransferase GtfD to convert maltodextrins and starch into a reuteran-like polymer consisting of (α1→4 glucan chains connected by alternating (α1→4/(α1→6 linkages and (α1→4,6 branching points. This enzyme constituted the single evidence for this reaction and product specificity in the GH70 family, mostly containing glucansucrases encoded by lactic acid bacteria (http://www.CAZy.org. In this work, 4 additional GtfD-like proteins were identified in taxonomically diverse plant-associated bacteria forming a new GH70 subfamily with intermediate characteristics between the evolutionary related GH13 and GH70 families. The GtfD enzyme encoded by Paenibacillus beijingensis DSM 24997 was characterized providing the first example of a reuteran-like polymer synthesizing 4,6-α-glucanotransferase in a Gram-positive bacterium. Whereas the A. chroococcum GtfD activity on amylose resulted in the synthesis of a high molecular polymer, in addition to maltose and other small oligosaccharides, two reuteran-like polymer distributions are produced by P. beijingensis GtfD: a high-molecular mass polymer and a low-molecular mass polymer with an average Mw of 27 MDa and 19 kDa, respectively. Compared to the A. chroooccum GtfD product, both P. beijingensis GtfD polymers contain longer linear (α1→4 sequences in their structure reflecting a preference for transfer of even longer glucan chains by this enzyme. Overall, this study provides new insights into the evolutionary history of GH70 enzymes, and enlarges the diversity of natural enzymes that can be applied for modification of the starch present in food into less and/or more slowly digestible carbohydrate structures.

  20. Gene variation of the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, members 6 (TRPM6) and 7 (TRPM7), and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, José R; Castonguay, Amy J; Barton, Nathaniel S; Germer, Soren; Martin, Mitchell; Zee, Robert Y L

    2010-10-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, members 6 (TRPM6) and 7 (TRPM7), have been implicated in inflammatory disorders including diabetes, a major source of morbidity and mortality in developing and Western society. We hypothesized that gene variation of TRPM6 and TRPM7 may play a role in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Using a case-control population sample of the Boston metropolitan area (all whites, 455 controls and 467 cases), we assessed the relationship of 29 TRPM6 and 11 TRPM7 tag-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with (1) several diabetes-related intermediate phenotypes (fasting insulin levels, fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c, and homeostatic model assessment) and (2) the presence of T2DM. All SNPs examined were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Overall, genotype distributions were similar between cases and controls. Linear regression analysis, adjusted for potential risk factors/confounders, showed no evidence of an association of any SNPs tested with the aforementioned diabetes-related intermediate phenotypes after correcting for multiple testing. Marker-by-marker multivariable logistic regression analysis showed no evidence of an association of any SNPs tested with the presence of T2DM after correcting for multiple testing. Continued investigation using an entropy-blocker-defined haplotype-based approach showed similar null findings. If corroboration occurs in future large prospective investigations, then the present investigation further suggests that TRPM6 and TRPM7 gene variation may not be useful predictors for T2DM risk assessment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CYP52X1, Representing New Cytochrome P450 Subfamily, Displays Fatty Acid Hydroxylase Activity and Contributes to Virulence and Growth on Insect Cuticular Substrates in Entomopathogenic Fungus Beauveria bassiana*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhu; Widemann, Emilie; Bernard, Grausem; Lesot, Agnes; Pinot, Franck; Pedrini, Nicolas; Keyhani, Nemat O.

    2012-01-01

    Infection of insects by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana proceeds via attachment and penetration of the host cuticle. The outermost epicuticular layer or waxy layer of the insect represents a structure rich in lipids including abundant amounts of hydrocarbons and fatty acids. A member of a novel cytochrome P450 subfamily, CYP52X1, implicated in fatty acid assimilation by B. bassiana was characterized. B. bassiana targeted gene knockouts lacking Bbcyp52x1 displayed reduced virulence when topically applied to Galleria mellonella, but no reduction in virulence was noted when the insect cuticle was bypassed using an intrahemoceol injection assay. No significant growth defects were noted in the mutant as compared with the wild-type parent on any lipids substrates tested including alkanes and fatty acids. Insect epicuticle germination assays, however, showed reduced germination of ΔBbcyp52x1 conidia on grasshopper wings as compared with the wild-type parent. Complementation of the gene-knock with the full-length gene restored virulence and insect epicuticle germination to wild-type levels. Heterologous expression of CYP52X1 in yeast was used to characterize the substrate specificity of the enzyme. CYP52X1 displayed the highest activity against midrange fatty acids (C12:0 and C14:0) and epoxy stearic acid, 4–8-fold lower activity against C16:0, C18:1, and C18:2, and little to no activity against C9:0 and C18:0. Analyses of the products of the C12:0 and C18:1 reactions confirmed NADPH-dependent regioselective addition of a terminal hydroxyl to the substrates (ω-hydroxylase). These data implicate CYP52X1 as contributing to the penetration of the host cuticle via facilitating the assimilation of insect epicuticle lipids. PMID:22393051

  2. Upregulated Expression of Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Receptors in Mucosae of Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Patients with a History of Alcohol Consumption or Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Akiko; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Kusumoto, Junya; Takeda, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Akashi, Masaya; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto; Komori, Takahide

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential cation channel (subfamily V, members 1-4) (TRPV1-4) are expressed in skin and neurons and activated by external stimuli in normal mucosae of all oral cavity sites. The oral cavity is exposed to various stimuli, including temperature, mechanical stimuli, chemical substances, and changes in pH, and, notably, the risk factors for oncogenic transformation in oral squamous epithelium are the same as the external stimuli received by TRPV1-4 receptors. Hence, we examined the relationship between oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and TRPV1-4 expression. Oral SCC patients (n = 37) who underwent surgical resection were included in this study. We investigated the expression of TRPV1-4 by immunohistochemical staining and quantification of TRPV1-4 mRNA in human oral mucosa. In addition, we compared the TRPV1-4 levels in mucosa from patients with SCC to those in normal oral mucosa. The receptors were expressed in oral mucosa at all sites (tongue, buccal mucosa, gingiva, and oral floor) and the expression was stronger in epithelia from patients with SCC than in normal epithelia. Furthermore, alcohol consumption and tobacco use were strongly associated with the occurrence of oral cancer and were found to have a remarkable influence on TRPV1-4 receptor expression in normal oral mucosa. In particular, patients with a history of alcohol consumption demonstrated significantly higher expression levels. Various external stimuli may influence the behavior of cancer cells. Overexpression of TRPV1-4 is likely to be a factor in enhanced sensitivity to external stimuli. These findings could contribute to the establishment of novel strategies for cancer therapy or prevention.

  3. Nuclear/nucleolar GTPase 2 proteins as a subfamily of YlqF/YawG GTPases function in pre-60S ribosomal subunit maturation of mono- and dicotyledonous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Chak Han; Hwang, Sung Min; Son, Young Sim; Heo, Jae Bok; Bang, Woo Young; Suwastika, I Nengah; Shiina, Takashi; Bahk, Jeong Dong

    2011-03-11

    The YlqF/YawG families are important GTPases involved in ribosome biogenesis, cell proliferation, or cell growth, however, no plant homologs have yet to be characterized. Here we isolated rice (Oryza sativa) and Arabidopsis nuclear/nucleolar GTPase 2 (OsNug2 and AtNug2, respectively) that belong to the YawG subfamily and characterized them for pre-60S ribosomal subunit maturation. They showed typical intrinsic YlqF/YawG family GTPase activities in bacteria and yeasts with k(cat) values 0.12 ± 0.007 min(-1) (n = 6) and 0.087 ± 0.002 min(-1) (n = 4), respectively, and addition of 60S ribosomal subunits stimulated their activities in vitro. In addition, OsNug2 rescued the lethality of the yeast nug2 null mutant through recovery of 25S pre-rRNA processing. By yeast two-hybrid screening five clones, including a putative one of 60S ribosomal proteins, OsL10a, were isolated. Subcellular localization and pulldown assays resulted in that the N-terminal region of OsNug2 is sufficient for nucleolar/nuclear targeting and association with OsL10a. OsNug2 is physically associated with pre-60S ribosomal complexes highly enriched in the 25S, 5.8S, and 5S rRNA, and its interaction was stimulated by exogenous GTP. Furthermore, the AtNug2 knockdown mutant constructed by the RNAi method showed defective growth on the medium containing cycloheximide. Expression pattern analysis revealed that the distribution of AtNug2 mainly in the meristematic region underlies its potential role in active plant growth. Finally, it is concluded that Nug2/Nog2p GTPase from mono- and didicotyledonous plants is linked to the pre-60S ribosome complex and actively processed 27S into 25S during the ribosomal large subunit maturation process, i.e. prior to export to the cytoplasm.

  4. Cytochrome P450 CYP3A in marsupials: cloning and identification of the first CYP3A subfamily member, isoform 3A70 from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Merhibi, Adaweyah; Ngo, Suong N T; Marchant, Ceilidh L; Height, Tamara A; Stupans, Ieva; McKinnon, Ross A

    2012-09-15

    Australian marsupials are unique fauna that have evolved and adapted to unique environments and thus it is likely that their detoxification systems differ considerably from those of well-studied eutherian mammals. Knowledge of these processes in marsupials is therefore vital to understanding the consequences of exposure to xenobiotics. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are critically important in the oxidative metabolism of a diverse array of both xenobiotics and endogenous substrates. In this study we have cloned and characterized CYP3A70, the first identified member of the CYP3A gene subfamily from Eastern gray kangaroo (Macropus giganteus). A 1665 base pair kangaroo hepatic CYP3A complete cDNA, designated CYP3A70, was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction approaches, which encodes a protein of 506 amino acids. The CYP3A70 cDNA shares approximately 71% nucleotide and 65% amino acid sequence homology to human CYP3A4 and displays high sequence similarity to other published mammalian CYP3As from human, monkey, cow, pig, dog, rat, rabbit, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Transfection of the CYP3A70 cDNAs into 293T cells resulted in stable cell lines expressing a CYP3A immuno-reactive protein that was recognized by a goat anti-human CYP3A4 polyclonal antibody. The anti-human CYP3A4 antibody also detected immunoreactive proteins in liver microsomes from all test marsupials, including the kangaroo, koala, wallaby, and wombat, with multiple CYP3A immunoreactive bands observed in kangaroo and wallaby tissues. Relatively, very low CYP catalytic activity was detected for the kangaroo CYP3A70 cDNA-expressed proteins (19.6 relative luminescent units/μg protein), which may be due to low protein expression levels. Collectively, this study provides primary molecular data regarding the Eastern kangaroo hepatic CYP3A70 gene and enables further functional analyses of CYP3A enzymes in marsupials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evolution of the Twist Subfamily Vertebrate Proteins: Discovery of a Signature Motif and Origin of the Twist1 Glycine-Rich Motifs in the Amino-Terminus Disordered Domain.

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    Yacidzohara Rodriguez

    Full Text Available Twist proteins belong to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH family of multifunctional transcriptional factors. These factors are known to use domains other than the common bHLH in protein-protein interactions. There has been much work characterizing the bHLH domain and the C-terminus in protein-protein interactions but despite a few attempts more focus is needed at the N-terminus. Since the region of highest diversity in Twist proteins is the N-terminus, we analyzed the conservation of this region in different vertebrate Twist proteins and study the sequence differences between Twist1 and Twist2 with emphasis on the glycine-rich regions found in Twist1. We found a highly conserved sequence motif in all Twist1 (SSSPVSPADDSLSNSEEE and Twist2 (SSSPVSPVDSLGTSEEE mammalian species with unknown function. Through sequence comparison we demonstrate that the Twist protein family ancestor was "Twist2-like" and the two glycine-rich regions found in Twist1 sequences were acquired late in evolution, apparently not at the same time. The second glycine-rich region started developing first in the fish vertebrate group, while the first glycine region arose afterwards within the reptiles. Disordered domain and secondary structure predictions showed that the amino acid sequence and disorder feature found at the N-terminus is highly evolutionary conserved and could be a functional site that interacts with other proteins. Detailed examination of the glycine-rich regions in the N-terminus of Twist1 demonstrate that the first region is completely aliphatic while the second region contains some polar residues that could be subject to post-translational modification. Phylogenetic and sequence space analysis showed that the Twist1 subfamily is the result of a gene duplication during Twist2 vertebrate fish evolution, and has undergone more evolutionary drift than Twist2. We identified a new signature motif that is characteristic of each Twist paralog and identified

  6. Evolution of the Twist Subfamily Vertebrate Proteins: Discovery of a Signature Motif and Origin of the Twist1 Glycine-Rich Motifs in the Amino-Terminus Disordered Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Yacidzohara; Gonzalez-Mendez, Ricardo R; Cadilla, Carmen L

    2016-01-01

    Twist proteins belong to the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of multifunctional transcriptional factors. These factors are known to use domains other than the common bHLH in protein-protein interactions. There has been much work characterizing the bHLH domain and the C-terminus in protein-protein interactions but despite a few attempts more focus is needed at the N-terminus. Since the region of highest diversity in Twist proteins is the N-terminus, we analyzed the conservation of this region in different vertebrate Twist proteins and study the sequence differences between Twist1 and Twist2 with emphasis on the glycine-rich regions found in Twist1. We found a highly conserved sequence motif in all Twist1 (SSSPVSPADDSLSNSEEE) and Twist2 (SSSPVSPVDSLGTSEEE) mammalian species with unknown function. Through sequence comparison we demonstrate that the Twist protein family ancestor was "Twist2-like" and the two glycine-rich regions found in Twist1 sequences were acquired late in evolution, apparently not at the same time. The second glycine-rich region started developing first in the fish vertebrate group, while the first glycine region arose afterwards within the reptiles. Disordered domain and secondary structure predictions showed that the amino acid sequence and disorder feature found at the N-terminus is highly evolutionary conserved and could be a functional site that interacts with other proteins. Detailed examination of the glycine-rich regions in the N-terminus of Twist1 demonstrate that the first region is completely aliphatic while the second region contains some polar residues that could be subject to post-translational modification. Phylogenetic and sequence space analysis showed that the Twist1 subfamily is the result of a gene duplication during Twist2 vertebrate fish evolution, and has undergone more evolutionary drift than Twist2. We identified a new signature motif that is characteristic of each Twist paralog and identified important residues within

  7. Comportamiento sexual de Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae Sexual behavior of Alpaida veniliae (Araneae: Araneidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Benamú

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en cultivos de soja transgénica en la provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina, revelaron que Alpaida veniliae es una de las especies más abundantes dentro del gremio de arañas orbiculares. Esta especie es un eficaz enemigo natural de las plagas de insectos de este cultivo. En el presente estudio se llevó a cabo un análisis descriptivo y cuantitativo de la conducta sexual (cortejo, cópula y post-cópula de A. veniliae. Las arañas fueron recolectadas en cultivos de soja transgénica ubicados en Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, (Buenos Aires, Argentina y criadas en condiciones de laboratorio. A partir de la formación de 20 parejas (con hembras vírgenes, se observaron las unidades de comportamiento de machos y hembras, en términos de posturas y movimientos, incluyendo los detalles de su duración y frecuencia en todas las etapas del apareamiento. El cortejo exhibió el mayor número y la mayor duración de las unidades de comportamiento en ambos sexos. La secuencia de unidades fue 16 en el macho y nueve en la hembra, siendo la frecuencia de repeticiones de las unidades significativamente mayor en el macho. La cópula fue breve y el macho usó un solo palpo transfiriendo esperma a una sola espermateca de la hembra. Hubo dos unidades de comportamiento en el macho y una en la hembra. Durante la post-cópula el macho tuvo tres y la hembra dos unidades de comportamiento. La duración media de todo el comportamiento sexual fue 541.90±123.1 segundos para el macho y 338.20±74.1 segundos para la hembra. La hembra de A. veniliae sólo excepcionalmente aceptó una segunda cópula con el mismo u otro macho, lo que indica una monogamia estricta. En el 46% de las cópulas observadas la hembra canibalizó al macho al terminar la misma. Debido a que a partir de este momento dejan de producir feromonas sexuales, se vuelven no receptivas y provocan una reducción del cortejo del macho. El alto costo del cortejo del macho, incluyendo el riesgo de canibalismo, reforzaría la selectividad de éstos hacia las hembras receptivas vírgenes.Studies in transgenic soybean crops in Buenos Aires province, Argentina, revealed that Alpaida veniliae is one of the most abundant species in the guild of orb web spiders. This species is an effective natural enemy of insect pests affecting this crop. In the present study we carried out a descriptive and quantitative analysis of sexual behavior (courtship, mating and post-mating of A. veniliae. The spiders were collected in transgenic soybean crops located in Chivilcoy (35º01’ S - 60º06’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina, and reared under laboratory conditions. Based on observations of 20 couples (with virgin females, behavioral units of male and female in terms of postures and movements, including details on duration and frequency, were described at all stages of sexual activity (courtship, mating and post-mating. Courtship exhibited the greatest number and duration of behavioral units in both sexes. Male and female had a sequence of 16 and nine units, respectively, being the frequency of repetitions of the units significantly higher in the male. Mating was brief and males used a single palp to fill only one of the female spermathecae, after which the female became unreceptive. Mating had two behavioral units in the male and only one in the female. During post-mating males had three and females two behavioral units. The average duration of the whole sexual behavior was 541.90±123.1 seconds for the male and 338.20±74.1 seconds for the female. Alpaida veniliae females rarely accept a second mating with the same or another male (remating, indicating a strict monogamy. In 46% of observed mating, the female cannibalized the male after it. Females became unattractive after mating, since stop producing sex pheromones, causing a reduction of the male vibratory courtship. The high cost of courtship, including the risk of cannibalism, would reinforce the selectivity of males towards receptive virgin females.

  8. A new Thermus sp. class-IIS enzyme sub-family: isolation of a ‘twin’ endonuclease TspDTI with a novel specificity 5′-ATGAA(N11/9)-3′, related to TspGWI, TaqII and Tth111II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Piotr M.; Majewski, Jarosław; Żylicz-Stachula, Agnieszka; Rutkowska, Sylwia M.; Jaworowska, Izabela; Harasimowicz-Słowińska, Renata I.

    2003-01-01

    The TspDTI restriction endonuclease, which shows a novel recognition specificity 5′-ATGAA(N11/9)-3′, was isolated from Thermus sp. DT. TspDTI appears to be a ‘twin’ of restriction endonuclease TspGWI from Thermus sp. GW, as we have previously reported. TspGWI was isolated from the same location as TspDTI, it recognizes a related sequence 5′-ACGGA(N11/9)-3′ and has conserved cleavage positions. Both enzymes resemble two other class-IIS endonucleases from Thermus sp.: TaqII and Tth111II. N-terminal amino acid sequences of TspGWI tryptic peptides exhibit 88.9–100% similarity to the TaqII sequence. All four enzymes were purified to homogeneity; their polypeptide sizes (114.5–122 kDa) make them the largest class-IIS restriction endonucleases known to date. The existence of a Thermus sp. sub-family of class-IIS restriction endonucleases of a common origin is herein proposed. PMID:12853651

  9. The canopy spiders (Araneae of the floodplain forest in Leipzig

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    Otto, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The canopy spiders of the floodplain forest in Leipzig have become a focus of ecological studies in recent years. In 2006 we sampled 30 tree canopies in the ‘Burgaue’ nature reserve with pyrethrum knock-down fogging, recording 502 adult spiders belonging to 48 species and 11 families. Based on these data and the results of a previous fogging study, the studied spider community was dominated by forest and forest-edge species with a preference for the shrub and canopy strata as well as by spiders of the web spider feeding guild. The community structure was typical for arboreal spider communities from northern temperate forests but very different from communities in the tropics. Species richness and evenness were similar to the old growth near-primary Białowieża Forest in Poland. The checklist of 96 canopy spider species of the floodplain forest of Leipzig includes 54 additions to the spider fauna of Leipzig and vicinity by recent canopy studies and eight first canopy records for Leipzig from our field work. The theridiid Dipoena torva (Thorell, 1875 was recorded for the first time in Saxony. The floodplain forest of Leipzig sustains a large and species-rich arboreal spider community and is thus a valuable habitat for a large proportion of endangered species (12%.

  10. Endemic harvestmen and spiders of Austria (Arachnida: Opiliones, Araneae

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    Komposch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive overview of plant, fungus and animal species of Austria revealed a total of 748 endemic and subendemic species, including, 11 harvestman and 46 spider species. Altogether two endemic harvestmen (Nemastoma bidentatum relictum, Nemastoma schuelleri and 8 endemic spiders (Abacoproeces molestus, Collinsia (caliginosa nemenziana, Mughiphantes severus, Mughiphantes styriacus, Pelecopsis alpica, Scotophaeus nanus, Troglohyphantes novicordis, Troglohyphantes tauriscus, beside 9 subendemic harvestman and 38 subendemic spider species have been recorded from Austria. Hot-spots of endemism in the Eastern Alps are the north-eastern (Ennstaler Alps and southern Calcareous Alps (Karawanken, Karnische Alps and the Central Alps (Hohe Tauern, Gurktaler Alps, Ötztaler and Stubaier Alps. Most of the endemic arachnid species occur from the nival down to the montane zone. Important habitats are rocky areas, caves and woodlands. High absolute numbers and percentages of endemics can be found within the harvestman families Cladonychiidae, Ischyropsalididae and Nemastomatidae and in the spider genera Lepthyphantes s. l. and Troglohyphantes. The conservation status of these highly endangered taxa – 85 % of the spider species and 100 % of the harvestman taxa are endangered in Austria – is poor.

  11. Vision in the nocturnal wandering spider Leucorchestris arenicola (Araneae: Sparassidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Thomas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Henschel, Joh R

    2008-01-01

    At night the Namib Desert spider Leucorchestris arenicola performs long-distance homing across its sand dune habitat. By disabling all or pairs of the spiders' eight eyes we found that homing ability was severely reduced when vision was fully abolished. Vision, therefore, seems to play a key role...... in the nocturnal navigational performances of L. arenicola. After excluding two or three pairs of eyes, the spiders were found to be able to navigate successfully using only their lateral eyes or only their anterior median eyes. Measurement of the eyes' visual fields showed that the secondary eyes combined have...... resolution of the eyes is insufficient for detecting any visual information on structures in the landscape, and bright stars would be the only objects visible to the spiders. However, by summation in space and time, the spiders can rescue enough vision to detect coarse landscape structures. We show that L...

  12. Nopyllus, a new South American Drassodinae spider genus (Araneae, Gnaphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nopyllus gen. nov. is proposed to include Apopyllus isabelae Brescovit & Lise, 1993 and Nopyllus vicente sp. nov. from southern Brazil. Nopyllus gen. nov. is close to Apodrassodes Vellard, 1924 and Apopyllus Platnick & Shadab, 1984, can be distinguished from both genera by the absence of a dorsal abdominal scutum in males, the absence of a median apophysis on bulb, the curved, narrow and reniform cymbium, and by the presence of a very conspicuous cymbial basal projection.

  13. Erster Nachweis der Springspinne Evarcha jucunda (Araneae: Salticidae in Deutschland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludy, Claudia

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available One specimen of the jumping spider Evarcha jucunda was discovered in the fruit department of a general store in Gießen, Germany. The species has obviously been introduced with transported fruit from mediterranean countries.

  14. Boden- und baumstammbewohnende Linyphiidae des Hienheimer Forstes (Bayern (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulz, Ulrich

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results of a forest ecology research project by the University of Munich’s faculty of Forestry, involving the comparison of forests designed to reflect varying degrees of naturalness. Spiders on the ground and on trunks in four different forests in the Hienheimer Forst were caught with 24 ground photo eclectors, 8 arboreal eclectors and with 40 pitfall traps. Habitat requirements were measured and analysed with particular attention to forest soil. Abiotic parameters and the structure of the litter layer were recorded. The most frequent spiders were the Linyphiidae, Agelenidae and Amaurobidae.63 species of the family Linyphiidae were caught. One half of the Linyphiidae-species could be found on trunks of oak and spruce (eclector fauna. In terms of the number of spider species and in the portion of rare and endangered species there were almost no differences between commercial forest areas and conservation areas. The differences are not as great as the original classification according to closeness to the natural state had led us to expect.

  15. Back in Europe: Quamtana spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two undescribed species of the African pholcid spider genus Quamtana have been found in German greenhouses and plant markets since 2012. Both species seem to have established stable populations. This genus has not been previously recorded from Europe, except for a fossil specimen in Eocene amber from the Paris Basin that was tentatively assigned to Quamtana and that is estimated to date from 53 million years ago. Since the actual geographic origins of the two species (probably South and/or tropical Africa are unknown, we do not formally describe them.

  16. On Nesticus from Meridional South America (Araneae, Nesticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ott

    Full Text Available Five new species of Nesticus Thorell, 1869 are described: N. potreiro, N. taim from southern Brazil; N. brignolii from southern Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay; N. calilegua from southern Brazil and Argentina and N. ramirezi, from Argentina. The male palpus and female epyginum of N. brasiliensis Brignoli, 1979 are illustrated. Described species were collected in epigean habitats, in shrubs, leaf-litter, under stones, bricks, tiles or debris.

  17. First record of Walckenaeria clavicornis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuts, B.; van Helsdingen, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    An adult male Walckenaeria clavicornis Emerton 1882 (unicornis-group of species in Wackenaeria) was found on 5 February 1998 at about 35 m distance from a parking place on the Amsterdam University grounds in the Netherlands. It was hiding in a dark small cavity in wet ground under a dark plate of

  18. Ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephilapilipes (Araneae: Nephilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M.J. Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ballooning, a mode of aerial dispersal in spiders, is an innate behavior that requires appropriate physiological and meteorological conditions. Although only rarely reported in the golden orbweb spiders, family Nephilidae, the large geographic distributions of most nephilids—in particular of Nephila species—would imply that these spiders likely routinely disperse by ballooning in spite of giant female sizes. Here we study ballooning behavior in the golden orbweb spider Nephila pilipes (Fabricius, 1793. Specifically, we test for the propensity of spiderlings to deploy ballooning as a dispersal mechanism. We subjected a total of 59 first-instar spiderlings to a wind experiment at two wind speeds (2.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 and 3.17 ± 0.02 m s-1 under laboratory conditions. Under an average wind speed of 3.17 m s-1, none of the spiderlings exhibited pre-ballooning or ballooning behavior. However, at an average wind speed of 2.17 m s-1, 53 (89.8% spiderlings showed pre-ballooning behavior, and 17 (32.1% of the pre-ballooners ultimately ballooned. Our results concur with prior reports on spiderlings of other families that pre-ballooning behavior is a requirement for ballooning to occur. Furthermore, although we cannot rule out other dispersal mechanisms such as synanthropic spread, our findings suggest that the widespread N. pilipes uses ballooning to colonize remote oceanic islands.

  19. Food caching in orb-web spiders (Araneae: Araneoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion de Crespigny, Fleur E.; Herberstein, Marie E.; Elgar, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Caching or storing surplus prey may reduce the risk of starvation during periods of food deprivation. While this behaviour occurs in a variety of birds and mammals, it is infrequent among invertebrates. However, golden orb-web spiders, Nephila edulis, incorporate a prey cache in their relatively permanent web, which they feed on during periods of food shortage. Heavier spiders significantly reduced weight loss if they were able to access a cache, but lost weight if the cache was removed. The presence or absence of stored prey had no effect on the weight loss of lighter spiders. Furthermore, N. edulis always attacked new prey, irrespective of the number of unprocessed prey in the web. In contrast, females of Argiope keyserlingi, who build a new web every day and do not cache prey, attacked fewer new prey items if some had already been caught. Thus, a necessary pre-adaptation to the evolution of prey caching in orb-web spiders may be a durable or permanent web, such as that constructed by Nephila.

  20. Morphological separation of the Central European Trochosa females (Araneae, Lycosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepner, Martin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Adult females of the five Central European wolf spiders Trochosa hispanica Simon, 1870, T. robusta (Simon, 1876, T. ruricola (DeGeer, 1778, T. spinipalpis (F.O.P.-Cambridge, 1895, and T. terricola Thorell, 1856 were morphologically analysed. We defined sets of continuous and binary (presence/absence variables. Continuous data of various epigynal and carapace dimensions were subjected to Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Using the PC loadings each individual was plotted along the PC axis in order to find gaps(overlaps between the species. The binary data sets were subjected to Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA in order to find characters that clearly separate the five Trochosa species. Using PCA only individuals of T.robusta and T.ruricola and of T.robusta and T.hispanica could be separated from each other. Using HCA all five species could clearly be separated by epigynal and vulval characteristics."

  1. On the diversity of some spiders (Aranea: Arachnida from Serbia

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    Ćurčić Božidar P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 76 species from 16 families: Dysderidae (6, Theridiidae (3 Nesticidae (1, Linyphiidae (35, Tetragnathidae (1, Araneidae (1 Lycosidae (5, Agelenidae (3, Cybaeidae (1, Dictynidae (1, Amaurobiidae (5, Liocranidae (2, Clubionidae (3, Gnaphosidae (3, Thomisidae (3 and Salticidae (3 were established from 42 localities in Serbia. Ten species and three genera are new for the Serbian spider fauna. The most diverse is the family Linyphiidae, otherwise represented by 35 species.

  2. Aberrante Epigynenbildungen bei der Wolfspinne Pardosa palustris (Araneae, Lycosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of aberrant epigyne shape in Pardosa palustris (Linnaeus, 1758 are described. Characteristic is the absence of the posterior lateral parts of the septum. Possible causes, such as `genital damage` during mating or the effects of parasite infestation, are discussed.

  3. Notes on the distribution of Oculicosa supermirabilis (Araneae, Lycosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logunov, Dmitri V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of the poorly known Central Asian wolf-spider Oculicosa supermirabilis Zyuzin, 1993 is clarified, discussed and mapped on the basis of both original and literature-derived data. The species is currently known from the Turan Lowland between the 41st and 43rd degrees of latitude north; its distribution coincides with that of the grey-brown desert soil and lies within the geobotanical sub-zone of southern deserts. Both sexes are also illustrated and diagnosed.

  4. The Lycosidae and Pisauridae (Araneae) of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1959-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this paper the species of spiders belonging to the families Lycosidae and Pisauridae, known from the Netherlands, are described and figured. In addition a number of species, which possibly may occur in the Netherlands though they have not yet been found here hitherto, are mentioned

  5. Contribution to the knowledge of Gnaphosidae (Arachnida: Araneae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, some additions were made on arachnofauna in Turkey. We recorded Drassodex Murphy, 2007 genus and six gnaphosid species: Drassodex hypocrita (Simon, 1878), Drassodes cupreus (Blackwall, 1834), Echemus angustifrons (Westring, 1861), Setaphis gomerae (Schmidt, 1981), Trachyzelotes fuscipes (L.

  6. Spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) Of Milbridge, Washington County, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel T. Jennings; Frank Jr. Graham

    2007-01-01

    An inventory or spiders associated with diverse habitats of Milbridge, a 6,290-ha area of the East Coastal BioPhysical Region, yielded 6,979 individuals of 19 families, 145 genera, and 302 species (4 unknown). Species richness per genus ranged from 1 to 13, with 88 genera represented by a single species. Total species composition favored web spinners over hunters;...

  7. Spinnen (Arachnida: Araneae) op akkers - biologie en plaagbestrijding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, J.; Helsdingen, van P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Spinnen vormen een soortenrijke groep van predatoren. In vrijwel geen terrestrisch habitattype ontbreken soorten uit deze orde. Door hun kolonisatiesnelheid en de diversiteit aan prooivangsttechnieken kunnen spinnen van groot belang zijn voor plaagbestrijding op akkers. In deze bijdrage behandelen

  8. Micro-scale heterogeneity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coarse-scale studies that focus on species distributions and richness neglect heterogeneity that may be present at finer scales. Studies of arthropod assemblage structure at fine (1 × 1 km) scales are rare, but important, because these are the spatial levels at which real world applications are viable. Here we investigate ...

  9. A collection of spiders (Araneae in Albanian coastal areas

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    Vrenozi, Blerina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study unites data from several excursions in typical Mediterranean lowland ecosystems in Albania during the years 2006 to 2009. Spiders from several different habitat types along the coast were analysed in six districts: Saranda, Fieri, Kavaja, Durrësi, Tirana and Lezha. In total 299 adult specimens were collected. They belong to 82 species, 60 genera and 22 families. Six species are new to the Albanian fauna: Aculepeira armida (Audouin, 1826, Zygiella x-notata (Clerck, 1757, Histopona torpida (C. L. Koch, 1837, Malthonica campestris (C. L. Koch, 1834, Pellenes tripunctatus (Walckenaer, 1802 and Pseudeuophrys erratica (Walckenaer, 1826. With respect to zoogeography, the spider fauna is mainly characterized by the presence of many Palaearctic species.

  10. Spiders (Araneae of stony debris in North Bohemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Růžička, Vlastimil

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The arachnofauna was studied at five stony debris sites in northern Bohemia. In Central Europe, the northern and montane species inhabiting cold places live not only on mountain tops and peat bogs but also on the lower edges of boulder debris, where air streaming through the system of inner compartments gives rise to an exceedingly cold microclimate. At such cold sites, spiders can live either on bare stones (Bathyphantes simillimus, Wubanoides uralensis, or in the rich layers of moss and lichen (Diplocentria bidentata. Kratochviliella bicapitata exhibits a diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on the tree bark. Latithorax faustus and Theonoe minutissima display diplostenoecious occurence in stony debris and on peat bogs. The occurence of the species Scotina celans in the Czech Republic was documented for the first time.

  11. The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae)

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy Miller; Charles Griswold; Nikolaj Scharff; Milan Rezac; Tamas Szuts; Mohammad Marhabaie

    2012-01-01

    The family Eresidae C. L. Koch, 1850 is reviewed at the genus level. The family comprises nine genera including one new genus. They are: Adonea Simon, 1873, Dorceus C. L. Koch, 1846, Dresserus Simon, 1876, Eresus Walckenaer, 1805, Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967, Loureedia gen. n., Paradonea Lawrence, 1968, Seothyra Purcell, 1903, and Stegodyphus Simon, 1873. A key to all genera and major lineages is provided along with corresponding diagnoses, as well as descriptions of selected species. These ar...

  12. The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy A; Griswold, Charles E; Scharff, Nikolaj; Rezáč, Milan; Szűts, Tamás; Marhabaie, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    The family Eresidae C. L. Koch, 1850 is reviewed at the genus level. The family comprises nine genera including one new genus. They are: Adonea Simon, 1873, Dorceus C. L. Koch, 1846, Dresserus Simon, 1876, Eresus Walckenaer, 1805, Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967, Loureediagen. n., ParadoneaLawrence, 1968, Seothyra Purcell, 1903, and Stegodyphus Simon, 1873. A key to all genera and major lineages is provided along with corresponding diagnoses, as well as descriptions of selected species. These are documented with collections of photographs, scanning electron micrographs, and illustrations. A new phylogeny of Eresidae based on molecular sequence data expands on a previously published analysis. A species of the genus Paradonea Lawrence, 1968 is sequenced and placed phylogenetically for the first time. New sequences from twenty Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967 specimens were added to investigate species limits within the genus. The genus Loureediagen. n. is proposed to accommodate Eresus annulipes Lucas, 1857. Two species, Eresus semicanus Simon, 1908 and Eresus jerbae El-Hennawy, 2005, are synonymized with Loureedia annulipescomb. n. One new species, Paradonea presleyisp. n. is described. Eresus algericus El-Hennawy, 2004 is transferred to Adonea Simon, 1873. The female of Dorceus fastuosus C. L. Koch, 1846 is described for the first time. The first figures depicting Paradonea splendens (Lawrence, 1936) are presented.

  13. The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Miller

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The family Eresidae C. L. Koch, 1850 is reviewed at the genus level. The family comprises nine genera including one new genus. They are: Adonea Simon, 1873, Dorceus C. L. Koch, 1846, Dresserus Simon, 1876, Eresus Walckenaer, 1805, Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967, Loureedia gen. n., Paradonea Lawrence, 1968, Seothyra Purcell, 1903, and Stegodyphus Simon, 1873. A key to all genera and major lineages is provided along with corresponding diagnoses, as well as descriptions of selected species. These are documented with collections of photographs, scanning electron micrographs, and illustrations. A new phylogeny of Eresidae based on molecular sequence data expands on a previously published analysis. A species of the genus Paradonea Lawrence, 1968 is sequenced and placed phylogenetically for the first time. New sequences from twenty Gandanameno Lehtinen, 1967 specimens were added to investigate species limits within the genus. The genus Loureedia gen. n. is proposed to accommodate Eresus annulipes Lucas, 1857. Two species, Eresus semicanus Simon, 1908 and Eresus jerbae El-Hennawy, 2005, are synonymized with Loureedia annulipes comb. n. One new species, Paradonea presleyi sp. n. is described. Eresus algericus El-Hennawy, 2004 is transferred to Adonea Simon, 1873. The female of Dorceus fastuosus C. L. Koch, 1846 is described for the first time. The first figures depicting Paradonea splendens (Lawrence, 1936 are presented.

  14. Species of Wadicosa (Araneae, Lycosidae): a new species from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronestedt, Torbjörn

    2017-05-10

    Since establishing the wolf spider genus Wadicosa Zyuzin, 1985 (Zyuzin 1985), eleven species have been accepted in it, either by transfer from Lycosa Latreille, 1804 or Pardosa C.L. Koch, 1847 or by original designation (WSC 2017). However, according to Kronestedt (1987), additional species wait to be formally transferred to Wadicosa. The genus is restricted to the Old World, with one species, Wadicosa jocquei Kronestedt, 2015, recently described from Madagascar and surrounding islands.

  15. Review of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator (Araneae, Lycosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framenau, Volker W

    2015-09-11

    Species of the Australian wolf spider genus Venator are reviewed including the type species, V. spenceri Hogg, 1900, from south-eastern Australia and V. immansuetus (Simon, 1909) comb. nov., a common species in south-west Western Australia. Venator marginatus Hogg, 1900 is only known from two female specimens and the genital morphology of this species does not conform to the diagnosis of genus as presented here. Therefore V. marginatus is considered incerta sedis. Venator includes medium-sized (9.0-22 mm body length) wolf spiders of overall brownish colouration, and with a black patch covering the anterior three quarters of the venter. They differ from all other wolf spiders in particular by genitalic characters, namely an elevated atrium of the female epigyne that forms a raised edged against the inverted T-shaped median septum. This edge often corresponds to a retrolateral incision on the tegular apophysis of the male pedipalp. The genus is mainly a representative of the Bassian fauna of the Australian continent where it occurs predominantly in dry sclerophyll forests.

  16. New species of Eupalaestrus from Argentina (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Theraphosinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ferretti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eupalaestrus Pocock, 1901 from northern Argentina is described and illustrated. Males and females of Eupalaestrus larae sp. nov. differ from those all other species of the genus by the color with distinct two parallel longitudinal stripes on the femora, patellae, tibiae and one longitudinal stripe reaching half of metatarsi; the presence of a thickened femur and tibia IV; a straight embolus of the male palpal bulb and retrolateral keel pronounced. Specimens were captured in Chaco province, inhabiting unflooded flat grasslands open areas inside forest in transitional Chaco eco-region.

  17. A troglomorphic spider from Java (Araneae, Ctenidae, Amauropelma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy; Rahmadi, Cahyo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new troglomorphic spider from caves in Central Java, Indonesia, is described and placed in the ctenid genus Amauropelma Raven, Stumkat & Gray, until now containing only species from Queensland, Australia. Only juveniles and mature females of the new species are known. We give our reasons for placing the new species in Amauropelma, discuss conflicting characters, and make predictions about the morphology of the as yet undiscovered male that will test our taxonomic hypothesis. The description includes DNA barcode sequence data. PMID:22303127

  18. MicroRNA-320a and microRNA-4496 attenuate Helicobacter pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA)-induced cancer-initiating potential and chemoresistance by targeting β-catenin and ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong Woo; Yang, Eun Sun; Noh, Yu Na; Hwang, Won Chan; Jo, Se-Young; Suh, Young-Ah; Park, Won Sang; Choi, Kang-Yell; Min, Do Sik

    2017-04-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is closely linked to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Although cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA), a major virulence factor of H. pylori, is known to be a causal factor for gastric carcinogenesis, the molecular link between CagA and gastric cancer-initiating cell (CIC)-like properties remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that CagA is required for increased expression of β-catenin and its target CIC markers via downregulation of microRNA (miR)-320a and miR-4496. CagA promoted gastric CIC properties and was responsible for chemoresistance. miR-320a and miR-4496 attenuated the in vitro self-renewal and tumour-initiating capacity of CagA-expressing CICs by targeting β-catenin. Moreover, miR-320a and miR-4496 decreased CagA-induced chemoresistance by targeting ATP-binding cassette, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2) at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, respectively. Combination therapy with 5-fluorouracil and miR-320a/miR-4496 suppressed gastric tumourigenesis and metastatic potential in an orthotopic mouse model, probably via suppression of CagA-induced CIC properties and chemoresistance. Our results provide novel evidence that CIC properties, chemoresistance and tumourigenesis associated with H. pylori are linked to CagA-induced upregulation of β-catenin and ABCG2. These data provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of CagA-induced carcinogenisis and the therapeutic potential of of miR-320a and miR-4496. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Expression and regulation of prostaglandin transporters, ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 1 and 9, and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 and 5A1 in the uterine endometrium during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwanhee; Choi, Yohan; Yoo, Inkyu; Han, Jisoo; Kim, Minjeong; Ka, Hakhyun

    2017-05-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) function in various reproductive processes, including luteolysis, maternal pregnancy recognition, conceptus development, and parturition. Our earlier study has shown that PG transporters ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, member 4 ( ABCC4 ) and solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 ( SLCO2A1 ) are expressed in the uterine endometrium in pigs. Since several other PG transporters such as ABCC1 , ABCC9 , SLCO4C1 , and SLCO5A1 are known to be present in the uterine endometrium, this study investigated the expression of these PG transporters in the porcine uterine endometrium and placenta. Uterine endometrial tissues were obtained from gilts on day (D) 12 and D15 of the estrous cycle and days 12, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 114 of pregnancy. ABCC1 , ABCC9 , SLCO4C1 , and SLCO5A1 mRNAs were expressed in the uterine endometrium, and levels of expression changed during the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Expression of ABCC1 and ABCC9 mRNAs was localized mainly to luminal and glandular epithelial cells in the uterine endometrium, and chorionic epithelial cells during pregnancy. Conceptuses during early pregnancy and chorioallantoic tissues from mid to late pregnancy also expressed these PG transporters. Estradiol-17β increased the expression of ABCC1 and SLCO5A1 , but not ABCC9 and SLCO4C1 mRNAs and increasing doses of interleukin-1β induced the expression of ABCC9 , SLCO4C1 , and SLCO5A1 mRNAs in endometrial explant tissues. These data showed that several PG transporters such as ABCC1 , ABCC9 , SLCO4C1 , and SLCO5A1 were expressed at the maternal-conceptus interface, suggesting that these PG transporters may play an important role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy by regulating PG transport in the uterine endometrium and placenta in pigs.

  20. [Arachnofauna (araneae: Araneae) in transgenic and conventional cotton crops (Gossypium hirsutum) in the North of Santa Fe, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Melina Soledad; Sosa, María Ana; González, Alda

    2012-06-01

    Spiders have considerable potential importance for their role as predators to some pests in agricultural systems. The composition of spiders in transgenic and conventional cotton at the Research Station of INTA Reconquista (Santa Fe) was studied during the 2005-2006 season. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with three replications and three treatments: transgenic Bt cotton (ALBt), conventional cotton without chemical control (ALCSC), and conventional cotton with chemical control (ALCCC). Weekly, spiders were collected using nets, vertical cloth and pitfall-traps. A total of 1255 specimens (16 families, and 32 species) were collected. Seven families were found in all the treatments, mainly Thomisidae (n=1 51, 84.04%) and Araneidae (n=83, 6.64%). The Hunting spiders guild ambushers (n=1053, 83.91%), "Orb weavers" (n=85, 6.77%) and "Stalkers" (n=53, 4.22%) were more abundant. There were no significant differences in the indexes diversity between treatments. Spiders were presented during the whole crop season, with peaks about flowering and boll maturity, with the highest abundance in ALBt. This work is part of the first set of data registered in Argentina about spider's community in cotton crops.

  1. Morphology and ultrastructure of orbicules in the subfamily Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinckier; Huysmans; Smets

    2000-02-01

    Orbicules were studied in 43 species belonging to 32 genera of the five tribes of the Ixoroideae (Rubiaceae). The orbicules were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy (LM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Orbicules are present in all species investigated of the tribes Pavetteae, Octotropideae and Coffeeae. In the tribes Gardenieae and Aulacocalyceae orbicules were found in some species, while they were absent in others. 15 species out of 11 genera lack orbicules. Three orbicule types (III, V, and VI) could be distinguished, mainly on the basis of general morphological and ultrastructural variations. Orbicules that belong to type III (0.50-1.29µm) have perforations in their wall, a regular or irregular shape and two or three electron transparent cores. This orbicule type, exclusively found in all Pavetteae species investigated, can be divided into two subtypes. Orbicules of subtype IIIa are present in all genera related to Ixora, and orbicules of subtype IIIb in those genera related to Tarenna. Orbicules of type V (0.97-1.86µm) are present in Himalrandia tetrasperma (Aulacocalyceae), and in all Octotropideae genera investigated, except Feretia. Complexes of more than three individual orbicules characterize this type. They are irregularly shaped and have many perforations as well as sporopollenin granules on the orbicule wall. In all species investigated of tribe Coffeeae, type VI orbicules (0.56-1.60µm) are present. These orbicules are characterized by their embedded position towards the tapetal membrane, their aggregated form and by the presence of perforations as well as sporopollenin granules on their orbicule wall. In the tribe Gardenieae different types of orbicule were found (V, VI and orbicules that cannot be classified in our typology). Our results suggest that orbicule characters in the Ixoroideae may be systematically useful on tribal level.

  2. Designing exons for human olfactory receptor gene subfamilies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    occur in clusters ranging from ~51 to 105 and are unevenly spread over 21 chromosomes (Malnic et al. 2004; Young et al. 2008). A conservative estimate suggests that 339 full- length OR genes and 297 OR pseudogenes are present in these clusters (Malnic et al. 2004). ... The aroma and electronic nose industry.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae subfamily Lamioideae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmaki, Yasaman; Zarre, Shahin; Ryding, Olof

    2013-01-01

    subclades are congruent between the plastid and nuclear tree topologies, whereas their relative phylogenetic placements are often not. This level of plastid-nuclear incongruence suggests considerable impact of hybridization in the evolution of Stachydeae. (C) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.......Although tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae) is considered monophyletic, relationships within the tribe are still poorly understood. The complexity of Stachydeae includes paraphyletic genera, considerable morphological plasticity, a range of ploidy levels, and presumably frequent natural hybridization. We...

  4. Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Bloodwood Legumeminosae, Legume Family, lotoideae, Pea Subfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter L. Weaver

    1997-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq., called palo de pollo in Puerto Rico, bloodwood in Guyana and Panama, and by numerous other names throughout its extensive range, is an evergreen tree that reaches 40m in height

  5. Children under 5 in Families and Subfamilies in 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Variable was created as part of a set of indicators that demonstrate links between the condition of natural areas and human concerns and that quantify dependencies...

  6. The Malesian species of the subfamily Maloideae (Rosaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.

    1973-01-01

    Taxonomic revision, precursory to the treatment of the Rosaceae in Flora Malesiana. Generic limits in tribus Sorbeae are discussed, Stranvaesia is included in Photinia (5 spp. in Malesia), Micromeles (1 sp. in Malesia) is treated as generically different from Sorbus. Apart from these, there are in

  7. Molecular phylogeny of tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae subfamily Lamioideae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaki, Yasaman; Zarre, Shahin; Ryding, Olof; Lindqvist, Charlotte; Bräuchler, Christian; Heubl, Günther; Barber, Janet; Bendiksby, Mika

    2013-12-01

    Although tribe Stachydeae (Lamiaceae) is considered monophyletic, relationships within the tribe are still poorly understood. The complexity of Stachydeae includes paraphyletic genera, considerable morphological plasticity, a range of ploidy levels, and presumably frequent natural hybridization. We performed parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses of nuclear (ribosomal ITS) and plastid (trnL intron, trnL-trnF spacer, rps16 intron) DNA sequence data from a taxonomically and geographically broad sampling of the tribe to identify major evolutionary lineages and to test taxonomic hypotheses within this largest of all lamioid tribes. We included 143 accessions corresponding to 121 species, representing both Old and New World species, and all 12 recognized genera of tribe Stachydeae. Both nuclear and plastid data corroborate monophyly of the tribe, with Melittis as sister to all remaining Stachydeae. For the latter well-supported clade, we suggest the phylogenetic name Eurystachys. Within Eurystachys, although monophyly is supported by both nuclear and plastid data for several named and unnamed groups, the majority of recognized taxa appear to be para- or polyphyletic. The taxon compositions of most subclades are congruent between the plastid and nuclear tree topologies, whereas their relative phylogenetic placements are often not. This level of plastid-nuclear incongruence suggests considerable impact of hybridization in the evolution of Stachydeae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anatomy of Brazilian Cereeae (subfamily Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and Brasilicereus Backeberg Anatomia de espécies brasileiras pertencentes à tribo Cereeae (subfamília Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and Brasilicereus Backeberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Soffiatti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available (Anatomy of Brazilian Cereeae (subfamily Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger wâBrasilicereus Backeberg. Arrojadoa, Stephanocereus and Brasilicereus are endemic Brazilian Cereeae, occurring along the Espinhaço Range, in the campos rupestres, cerrados and caatingas, from northern Minas Gerais to southern Bahia. The genera are columnar, erect to semi-erect cacti, except for one species, A bahiensis, which is globose. This study describes the anatomy of dermal, fundamental and vascular systems, aiming to find diagnostic characters for the genera and species. Basal portions of stems were sectioned transversely and longitudinally, and stained with Astrablue and Safranin. The species share a uniseriate epidermis, with thick cuticle; well developed collenchymatic hypodermis, containing prismatic crystals; cortex with numerous mucilage cells, druses and vascular bundles; outside cortex as a palisade parenchyma; periderm composed of lignified cork cells alternating with suberized cells; pheloderm consisting of a few layers of thin-walled cells; phloem composed of solitary or multiple of two to three sieve tube elements, companion cells, axial and radial parenchyma; secondary xylem with solitary to multiple vessels, with simple perforation plates and alternate bordered to semi-bordered pits; axial parenchyma scanty vasicentric to incomplete; libriform septate fibres; large rays. Unlignified parenchyma is seen in the secondary xylem, varying from a few cells to bands among axial and radial elements. The following are considered diagnostic characters: the shape of lignified phellem cells, cubic to radially elongate, which individualizes S. leucostele; an underdeveloped hypodermis and the occurrence of sclereids in the cortex are exclusive to Brasilicereus markgrqfii.(Anatomia de espécies brasileiras pertencentes à tribo Cereeae (subfamília Cactoideae, Cactaceae: Arrojadoa Britton & Rose, Stephanocereus A. Berger and

  9. Seasonal patterns of parasitism of the tropical spiders Theridion evexum (Araneae, Theridiidae and Allocyclosa bifurca (Araneae, Araneidae by the wasps Zatypota petronae and Polysphincta gutfreundi (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Barrantes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The rates of parasitism of Theridion evexum by the parasitoid wasp Zatypota petronae, and Allocyclosa bifurca by Polysphincta gutfreundi, were followed for two years. Parasitism of T. evexum was very low (mean 1.39+1.8%, and restricted to nearly seven months of the year. Parasitism of A. bifurca was higher (mean 7.8+7.6%, and did not show a seasonal pattern. Reproduction of the host spider T. evexum was highly seasonal, with only one, highly coordinated generation per year, while adults of A. bifurca were present year round. Short-term autocorrelation on parasitism rates over time at different sites suggest that P. gutfreundi tend to return to the same sites to hunt hosts over periods of a few weeks. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 749-754. Epub 2008 June 30.Las tasas de parasitismo de Theridion evexum por la avispa parasitoide Zatypota petronae y de Allocyclosa bifurca por Polysphincta gutfreundi fueron estudiadas durante dos años. El parasitismo en T. evexum fue muy bajo (promedio 1.39+1.8% y restringido a aproximadamente siete meses del año. El parasitismo en A. bifurca fue más alto (promedio 7.8+7.6% y no mostró un claro patrón estacional. La reproducción de la araña hospedera T. evexum fue muy estacional, con solamente una generación por año, mientras que los adultos de A. bifurca estuvieron presentes todo el año. Autocorrelaciones de las tasas de parasitismo entre censos consecutivos en diferentes sitios sugiere que P. gutfreundi tiende a retornar a los mismos sitios para parasitar las arañas hospederas durante algunas semanas.

  10. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae en hábitats antropogénicos Diversity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae in anthropogenic habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Desales-Lara

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La construcción de ciudades constituye la transformación más drástica, fundamental e irreversible de los sistemas naturales, reemplazando todo componente biótico y abiótico original del lugar. Entre los artrópodos que han podido adaptarse a los ambientes urbanos se encuentran las arañas. Se encontraron 41 especies en el interior de 12 casas de 2 niveles de la ciudad de Toluca, ubicadas en 4 ambientes con diferente grado de urbanización, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2009 a agosto del 2010. Por primera vez se empleó un método sistematizado para recolecta de arañas en el interior de las viviendas. La diversidad de arañas fue diferente en cada uno de los ambientes muestreados; el índice de Shannon (H' mostró que la diversidad de arañas es mayor en las casas que presentan jardín en el ambiente urbano, por lo que no se apoya la hipótesis del disturbio intermedio. El número de arañas encontradas fue mayor en el primer nivel de las viviendas que en el segundo, por lo que se proponen 3 hipótesis para explicar esta diferencia. Se propone la prueba de Olmstead-Tukey para determinar los 4 niveles de sinantropismo (N. S., ya que la prueba engloba valores utilizados en los índices de densidad e infestación (ocupación.City-building is the most drastic, fundamental and irreversible transformation of natural environments, replacing all original biotic and abiotic components of the site. Spiders are among the arthropods that have become adapted to urban environments. We found 41 species within 12 two-story houses of the city of Toluca, located in 4 environments with different degrees of urbanization, during the period September 2009-August 2010. For the first time a systematic method was used to collect spiders inside houses with even collecting efforts. The diversity of spiders is different in each of the sampled environments, the Shannon index (H ' indicated that the diversity of spiders was higher in houses with gardens in the urban environment, so it does not support the hypothesis of intermediate disturbance. The number of spiders found is higher on the first level of houses than on the second, and 3 hypotheses are proposed to explain this difference. The Olmstead-Tukey test is proposed to determine the 4 levels of synanthropism (N. S., since the test includes values used in the density and infestation rates (occupation.

  11. Diversidad de arañas (Arachnida: Araneae) en hábitats antropogénicos Diversity of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in anthropogenic habitats

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antonio Desales-Lara; Oscar F. Francke; Petra Sánchez-Nava

    2013-01-01

    La construcción de ciudades constituye la transformación más drástica, fundamental e irreversible de los sistemas naturales, reemplazando todo componente biótico y abiótico original del lugar. Entre los artrópodos que han podido adaptarse a los ambientes urbanos se encuentran las arañas. Se encontraron 41 especies en el interior de 12 casas de 2 niveles de la ciudad de Toluca, ubicadas en 4 ambientes con diferente grado de urbanización, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2009 a agosto del 2...

  12. A new species of the spider genus Taranucnus from Ukraine (Araneae, Linyphiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnelitsa, Valery A

    2016-04-11

    Currently the linyphiid genus Taranucnus includes four species: T. setosus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1863), the type species with Palearctic distribution, T. bihari Fage, 1931 (Eastern Europe), T. nishikii Yaginuma, 1972 (Japan) and T. ornithes (Barrows, 1940)(USA). In Ukraine Taranucnus is represented by two species, T. setosus and T. bihari. A detailed study of the male mentioned earlier as Taranucnus sp. (Chumak, Prokopenko & Tymochko 2007; Prokopenko, Chumak 2007), and several females close to T. bihari Fage, 1931 revealed a new species of this genus. Since it is hard to clarify the position of some of these females we report them below as T. cf. bihari.

  13. Ontogenesis, gender, and molting influence the venom yield in the spider Coremiocnemis tropix (Araneae, Theraphosidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The demand for spider venom increases along with the growing popularity of venoms-based research. A deeper understanding of factors that influence the venom yield in spiders would therefore be of interest to both commercial venom suppliers and research facilities. The present study addresses the influence of several factors on the venom yield by systematically analyzing the data obtained from 1773 electrical milkings of the Australian theraphosid spider Coremiocnemis tropix. Gender and ontoge...

  14. The jumping lynx spider Oxyopes salticus Hentz, 1845 and its Neotropical relatives (Araneae: Oxyopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Adalberto J

    2017-01-10

    The spider genus Oxyopes Latreille occurs throughout the world, but is insufficiently known in South America and the Caribbean. In this study, three apparently related species of this genus are reported from the region. Oxyopes salticus Hentz, 1845 is redescribed and illustrated, and extreme variation in colour pattern and in female genitalia is reported within this species. Oxyopes m-fasciatus Piza, 1938 and Oxyopes nigrolineatus Mello-Leitão, 1941 are both considered junior synonyms of O. salticus. The material examined in this study, together with information from the literature, show this species is widely distributed throughout the continental Americas and the Caribbean. Oxyopes crewi Bryant, 1948 is redescribed and illustrated, and its geographic distribution is extended to Bahamas, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Saint Kitts. A new species, Oxyopes incantatus sp. nov., is described and illustrated for the first time based on specimens from the Galápagos Islands.

  15. Transcriptome Profiling Analysis of Wolf Spider Pardosa pseudoannulata (Araneae: Lycosidae after Cadmium Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pardosa pseudoannulata is one of the most common wandering spiders in agricultural fields and a potentially good bioindicator for heavy metal contamination. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which spiders respond to heavy metals at the molecular level. In the present study, high-throughput transcriptome sequencing was employed to characterize the de novo transcriptome of the spiders and to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs after cadmium exposure. We obtained 60,489 assembled unigenes, 18,773 of which were annotated in the public databases. A total of 2939 and 2491 DEGs were detected between the libraries of two Cd-treated groups and the control. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that metabolism processes and digestive system function were predominately enriched in response to Cd stress. At the cellular and molecular levels, significantly enriched pathways in lysosomes and phagosomes as well as replication, recombination and repair demonstrated that oxidative damage resulted from Cd exposure. Based on the selected DEGs, certain critical genes involved in defence and detoxification were analysed. These results may elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying spiders’ responses to heavy metal stress.

  16. Erster Nachweis der Gattung Wubanoides Eskov, 1986 in Deutschland (Araneae: Linyphiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schikora, Hans-Bert

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1998-99, spiders of the mainly Siberian genus Wubanoides Eskov, 1986 were found in a block field in the Harz mountains, Lower Saxony, Germany. They resemble W. uralensis (Pakhorukov, 1981, but appear taxonomically distinct when compared with paratypes of this species. Up to the clarification of their taxonomic status, they are announced here as W. uralensis. Short notes are given on biology and ecology, the questionable status of the species as a "glacial relict" is discussed.

  17. Erster Nachweis der Gattung Wubanoides Eskov, 1986 in Deutschland (Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Schikora, Hans-Bert

    2001-01-01

    In 1998-99, spiders of the mainly Siberian genus Wubanoides Eskov, 1986 were found in a block field in the Harz mountains, Lower Saxony, Germany. They resemble W. uralensis (Pakhorukov, 1981), but appear taxonomically distinct when compared with paratypes of this species. Up to the clarification of their taxonomic status, they are announced here as W. uralensis. Short notes are given on biology and ecology, the questionable status of the species as a "glacial relict" is discussed.

  18. Spinnen (Araneae in Küstendünenheiden der Insel Hiddensee (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchholz, Sascha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides the first checklist of the spiders from coastal heathland on the Baltic Sea island of Hiddensee, Germany. A total of 171 species could be recovered by pitfall trapping in 2008 and 2009. The species inventory comprises several typical dune and heathland species. Ten species (Altella lucida, Centromerus capucinus, Dictyna latens, Drassodes cupreus, Hypsocephalus pusillus, Hypsosinga sanguinea, Micaria lenzi, Micrargus apertus, Philodromus histrio, Walckenaeria capito are new to the arachnofauna of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania.

  19. New records and geographical distribution of ctenid spiders (Araneae: Ctenidae) in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzi, Nicolás A; Valderrama-Ardila, Carlos; Brescovit, Antonio D; Polotow, Daniele; Simó, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This study provides new records, geographical distribution extensions and a checklist of the current ctenids species in Colombia based on the review of four arachnological collections and published literature. A total of 15 new records for Ctenidae in Colombia are reported; nine of these species are new records for the country and the distribution of the remaining six is expanded. The genus Centroctenus Mello-Leitão, 1929 (C. ocelliventer Strand, 1909) is recorded for first time in Colombia and Cupiennius coccineus (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901) for South America. Due to the strategic geographic position of Colombia, which is a transition zone between Southern and Central American biotas, species inventories in different localities are important to fill distributional gaps. The number of known species of ctenids in Colombia is increased from 16 to 25 and these data will be useful for future studies in taxonomy, systematics and biogeography of this family.

  20. A checklist of the spiders (Arachnida, Araneae of the Polokwane Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Dippenaar

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA, spiders were collected from all the field layers in the Polokwane Nature Reserve (Limpopo Province, South Africa over a period of a year (2005–2006 using four collecting methods. Six habitat types were sampled: Acacia tortillis open savanna; A. rehmanniana woodland, false grassland, riverine and sweet thorn thicket, granite outcrop; and Aloe marlothii thicket. A total of 13 821 spiders were collected (using sweep netting, tree beating, active searching and pitfall trapping represented by 39 families, 156 determined genera and 275 species. The most diverse families are the Thomisidae (42 spp., Araneidae (39 spp. and Salticidae (29 spp.. A total of 84 spp. (30.5% were web builders and 191 spp. (69.5% wanderers. In the Polokwane Nature Reserve, 13.75% of South African species are presently protected.

  1. Ein Beitrag zur Springspinnenfauna Spaniens mit drei Erstnachweisen für die Balearen (Araneae, Salticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schäfer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the course of several collection trips on the Spanish mainland and Mallorca, 18 species of jumping spiders were recorded, including three species discovered for the first time in the Balearic Islands: Hasarius adansoni (Audouin, 1826, Heliophanus ramosus Wesołowska, 1986 and Thyene imperialis (Rossi, 1846. In addition, the first European record of Heliophanus stylifer Simon, 1878 is corrected: it refers to a misidentified female of Heliophanus ramosus Wesołowska, 1986; accordingly, H. stylifer has to be removed from the European checklist.

  2. [Composition of the Araneae (Arachnida) fauna of the provincial Iberá Reserve, Corrientes, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Gilberto; Damborsky, Miryam P; Bar, María E; Oscherov, Elena B; Porcel, E

    2009-01-01

    A survey of the spider community composition and diversity was carried out in grasslands and woods in three localities: Colonia Pellegrini, Paraje Galarza and Estancia Rinc6n (Iberá province Reserve). Pit fall traps, leaf litter sifting, foliage beating, hand collecting and sweep nets were used. Shannon's diversity index, evenness, Berger-Parker's dominance index, beta and gamma diversity were calculated, and a checklist of spider fauna was compiled. Species richness was estimated by Chao 1, Chao 2, first and second order Jack-knife. A total of 4,138 spiders grouped into 150 species from 33 families of Araneomorphae and two species from two families of Mygalomorphae were collected. Five species are new records for Argentina and eleven for Corrientes province. Araneidae was the most abundant family (39.8%), followed by Salticidae (10.9%), Anyphaenidae (7.9%), Tetragnathidae (7.4%), and Lycosidae (5.5%). The other families represented less than 5% of the total catch. The web-builder guild had the highest number of specimens and the highest richness index. The abundance, observed richness, Shannon diversity and evenness indexes were highest in Colonia Pellegrini woodland and Paraje Galarza grassland. Alpha diversity represented 89% of the gamma; the remaining 11% corresponded to beta diversity. According to the indexes, between 67% and 97% of the existing spider fauna was represented in the collected specimens from Iberá.

  3. A checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of the Chornohora Mountain massif (the Ukrainian Carpathians)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirna, Anna; Gnelitsa, Valery; Zhukovets, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    The present checklist of spiders native to the Chornohora Mts of the Ukrainian Carpathians is based both on literature-derived data and on material collected by the authors in 1999, 2006 and 2011-2014. The majority of these studies (approximately 80 %) were conducted in the upper montane forests, subalpine and alpine levels on the slopes of the main ridge and adjacent spurs and mountains. The study also covers glacial cirques and river valleys. A few spiders were collected from local villages...

  4. Türkiye Örümcek Listesine Katkılar (Araneae:Gnaphosidae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gubim

    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... Gnaphosidae is one of the familiar families of spiders in. Turkey. There are many researchers carrying out detailed ... (2008) have a checklist of. Gnaphosidae from Turkey, which have 107 ... made under a SZX12 Olympus stereomicroscope. In the diagnosis of the spider species collected from the research.

  5. A checklist of the spiders (Araneae of the Chornohora Mountain massif (the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirna, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist of spiders native to the Chornohora Mts of the Ukrainian Carpathians is based both on literature-derived data and on material collected by the authors in 1999, 2006 and 2011-2014. The majority of these studies (approximately 80 % were conducted in the upper montane forests, subalpine and alpine levels on the slopes of the main ridge and adjacent spurs and mountains. The study also covers glacial cirques and river valleys. A few spiders were collected from local villages. The list of spiders includes records from the collections of the Museum of Natural History of the Wroclaw University and Museum (Poland and the Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. A total of 252 valid species from 22 families is known from the Chornohora Mt. massif.

  6. A preliminary checklist of spiders (Araneae: Arachnida in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. K. Adarsh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to document spider diversity in Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary, Idukki District, Kerala State in southern India.  The study was conducted from October to November 2012.  A total of 101 species of spiders belonging to 65 genera from 29 families were identified from the sanctuary.  This accounted for 6.98% of Indian spider species, 17.81% of Indian spider genera and 48.33% of the spider families of India.  The dominant families were Lycosidae (11 species and Araneidae (10.  Two endemic genera of Indian spiders such as Annandaliella and Neoheterophrictus were found at Chinnar, each representing one species each, and belonging to the family Theraphosidae.  A guild structure analysis of the spiders revealed seven feeding guilds such as orb weavers, stalkers, ground runners, foliage runners, sheet web builders, space web builders and ambushers. 

  7. A check list of the spider fauna of the Western Soutpansberg, South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Foord

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available By virtue of its geological history and geographical location the Soutpansberg constitutes a refuge for a high diversity of organisms. The Western Soutpansberg forms part of the Savanna Biome and is presently the area with the highest concentration of Natural Heritage Sites in South Africa. A unique private initiative is under way to improve its national and international conservation status in a bid to conserve the mountain. A checklist of the spider species of the Western Soutpansberg collected over a five-year period is presented. Forty-six families, represented by 109 genera and 127 species have been collected. Of the species collected, 81 (64 % were wandering spiders and 46 (36 % web builders. The Thomisidae have the highest number of species (15 followed by the Araneidae and the Salticidae with 10 species each. Ninety-six genera are represented by a single species. Ninety six percent of the species collected are new records for the area. This survey is the first for the area and forms part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA.

  8. On Pardosa schenkeli (Araneae, Lycosidae and its presence in Germany and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronestedt, Torbjörn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The wolf spider Pardosa schenkeli Lessert, 1904 was since long regarded as occurring in Germany and Poland but is excluded from the recent checklist of spiders found in these countries. Re-examination of material collected in Germany and Poland, respectively, verifies its presence in both countries. Characters for distinguishing P. schenkeli and its ally P. bifasciata (C.L. Koch, 1834 are given and illustrated.

  9. A new species of Tegenaria Latreille, 1804 (Araneae, Agelenidae) from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Rahşen S.; Kunt, Kadir B.; Marusik, Yuri M.; Uğurtaş, İsmail H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the spider genus Tegenaria Latreille, 1804 is described, based on newly collected specimens from Turkey. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnosis and figures of the copulatory organs of both sexes are presented. Finally, a checklist and distribution maps for Turkish Tegenaria species are provided. PMID:21594119

  10. Some spiders (Araneae new to the Hungarian fauna, including three genera and one famil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfliegler, W.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of new species of spiders to Hungary: Acantholycosa lignaria (Clerck, 1758, Episinus maculipes Cavanna, 1876, Oecobius maculatus Simon, 1870 and Pandava laminata (Thorell, 1878. We also report Clubiona neglecta O. P.-Cambridge, 1862 (previously only mentioned in a table in a Hungarian-language dissertation. The genus Acantholycosa (Dahl, 1908 was hitherto unknown in Hungary, yet expected to occur. The family Oecobiidae Blackwall, 1862 is new to the Hungarian fauna. The Southeast-Asian neozoon Pandava laminata is also recorded as new to Hungary. All further species found to be new to the Hungarian fauna or described in Hungary after the most recent publication of a Hungarian spider checklist are briefly mentioned.

  11. The spiders of the Swartberg Nature Reserve in South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Swartberg Nature Reserve is situated in the Large Swartberg mountain range, in the Oudtshoorn district of the Western Cape Province. Spiders were collected from the reserve over a 10-year period. This is one of the inventory projects of the South African National Survey (SANSA for spiders of the Succulent Karoo Biome. A total of 45 families comprising 136 genera and 186 species were collected, all which are new records for the area. This represents about 9.4 of the total known South African spider fauna. Of the spiders collected 142 species (76.5 were wanderers and 44 (23.5 web dwellers. The plant dwellers comprised 43.3 of the total number of species and the ground dwellers 56.7 . The Gnaphosidae was the most diverse family represented by 33 species, followed by the Salticidae with 23 and Thomisidae with 15. Ten species are possibly new to science and the Filistatidae is a first record for South Africa. An annotated checklist with information on the guilds, habitat preference and web types are provided.

  12. Description of male Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae with notes on habits and conservation status

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    Siddharth Kulkarni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The male sex of Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is described based on specimens from the type locality. The distinguishing characters from its closest species Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877 are detailed. An interesting behaviour of going underwater by T. sataraensis, on disturbance is recorded and tested for significance. The surveys have shown sighting of this species only to the perennial streams of the rocky outcrops in Satara region. The potential threats to this species and the possible conservation status based on known distribution are discussed.

  13. Redescription of the poorly known crab spider Firmicus bivittatus (Araneae: Thomisidae

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    Deltshev, Christo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Firmicus bivittatus Simon, 1895 was described from the Edough Mt, Algeria, based on one male only. Here, a redescription and new illustrations of the species based on the existing type material is presented. The female is figured for the first time.

  14. Three spider species of the genus Mimetus Hentz, 1832 (Araneae, Mimetidae from China

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    Chen Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with three species of the genus Mimetus from China, including M. echinatus Wang, 1990, M. lamelliformis sp. n. (male, and M. wangi sp. n. (female and male. M. lamelliformis differs from the related species M. echinatus Wang, 1990 by: cymbial tip with several slender long macrosetae; cymbium boat-shaped, length/width ratio about 3/1 in retrolateral view; vexillum about 1/2 length of cymbium in retrolateral view. M. wangi sp. n. differs from the related species M. sinicus Song & Zhu, 1993 by: the opisthosoma with a pair of distinct outgrowths in the dorsum; sperm duct nearly horizontal; spermathecae kidney shaped and contiguous. Photos of body and copulatory organs, line drawings of copulatory organs, as well as the locality map are provided.

  15. Maro lehtineni (Araneae: Linyphiidae – a spider species new to the fauna of Poland

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    Wiśniewski, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The rare linyphiid spider species Maro lehtineni Saaristo, 1971 was recorded in the Polish part of the Sudetes, in the Giant Mountains (in Polish Karkonosze. Five males were found on one of the sloping transition mires in the spring and early summer of 2011 and 2012. We provide new figures for identification of this species, and summarize and discuss data on its distribution, characteristic habitats and phenology.

  16. Characterization of microsatellite loci in the subsocial spider Stegodyphus lineatus (Araneae: Eresidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, T.; Tuni, Cristina; Cariani, A.

    2009-01-01

    Stegodyphus lineatus spiders live in groups consisting of closely related individuals. There appears to be no discrimination against related individuals as mates but females mate multiply, despite the fact that matings are shown to carry a cost. We have developed eight polymorphic dinucleotide...

  17. Two new species of the spider genus Alpaida (Araneae: Araneidae from restinga areas in Brazil

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    Gracielle F. Braga-Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Alpaida O.P.-Cambridge, 1889 are described based on male and female specimens from seven restinga areas from northeastern to southern Brazil. Alpaida teresinha sp. nov., from Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, differs from other species of the genus in the wider lobe of the conductor, the concave median apophysis and with the posterior lobe ventrally positioned, and the wrinkled distal projection of the terminal apophysis in males. Females can be recognized by having widely spaced epigynal lips and by the narrow epigynal notch in ventral view. Alpaida toninho sp. nov., from Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro and Santa Catarina, can be distinguished by the round lobes of the terminal apophysis, and by the median apophysis with a distal lobe and a projection in males, and by the epigynum elliptical, with a short scape in females.

  18. A faunistic study on ground-dwelling spiders (Araneae in the Tirana district, Albania

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    Vrenozi, Blerina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spiders from the Tirana district of Albania were investigated. Currently, 78 species from 24 families and a collection of 400 specimens from January to August 2010 were recorded for Tirana. A total of 32 new records for the Albanian fauna are included in the present paper. Agraecina lineata (Simon, 1878 is the first record for the Balkan Peninsula. Saitis graecus Kulczyński, 1905 was known before only from Greece and Bulgaria. Presently, 373 spider species are known for Albania.

  19. Intersexual Trophic Niche Partitioning in an Ant-Eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekár, Stanislav; Martisová, Martina; Bilde, T.

    2011-01-01

    lead to higher energy demands in females driven by fecundity selection, while males invest in mate searching. We tested predictions of the two hypotheses underlying intersexual trophic niche partitioning in a natural population of spiders. Zodarion jozefienae spiders specialize on Messor barbarus ants...... that are polymorphic in body size and hence comprise potential trophic niches for the spider, making this system well-suited to study intersexual trophic niche partitioning. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative analysis of trophic morphology (the chelicerae) and body size of males, females and juveniles...... demonstrated highly female biased SSD (Sexual Size Dimorphism) in body size, body weight, and in the size of chelicerae, the latter arising from sex-specific growth patterns in trophic morphology. In the field, female spiders actively selected ant sub-castes that were larger than the average prey size...

  20. Spiders (Araneae of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve (Moravia, Czech Republic

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    Ondřej Machač

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders of Hůrka u Hranic National Nature Reserve were investigated during the year 2011. Several capture methods were used during the vegetation season (from April to November in many various habitats of this territory. Altogether, 92 species from 27 families were recorded, including very rare and remarcable species. Majority of such species prefer thermophilous habitats: Atypus affinis Eichwald, 1830, Dysdera czechica Řezáč, in prep., Theridion melanurum Hahn, 1831, Agroeca cuprea Menge, 1873, Drassyllus villicus (Thorell, 1875, Zodarion germanicum (C. L. Koch, 1837 and Dipoena melanogaster (C. L. Koch, 1837. Some species are also listed in the Red List of threatened species in the Czech Republic: Cheiracanthium elegans Thorell, 1875 in category endangered (EN, Cozyptila blackwalli (Simon, 1875 and Leptorchestes berolinensis (C. L. Koch, 1846 in category vulnerable (VU. Altogether, 144 spider species are now known from the reserve; they represent 16.6% of araneofauna of the Czech Republic.

  1. Palpimanid spiders from Guyana: new species of the genera Fernandezina and Otiothops (Araneae, Palpimanidae, Otiothopinae

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    Grismado Cristian J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of the spider family Palpimanidae from Guyana are described: Fernandezina takutu, the first species of this genus known from this country andOtiothops giralunas, that seems to be the sister species of O. goloboffi Grismado, 1996 from northwestern Argentina.

  2. Systematics, conservation and morphology of the spider genus Tayshaneta (Araneae, Leptonetidae in Central Texas Caves

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    Joel Ledford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The spider genus Tayshaneta is revised based on results from a three gene phylogenetic analysis (Ledford et al. 2011 and a comprehensive morphological survey using scanning electron (SEM and compound light microscopy. The morphology and relationships within Tayshaneta are discussed and five species-groups are supported by phylogenetic analyses: the anopica group, the coeca group, the myopica group, the microps group and the sandersi group. Short branch lengths within Tayshaneta contrast sharply with the remaining North American genera and are viewed as evidence for a relatively recent radiation of species. Variation in troglomorphic morphology is discussed and compared to patterns found in other Texas cave invertebrates. Several species previously known as single cave endemics have wider ranges than expected, suggesting that some caves are not isolated habitats but instead form part of interconnected karst networks. Distribution maps are compared with karst faunal regions (KFR’s in Central Texas and the implications for the conservation and recovery of Tayshaneta species are discussed. Ten new species are described: T. archambaulti sp. n., T. emeraldae sp. n., T. fawcetti sp. n., T. grubbsi sp. n., T. madla sp. n., T. oconnorae sp. n., T. sandersi sp. n., T. sprousei sp. n., T. vidrio sp. n. and T. whitei sp. n. The males for three species, T. anopica (Gertsch, 1974, T. devia (Gertsch, 1974 and T. microps (Gertsch, 1974 are described for the first time. Tayshaneta furtiva (Gertsch, 1974 and T. uvaldea (Gertsch, 1974 are declared nomina dubia as the female holotypes are not diagnosable and efforts to locate specimens at the type localities were unsuccessful. All Tayshaneta species are thoroughly illustrated, diagnosed and keyed. Distribution maps are also provided highlighting areas of taxonomic ambiguity in need of additional sampling.

  3. Species delimitation and phylogeography of Aphonopelma hentzi (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae: cryptic diversity in North American tarantulas.

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    Chris A Hamilton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The primary objective of this study is to reconstruct the phylogeny of the hentzi species group and sister species in the North American tarantula genus, Aphonopelma, using a set of mitochondrial DNA markers that include the animal "barcoding gene". An mtDNA genealogy is used to consider questions regarding species boundary delimitation and to evaluate timing of divergence to infer historical biogeographic events that played a role in shaping the present-day diversity and distribution. We aimed to identify potential refugial locations, directionality of range expansion, and test whether A. hentzi post-glacial expansion fit a predicted time frame. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Bayesian phylogenetic approach was used to analyze a 2051 base pair (bp mtDNA data matrix comprising aligned fragments of the gene regions CO1 (1165 bp and ND1-16S (886 bp. Multiple species delimitation techniques (DNA tree-based methods, a "barcode gap" using percent of pairwise sequence divergence (uncorrected p-distances, and the GMYC method consistently recognized a number of divergent and genealogically exclusive groups. CONCLUSIONS: The use of numerous species delimitation methods, in concert, provide an effective approach to dissecting species boundaries in this spider group; as well they seem to provide strong evidence for a number of nominal, previously undiscovered, and cryptic species. Our data also indicate that Pleistocene habitat fragmentation and subsequent range expansion events may have shaped contemporary phylogeographic patterns of Aphonopelma diversity in the southwestern United States, particularly for the A. hentzi species group. These findings indicate that future species delimitation approaches need to be analyzed in context of a number of factors, such as the sampling distribution, loci used, biogeographic history, breadth of morphological variation, ecological factors, and behavioral data, to make truly integrative decisions about what constitutes an evolutionary lineage recognized as a "species".

  4. Mediterranean Recluse Spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae from Charkhab Cave, Southern Iran

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    Saber Sadeghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The best-known dangerous spiders belong to the six genera. The genus Loxosceles or violin spiders are well known for their ability to cause skin necrosis or loxoscelism. All Loxosceles species have medical im­portance due to their necrotizing venom. The present article reports the occurrence of L. rufescens in Charkhab Cave, south of Iran (Larestan.Methods: The specimens were collected from the Charkhab Cave using handling forceps, paintbrush and aspirator and preserved in 96% ethanol.Results: Loxosceles rufescens, a medically important spider, is recorded from Charkhab Cave in Fars Province (southwest of Iran. Identification of L. rufescens was performed based on external morphology and the features of male genitalia.Conclusion: Presence of L. rufescens in south of Iran especially in a cave confirmed that this species is a widely distributed species in Iran. Therefore, cavers or cave visitors should be aware of this poisonous spider in caves.

  5. Five new species of Phintella Strand, 1906 (Araneae, Salticidae from the Wuling Mountains, China

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    Yi Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new species of Phintella are described from the Wuling Mountains, China: Phintella arcuata sp. n. (male and female, Phintella levii sp. n. (female, Phintella panda sp. n. (female, Phintella pulcherrima sp. n. (male and female, and Phintella wulingensis sp. n. (female. Distribution data, detailed morphological characteristics, and illustrations of body and genital organs are presented.

  6. A geographical distribution database of the genus Dysdera in the Canary Islands (Araneae, Dysderidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Hernández, Nuria; López, Salvador de la Cruz; Roca-Cusachs, Marcos; Oromí, Pedro; Arnedo, Miquel A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The ground-dweller spider genus Dysdera shows very high species richness on the oceanic archipelago of the Canary Islands, providing one of the most outstanding examples of island radiation among spiders, only paralleled by Tetragnatha spiders on the Hawaiian archipelago. A georeferenced database of the 48 Dysdera species occurring in the Canary Islands was assembled to facilitate ongoing and future research on this remarkable lineage. All species are endemic to the archipelago except for the cosmopolitan Dysdera crocata. The dataset consists of 794 distributional records documented from 1971 to 2015, each locality being represented only once per species. Distribution maps are provided for each species, along with basic diversity and distribution information. The database and geographical maps included in this article stand for the most updated, accurate and complete information on the distribution of the spider genus Dysdera in the Canary Islands. PMID:27833424

  7. Distribution of the brown recluse spider (Araneae: Sicariidae) in Illinois and Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kenneth L; Vetter, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    The medical importance of the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik, is well known, but there is a need for more accurate information about the distribution of the spider in North America. We gathered information via an Internet offer to identify spiders in Illinois and Iowa that were thought to be brown recluses. We also mined brown recluse locality information from other agencies that kept such records. In Iowa, the brown recluse is unknown from its northern counties and rare in southern counties. In Illinois, brown recluse spiders are common in the southern portion of the state and dwindle to almost nonexistence in a transition to the northern counties. Although there were a few finds in the Chicago, IL area and its suburbs, these are surmised to be human-transported specimens and not part of naturally occurring populations. Considering the great human population density and paucity of brown recluses in the Chicago area, medical personnel therein should obtain patient geographic information and be conservative when diagnosing loxoscelism in comparison with southern Illinois, where the spiders are plentiful and bites are more likely.

  8. Spiders (Araneae) Found in Bananas and Other International Cargo Submitted to North American Arachnologists for Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Crawford, Rodney L; Buckle, Donald J

    2014-11-01

    Spiders found in international cargo brought into North America are sometimes submitted to arachnologists for identification. Often, these spiders are presumed to be of medical importance because of size or a submitter's familiarity with a toxic spider genus from the continent of origin. Starting in 2006, requests were made for spiders found in international cargo brought into North America, in addition to the specimens from similar cargo shipments already in our museum collections. This was an ad hoc study that allowed us to focus on spiders of concern to the discoverer. We identified 135 spiders found in international cargo. A key for the most common species is provided. The most frequently submitted spiders were the pantropical huntsman spider, Heteropoda venatoria (L.) (Sparassidae), and the redfaced banana spider, Cupiennius chiapanensis Medina Soriano (Ctenidae). Spiders of medical importance were rare. The most common cargo from which spiders were submitted was bananas with most specimens coming from Central America, Ecuador, or Colombia. Lack of experience with nonnative fauna caused several experienced American arachnologists to misidentify harmless ctenid spiders (C. chiapanensis, spotlegged banana spider, Cupiennius getazi Simon) as highly toxic Phoneutria spiders. These misidentifications could have led to costly, unwarranted prophylactic eradication measures, unnecessary employee health education, heightened employee anxiety and spoilage when perishable goods are left unloaded due to safety concerns. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  9. Reports of envenomation by brown recluse spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae) outnumber verifications of Loxosceles spiders in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Edwards, G B; James, Louis F

    2004-07-01

    Bites attributed to the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, are frequently reported by medical personnel throughout Florida, whereas the extensive arachnological evidence contradicts the alleged widespread occurrence of Loxosceles spiders in the state. We compared reports of brown recluse spider bites made by medical personnel from a 6-yr Florida poison control center database to the known verifications of Loxosceles spiders from 100 yr of Florida arachnological data. Medical personnel diagnosed 124 brown recluse spider bites from 31 of Florida's 67 counties in 6 yr. In contrast, only 11 finds of approximately 70 Loxosceles spiders have been made in 10 Florida counties in 100 yr. Florida does not have sufficient widespread populations of Loxosceles spiders to warrant consideration of brown recluse spider envenomation as a probable etiology of dermonecrosis. Florida health care would improve if medical personnel would consider the multitude of other etiologies that manifest in dermonecrosis.

  10. Diversidad de Araneae en cultivos de Citrus sinensis (Rutaceae de la Provincia de Corrientes, Argentina

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    Gilberto Avalos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Las arañas son ideales como indicadores de cambios ecológicos por su diversidad y abundancia. En la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina, se estudiaron arañas de Citrus sinensis en parcelas de 0.82 hectáreas, con riego (AM1 y sin riego (AM2. Mediante pitfall, agitación de follaje, captura manual y tamizado de hojarasca se recolectaron 7 174 ejemplares (33 familias, 44 géneros y 200 especies/morfoespecies, el 70% fueron juveniles. AM1 registró 3 811 individuos (33 familias, 179 especies/morfoespecies y AM2 3 363 (31 familias, 174 especies/morfoespecies. Durante el verano se observó la mayor abundancia. En ambas parcelas, ocho familias representaron el 75% del total, Lycosidae fue la más numerosa y se identificaron ocho gremios; las vagabundas de suelo fueron las más abundantes (AM1 n=1341, s=39; AM2 n=999, s=33 seguida por las constructoras de telas orbiculares (AM1 n=637, s=36; AM2 n=552, s=33, las cazadoras al acecho (AM1 n=471, s=43; AM2 n=453, s=47 y las de telas espaciales (AM1 n=446, s=23; AM2 n=342, s=25. La diversidad alfa en ambas parcelas (AM1 H’=4.161, J’=0.802; AM2 H’=4.184, J’=0.811 no mostró diferencias significativas (t=1.083, p=0.279. El modelo de dependencia lineal fue el que mejor ajustó los resultados. El modelo de Clench estimó el 90.9% de las observadas en AM1 y el 90.6% en la AM2.

  11. Kryptonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. (Araneae, Nesticidae, with notes on the Mediterranean cave species

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    Martina Pavlek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and illustrates a new genus and a new species belonging to the family Nesticidae based on morphology and supported by molecular data. The new genus, Kryptonesticus gen. nov., groups eight species spread from Bulgaria and Turkey to Croatia, including Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Crete. As a result, seven new combinations are proposed: K. eremita (Simon, 1879 comb. nov., K. arenstorffi (Kulczyński, 1914 comb. nov., K. fagei (Kratochvíl, 1933 comb. nov., K. beroni (Deltshev, 1977 comb. nov., K. beshkovi (Deltshev, 1979 comb. nov., K. henderickxi (Bosselaers, 1998 comb. nov. and K. dimensis (López-Pancorbo, Kunt & Ribera, 2013 comb. nov., all ex Nesticus. Kryptonesticus deelemanae gen. et sp. nov. is described on the basis of both sexes and its phylogenetic relationships with closely related species are discussed based on morphological and molecular data (the cox1, rrn and H3 genes. In addition, the species of this new genus (except for K. eremita are clear candidates for protection: they have highly restricted ranges and some of them show a high degree of adaptation to the subterranean environment.

  12. Spiders (Araneae of selected sinkholes of Moravský kras Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic

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    Vladimír Hula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present faunistic data about spiders in selected sinkholes of northern part of Moravský kras Protected Landscape Area. Time of collection was established in the following terms: 24 March 2010 – 22 September 2010. We collected altogether 5742 adult specimens which were determined to 59 species of 14 families. We found two very rare spiders (critically endangered Porrhomma errans and endangered Walckenaeria monoceros and several interesting, rarely collected bioindicator species (Alopecosa trabalis, Mecopisthes silus, Zelotes longipes. From the bioindicative evaluation point of view, 44% of found species belong to species with connection to natural habitats, 37% belong to species preferring semi-natural habitats, and 19% belong to species of disturbed habitats. From the relictness point of view, majority of species was of the expansive category (53%, 40% of class II relicts, and only 7% of class I relicts. Sink holes did not increase total biodiversity of agricultural land too much because of their relative small size.

  13. New species, new records, and a key to the Brazilian species of Gelanor (Araneae: Mimetidae

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    Everton Nei Lopes Rodrigues

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Gelanor Thorell, 1969 comprises 11 Neotropical species. In this paper, two new species are described from Brazil: Gelanor hoga sp. nov., based on males and females from the state of Amazonas, and Gelanor cachimbo sp. nov., based on males from the state of Pará. Additionally, new records from Brazil are provided for Gelanor altithorax Keyserling, 1893, Gelanor consequus O. P.-Cambridge, 1902, Gelanor juruti Benavides & Hormiga, 2016, Gelanor latus (Keyserling, 1881, Gelanor waorani Benavides & Hormiga, 2016 and Gelanor zonatus (C.L. Koch, 1845 and a key to the Brazilian species and illustrations are provided.

  14. Modeling distribution of Phoneutria bahiensis (Araneae: Ctenidae: an endemic and threatened spider from Brazil

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    Marcelo A Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phoneutria bahiensis Simó & Brescovit, 2001 is a large ctenid spider inhabiting the states of Bahia and Espírito Santo, Brazil. Considering that it is probably endemic, this species was included in the Brazilian red book of threatened species. Here, we predict the distribution range of P. bahiensis using 19 bioclimatic variables in the model design. The most septentrional record for this spider was indicated for northern Bahia. The model predicts that the distribution range covers the Atlantic Forest from the state of Paraíba to Rio de Janeiro, with the best suitable area in the Atlantic Forest of the state of Bahia. The bioclimatic variable with the best contribution to the model was precipitation in the driest quarter. Based on collected data, the species inhabits Ombrophilous Forests and Restinga vegetation, two ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest biome. In the best-predicted area of distribution, eleven Conservation Units were included. This information could be considered for future conservation plans of this species.

  15. The spider family Selenopidae (Arachnida, Araneae) in Australasia and the Oriental Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Sarah C.; Harvey, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We relimit and revise the family Selenopidae to include four new genera and 27 new species from Australia and the Oriental Region. The family is redefined, as are the genera Anyphops Benoit, Garcorops Corronca, Hovops Benoit, Selenops Latreille, and Siamspinops Dankittipakul & Corronca, to accommodate the new genera and to correct previous inconsistencies in the diagnoses and definitions of the aforementioned genera. The species of Selenops that occur throughout India and China are also reviewed. Three species occur in China: Selenops bursarius Karsch 1879, also known from Japan, Korea and Taiwan, Selenops ollarius Zhu, Sha, & Chen 1990, and Selenops radiatus Latreille 1819, the type of the genus and most widespread selenopid. Selenops cordatus Zhu, Sha & Chen syn. n. is recognized as a junior synonym of Selenops radiatus. Amamanganops gen. n. is monotypic, with Amamanganops baginawa sp. n. (♀; from the Philippines). Godumops gen. n. is monotypic, with Godumops caritus sp. n. (♂; from Papua New Guinea). Karaops gen. n. occurs throughout Australia and includes 24 species. A new combination is proposed for Karaops australiensis (L. Koch 1875) comb. n. (ex. Selenops), and the new species: Karaops gangarie sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops monteithi sp. n. (♀), Karaops alanlongbottomi sp. n. (♂), Karaops keithlongbottomi sp. n. (♂), Karaops larryoo sp. n. (♂), Karaops jarrit sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops marrayagong sp. n. (♀), Karaops raveni sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops badgeradda sp. n. (♀), Karaops burbidgei sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops karrawarla sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops julianneae sp. n. (♀), Karaops martamarta sp. n. (♀), Karaops manaayn sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops vadlaadambara sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops pilkingtoni sp. n. (♀, ♂), Karaops deserticola sp. n. (♀), Karaops ngarutjaranya sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops francesae sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops toolbrunup sp. n. (♀, ♂), the type species Karaops ellenae sp. n. (♂,♀), Karaops jenniferae sp. n. (♀), and Karaops dawara sp. n. (♀).The genus Makdiops gen. n. contains five species from India and Nepal. A new combination is proposed for Makdiops agumbensis (Tikader 1969), comb. n., Makdiops montigenus (Simon 1889), comb. n., Makdiops nilgirensis (Reimoser 1934) comb. n.,(ex. Selenops). Also, there are two new species the type of the genus Makdiops mahishasura sp. n. (♀; from India), and Makdiops shiva sp. n. (♀). The genus Pakawops gen. n. is monotypic. A new combination is proposed for Pakawops formosanus (Kayashima 1943) comb. n. (ex. Selenops), known only from Taiwan. A new combination is proposed for Siamspinops aculeatus (Simon)comb. n. (ex. Selenops). The distribution and diversity of the studied selenopid fauna is discussed. Finally, keys are provided to all of the selenopid genera and to the species of Karaops gen. n.and Makdiops gen. n. PMID:21738435

  16. Comparative transcriptomics of Entelegyne spiders (Araneae, Entelegynae, with emphasis on molecular evolution of orphan genes.

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    David E Carlson

    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing technology is rapidly transforming the landscape of evolutionary biology, and has become a cost-effective and efficient means of collecting exome information for non-model organisms. Due to their taxonomic diversity, production of interesting venom and silk proteins, and the relative scarcity of existing genomic resources, spiders in particular are excellent targets for next-generation sequencing (NGS methods. In this study, the transcriptomes of six entelegyne spider species from three genera (Cicurina travisae, C. vibora, Habronattus signatus, H. ustulatus, Nesticus bishopi, and N. cooperi were sequenced and de novo assembled. Each assembly was assessed for quality and completeness and functionally annotated using gene ontology information. Approximately 100 transcripts with evidence of homology to venom proteins were discovered. After identifying more than 3,000 putatively orthologous genes across all six taxa, we used comparative analyses to identify 24 instances of positively selected genes. In addition, between ~ 550 and 1,100 unique orphan genes were found in each genus. These unique, uncharacterized genes exhibited elevated rates of amino acid substitution, potentially consistent with lineage-specific adaptive evolution. The data generated for this study represent a valuable resource for future phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary research, and our results provide new insight into the forces driving genome evolution in taxa that span the root of entelegyne spider phylogeny.

  17. Dolomedes plantarius (Araneae, Pisauridae in Belarus: records, distribution and implications for conservation

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    Ivanov, Vladisalav

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dolomedes plantarius (Clerck, 1757 is becoming another iconic species within European conservation programmes. It is commonly accepted that the densest populations of this species are situated in Western Europe and many records confirm this. At the same time Eastern European populations are often not taken into account when assessing future dynamics of species distribution due to climate change. Here we provide data about D. plantarius in Belarus, which includes both an extensive literature survey and our own records in different parts of the country. The evidence provided suggest that Belarus is currently a large refugium for the fen raft spider, which was found during the last 30 years practically everywhere where specialists were interested in its study. We suggest that involvement of international research teams in studies of D. plantarius in Belarus will ensure the most efficient population management in Europe.

  18. Four new spider species of the family Theridiosomatidae (Arachnida, Araneae from caves in Laos

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    Yucheng Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of the spider family Theridiosomatidae are described from caves in Laos: Alaria cavernicola sp. n. (♂♀, A. navicularis sp. n., (♂♀ A. bicornis sp. n. (♂♀, Chthonopes thakekensis sp. n. (♀. Diagnoses and illustrations for all new taxa are given. All holotypes are deposited in the Senckenberg Research Institute in Frankfurt am Main, Germany (SMF.

  19. Ground-dwelling arthropod (Araneae, Coleoptera: Carabidae, Isopoda: Oniscidea assemblages on Hungarian main road verges

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    Vona-Túri Diána

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we research ground-dwelling arthropods along four road stretches, which represent the main verge habitats (arid grassland, agricultural area, forest, and wetland of Hungary. Besides the faunistic investigation of arthropod communities, we described and compared dominance relation and species composition. We identified 83 carabids, 81 spiders, and 4 isopod species. Seven beetle species and one spider species are included in the invertebrate Red List of Hungary. The registered species were dominant on main road verges bordering arid grassland and wetland. Main road verges proved to be a diverse habitat; hence, it is important to carry on more investigation.

  20. Revision, phylogeny, and microhabitat shifts in the Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The previously poorly known Southeast Asian spider genus Aetana Huber, 2005 is revised. Fifteen species are newly described, and the first SEM data and a first phylogenetic analysis of the genus are presented. Four species groups are well supported, one restricted to Borneo, two restricted to the Philippines, and one ranging from the Philippines to Fiji. The cladistic analysis and field observations suggest that the ancestor of Aetana built its web close to the ground, in confined spaces among and under rocks and logs. In at least two cases, evolutionary shifts of microhabitat resulted in species being adapted to life in higher forest strata, with correlated morphological and behavioral changes (lighter coloration; longer abdomen; additional sheet in web or more strongly domed web. The following species are newly described: A. abadae Huber, sp. nov., A. baganihan Huber, sp. nov., A. banahaw Huber, sp. nov., A. kiukoki Huber, sp. nov., A. libjo Huber, sp. nov., A. loboc Huber, sp. nov., A. lozadae Huber, sp. nov., A. manansalai Huber, sp. nov., A. ocampoi Huber, sp. nov., A. paragua Huber, sp. nov. and A. pasambai Huber, sp. nov. from the Philippines; A. gaya Huber, sp. nov., A. indah Huber, sp. nov., A. lambir Huber, sp. nov. and A. poring Huber, sp. nov. from northern Borneo. The female of A. kinabalu Huber, 2005 is newly described. A potential case of female genital dimorphism is documented in A. ocampoi Huber, sp. nov.

  1. Annotated Check List of the Spiders (Araneae of the Mountain Zebra National Park

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    Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary check list of the spider fauna of the Mountain Zebra National Park is given. Sixteen families, comprising 29 genera and 32 species, are recorded. Observations on the distribution, diagnostic morphology and behaviour of 15 species are given.

  2. A revision of the Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon (Araneae: Philodromidae

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    A. Van den Berg

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical species of the genus Tibellus Simon, 1875, are revised. Of the 10 previously recognised species of long-bodied grss spiders from this region, eight are redescribed and figured. Two species, T. punctifasciatus Strand, 1906, and T. robustus Simon, 1886, are considered nomina dubia. Five new species, T. cobusi, T. gerhardi, T. nimbaensis, T. somaliensis and T. sunetae, are described and three previously recognised subspecies of T. vossioni Simon, 1884, namely T. v. armatus Lessert, 1928, T. v. flavipes Caporiacco, 1941, and T. v. minor Lessert, 1919, are given species status. The genus Tibellinus Simon, 1910, is a junior synonym of Tibellus. Tibellinus australis is transferred to the genus Tibellus. The males of T. armatus stat. nov. and T. hollidayi Lawrence, 1952, are described for the first time. A key to 17 recognised species is given. Distributional data are provided for all species.

  3. Taxonomic revision of the tarantula genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Theraphosidae) within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Chris A; Hendrixson, Brent E; Bond, Jason E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic study documents the taxonomy, diversity, and distribution of the tarantula spider genus Aphonopelma Pocock, 1901 within the United States. By employing phylogenomic, morphological, and geospatial data, we evaluated all 55 nominal species in the United States to examine the evolutionary history of Aphonopelma and the group's taxonomy by implementing an integrative approach to species delimitation. Based on our analyses, we now recognize only 29 distinct species in the United States. We propose 33 new synonymies (Aphonopelma apacheum, Aphonopelma minchi, Aphonopelma rothi, Aphonopelma schmidti, Aphonopelma stahnkei = Aphonopelma chalcodes; Aphonopelma arnoldi = Aphonopelma armada; Aphonopelma behlei, Aphonopelma vogelae = Aphonopelma marxi; Aphonopelma breenei = Aphonopelma anax; Aphonopelma chambersi, Aphonopelma clarum, Aphonopelma cryptethum, Aphonopelma sandersoni, Aphonopelma sullivani = Aphonopelma eutylenum; Aphonopelma clarki, Aphonopelma coloradanum, Aphonopelma echinum, Aphonopelma gurleyi, Aphonopelma harlingenum, Aphonopelma odelli, Aphonopelma waconum, Aphonopelma wichitanum = Aphonopelma hentzi; Aphonopelma heterops = Aphonopelma moderatum; Aphonopelma jungi, Aphonopelma punzoi = Aphonopelma vorhiesi; Aphonopelma brunnius, Aphonopelma chamberlini, Aphonopelma iviei, Aphonopelma lithodomum, Aphonopelma smithi, Aphonopelma zionis = Aphonopelma iodius; Aphonopelma phanum, Aphonopelma reversum = Aphonopelma steindachneri), 14 new species (Aphonopelma atomicum sp. n., Aphonopelma catalina sp. n., Aphonopelma chiricahua sp. n., Aphonopelma icenoglei sp. n., Aphonopelma johnnycashi sp. n., Aphonopelma madera sp. n., Aphonopelma mareki sp. n., Aphonopelma moellendorfi sp. n., Aphonopelma parvum sp. n., Aphonopelma peloncillo sp. n., Aphonopelma prenticei sp. n., Aphonopelma saguaro sp. n., Aphonopelma superstitionense sp. n., and Aphonopelma xwalxwal sp. n.), and seven nomina dubia (Aphonopelma baergi, Aphonopelma cratium, Aphonopelma hollyi, Aphonopelma mordax, Aphonopelma radinum, Aphonopelma rusticum, Aphonopelma texense). Our proposed species tree based on Anchored Enrichment data delimits five major lineages: a monotypic group confined to California, a western group, an eastern group, a group primarily distributed in high-elevation areas, and a group that comprises several miniaturized species. Multiple species are distributed throughout two biodiversity hotspots in the United States (i.e., California Floristic Province and Madrean Pine-Oak Woodlands). Keys are provided for identification of both males and females. By conducting the most comprehensive sampling of a single theraphosid genus to date, this research significantly broadens the scope of prior molecular and morphological investigations, finally bringing a modern understanding of species delimitation in this dynamic and charismatic group of spiders.

  4. Taxonomic notes on the crab spider genus Tobias Simon, 1895 (Araneae, Thomisidae, Stephanopinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Miguel; Teixeira, Renato Augusto; Lise, Arno Antonio

    2015-10-30

    The males of Tobias caudatus Mello-Leitão, 1929 and Tobias pustulosus Simon, 1929 are described for the first time, females are redescribed and both sexes are illustrated. New distribution records are presented for both species. Tobias monstruosus Mello-Leitão, 1929 is considered a junior synonym of T. pustulosus. The types of Tobias albovittatus Caporiacco, 1954, and Tobias gradiens Mello-Leitão, 1929 are lost, and Tobias albicans Mello-Leitão, 1929 and Tobias corticatus Mello-Leitão, 1917 are known only from poorly preserved specimens, thus they all are considered nomina dubia.

  5. Intersexual trophic niche partitioning in an ant-eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae.

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    Stano Pekár

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Divergence in trophic niche between the sexes may function to reduce competition between the sexes ("intersexual niche partitioning hypothesis", or may be result from differential selection among the sexes on maximizing reproductive output ("sexual selection hypothesis". The latter may lead to higher energy demands in females driven by fecundity selection, while males invest in mate searching. We tested predictions of the two hypotheses underlying intersexual trophic niche partitioning in a natural population of spiders. Zodarion jozefienae spiders specialize on Messor barbarus ants that are polymorphic in body size and hence comprise potential trophic niches for the spider, making this system well-suited to study intersexual trophic niche partitioning. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Comparative analysis of trophic morphology (the chelicerae and body size of males, females and juveniles demonstrated highly female biased SSD (Sexual Size Dimorphism in body size, body weight, and in the size of chelicerae, the latter arising from sex-specific growth patterns in trophic morphology. In the field, female spiders actively selected ant sub-castes that were larger than the average prey size, and larger than ants captured by juveniles and males. Female fecundity was highly positively correlated with female body mass, which reflects foraging success during the adult stage. Females in laboratory experiments preferred the large ant sub-castes and displayed higher capture efficiency. In contrast, males occupied a different trophic niche and showed reduced foraging effort and reduced prey capture and feeding efficiency compared with females and juveniles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data indicate that female-biased dimorphism in trophic morphology and body size correlate with sex-specific reproductive strategies. We propose that intersexual trophic niche partitioning is shaped primarily by fecundity selection in females, and results from sex-differences in the route to successful reproduction where females are selected to maximize energy intake and fecundity, while males switch from foraging to invest in mating effort.

  6. Intersexual trophic niche partitioning in an ant-eating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Martišová, Martina; Bilde, Trine

    2011-01-27

    Divergence in trophic niche between the sexes may function to reduce competition between the sexes ("intersexual niche partitioning hypothesis"), or may be result from differential selection among the sexes on maximizing reproductive output ("sexual selection hypothesis"). The latter may lead to higher energy demands in females driven by fecundity selection, while males invest in mate searching. We tested predictions of the two hypotheses underlying intersexual trophic niche partitioning in a natural population of spiders. Zodarion jozefienae spiders specialize on Messor barbarus ants that are polymorphic in body size and hence comprise potential trophic niches for the spider, making this system well-suited to study intersexual trophic niche partitioning. Comparative analysis of trophic morphology (the chelicerae) and body size of males, females and juveniles demonstrated highly female biased SSD (Sexual Size Dimorphism) in body size, body weight, and in the size of chelicerae, the latter arising from sex-specific growth patterns in trophic morphology. In the field, female spiders actively selected ant sub-castes that were larger than the average prey size, and larger than ants captured by juveniles and males. Female fecundity was highly positively correlated with female body mass, which reflects foraging success during the adult stage. Females in laboratory experiments preferred the large ant sub-castes and displayed higher capture efficiency. In contrast, males occupied a different trophic niche and showed reduced foraging effort and reduced prey capture and feeding efficiency compared with females and juveniles. Our data indicate that female-biased dimorphism in trophic morphology and body size correlate with sex-specific reproductive strategies. We propose that intersexual trophic niche partitioning is shaped primarily by fecundity selection in females, and results from sex-differences in the route to successful reproduction where females are selected to maximize energy intake and fecundity, while males switch from foraging to invest in mating effort.

  7. Intersexual Trophic Niche Partitioning in an Ant-Eating Spider (Araneae: Zodariidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pekar, Stano; Martisova, Martina; Bilde, Trine

    2011-01-01

    .... Zodarion jozefienae spiders specialize on Messor barbarus ants that are polymorphic in body size and hence comprise potential trophic niches for the spider, making this system well-suited to study...

  8. Spinnerets and silk-producing system of Segestria senoculata (Araneae, Araneomorphae, Segestriidae

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    S. Karschová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The spinning apparatus and silk of Segestria senoculata were studied with the use of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy, which confirmed the presence of four categories of spigots connected with four types of spinning glands (i.e., Glandulae ampullaceae major, Glandulae ampullaceae minor, Glandulae piriformes and Glandulae pseudaciniformes. New data about the morphology of spinnerets and spigots were obtained for both the adults and nymphal stages of both sexes. For the first time the silken threads of retreats, signal threads and attachment discs of the members of Segestria were subjected to a detailed SEM study. The data resulting from studying the spinning apparatus of S. senoculata was compared to current knowledge of the silk producing systems of families belonging to the Dysderoidea superfamily. Silks that are emitted from spigots in the course of retreat construction are not (similarly to the other dysderoids processed by the spider’s legs during the subsequent process of hardening. Apart from the major ampullate glands/spigots, segestriids also possess developed minor ampullate glands. Minor ampullate threads are used by S. senoculata spiders when making their signal threads.

  9. Multiple bradykinin-related peptides from the capture web of the spider Nephila clavipes (Araneae, Tetragnatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volsi, Evelyn C F R; Mendes, Maria Anita; Marques, Maurício Ribeiro; dos Santos, Lucilene Delazari; Santos, Keity Souza; de Souza, Bibiana Monson; Babieri, Eduardo Feltran; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2006-04-01

    Three bradykinin-related peptides (nephilakinins-I to -III) and bradykinin itself were isolated from the aqueous washing extract of the capture web of the spider Nephila clavipes by gel permeation chromatography on a Sephacryl S-100 column, followed by chromatography in a Hi-Trap Sephadex-G25 Superfine column. The novel peptides occurred in low concentrations and were sequenced through ESI-MS/MS analysis: nephilakinin-I (G-P-N-P-G-F-S-P-F-R-NH2), nephilakinin-II (E-A-P-P-G-F-S-P-F-R-NH2) and nephilakinin-III (P-S-P-P-G-F-S-P-F-R-NH2). Synthetic peptides replicated the novel bradykinin-related peptides, which were submitted to biological characterizations. Nephilakinins were shown to cause constriction on isolated rat ileum preparations and relaxation on rat duodenum muscle preparations at amounts higher than bradykinin; apparently these peptides constitute B2-type agonists of ileal and duodenal smooth muscles. All peptides including the bradykinin were moderately lethal to honeybees. These bradykinin peptides may be related to the predation of insects by the webs of N. clavipes.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of Nephila clavata (Araneae: Nephilidae) Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wen-Jian; Fang, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Peng; Pan, Hong-Chun

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Nephila clavata is a circular molecule of 14,433 bp in length, containing 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and a control region. The A + T content of the overall base composition of H-strand is 76.1% (T: 40.0%; C: 9.2%; A: 36.1%; G: 14.7%). COI gene begins with TTA as start codon, COII gene begins with TTT as start codon, COIII gene begins with TTG as start codon, ND3, ND4L, ND6 and ATP8 genes begin with ATT as start codon, while other six protein-coding genes start with ATA as initiation codon. ND3, ND4, ND4L, ND5, COI, COII, ATP6 and ATP8 genes are terminated with TAA as stop codon, ND1, ND2, ND6 and Cyt b end with TAG, and COIII ends with TGA.

  11. Biogeography and speciation patterns of the golden orb spider genus Nephila (Araneae: Nephilidae) in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yong-Chao; Chang, Yung-Hau; Smith, Deborah; Zhu, Ming-Sheng; Kuntner, Matjaž; Tso, I-Min

    2011-01-01

    The molecular phylogeny of the globally distributed golden orb spider genus Nephila (Nephilidae) was reconstructed to infer its speciation history, with a focus on SE Asian/W Pacific species. Five Asian, two Australian, four African, and one American species were included in the phylogenetic analyses. Other species in Nephilidae, Araneidae, and Tetragnathidae were included to assess their relationships with the genus Nephila, and one species from Uloboridae was used as the outgroup. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed from one nuclear (18S) and two mitochondrial (COI and 16S) markers. Our molecular phylogeny shows that the widely distributed Asian/Australian species, N. pilipes, and an African species, N. constricta, form a clade that is sister to all other Nephila species. Nested in this Nephila clade are one clade with tropical and subtropical/temperate Asian/Australian species, and the other containing African and American species. The estimated divergence times suggest that diversification events within Nephila occurred during mid-Miocene to Pliocene (16 Mya-2 Mya), and these time periods were characterized by cyclic global warming/cooling events. According to Dispersal and Vicariance Analysis (DIVA), the ancestral range of the Asian/Australian clade was tropical Asia, and the ancestral range of the genus Nephila was either tropical Asia or Africa. We conclude that the speciation of the Asian/Australian Nephila species was driven by Neogene global cyclic climate changes. However, further population level studies comparing diversification patterns of sister species are needed to determine the mode of speciation of these species.

  12. A golden orb-weaver spider (Araneae: Nephilidae: Nephila) from the Middle Jurassic of China

    OpenAIRE

    Selden, Paul A.; Shih, ChungKun; Ren, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Nephila are large, conspicuous weavers of orb webs composed of golden silk, in tropical and subtropical regions. Nephilids have a sparse fossil record, the oldest described hitherto being Cretaraneus vilaltae from the Cretaceous of Spain. Five species from Neogene Dominican amber and one from the Eocene of Florissant, CO, USA, have been referred to the extant genus Nephila. Here, we report the largest known fossil spider, Nephila jurassica sp. nov., from Middle Jurassic (approx. 165 Ma) strat...

  13. The mechanical properties of the non-sticky spiral in Nephila orb webs (Araneae, Nephilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselberg, Thomas; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-10-01

    Detailed information on web geometry and the material properties of the various silks used enables the function of the web's different structures to be elucidated. In this study we investigated the non-sticky spiral in Nephila edulis webs, which in this species is not removed during web building. This permanent non-sticky spiral shows several modifications compared with others, e.g. temporary non-sticky spirals - it is zigzag shaped and wrapped around the radial thread at the elongated junctions. The material properties of the silk used in the non-sticky spiral and other scaffolding structures (i.e. radii, frame and anchor threads) were comparable. However, the fibre diameters differed, with the non-sticky spiral threads being significantly smaller. We used the measured data in a finite element (FE) model of the non-sticky spiral in a segment of the web. The FE analysis suggested that the observed zigzag index resulted from the application of very high pre-stresses to the outer turns of the non-sticky spiral. However, final pre-stress levels in the non-sticky spiral after reorganisation were down to 300 MPa or 1.5-2 times the stress in the radii, which is probably closer to the stress applied by the spider during web building.

  14. A golden orb-weaver spider (Araneae: Nephilidae: Nephila) from the Middle Jurassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A; Shih, ChungKun; Ren, Dong

    2011-10-23

    Nephila are large, conspicuous weavers of orb webs composed of golden silk, in tropical and subtropical regions. Nephilids have a sparse fossil record, the oldest described hitherto being Cretaraneus vilaltae from the Cretaceous of Spain. Five species from Neogene Dominican amber and one from the Eocene of Florissant, CO, USA, have been referred to the extant genus Nephila. Here, we report the largest known fossil spider, Nephila jurassica sp. nov., from Middle Jurassic (approx. 165 Ma) strata of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. The new species extends the fossil record of the family by approximately 35 Ma and of the genus Nephila by approximately 130 Ma, making it the longest ranging spider genus known. Nephilidae originated somewhere on Pangaea, possibly the North China block, followed by dispersal almost worldwide before the break-up of the supercontinent later in the Mesozoic. The find suggests that the palaeoclimate was warm and humid at this time. This giant fossil orb-weaver provides evidence of predation on medium to large insects, well known from the Daohugou beds, and would have played an important role in the evolution of these insects.

  15. Aliens in Europe: updates on the distributions of Modisimus culicinus and Micropholcus fauroti (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber, Bernhard A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The pholcid spiders Modisimus culicinus (Simon, 1893 and Micropholcus fauroti (Simon, 1887 are pantropical species that have spread around the world at least several decades ago. Here we present numerous new records for both species, most of which fall into the expected latitudes, i.e. between the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn (93% and 87% of records respectively. However, we also report the first records for M. culicinus from Central Europe (Germany and Czech Republic, >50°N and the first European record for M. fauroti from outside of Belgium (Germany. The fact that in both species several specimens have been found at more than one locality suggests that they may already be in the stage of establishment and spreading in Europe. Finally, we present an updated identification key to the genera of Pholcidae in Europe.

  16. Revisiting the taxonomy of the rare and tiny comb-footed spider Carniella brignolii (Araneae, Theridiidae

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    Thaler-Knoflach, Barbara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carniella brignolii Thaler & Steinberger, 1988 was first described based on a male from Austria and still belongs to the rare, scarcely studied species. Based on material from Germany and Switzerland the hitherto unknown female now can be assigned and presented. In this context a new synonymy is also proposed: The cave-dwelling, troglomorphic C. mihaili (Georgescu, 1989 from Romania, originally established as new genus Marianana, is synonymised with C. brignolii.

  17. Das Weibchen von Erigonoplus justus (O. P.-Cambridge, 1875 (Araneae: Linyphiidae

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    Thaler, Konrad

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The rare erigonine Erigonoplus justus was recently discovered at a xerothermic site in Rheinland-Pfalz. Its female is described for the first time. The species is new for Germany. Habitat preference, phenology and distribution area of E. justus are briefly discussed.

  18. A survey of the East Palaearctic Lycosidae (Araneae. 9. Genus Xerolycosa Dahl, 1908 (Evippinae

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    Yuri Marusik

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Xerolycosa: X. nemoralis (Westring, 1861, X. miniata (C.L. Koch, 1834 and X. mongolica (Schenkel, 1963, occurring in the Palaearctic Region are surveyed, illustrated and redescribed. Arctosa mongolica Schenkel, 1963 is removed from synonymy with X. nemoralis and transferred to Xerolycosa, and the new combination Xerolycosa mongolica (Schenkel, 1963 comb. n. is established. One new synonymy, Xerolycosa undulata Chen, Song et Kim, 1998 syn. n. from Heilongjiang = X. mongolica (Schenkel, 1963, is proposed. In addition, one more new combination is established, Trochosa pelengena (Roewer, 1960 comb. n., ex Xerolycosa.

  19. First record of the rare species Pardosa maisa Hippa & Mannila, 1982 (Araneae: Lycosidae in Romania

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    Sas-Kovács Éva-Hajnalka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a rare species, Pardosa maisa, is reported for the first time in Romania. Seven males and 4 females were collected in spring, using pitfall traps, from four marshy habitats located near two natural reserves within the Natura 2000 site “Cvmpia Careiului”, northwestern Romania.

  20. A new feature for the separation of Trochosa spinipalpis and T. terricola males (Araneae, Lycosidae

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    Hepner, Martin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A new feature on the tip of the palp, which enables the separation of male Trochosa spinipalpis (F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1895 from T. terricola Thorell, 1856, is described. T. terricola exhibits a hairless strip on the tip of the palp, while T. spinipalpis lacks this feature and has long hairs on the whole palp.

  1. Nueva especie del género Arctosa (Araneae, Lycosidae del sur de Brazil

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    Estevam Luís Cruz da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie del género Arctosa C. L. a Koch, 1848, en base a material procedente de Sapiranga, sur del Brasil. Los miembros de este género por lo general excavan refugios pequeños en los bordes arenosos de los lagos, sin embargo, esta nueva especie se encuentra debajo de rocas en los bordes de rios pequeños. Se puede encontrar hembras con ootecas y machos durante todo el año, aunque son más abundantes en el período del verano.

  2. Erstnachweis der Wolfspinne Alopecosa barbipes (Araneae: Lycosidae in Nordrhein-Westfalen

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    Schmitt, Marcus

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2005, one male specimen of the wolf spider genus Alopecosa was discovered and photographed in heathland near Haltern, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was identified as A. barbipes (Sundevall, 1833, as it showed the species- and sex-specific tibial hair-brush absent in the sibling species A. accentuata. Three years later, two other specimens of A. barbipes were collected in the same area. These findings indicate that the species is more widespread than originally thought. Some details concerning the distribution of A. accentuata and A. barbipes and the problem of synonymy are discussed.

  3. Wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae on the overgrowing peat bog in Dubravica (north-western Croatia

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    Štambuk, Anamaria

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The peat bog in Dubravica is of spread interest due to ist overgrowing by the process of natural succession, causing the habitat to become dryer and shadier. The dominance structure and phenology of wolf spiders on the Dubravica bog was studied. The spiders were collected during the period 09.04.-9.10.1995, using 20 pitfall traps. Altogether 10 lycosid species were found among 723 adult individuals. For six more abundant species phenology graphs are presented. Three species are found to be eudominant: Pardosa lugubris, Trochosa spinipalpis and Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata. The lycosids habitat preferences and dominance structure according the habitat condition and species occurences on some other European bogs are discussed. 55,2 % caught specimens are hygrophilous species, and only 7,6 % are photophilous. The lycosid fauna and dominance structure does reflect the habitat condition. As overgrowing is not fully progressed yet, the lycosid fauna of this bog is still relatively bog-characteristic.

  4. Oviposition and post-embryonic development of Aglaoctenus lagotis (Araneae: Lycosidae

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    Vanessa Stefani Sul Moreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the life history of Aglaoctenus lagotis Holmberg, 1876 from oviposition to adulthood, analyzing the number of eggs in each egg sac, birth rate, number of instars, sex ratio, cephalothorax size of all instars, and developmental time in laboratory. The results indicate that the studied species can produce two egg sacs during the reproductive period, and that the post-embryonic phase includes 12 nymphal instars. A higher mortality rate was observed during the first three instars, featuring a Type III survival curve. The sex ratio was geared towards the female in the adults and no significant difference was observed in the length of the cephalothorax between male and female. This species can therefore be considered monomorphic. Sexual dimorphism was observed in the cuticle color, with males being light brown whereas females are dark brown.

  5. Allometrie sowie Bau und Funktion der Kopulationsorgane bei der Wolfspinne Arctosa leopardus (Araneae, Lycosidae

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    Martin, Dieter

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The prosoma length of adult males and females of the lycosid spider Arctosa leopardus (Sundevall, 1833 varies by about 200%. By contrast, the decisive structures of the copulatory organs show allometrically constant sizes. Male and female copulatory organs are described in detail. Their mechanical co-operation in copula is discussed.

  6. Ein seltener Parasitoid der Wolfspinne Pardosa alacris (Araneae: Lycosidae: Ogcodes gibbosus (Diptera: Acroceridae

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    Langer, Günther

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The emerging of an acrocerid fly from an adult female of the wolf spider Pardosa alacris (C.L. Koch, 1833 was observed near Karlsruhe (Baden-Württemberg, Germany. This record supports previous results suggesting that acrocerids infect the spider's body, and not the egg sac. A short review of the life history of acrocerids and the development of their larvae is provided, casting doubt on the infection of spider cocoons by these parasitoids

  7. West African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of five new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

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    Bernhard A. Huber

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about West African pholcids. West Africa is here defined as the area south of 17°N and west of 5°E, including mainly the Upper Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo and Benin. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 38 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Five species are newly described: Anansus atewa sp. nov., Artema bunkpurugu sp. nov., Leptopholcus kintampo sp. nov., Spermophora akwamu sp. nov., and S. ziama sp. nov. The female of Quamtana kitahurira is newly described. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 33 new country records. Distribution patterns of West African pholcids are discussed, as well as possible explanations for relatively low West African pholcid species diversity as compared to Central and East Africa.

  8. Intraspecific non-sexual interactions of Grammostola schulzei (Araneae: Theraphosidae under laboratory conditions

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    Nelson E Ferretti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Intraspecific interactions of araneomorph spiders have received considerable attention, but there are few detailed studies on intraspecific interactions of mygalomorph spiders. Moreover, a thorough understanding of theraphosid biology and ecology is necessary from a conservation standpoint because natural populations may be threatened by habitat disturbances and captures for pet commerce. We described the behavior of conspecific individuals of Grammostola schulzei during non-sexual interactions, under laboratory conditions. Pairs of individuals involving adult males, adult females and juveniles were confronted and observed in resident and intruder conditions, totalizing 115 trials. When confronted two adult females, they retreated or grappled, and performed gaping display with bite attempts, usually resulted in severe injury of the intruder spiders. When confronted females with large juveniles, we frequently observed cannibalism on juveniles. Juveniles exposed to females or to other juveniles retreated or made leg tapping with forelegs and palpal drumming, which are common displays of courting adult males. Adult males courted and clasped some juveniles, but juveniles avoided or reject clasping. The behaviors observed during intraspecific interactions could play an important role determining spatial distribution and could lead to behavioral adaptations of territoriality. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1173-1182. Epub 2011 September 01.Hay pocos estudios detallados sobre las interacciones intraespecíficas de arañas migalomorfas. Por lo tanto, se describe el comportamiento de individuos conspecíficos de Grammostola schulzei durante interacciones nosexuales en condiciones de laboratorio. Se confrontaron y observaron pares de individuos involucrando machos adultos, hembras adultas y juveniles en condiciones de locatarios y visitantes, totalizando 115 encuentros. Cuando dos hembras adultas se enfrentaron, retrocedieron o lucharon adoptando elevaciones anteriores e intentos de mordeduras que usualmente resultaron en arañas visitantes heridas. Cuando se enfrentaron hembras con juveniles, frecuentemente se observó canibalismo sobre los juveniles. Los juveniles expuestos a otros juveniles o hembras retrocedieron o realizaron golpes con patas delanteras y tamborileos de palpos, los cuales constituyen unidades de comportamiento comunes durante el cortejo de los machos. Los machos adultos cortejaron y trabaron a algunos juveniles, mientras que los juveniles los evitaron o rechazaron el enganche. Los comportamientos observados durante las interacciones intraespecíficas podrían jugar un papel importante en la distribución espacial y podrían generar adaptaciones al territorialismo.

  9. Species status and conservation issues of New Zealand's endemic Latrodectus spider species (Araneae: Theridiidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vink, Cor J; Sirvid, Phillip J; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba

    2008-01-01

    cross-bred in the laboratory and produced fertile eggsacs. Colour variation is clinal over latitude and correlates significantly with mean annual temperature. We conclude that L. atritus is a junior synonym of L. katipo. An example of introgression from the Australian species L. hasseltii Thorell, 1870......) and morphological methods and with cross-breeding experiments. Latrodectus katipo and L. atritus were not found to be reciprocally monophyletic for any of the gene regions or morphological traits. Other than colour, which is variable, there were no morphological characters that separated the two species, which......New Zealand has two endemic widow spiders, Latrodectus katipo Powell, 1871 and L. atritus Urquhart, 1890. Both species face many conservation threats and are actively managed. The species status of the Latrodectus spiders of New Zealand was assessed using molecular (COI, ITS1, ITS2...

  10. Vitalius nondescriptus comb. nov. (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae: an example of theraphosid taxonomic chaos

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    Rogério Bertani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The male holotype of Hapalopus nondescriptus Mello-Leitão, 1926 is redescribed, illustrated and compared with freshly collected specimens from the type locality. The only difference noted among the holotype and the new material concerns the development of the subapical keel. Its taxonomic position is reinterpreted and discussed, resulting in its transfer to the genus Vitalius Lucas, Silva Junior & Bertani, 1993, and thus making the new combination Vitalius nondescriptus (Mello-Leitão, 1926 comb. nov. The female is described for the first time and the morphological variations in two males, born from the female used in the description, is presented and illustrated. The male differs from those of other Vitalius species by the palpal bulb with short apical keel and bifid tibial spur with narrow prolateral branch and almost straight retrolateral branch. The female differs from those of other Vitalius species by urticating hair of 'type I' having the region 'a' shorter than region 'b'. Hapalopus nondescriptus has a confusing taxonomic history, since the holotype specimen was also used to describe another theraphosid species (Cyclosternum melloleitaoi Bücherl, Thimoteo & Lucas, 1971 which was, consequently, considered its objective synonym. Thus, we consider it a clear example of theraphosid taxonomical chaos.

  11. Ground-living spiders (Araneae at polluted sites in the Subarctic

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    Koponen, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders were studied around the Pechenganikel smelter combine, Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia. The average spider density was 6-fold greater and the density of Linyphiidae specimens 11.5-fold higher at slightly polluted sites, compared with heavily polluted sites. Altogether, 18 species from 10 families were found at heavily polluted sites, the theridiid Robertus scoticus clearly dominating (23.3 % of identifiable specimens, also Neon reticulatus (9.6 %, Thanatus formicinus (9.6 % and Xysticus audax (8.2 % were abundant. The most numerous among 58 species found at slightly polluted sites were Tapinocyba pallens (18.5 %, Robertus scoticus (13.7 %, Maso sundevalli (9.5 % and Alopecosa aculeata (8.2 %. The family Linyphiidae dominated at slightly polluted sites, 64 % of species and 60 % of individuals; compared with heavily polluted sites, 23 % and 38 % respectively.

  12. A new species of ant mimicking spider, Myrmecotypus jasmineae (Araneae: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae), from Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leister, Matthew; Miller, Kelly

    2014-07-21

    Spiders of the corinnid genus Myrmecotypus Pickard-Cambridge, 1894 are known for being morphological and behavioral mimics of ants (Reiskind 1969, 1977; Cushing 1997, 2012; Rubio & Arbino 2009; Rubio et al. 2013). This genus currently includes nine species from to the New World. They occur from the United States (one species) to Argentina (one species), but most (seven species) occur from Mexico to Panama (Reiskind 1969; Rubio & Arbino 2009, Platnick 2014). A new species, M. jasmineae, from Nicaragua is described here from two males. A key to males and females of Myrmecotypus, adapted from Reiskind (1969), is modified to include all of the known species.

  13. Two Trichosporon species isolated from Central-European mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Mygalomorphae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Řezáč, Milan

    2013-04-01

    Trichosporon (Dikarya: Basidiomycota) is a genus of anamorphic yeasts typically associated with soil and water, although many species are causative agents of diseases in animals and man. Here we provide the first compelling evidence that spiders can be occasionally colonized by at least two Trichosporon species. Trichosporon dulcitum (Berkhout) Weijman 1979 was isolated from the exoskeleton of purse-web spider Atypus piceus, while Trichosporon porosum (Stautz) Middelhoven, Scorzetti & Fell 2001 was isolated from the exoskeleton of purse-web spider Atypus affinis. Both of the species were identified based on DNA sequence analysis of the host specimens displaying macroscopic signs of the superficial white mycosis on their exoskeleton. Only two specimens with macroscopic signs of superficial yeast growth were identified among the 125 individuals of A. affinis, A. piceus and Atypus muralis examined that were collected at various sites throughout the Czech Republic. The consistent burrow microclimate, uninterrupted occupancy of the single burrow for several subsequent years, and presence of prey remnants in the burrow below the purse-web may play a role in the course of infection of the mygalomorphs examined. The phylogenetic relationships of Trichosporon species are analyzed, concluding that association with invertebrates clusters predominantly among four groups of closely related species in independent Trichosporon clades.

  14. The Holarctic Hacklemesh Spider Genus Callobius (Araneae: Amaurobiidae): Morphology, Systematics, and Population Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Stephen Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Interest in the California Floristic Province as a study region for scientists interested in biodiversity, evolution, systematics, and phylogeography has been increasing over the last several years. The amaurobiid spider genus Callobius (Chamberlin) occurs throughout the Northern Hemisphere, but is particularly common in western North America and particularly diverse in the California Floristic Province. An understanding of the evolutionary history of Callobius would contribute a great deal...

  15. Systematics and phylogeography of the Dysdera erythrina species complex (Araneae, Dysderidae in Sardinia

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    Miquel Arnedo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sardinia is the second largest island in the Mediterranean and, together with Corsica and nearby mainland areas, one of the top biodiversity hotspots in the region. The origin of Sardinia traces back to the opening of the western Mediterranean in the late Oligocene. This geological event and the subsequent Messinian Salinity Crisis and Pleistocene glacial cycles have had a major impact on local biodiversity. The Dysdera woodlouse hunter spiders are one of the most diverse ground-dweller groups in the Mediterranean. Here we describe the first two species of this genus endemic to Sardinia: Dysdera jana sp. n. and Dysdera shardana sp. n. The two species show contrasting allopatric distribution: D. jana sp. n. is a narrow endemic while D. shardana sp. n. is distributed throughout most of the island. A multi-gene DNA sequence phylogenetic analys based on mitochondrial and nuclear genes supports the close relationships of the new species to the type species of the genus Dysdera erythrina. Age estimates reject Oligocene origin of the new Dysdera species and identify the Messinian Salinity Crises as the most plausible period for the split between Sardinian endemics and their closest relatives. Phylogeographic analysis reveals deep genetic divergences and population structure in Dysdera shardana sp. n., suggesting that restriction to gene flow probably due to environmental factors could explain local speciation events.

  16. Description of male Tyloridasataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae) with notes on habits and conservation status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Siddharth Shrikant; Lewis, Todd R

    2015-01-01

    The male sex of Tyloridasataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is described based on specimens from the type locality. The distinguishing characters from its closest species Tyloridaventralis (Thorell, 1877) are detailed. An interesting behaviour of going underwater by T.sataraensis, on disturbance is recorded and tested for significance. The surveys have shown sighting of this species only to the perennial streams of the rocky outcrops in Satara region. The potential threats to this species and the possible conservation status based on known distribution are discussed.

  17. Description of the female of the orb-weaver spider Testudinaria gravatai (Araneae: Araneidae

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    Renato Augusto Teixeira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Testudinaria Taczanowski, 1879 includes nine valid species; only four of these species have both sexes described. In this paper we describe the female of T. gravatai Levi, 2005, which can be recognized specially by the abdominal pattern of spots. Testudinaria gravatai Levi, 2005 is similar to T. quadripunctata Taczanowski, 1879, but can be distinguished from that species by the presence of a single median excavation on the upper margin of the epigynal atrium; by copulatory duct almost straight in the basal portion and narrower in the distal portion. We have based our description on a single available female, collected in Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil, a new locality record for the species.

  18. Food imprinting and subsequent prey preference in the lynx spider, Oxyopes salticus (Araneae: Oxyopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punzo, Fred

    2002-06-28

    This object of this study was to determine if early feeding experience can affect subsequent prey choice in lynx spiderlings (Oxyopes salticus), and if so, is it evidence for food/olfactory imprinting. After emergence from the egg sac, three groups of 10 spiderlings were each fed exclusively for a 1-week period on one of three naturally-occurring prey species (crickets): group 1 fed on nymphs of Gryllotalpa hexadactyla; group 2 (Dialeurodes citrifoli); group 3 (Microcentrum rhombifolium). Following this, they were tested for subsequent prey preference in choice tests conducted in a plastic arena. Each spiderling was presented simultaneously with one individual of each prey species in a randomized design. Spiderlings exhibited a significant first preference for the original diet. Thus, experience with certain foods encountered by newly hatched spiderlings can affect subsequent prey preference in this species. Given the primacy of the early experience, the results are best interpreted in terms of imprinting and represent the first demonstration of olfactory imprinting in a spider.

  19. Species conservation profiles of endemic spiders (Araneae) from Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo, Luís C; Silva, Isamberto; Borges, Paulo AV; Boieiro, Mário

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The North Atlantic archipelagos of Madeira and Selvagens present a unique biological diversity including, presently, 56 endemic spider species. Several recent projects provide valuable information on their distribution across most islands and habitats. To date, the only endemic spider assessed according to the IUCN Red List criteria is Hogna ingens. The objective of this paper is to assess all remaining endemic species and advise on possible future conservation actions critical for the survival of endangered species. New information Seven species were found to have a continuing decline in either range or population size. Their decline can be mostly attributed to habitat destruction or degradation, invasive plant species that reduce quality of habitat, forest fires at high mountain regions and possible competition for resources from invasive congeners. The tetragnathid M. barreti is considered as possibly extinct due to the suspected impact of a competing species. Although most endemic spiders from the Madeira and Selvagens archipelagos have relatively low extinction risk due to the good condition and protection of the laurisilva forests where many live, there are a number of species requiring urgent attention and protection measures. These include all cave and mountain-restricted species as well as those threatened by competing congeners or invasive plants. Extending current protected areas, restoring original habitats of threatened species and the control of invasive taxa should remain a priority for species survival. PMID:29104441

  20. A check list of the spider fauna of the Karoo National Park, South Africa (Arachnida: Araneae

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    Anna S. Dippenaar-Schoeman

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A check list of the spider species of the Karoo National Park collected over a period of 10 years is presented. Thirty-eight families, represented by 102 genera and 116 species have been collected. Of these species, 76 (66.4 were wanderers and 39 (33.6 web builders. The Araneidae have the highest number of species (14 followed by the Thomisidae (10 and the Gnaphosidae (8, while 14 families are represented by a single species. Information on spider guilds, their habitat preference and web types is provided. This study forms part of the South African National Survey of Arachnida (SANSA.

  1. The spider fauna of Scragh Bog in Co Westmeath, Ireland (Arachnida: Araneae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, van P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The spider fauna of Scragh Bog, a quacking bog in Co Westmeath, Ireland, was investigated for the first time. The presence of 53 species could be established, two of which are new to Ireland (Carorita limnaea (Crosby & Bishop), Porrhomma oblitum (O.P.-Cambridge)), while 30 represent new county

  2. On the diversity of some soil and cave spiders (Aranea: Arachnida from Serbia

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    Ćurčić Božidar P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 46 species from 14 families: Pholcidae (2, Dysderidae (3 Eresidae (1, Linyphiidae (11, Tetragnathidae (3, Araneidae (4, Lycosidae (5, Agelenidae (4, Amaurobiidae (2, Liocranidae (1, Gnaphosidae (2 Philodromidae (1, Thomisidae (2 and Salticidae (5 were established from 29 localities in Serbia. Five species: Dysderocrates silvestris Deeleman-Reinhold (Dysderidae, Centromerus obenbergeri (Kulczyński, 1897 (Linyphiidae, Trochosa hispanica Simon, 1870, Trochosa spinipalpis (O. P.-Cambridge (Lycosidae and Philodromus praedatus O. P.-Cambridge are new to the Serbian spider fauna; the most diverse is the family Linyphiidae which is represented by 11 species. At the time, the spiders of Serbia are represented by 633 species, belonging to 224 genera and 36 families.

  3. A new genus of Neotropical spiders of the family Sparassidae (Arachnida: Araneae

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    Elaine Cristina Pinto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nungara gen. nov. is proposed to include the type species, Nungara niveomaculata (Mello-Leitão, 1941 comb. nov., transferred from Olios Walckenaer, 1837 and two new species, described from males and females: N. anama sp. nov., from the states of Sergipe, Alagoas and Espírito Santo, and N. gaturama sp. nov., from the states of Sergipe, Bahia and Espírito Santo, all in Brazil. The new genus is distinguished from all other Neotropical sparassid genera by the presence of a deep tegular groove on the male palpal bulb and a hood-like projection on the median septum of the female epigyne. In addition, Olios fuscovariatus Mello-Leitão, 1943, Stasina koluene Mello-Leitão, 1941 and Polybetes proximus Mello-Leitão, 1943 are transferred to Nungara gen. nov. and considered junior synonyms of N. niveomaculata . All species are described and illustrated and a distribution map is provided.

  4. Armoured spiderman: morphological and behavioural adaptations of a specialised araneophagous predator (Araneae: Palpimanidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekár, Stano; Šobotník, Jan; Lubin, Yael

    2011-07-01

    In a predator-prey system where both intervenients come from the same taxon, one can expect a strong selection on behavioural and morphological traits involved in prey capture. For example, in specialised snake-eating snakes, the predator is unaffetced by the venom of the prey. We predicted that similar adaptations should have evolved in spider-eating (araneophagous) spiders. We investigated potential and actual prey of two Palpimanus spiders ( P. gibbulus, P. orientalis) to support the prediction that these are araneophagous predators. Specific behavioural adaptations were investigated using a high-speed camera during staged encounters with prey, while morphological adaptations were investigated using electron microscopy. Both Palpimanus species captured a wide assortment of spider species from various guilds but also a few insect species. Analysis of the potential prey suggested that Palpimanus is a retreat-invading predator that actively searches for spiders that hide in a retreat. Behavioural capture adaptations include a slow, stealthy approach to the prey followed by a very fast attack. Morphological capture adaptations include scopulae on forelegs used in grabbing prey body parts, stout forelegs to hold the prey firmly, and an extremely thick cuticle all over the body preventing injury from a counter bite of the prey. Palpimanus overwhelmed prey that was more than 200% larger than itself. In trials with another araneophagous spider, Cyrba algerina (Salticidae), Palpimanus captured C. algerina in more than 90% of cases independent of the size ratio between the spiders. Evidence indicates that both Palpimanus species possesses remarkable adaptations that increase its efficiency in capturing spider prey.

  5. On the taxonomy of the Neotropical spider genera Dossenus and Dyrines (Araneae: Lycosoidea: Trechaleidae from Brazil

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    Estevam L. C. da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The male of Dossenus guapore Silva, Lise & Carico, 2007 is described and illustrated for the first time, based on material from Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The spider genus Dossenus Simon, 1898 is distributed from Panama to southern Brazil and can be distinguished by the other known genera of Trechaleidae by the median dark brown band on the carapace that extends to the abdomen and by the spoon-like shape of the median apophysis of the male palpus. A new species of Dyrines Simon, 1903, D. brescoviti sp. nov., is described and illustrated based on material collected in Sergipe and Paraná, Brazil. The representatives of this spider genus are relatively small and can be distinguished from the other genera by the longitudinal dark brown bands on the legs. New records of Dyrines striatipes (Simon, 1898 are presented.

  6. Taxonomic review of the New World spider genus Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 (Araneae, Clubionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnino, Regiane; Bonaldo, Alexandre Bragio

    2015-11-23

    Elaver O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 is characterized and redescribed, including 49 species occurring from the United States to Argentina. Thirty seven previously known species are redescribed: Elaver achuca (Roddy, 1966) revalidated, E. balboae (Chickering, 1937), E. barroana (Chickering, 1937), E. calcarata (Kraus, 1955), E. carlota (Bryant, 1940), E. chisosa (Roddy, 1966), E. crinophora (Franganillo, 1934), E. crocota (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. albicans (Franganillo, 1930) name restored, E. depuncta O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. elaver (Bryant, 1940), E. excepta (L. Koch, 1866), E. grandivulva (Mello-Leitão, 1930), E. hortoni (Chickering, 1937), E. implicata (Gertsch, 1941), E. juana (Bryant, 1940), E. kohlsi (Gertsch & Jellison, 1939), E. linguata (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. madera (Roddy, 1966), E. mirabilis (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896) new. comb., E. mulaiki (Gertsch, 1935), E. multinotata (Chickering, 1937), E. orvillei (Chickering, 1937), E. placida O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. portoricensis (Petrunkevitch, 1930), E. quadrata (Kraus, 1955), E. richardi (Gertsch, 1941), E. sericea O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898, E. sigillata (Petrunkevitch, 1925), E. simplex (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1896), E. texana (Gertsch, 1933), E. tigrina O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1898 name restored, E. tricuspis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900), E. tristani (Banks, 1909), E. tumivulva (Banks, 1909), E. valvula (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) and E. wheeleri (Roewer, 1933). Ten new species are described: E. candelaria n. sp. and E. helenae n. sp. from Mexico; E. arawakan n. sp. from Haiti; E. lizae n. sp. from Costa Rica; E. darwichi n. sp. from Ecuador; E. juruti n. sp., E. tourinhoae n. sp. and E. vieirae n. sp. from Brazil; E. shinguito n. sp. from Peru and E. beni n. sp. from Bolivia. The female of E. hortoni is described for the first time. Lectotypes are designated for E. sigillata and its actual female is described for the first time. Four new synonyms are proposed: E. languida (Gertsch, 1941) is synonimized with E. multinotata; E. dorothea (Gertsch, 1935) with E. wheeleri; E. exempta (Gertsch & Davis, 1940) with E. placida and E. vulnerata (Kraus, 1955) with E. calcarata. The drawings in the original descriptions of E. kawitpaaia (Barrion & Litsinger, 1995) and E. turongdaliriana (Barrion & Litsinger, 1995) are sufficiently informative to exclude these species from Elaver but not to accurately establish its generic affiliation. Thus, until the types become available for examination, these species must remain as Clubionidae incertae sedis. Heterochemmis (F.O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1900) is synonymized with Elaver and Heterochemmis mutatus Gertsch & Davis,1940 is recognized as a junior synonym of Elaver mirabilis n. comb., the type species of Heterochemmis. New records are presented for E. valvula, E. balboae, E. brevipes (Keyserling, 1891), E. grandivulva and E. lutescens (Schmidt, 1971). Two species described by Franganillo, E. tenera (Franganillo, 1935) and E. tenuis (Franganillo, 1935), are considered species inquirendae.

  7. Envia garciai, a new genus and species of mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Microstigmatidae from Brazilian Amazonia

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    Ott Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Envia, comprising only the new species Envia garciai, is proposed. These small mygalomorph spiders were abundantly collected in soil cores and litter samples in primary rain forests near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

  8. Trap and soil monolith sampled edaphic spiders (arachnida: araneae) in Araucaria angustifolia forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baretta, Dilmar; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos; Knysak, Irene; Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    Forests with Araucaria angustifolia (Bert.) O. Kuntze trees are endangered in Brazil, and information on the diversity of soil spider families associated to these environments is practically inexistent...

  9. Diversity and distribution of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae in dry ecosystems of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany

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    Buchholz, Sascha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study provides a robust data set for ecological planning and conservation of dry ecosystems in western Germany in general and North Rhine-Westphalia in particular. We summarised all available data from recent publications that dealt with spiders in dry ecosystems of North Rhine-Westphalia. Additionally, so far unpublished results of a detailed investigation regarding spiders in sand habitats of the Westphalian Bay that was conducted between 2006 and 2008 are presented. The analysis focussed on the habitat types according to Annex I of the EU Habitats Directive and related habitats. The investigation areas were scattered in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The data set comprised a total of 84436 individuals from 371 species and 28 families. Overall, an endangerment status is assigned to 68 species. Of these, 12 spiders are in imminent danger of becoming extinct. Two species, Erigonoplus globipes and Meioneta simplicitarsis, are believed to be extinct in North Rhine-Westphalia. Seven species (Dictyna major, Mastigusa arietina, Micaria formicaria, Styloctetor romanus, Thanatus striatus, Theridion uhligi and Xysticus ferrugineus are new to the arachnofauna of North Rhine-Westphalia.

  10. Revalidating the taxonomic position of the Indian Ischnocolus spp. (Araneae: Theraphosidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siliwal

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The two Indian Ischnolocus species, I. decoratus and I. khasiensis are transferred to the genus Chilobrachys Karsch, 1891 based on presence and pattern of stridulatory setae on maxillae and chelicerae. Further, Ischnocolus decoratus is synonymised with Chilobrachys fimbriatus Pocock, 1899.

  11. Ancient DNA Resolves the History of Tetragnatha (Araneae, Tetragnathidae Spiders on Rapa Nui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko D. Cotoras

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapa Nui is one of the most remote islands in the world. As a young island, its biota is a consequence of both natural dispersals over the last ~1 million years and recent human introductions. It therefore provides an opportunity to study a unique community assemblage. Here, we extract DNA from museum-preserved and newly field-collected spiders from the genus Tetragnatha to explore their history on Rapa Nui. Using an optimized protocol to recover ancient DNA from museum-preserved spiders, we sequence and assemble partial mitochondrial genomes from nine Tetragnatha species, two of which were found on Rapa Nui, and estimate the evolutionary relationships between these and other Tetragnatha species. Our phylogeny shows that the two Rapa Nui species are not closely related. One, the possibly extinct, T. paschae, is nested within a circumtropical species complex (T. nitens, and the other (Tetragnatha sp. Rapa Nui appears to be a recent human introduction. Our results highlight the power of ancient DNA approaches in identifying cryptic and rare species, which can contribute to our understanding of the global distribution of biodiversity in all taxonomic lineages.

  12. A Common Evaluation Setting for Just.Ask, Open Ephyra and Aranea QA systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pires, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Question Answering (QA) is not a new research field in Natural Language Processing (NLP). However in recent years, QA has been a subject of growing study. Nowadays, most of the QA systems have a similar pipelined architecture and each system use a set of unique techniques to accomplish its state of the art results. However, many things are not clear in the QA processing. It is not clear the extend of the impact of tasks performed in earlier stages in following stages of the pipelining process...

  13. Predation on amphibians by spiders (Arachnida, Araneae in the Neotropical region

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    Marcelo Menin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report observations about spider predation on anurans (adults and juveniles in Central Amazonia and a literature review of spiders preying on amphibians in the Neotropical zoogeographic realm. We conducted field observations in Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, AM, and observed eight predation events on Bufonidae, Dendrobatidae, Hylidae, and Leptodactylidae frogs. The predators belong to the spider families Ctenidae, Pisauridae and Theraphosidae. Besides the families of spiders found in this study, two others – Lycosidae and Sparissidae - were found in literature. Frogs from families Centrolenidae and Microhylidae, and a caecilian(Gymnophiona, Caeciliidae were found in literature also. There is a significant correlation between the length of the anuran (snout-vent length and the length of spiders (cephalotorax and abdomen length. The size of the spider is similar or slightly lesser than the anuran prey. In general, the spiders preyed on adult and juvenile frogsin the breeding season. Spiders are opportunistic predators and prey on small frogs. Theraphosidae prey upon sub adults of large anurans and caecilians. As spiders can reach high densities on the forest floor - especially species of the genera Ctenus and Ancylometes - this interaction may be ecologically important for breeding anurans.Our reports and literature data provide evidence that spiders commonly prey on amphibians in Neotropic, but the impact of predation on populations of amphibians is unknown.

  14. Loxosceles niedeguidonae (Araneae, Sicariidae a new species of brown spider from Brazilian semi-arid region

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    Rute Gonçclves-de-Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of recluse spider, Loxosceles niedeguidonae sp. n., is described from the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, State of Piauí, Brazil. This is the first endemic species described from Brazilian semi-arid environment. The species is included in gaucho group of Gertsch (1967 due to its spermathecal shape and is considered close to L. chapadensis Bertani, Fukushima & Nagahama, 2010 by the unusual long male palpal tibia, a character not common for species of this group. An updated key for Loxosceles species of gaucho group is presented.

  15. Loxosceles niedeguidonae (Araneae, Sicariidae) a new species of brown spider from Brazilian semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute Maria; Bertani, Rogério; Nagahama, Roberto Hiroaki; Barbosa, Maria Fatima Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of recluse spider, Loxosceles niedeguidonae sp. n., is described from the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, State of Piauí, Brazil. This is the first endemic species described from Brazilian semi-arid environment. The species is included in gaucho group of Gertsch (1967) due to its spermathecal shape and is considered close to Loxosceles chapadensis Bertani, Fukushima & Nagahama, 2010 by the unusual long male palpal tibia, a character not common for species of this group. An updated key for Loxosceles species of gaucho group is presented. PMID:22451789

  16. Scavenging by spiders (Araneae) and its relationship to pest management of the brown recluse spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S

    2011-06-01

    Experiments reported in Sandidge (2003; Nature 426: 30) indicated that the brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, preferred to scavenge dead prey over live prey and that the spiders were not detrimentally affected when fed insecticide-killed crickets. Extrapolations made in subsequent media coverage disseminating the results of this research made counter-intuitive statements that pesticide treatment in houses would increase brown recluse populations in homes. This information was presented as if the scavenging behavior was specialized in the brown recluse; however, it was more likely that this behavior has not been well studied in other species. To provide a comparison, the current laboratory study examined the likelihood of non-Loxosceles spiders to scavenge dead prey. Of 100 non-Loxosceles spiders that were tested (from 11 families, 24 genera, and at least 29 species from a variety of spider hunting guilds), 99 scavenged dead crickets when offered in petri dishes. Some of the spiders were webspinners in which real-world scavenging of dead prey is virtually impossible, yet they scavenge when given the opportunity. Therefore, scavenging is a flexible opportunistic predatory behavior that is spread across a variety of taxa and is not a unique behavior in brown recluses. These findings are discussed in relation to pest management practices.

  17. Heat Tolerance of the Brown Recluse Spider (Araneae: Sicariidae): Potential for Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kenneth L; Zagar, Lindsey M

    2016-02-01

    The brown recluse spider, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, is a well-known venomous spider common in the south-central United States where infestations can reach thousands of individuals in a single structure. Bites from this spider pose a risk of dermonecrotic lesions (loxoscelism) or, rarely, more serious systemic effects. The heat tolerance of this spider is understudied but may offer an alternative pest control solution to pesticides or fumigation, both of which have their disadvantages. We subjected brown recluse spiders to increasing temperatures to establish the upper lethal temperature (LT). Using probit analysis to generate probability of mortality at increasing temperatures, we then exposed adult spiders to the observed LT50 to simulate whole-room heat treatment. Laboratory results predict exposure to 48°C for 130 min will achieve 100% mortality of adult spiders. Field tests need to be conducted to determine the efficacy of heat treatment in a variety of real-world situations. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Refugia preferences by the spiders Loxosceles reclusa and Loxosceles laeta (Araneae: Sicariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Rust, Michael K

    2008-01-01

    A variety of refugia were offered to different instars of brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch and Mulaik, and a South American recluse spider, L. laeta (Nicolet), to determine whether they preferred certain types of refugia spaces. Variables included (1) crevice widths ranging from 3.2 to 21 mm, (2) horizontal and vertical orientations, and (3) new refugia or refugia that had silk deposited by a previous conspecific resident. An additional 30-d assay with similar-sized refugia studied each species' propensity for site fidelity or movement among refugia. L. reclusa preferred crevice widths > or = 9 mm with no correlation of body size to crevice width, whereas L. laeta preferred crevice sizes > or = 6.4 mm with a marginally significant correlation between crevice width and body size. Both species preferred (1) vertical instead of horizontal-oriented refugia and (2) refugia with conspecific silk compared with previously uninhabited refugia. There was no significant difference between the species in their propensity to move among refugia in the 30-d trial; however, both species had individuals that were always found in the same refugium for the entire assay and individuals changing refugia every 2-3 d. The propensity to switch refugia was not affected by the degree of starvation for the period tested as was initially hypothesized. The possible implications of this research toward developing novel control measures for Loxosceles spiders are discussed.

  19. Effects of cultivation of genetically modified Bt maize on epigeic arthropods (Araneae; Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschki, A; Hothorn, L A; Ross-Nickoll, M

    2007-08-01

    A field study was conducted in Germany to determine the possible effects of transgenic maize cultivation on nontarget epigeic predator organisms. During the growing period of 2001-2003, the activity abundances of spiders and carabid beetles were recorded and compared in three treatments: (1) Bt-maize (Mon 810) expressing the Cry1ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner), (2) an isogenic variety, and (3) the isogenic variety treated with insecticide. All three treatments were replicated in eight plots. The results were evaluated using three different methods. The activity abundances of single species were statistically analyzed by confidence interval methods. In addition, the phenological behaviors of the spider and carabid beetle species were determined, and multivariate statistical evaluation of the community by principal component analysis was conducted. Significantly different activity abundances in Bt plots compared with isogenic control plots were observed both for spiders and carabid beetles during 2001. However, in 2002 and 2003, no changes in community structure were detectable in any of the treatments. The change in the first year may have been caused by the influence of a massive cornborer infestation and accompanying large changes in microclimatic factors.

  20. Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1835 (Araneae; Sicariidae) species distribution in the State of Paraná

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emanuel Marques-da-Silva; Marta Luciane Fischer

    2005-01-01

      The State of Paraná registers on average 2,577 loxoscelic accidents annually. For the elaboration of control and management programs one should first determine the distribution of the species of the genus Loxosceles...