Sample records for subendothelial matrix components

  1. Selective inhibition of neutrophil activation by the subendothelial extracellular matrix: possible role in protection of the vessel wall during diapedesis. (United States)

    Matzner, Y; Vlodavsky, I; Michaeli, R I; Eldor, A


    Mobilization of circulating neutrophils toward an inflamed area involves adherence of the cells to the vascular endothelium and subsequent penetration through the endothelial cell layer without causing significant damage. To investigate the nature of a possible protective mechanism, granulocytes were incubated with the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by cultured endothelial cells and tested for release of enzymes, chemoattractants, and free oxygen radicals. In the absence of exogenously added stimuli, the neutrophils adhered to the ECM but there was no detectable release of lysozyme, chemotactic activity, or production of O2-. In contrast, the cells readily released a heparan sulfate-degrading endoglycosidase (heparanase) to an extent comparable with that released in contact with polystyrene surfaces. Neutrophils treated with the calcium ionophore A23187 or with the peptide FMLP produced O2- to a much lesser degree when incubated in contact with ECM-coated surfaces than did those incubated in contact with uncoated polystyrene culture dishes. The ECM itself was devoid of superoxide dismutase activity. Stimulation with opsonized zymosan was not inhibited by the ECM. Experiments with isolated constituents of the ECM revealed that fibronectin but not collagen type IV or laminin could partially inhibit O2- production by Ca2+ ionophore-stimulated neutrophils. Treatment of the ECM with proteolytic enzymes, but not with heparanase, abolished its inhibitory effect on neutrophil activation. These results indicate that the subendothelial basement membrane has the capacity to inhibit release of potentially noxious agents excluding heparanase, suggesting a preferential involvement of this enzyme in neutrophil diapedesis.

  2. Glomerular extracellular matrix components and integrins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, L. M.; de Melker, A. A.; Kramer, D.; Kuikman, I.; Chand, A.; Claessen, N.; Weening, J. J.; Sonnenberg, A.


    It has become apparent that extracellular matrix components and their cellular receptors, the integrins, are important regulators of glomerular development and function. In this rapidly evolving field we studied the production of extracellular matrix components and integrins by rat glomerular

  3. Force spectroscopy of hepatocytic extracellular matrix components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongsunthon, R., E-mail: [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States); Baker, W.A.; Bryhan, M.D.; Baker, D.E.; Chang, T.; Petzold, O.N.; Walczak, W.J.; Liu, J.; Faris, R.A.; Senaratne, W.; Seeley, L.A.; Youngman, R.E. [Corning Incorporated, SP-FR-01, R1S32D, Corning, NY 14831 (United States)


    We present atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy data of live hepatocytes (HEPG2/C3A liver cell line) grown in Eagle's Minimum Essential Medium, a complex solution of salts and amino acids commonly used for cell culture. Contact-mode imaging and force spectroscopy of this system allowed correlation of cell morphology and extracellular matrix (ECM) properties with substrate properties. Force spectroscopy analysis of cellular 'footprints' indicated that the cells secrete large polymers (e.g., 3.5 {mu}m contour length and estimated MW 1000 kDa) onto their substrate surface. Although definitive identification of the polymers has not yet been achieved, fluorescent-labeled antibody staining has specified the presence of ECM proteins such as collagen and laminin in the cellular footprints. The stretched polymers appear to be much larger than single molecules of known ECM components, such as collagen and heparan sulfate proteoglycan, thus suggesting that the cells create larger entangled, macromolecular structures from smaller components. There is strong evidence which suggests that the composition of the ECM is greatly influenced by the hydrophobicity of the substrate surface, with preferential production and/or adsorption of larger macromolecules on hydrophobic surfaces.

  4. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald


    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization...... and motility but also provides survival and proliferation cues. The major classes of cell surface receptors for matrix macromols. are the integrins, discoidin domain receptors, and transmembrane proteoglycans such as syndecans and CD44. Cells respond not only to specific ligands, such as collagen, fibronectin......, or basement membrane glycoproteins, but also in terms of matrix rigidity. This can regulate the release and subsequent biol. activity of matrix-bound growth factors, for example, transforming growth factor-β. In the environment of tumors, there may be changes in cell populations and their receptor profiles...

  5. New components of the Golgi matrix (United States)

    Xiang, Yi; Wang, Yanzhuang


    The eukaryotic Golgi apparatus is characterized by a stack of flattened cisternae that are surrounded by transport vesicles. The organization and function of the Golgi require Golgi matrix proteins, including GRASPs and golgins, which exist primarily as fiber-like bridges between Golgi cisternae or between cisternae and vesicles. In this review, we highlight recent findings on Golgi matrix proteins, including their roles in maintaining the Golgi structure, vesicle tethering, and novel, unexpected functions. These new discoveries further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that maintain the structure and the function of the Golgi, as well as its relationship with other cellular organelles such as the centrosome. PMID:21494806

  6. Method of forming a ceramic matrix composite and a ceramic matrix component (United States)

    de Diego, Peter; Zhang, James


    A method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component includes providing a formed ceramic member having a cavity, filling at least a portion of the cavity with a ceramic foam. The ceramic foam is deposited on a barrier layer covering at least one internal passage of the cavity. The method includes processing the formed ceramic member and ceramic foam to obtain a ceramic matrix composite component. Also provided is a method of forming a ceramic matrix composite blade and a ceramic matrix composite component.

  7. Polymer matrix nanocomposites for automotive structural components. (United States)

    Naskar, Amit K; Keum, Jong K; Boeman, Raymond G


    Over the past several decades, the automotive industry has expended significant effort to develop lightweight parts from new easy-to-process polymeric nanocomposites. These materials have been particularly attractive because they can increase fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, attempts to reinforce soft matrices by nanoscale reinforcing agents at commercially deployable scales have been only sporadically successful to date. This situation is due primarily to the lack of fundamental understanding of how multiscale interfacial interactions and the resultant structures affect the properties of polymer nanocomposites. In this Perspective, we critically evaluate the state of the art in the field and propose a possible path that may help to overcome these barriers. Only once we achieve a deeper understanding of the structure-properties relationship of polymer matrix nanocomposites will we be able to develop novel structural nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical properties for automotive applications.

  8. Extracellular matrix components as therapeutics for spinal cord injury. (United States)

    Haggerty, Agnes E; Marlow, Megan M; Oudega, Martin


    There is no treatment for people with spinal cord injury that leads to significant functional improvements. The extracellular matrix is an intricate, 3-dimensional, structural framework that defines the environment for cells in the central nervous system. The components of extracellular matrix have signaling and regulatory roles in the fate and function of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system. This review discusses the therapeutic potential of extracellular matrix components for spinal cord repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bone organic matrix components: their roles in skeletal physiology. (United States)

    Camozzi, V; Vescini, F; Luisetto, G; Moro, L


    Bone matrix is composed mainly of inorganic materials, while the bone organic compartment is a minor and complex structural entity, surrounding and supporting cells. Three major classes of biomolecules are involved in this organic part: structural proteins, specialized proteins, and proteoglycans. This review will briefly summarize our knowledge about the role and regulation of these specific bone components.

  10. Continuous fiber ceramic matrix composites for heat engine components (United States)

    Tripp, David E.


    High strength at elevated temperatures, low density, resistance to wear, and abundance of nonstrategic raw materials make structural ceramics attractive for advanced heat engine applications. Unfortunately, ceramics have a low fracture toughness and fail catastrophically because of overload, impact, and contact stresses. Ceramic matrix composites provide the means to achieve improved fracture toughness while retaining desirable characteristics, such as high strength and low density. Materials scientists and engineers are trying to develop the ideal fibers and matrices to achieve the optimum ceramic matrix composite properties. A need exists for the development of failure models for the design of ceramic matrix composite heat engine components. Phenomenological failure models are currently the most frequently used in industry, but they are deterministic and do not adequately describe ceramic matrix composite behavior. Semi-empirical models were proposed, which relate the failure of notched composite laminates to the stress a characteristic distance away from the notch. Shear lag models describe composite failure modes at the micromechanics level. The enhanced matrix cracking stress occurs at the same applied stress level predicted by the two models of steady state cracking. Finally, statistical models take into consideration the distribution in composite failure strength. The intent is to develop these models into computer algorithms for the failure analysis of ceramic matrix composites under monotonically increasing loads. The algorithms will be included in a postprocessor to general purpose finite element programs.

  11. Intestinal Stem Cell Niche: The Extracellular Matrix and Cellular Components

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    Laween Meran


    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium comprises a monolayer of polarised columnar cells organised along the crypt-villus axis. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of crypts and are constantly nourished by their surrounding niche for maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. The cellular microenvironment including the adjacent Paneth cells, stromal cells, smooth muscle cells, and neural cells as well as the extracellular matrix together constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. A dynamic regulatory network exists among the epithelium, stromal cells, and the matrix via complex signal transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of these biological or mechanical signals could potentially lead to intestinal injury and disease. In this review, we discuss the role of different intestinal stem cell niche components and dissect the interaction between dynamic matrix factors and regulatory signalling during intestinal stem cell homeostasis.

  12. Fabrication and Testing of Ceramic Matrix Composite Propulsion Components (United States)

    Effinger, Michael R.; Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Dennis, Jay; Elam, Sandy; Genge, Gary; Eckel, Andy; Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Kiser, J. Douglas; Lang, Jerry


    A viewgraph presentation outlines NASA's goals for the Second and Third Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles, placing emphasis on improving safety and decreasing the cost of transporting payloads to orbit. The use of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology is discussed. The development of CMC components, such as the Simplex CMC Blisk, cooled CMC nozzle ramps, cooled CMC thrust chambers, and CMC gas generators, are described, including challenges, test results, and likely future developments.

  13. Pneumococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules targeting of the extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Paterson, Gavin K; Orihuela, Carlos J


    The attachment of bacteria to host cells and tissues, and their subsequent invasion and dissemination are key processes during pathogenesis. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Jensch and co-workers provide further molecular insight into these events during infection with the Gram positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. Their characterization of pneumococcal adherence and virulence factor B (PavB), a bacterial surface protein with orthologues in other streptococci, show that it binds to the extracellar matrix components fibronection and plasminogen by virtue of repetitive sequences-designated streptococcal surface repeats. In mice, a pavB mutant showed reduced nasopharyngeal colonization and was attenuated in a lung infection model. As discussed here in the context of the pneumococcus, the study of PavB highlights the central role during microbal pathogenesis of targetting the extracellular matrix by so-called microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs).

  14. Fabrication and Testing of Ceramic Matrix Composite Rocket Propulsion Components (United States)

    Effinger, M. R.; Clinton, R. C., Jr.; Dennis, J.; Elam, S.; Genge, G.; Eckel, A.; Jaskowiak, M. H.; Kiser, J. D.; Lang, J.


    NASA has established goals for Second and Third Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles. Emphasis has been placed on significantly improving safety and decreasing the cost of transporting payloads to orbit. Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) components are being developed by NASA to enable significant increases in safety and engineer performance, while reducing costs. The development of the following CMC components are being pursued by NASA: (1) Simplex CMC Blisk; (2) Cooled CMC Nozzle Ramps; (3) Cooled CMC Thrust Chambers; and (4) CMC Gas Generator. These development efforts are application oriented, but have a strong underpinning of fundamental understanding of processing-microstructure-property relationships relative to structural analyses, nondestructive characterization, and material behavior analysis at the coupon and component and system operation levels. As each effort matures, emphasis will be placed on optimizing and demonstrating material/component durability, ideally using a combined Building Block Approach and Build and Bust Approach.

  15. Epithelial morphogenesis in hydra requires de novo expression of extracellular matrix components and matrix metalloproteinases. (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jinsong; Leontovich, Alexey; Fei, Kaiyin; Yan, Li; Sarras, Michael P


    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the body wall of hydra is organized as an epithelium bilayer (ectoderm and endoderm) with an intervening extracellular matrix (ECM). Previous studies have established the general molecular structure of hydra ECM and indicate that it is organized as two subepithelial zones that contain basement membrane components such as laminin and a central fibrous zone that contains interstitial matrix components such as a unique type I fibrillar collagen. Because of its simple structure and high regenerative capacity, hydra has been used as a developmental model to study cell-ECM interaction during epithelial morphogenesis. The current study extends previous studies by focusing on the relationship of ECM biogenesis to epithelial morphogenesis in hydra, as monitored during head regeneration or after simple incision of the epithelium. Histological studies indicated that decapitation or incision of the body column resulted in an immediate retraction of the ECM at the wound site followed by a re-fusion of the bilayer within 1 hour. After changes in the morphology of epithelial cells at the regenerating pole, initiation of de novo biogenesis of an ECM began within hours while full reformation of the mature matrix required approximately 2 days. These processes were monitored using probes to three matrix or matrix-associated components: basement membrane-associated hydra laminin beta1 chain (HLM-beta1), interstitial matrix-associated hydra fibrillar collagen (Hcol-I) and hydra matrix metalloproteinase (HMMP). While upregulation of mRNA for both HLM-beta1 and Hcol-I occurred by 3 hours, expression of the former was restricted to the endoderm and expression of the latter was restricted to the ectoderm. Upregulation of HMMP mRNA was also associated with the endoderm and its expression paralleled that for HLM-beta1. As monitored by immunofluorescence, HLM-beta1 protein first appeared in each of the two subepithelial zones (basal lamina) at about 7 hours

  16. Product Design Based on Matrix Functions and Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar E. Herrera-Bedoya


    Full Text Available It’s presented a tool for product design based on the rearrangement of features and components matrix. This tool has been developed in MATLAB and uses a first process based on the diagonalization, a second process based on the exchange of items and ends with a visual inspection. The results obtained were the reduction of computational cost and an approximation between 90% to 95% of the global minimum of entropy. This allows a faster decision-making process with a high percentage of accuracy and / or organize for easier handling.

  17. Extracellular Matrix Components in the Pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes (United States)

    Bogdani, Marika; Korpos, Eva; Simeonovic, Charmaine J.; Parish, Christopher R.; Sorokin, Lydia; Wight, Thomas N.


    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from progressive immune cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic β cells. As immune cells migrate into the islets they pass through the extracellular matrix (ECM). This ECM is composed of different macromolecules localized to different compartments within and surrounding islets; however, the involvement of this ECM in the development of human T1D is not well understood. Here we summarize our recent findings from human and mouse studies illustrating how specific components of the islet ECM that constitute basement membranes and interstitial matrix of the islets, and surprisingly, the intracellular composition of islet beta (β) cells themselves, are significantly altered during the pathogenesis of T1D. Our focus is on the ECM molecules laminins, collagens, heparan sulfate/heparan sulfate proteoglycans, and hyaluronan, as well as on the enzymes that degrade these ECM components. We propose that islet and lymphoid tissue ECM composition and organization are critical to promoting immune cell activation, islet invasion and destruction of islet β cells in T1D. PMID:25344787

  18. Niche Extracellular Matrix Components and Their Influence on HSC. (United States)

    Domingues, Mélanie J; Cao, Huimin; Heazlewood, Shen Y; Cao, Benjamin; Nilsson, Susan K


    Maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) takes place in a highly specialized microenvironment within the bone marrow. Technological improvements, especially in the field of in vivo imaging, have helped unravel the complexity of the niche microenvironment and have completely changed the classical concept from what was previously believed to be a static supportive platform, to a dynamic microenvironment tightly regulating HSC homeostasis through the complex interplay between diverse cell types, secreted factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and the expression of different transmembrane receptors. To add to the complexity, non-protein based metabolites have also been recognized as a component of the bone marrow niche. The objective of this review is to discuss the current understanding on how the different extracellular matrix components of the niche regulate HSC fate, both during embryonic development and in adulthood. Special attention will be provided to the description of non-protein metabolites, such as lipids and metal ions, which contribute to the regulation of HSC behavior. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1984-1993, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Enhanced assay of endothelial exocytosis using extracellular matrix components. (United States)

    LoMonaco, Michael B; Lowenstein, Charles J


    Vascular inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The first step in vascular inflammation is endothelial exocytosis, in which endothelial granules fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing prothrombotic and proinflammatory messenger molecules. The development of cell culture models to study endothelial exocytosis has been challenging because the factors that modulate exocytosis in vitro are not well understood. Here we report a method for studying endothelial exocytosis that optimizes extracellular matrix components, cell density, and duration of culture. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells plated on collagen I-coated plates and cultured in the confluent state for 7-12 days in low-serum medium showed robust secretion of von Willebrand factor when stimulated with various agonists. This exocytosis assay is rapid and applicable to high-throughput screening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Extracellular matrix components and matrix degrading enzymes in the feline placenta during gestation. (United States)

    Walter, I; Schönkypl, S


    In the endotheliochorial placenta of the cat, the maternal surface epithelium and parts of the connective tissue have to be removed to bring the fetal blood vessels in close contact to the maternal capillaries. The composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the feline uterus is not known and it is still not clear if and which parts of the maternal ECM persist during gestation in the placental labyrinth. We demonstrated various extracellular matrix components (collagen types I, III, IV, and laminin) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1, -2, -13) using immunohistochemistry and studied the distribution of intermediate filaments (vimentin, cytokeratin) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA) in the placental girdle on specimens of different stages of gestation. Collagen types I and III were mainly present in the fetal chorionic lamellae whereas diminished in the maternal placental labyrinth part. Collagen IV and laminin were expressed in fetal basement membranes and mesenchyme. Maternal endothelial cells and stromal cells showed a positive immunoreaction for anti-collagen type IV and laminin. MMP-2 was identified in the maternal stroma, including decidual cells. Endothelia of maternal blood vessels within the labyrinth contained MMP-1, -2 and -13, probably associated with angiogenesis. In the trophoblast MMP-1 and -13 were demonstrated. Maternal stem vessels were accompanied by a thick layer of syncytiotrophoblast. Around these vessels, collagen type I and SMA were present in a periendothelial region between the endothelium and the trophoblast. These findings indicate that a strictly regulated balance between ECM deposition and ECM degradation in the feline placental labyrinth is necessary for proper placental development and function.

  1. [Age-related dynamics of the main extracellular matrix components in residents of the Russian Arctic]. (United States)

    Kim, L B; Belisheva, N K; Putyatina, A N; Russkih, G S; Kozhin, P M; Tsypysheva, O B


    The main extracellular matrix components in Arctic residents were studied. Northerners had increased levels of total glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronan, and collagen IV in plasma and both general and peptide-bound hydroxyproline in urine, which indicates an accelerated metabolism of the main extracellular matrix components compared with comparison group (residents of Siberia). Age-related remodeling of extracellular matrix in northerners manifested in changing ratio and quantity of its main components. Levels of total glycosaminoglycans, hyaluronan, fibronectin, hydroxyproline and its fractions increased with age while the level of collagen IV changed insignificantly. Average positive correlation between extracellular matrix components and biological aging indicators is suggestive of relationship between these two processes: aging - which is accelerated in the Arctic and pathological remodeling of extracellular matrix as it is associated with accelerated aging. Changes in local regulation system including those related to matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors may be one of the reasons for pathological remodeling of extracellular matrix.

  2. Regulation of pituitary hormones and cell proliferation by components of the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paez-Pereda


    Full Text Available The extracellular matrix is a three-dimensional network of proteins, glycosaminoglycans and other macromolecules. It has a structural support function as well as a role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The extracellular matrix conveys signals through membrane receptors called integrins and plays an important role in pituitary physiology and tumorigenesis. There is a differential expression of extracellular matrix components and integrins during the pituitary development in the embryo and during tumorigenesis in the adult. Different extracellular matrix components regulate adrenocorticotropin at the level of the proopiomelanocortin gene transcription. The extracellular matrix also controls the proliferation of adrenocorticotropin-secreting tumor cells. On the other hand, laminin regulates the production of prolactin. Laminin has a dynamic pattern of expression during prolactinoma development with lower levels in the early pituitary hyperplasia and a strong reduction in fully grown prolactinomas. Therefore, the expression of extracellular matrix components plays a role in pituitary tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the remodeling of the extracellular matrix affects pituitary cell proliferation. Matrix metalloproteinase activity is very high in all types of human pituitary adenomas. Matrix metalloproteinase secreted by pituitary cells can release growth factors from the extracellular matrix that, in turn, control pituitary cell proliferation and hormone secretion. In summary, the differential expression of extracellular matrix components, integrins and matrix metalloproteinase contributes to the control of pituitary hormone production and cell proliferation during tumorigenesis.

  3. Pre-form ceramic matrix composite cavity and method of forming and method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component (United States)

    Monaghan, Philip Harold; Delvaux, John McConnell; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis


    A pre-form CMC cavity and method of forming pre-form CMC cavity for a ceramic matrix component includes providing a mandrel, applying a base ply to the mandrel, laying-up at least one CMC ply on the base ply, removing the mandrel, and densifying the base ply and the at least one CMC ply. The remaining densified base ply and at least one CMC ply form a ceramic matrix component having a desired geometry and a cavity formed therein. Also provided is a method of forming a CMC component.

  4. An immunofluorescence assay for extracellular matrix components highlights the role of epithelial cells in producing a stable, fibrillar extracellular matrix

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    Omar S. Qureshi


    Full Text Available Activated fibroblasts are considered major drivers of fibrotic disease progression through the production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM in response to signals from damaged epithelial and inflammatory cells. Nevertheless, epithelial cells are capable of expressing components of the ECM, cross-linking enzymes that increase its stability and are sensitive to factors involved in the early stages of fibrosis. We therefore wanted to test the hypothesis that epithelial cells can deposit ECM in response to stimulation in a comparable manner to fibroblasts. We performed immunofluorescence analysis of components of stable, mature extracellular matrix produced by primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and renal fibroblasts in response to cytokine stimulation. Whilst fibroblasts produced a higher basal level of extracellular matrix components, epithelial cells were able to deposit significant levels of fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV in response to cytokine stimulation. In response to hypoxia, epithelial cells showed an increase in collagen IV deposition but not in response to the acute stress stimuli aristolochic acid or hydrogen peroxide. When epithelial cells were in co-culture with fibroblasts we observed significant increases in the level of matrix deposition which could be reduced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β blockade. Our results highlight the role of epithelial cells acting as efficient producers of stable extracellular matrix which could contribute to renal tubule thickening in fibrosis.

  5. An immunofluorescence assay for extracellular matrix components highlights the role of epithelial cells in producing a stable, fibrillar extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Qureshi, Omar S; Bon, Hélène; Twomey, Breda; Holdsworth, Gill; Ford, Kirsty; Bergin, Marianne; Huang, Linghong; Muzylak, Mariusz; Healy, Louise J; Hurdowar, Vanessa; Johnson, Timothy S


    Activated fibroblasts are considered major drivers of fibrotic disease progression through the production of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) in response to signals from damaged epithelial and inflammatory cells. Nevertheless, epithelial cells are capable of expressing components of the ECM, cross-linking enzymes that increase its stability and are sensitive to factors involved in the early stages of fibrosis. We therefore wanted to test the hypothesis that epithelial cells can deposit ECM in response to stimulation in a comparable manner to fibroblasts. We performed immunofluorescence analysis of components of stable, mature extracellular matrix produced by primary human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells and renal fibroblasts in response to cytokine stimulation. Whilst fibroblasts produced a higher basal level of extracellular matrix components, epithelial cells were able to deposit significant levels of fibronectin, collagen I, III and IV in response to cytokine stimulation. In response to hypoxia, epithelial cells showed an increase in collagen IV deposition but not in response to the acute stress stimuli aristolochic acid or hydrogen peroxide. When epithelial cells were in co-culture with fibroblasts we observed significant increases in the level of matrix deposition which could be reduced by transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) blockade. Our results highlight the role of epithelial cells acting as efficient producers of stable extracellular matrix which could contribute to renal tubule thickening in fibrosis. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates Leydig cell extracellular matrix components. (United States)

    Catizone, A; Ricci, G; Tufano, M A; Perfetto, B; Canipari, R; Galdieri, M


    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic factor that plays multiple roles during mammalian development. We previously demonstrated that in the postnatal testes, the HGF receptor, c-met, is expressed by Leydig cells and HGF increases the steroidogenetic activity of the cells. In the present article, we report that HGF modifies the composition of the extracellular matrix of cultured Leydig cells. We show that HGF increases the metabolic activity of isolated Leydig cells; in particular, the factor increases urokinase plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinase 2 secretion. We have also shown that the levels of active transforming growth factor beta are increased by HGF. On the contrary, using the Western blotting technique, a strong reduction in the amount of fibronectin present in the culture medium of cells cultured in the presence of HGF has been detected. The presented data demonstrate that HGF modulates several functional activities of Leydig cells, further supporting the hypothesis that this factor has a relevant role in the regulation of mammalian spermatogenesis.

  7. Optimality criteria for the components of anisotropic constitutive matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    with the same proportionality factor $widehat lambda $ for all the components, as shortly specified by $C_{i j k l} = widehat lambda sum _{n} eta _{n} (epsilon _{i j})_{n} (epsilon _{k l})_{n}$, in traditional notation (n indicate load case). These simple analytical results should be communicated, in spite...

  8. A case of extreme simplicity of the core matrix in three-mode principal components analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murakami, Takashi; Ten Berge, Jos M.F.; Kiers, Henk A.L.

    In three-mode Principal Components Analysis, the P x Q x R core matrix G can be transformed to simple structure before it is interpreted. It is well-known that, when P = QR, G can be transformed to the identity matrix, which implies that all elements become equal to values specified a priori. In the

  9. [A case of thrombotic microangiopathy with glomerular subendothelial IgA deposition due to bevacizumab]. (United States)

    Tomita, Mayumi; Ochiai, Miyuki; Shu, Seika; Yamauchi, Yoshiko; Shihara, Hiromi; Ogata, Ai; Fujisawa, Nao; Yanai, Yuko; Kamata, Tadashi; Iehara, Noriyuki


    Bevacizumab, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor, is approved for the treatment of various cancers, but the incidence of proteinuria as a side effect has been reported to be 2-64%. We report a case of renal impairment due to thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) accompanied with glomerular subendothelial deposition of IgA resulting from bevacizumab administration. A 57-year-old female with advanced breast cancer, to whom bevacizumab had been administered from October 2012, developed proteinuria and epithelial casts in her urine about a month later. Serum creatinine remained at 0.7-0.8 mg/dL until June 2013, but gradually increased to 1.3 mg/dL in September. She was referred to our hospital because her renal function had not improved despite termination of bevacizumab, and a renal biopsy was performed in October. At that time, the levels of proteinuria, serum creatinine and serum IgA were high at 1.3 g/g x Cr, 1.6 mg/dL and 430 mg/dL, respectively. Histological examinations showed prominent IgA deposits in the subendothelial area and glomerular infiltration of CD68 positive cells in addition to features of TMA, such as narrowed glomerular capillary lumina and double contours of the basement membranes. In consideration of her clinical history, a diagnosis of bevacizumab-induced TMA was made. Through follow-up care without readministration of bevacizumab, epithelial casts in her urine disappeared, and proteinuria decreased to 0.62 g/g x Cr in November. Serum creatinine remains high at around 1.3 mg/dL, but has not elevated further. Serum IgA gradually decreased and reached 289 mg/dL in April 2014. TMA due to bevacizumab described in several other reports was also accompanied by glomerular IgA deposition, thus a differential diagnosis of IgA nephropathy is required. TMA was recently added to a section of "significant adverse effects" in the package insert of bevacizumab. Nephrologists should be fully aware of this drug-induced nephropathy.

  10. Visualization of extracellular matrix components within sectioned Salmonella biofilms on the surface of human gallstones.

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    Joanna M Marshall

    Full Text Available Chronic carriage of Salmonella Typhi is mediated primarily through the formation of bacterial biofilms on the surface of cholesterol gallstones. Biofilms, by definition, involve the formation of a bacterial community encased within a protective macromolecular matrix. Previous work has demonstrated the composition of the biofilm matrix to be complex and highly variable in response to altered environmental conditions. Although known to play an important role in bacterial persistence in a variety of contexts, the Salmonella biofilm matrix remains largely uncharacterized under physiological conditions. Initial attempts to study matrix components and architecture of the biofilm matrix on gallstone surfaces were hindered by the auto-fluorescence of cholesterol. In this work we describe a method for sectioning and direct visualization of extracellular matrix components of the Salmonella biofilm on the surface of human cholesterol gallstones and provide a description of the major matrix components observed therein. Confocal micrographs revealed robust biofilm formation, characterized by abundant but highly heterogeneous expression of polysaccharides such as LPS, Vi and O-antigen capsule. CsgA was not observed in the biofilm matrix and flagellar expression was tightly restricted to the biofilm-cholesterol interface. Images also revealed the presence of preexisting Enterobacteriaceae encased within the structure of the gallstone. These results demonstrate the use and feasibility of this method while highlighting the importance of studying the native architecture of the gallstone biofilm. A better understanding of the contribution of individual matrix components to the overall biofilm structure will facilitate the development of more effective and specific methods to disrupt these bacterial communities.

  11. Extracellular Matrix Molecules Facilitating Vascular Biointegration

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    Martin K.C. Ng


    Full Text Available All vascular implants, including stents, heart valves and graft materials exhibit suboptimal biocompatibility that significantly reduces their clinical efficacy. A range of biomolecules in the subendothelial space have been shown to play critical roles in local regulation of thrombosis, endothelial growth and smooth muscle cell proliferation, making these attractive candidates for modulation of vascular device biointegration. However, classically used biomaterial coatings, such as fibronectin and laminin, modulate only one of these components; enhancing endothelial cell attachment, but also activating platelets and triggering thrombosis. This review examines a subset of extracellular matrix molecules that have demonstrated multi-faceted vascular compatibility and accordingly are promising candidates to improve the biointegration of vascular biomaterials.

  12. Preoperative radiotherapy and extracellular matrix remodeling in rectal mucosa and tumour matrix metalloproteinases and plasminogen components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angenete, Eva; Oeresland, Tom; Falk, Peter; Breimer, Michael; Ivarsson, Marie-Louise (Dept. of Surgery, Inst. of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at Univ. of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden)); Hultborn, Ragnar (Dept. of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Sahlgrenska, Goeteborg (Sweden))


    Background. Preoperative radiotherapy reduces recurrence but increases postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of radiotherapy in rectal mucosa and rectal tumour extracellular matrix (ECM) by studying enzymes and growth factors involved in ECM remodeling. Materials and methods. Twenty patients with short-term preoperative radiotherapy and 12 control patients without radiotherapy were studied. Biopsies from rectal mucosa and tumour were collected prior to radiotherapy and at surgery. Tissue MMP-1, -2, -9, TIMP-1, uPA, PAI-1, TGF-beta1 and calprotectin were determined by ELISA. Biopsies from irradiated and non-irradiated peritoneal areas were also analysed. Results. Radiotherapy increased the tissue levels of MMP-2 and PAI-1 in both the rectal mucosa and tumours while calprotectin and uPA showed an increase only in the mucosa after irradiation. The increase of calprotectin was due to an influx of inflammatory cells as revealed by immunohistochemistry. Prior to irradiation, the tumour tissues had increased levels of MMP-1, -2, -9, total TGF-beta1, uPA, PAI-1 and calprotectin compared to mucosa, while TIMP-1 and the active TGF-beta1 fraction showed no statistical difference. Conclusions. This study indicates a radiation-induced effect on selected ECM remodeling proteases. This reaction may be responsible for early and late morbidity. Interference of this response might reduce these consequences.

  13. A Case of Extreme Simplicity of the Core Matrix in Three-Mode Principal Components Analysis. (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; ten Berge, Jos M. F.; Kiers, Henk A. L.


    In three-mode principal components analysis, the P x Q x R core matrix "G" can be transformed to simple structure before it is interpreted. This paper shows that, when P=QR-1, G can be transformed to have nearly all the elements equal to values specified a priori. A closed-form solution for this transformation is offered. (SLD)

  14. Rat hair follicle dermal papillae have an extracellular matrix containing basement membrane components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R


    , to be replaced by synthesis of other components including type I and III collagens. It seems likely therefore that the dermal papilla cells in vivo synthesize a basement membrane type of extracellular matrix, although a contribution from epithelial, and in some cases capillary endothelial, cells cannot be ruled...


    Daniel, Jon C.; Kosher, Robert A.; Hamos, James E.; Lash, James W.


    The effect of a high external potassium concentration on the synthesis and deposition of matrix components by chondrocytes in cell culture was determined. There is a twofold increase in the amount of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfate accumulated by chondrocytes grown in medium containing a high potassium concentration. There is also a comparable increase in the production of other sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAG) including heparan sulfate and uncharacterized glycoprotein components. The twofold greater accumulation of GAG in the high potassium medium is primarily the result of a decrease in their rate of degradation. In spite of this increased accumulation of GAG, the cells in high potassium fail to elaborate appreciable quantities of visible matrix, although they do retain the typical chondrocytic polygonal morphology. Although most of the products are secreted into the culture medium in the high potassium environment, the cell layer retains the same amount of glycosaminoglycan as the control cultures. The inability of chondrocytes grown in high potassium to elaborate the typical hyaline cartilage matrix is not a consequence of an impairment in collagen synthesis, since there is no difference in the total amount of collagen synthesized by high potassium or control cultures. There is, however, a slight increase in the proportion of collagen that is secreted into the medium by chondrocytes in high potassium. Synthesis of the predominant cartilage matrix molecules is not sufficient in itself to ensure that these molecules will be assembled into a hyaline matrix. PMID:4279924

  16. Identification and localization of lysozyme as a component of eggshell membranes and eggshell matrix. (United States)

    Hincke, M T; Gautron, J; Panheleux, M; Garcia-Ruiz, J; McKee, M D; Nys, Y


    The avian eggshell is a composite biomaterial composed of non-calcifying eggshell membranes and the overlying calcified shell matrix. The calcified shell forms in a uterine fluid where the concentration of different protein species varies between the initial, rapid calcification and terminal phases of eggshell deposition. The role of these avian eggshell matrix proteins during shell formation is poorly understood. The properties of the individual components must be determined in order to gain insight into their function during eggshell mineralization. In this study, we have identified lysozyme as a component of the uterine fluid by microsequencing, and used western blotting, immunofluorescence and colloidal-gold immunocytochemistry to document its localization in the eggshell membranes and the shell matrix. Furthermore, Northern blotting and RT-PCR indicates that there is a gradient to the expression of lysozyme message by different regions of the oviduct, with significant albeit low levels expressed in the isthmus and uterus. Lysozyme protein is abundant in the limiting membrane that circumscribes the egg white and forms the innermost layer of the shell membranes. It is also present in the shell membranes, and in the matrix of the calcified shell. Calcite crystals grown in the presence of purified hen lysozyme exhibited altered crystal morphology. Therefore, in addition to its well-known anti-microbial properties that could add to the protective function of the eggshell during embryonic development, shell matrix lysozyme may also be a structural protein which in soluble form influences calcium carbonate deposition during calcification.

  17. Differential expression of extracellular matrix components in the Fallopian tubes throughout the menstrual cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Patricia S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the unique characteristics of the female genital tract is the extensive tissue remodeling observed throughout the menstrual cycle. Multiple components of the extracellular matrix take part in this tissue rebuilding; however, the individual components involved have not been identified. Methods In the present study, the expression of extracellular matrix proteins and selected matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activities in Fallopian tubes (FT throughout the menstrual cycle were examined by PCR array, immunocytochemistry, zymography and bioinformatics. Results Of the eighty-four genes analyzed, eighty-three were expressed in the FT during at least one stage of the menstrual cycle. We observed a significant increase (>/=2-fold in ADAMTS1, ADAMTS13, COL7A1, MMP3, MMP9, PECAM1, and THBS3 in the periovulatory phase compared to the follicular phase. Meanwhile, we observed a significant decrease (>/= 2-fold in COL7A1, ICAM1, ITGA8, MMP16, MMP9, CLEC3B, SELE and TIMP2 in the lutheal phase compared to the periovulatory phase. Immunocytochemistry showed that MMP-3 and MMP-9 were localized in the endosalpinx during all phases of the menstrual cycle. Gelatin zymograms detected non-cycle-dependent protease activity. Conclusions Several extracellular matrix components were regulated throughout the menstrual cycle in a cyclic pattern, suggesting a possible steroid regulation and a role in tissue remodeling and FT functions.

  18. Aluminosilcate glass cenospheres as a component of cast magnesium matrix composites


    J. Kamieniak; A. Żydek; K.N. Braszczyńska-Malik


    The main characteristic of aluminosilicate glass cenospheres and their possible use as a component of magnesium matrix compositeswere presented. The results revealed that particular parts of cenospheres differ insignificantly from each other and it depends on which power plant cenospheres come from. The characteristic of cenospheres concerned their structure and phase composition and dimensions such as: wall thickness and size of pores occurring in walls, depending on cenospheres origin. Thic...

  19. Extracellular matrix components in a case of retrocorneal membrane associated with syphilitic interstitial keratitis. (United States)

    Kawaguchi, R; Saika, S; Wakayama, M; Ooshima, A; Ohnishi, Y; Yabe, H


    A web-like retrocorneal membrane (RCM) is an uncommon complication of chronic syphilitic interstitial keratitis. Extracellular matrix components have not yet been defined in this structure, although previous histologic examinations have suggested the presence of collagen. We examined the presence and distribution of extracellular matrix components in a patient with an RCM. A specimen of the opaque cornea affected by syphilitic interstitial keratitis with RCM formation was obtained during penetrating keratoplasty in a 62-year-old woman and was evaluated by histology, immunohistochemistry, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antibodies against collagen types I, III, and IV; fibronectin; vimentin; alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA); heat shock protein 47 (Hsp 47); proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA); and Ki67 were used. Histologic analysis detected multiple concentric, acellular layers positive for collagen types I, III, and IV. The corneal endothelial cells (CECs) were positive for vimentin, collagen I, fibronectin, and Hsp 47 but not for alpha-SMA. Furthermore, the CECs were negative for PCNA and Ki67, indicating that they were not proliferating. SEM revealed the RCM was covered by CECs with a fibroblastic appearance. RCM associated with syphilitic interstitial keratitis contained collagen types I, III, and IV and fibroblast-like CECs. These CECs may secrete the extracellular matrix components found in the RCM. Hsp 47 up-regulation in the CECs may play an important role in RCM formation. These findings provide further insights into the phenotypic modulation of CECs.

  20. Extracellular vesicles are integral and functional components of the extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Rilla, Kirsi; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Arasu, Uma Thanigai; Härkönen, Kai; Matilainen, Johanna; Nieminen, Petteri


    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small plasma membrane-derived particles released into the extracellular space by virtually all cell types. Recently, EV have received increased interest because of their capability to carry nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and signaling molecules and to transfer their cargo into the target cells. Less attention has been paid to their role in modifying the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM), either directly or indirectly via regulating the ability of target cells to synthesize or degrade matrix molecules. Based on recent results, EV can be considered one of the structural and functional components of the ECM that participate in matrix organization, regulation of cells within it, and in determining the physical properties of soft connective tissues, bone, cartilage and dentin. This review addresses the relevance of EV as specific modulators of the ECM, such as during the assembly and disassembly of the molecular network, signaling through the ECM and formation of niches suitable for tissue regeneration, inflammation and tumor progression. Finally, we assess the potential of these aspects of EV biology to translational medicine. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Analogies between random matrix ensembles and the one-component plasma in two-dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Forrester


    Full Text Available The eigenvalue PDF for some well known classes of non-Hermitian random matrices — the complex Ginibre ensemble for example — can be interpreted as the Boltzmann factor for one-component plasma systems in two-dimensional domains. We address this theme in a systematic fashion, identifying the plasma system for the Ginibre ensemble of non-Hermitian Gaussian random matrices G, the spherical ensemble of the product of an inverse Ginibre matrix and a Ginibre matrix G1−1G2, and the ensemble formed by truncating unitary matrices, as well as for products of such matrices. We do this when each has either real, complex or real quaternion elements. One consequence of this analogy is that the leading form of the eigenvalue density follows as a corollary. Another is that the eigenvalue correlations must obey sum rules known to characterise the plasma system, and this leads us to an exhibit of an integral identity satisfied by the two-particle correlation for real quaternion matrices in the neighbourhood of the real axis. Further random matrix ensembles investigated from this viewpoint are self dual non-Hermitian matrices, in which a previous study has related to the one-component plasma system in a disk at inverse temperature β=4, and the ensemble formed by the single row and column of quaternion elements from a member of the circular symplectic ensemble.

  2. Preferential Enhancement of Sensory and Motor Axon Regeneration by Combining Extracellular Matrix Components with Neurotrophic Factors. (United States)

    Santos, Daniel; González-Pérez, Francisco; Giudetti, Guido; Micera, Silvestro; Udina, Esther; Del Valle, Jaume; Navarro, Xavier


    After peripheral nerve injury, motor and sensory axons are able to regenerate but inaccuracy of target reinnervation leads to poor functional recovery. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert their effect on different neuronal populations creating a suitable environment to promote axonal growth. Here, we assessed in vitro and in vivo the selective effects of combining different ECM components with NTFs on motor and sensory axons regeneration and target reinnervation. Organotypic cultures with collagen, laminin and nerve growth factor (NGF)/neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or collagen, fibronectin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) selectively enhanced sensory neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and motor neurite outgrowth from spinal cord slices respectively. For in vivo studies, the rat sciatic nerve was transected and repaired with a silicone tube filled with a collagen and laminin matrix with NGF/NT3 encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (MP) (LM + MP.NGF/NT3), or a collagen and fibronectin matrix with BDNF in PLGA MPs (FN + MP.BDNF). Retrograde labeling and functional tests showed that LM + MP.NGF/NT3 increased the number of regenerated sensory neurons and improved sensory functional recovery, whereas FN + MP.BDNF preferentially increased regenerated motoneurons and enhanced motor functional recovery. Therefore, combination of ECM molecules with NTFs may be a good approach to selectively enhance motor and sensory axons regeneration and promote appropriate target reinnervation.

  3. Preferential Enhancement of Sensory and Motor Axon Regeneration by Combining Extracellular Matrix Components with Neurotrophic Factors (United States)

    Santos, Daniel; González-Pérez, Francisco; Giudetti, Guido; Micera, Silvestro; Udina, Esther; Del Valle, Jaume; Navarro, Xavier


    After peripheral nerve injury, motor and sensory axons are able to regenerate but inaccuracy of target reinnervation leads to poor functional recovery. Extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert their effect on different neuronal populations creating a suitable environment to promote axonal growth. Here, we assessed in vitro and in vivo the selective effects of combining different ECM components with NTFs on motor and sensory axons regeneration and target reinnervation. Organotypic cultures with collagen, laminin and nerve growth factor (NGF)/neurotrophin-3 (NT3) or collagen, fibronectin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) selectively enhanced sensory neurite outgrowth of DRG neurons and motor neurite outgrowth from spinal cord slices respectively. For in vivo studies, the rat sciatic nerve was transected and repaired with a silicone tube filled with a collagen and laminin matrix with NGF/NT3 encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres (MP) (LM + MP.NGF/NT3), or a collagen and fibronectin matrix with BDNF in PLGA MPs (FN + MP.BDNF). Retrograde labeling and functional tests showed that LM + MP.NGF/NT3 increased the number of regenerated sensory neurons and improved sensory functional recovery, whereas FN + MP.BDNF preferentially increased regenerated motoneurons and enhanced motor functional recovery. Therefore, combination of ECM molecules with NTFs may be a good approach to selectively enhance motor and sensory axons regeneration and promote appropriate target reinnervation. PMID:28036084

  4. Aluminosilcate glass cenospheres as a component of cast magnesium matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamieniak


    Full Text Available The main characteristic of aluminosilicate glass cenospheres and their possible use as a component of magnesium matrix compositeswere presented. The results revealed that particular parts of cenospheres differ insignificantly from each other and it depends on which power plant cenospheres come from. The characteristic of cenospheres concerned their structure and phase composition and dimensions such as: wall thickness and size of pores occurring in walls, depending on cenospheres origin. Thickness of cenospheres walls and pore size were measured by using ImageJ computer software. The structure of aluminosilicate glass cenospheres and their phase composition have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The possibility of cenospheres utilization in the fabrication of magnesium matrix composites was presented on the example of AZ91 magnesium alloy composite with fly ash cenospheres. Composite was fabricated by pressure infiltration method.

  5. Impact of pneumococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules on colonization. (United States)

    Voss, S; Gámez, G; Hammerschmidt, S


    Microorganisms have evolved elaborate strategies to adhere to host cells and to evade the host complement and immune attack, ensuring survival in various host niches and dissemination into sterile parts of the human body. Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is not only a commensal of the human respiratory tract but also the etiological agent of severe and life-threatening diseases. Pneumococcal attachment to mucosal surfaces is a highly dynamic process requiring the contact of pneumococcal surface-exposed proteins with soluble or immobilized host factors. These avid interactions may trigger proteolytic cascades or result in engagement of cell surface receptors and intracellularly associated signaling machineries for subsequent uptake of pneumococci into host cells. In the present review, the intimate communication of S. pneumoniae molecules recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) with their host counterparts and their individual role in pneumococcal colonization is discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA airworthiness certification for ceramic matrix composite components in civil aircraft systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonczy Stephen T.


    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs are being designed and developed for engine and exhaust components in commercial aviation, because they offer higher temperature capabilities, weight savings, and improved durability compared to metals. The United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA issues and enforces regulations and minimum standards covering the safe manufacture, operation, and maintenance of civil aircraft. As new materials, these ceramic composite components will have to meet the certification regulations of the FAA for “airworthiness”. The FAA certification process is defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations (Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, FAA policy statements, orders, advisory circulars, technical standard orders, and FAA airworthiness directives. These regulations and documents provide the fundamental requirements and guidelines for design, testing, manufacture, quality assurance, registration, operation, inspection, maintenance, and repair of aircraft systems and parts. For metallic parts in aircraft, the FAA certification and compliance process is well-established for type and airworthiness certification, using ASTM and SAE standards, the MMPDS data handbook, and FAA advisory circulars. In a similar manner for polymer matrix composites (PMC, the PMC industry and the FAA have jointly developed and are refining parallel guidelines for polymer matrix composites (PMCs, using guidance in FAA circulars and the CMH-17 PMC handbook. These documents discuss design methods and codes, material testing, property data development, life/durability assessment, production processes, QA procedures, inspection methods, operational limits, and repairs for PMCs. For ceramic composites, the FAA and the CMC and aerospace community are working together (primarily through the CMH-17 CMC handbook to define and codify key design, production, and regulatory issues that have to be addressed in the certification of CMC components in

  7. Characterization of Ceramic Matrix Composite Combustor Components: Pre and Post Exposure (United States)

    Ojard, G.; Linsey, G.; Brennan, J.; Naik, R.; Cairo, R.; Stephan, R.; Hornick, J.; Brewer, D.


    The pursuit of lower emissions and higher performance from gas turbine engines requires the development of innovative concepts and the use of advanced materials for key engine components. One key engine component is the combustor, where innovative design and material improvements have the potential to lower emissions. Efforts to develop a High Speed Civil Transport with low emissions were focused on the evaluation of combustor concepts with liners fabricated from a ceramic matrix composite of silicon carbide fibers in a silicon carbide matrix (SiC/SiC). The evaluation of SiC/SiC composites progressed from simple coupons (to establish a first-order database and identify operant failure mechanisms and damage accumulation processes), to feature-based subelements (to assess fabricability and in situ material response), to actual components (to assess structural integrity, dimensional, and compositional fidelity) tested under simulated engine conditions. As in the case of all evolutionary material and process work, a key element to resolving fabrication issues is the evaluation of witness areas taken from fabricated components before testing the actual component. The witness material from these components allowed microstructural and mechanical testing to be performed and compared to the ideal, flat panel, conditions and data that are typical of basic characterization. This also allowed samples of similar design to be taken from components after 115 hours of combustion exposure. Testing consisted of tensile, double notch shear, ring burst, and thermal conductivity that sampled various regions of the components. The evaluation of the witness material allowed an understanding of the fabrication process, highlighting critical issues, in an early phase of the learning curve development of these configuration and material unique parts. Residual property testing, after exposure, showed if degradation of the material under actual service conditions was occurring. This paper

  8. Local pressure and matrix component effects on verteporfin distribution in pancreatic tumors (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Marra, Kayla; Gunn, Jason R.; Doyley, Marvin; Samkoe, Kimberly S.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.


    Pancreatic tumors are characterized by large interstitial hypertension from enhanced deposition of extracellular matrix components, resulting in widespread vascular collapse and reduced molecular uptake of systemically delivered therapies. Although the origins of hypoperfusion is debated amongst researchers, spatial distribution of collagen density and hyaluronic acid content have shown to be a key metric in understanding the lack of efficacy for both acute and chronic therapies in these tumors. In this study, the AsPC-1 tumor model was used both subcutaneously and orthotopically to study the measurable factors which are related to this. A conventional piezoelectric pressure catheter was used to measure total tissue pressure (TTP), defined as a combination of solid stress (SS) and interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), TTP = SS + IFP, in multiple locations within the tumor interstitium. Matrix components such as collagen and hyaluronic acid were scored using masson's trichrome stain and hyaluronic acid binding protein (HABP), respectively, and co-registered with values of TTP. The results show that these key measurements are related to the spatial distribution of verteporfin in the same tumors. Photodynamic treatment with verteporfin is known to ablate large regions of tumor tissue and also allow better permeability for chemotherapies. The study of spatial distribution of verteporfin in relation to stromal content and TTP will help us better control these types of combination therapies.

  9. AIRE recruits multiple transcriptional components to specific genomic regions through tethering to nuclear matrix. (United States)

    Tao, Yunxia; Kupfer, Rene; Stewart, Benjamin J; Williams-Skipp, Cheryll; Crowell, Christopher K; Patel, Dhavalkumar D; Sain, Steven; Scheinman, Robert I


    Thymic selection requires that diverse self antigens be presented to developing thymocytes by stromal cells. Consistent with this function, medullary thymic epithelial cells have been shown to express a large number of genes, many of which are tissue restricted. Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) is a nuclear protein, which has recently been identified as a regulator of this process, however, the mechanism by which AIRE functions is not well understood. Here we use a transrepression assay to demonstrate that AIRE interacts with multiple components of the transcription complex including a novel interaction with the UBA domain protein, GBDR1. When AIRE is expressed in cultured human thymic epithelial cells, it tightly associates with nuclear matrix, suggesting that AIRE responsive genes may be localized to specific regions. Using a mathematical approach we have re-analyzed an Affymetrix dataset identifying AIRE responsive genes and show that they tend to localize to specific regions of the genome. Together, these data suggest that AIRE regulates gene expression by recruiting components of the transcription complex to specific regions of the genome via interactions with nuclear matrix.

  10. Lactic acid bacteria in dairy food: surface characterization and interactions with food matrix components. (United States)

    Burgain, J; Scher, J; Francius, G; Borges, F; Corgneau, M; Revol-Junelles, A M; Cailliez-Grimal, C; Gaiani, C


    This review gives an overview of the importance of interactions occurring in dairy matrices between Lactic Acid Bacteria and milk components. Dairy products are important sources of biological active compounds of particular relevance to human health. These compounds include immunoglobulins, whey proteins and peptides, polar lipids, and lactic acid bacteria including probiotics. A better understanding of interactions between bioactive components and their delivery matrix may successfully improve their transport to their target site of action. Pioneering research on probiotic lactic acid bacteria has mainly focused on their host effects. However, very little is known about their interaction with dairy ingredients. Such knowledge could contribute to designing new and more efficient dairy food, and to better understand relationships between milk constituents. The purpose of this review is first to provide an overview of the current knowledge about the biomolecules produced on bacterial surface and the composition of the dairy matter. In order to understand how bacteria interact with dairy molecules, adhesion mechanisms are subsequently reviewed with a special focus on the environmental conditions affecting bacterial adhesion. Methods dedicated to investigate the bacterial surface and to decipher interactions between bacteria and abiotic dairy components are also detailed. Finally, relevant industrial implications of these interactions are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The ability of haemolysins expressed by atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to bind to extracellular matrix components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A Magalhães


    Full Text Available Typical and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC are considered important bacterial causes of diarrhoea. Considering the repertoire of virulence genes, atypical EPEC (aEPEC is a heterogeneous group, harbouring genes that are found in other diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes, such as those encoding haemolysins. Haemolysins are cytolytic toxins that lyse host cells disrupting the function of the plasma membrane. In addition, these cytolysins mediate a connection to vascular tissue and/or blood components, such as plasma and cellular fibronectin. Therefore, we investigated the haemolytic activity of 72 aEPEC isolates and determined the correlation of this phenotype with the presence of genes encoding enterohaemolysins (Ehly and cytolysin A (ClyA. In addition, the correlation between the expression of haemolysins and the ability of these secreted proteins to adhere to extracellular matrix (ECM components was also assessed in this study. Our findings demonstrate that a subset of aEPEC presents haemolytic activity due to the expression of Ehlys and/or ClyA and that this activity is closely related to the ability of these isolates to bind to ECM components.

  12. Interpretation of organic components from Positive Matrix Factorization of aerosol mass spectrometric data (United States)

    Ulbrich, I. M.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Zhang, Q.; Worsnop, D. R.; Jimenez, J. L.


    The organic aerosol (OA) dataset from an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (Q-AMS) collected at the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) in September 2002 was analyzed with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). Three components - hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol OA (HOA), a highly-oxygenated OA (OOA-1) that correlates well with sulfate, and a less-oxygenated, semi-volatile OA (OOA-2) that correlates well with nitrate and chloride - are identified and interpreted as primary combustion emissions, aged SOA, and semivolatile, less aged SOA, respectively. The complexity of interpreting the PMF solutions of unit mass resolution (UMR) AMS data is illustrated by a detailed analysis of the solutions as a function of number of components and rotational forcing. A public web-based database of AMS spectra has been created to aid this type of analysis. Realistic synthetic data is also used to characterize the behavior of PMF for choosing the best number of factors, and evaluating the rotations of non-unique solutions. The ambient and synthetic data indicate that the variation of the PMF quality of fit parameter (Q, a normalized chi-squared metric) vs. number of factors in the solution is useful to identify the minimum number of factors, but more detailed analysis and interpretation are needed to choose the best number of factors. The maximum value of the rotational matrix is not useful for determining the best number of factors. In synthetic datasets, factors are "split" into two or more components when solving for more factors than were used in the input. Elements of the "splitting" behavior are observed in solutions of real datasets with several factors. Significant structure remains in the residual of the real dataset after physically-meaningful factors have been assigned and an unrealistic number of factors would be required to explain the remaining variance. This residual structure appears to be due to variability in the spectra of the components (especially OOA-2 in this

  13. Identification of extracellular matrix components and their integrin receptors in the human fetal adrenal gland. (United States)

    Chamoux, E; Bolduc, L; Lehoux, J G; Gallo-Payet, N


    The development of the human fetal adrenal gland is characterized by a gradient of mitotic activity, cell migration, and cell apoptosis, all of which dictate its particular function. Such plasticity may possibly be under the control of the extracellular environment. The goal of this study was to identify components of the extracellular matrix in second-trimester fetal adrenal glands. Whereas collagen IV was expressed evenly throughout the gland, both fibronectin and laminin demonstrated a mirror-imaged distribution, with higher expression of fibronectin in the central portion and laminin at the periphery of the gland. The integrin subunit alpha1 was found mainly in the definitive zone and the alpha2-subunit mainly in the transitional zone, whereas integrin alpha3 (which binds both fibronectin and laminin) was detected only in the fetal zone. The beta2-subunit was observed solely in chromaffin cells. Such specific gradients of integrin and MEC component expression suggest that the extracellular environment does play a definite role during adrenal gland development. Indeed, compared with that in untreated plastic dishes, ACTH stimulation of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and cortisol was enhanced by collagen IV. In addition, fibronectin enhanced dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate but decreased cortisol secretion, compared with collagen IV substrates. These results provide fundamental insight into the contribution of the microenvironment in cellular processes leading to fetal adrenal gland development.

  14. Novel fibrin clot components : identification, characterization and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Talens (Simone)


    textabstractThe main goal of blood coagulation is to diminish blood loss and to support vessel damage repair. The initial step in primary hemostasis is the adhesion of platelets to the exposed subendothelial extracellular matrix which contains several adhesive macromolecules such as collagen, von

  15. Collagens and collagen-related matrix components in the human and mouse eye. (United States)

    Ihanamäki, Tapio; Pelliniemi, Lauri J; Vuorio, Eero


    The three-dimensional structure of the eye plays an important role in providing a correct optical environment for vision. Much of this function is dependent on the unique structural features of ocular connective tissue, especially of the collagen types and their supramolecular structures. For example, the organization of collagen fibrils is largely responsible for transparency and refraction of cornea, lens and vitreous body, and collagens present in the sclera are largely responsible for the structural strength of the eye. Phylogenetically, most of the collagens are highly conserved between different species, which suggests that collagens also share similar functions in mice and men. Despite considerable differences between the mouse and the human eye, particularly in the proportion of the different tissue components, the difficulty of performing systematic histologic and molecular studies on the human eye has made mouse an appealing alternative to studies addressing the role of individual genes and their mutations in ocular diseases. From a genetic standpoint, the mouse has major advantages over other experimental animals as its genome is better known than that of other species and it can be manipulated by the modern techniques of genetic engineering. Furthermore, it is easy, quick and relatively cheap to produce large quantities of mice for systematic studies. Thus, transgenic techniques have made it possible to study consequences of specific mutations in genes coding for structural components of ocular connective tissues in mice. As these changes in mice have been shown to resemble those in human diseases, mouse models are likely to provide efficient tools for pathogenetic studies on human disorders affecting the extracellular matrix. This review is aimed to clarify the role of collagenous components in the mouse and human eye with a closer look at the new findings of the collagens in the cartilage and the eye, the so-called "cartilage collagens".

  16. Exploring quality and its potential effects of multi-components antibiotic: consistency evaluation between matrix components ratio and microbiological potency of teicoplanin. (United States)

    Chang, Yan; Wang, Nan; Yao, Shang-Chen; Hu, Chang-Qin


    The production process, such as fermentation and purification etc., can significantly affect the relative ratio of matrix components in a multi-component antibiotic. The ratio of components can be varied in different products. This status causes a difficulty to assure the homogeneity and consistency between reference standards and test samples in potency determination, which hinders the results judgment and accuracy of a routine microbiological assay. In the current study, a multi-component antibiotic, teicoplanin, was selected as a model to explore the relationship between the ratio of matrix component and antibiotics potency. Single-component samples, TA3-1, TA2-1, and mixed-component samples, TA2-2.3, TA2-4.5, of teicoplanin were prepared and purified. Dose-response relationship of each sample has been determined by HPLC and microbiological assay, respectively. The accuracy of the potency result was guaranteed by choosing a test organism with the same sensitivity to each component of teicoplanin when there were differences existing in the ratio of components between the reference standard and the test sample. The experimental methods in current specifications can be replaced with the new potency determination method, which can provide a more realistic reflection of the biological activity of the product.

  17. Bioelectrical signals improve cardiac function and modify gene expression of extracellular matrix components. (United States)

    Macfelda, Karin; Kapeller, Barbara; Holly, Alexander; Podesser, Bruno K; Losert, Udo; Brandes, Kersten; Goettel, Peter; Mueller, Johannes


    Beyond the influence of stimulating devices on cardiac excitation, their use in treating patients with heart failure has positive effects on the myocardium at the molecular level. Electrical signals can induce a wide spectrum of effects in living tissue. Therefore, we sought to determine whether applying electrical microcurrent directly to failing hearts leads to functional improvement. Sixteen male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with heart failure underwent application of a patch electrode to the left ventricular epicardium and placement of a subcutaneous counter electrode. The electrode delivered a 0.35 μA microcurrent to nine of the SHRs for 45 ± 3 days; the other seven SHRs were used as controls. At baseline and before the SHRs were humanely put to death, we measured the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and the thickness of the LV posterior wall during systole and diastole (LVPWs/d). We used quantitative PCR to determine extracellular matrix parameters [collagen I-III, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3), TIMP4, connexins (Cxs) 40/43/45, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukin (IL)-6]. Among SHRs undergoing microcurrent application, LVEF normalized (mean decrease, 22.8%; P = 0.009), and LVPWs decreased (mean, 35.3%; P = 0.001). Compared with the control group, the SHRs receiving microcurrent exhibited a mean decrease in the gene expression of collagen I (10.6%, P = 0.003), TIMP3 (18.5%, P = 0.005), Cx43 (14.3%, P = 0.003), Cx45 (12.7%, P = 0.020), TGF-β (13.0%, P = 0.005), and IL-6 (53.7%, P = 0.000). Microcurrent application induced no changes in the expression of collagen III, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP4, or Cx40. Applying microcurrent to the LV epicardium of SHRs leads to statistically significant functional improvement and alterations in the levels of inflammatory and extracellular matrix components. © 2017 The Authors. ESC Heart Failure published by John

  18. Essential oils in food preservation: mode of action, synergies, and interactions with food matrix components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten eHyldgaard


    Full Text Available Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defence as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds' mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods.

  19. Anomalous NMR Relaxation in Cartilage Matrix Components and Native Cartilage: Fractional-Order Models (United States)

    Magin, Richard L.; Li, Weiguo; Velasco, M. Pilar; Trujillo, Juan; Reiter, David A.; Morgenstern, Ashley; Spencer, Richard G.


    We present a fractional-order extension of the Bloch equations to describe anomalous NMR relaxation phenomena (T1 and T2). The model has solutions in the form of Mittag-Leffler and stretched exponential functions that generalize conventional exponential relaxation. Such functions have been shown by others to be useful for describing dielectric and viscoelastic relaxation in complex, heterogeneous materials. Here, we apply these fractional-order T1 and T2 relaxation models to experiments performed at 9.4 and 11.7 Tesla on type I collagen gels, chondroitin sulfate mixtures, and to bovine nasal cartilage (BNC), a largely isotropic and homogeneous form of cartilage. The results show that the fractional-order analysis captures important features of NMR relaxation that are typically described by multi-exponential decay models. We find that the T2 relaxation of BNC can be described in a unique way by a single fractional-order parameter (α), in contrast to the lack of uniqueness of multi-exponential fits in the realistic setting of a finite signal-to-noise ratio. No anomalous behavior of T1 was observed in BNC. In the single-component gels, for T2 measurements, increasing the concentration of the largest components of cartilage matrix, collagen and chondroitin sulfate, results in a decrease in α, reflecting a more restricted aqueous environment. The quality of the curve fits obtained using Mittag-Leffler and stretched exponential functions are in some cases superior to those obtained using mono- and bi-exponential models. In both gels and BNC, α appears to account for microstructural complexity in the setting of an altered distribution of relaxation times. This work suggests the utility of fractional-order models to describe T2 NMR relaxation processes in biological tissues. PMID:21498095

  20. Essential Oils in Food Preservation: Mode of Action, Synergies, and Interactions with Food Matrix Components (United States)

    Hyldgaard, Morten; Mygind, Tina; Meyer, Rikke Louise


    Essential oils are aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from plants. The chemicals in essential oils are secondary metabolites, which play an important role in plant defense as they often possess antimicrobial properties. The interest in essential oils and their application in food preservation has been amplified in recent years by an increasingly negative consumer perception of synthetic preservatives. Furthermore, food-borne diseases are a growing public health problem worldwide, calling for more effective preservation strategies. The antibacterial properties of essential oils and their constituents have been documented extensively. Pioneering work has also elucidated the mode of action of a few essential oil constituents, but detailed knowledge about most of the compounds’ mode of action is still lacking. This knowledge is particularly important to predict their effect on different microorganisms, how they interact with food matrix components, and how they work in combination with other antimicrobial compounds. The main obstacle for using essential oil constituents as food preservatives is that they are most often not potent enough as single components, and they cause negative organoleptic effects when added in sufficient amounts to provide an antimicrobial effect. Exploiting synergies between several compounds has been suggested as a solution to this problem. However, little is known about which interactions lead to synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effects. Such knowledge could contribute to design of new and more potent antimicrobial blends, and to understand the interplay between the constituents of crude essential oils. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current knowledge about the antibacterial properties and antibacterial mode of action of essential oils and their constituents, and to identify research avenues that can facilitate implementation of essential oils as natural preservatives in foods. PMID:22291693

  1. Advanced Environmental Barrier Coating Development for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Components (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Harder, Bryan; Hurst, Janet B.; Halbig, Michael Charles; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Costa, Gustavo; Mccue, Terry R.


    This presentation reviews the NASA advanced environmental barrier coating (EBC) system development for SiC-SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) combustors particularly under the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation, Fundamental Aeronautics and Transformative Aeronautics Concepts Programs. The emphases have been placed on the current design challenges of the 2700-3000F capable environmental barrier coatings for low NOX emission combustors for next generation turbine engines by using advanced plasma spray based processes, and the coating processing and integration with SiC-SiC CMCs and component systems. The developments also have included candidate coating composition system designs, degradation mechanisms, performance evaluation and down-selects; the processing optimizations using TriplexPro Air Plasma Spray Low Pressure Plasma Spray (LPPS), Plasma Spray Physical Vapor Deposition and demonstration of EBC-CMC systems. This presentation also highlights the EBC-CMC system temperature capability and durability improvements under the NASA development programs, as demonstrated in the simulated engine high heat flux, combustion environments, in conjunction with high heat flux, mechanical creep and fatigue loading testing conditions.

  2. Stealthy false data injection attacks using matrix recovery and independent component analysis in smart grid (United States)

    JiWei, Tian; BuHong, Wang; FuTe, Shang; Shuaiqi, Liu


    Exact state estimation is vital important to maintain common operations of smart grids. Existing researches demonstrate that state estimation output could be compromised by malicious attacks. However, to construct the attack vectors, a usual presumption in most works is that the attacker has perfect information regarding the topology and so on even such information is difficult to acquire in practice. Recent research shows that Independent Component Analysis (ICA) can be used for inferring topology information which can be used to originate undetectable attacks and even to alter the price of electricity for the profits of attackers. However, we found that the above ICA-based blind attack tactics is merely feasible in the environment with Gaussian noises. If there are outliers (device malfunction and communication errors), the Bad Data Detector will easily detect the attack. Hence, we propose a robust ICA based blind attack strategy that one can use matrix recovery to circumvent the outlier problem and construct stealthy attack vectors. The proposed attack strategies are tested with IEEE representative 14-bus system. Simulations verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. Localization of extracellular matrix components in developing mouse salivary glands by confocal microscopy (United States)

    Hardman, P.; Spooner, B. S.


    The importance of the extracellular matrix (ECM) in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in developing organisms is well established. Proteoglycans and interstitial collagens are required for the growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation of epithelial organs and the distribution of these molecules has been described. However, much less is known about other ECM macromolecules in developing epithelial organs. We used confocal microscopy to examine the distribution of laminin, heparan sulfate (BM-1) proteoglycan, fibronectin, and collagen types I, IV, and V, in mouse embryonic salivary glands. Organ rudiments were isolated from gestational day 13 mouse embryos and cultured for 24, 48, or 72 hours. Whole mounts were stained by indirect immunofluorescence and then examined using a Zeiss Laser Scan Microscope. We found that each ECM component examined had a distinct distribution and that the distribution of some molecules varied with culture time. Laminin was mainly restricted to the basement membrane. BM-1 proteoglycan was concentrated in the basement membrane and also formed a fine network throughout the mesenchyme. Type IV collagen was mainly located in the basement membrane of the epithelium, but it was also present throughout the mesenchyme. Type V collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at 24 hours, but at 48 hours was principally located in the basement membrane. Type I collagen was distributed throughout the mesenchyme at all culture times, and accumulated in the clefts and particularly at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface as time in culture increased. Fibronectin was observed throughout the mesenchyme at all times.

  4. Dentin matrix components extracted with phosphoric acid enhance cell proliferation and mineralization. (United States)

    Salehi, Satin; Cooper, Paul; Smith, Anthony; Ferracane, Jack


    Acids, such as those used in adhesive dentistry, have been shown to solubilize bioactive molecules from dentin. These dentin matrix components (DMC) may promote cell proliferation and differentiation, and ultimately contribute to dentin regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for varying concentrations of DMC extracted from human dentin by phosphoric acid of a range of pHs to stimulate proliferation and mineralization of two different cultured pulp cell populations. DMC were solubilized from powdered human dentin (7 days - 4°C) by phosphoric acid of pH 1, 3, and 5 and also, EDTA. Extracts were dialyzed for 7 days against distilled water and lyophilized. Undifferentiated mouse dental pulp cells (OD-21) and cells of the odontoblast-like cell line (MDPC-23) were seeded in six-well plates (1×10(5)) and cultured for 24h in DMEM (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) containing 10% (v/v) FBS (fetal bovine serum). The cells were washed with serum-free medium and then treated with different concentrations of DMC (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0μg/ml) daily in serum free medium for 7 days. After 3, 5 (MDPC-23 only), and 7 days of treatment, cell proliferation was measured using 10vol% Alamar blue solution, which was added to each well for 1h. Cell numbers were first measured by cell counting (Trypan blue; n=5) and Alamar blue fluorescence to validate the assay, which was then used for the subsequent assessments of proliferation. Mineralization was assessed by Alizarin Red S assay after 12 days exposure to DMC (n=5). Controls were media-only (DMEM) and dexamethasone (DEX; positive control). Results were analysed by ANOVA/Tukey's (p≤0.05). There was a linear correlation between cell counts and Alamar blue fluorescence (R(2)>0.96 for both cell types) , verifying the validity of the Alamar blue assay for these cell types. In general, there was a dose-dependent trend for enhanced cell proliferation with higher concentration of DMC for both cell lines

  5. The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, B.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Bolhuis, G.K; Gons, M.; Zuurman, K.; Frijlink, H.W


    This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the

  6. Immunogold fine structural localization of extracellular matrix components in aged human cornea. I. Types I-IV collagen and laminin. (United States)

    Marshall, G E; Konstas, A G; Lee, W R


    Using the immunogold technique combined with cryoultramicrotomy and London Resin white (LR white) embedding, we studied the fine structural distribution of types I-IV collagen and laminin in corneal tissue from seven enucleated human eyes (age range, 63-78 years). Type II collagen was not identified in any corneal layer. Type I and type III collagen were distributed in a similar fashion in striated collagen fibrils in Bowman's layer and in the stroma. Type IV collagen was located only in the posterior non-banded region of Descemet's membrane. Laminin was identified in subepithelial anchoring plaques and the sub-endothelial region of Descemet's membrane in accordance with its recognized adhesive function.

  7. Four-Component Scattering Power Decomposition Algorithm with Rotation of Covariance Matrix Using ALOS-PALSAR Polarimetric Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Nakamura


    Full Text Available The present study introduces the four-component scattering power decomposition (4-CSPD algorithm with rotation of covariance matrix, and presents an experimental proof of the equivalence between the 4-CSPD algorithms based on rotation of covariance matrix and coherency matrix. From a theoretical point of view, the 4-CSPD algorithms with rotation of the two matrices are identical. Although it seems obvious, no experimental evidence has yet been presented. In this paper, using polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (POLSAR data acquired by Phased Array L-band SAR (PALSAR on board of Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS, an experimental proof is presented to show that both algorithms indeed produce identical results.

  8. Multiple-trait genome-wide association study based on principal component analysis for residual covariance matrix. (United States)

    Gao, H; Wu, Y; Zhang, T; Wu, Y; Jiang, L; Zhan, J; Li, J; Yang, R


    Given the drawbacks of implementing multivariate analysis for mapping multiple traits in genome-wide association study (GWAS), principal component analysis (PCA) has been widely used to generate independent 'super traits' from the original multivariate phenotypic traits for the univariate analysis. However, parameter estimates in this framework may not be the same as those from the joint analysis of all traits, leading to spurious linkage results. In this paper, we propose to perform the PCA for residual covariance matrix instead of the phenotypical covariance matrix, based on which multiple traits are transformed to a group of pseudo principal components. The PCA for residual covariance matrix allows analyzing each pseudo principal component separately. In addition, all parameter estimates are equivalent to those obtained from the joint multivariate analysis under a linear transformation. However, a fast least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) for estimating the sparse oversaturated genetic model greatly reduces the computational costs of this procedure. Extensive simulations show statistical and computational efficiencies of the proposed method. We illustrate this method in a GWAS for 20 slaughtering traits and meat quality traits in beef cattle.

  9. The Extracellular Matrix Component Psl Provides Fast-Acting Antibiotic Defense in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms (United States)

    Billings, Nicole; Ramirez Millan, Maria; Caldara, Marina; Rusconi, Roberto; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Stocker, Roman; Ribbeck, Katharina


    Bacteria within biofilms secrete and surround themselves with an extracellular matrix, which serves as a first line of defense against antibiotic attack. Polysaccharides constitute major elements of the biofilm matrix and are implied in surface adhesion and biofilm organization, but their contributions to the resistance properties of biofilms remain largely elusive. Using a combination of static and continuous-flow biofilm experiments we show that Psl, one major polysaccharide in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix, provides a generic first line of defense toward antibiotics with diverse biochemical properties during the initial stages of biofilm development. Furthermore, we show with mixed-strain experiments that antibiotic-sensitive “non-producing” cells lacking Psl can gain tolerance by integrating into Psl-containing biofilms. However, non-producers dilute the protective capacity of the matrix and hence, excessive incorporation can result in the collapse of resistance of the entire community. Our data also reveal that Psl mediated protection is extendible to E. coli and S. aureus in co-culture biofilms. Together, our study shows that Psl represents a critical first bottleneck to the antibiotic attack of a biofilm community early in biofilm development. PMID:23950711

  10. Extracellular matrix components of oral mucosa differ from skin and resemble that of foetal skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glim, J.E.; Everts, V.; Niessen, F.B.; Ulrich, M.M.W.; Beelen, R.H.J.


    Objective Wounds of both the oral mucosa and early-to-mid gestation foetuses have a propensity to heal scarless. Repair of skin wounds in adults, however, regularly results in scar formation. The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in the process of healing. The fate of scarless or

  11. Human macrophages primed with angiogenic factors show dynamic plasticity, irrespective of extracellular matrix components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Diana T. A.; van Putten, Sander M.; Koerts, Jasper A.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    Macrophages are important in inflammation as well as in tissue repair processes. They can be activated by various stimuli and classified into two major groups: M1 (classically activated) or M2 (alternatively activated). Inflammation, angiogenesis and matrix remodeling play a major role in tissue

  12. Poisoning of mixed matrix membranes by fermentation components in pervaporation of ethanol (United States)

    Pervaporation is an alternative to distillation for recovering ethanol produced by fermentation of grains and biomass. Ethanol-selective mixed matrix membranes of the hydrophobic zeolite ZSM-5 in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) have superior performance compared to pure PDMS membranes in pervaporation o...

  13. Preserved extracellular matrix components and retained biological activity in decellularized porcine mesothelium. (United States)

    Hoganson, David M; Owens, Gwen E; O'Doherty, Elisabeth M; Bowley, Chris M; Goldman, Scott M; Harilal, Dina O; Neville, Craig M; Kronengold, Russell T; Vacanti, Joseph P


    Mesothelium tissues such as peritoneum and pleura have a thin and strong layer of extracellular matrix that supports mesothelial cells capable of rapid healing. Decellularized porcine mesothelium was characterized for strength, composition of the matrix and biological activity. The tensile strength of the material was 40.65 +/- 21.65 N/cm. Extracellular matrix proteins collagen IV, fibronectin, and laminin as well as glycosaminoglycans were present in the material. Cytokines inherent in the extracellular matrix were preserved. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) were retained and the levels of VEGF and TGF-beta in the decellularized mesothelium were higher than those found in decellularized small intestinal submucosa (SIS). The decellularized mesothelium also stimulated human fibroblasts to produce more VEGF than fibroblasts grown on tissue culture plastic. Decellularized mesothelium is a sheet material with a combination of strength and biological activity that may have many potential applications in surgical repair and regenerative medicine. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of Spectral Features of Seawaterbiooptical Components Fluorescence from the Excitation-emission Matrix (United States)

    Salyuk, P. A.; Nagorny, I. G.

    The paper presents the method for processing of excitation-emission matrix of sea water and the allocation of the spectral characteristics of different types of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and phytoplankton cells in seawater. The method consists of identification of regularly observed fluorescence peaks of CDOM in marine waters of different type and definition of the spectral ranges, where the predominant influence of these peaks are observed.

  15. Measuring localized nonlinear components in a circular accelerator with a nonlinear tune response matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Franchetti


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a method for measuring the nonlinear errors in a circular accelerator by taking advantage of the feed-down effect of high order multipoles when the closed orbit is globally deformed. We devise a nonlinear tune response matrix in which the response to a closed orbit deformation is obtained in terms of change of machine tune and correlated with the strength of the local multipoles. A numerical example and a proof of principle experiment to validate the theoretical methods are presented and discussed.

  16. Components, structure, biogenesis and function of the Hydra extracellular matrix in regeneration, pattern formation and cell differentiation. (United States)

    Sarras, Michael P


    The body wall of Hydra is organized as an epithelial bilayer (ectoderm and endoderm) with an intervening extracellular matrix (ECM), termed mesoglea by early biologists. Morphological studies have determined that Hydra ECM is composed of two basal lamina layers positioned at the base of each epithelial layer with an intervening interstitial matrix. Molecular and biochemical analyses of Hydra ECM have established that it contains components similar to those seen in more complicated vertebrate species. These components include such macromolecules as laminin, type IV collagen, and various fibrillar collagens. These components are synthesized in a complicated manner involving cross-talk between the epithelial bilayer. Any perturbation to ECM biogenesis leads to a blockage in Hydra morphogenesis. Blockage in ECM/cell interactions in the adult polyp also leads to problems in epithelial transdifferentiation processes. In terms of biophysical parameters, Hydra ECM is highly flexible; a property that facilitates continuous movements along the organism's longitudinal and radial axis. This is in contrast to the more rigid matrices often found in vertebrates. The flexible nature of Hydra ECM can in part now be explained by the unique structure of the organism's type IV collagen and fibrillar collagens. This review will focus on Hydra ECM in regard to: 1) its general structure, 2) its molecular composition, 3) the biophysical basis for the flexible nature of Hydra's ECM, 4) the relationship of the biogenesis of Hydra ECM to regeneration of body form, and 5) the functional role of Hydra ECM during pattern formation and cell differentiation.

  17. Efficient real time OD matrix estimation based on principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, T.; Flötteröd, G.; Van Lint, H.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.


    In this paper we explore the idea of dimensionality reduction and approximation of OD demand based on principal component analysis (PCA). First, we show how we can apply PCA to linearly transform the high dimensional OD matrices into the lower dimensional space without significant loss of accuracy.

  18. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format (United States)

    Ankenbrand, Markus J.; Terhoeven, Niklas; Hohlfeld, Sonja; Förster, Frank; Keller, Alexander


    The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability:, PMID:28105307

  19. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format. (United States)

    Ankenbrand, Markus J; Terhoeven, Niklas; Hohlfeld, Sonja; Förster, Frank; Keller, Alexander


    The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM) format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability:,

  20. Deducing Wild 2 Components with a Statistical Dataset of Olivine in Chondrite Matrix (United States)

    Frank, D. R.; Zolensky, M. E.; Le, L.


    Introduction: A preliminary exam of the Wild 2 olivine yielded a major element distribution that is strikingly similar to those for aqueously altered carbonaceous chondrites (CI, CM, and CR) [1], in which FeO-rich olivine is preferentially altered. With evidence lacking for large-scale alteration in Wild 2, the mechanism for this apparent selectivity is poorly understood. We use a statistical approach to explain this distribution in terms of relative contributions from different chondrite forming regions. Samples and Analyses: We have made a particular effort to obtain the best possible analyses of both major and minor elements in Wild 2 olivine and the 5-30 micrometer population in chondrite matrix. Previous studies of chondrite matrix either include larger isolated grains (not found in the Wild 2 collection) or lack minor element abundances. To overcome this gap in the existing data, we have now compiled greater than 10(exp 3) EPMA analyses of matrix olivine in CI, CM, CR, CH, Kakangari, C2-ungrouped, and the least equilibrated CO, CV, LL, and EH chondrites. Also, we are acquiring TEM/EDXS analyses of the Wild 2 olivine with 500s count times, to reduce relative errors of minor elements with respect to those otherwise available. Results: Using our Wild 2 analyses and those from [2], the revised major element distribution is more similar to anhydrous IDPs than previous results, which were based on more limited statistics (see figure below). However, a large frequency peak at Fa(sub 0-1) still persists. All but one of these grains has no detectable Cr, which is dissimilar to the Fa(sub 0-1) found in the CI and CM matrices. In fact, Fa(sub 0-1) with strongly depleted Cr content is a composition that appears to be unique to Kakangari and enstatite (highly reduced) chondrites. We also note the paucity of Fa(sub greater than 58), which would typically indicate crystallization in a more oxidizing environment [3]. We conclude that, relative to the bulk of anhydrous IDPs

  1. Regulation of hematopoietic stem cell behavior by the nanostructured presentation of extracellular matrix components.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Anna Muth

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs are maintained in stem cell niches, which regulate stem cell fate. Extracellular matrix (ECM molecules, which are an essential part of these niches, can actively modulate cell functions. However, only little is known on the impact of ECM ligands on HSCs in a biomimetic environment defined on the nanometer-scale level. Here, we show that human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC adhesion depends on the type of ligand, i.e., the type of ECM molecule, and the lateral, nanometer-scaled distance between the ligands (while the ligand type influenced the dependency on the latter. For small fibronectin (FN-derived peptide ligands such as RGD and LDV the critical adhesive interligand distance for HSPCs was below 45 nm. FN-derived (FN type III 7-10 and osteopontin-derived protein domains also supported cell adhesion at greater distances. We found that the expression of the ECM protein thrombospondin-2 (THBS2 in HSPCs depends on the presence of the ligand type and its nanostructured presentation. Functionally, THBS2 proved to mediate adhesion of HSPCs. In conclusion, the present study shows that HSPCs are sensitive to the nanostructure of their microenvironment and that they are able to actively modulate their environment by secreting ECM factors.

  2. Hyperglycaemia and aberrated insulin signalling stimulate tumour progression via induction of the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan. (United States)

    Twarock, Sören; Reichert, Christina; Peters, Ulrike; Gorski, Daniel J; Röck, Katharina; Fischer, Jens W


    Epidemiological studies have detected a higher incidence of various tumour entities in diabetic patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain insufficiently understood. Glucose-derived pericellular and extracellular hyaluronan (HA) promotes tumour progression and development. In our study, we tested the hypothesis that a diabetic metabolic state, characterised by hyperglycaemia and concomitant aberrant insulin signalling, stimulates tumour progression via the induction of HA synthesis. In a streptozotocin-induced diabetic nude mouse tumour xenograft model, hyperglycaemia and lack of insulin caused an increased formation of tumour-associated HA-matrix, which in turn accelerated tumour progression and neoangiogenesis. This process was effectively attenuated by treatment with 4-methylumbelliferone, a pharmacological inhibitor of HA-synthesis. To define the mechanisms behind these in vivo observations, we investigated the impact of hyperglycaemia and insulin on the glucose metabolism in oesophageal squamous cell cancer cells (ESCC). Hyperglycaemia induced HA synthesis while insulin diminished HA production by directing glucose metabolites to glycolysis. Vice versa, inhibition of glycolysis, either by knockdown of the glycolytic key enzyme phosphofructokinase or by an experimental abrogation of insulin signalling (knockdown of the insulin receptor and long-term treatment with insulin) augmented HA synthesis. Consequently, these processes induced invasion, anchorage-independent growth and adhesion of ESCC to endothelial cells in vitro. Thus, the cellular shift in glucose usage from catabolism of glucose to anabolism of HA driven by hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance may represent an important link between diabetes and cancer progression. Hence, therapeutical inhibition of HA synthesis may represent a promising approach for tumour treatment in diabetic patients. © 2017 UICC.

  3. Application of feal intermetallic phase matrix based alloys in the turbine components of a turbocharger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cebulski


    Full Text Available This paper presents a possible application of the state-of-the-art alloys based on the FeAl intermetallic phases as materials for the manufacture of heat-proof turbine components in an automobile turbocharger. The research was aimed at determining the resistance to corrosion of Fe40Al5CrTiB alloy in a gaseous environment containing 9 % O2 + 0,2 % HCl + 0,08 % SO2 + N2. First the kinetics of corrosion processes for the considered alloy were determined at the temperatures of 900 °C, 1 000 °C and 1 100 °C, which was followed by validation under operating conditions. To do so, the tests were carried out over a distance of 20 000 km. The last stage involved examination of the surfaces after the test drive. The obtained results are the basis for further research in this field.

  4. Localization of calcium and phosphorus in early predentin-matrix components by electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI)-analysis in rat molars. (United States)

    Blottner, D; Wagner, H J


    The subcellular distribution of the inorganic elements calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) was studied in the first-formed dentin matrix during initial mineralization in neonatal rat molars. This most peripheral matrix region is comprised of a proteoglycan-rich ground substance, interwoven by a collagenous network, matrix vesicles, aperiodic fibrils derived from the dental basal lamina, and apical odontoblastic cell processes. All matrix components may possibly serve as templets for mineral deposition during initial calcification of first-formed mantle dentin and predentin. By means of the very sensitive ESI-analysis we studied the subcellular localization of Ca and P and their possible association with distinct organic extracellular matrix components and odontoblasts. Ca-signals were found in the ground substance, at striated collagen fibrils and plasma membranes of odontoblasts in the cuspal early matrix region, but occurred only sparsely in the ground substance of the more distal matrix region where odontoblast processes attach to aperiodic fibrils of the dental basal lamina. Ca was generally absent in matrix vesicles. In contrast, P-signals were found in matrix vesicles, at aperiodic fibrils and at the plasma membranes of odontoblasts. Ca and P co-localized at striated collagen fibrils (type I or II). These results suggest that striated collagen fibrils might serve as primary deposition sites for calcium phosphate during early biological calcification of organic extracellular macromolecules.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliziane Carla Scariot


    Full Text Available aim of this study was to analyze the shrubby tree component in riparian corridors in restoration process and natural remainders in a matrix forestry. We identified the richness, diversity, dispersal and pollination syndromes of the individuals and estimate the floristic similarity. The study was conducted at the producing farm of Pinus spp. wood Santa Alice, located in Rio Negrinho city, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. We adopted the center-quarter method for survey the shrubby tree component in four sample groups: CA (advanced stage of riparian corridors vegetation, CR (riparian corridors in restoration, MA (advanced stage of natural remaining, MI (intermediate stage of natural remaining. We found the highest richness and diversity index in MA and CR. Regarding the number of individuals, the dispersal and pollination syndromes predominant in all sample groups were zoochory and zoophilia. CR and CA had the highest percentage of floristic similarity while MA and MI did not form clusters. The sample group CR has composition, richness and diversity more similar to CA. This indicates that the restoration of riparian zones has conditions to rescue the components and the interactions of an ecological community.

  6. Segregation of motor and sensory axons regenerating through bicompartmental tubes by combining extracellular matrix components with neurotrophic factors. (United States)

    Del Valle, Jaume; Santos, Daniel; Delgado-Martínez, Ignacio; de la Oliva, Natàlia; Giudetti, Guido; Micera, Silvestro; Navarro, Xavier


    Segregation of regenerating motor and sensory axons may be a good strategy to improve selective functionality of regenerative interfaces to provide close loop commands. Provided that extracellular matrix (ECM) components and neurotrophic factors (NTFs) exert guidance effects on different neuronal populations, we assessed in vivo the potential of separating sensory and motor axons regenerating in a bicompartmental Y-type tube, with each branch prefilled with an adequate combination of ECM and NTFs. The severed rat sciatic nerve was repaired using a bicompartmental tube filled with a collagen matrix enriched with fibronectin and BDNF encapsulated in PLGA microspheres (FN+MP.BDNF) in one compartment to preferentially attract motor axons and collagen enriched with laminin and NGF and NT-3 in microspheres (LM+MP.NGF/NT-3) in the other compartment for promoting sensory axons regeneration. Control animals were implanted with the same Y-tube with a collagen matrix with microspheres containing PBS (Col+MP.PBS). By using retrotracer labeling, we found that LM+MP.NGF/NT-3 did not attract higher number of regenerated sensory axons compared to controls, and no differences were observed in sensory functional recovery. However, FN+MP.BDNF guided a higher number of regenerating motor axons compared to controls, improving also motor recovery. A small proportion of sensory axons with large soma size, likely proprioceptive neurons, was also attracted to the FN+MP.BDNF compartment. These results demonstrate that muscular axonal guidance can be modulated in vivo by the addition of fibronectin and BDNF. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Performance optimization of Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication for multi-component PDE-based applications using GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelfattah, Ahmad


    Simulations of many multi-component PDE-based applications, such as petroleum reservoirs or reacting flows, are dominated by the solution, on each time step and within each Newton step, of large sparse linear systems. The standard solver is a preconditioned Krylov method. Along with application of the preconditioner, memory-bound Sparse Matrix-Vector Multiplication (SpMV) is the most time-consuming operation in such solvers. Multi-species models produce Jacobians with a dense block structure, where the block size can be as large as a few dozen. Failing to exploit this dense block structure vastly underutilizes hardware capable of delivering high performance on dense BLAS operations. This paper presents a GPU-accelerated SpMV kernel for block-sparse matrices. Dense matrix-vector multiplications within the sparse-block structure leverage optimization techniques from the KBLAS library, a high performance library for dense BLAS kernels. The design ideas of KBLAS can be applied to block-sparse matrices. Furthermore, a technique is proposed to balance the workload among thread blocks when there are large variations in the lengths of nonzero rows. Multi-GPU performance is highlighted. The proposed SpMV kernel outperforms existing state-of-the-art implementations using matrices with real structures from different applications. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Reconstitution of the Myocardium in Regenerating Newt Hearts is Preceded by Transient Deposition of Extracellular Matrix Components (United States)

    Mühlfeld, Christian; Borchardt, Thilo


    Adult newts efficiently regenerate the heart after injury in a process that involves proliferation of cardiac muscle and nonmuscle cells and repatterning of the myocardium. To analyze the processes that underlie heart regeneration in newts, we characterized the structural changes in the myocardium that allow regeneration after mechanical injury. We found that cardiomyocytes in the damaged ventricle mainly die by necrosis and are removed during the first week after injury, paving the way for the extension of thin myocardial trabeculae, which initially contain only very few cardiomyocytes. During the following 200 days, these thin trabeculae fill up with new cardiomyocytes until the myocardium is fully reconstituted. Interestingly, reconstruction of the newly formed trabeculated network is accompanied by transient deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as collagen III. We conclude that the ECM is a critical guidance cue for outgrowing and branching trabeculae to reconstruct the trabeculated network, which represents a hallmark of uninjured cardiac tissue in newts. PMID:23398466

  9. Effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix components in experimentally induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. (United States)

    Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Veeraraghavan, Vishnu Priya; Jainu, Mallika


    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is an important component of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spectrum, which progresses to the end stage liver disease, if not diagnosed and treated properly. The disproportionate production of pro- and anti-inflammatory adipokines secreted from fat contributes to the pathogenesis of NASH. In this study, the comparative effect of pioglitazone, quercetin and hydroxy citric acid on extracellular matrix (ECM) component levels were studied in experimentally induced NASH. The experimental protocol consists of using 48 male Wister rats, which were divided into 8 groups. The levels of hyaluronic acid, leptin and adiponectin were monitored in experimental NASH. The experimental NASH rats treated with pioglitazone showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and significant increase in adiponectin levels when compared to experimentally induced NASH group, but did not show any effect on the levels of leptin. Contrary to these two drugs, viz. pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid, the group treated with quercetin showed significant decrease in the levels of hyaluronic acid and leptin and significant decrease in adiponectin levels compared with that of experimentally induced NASH NASH group, offering maximum protection against NASH. Considering our findings, it could be concluded that quercetin may offer maximum protection against NASH by significantly increasing the levels of adiponectin, when compared to pioglitazone and hydroxy citric acid.

  10. Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Tot


    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  11. An in vitro model for analysing neutrophil migration into and away from the sub-endothelial space: Roles of flow and CD31. (United States)

    Chakravorty, Srabasti J; McGettrick, Helen M; Butler, Lynn M; Buckley, Christopher D; Rainger, G Ed; Nash, Gerard B


    To model the later stages of neutrophil migration into tissue, we developed an assay in which human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured on porous filters, treated with the inflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), and then incorporated in a flow chamber. Video-microscopic observations were made of neutrophils as they were perfused over the HUVEC. When 3 microm pore filters were used (as opposed to 0.4 microm pore filters), neutrophils could be observed to migrate not only through the endothelial monolayer but also through the filter within minutes. The proportion of adherent neutrophils migrating through the endothelial monolayer and velocity of migration underneath it, were similar on the different filters, and also when neutrophils were perfused over cultures in glass capillaries, or settled on HUVEC cultured in standard plastic dishes. However, neutrophils migrated through HUVEC/filter constructs more rapidly in the flow chamber than in a standard, static, Transwell system, even though the velocities of migration under HUVEC were similar when directly observed under flow or static conditions. A function-blocking antibody against CD31 did not alter movement through the endothelial monolayer or the filter in the new flow system, but did reduce the migration velocity of neutrophils underneath the HUVEC (by 24%). Thus, we have developed a method for following each stage of neutrophil migration, including exit from the sub-endothelial space, and shown how they may be modified by applied fluid shear stress and blockade of a regulatory adhesion molecule.

  12. Expression of different extracellular matrix components in human brain tumor and melanoma cells in respect to variant culture conditions. (United States)

    Bouterfa, H; Darlapp, A R; Klein, E; Pietsch, T; Roosen, K; Tonn, J C


    Local tumor invasion into the surrounding brain tissue is a major characteristic of malignant gliomas. These processes critically depend on the interaction of tumor cells with various extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Because only little quantitative information about expression of ECM gene products in general and expression in response to alterations of the surrounding environment is available, the present study was designed. Four human glioblastoma cell lines (U373MG, U138MG, U251MG, GaMG) as well as four human melanoma cell lines (MV3, BLM, 530, IF6) were tested with semiquantitative RT-PCR for their ability to express mRNA of different human ECM components (fibronectin, decorin, tenascin, collagen I, collagen IV, versican). In addition, two human medulloblastoma (MHH-Med 1, MHH-Med 4) and two fibrosarcoma (HT1080, U2OS) cell lines were analyzed. Cells which were grown in DMEM medium containing 10% FCS expressed most of the analyzed protein components. When the same medium, but depleted of ECM proteins by filtrating through a membrane with cut-off at > 100 kD was used, basal mRNA expression of the ECM proteins was changed in most of the examined cell lines. Using serum free conditions, most of the cell lines again showed a variation in the expression pattern of mRNA encoding for the different ECM proteins compared to the other medium conditions. Comparing different cell lines from one tumor entity or different tumor groups, ECM expression was heterogeneous with regard to the different tumor entities as well as within the entities themselves. Migration assays revealed heterogeneous responses between the different cell lines, ECM components and culture conditions, making it difficult to correlate ECM expression patterns and migratory behavior. Our results revealed that all examined cell lines are able to produce ECM proteins in vitro. This suggests that tumor cells can modulate their microenvironment in vitro which has to be taken into consideration for

  13. Evaluation of inactivation of intracanal antiseptics by dentin, demineralized dentin, dentin matrix and mineral component of dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razmi H


    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Many studies have shown that microorganisms are the main cause of pulpal diseases and the main purpose of root canal therapy is their elimination from the root canal system. Antiseptic agents are used to reduce bacteria but their antibacterial activities differ from in vivo to in vitro studies and might be inactivated by dentin and its components in root canal space. This study was designed to investigate the effect of dentin on antibacterial activity of different antimicrobial agents. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, two antibacterial agents (sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine with different concentrations were used in four experimental groups: Group 1: dentin, Group 2: demineralized dentin with EDTA, Group 3: dentin matrix and Group 4: dentin mineral component. The species used in this study was Entrococcus faecalis. Different concentration of agents were added to mixture of each experimental group and bacteria. At the baseline and after one and 24 hours, samples were collected and cultured. After incubation period, colonies were counted. Data were analyzed by Tukey test with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: 2% and 0.2% chlorhexidine, and 5% sodium hypochlorite solutions at the three studied times eliminated Entrococcus faecalis completely. 1% sodium hypochlorite eliminated all bacteria in 1h and 24 hs. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between experimental and control groups (P<0.05. Sodium 1% hypochlorite at time 0, could reduce bacteria significantly (P<0.05 but didn’t eliminate them completely. Conclusion: Inactivation of intracanal antiseptics was not observed in this study. As elimination of bacteria occurred, application of these antibacterial agents are recommended in endodontic treatment. Further investigations on other antibacterial agents, other concentrations and shorter time intervals are recommended.

  14. Tightly bound DNA-protein complexes representing stable attachment sites of large DNA loops to components of the matrix. (United States)

    Patriotis, C; Djondjurov, L


    This study describes tightly bound DNA-protein complexes in DNA of matrices isolated from Friend erythroleukemia cells. When after radio-iodination of the associated proteins, such DNA is electrophoresed on agarose and the gel is subsequently subjected to autoradiography, the protein components of three or four complexes are visualized. Their two-dimensional electrophoretic analysis revealed that each possesses a simple but specific polypeptide composition, including a set of five non-histone proteins, characteristic for the matrix, and the core histones H3 and H4. Since the polypeptides dissociate from DNA by treatment with SDS, it is suggested that the linkage is not covalent. Reassociation and hybridization analysis of the DNA of the complexes indicated that it is enriched in highly repetitive, satellite sequences. The latter were found to be, to a great extent, similar to sequences localized at the base of large, dehistonized DNA loops obtained by high-salt extraction of isolated nuclei. Further experiments emphasized the complete conservation of this type of attachment throughout erythroid differentiation of Friend cells. It is proposed that the complexes represent attachment sites of basic, 30-100-kbp loop units of DNA.

  15. The molecular mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of dill and kale: The influence of the food matrix components. (United States)

    Danesi, Francesca; Govoni, Marco; D'Antuono, Luigi Filippo; Bordoni, Alessandra


    Foods are complex matrices containing many different compounds, all of which contribute to the overall effect of the food itself, although they have different mechanisms of action. While evaluating the effect of bioactive compounds, it is important to consider that the use of a single compound can hide the effects of the other molecules that can act synergistically or antagonistically in the same food. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of food matrix components by comparing two edible plants (dill and kale) with cholesterol-lowering potential and similar contents of their most representative bioactive, quercetin. The molecular effects of the extracts were evaluated in HepG2 cells by measuring the expression of sterol-regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) at the mRNA and protein level. The results reported here show that both extracts reduced the cellular cholesterol level with a similar trend and magnitude. It is conceivable that the slightly different results are due to the diverse composition of minor bioactive compounds, indicating that only by considering food as a whole is it possible to understand the complex relationship between food, nutrition, and health in a foodomics vision. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of magnesium chloride and guanidinum chloride on the extraction of components of extracellular matrix from chicken cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Denise Souza Arcanjo


    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of chaotropic agents on proteoglycan and non-collagenous proteins, chicken xiphoid cartilage was treated with guanidine-HCI and MgCl2 in different concentrations (1M to 5M, and different periods of time (12, 24, 48 and 72hr. The maximum yield of uronic acid was obtained with 3M MgCl2 (73.3 per cent. Concentrations of 4M and 5M of MgCl2 showed that much less uronic acid was removed, 55.3 per cent and 38.1 respectively. Extraction with 3M MgCl2 and 3M guanidine-HCl resulted better efficiency when performed for 48 hr. Analysis by SDS-PAGE of the extracts obtained with guanidine-HCl and MgCl, in different concentrations pointed out that most components are equally removed with the two solvents, showing that the extraction with MgCl2 is an alternative assay to remove non-collagenous proteins from extracellular matrix.

  17. Decreased synthesis of extracellular matrix components by chondrocytes cultured in scorbutic guinea pig serum plus vitamin C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyamada, I.; Bird, T.A.; Peterkofsky, B.


    The authors have previously shown that cartilage collagen (col) and proteoglycan (PG) syntheses decreased coordinately in guinea pig (GP) receiving a vitamin C deficient (C-def) diet for more than 2 weeks. The defects were related to the fasting state induced during the 3rd and 4th weeks of scurvy, rather than to the role of ascorbate in proline (pro) hydroxylation. These results and the generalized effect on col synthesis suggested the involvement of humoral factors. Sera from normal (NGPS) and scorbutic (SGPS) GP supported growth of BALB 3T3 cells under conditions where EGF plus insulin (or IGF I) were required, for up to 2 weeks after initiation of the C-def diet. Thereafter activity was lost from SGPS. The ability of NGPS and 4-week-SGPS, both with added ascorbate, to maintain normal rates of col and PG syntheses in cultured chick embryo chondrocytes was measured by incorporation of (/sup 14/C)pro into collagenase digestible protein and (/sup 35/S)sulfate into PG. Although pro hydroxylation and col secretion were normal in cells cultured with SGPS for 2 days, col and PG synthetic rates were decreased to 40-50% of rates in cells cultured in NGPS, with no change in the types of col and PG synthesized. These results provide evidence that depletion of growth factors during the fasting stage of scurvy may cause decreased synthesis of extracellular matrix components.

  18. Respective roles of organic and mineral components of human cortical bone matrix in micromechanical behavior: an instrumented indentation study. (United States)

    Bala, Y; Depalle, B; Douillard, T; Meille, S; Clément, P; Follet, H; Chevalier, J; Boivin, G


    Bone is a multiscale composite material made of both a type I collagen matrix and a poorly crystalline apatite mineral phase. Due to remodeling activity, cortical bone is made of Bone Structural Units (BSUs) called osteons. Since osteon represents a fundamental level of structural hierarchy, it is important to investigate the relationship between mechanical behavior and tissue composition at this scale for a better understanding of the mechanisms of bone fragility. The aim of this study is to analyze the links between ultrastructural properties and the mechanical behavior of bone tissue at the scale of osteon. Iliac bone biopsies were taken from untreated postmenopausal osteoporotic women, embedded, sectioned and microradiographed to assess the degree of mineralization of bone (DMB). On each section, BSUs of known DMB were indented with relatively high load (~500 mN) to determine local elastic modulus (E), contact hardness (H(c)) and true hardness (H) of several bone lamellae. Crystallinity and collagen maturity were measured by Fourier Transform InfraRed Microspectroscopy (FTIRM) on the same BSUs. Inter-relationships between mechanical properties and ultrastructural components were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. This study showed that elastic deformation was only explained by DMB whereas plastic deformation was more correlated with collagen maturity. Contact hardness, reflecting both elastic and plastic behaviors, was correlated with both DMB and collagen maturity. No relationship was found between crystallinity and mechanical properties at the osteon level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Restoring the Duality between Principal Components of a Distance Matrix and Linear Combinations of Predictors, with Application to Studies of the Microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen A Satten

    Full Text Available Appreciation of the importance of the microbiome is increasing, as sequencing technology has made it possible to ascertain the microbial content of a variety of samples. Studies that sequence the 16S rRNA gene, ubiquitous in and nearly exclusive to bacteria, have proliferated in the medical literature. After sequences are binned into operational taxonomic units (OTUs or species, data from these studies are summarized in a data matrix with the observed counts from each OTU for each sample. Analysis often reduces these data further to a matrix of pairwise distances or dissimilarities; plotting the first two or three principal components (PCs of this distance matrix often reveals meaningful groupings in the data. However, once the distance matrix is calculated, it is no longer clear which OTUs or species are important to the observed clustering; further, the PCs are hard to interpret and cannot be calculated for subsequent observations. We show how to construct approximate decompositions of the data matrix that pair PCs with linear combinations of OTU or species frequencies, and show how these decompositions can be used to construct biplots, select important OTUs and partition the variability in the data matrix into contributions corresponding to PCs of an arbitrary distance or dissimilarity matrix. To illustrate our approach, we conduct an analysis of the bacteria found in 45 smokeless tobacco samples.

  20. The Caenorhabditis elegans pericentriolar material components SPD-2 and SPD-5 are monomeric in the cytoplasm before incorporation into the PCM matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wueseke, Oliver; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Hein, Marco Y


    Centrosomes are the main microtubule-organizing centers in animal cells. Centrosomes consist of a pair of centrioles surrounded by a matrix of pericentriolar material (PCM) that assembles from cytoplasmic components. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, interactions between the coiled-coil proteins...

  1. Immunohistochemical evaluation of fibrillar components of the extracellular matrix of transversalis fascia and anterior abdominal rectus sheath in men with inguinal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério De Oliveira Gonçalves

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the role of fibrillar extracellular matrix components in the pathogenesis of inguinal hernias. METHODS: samples of the transverse fascia and of the anterior sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle were collected from 40 men aged between 20 and 60 years with type II and IIIA Nyhus inguinal hernia and from 10 fresh male cadavers (controls without hernia in the same age range. The staining technique was immunohistochemistry for collagen I, collagen III and elastic fibers; quantification of fibrillar components was performed with an image analysis processing software. RESULTS: no statistically significant differences were found in the amount of elastic fibers, collagen I and collagen III, and the ratio of collagen I / III among patients with inguinal hernia when compared with subjects without hernia. CONCLUSION: the amount of fibrillar extracellular matrix components did not change in patients with and without inguinal hernia.

  2. Regulation of proximal tubular cell differentiation and proliferation in primary culture by matrix stiffness and ECM components. (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Chun; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Tang, Ming-Jer


    To explore whether matrix stiffness affects cell differentiation, proliferation, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in primary cultures of mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells (mPTECs), we used a soft matrix made from monomeric collagen type I-coated polyacrylamide gel or matrigel (MG). Both kinds of soft matrix benefited primary mPTECs to retain tubular-like morphology with differentiation and growth arrest and to evade TGF-β1-induced EMT. However, the potent effect of MG on mPTEC differentiation was suppressed by glutaraldehyde-induced cross-linking and subsequently stiffening MG or by an increasing ratio of collagen in the soft mixed gel. Culture media supplemented with MG also helped mPTECs to retain tubular-like morphology and a differentiated phenotype on stiff culture dishes as soft MG did. We further found that the protein level and activity of ERK were scaled with the matrix stiffness. U-0126, a MEK inhibitor, abolished the stiff matrix-induced dedifferentiation and proliferation. These data suggest that the ERK signaling pathway plays a vital role in matrix stiffness-regulated cell growth and differentiation. Taken together, both compliant property and specific MG signals from the matrix are required for the regulation of epithelial differentiation and proliferation. This study provides a basic understanding of how physical and chemical cues derived from the extracellular matrix regulate the physiological function of proximal tubules and the pathological development of renal fibrosis. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Investigation of endogenous blood lipids components that contribute to matrix effects in dried blood spot samples by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas


    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a rapidly developing approach in the field of biopharmaceutical analysis. DBS sampling enables analysis of small sample volumes with high sensitivity and selectivity while providing a convenient easy to store and ship format. Lipid components that may be extracted during biological sample processing may result in matrix ionization effects and can significantly affect the precision and accuracy of the results. Glycerophosphocholines (GPChos), cholesterols and triacylglycerols (TAG) are the main lipid components that contribute to matrix effects in LC-MS/MS. Various organic solvents such as methanol, acetonitrile, methyl tertiary butyl ether, ethyl ether, dichloromethane and n-hexane were investigated for elution of these lipid components from DBS samples. Methanol extracts demonstrated the highest levels of GPChos whereas ethyl ether and n-hexane extracts contained less than 1.0 % of the GPChos levels in the methanol extracts. Ethyl ether extracts contained the highest levels of cholesterols and TAG in comparison to other investigated organic solvents. Acetonitrile is recommended as an elution solvent due to low lipid recoveries. Matrix effects resulted from different extracted lipid components should be studied and assessed carefully in DBS samples. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Endothelial cell contraction increases Candida adherence to exposed extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Klotz, S A; Maca, R D


    Bovine vascular endothelial cells treated with EDTA, urea, or thrombin underwent a marked, reversible contraction resulting in exposure of the subendothelial extracellular matrix (ECM). Candida yeasts adhered more to contracted monolayers than to confluent monolayers (P less than 0.01) by preferentially adhering to the ECM. Two strains of Candida albicans and one strain of Candida tropicalis bound avidly to exposed ECM, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa did not. However, treatment of endothelium with forskolin, which induces cell shape changes without exposure of the ECM, did not cause an increase in adherence. Images PMID:3137171

  5. An emerging method for rapid characterization of feed structures and feed component matrix at a cellular level and relation to feed quality and nutritive value. (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang


    Feed quality, feed characteristics, nutrient utilization and digestive behaviour are closely related to: (i) total feed composition, (ii) feed intrinsic structures, and (iii) biological component matrix (such as protein to starch matrix, protein to carbohydrate matrix). Conventional "wet" chemical analysis can determine total chemical composition, but fails to detect the feed intrinsic structures and biological component matrix due to destruction of feed samples during the processing for chemical analysis and the "wet" chemical analysis cannot link structural information to chemical information within intact feed tissue. Recently, advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy has been developed as a non-destructive and non-invasive structural-chemical analytical technique. This technique can link chemical information to structural information of biological samples within intact tissue within cellular dimensions. It can provide four kinds of information simultaneously: tissue composition, tissue structure, tissue chemistry and tissue environment. However, this novel technique has been found mainly for medical science research, extremely rare for feed science and nutrition research. The objective of this review article was to illustrate synchrotron-based FTIR microspectroscopy as a novel research tool for rapid characterization of feed structures at a cellular level and for detection of chemical features and molecular chemical make-up of feed biological component matrix and nutrient interaction. The emphasis of this article was to show that feed structural-chemical features at a cellular level are closely related to feed characteristics, feed quality and nutritive value in animals. The synchrotron-based technology will provide us with a greater understanding of the plant-animal interface.

  6. Modeling multi-component transport and enhanced anaerobic dechlorination processes in a single fracture-clay matrix system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Broholm, Mette Martina; Binning, Philip John


    Clayey tills contaminated with chlorinated solvents are a threat to groundwater and are difficult to remediate. A numerical model is developed for assessing leaching processes and for simulating the remediation via enhanced anaerobic dechlorination. The model simulates the transport...... of a contaminant in a single fracture-clay matrix system coupled with a reactive model for anaerobic dechlorination. The model takes into account microbially driven anaerobic dechlorination, where sequential Monod kinetics with competitive inhibition is used to model the reaction rates, and degradation...... is localized to account for potential pore size limitations on microbial entry to the clay matrix. The model is used to assess the distribution of TCE and its daughter products in the clay matrix and the concentration of the different compounds at the outlet of the fracture. The time frame for complete cleanup...

  7. Expression of extracellular matrix components and related growth factors in human tendon and muscle after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Bjerrum, S S; Schjerling, P


    the patellar tendon and vastus lateralis muscle of each leg at 2 (n = 10), 6 (n = 11), or 26 h (n = 10) after exercise. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA for collagens, noncollagenous matrix proteins, and growth factors were measured with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Minaev


    Full Text Available  Differentiation between adulteration and accidental meat raw material contamination in meat industry enterprises that carry out the combined processing of slaughtering products from farm animals and poultry is necessary to establish a threshold of technically non-removable impurities. Justification of the thresholds, e.g. for chicken meat, requires determination of the target analytical matrix, which content in meat raw material is stable. In the Russian certified methods, the species-specific DNA matrix for chickens is a multi-copy gene of cytochrome B in mitochondrial DNA. Taking into consideration that mitochondrial DNA copy number can depend on a muscle fiber type, animal age, and other factors, the effectiveness of using multi-copy mitochondrial genes for quantifying the poultry content in meat products was justified in this study. Analysis of the samples from the pectoral and hip muscles of three chicken carcasses and one duck carcass obtained from different manufacturers showed that the poultry pectoral and hip muscles contained approximately equal amounts of mitochondrial DNA, which allows its use as a matrix to justify the level of technically non-removable chicken impurities in finished meat products.  

  9. Insight into the heterogeneous adsorption of humic acid fluorescent components on multi-walled carbon nanotubes by excitation-emission matrix and parallel factor analysis. (United States)

    Yang, Chenghu; Liu, Yangzhi; Cen, Qiulin; Zhu, Yaxian; Zhang, Yong


    The heterogeneous adsorption behavior of commercial humic acid (HA) on pristine and functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and parallel factor (EEM- PARAFAC) analysis. The kinetics, isotherms, thermodynamics and mechanisms of adsorption of HA fluorescent components onto MWCNTs were the focus of the present study. Three humic-like fluorescent components were distinguished, including one carboxylic-like fluorophore C1 (λex/λem= (250, 310) nm/428nm), and two phenolic-like fluorophores, C2 (λex/λem= (300, 460) nm/552nm) and C3 (λex/λem= (270, 375) nm/520nm). The Lagergren pseudo-second-order model can be used to describe the adsorption kinetics of the HA fluorescent components. In addition, both the Freundlich and Langmuir models can be suitably employed to describe the adsorption of the HA fluorescent components onto MWCNTs with significantly high correlation coefficients (R2> 0.94, Pfluorescent components to MWCNTs was clearly observed. The adsorption mechanism suggested that the π-π electron donor-acceptor (EDA) interaction played an important role in the interaction between HA fluorescent components and the three MWCNTs. Furthermore, the values of the thermodynamic parameters, including the Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°), enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°), showed that the adsorption of the HA fluorescent components on MWCNTs was spontaneous and exothermic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunogold fine structural localization of extracellular matrix components in aged human cornea. II. Collagen types V and VI. (United States)

    Marshall, G E; Konstas, A G; Lee, W R


    Using immunogold immunocytochemical techniques we studied the distribution of collagen types V and VI in corneal tissue from seven enucleated human eyes (age range, 63-78 years). Results obtained by cryoultramicrotomy were marginally more intense than those obtained using London Resin white (LR white) embedding. Type V collagen was present in the striated collagen fibrils in Bowman's layer, in the stroma and in a thin, non-banded anterior zone of Descemet's membrane. Our results suggest that types I, III and V collagen co-distribute in striated collagen fibrils. By contrast, type VI collagen was located in fine filaments in the interfibrillar matrix of the stroma, in Bowman's layer and in the anchoring plaques of the sub-epithelial basement-membrane complex. This implies an importance in epithelial adhesion which was previously unsuspected. Keratocyte bodies were electron-dense, amorphous extracellular deposits of matrix-like material, and these were labelled with types III, V and VI collagen antibodies. Long-spacing collagen was observed in the corneal stroma, and this deposit did not contain any of the collagen types studied.

  11. Retrieving simulated volcanic, desert dust and sea-salt particle properties from two/three-component particle mixtures using UV-VIS polarization lidar and T matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. David


    Full Text Available During transport by advection, atmospheric nonspherical particles, such as volcanic ash, desert dust or sea-salt particles experience several chemical and physical processes, leading to a complex vertical atmospheric layering at remote sites where intrusion episodes occur. In this paper, a new methodology is proposed to analyse this complex vertical layering in the case of a two/three-component particle external mixtures. This methodology relies on an analysis of the spectral and polarization properties of the light backscattered by atmospheric particles. It is based on combining a sensitive and accurate UV-VIS polarization lidar experiment with T-matrix numerical simulations and air mass back trajectories. The Lyon UV-VIS polarization lidar is used to efficiently partition the particle mixture into its nonspherical components, while the T-matrix method is used for simulating the backscattering and depolarization properties of nonspherical volcanic ash, desert dust and sea-salt particles. It is shown that the particle mixtures' depolarization ratio δ p differs from the nonspherical particles' depolarization ratio δns due to the presence of spherical particles in the mixture. Hence, after identifying a tracer for nonspherical particles, particle backscattering coefficients specific to each nonspherical component can be retrieved in a two-component external mixture. For three-component mixtures, the spectral properties of light must in addition be exploited by using a dual-wavelength polarization lidar. Hence, for the first time, in a three-component external mixture, the nonsphericity of each particle is taken into account in a so-called 2β + 2δ formalism. Applications of this new methodology are then demonstrated in two case studies carried out in Lyon, France, related to the mixing of Eyjafjallajökull volcanic ash with sulfate particles (case of a two-component mixture and to the mixing of dust with sea-salt and water-soluble particles

  12. Principle component analysis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for rapid diagnosing the sera of patients with major depression. (United States)

    Huang, Tiao-Lai; Cho, Yi-Tzu; Su, Hong; Shiea, Jentaie


    Previously, we demonstrated that 6M HCl hydrolysis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is a useful technique to detect potential protein biomarkers in the sera collected from major depression (MD) patients and from healthy controls. In this study, the effects of various organic acids in hydrolyzing proteins in serum were first examined. The organic matrixes commonly used in MALDI analysis were also examined for characterizing the hydrolyzed peptides. Finally, principle component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the MALDI mass spectra of acid-hydrolyzed serum samples. It was found that 20% TFA and sinapinic acid were the optimal reagents for hydrolysis and MALDI matrix. Samples collected from MD patients and healthy controls were readily classified through PCA analysis. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve based on the ratio of the intensities of the two fragment ions (m/z 8606 and 9287) indicated by PCA plot was also constructed. The area under the curve was 0.845; the sensitivity and specificity were both 80%. An analytical platform employing trifluoroacetic acid to hydrolyze serum proteins followed by MALDI-TOF/MS and PCA analysis was developed to rapidly differentiate the sera between MD patients and healthy controls. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of cultured human dermal- and dermo-epidermal substitutes focusing on extracellular matrix components: Comparison of protein and RNA analysis. (United States)

    Oostendorp, Corien; Meyer, Sarah; Sobrio, Monia; van Arendonk, Joyce; Reichmann, Ernst; Daamen, Willeke F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H


    Treatment of full-thickness skin defects with split-thickness skin grafts is generally associated with contraction and scar formation and cellular skin substitutes have been developed to improve skin regeneration. The evaluation of cultured skin substitutes is generally based on qualitative parameters focusing on histology. In this study we focused on quantitative evaluation to provide a template for comparison of human bio-engineered skin substitutes between clinical and/or research centers, and to supplement histological data. We focused on extracellular matrix proteins since these components play an important role in skin regeneration. As a model we analyzed the human dermal substitute denovoDerm and the dermo-epidermal skin substitute denovoSkin. The quantification of the extracellular matrix proteins type III collagen and laminin 5 in tissue homogenates using western blotting analysis and ELISA was not successful. The same was true for assaying lysyl oxidase, an enzyme involved in crosslinking of matrix molecules. As an alternative, gene expression levels were measured using qPCR. Various RNA isolation procedures were probed. The gene expression profile for specific dermal and epidermal genes could be measured reliably and reproducibly. Differences caused by changes in the cell culture conditions could easily be detected. The number of cells in the skin substitutes was measured using the PicoGreen dsDNA assay, which was found highly quantitative and reproducible. The (dis) advantages of assays used for quantitative evaluation of skin substitutes are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. biojs-io-biom, a BioJS component for handling data in Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus J. Ankenbrand


    Full Text Available The Biological Observation Matrix (BIOM format is widely used to store data from high-throughput studies. It aims at increasing interoperability of bioinformatic tools that process this data. However, due to multiple versions and implementation details, working with this format can be tricky. Currently, libraries in Python, R and Perl are available, whilst such for JavaScript are lacking. Here, we present a BioJS component for parsing BIOM data in all format versions. It supports import, modification, and export via a unified interface. This module aims to facilitate the development of web applications that use BIOM data. Finally, we demonstrate its usefulness by two applications that already use this component. Availability:,

  15. Alterations of extracellular matrix components and proteinases in human corneal buttons with INTACS for post-laser in situ keratomileusis keratectasia and keratoconus. (United States)

    Maguen, Ezra; Rabinowitz, Yaron S; Regev, Lee; Saghizadeh, Mehrnoosh; Sasaki, Takako; Ljubimov, Alexander V


    To perform an immunohistochemical evaluation of corneas with INTACS for post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) keratectasia and keratoconus, obtained after corneal transplantation. Corneas from 1 patient with INTACS for post-LASIK keratectasia and 2 patients with INTACS for keratoconus were obtained within 3 hours after penetrating keratoplasty, and cryostat sections were analyzed by immunostaining for 35 extracellular matrix (ECM) components and proteinases. In the stroma of all corneas next to an INTACS implant, ECM components typically associated with fibrosis were observed. These included tenascin-C, fibrillin-1, and types III, IV (alpha1/alpha2 chains), and XIV collagen. Also, significant deposition of perlecan, nidogen-2, and cellular fibronectin was revealed in the same locations. The keratoconus cases displayed typical Bowman layer breaks and subepithelial fibrosis with deposition of various ECM components. In all cases, some keratocytes around INTACS were positive for specific proteinases associated with stromal remodeling, including cathepsins F and H, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, MMP-3, and MMP-10. Staining for MMP-7 was variable; MMP-2 and MMP-9 were mostly negative. Patterns of type IV collagen alpha 3, alpha 4, and alpha 6 chains; types VI and VIII collagen; laminin-332, alpha 4, alpha 5, beta1, beta2, and gamma 1 laminin chains; vitronectin; thrombospondin-1; urokinase; EMMPRIN; and cathepsins B and L were unchanged around INTACS in all 3 cases compared with normal. Abnormal accumulation of fibrotic ECM components and proteinases near INTACS suggests ongoing lysis and remodeling of corneal stroma. Specific changes observed in each case may be related to underlying pathology.

  16. The Multifunctional Role of the Pallilysin-Associated Treponema pallidum Protein, Tp0750, in Promoting Fibrinolysis and Extracellular Matrix Component Degradation (United States)

    Houston, Simon; Russell, Shannon; Hof, Rebecca; Roberts, Alanna K.; Cullen, Paul; Irvine, Kyle; Smith, Derek S.; Borchers, Christoph H.; Tonkin, Michelle L.; Boulanger, Martin J.; Cameron, Caroline E.


    Summary The mechanisms that facilitate dissemination of the highly invasive spirochete, Treponema pallidum, are incompletely understood. Previous studies showed the treponemal metalloprotease pallilysin (Tp0751) possesses fibrin clot degradation capability, suggesting a role in treponemal dissemination. In the current study we report characterization of the functionally-linked protein Tp0750. Structural modelling predicts Tp0750 contains a von Willebrand factor type A (vWFA) domain, a protein-protein interaction domain commonly observed in extracellular matrix (ECM)-binding proteins. We report Tp0750 is a serine protease that degrades the major clot components fibrinogen and fibronectin. We also demonstrate Tp0750 cleaves a matrix metalloprotease (MMP) peptide substrate that is targeted by several MMPs, enzymes central to ECM remodelling. Through proteomic analyses we show Tp0750 binds the endothelial fibrinolytic receptor, annexin A2, in a specific and dose-dependent manner. These results suggest Tp0750 constitutes a multifunctional protein that is able to (1) degrade infection-limiting clots by both inhibiting clot formation through degradation of host coagulation cascade proteins and promoting clot dissolution by complexing with host proteins involved in the fibrinolytic cascade and (2) facilitate ECM degradation via MMP-like proteolysis of host components. We propose that through these activities Tp0750 functions in concert with pallilysin to enable T. pallidum dissemination. PMID:24303899

  17. Interactions of surface-displayed glycolytic enzymes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae with components of the human extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Gründel, Anne; Jacobs, Enno; Dumke, Roger


    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a major cause of community-acquired respiratory infections worldwide. Due to the strongly reduced genome, the number of virulence factors expressed by this cell wall-less pathogen is limited. To further understand the processes during host colonization, we investigated the interactions of the previously confirmed surface-located glycolytic enzymes of M. pneumoniae (pyruvate dehydrogenase A-C [PdhA-C], glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GapA], lactate dehydrogenase [Ldh], phosphoglycerate mutase [Pgm], pyruvate kinase [Pyk] and transketolase [Tkt]) to the human extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins fibrinogen (Fn), fibronectin (Fc), lactoferrin (Lf), laminin (Ln) and vitronectin (Vc), respectively. Concentration-dependent interactions between Fn and Vc and all eight recombinant proteins derived from glycolytic enzymes, between Ln and PdhB-C, GapA, Ldh, Pgm, Pyk and Tkt, between Lf and PdhA-C, GapA and Pyk, and between Fc and PdhC and GapA were demonstrated. In most cases, these associations are significantly influenced by ionic forces and by polyclonal sera against recombinant proteins. In immunoblotting, the complex of human plasminogen, activator (tissue-type or urokinase plasminogen activator) and glycolytic enzyme was not able to degrade Fc, Lf and Ln, respectively. In contrast, degradation of Vc was confirmed in the presence of all eight enzymes tested. Our data suggest that the multifaceted associations of surface-localized glycolytic enzymes play a potential role in the adhesion and invasion processes during infection of human respiratory mucosa by M. pneumoniae. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Frontally eluted components procedure with thin layer chromatography as a mode of sample preparation for high performance liquid chromatography quantitation of acetaminophen in biological matrix. (United States)

    Klimek-Turek, A; Sikora, M; Rybicki, M; Dzido, T H


    A new concept of using thin-layer chromatography to sample preparation for the quantitative determination of solute/s followed by instrumental techniques is presented Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is used to completely separate acetaminophen and its internal standard from other components (matrix) and to form a single spot/zone containing them at the solvent front position (after the final stage of the thin-layer chromatogram development). The location of the analytes and internal standard in the solvent front zone allows their easy extraction followed by quantitation by HPLC. The exctraction procedure of the solute/s and internal standard can proceed from whole solute frontal zone or its part without lowering in accuracy of quantitative analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feeding of banana flower and pseudostem to diabetic rats results in modulation of renal GLUTs, TGFβ, PKC and extracellular matrix components. (United States)

    Jamuna, J B; Nandini, C D


    Sustained hyperglycemia as a result of diabetes mellitus results in over-expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs/SGLTs), protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in kidney which increases synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components leading to diabetic nephropathy. Previous results from our laboratory showed that banana flower (BF) and pseudostem (BS) ameliorated diabetic complications and reduced formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs). In this study, attempts were made to delineate the changes observed in GLUTs and ECM components in kidney by feeding BF and BS at the molecular level. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by injecting streptozotocin. Rats were fed with standard AIN-76 diet or diet supplemented with 5% BF or BS. Rats fed with diet supplemented with aminoguanidine (0.05%) were used as a positive control. Effect of BF and BS on expression of GLUTs/SGLTs, PKC and TGF β in kidney was evaluated by RT-PCR and accumulation of ECM components in kidney was quantitated by ELISA and immunohistochemistry. BF and BS modulated the over-expression of GLUT 1, 2, 5, SGLT 1, 2 and factors such as PKC-α and TGF-β to various extents. This impinged on the synthesis of ECM components like laminin, fibronectin and type-IV collagen. The results suggest that BF and BS reduce the diabetic nephropathy complications which are accompanied by changes at the molecular level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The Structure of Treponema pallidum Tp0751 (Pallilysin) Reveals a Non-canonical Lipocalin Fold That Mediates Adhesion to Extracellular Matrix Components and Interactions with Host Cells. (United States)

    Parker, Michelle L; Houston, Simon; Pětrošová, Helena; Lithgow, Karen V; Hof, Rebecca; Wetherell, Charmaine; Kao, Wei-Chien; Lin, Yi-Pin; Moriarty, Tara J; Ebady, Rhodaba; Cameron, Caroline E; Boulanger, Martin J


    Syphilis is a chronic disease caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum. Treponema pallidum disseminates widely throughout the host and extravasates from the vasculature, a process that is at least partially dependent upon the ability of T. pallidum to interact with host extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Defining the molecular basis for the interaction between T. pallidum and the host is complicated by the intractability of T. pallidum to in vitro culturing and genetic manipulation. Correspondingly, few T. pallidum proteins have been identified that interact directly with host components. Of these, Tp0751 (also known as pallilysin) displays a propensity to interact with the ECM, although the underlying mechanism of these interactions remains unknown. Towards establishing the molecular mechanism of Tp0751-host ECM attachment, we first determined the crystal structure of Tp0751 to a resolution of 2.15 Å using selenomethionine phasing. Structural analysis revealed an eight-stranded beta-barrel with a profile of short conserved regions consistent with a non-canonical lipocalin fold. Using a library of native and scrambled peptides representing the full Tp0751 sequence, we next identified a subset of peptides that showed statistically significant and dose-dependent interactions with the ECM components fibrinogen, fibronectin, collagen I, and collagen IV. Intriguingly, each ECM-interacting peptide mapped to the lipocalin domain. To assess the potential of these ECM-coordinating peptides to inhibit adhesion of bacteria to host cells, we engineered an adherence-deficient strain of the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi to heterologously express Tp0751. This engineered strain displayed Tp0751 on its surface and exhibited a Tp0751-dependent gain-of-function in adhering to human umbilical vein endothelial cells that was inhibited in the presence of one of the ECM-interacting peptides (p10). Overall, these data provide the first structural insight into the

  1. Decoding the encoding of functional brain networks: An fMRI classification comparison of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), independent component analysis (ICA), and sparse coding algorithms. (United States)

    Xie, Jianwen; Douglas, Pamela K; Wu, Ying Nian; Brody, Arthur L; Anderson, Ariana E


    Brain networks in fMRI are typically identified using spatial independent component analysis (ICA), yet other mathematical constraints provide alternate biologically-plausible frameworks for generating brain networks. Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) would suppress negative BOLD signal by enforcing positivity. Spatial sparse coding algorithms (L1 Regularized Learning and K-SVD) would impose local specialization and a discouragement of multitasking, where the total observed activity in a single voxel originates from a restricted number of possible brain networks. The assumptions of independence, positivity, and sparsity to encode task-related brain networks are compared; the resulting brain networks within scan for different constraints are used as basis functions to encode observed functional activity. These encodings are then decoded using machine learning, by using the time series weights to predict within scan whether a subject is viewing a video, listening to an audio cue, or at rest, in 304 fMRI scans from 51 subjects. The sparse coding algorithm of L1 Regularized Learning outperformed 4 variations of ICA (pICA and sparse coding algorithms. Holding constant the effect of the extraction algorithm, encodings using sparser spatial networks (containing more zero-valued voxels) had higher classification accuracy (pICA. Negative BOLD signal may capture task-related activations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Contributions of ocular surface components to matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 in feline tears following corneal epithelial wounding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Petznick

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated ocular surface components that contribute to matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 found in tears following corneal epithelial wounding. METHODS: Laboratory short-haired cats underwent corneal epithelial debridement in one randomly chosen eye (n = 18. Eye-flush tears were collected at baseline and during various healing stages. Procedural control eyes (identical experimental protocol as wounded eyes except for wounding, n = 5 served as controls for tear analysis. MMP activity was analyzed in tears using gelatin zymography. MMP staining patterns were evaluated in ocular tissues using immunohistochemistry and used to determine MMP expression sites responsible for tear-derived MMPs. RESULTS: The proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity in tears was highest in wounded and procedural control eyes during epithelial migration (8 to 36 hours post-wounding. Wounded eyes showed significantly higher proMMP-9 in tears only during and after epithelial restratification (day 3 to 4 and day 7 to 28 post-wounding, respectively as compared to procedural controls (p0.05. Immunohistochemistry showed increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the cornea during epithelial migration and wound closure. The conjunctival epithelium exhibited highest levels of both MMPs during wound closure, while MMP-9 expression was reduced in conjunctival goblet cells during corneal epithelial migration followed by complete absence of the cells during wound closure. The immunostaining for both MMPs was elevated in the lacrimal gland during corneal healing, with little/no change in the meibomian glands. Conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT showed weak MMP-2 and intense MMP-9 staining. CONCLUSIONS: Following wounding, migrating corneal epithelium contributed little to the observed MMP levels in tears. The major sources assessed in the present study for tear-derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 following corneal wounding are the lacrimal gland and CALT. Other

  3. Expression of extracellular matrix components and their receptors in the central nervous system during experimental Toxoplasma gondii and Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva A.A.


    Full Text Available Alterations in extracellular matrix (ECM expression in the central nervous system (CNS usually associated with inflammatory lesions have been described in several pathological situations including neuroblastoma and demyelinating diseases. The participation of fibronectin (FN and its receptor, the VLA-4 molecule, in the migration of inflammatory cells into the CNS has been proposed. In Trypanosoma cruzi infection encephalitis occurs during the acute phase, whereas in Toxoplasma infection encephalitis is a chronic persisting process. In immunocompromised individuals such as AIDS patients, T. cruzi or T. gondii infection can lead to severe CNS damage. At the moment, there are no data available regarding the molecules involved in the entrance of inflammatory cells into the CNS during parasitic encephalitis. Herein, we characterized the expression of the ECM components FN and laminin (LN and their receptors in the CNS of T. gondii- and T. cruzi-infected mice. An increased expression of FN and LN was detected in the meninges, leptomeninges, choroid plexus and basal lamina of blood vessels. A fine FN network was observed involving T. gondii-free and T. gondii-containing inflammatory infiltrates. Moreover, perivascular spaces presenting a FN-containing filamentous network filled with a4+ and a5+ cells were observed. Although an increased expression of LN was detected in the basal lamina of blood vessels, the CNS inflammatory cells were a6-negative. Taken together, our results suggest that FN and its receptors VLA-4 and VLA-5 might be involved in the entrance, migration and retention of inflammatory cells into the CNS during parasitic infections.

  4. Extracellular matrix components and culture regimen selectively regulate cartilage formation by self-assembling human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and in vivo. (United States)

    Ng, Johnathan; Wei, Yiyong; Zhou, Bin; Burapachaisri, Aonnicha; Guo, Edward; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana


    Cartilage formation from self-assembling mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro recapitulate important cellular events during mesenchymal condensation that precedes native cartilage development. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of cartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) components and culture regimen on cartilage formation by self-assembling human MSCs in vitro and in vivo. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs (hMSCs) were seeded and compacted in 6.5-mm-diameter transwell inserts with coated (type I, type II collagen) or uncoated (vehicle) membranes, at different densities (0.5 × 10(6), 1.0 × 10(6), 1.5 × 10(6) per insert). Pellets were formed by aggregating hMSCs (0.25 × 10(6)) in round-bottomed wells. All tissues were cultured for up to 6 weeks for in vitro analyses. Discs (cultured for 6, 8 or 10 weeks) and pellets (cultured for 10 weeks) were implanted subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice to evaluate the cartilage stability in vivo. Type I and type II collagen coatings enabled cartilage disc formation from self-assembling hMSCs. Without ECM coating, hMSCs formed dome-shaped tissues resembling the pellets. Type I collagen, expressed in the prechondrogenic mesenchyme, improved early chondrogenesis versus type II collagen. High seeding density improved cartilage tissue properties but resulted in a lower yield of disc formation. Discs and pellets exhibited compositional and organizational differences in vitro and in vivo. Prolonged chondrogenic induction of the discs in vitro expedited endochondral ossification in vivo. The outcomes of cartilage tissues formed from self-assembling MSCs in vitro and in vivo can be modulated by the control of culture parameters. These insights could motivate new directions for engineering cartilage and bone via a cartilage template from self-assembling MSCs.

  5. Contributions of ocular surface components to matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in feline tears following corneal epithelial wounding. (United States)

    Petznick, Andrea; Madigan, Michele C; Garrett, Qian; Sweeney, Deborah F; Evans, Margaret D M


    This study investigated ocular surface components that contribute to matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 found in tears following corneal epithelial wounding. Laboratory short-haired cats underwent corneal epithelial debridement in one randomly chosen eye (n = 18). Eye-flush tears were collected at baseline and during various healing stages. Procedural control eyes (identical experimental protocol as wounded eyes except for wounding, n = 5) served as controls for tear analysis. MMP activity was analyzed in tears using gelatin zymography. MMP staining patterns were evaluated in ocular tissues using immunohistochemistry and used to determine MMP expression sites responsible for tear-derived MMPs. The proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity in tears was highest in wounded and procedural control eyes during epithelial migration (8 to 36 hours post-wounding). Wounded eyes showed significantly higher proMMP-9 in tears only during and after epithelial restratification (day 3 to 4 and day 7 to 28 post-wounding, respectively) as compared to procedural controls (pTears from wounded and procedural control eyes showed no statistical differences for pro-MMP-2 and MMP-9 (p>0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the cornea during epithelial migration and wound closure. The conjunctival epithelium exhibited highest levels of both MMPs during wound closure, while MMP-9 expression was reduced in conjunctival goblet cells during corneal epithelial migration followed by complete absence of the cells during wound closure. The immunostaining for both MMPs was elevated in the lacrimal gland during corneal healing, with little/no change in the meibomian glands. Conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) showed weak MMP-2 and intense MMP-9 staining. Following wounding, migrating corneal epithelium contributed little to the observed MMP levels in tears. The major sources assessed in the present study for tear-derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 following

  6. Influence of Adhesion Force on icaA and cidA Gene Expression and Production of Matrix Components in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harapanahalli, Akshay K.; Chen, Yun; Li, Jiuyi; Busscher, Henk J.; van der Mei, Henny C.

    The majority of human infections are caused by biofilms. The biofilm mode of growth enhances the pathogenicity of Staphylococcus spp. considerably, because once they adhere, staphylococci embed themselves in a protective, self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). The aim of


    High-silica ZSM 5 zeolites were incorporated into poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) polymers to form mixed matrix membranes for ethanol removal from water via pervaporation. Membrane formulation and preparation parameters were varied to determine the effect on pervaporation perform...

  8. Phase differential enhancement of FLIM to distinguish FRET components of a biosensor for monitoring molecular activity of Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase in live cells. (United States)

    Eichorst, John Paul; Huang, He; Clegg, Robert M; Wang, Yingxiao


    Fluorescence lifetime-resolved imaging microscopy (FLIM) has been used to monitor the enzymatic activity of a proteolytic enzyme, Membrane Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), with a recently developed FRET-based biosensor in vitro and in live HeLa and HT1080 cells. MT1-MMP is a collagenaise that is involved in the destruction of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) proteins, as well as in various cellular functions including migration. The increased expression of MT1-MMP has been positively correlated with the invasive potential of tumor cells. However, the precise spatiotemporal activation patterns of MT1-MMP in live cells are still not well-established. The activity of MT1-MMP was examined with our biosensor in live cells. Imaging of live cells was performed with full-field frequency-domain FLIM. Image analysis was carried out both with polar plots and phase differential enhancement. Phase differential enhancement, which is similar to phase suppression, is shown to facilitate the differentiation between different conformations of the MT1-MMP biosensor in live cells when the lifetime differences are small. FLIM carried out in differential enhancement or phase suppression modes, requires only two acquired phase images, and permits rapid imaging of the activity of MT1-MMP in live cells. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  9. Self-organising maps and correlation analysis as a tool to explore patterns in excitation-emission matrix data sets and to discriminate dissolved organic matter fluorescence components. (United States)

    Ejarque-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Butturini, Andrea


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of organic compounds, ubiquitous in marine and freshwater systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy, by means of Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEM), has become an indispensable tool to study DOM sources, transport and fate in aquatic ecosystems. However the statistical treatment of large and heterogeneous EEM data sets still represents an important challenge for biogeochemists. Recently, Self-Organising Maps (SOM) has been proposed as a tool to explore patterns in large EEM data sets. SOM is a pattern recognition method which clusterizes and reduces the dimensionality of input EEMs without relying on any assumption about the data structure. In this paper, we show how SOM, coupled with a correlation analysis of the component planes, can be used both to explore patterns among samples, as well as to identify individual fluorescence components. We analysed a large and heterogeneous EEM data set, including samples from a river catchment collected under a range of hydrological conditions, along a 60-km downstream gradient, and under the influence of different degrees of anthropogenic impact. According to our results, chemical industry effluents appeared to have unique and distinctive spectral characteristics. On the other hand, river samples collected under flash flood conditions showed homogeneous EEM shapes. The correlation analysis of the component planes suggested the presence of four fluorescence components, consistent with DOM components previously described in the literature. A remarkable strength of this methodology was that outlier samples appeared naturally integrated in the analysis. We conclude that SOM coupled with a correlation analysis procedure is a promising tool for studying large and heterogeneous EEM data sets.

  10. Repair process and a repaired component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Simpson, Stanley F.


    Matrix composite component repair processes are disclosed. The matrix composite repair process includes applying a repair material to a matrix composite component, securing the repair material to the matrix composite component with an external securing mechanism and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component during the securing by the external securing mechanism. The matrix composite component is selected from the group consisting of a ceramic matrix composite, a polymer matrix composite, and a metal matrix composite. In another embodiment, the repair process includes applying a partially-cured repair material to a matrix composite component, and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component, an external securing mechanism securing the repair material throughout a curing period, In another embodiment, the external securing mechanism is consumed or decomposed during the repair process.

  11. Matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Joel N


    Mathematically rigorous introduction covers vector and matrix norms, the condition-number of a matrix, positive and irreducible matrices, much more. Only elementary algebra and calculus required. Includes problem-solving exercises. 1968 edition.

  12. Redox Mechanisms of AVS022, an Oriental Polyherbal Formula, and Its Component Herbs in Protection against Induction of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 in UVA-Irradiated Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanyawan Pluemsamran


    Full Text Available Ayurved Siriraj HaRak (AVS022 formula has been used for topical remedy of dermatologic disorders. Oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet (UV A irradiation could be implicated in photoaged skin through triggering matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1. We, therefore, explored the antioxidant mechanisms by which AVS022 formulation and its individual components protected against UVA-dependent MMP-1 upregulation in keratinocyte HaCaT cells. TLC analysis revealed the presence of multiple phenolics including gallic acid (GA in the AVS022 extracts. We demonstrated that pretreatment with the whole formula and individual herbal components except T. triandra protected against increased MMP-1 activity in irradiated HaCaT cells. Moreover, all herbal extracts and GA, used as the reference compound, were able to reverse cytotoxicity, oxidant production, glutathione (GSH loss, and inactivation of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx. F. racemosa was observed to yield the strongest abilities to abolish UVA-mediated induction of MMP-1 and impairment of antioxidant defenses including GSH and catalase. Our observations suggest that upregulation of endogenous antioxidants could be the mechanisms by which AVS022 and its herbal components suppressed UVA-stimulated MMP-1 in HaCaT cells. In addition, pharmacological actions of AVS022 formula may be attributed to the antioxidant potential of its components, in particular F. racemosa, and several phenolics including GA.

  13. ALMS1-deficient fibroblasts over-express extra-cellular matrix components, display cell cycle delay and are resistant to apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Zulato


    Full Text Available Alström Syndrome (ALMS is a rare genetic disorder (483 living cases, characterized by many clinical manifestations, including blindness, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiomyopathy. ALMS is caused by mutations in the ALMS1 gene, encoding for a large protein with implicated roles in ciliary function, cellular quiescence and intracellular transport. Patients with ALMS have extensive fibrosis in nearly all tissues resulting in a progressive organ failure which is often the ultimate cause of death. To focus on the role of ALMS1 mutations in the generation and maintenance of this pathological fibrosis, we performed gene expression analysis, ultrastructural characterization and functional assays in 4 dermal fibroblast cultures from ALMS patients. Using a genome-wide gene expression analysis we found alterations in genes belonging to specific categories (cell cycle, extracellular matrix (ECM and fibrosis, cellular architecture/motility and apoptosis. ALMS fibroblasts display cytoskeleton abnormalities and migration impairment, up-regulate the expression and production of collagens and despite the increase in the cell cycle length are more resistant to apoptosis. Therefore ALMS1-deficient fibroblasts showed a constitutively activated myofibroblast phenotype even if they do not derive from a fibrotic lesion. Our results support a genetic basis for the fibrosis observed in ALMS and show that both an excessive ECM production and a failure to eliminate myofibroblasts are key mechanisms. Furthermore, our findings suggest new roles for ALMS1 in both intra- and extra-cellular events which are essential not only for the normal cellular function but also for cell-cell and ECM-cell interactions.

  14. Transglutaminase 2 strongly binds to an extracellular matrix component other than fibronectin via its second C-terminal beta-barrel domain. (United States)

    Stamnaes, Jorunn; Cardoso, Inês; Iversen, Rasmus; Sollid, Ludvig M


    Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a ubiquitous crosslinking enzyme present in both intra- and extracellular in many cell types and tissues. TG2 is upregulated upon cellular stress or injury, and extracellular TG2 is implicated in several human diseases, including celiac disease. However, incomplete knowledge about extracellular TG2 biology limits our understanding of how TG2 is involved in disease. Here, we demonstrate that binding of TG2 to the ECM of small intestinal tissue sections is the sum of binding to fibronectin (FN) via its N-terminal domain and binding to an abundant, novel extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction partner via its second C-terminal beta-barrel domain. The latter interaction dominates and gives rise to the characteristic reticular staining pattern of extracellular TG2. Of relevance for celiac disease, we show that self-multimerized TG2 does not efficiently deposit in the intestinal ECM, and TG2 complexes may thus become free-floating antigens in tissues in contrast to monomeric TG2 that would readily become sequestered by the ECM. Upon injection of monoclonal antibody targeting the FN-binding site, we observe antibody deposition on extracellular TG2 in cryosections, suggesting that the FN-binding site of TG2 is exposed in vivo. This would explain how and why celiac autoantibodies recognizing the FN-binding site of TG2 can bind TG2 in vitro, in situ as well as in vivo. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  15. Development of an in-situ synthesized multi-component reinforced Al–4.5%Cu–TiC metal matrix composite by FAS technique – Optimization of process parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswajit Das


    Full Text Available In the present investigation, an in-situ multi-component reinforced aluminium copper alloy based metal matrix composite was fabricated by the flux assisted synthesis (FAS technique. It was found from the optical microscopy analysis that TiC particles are formed in the composite. Further the present research investigates the feasibility and dry machining characteristics of Al–4.5%Cu/5TiC metal matrix composite in CNC milling machine using uncoated solid carbide end mill cutter. The effect of the machining parameters such as feed, cutting speed, depth of cut on the response parameters such as cutting force and COM is determined by using analysis of variance (ANOVA. From the analysis it was found that cutting speed and depth of cut played a major role in affecting cutting force. Multi output optimization of the process was carried out by the application of the Taguchi method with fuzzy logic, and the confirmatory test has revealed the accuracy of the developed model. For predicting the response parameters, regression equations were developed and verified with a number of test cases and it was observed that the percentage error for both responses is less than ±3%, which indicates there is a close agreement between the predicted and the measured results.

  16. The role of extracellular matrix components in pin bone attachments during storage-a comparison between farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and cod (Gadus morhua L.). (United States)

    Rønning, Sissel B; Østbye, Tone-Kari; Krasnov, Aleksei; Vuong, Tram T; Veiseth-Kent, Eva; Kolset, Svein O; Pedersen, Mona E


    Pin bones represent a major problem for processing and quality of fish products. Development of methods of removal requires better knowledge of the pin bones' attachment to the muscle and structures involved in the breakdown during loosening. In this study, pin bones from cod and salmon were dissected from fish fillets after slaughter or storage on ice for 5 days, and thereafter analysed with molecular methods, which revealed major differences between these species before and after storage. The connective tissue (CT) attaches the pin bone to the muscle in cod, while the pin bones in salmon are embedded in adipose tissue. Collagens, elastin, lectin-binding proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are all components of the attachment site, and this differ between salmon and cod, resulting in a CT in cod that is more resistant to enzymatic degradation compared to the CT in salmon. Structural differences are reflected in the composition of transcriptome. Microarray analysis comparing the attachment sites of the pin bones with a reference muscle sample showed limited differences in salmon. In cod, on the other hand, the variances were substantial, and the gene expression profiles suggested difference in myofibre structure, metabolism and cell processes between the pin bone attachment site and the reference muscle. Degradation of the connective tissue occurs closest to the pin bones and not in the neighbouring tissue, which was shown using light microscopy. This study shows that the attachment of the pin bones in cod and salmon is different; therefore, the development of methods for removal should be tailored to each individual species.

  17. Can matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) be more simplified? Application of solventless MSPD sample preparation method for GC-MS and GC-FID analysis of plant essential oil components. (United States)

    Wianowska, Dorota; Dawidowicz, Andrzej L


    This paper proposes and shows the analytical capabilities of a new variant of matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) with the solventless blending step in the chromatographic analysis of plant volatiles. The obtained results prove that the use of a solvent is redundant as the sorption ability of the octadecyl brush is sufficient for quantitative retention of volatiles from 9 plants differing in their essential oil composition. The extraction efficiency of the proposed simplified MSPD method is equivalent to the efficiency of the commonly applied variant of MSPD with the organic dispersing liquid and pressurized liquid extraction, which is a much more complex, technically advanced and highly efficient technique of plant extraction. The equivalency of these methods is confirmed by the variance analysis. The proposed solventless MSPD method is precise, accurate, and reproducible. The recovery of essential oil components estimated by the MSPD method exceeds 98%, which is satisfactory for analytical purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Matrix calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bodewig, E


    Matrix Calculus, Second Revised and Enlarged Edition focuses on systematic calculation with the building blocks of a matrix and rows and columns, shunning the use of individual elements. The publication first offers information on vectors, matrices, further applications, measures of the magnitude of a matrix, and forms. The text then examines eigenvalues and exact solutions, including the characteristic equation, eigenrows, extremum properties of the eigenvalues, bounds for the eigenvalues, elementary divisors, and bounds for the determinant. The text ponders on approximate solutions, as well

  19. Biophysical and biochemical outcomes of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection promotes pro-atherogenic matrix microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar J. Evani


    Full Text Available Multiple studies support the hypothesis that infectious agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chlamydia pneumoniae is strongly implicated in atherosclerosis, but the precise role has been underestimated and poorly understood due to the complexity of the disease process. In this work, we test the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages lodged in the subendothelial matrix contribute to atherogenesis through pro-inflammatory factors and by cell-matrix interactions. To test this hypothesis, we used a 3D infection model with freshly isolated PBMC infected with live C. pneumoniae and chlamydial antigens encapsulated in a collagen matrix, and analyzed the inflammatory responses over 7 days. We observed that infection significantly upregulates the secretion of cytokines TNF-, IL-1, IL-8, MCP-1, MMP, oxidative stress, transendothelial permeability, and LDL uptake. We also observed that infected macrophages form clusters, and substantially modify the microstructure and mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix to an atherogenic phenotype. Together, our data demonstrates that C. pneumoniae-infection drives a low-grade, sustained inflammation that may predispose in the transformation to atherosclerotic foci.

  20. Turbine component, turbine blade, and turbine component fabrication process (United States)

    Delvaux, John McConnell; Cairo, Ronald Ralph; Parolini, Jason Robert


    A turbine component, a turbine blade, and a turbine component fabrication process are disclosed. The turbine component includes ceramic matrix composite plies and a feature configured for preventing interlaminar tension of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The feature is selected from the group consisting of ceramic matrix composite tows or precast insert tows extending through at least a portion of the ceramic matrix composite plies, a woven fabric having fiber tows or a precast insert preventing contact between a first set of the ceramic matrix composite plies and a second set of the ceramic matrix composite plies, and combinations thereof. The process includes laying up ceramic matrix composite plies in a preselected arrangement and securing a feature configured for interlaminar tension.

  1. Hadronic matrix elements for Kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijnens, Johan [Department of Theoretical Physics 2, Lund University, Soelvegatan 14A, S-22362 Lund (Sweden); Gamiz, Elvira [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain); Prades, Joaquim [CAFPE and Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada Campus de Fuente Nueva, E-18002 Granada (Spain)


    We review some work done by us calculating matrix elements for Kaons. Emphasis is put on the matrix elements which are relevant to predict non-leptonic Kaon CP violating observables. In particular, we recall our results for the B{sub K} parameter which governs the K{sup 0}-K{sup 0} mixing and update our results for {epsilon}'inK including estimated all-higher-order CHPT corrections and the new results from recent analytical calculations of the {delta}itI = 3/2 component. Some comments on future prospects on calculating matrix elements for Kaons are also added.

  2. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra


    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  3. Understanding symmetrical components for power system modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C


    This book utilizes symmetrical components for analyzing unbalanced three-phase electrical systems, by applying single-phase analysis tools. The author covers two approaches for studying symmetrical components; the physical approach, avoiding many mathematical matrix algebra equations, and a mathematical approach, using matrix theory. Divided into seven sections, topics include: symmetrical components using matrix methods, fundamental concepts of symmetrical components, symmetrical components –transmission lines and cables, sequence components of rotating equipment and static load, three-phase models of transformers and conductors, unsymmetrical fault calculations, and some limitations of symmetrical components.

  4. Ceramic Matrix Composites for Rotorcraft Engines (United States)

    Halbig, Michael C.


    Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) components are being developed for turbine engine applications. Compared to metallic components, the CMC components offer benefits of higher temperature capability and less cooling requirements which correlates to improved efficiency and reduced emissions. This presentation discusses a technology develop effort for overcoming challenges in fabricating a CMC vane for the high pressure turbine. The areas of technology development include small component fabrication, ceramic joining and integration, material and component testing and characterization, and design and analysis of concept components.

  5. Extracellular matrix structure. (United States)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D; Skandalis, Spyros S; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Karamanos, Nikos K


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) is a non-cellular three-dimensional macromolecular network composed of collagens, proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans, elastin, fibronectin, laminins, and several other glycoproteins. Matrix components bind each other as well as cell adhesion receptors forming a complex network into which cells reside in all tissues and organs. Cell surface receptors transduce signals into cells from ECM, which regulate diverse cellular functions, such as survival, growth, migration, and differentiation, and are vital for maintaining normal homeostasis. ECM is a highly dynamic structural network that continuously undergoes remodeling mediated by several matrix-degrading enzymes during normal and pathological conditions. Deregulation of ECM composition and structure is associated with the development and progression of several pathologic conditions. This article emphasizes in the complex ECM structure as to provide a better understanding of its dynamic structural and functional multipotency. Where relevant, the implication of the various families of ECM macromolecules in health and disease is also presented. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) suppresses attachment and spreading of breast cancer cells on 2D and 3D extracellular matrix components by altering focal adhesion-associated signaling (United States)

    Metastatic dissemination of cancer cells from primary tumor to secondary sites is a multi-step process that depends heavily on the ability of cancer cells to respond to the microenvironmental cues, such as changes in composition of surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM), by adapting their adhesion a...

  7. Program For Analysis Of Metal-Matrix Composites (United States)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Mital, S. K.


    METCAN (METal matrix Composite ANalyzer) is computer program used to simulate computationally nonlinear behavior of high-temperature metal-matrix composite structural components in specific applications, providing comprehensive analyses of thermal and mechanical performances. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  8. Fragmentation of extracellular matrix by hypochlorous acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, Alan A; Davies, Michael Jonathan


    of the MPO-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with extracellular matrix from vascular smooth muscle cells and healthy pig arteries has been examined. HOCl is rapidly consumed by such matrix samples, with the formation of matrix-derived chloramines or chloramides. The yield of these intermediates...... increases with HOCl dose. These materials undergo a time- and temperature-dependent decay, which parallels the release of sugar and protein components from the treated matrix, consistent with these species being important intermediates. Matrix damage is enhanced by species that increase chloramine....../chloramide decomposition, with copper and iron ions being effective catalysts, and decreased by compounds which scavenge chloramines/chloramides, or species derived from them. The effect of such matrix modifications on cellular behaviour is poorly understood, though it is known that changes in matrix materials can have...

  9. Matrix completion by deep matrix factorization. (United States)

    Fan, Jicong; Cheng, Jieyu


    Conventional methods of matrix completion are linear methods that are not effective in handling data of nonlinear structures. Recently a few researchers attempted to incorporate nonlinear techniques into matrix completion but there still exists considerable limitations. In this paper, a novel method called deep matrix factorization (DMF) is proposed for nonlinear matrix completion. Different from conventional matrix completion methods that are based on linear latent variable models, DMF is on the basis of a nonlinear latent variable model. DMF is formulated as a deep-structure neural network, in which the inputs are the low-dimensional unknown latent variables and the outputs are the partially observed variables. In DMF, the inputs and the parameters of the multilayer neural network are simultaneously optimized to minimize the reconstruction errors for the observed entries. Then the missing entries can be readily recovered by propagating the latent variables to the output layer. DMF is compared with state-of-the-art methods of linear and nonlinear matrix completion in the tasks of toy matrix completion, image inpainting and collaborative filtering. The experimental results verify that DMF is able to provide higher matrix completion accuracy than existing methods do and DMF is applicable to large matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quaternion from rotation matrix. [four-parameter representation of coordinate transformation matrix (United States)

    Shepperd, S. W.


    A quaternion is regarded as a four-parameter representation of a coordinate transformation matrix, where the four components of the quaternion are treated on an equal basis. This leads to a unified, compact, and singularity-free approach to determining the quaternion when the matrix is given.

  11. Interacting Components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orlic, B.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Welch, Peter; Kerridge, Jon; Barnes, Fred


    SystemCSP is a graphical modeling language based on both CSP and concepts of component-based software development. The component framework of SystemCSP enables specification of both interaction scenarios and relative execution ordering among components. Specification and implementation of

  12. Diagnosis using nail matrix. (United States)

    Richert, Bertrand; Caucanas, Marie; André, Josette


    Diagnosing nail matrix diseases requires knowledge of the nail matrix function and anatomy. This allows recognition of the clinical manifestations and assessment of potential surgical risk. Nail signs depend on the location within the matrix (proximal or distal) and the intensity, duration, and extent of the insult. Proximal matrix involvement includes nail surface irregularities (longitudinal lines, transverse lines, roughness of the nail surface, pitting, and superficial brittleness), whereas distal matrix insult induces longitudinal or transverse chromonychia. Clinical signs are described and their main causes are listed to enable readers to diagnose matrix disease from the nail's clinical features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PCOM: A Microcomputer Program that Performs a Principal Components Analysis. (United States)

    Powers, Stephen


    This paper describes a microcomputer program that extracts principal components from a correlation matrix and rotates them to a varimax solution. Eigenvalues, variances associated with each component, unrotated component loadings, and varimax rotated loadings are output by the program. (Author)

  14. [The role of changes of matrix metalloproteinase in cardiovascular diseases]. (United States)

    Gasanov, A G; Bershova, T V


    The review summarizes information about changes of extracellular matrix (ECM) in cardiovascular diseases. Special attention is paid to different groups of extra cellular matrix proteins (collagen I and III type, fibronectine) in the development of cardiac fibrosis in chronic heart failure. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in degradation of components of ECM is analyzed. Interrelationship between matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors in fibrosis and cardiac structural chances is analyzed.

  15. The Matrix Cookbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kaare Brandt; Pedersen, Michael Syskind

    Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices.......Matrix identities, relations and approximations. A desktop reference for quick overview of mathematics of matrices....

  16. Polychoric/Tetrachoric Matrix or Pearson Matrix? A methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominguez Lara, Sergio Alexis


    Full Text Available The use of product-moment correlation of Pearson is common in most studies in factor analysis in psychology, but it is known that this statistic is only applicable when the variables related are in interval scale and normally distributed, and when are used in ordinal data may to produce a distorted correlation matrix . Thus is a suitable option using polychoric/tetrachoric matrices in item-level factor analysis when the items are in level measurement nominal or ordinal. The aim of this study was to show the differences in the KMO, Bartlett`s Test and Determinant of the Matrix, percentage of variance explained and factor loadings in depression trait scale of Depression Inventory Trait - State and the Neuroticism dimension of the short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire -Revised, regarding the use of matrices polychoric/tetrachoric matrices and Pearson. These instruments was analyzed with different extraction methods (Maximum Likelihood, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis, Unweighted Least Squares and Principal Components, keeping constant the rotation method Promin were analyzed. Were observed differences regarding sample adequacy measures, as well as with respect to the explained variance and the factor loadings, for solutions having as polychoric/tetrachoric matrix. So it can be concluded that the polychoric / tetrachoric matrix give better results than Pearson matrices when it comes to item-level factor analysis using different methods.

  17. Matrix differentiation formulas (United States)

    Usikov, D. A.; Tkhabisimov, D. K.


    A compact differentiation technique (without using indexes) is developed for scalar functions that depend on complex matrix arguments which are combined by operations of complex conjugation, transposition, addition, multiplication, matrix inversion and taking the direct product. The differentiation apparatus is developed in order to simplify the solution of extremum problems of scalar functions of matrix arguments.

  18. Matrix with Prescribed Eigenvectors (United States)

    Ahmad, Faiz


    It is a routine matter for undergraduates to find eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a given matrix. But the converse problem of finding a matrix with prescribed eigenvalues and eigenvectors is rarely discussed in elementary texts on linear algebra. This problem is related to the "spectral" decomposition of a matrix and has important technical…

  19. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A


    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  20. Application of unfolded principal component analysis-radial basis function neural network for determination of celecoxib in human serum by three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (United States)

    Shahlaei, Mohsen; Bahrami, Gholamreza; Abdolmaleki, Sajjad; Sadrjavadi, Komail; Majnooni, Mohammad Bagher


    This study describes a simple and rapid approach of monitoring celecoxib (CLX). Unfolded principal component analysis-radial basis function neural network (UPCA-RBFNN) and excitation-emission spectra were combined to develop new model in the determination of CLX in human serum samples. Fluorescence landscapes with excitation wavelengths from 250 to 310 nm and emission wavelengths in the range 280-450 nm were obtained. The figures of merit for the developed model were evaluated. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was also used as a standard method. Accuracy of the method was investigated by analysis of the serum samples spiked with various concentration of CLX and a recovery of 103.63% was obtained. The results indicated that the proposed method is an interesting alternative to the traditional techniques normally used for determining CLX such as HPLC.

  1. Nanocrystal doped matrixes (United States)

    Parce, J. Wallace; Bernatis, Paul; Dubrow, Robert; Freeman, William P.; Gamoras, Joel; Kan, Shihai; Meisel, Andreas; Qian, Baixin; Whiteford, Jeffery A.; Ziebarth, Jonathan


    Matrixes doped with semiconductor nanocrystals are provided. In certain embodiments, the semiconductor nanocrystals have a size and composition such that they absorb or emit light at particular wavelengths. The nanocrystals can comprise ligands that allow for mixing with various matrix materials, including polymers, such that a minimal portion of light is scattered by the matrixes. The matrixes of the present invention can also be utilized in refractive index matching applications. In other embodiments, semiconductor nanocrystals are embedded within matrixes to form a nanocrystal density gradient, thereby creating an effective refractive index gradient. The matrixes of the present invention can also be used as filters and antireflective coatings on optical devices and as down-converting layers. Processes for producing matrixes comprising semiconductor nanocrystals are also provided. Nanostructures having high quantum efficiency, small size, and/or a narrow size distribution are also described, as are methods of producing indium phosphide nanostructures and core-shell nanostructures with Group II-VI shells.

  2. Cell-matrix adhesion. (United States)

    Berrier, Allison L; Yamada, Kenneth M


    The complex interactions of cells with extracellular matrix (ECM) play crucial roles in mediating and regulating many processes, including cell adhesion, migration, and signaling during morphogenesis, tissue homeostasis, wound healing, and tumorigenesis. Many of these interactions involve transmembrane integrin receptors. Integrins cluster in specific cell-matrix adhesions to provide dynamic links between extracellular and intracellular environments by bi-directional signaling and by organizing the ECM and intracellular cytoskeletal and signaling molecules. This mini review discusses these interconnections, including the roles of matrix properties such as composition, three-dimensionality, and porosity, the bi-directional functions of cellular contractility and matrix rigidity, and cell signaling. The review concludes by speculating on the application of this knowledge of cell-matrix interactions in the formation of cell adhesions, assembly of matrix, migration, and tumorigenesis to potential future therapeutic approaches. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Parallelism in matrix computations

    CERN Document Server

    Gallopoulos, Efstratios; Sameh, Ahmed H


    This book is primarily intended as a research monograph that could also be used in graduate courses for the design of parallel algorithms in matrix computations. It assumes general but not extensive knowledge of numerical linear algebra, parallel architectures, and parallel programming paradigms. The book consists of four parts: (I) Basics; (II) Dense and Special Matrix Computations; (III) Sparse Matrix Computations; and (IV) Matrix functions and characteristics. Part I deals with parallel programming paradigms and fundamental kernels, including reordering schemes for sparse matrices. Part II is devoted to dense matrix computations such as parallel algorithms for solving linear systems, linear least squares, the symmetric algebraic eigenvalue problem, and the singular-value decomposition. It also deals with the development of parallel algorithms for special linear systems such as banded ,Vandermonde ,Toeplitz ,and block Toeplitz systems. Part III addresses sparse matrix computations: (a) the development of pa...

  4. Quasiclassical Random Matrix Theory


    Prange, R. E.


    We directly combine ideas of the quasiclassical approximation with random matrix theory and apply them to the study of the spectrum, in particular to the two-level correlator. Bogomolny's transfer operator T, quasiclassically an NxN unitary matrix, is considered to be a random matrix. Rather than rejecting all knowledge of the system, except for its symmetry, [as with Dyson's circular unitary ensemble], we choose an ensemble which incorporates the knowledge of the shortest periodic orbits, th...

  5. Genetic Relationships Between Chondrules, Rims and Matrix (United States)

    Huss, G. R.; Alexander, C. M. OD.; Palme, H.; Bland, P. A.; Wasson, J. T.


    The most primitive chondrites are composed of chondrules and chondrule fragments, various types of inclusions, discrete mineral grains, metal, sulfides, and fine-grained materials that occur as interchondrule matrix and as chondrule/inclusion rims. Understanding how these components are related is essential for understanding how chondrites and their constituents formed and were processed in the solar nebula. For example, were the first generations of chondrules formed by melting of matrix or matrix precursors? Did chondrule formation result in appreciable transfer of chondrule material into the matrix? Here, we consider three types of data: 1) compositional data for bulk chondrites and matrix, 2) mineralogical and textural information, and 3) the abundances and characteristics of presolar materials that reside in the matrix and rims. We use these data to evaluate the roles of evaporation and condensation, chondrule formation, mixing of different nebular components, and secondary processing both in the nebula and on the parent bodies. Our goal is to identify the things that are reasonably well established and to point out the areas that need additional work.

  6. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.


    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  7. Patience of matrix games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Ibsen-Jensen, Rasmus; Podolskii, Vladimir V.


    For matrix games we study how small nonzero probability must be used in optimal strategies. We show that for image win–lose–draw games (i.e. image matrix games) nonzero probabilities smaller than image are never needed. We also construct an explicit image win–lose game such that the unique optimal...

  8. Development of a Compact Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the development of a matrix converter. Matrix converters belong to the category of direct frequency converters. A converter does not contain DC-link and the output voltage is provided by direct switching of voltage from the input phases. This is enabled by 9 bidirectional switches, which are provided by anti-serial connection of 18 IGBT transistors. The absence of a DC-link is great advantage of the matrix converter, but it also increases the requirements on the converter control. For this reason a new prototype of a matrix converter is being developed with sophisticated modern components (FPGA, Power PC equipped in the control part of the converter. The converter will be used for testing new control algorithms and commutation methods. 

  9. Fuzzy risk matrix. (United States)

    Markowski, Adam S; Mannan, M Sam


    A risk matrix is a mechanism to characterize and rank process risks that are typically identified through one or more multifunctional reviews (e.g., process hazard analysis, audits, or incident investigation). This paper describes a procedure for developing a fuzzy risk matrix that may be used for emerging fuzzy logic applications in different safety analyses (e.g., LOPA). The fuzzification of frequency and severity of the consequences of the incident scenario are described which are basic inputs for fuzzy risk matrix. Subsequently using different design of risk matrix, fuzzy rules are established enabling the development of fuzzy risk matrices. Three types of fuzzy risk matrix have been developed (low-cost, standard, and high-cost), and using a distillation column case study, the effect of the design on final defuzzified risk index is demonstrated.

  10. Higher Spin Matrix Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Valenzuela


    Full Text Available We propose a hybrid class of theories for higher spin gravity and matrix models, i.e., which handle simultaneously higher spin gravity fields and matrix models. The construction is similar to Vasiliev’s higher spin gravity, but part of the equations of motion are provided by the action principle of a matrix model. In particular, we construct a higher spin (gravity matrix model related to type IIB matrix models/string theory that have a well defined classical limit, and which is compatible with higher spin gravity in A d S space. As it has been suggested that higher spin gravity should be related to string theory in a high energy (tensionless regime, and, therefore to M-Theory, we expect that our construction will be useful to explore concrete connections.

  11. Extracellular matrix and tissue engineering applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.A.M.; Moroni, Lorenzo; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan


    The extracellular matrix is a key component during regeneration and maintenance of tissues and organs, and it therefore plays a critical role in successful tissue engineering as well. Tissue engineers should recognise that engineering technology can be deduced from natural repair processes. Due to

  12. Control of extracellular matrix assembly by syndecan-2 proteoglycan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klass, C M; Couchman, J R; Woods, A


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition and organization is maintained by transmembrane signaling and integrins play major roles. We now show that a second transmembrane component, syndecan-2 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, is pivotal in matrix assembly. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were stably...... transfected with full length (S2) or truncated syndecan-2 lacking the C-terminal 14 amino acids of the cytoplasmic domain (S2deltaS). No differences in the amount of matrix assembly were noted with S2 cells, but those expressing S2deltaS could not assemble laminin or fibronectin into a fibrillar matrix....... The loss of matrix formation was not caused by a failure to synthesize or externalize ECM components as determined by metabolic labeling or due to differences in surface expression of alpha5 or beta1 integrin. The matrix assembly defect was at the cell surface, since S2deltaS cells also lost the ability...

  13. Basic Components of Connective Tissues and Extracellular Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halper, Jaroslava; Kjær, Michael


    mediate both inflammatory and fibrotic processes to enable effective tissue repair and play roles in pathogenesis of Ehlers-Danlos, heart disease, and regeneration and recovery of musculo-tendinous tissue. One of the roles of thrombospondin 1 is activation of TGFβ. Increased expression of thrombospondin...

  14. One Component Encapsulating Material Matrix as High Barrier Coating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for new flexible food packaging materials with effective high barrier against oxygen and moisture to protect food, minimize weight and...

  15. Extracellular DNA as matrix component in microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiang, Wen-Chi; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim


    Bacteria in nature primarily live in surface-associated communities commonly known as biofilms. Because bacteria in biofilms, in many cases, display tolerance to host immune systems, antibiotics, and biocides, they are often difficult or impossible to eradicate. Biofilm formation, therefore, lead...... from the Gram-positive bacteria. Besides the role of extracellular DNA in biofilm formation, the mechanisms involved in DNA release from P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus are addressed....

  16. The roles of types XII and XIV collagen in fibrillogenesis and matrix assembly in the developing cornea. (United States)

    Young, Blanche B; Zhang, Guiyun; Koch, Manuel; Birk, David E


    Corneal transparency depends on the architecture of the stromal extracellular matrix, including fibril diameter, packing, and lamellar organization. The roles of collagen types XII and XIV in regulation of corneal fibrillogenesis and development were examined. The temporal and spatial expression patterns were analyzed using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, Western analysis, and immunohistochemistry. Expression of types XII and XIV collagens in cornea development demonstrated that type XII collagen mRNA levels are constant throughout development (10D-adult) while type XIV mRNA is highest in early embryonic stages (10D-14D), decreasing significantly by hatching. The spatial expression patterns of types XII and XIV collagens demonstrated a homogeneous signal in the stroma for type XIV collagen, while type XII collagen shows segregation to the sub-epithelial and sub-endothelial stroma during embryonic stages. The type XII collagen in the anterior stroma was an epithelial product during development while fibroblasts contributed in the adult. Type XIV collagen expression was highest early in development and was absent by hatching. Both types XII and type XIV collagen have different isoforms generated by alternative splicing that may alter specific interactions important in fibrillogenesis, fibril-fibril interactions, and higher order matrix assembly. Analysis of these splice variants demonstrated that the long XII mRNA levels were constant throughout development, while the short XII NC3 mRNA levels peaked early (12D) followed by a decrease. Both type XIV collagen NC1 splice variants are highest during early stages (12D-14D) decreasing by 17D of development. These data suggest type XII collagen may have a role in development of stromal architecture and maintenance of fibril organization, while type XIV collagen may have a role in regulation of fibrillogenesis. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Elementary matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eves, Howard


    The usefulness of matrix theory as a tool in disciplines ranging from quantum mechanics to psychometrics is widely recognized, and courses in matrix theory are increasingly a standard part of the undergraduate curriculum.This outstanding text offers an unusual introduction to matrix theory at the undergraduate level. Unlike most texts dealing with the topic, which tend to remain on an abstract level, Dr. Eves' book employs a concrete elementary approach, avoiding abstraction until the final chapter. This practical method renders the text especially accessible to students of physics, engineeri

  18. A novel assay for extracellular matrix remodeling associated with liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barascuk, N; Veidal, S S; Larsen, L


    Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and increased matrix-metalloprotease (MMPs) activity are hallmarks of fibrosis. We developed an ELISA for quantification of MMP-9 derived collagen type III (CO3) degradation.......Accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and increased matrix-metalloprotease (MMPs) activity are hallmarks of fibrosis. We developed an ELISA for quantification of MMP-9 derived collagen type III (CO3) degradation....

  19. Integration of concepts: cardiac extracellular matrix remodeling after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleutjens, Jack P. M.; Creemers, Esther E. J. M.


    The cardiac extracellular matrix consists of a three-dimensional structural network of interstitial collagens to which other matrix components are attached. The main physiological functions of this network are to retain tissue integrity and cardiac pump function. Collagen deposition is controlled

  20. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  1. Tendon functional extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Screen, Hazel R C; Berk, David E; Kadler, Karl E; Ramirez, Francesco; Young, Marian F


    This article is one of a series, summarizing views expressed at the Orthopaedic Research Society New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference. This particular article reviews the three workshops held under the "Functional Extracellular Matrix" stream. The workshops focused on the roles of the tendon extracellular matrix, such as performing the mechanical functions of tendon, creating the local cell environment, and providing cellular cues. Tendon is a complex network of matrix and cells, and its biological functions are influenced by widely varying extrinsic and intrinsic factors such as age, nutrition, exercise levels, and biomechanics. Consequently, tendon adapts dynamically during development, aging, and injury. The workshop discussions identified research directions associated with understanding cell-matrix interactions to be of prime importance for developing novel strategies to target tendon healing or repair. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Matrix Big Brunch


    Bedford, J; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.; Ward, J.


    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null Cosmologies with a Big Bang in terms of Matrix String Theory put forward by Craps, Sethi and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a Universe including both Big Bang and Big Crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using Matrix String Theory. We provide a simple theory capable of...

  3. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm


    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  4. Matrix comparison, Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg; Borlund, Pia


    The present two-part article introduces matrix comparison as a formal means for evaluation purposes in informetric studies such as cocitation analysis. In the first part, the motivation behind introducing matrix comparison to informetric studies, as well as two important issues influencing such c...... and Procrustes analysis can be used as statistical validation tools in informetric studies and thus help choosing suitable proximity measures....

  5. Hacking the Matrix. (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michael; Spence, Jason R


    Recently in Nature, Gjorevski et al. (2016) describe a fully defined synthetic hydrogel that mimics the extracellular matrix to support in vitro growth of intestinal stem cells and organoids. The hydrogel allows exquisite control over the chemical and physical in vitro niche and enables identification of regulatory properties of the matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter using polarization gratings


    Kudenov, Michael W.; Escuti, Michael J.; Hagen, Nathan; Dereniak, Eustace L.; Oka, Kazuhiko


    A snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SIMMP) is theoretically described and empirically demonstrated through simulation. Spatial polarization fringes are localized onto a sample by incorporating polarization gratings (PGs) into a polarization generator module. These fringes modulate the Mueller matrix (MM) components of the sample, which are subsequently isolated with PGs in an analyzer module. The MM components are amplitude modulated onto spatial carrier frequencies which, due to t...

  7. GMCALab: Generalized Morphological Component Analysis (United States)

    Bobin, Jerome


    GMCALab solves Blind Source Separation (BSS) problems from multichannel/multispectral/hyperspectral data. In essence, multichannel data provide different observations of the same physical phenomena (e.g. multiple wavelengths), which are modeled as a linear combination of unknown elementary components or sources. Written as a set of Matlab toolboxes, it provides a generic framework that can be extended to tackle different matrix factorization problems.

  8. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra


    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  9. Extracellular Matrix and Liver Disease (United States)

    Arriazu, Elena; Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina; Cubero, Francisco Javier; Varela-Rey, Marta; Pérez de Obanos, María Pilar; Leung, Tung Ming; Lopategi, Aritz; Benedicto, Aitor; Abraham-Enachescu, Ioana


    Abstract Significance: The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a dynamic microenvironment that undergoes continuous remodeling, particularly during injury and wound healing. Chronic liver injury of many different etiologies such as viral hepatitis, alcohol abuse, drug-induced liver injury, obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic disorders, and autoimmune disease is characterized by excessive deposition of ECM proteins in response to persistent liver damage. Critical Issues: This review describes the main collagenous and noncollagenous components from the ECM that play a significant role in pathological matrix deposition during liver disease. We define how increased myofibroblasts (MF) from different origins are at the forefront of liver fibrosis and how liver cell-specific regulation of the complex scarring process occurs. Recent Advances: Particular attention is paid to the role of cytokines, growth factors, reactive oxygen species, and newly identified matricellular proteins in the regulation of fibrillar type I collagen, a field to which our laboratory has significantly contributed over the years. We compile data from recent literature on the potential mechanisms driving fibrosis resolution such as MF’ apoptosis, senescence, and reversal to quiescence. Future Directions: We conclude with a brief description of how epigenetics, an evolving field, can regulate the behavior of MF and of how new “omics” tools may advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which the fibrogenic response to liver injury occurs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 1078–1097. PMID:24219114

  10. New fault tolerant matrix converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Edorta; Andreu, Jon; Kortabarria, Inigo; Ormaetxea, Enekoitz; Alegria, Inigo Martinez de; Martin, Jose Luis [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, University of the Basque Country, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, E-48013 Bilbao (Spain); Ibanez, Pedro [TECNALIA, Energy Unit, Parque Tecnologico de Zamudio, E-48170 Bizkaia (Spain)


    The matrix converter (MC) presents a promising topology that will have to overcome certain barriers (protection systems, durability, the development of converters for real applications, etc.) in order to gain a foothold in the industry. In some applications, where continuous operation must be insured in the case of a system failure, improved reliability of the converter is of particular importance. In this sense, this article focuses on the study of a fault tolerant MC. The fault tolerance of a converter is characterized by its total or partial response in the case of a breakage of any of its components. Taking into consideration that virtually no work has been done on fault tolerant MCs, this paper describes the most important studies in this area. Moreover, a new method is proposed for detecting the breakage of MC semiconductors. Likewise, a new variation of SVM modulation with failure tolerance capacity is presented. This guarantees the continuous operation of the converter and the pseudo-optimum control of a PMSM. This paper also proposes a novel MC topology, which allows the flexible reconfiguration of this converter, when one or several of its semiconductors are damaged. In this way, the MC can continue operating at 100% of its performance without having to double its resources. In this way, it can be said that the solution described in this article represents a step forward towards the development of reliable matrix converters for real applications. (author)

  11. MATLAB matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez López, César


    MATLAB is a high-level language and environment for numerical computation, visualization, and programming. Using MATLAB, you can analyze data, develop algorithms, and create models and applications. The language, tools, and built-in math functions enable you to explore multiple approaches and reach a solution faster than with spreadsheets or traditional programming languages, such as C/C++ or Java. MATLAB Matrix Algebra introduces you to the MATLAB language with practical hands-on instructions and results, allowing you to quickly achieve your goals. Starting with a look at symbolic and numeric variables, with an emphasis on vector and matrix variables, you will go on to examine functions and operations that support vectors and matrices as arguments, including those based on analytic parent functions. Computational methods for finding eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices are detailed, leading to various matrix decompositions. Applications such as change of bases, the classification of quadratic forms and ...

  12. Dynamic Matrix Rank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Frandsen, Peter Frands


    We consider maintaining information about the rank of a matrix under changes of the entries. For n×n matrices, we show an upper bound of O(n1.575) arithmetic operations and a lower bound of Ω(n) arithmetic operations per element change. The upper bound is valid when changing up to O(n0.575) entries...... in a single column of the matrix. We also give an algorithm that maintains the rank using O(n2) arithmetic operations per rank one update. These bounds appear to be the first nontrivial bounds for the problem. The upper bounds are valid for arbitrary fields, whereas the lower bound is valid for algebraically...... closed fields. The upper bound for element updates uses fast rectangular matrix multiplication, and the lower bound involves further development of an earlier technique for proving lower bounds for dynamic computation of rational functions....

  13. Matrix interdiction problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    In the matrix interdiction problem, a real-valued matrix and an integer k is given. The objective is to remove k columns such that the sum over all rows of the maximum entry in each row is minimized. This combinatorial problem is closely related to bipartite network interdiction problem which can be applied to prioritize the border checkpoints in order to minimize the probability that an adversary can successfully cross the border. After introducing the matrix interdiction problem, we will prove the problem is NP-hard, and even NP-hard to approximate with an additive n{gamma} factor for a fixed constant {gamma}. We also present an algorithm for this problem that achieves a factor of (n-k) mUltiplicative approximation ratio.

  14. Matrixed business support comparison study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Josh D.


    The Matrixed Business Support Comparison Study reviewed the current matrixed Chief Financial Officer (CFO) division staff models at Sandia National Laboratories. There were two primary drivers of this analysis: (1) the increasing number of financial staff matrixed to mission customers and (2) the desire to further understand the matrix process and the opportunities and challenges it creates.

  15. Nanomechanics of the Cartilage Extracellular Matrix (United States)

    Han, Lin; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Ortiz, Christine


    Cartilage is a hydrated biomacromolecular fiber composite located at the ends of long bones that enables proper joint lubrication, articulation, loading, and energy dissipation. Degradation of extracellular matrix molecular components and changes in their nanoscale structure greatly influence the macroscale behavior of the tissue and result in dysfunction with age, injury, and diseases such as osteoarthritis. Here, the application of the field of nanomechanics to cartilage is reviewed. Nanomechanics involves the measurement and prediction of nanoscale forces and displacements, intra- and intermolecular interactions, spatially varying mechanical properties, and other mechanical phenomena existing at small length scales. Experimental nanomechanics and theoretical nanomechanics have been applied to cartilage at varying levels of material complexity, e.g., nanoscale properties of intact tissue, the matrix associated with single cells, biomimetic molecular assemblies, and individual extracellular matrix biomolecules (such as aggrecan, collagen, and hyaluronan). These studies have contributed to establishing a fundamental mechanism-based understanding of native and engineered cartilage tissue function, quality, and pathology.

  16. Elementary matrix algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Hohn, Franz E


    This complete and coherent exposition, complemented by numerous illustrative examples, offers readers a text that can teach by itself. Fully rigorous in its treatment, it offers a mathematically sound sequencing of topics. The work starts with the most basic laws of matrix algebra and progresses to the sweep-out process for obtaining the complete solution of any given system of linear equations - homogeneous or nonhomogeneous - and the role of matrix algebra in the presentation of useful geometric ideas, techniques, and terminology.Other subjects include the complete treatment of the structur

  17. Complex matrix model duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.W.


    The same complex matrix model calculates both tachyon scattering for the c=1 non-critical string at the self-dual radius and certain correlation functions of half-BPS operators in N=4 super- Yang-Mills. It is dual to another complex matrix model where the couplings of the first model are encoded in the Kontsevich-like variables of the second. The duality between the theories is mirrored by the duality of their Feynman diagrams. Analogously to the Hermitian Kontsevich- Penner model, the correlation functions of the second model can be written as sums over discrete points in subspaces of the moduli space of punctured Riemann surfaces. (orig.)

  18. Matrix relation algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Bachraoui, M.; van de Vel, M.L.J.


    Square matrices over a relation algebra are relation algebras in a natural way. We show that for fixed n, these algebras can be characterized as reducts of some richer kind of algebra. Hence for fixed n, the class of n × n matrix relation algebras has a first-order characterization. As a

  19. Kernelized Bayesian Matrix Factorization. (United States)

    Gönen, Mehmet; Kaski, Samuel


    We extend kernelized matrix factorization with a full-Bayesian treatment and with an ability to work with multiple side information sources expressed as different kernels. Kernels have been introduced to integrate side information about the rows and columns, which is necessary for making out-of-matrix predictions. We discuss specifically binary output matrices but extensions to realvalued matrices are straightforward. We extend the state of the art in two key aspects: (i) A full-conjugate probabilistic formulation of the kernelized matrix factorization enables an efficient variational approximation, whereas full-Bayesian treatments are not computationally feasible in the earlier approaches. (ii) Multiple side information sources are included, treated as different kernels in multiple kernel learning which additionally reveals which side sources are informative. We then show that the framework can also be used for supervised and semi-supervised multilabel classification and multi-output regression, by considering samples and outputs as the domains where matrix factorization operates. Our method outperforms alternatives in predicting drug-protein interactions on two data sets. On multilabel classification, our algorithm obtains the lowest Hamming losses on 10 out of 14 data sets compared to five state-of-the-art multilabel classification algorithms. We finally show that the proposed approach outperforms alternatives in multi-output regression experiments on a yeast cell cycle data set.

  20. A random matrix analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    chaos to galaxies. We demonstrate the applicability of random matrix theory for networks by pro- viding a new dimension to complex systems research. We show that in spite of huge differences ... as mentioned earlier, different types of networks can be constructed based on the nature of connections. For example,.

  1. Constructing the matrix (United States)

    Elliott, John


    As part of our 'toolkit' for analysing an extraterrestrial signal, the facility for calculating structural affinity to known phenomena must be part of our core capabilities. Without such a resource, we risk compromising our potential for detection and decipherment or at least causing significant delay in the process. To create such a repository for assessing structural affinity, all known systems (language parameters) need to be structurally analysed to 'place' their 'system' within a relational communication matrix. This will need to include all known variants of language structure, whether 'living' (in current use) or ancient; this must also include endeavours to incorporate yet undeciphered scripts and non-human communication, to provide as complete a picture as possible. In creating such a relational matrix, post-detection decipherment will be assisted by a structural 'map' that will have the potential for 'placing' an alien communication with its nearest known 'neighbour', to assist subsequent categorisation of basic parameters as a precursor to decipherment. 'Universal' attributes and behavioural characteristics of known communication structure will form a range of templates (Elliott, 2001 [1] and Elliott et al., 2002 [2]), to support and optimise our attempt at categorising and deciphering the content of an extraterrestrial signal. Detection of the hierarchical layers, which comprise intelligent, complex communication, will then form a matrix of calculations that will ultimately score affinity through a relational matrix of structural comparison. In this paper we develop the rationales and demonstrate functionality with initial test results.

  2. Assembly and development of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyan Ma


    Full Text Available Virtually all cells living in multicellular structures such as tissues and organs are encased in an extracellular matrix. One of the most important features of a biofilm is the extracellular polymeric substance that functions as a matrix, holding bacterial cells together. Yet very little is known about how the matrix forms or how matrix components encase bacteria during biofilm development. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms environmentally and clinically relevant biofilms and is a paradigm organism for the study of biofilms. The extracellular polymeric substance of P. aeruginosa biofilms is an ill-defined mix of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Here, we directly visualize the product of the polysaccharide synthesis locus (Psl exopolysaccharide at different stages of biofilm development. During attachment, Psl is anchored on the cell surface in a helical pattern. This promotes cell-cell interactions and assembly of a matrix, which holds bacteria in the biofilm and on the surface. Chemical dissociation of Psl from the bacterial surface disrupted the Psl matrix as well as the biofilm structure. During biofilm maturation, Psl accumulates on the periphery of 3-D-structured microcolonies, resulting in a Psl matrix-free cavity in the microcolony center. At the dispersion stage, swimming cells appear in this matrix cavity. Dead cells and extracellular DNA (eDNA are also concentrated in the Psl matrix-free area. Deletion of genes that control cell death and autolysis affects the formation of the matrix cavity and microcolony dispersion. These data provide a mechanism for how P. aeruginosa builds a matrix and subsequently a cavity to free a portion of cells for seeding dispersal. Direct visualization reveals that Psl is a key scaffolding matrix component and opens up avenues for therapeutics of biofilm-related complications.

  3. Importance of the exopolysaccharide matrix in antimicrobial tolerance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goltermann, Lise; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim


    of the production of extracellular matrix components, and that they do not rely on an extracellular matrix for antimicrobial tolerance. However, we show here that biofilm matrix overexpression, as displayed by various clinical isolates, significantly protects P. aeruginosa aggregates against antimicrobial treatment......, and Psl, do play a role in the tolerance toward antimicrobials when bacteria grow as aggregates....

  4. Interactions between Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and their Extracellular Matrix Revealed by a Serum Free Culture System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaturvedi, V.; Dye, D.E.; Kinnear, B.F.; Kuppevelt, T.H. van; Grounds, M.D.; Coombe, D.R.


    Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast

  5. Corrosion Behavior of Metal Matrix Composites (United States)


    high tensile strength make Gif/Cu composites ideal candidates for high heat flux structures such as space power radiator panels where component...Feasibility Studies of Graphite Fiber Reinforced Copper Matrix Composites for Space Power Radiator Panels," NASA TM- 102328, Lewis Research Center...Strength Strengh in 2 in. Hardness Densiry Elasticity Conducuvir/ (KPSI) (KPSI) (%) (Rcckwell) b/•n3) (MPSI) (68cF.BTU /fLhi.°F) DSC GlidCop AL-60 75 bt

  6. Drilling of polymer-matrix composites

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaraj, Vijayan; Davim, J Paulo


    Polymeric composites are recognised as good candidates for structural components due to their inherent properties. However, they present several kinds of damages while creating holes for assembly. Delamination is considered the most serious damage since it reduces service life of the component. Thrust and delamination can be controlled by proper drill point geometry. Drilling at high speed is also a current requirement of the aerospace industry. This book focus on drilling of polymer matrix composites for aerospace and defence applications. The book presents introduction to machining of polymer composites and discusses drilling as a processing of composites.

  7. Deghosting based on the transmission matrix method (United States)

    Wang, Benfeng; Wu, Ru-Shan; Chen, Xiaohong


    As the developments of seismic exploration and subsequent seismic exploitation advance, marine acquisition systems with towed streamers become an important seismic data acquisition method. But the existing air–water reflective interface can generate surface related multiples, including ghosts, which can affect the accuracy and performance of the following seismic data processing algorithms. Thus, we derive a deghosting method from a new perspective, i.e. using the transmission matrix (T-matrix) method instead of inverse scattering series. The T-matrix-based deghosting algorithm includes all scattering effects and is convergent absolutely. Initially, the effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated using synthetic data obtained from a designed layered model, and its noise-resistant property is also illustrated using noisy synthetic data contaminated by random noise. Numerical examples on complicated data from the open SMAART Pluto model and field marine data further demonstrate the validity and flexibility of the proposed method. After deghosting, low frequency components are recovered reasonably and the fake high frequency components are attenuated, and the recovered low frequency components will be useful for the subsequent full waveform inversion. The proposed deghosting method is currently suitable for two-dimensional towed streamer cases with accurate constant depth information and its extension into variable-depth streamers in three-dimensional cases will be studied in the future.

  8. Principal component proxy tracer analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Peter


    We introduce a powerful method for dynamical reconstruction of long-lived tracers such as ozone. It works by correlating the principal components of a matrix representation of the tracer dynamics with a series of sparse measurements. The method is tested on the 500 K isentropic surface using a simulated tracer and with ozone measurements from the Polar Aerosol and Ozone Measurement (POAM) III satellite instrument. The Lyapunov spectrum is measured and used to quantify the lifetime of each principal component. Using a 60 day lead time and five (5) principal components, cross validation of the reconstructed ozone and comparison with ozone sondes return root-mean-square errors of 0.20 ppmv and 0.47 ppmv, respectively.

  9. Matrix groups for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Tapp, Kristopher


    Matrix groups touch an enormous spectrum of the mathematical arena. This textbook brings them into the undergraduate curriculum. It makes an excellent one-semester course for students familiar with linear and abstract algebra and prepares them for a graduate course on Lie groups. Matrix Groups for Undergraduates is concrete and example-driven, with geometric motivation and rigorous proofs. The story begins and ends with the rotations of a globe. In between, the author combines rigor and intuition to describe the basic objects of Lie theory: Lie algebras, matrix exponentiation, Lie brackets, maximal tori, homogeneous spaces, and roots. This second edition includes two new chapters that allow for an easier transition to the general theory of Lie groups. From reviews of the First Edition: This book could be used as an excellent textbook for a one semester course at university and it will prepare students for a graduate course on Lie groups, Lie algebras, etc. … The book combines an intuitive style of writing w...

  10. Statistical meaning of the differential Mueller matrix of depolarizing homogeneous media. (United States)

    Ossikovski, Razvigor; Arteaga, Oriol


    By applying the statistical definition of a depolarizing Mueller matrix we formally derive and physically interpret the differential matrix of a depolarizing homogeneous medium. The depolarization phenomenon being a direct consequence of the fluctuations of the six elementary polarization properties of the medium, the differential matrix contains the mean values and the variances of the properties, thus fully describing those from a statistical viewpoint. Similarly, the reduced coherency matrix associated with the G-symmetric component of the differential matrix has an immediate physical interpretation as being the covariance matrix of the three basic groups of polarization properties. The formal developments are illustrated on experimental examples.

  11. Liver Fibrosis and Altered Matrix Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Neubauer


    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis represents the uniform response of liver to toxic, infectious or metabolic agents. The process leading to liver fibrosis resembles the process of wound healing, including the three phases following tissue injury: inflammation, synthesis of collagenous and noncollagenous extracellular matrix components, and tissue remodelling (scar formation. While a single liver tissue injury can be followed by an almost complete restitution ad integrum, the persistence of the original damaging noxa results in tissue damage. During the establishment of liver fibrosis, the basement membrane components collagen type IV, entactin and laminin increase and form a basement membrane-like structure within the space of Disse. The number of endothelial fenestrae of the sinusoids decreases. These changes of the sinusoids are called 'capillarization' because the altered structure of the sinusoids resembles that of capillaries. At the cellular level, origin of liver fibrogenesis is initiated by the damage of hepatocytes, resulting in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and platelets, and activation of Kupffer cells, with subsequent release of cytokines and growth factors. The hepatic stellate cells seem to be the primary target cells for these inflammatory stimuli, because during fibrogenesis, they undergo an activation process to a myofibroblast-like cell, which represents the major matrix-producing cell. Based on this pathophysiological mechanism, therapeutic methods are developed to inhibit matrix synthesis or stimulate matrix degradation. A number of substances are currently being tested that either neutralize fibrogenic stimuli and prevent the activation of hepatic stellate cells, or directly modulate the matrix metabolism. However, until now, the elimination of the hepatotoxins has been the sole therapeutic concept available for the treatment of liver fibrogenesis in humans.

  12. Regulation of Corneal Stroma Extracellular Matrix Assembly (United States)

    Chen, Shoujun; Mienaltowski, Michael J.; Birk, David E.


    The transparent cornea is the major refractive element of the eye. A finely controlled assembly of the stromal extracellular matrix is critical to corneal function, as well as in establishing the appropriate mechanical stability required to maintain corneal shape and curvature. In the stroma, homogeneous, small diameter collagen fibrils, regularly packed with a highly ordered hierarchical organization, are essential for function. This review focuses on corneal stroma assembly and the regulation of collagen fibrillogenesis. Corneal collagen fibrillogenesis involves multiple molecules interacting in sequential steps, as well as interactions between keratocytes and stroma matrix components. The stroma has the highest collagen V:I ratio in the body. Collagen V regulates the nucleation of protofibril assembly, thus controlling the number of fibrils and assembly of smaller diameter fibrils in the stroma. The corneal stroma is also enriched in small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) that cooperate in a temporal and spatial manner to regulate linear and lateral collagen fibril growth. In addition, the fibril-associated collagens (FACITs) such as collagen XII and collagen XIV have roles in the regulation of fibril packing and inter-lamellar interactions. A communicating keratocyte network contributes to the overall and long-range regulation of stromal extracellular matrix assembly, by creating micro-domains where the sequential steps in stromal matrix assembly are controlled. Keratocytes control the synthesis of extracellular matrix components, which interact with the keratocytes dynamically to coordinate the regulatory steps into a cohesive process. Mutations or deficiencies in stromal regulatory molecules result in altered interactions and deficiencies in both transparency and refraction, leading to corneal stroma pathobiology such as stromal dystrophies, cornea plana and keratoconus. PMID:25819456

  13. Shunt Active and Series Active Filters-Based Power Quality Conditioner for Matrix Converter


    P. Jeno Paul


    This paper proposes a series active filter and shunt active filter to minimize the power quality impact present in matrix converters instead of passive filter. A matrix converter produces significant harmonics and nonstandard frequency components into load. The proposed system compensates the sag and swell problems efficiently in matrix converter. The proposed system has been tested and validated on the matrix converter using MATLAB/Simulink software. Simulated results confirm that the active...

  14. In-depth, high-accuracy proteomics of sea urchin tooth organic matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic matrix contained in biominerals plays an important role in regulating mineralization and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin tooth, which is an important model for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of genes potentially coding for matrix proteins, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy proteomic analysis. Results We identified 138 proteins in the matrix of tooth powder. Only 56 of these proteins were previously identified in the matrices of test (shell and spine. Among the novel components was an interesting group of five proteins containing alanine- and proline-rich neutral or basic motifs separated by acidic glycine-rich motifs. In addition, four of the five proteins contained either one or two predicted Kazal protease inhibitor domains. The major components of tooth matrix were however largely identical to the set of spicule matrix proteins and MSP130-related proteins identified in test (shell and spine matrix. Comparison of the matrices of crushed teeth to intact teeth revealed a marked dilution of known intracrystalline matrix proteins and a concomitant increase in some intracellular proteins. Conclusion This report presents the most comprehensive list of sea urchin tooth matrix proteins available at present. The complex mixture of proteins identified may reflect many different aspects of the mineralization process. A comparison between intact tooth matrix, presumably containing odontoblast remnants, and crushed tooth matrix served to differentiate between matrix components and possible contributions of cellular remnants. Because LC-MS/MS-based methods directly

  15. Considering Horn’s parallel analysis from a random matrix theory point of view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saccenti, Edoardo; Timmerman, Marieke E.

    Horn’s parallel analysis is a widely used method for assessing the number of principal components and common factors. We discuss the theoretical foundations of parallel analysis for principal components based on a covariance matrix by making use of arguments from random matrix theory. In particular,

  16. Considering Horn’s Parallel Analysis from a Random Matrix Theory Point of View

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saccenti, Edoardo; Timmerman, Marieke E.


    Horn’s parallel analysis is a widely used method for assessing the number of principal components and common factors. We discuss the theoretical foundations of parallel analysis for principal components based on a covariance matrix by making use of arguments from random matrix theory. In

  17. Osmotic pressure can regulate matrix gene expression in Bacillus subtilis. (United States)

    Rubinstein, Shmuel M; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; McLoon, Anna; Chai, Liraz; Kolter, Roberto; Losick, Richard; Weitz, David A


    Many bacteria organize themselves into structurally complex communities known as biofilms in which the cells are held together by an extracellular matrix. In general, the amount of extracellular matrix is related to the robustness of the biofilm. Yet, the specific signals that regulate the synthesis of matrix remain poorly understood. Here we show that the matrix itself can be a cue that regulates the expression of the genes involved in matrix synthesis in Bacillus subtilis. The presence of the exopolysaccharide component of the matrix causes an increase in osmotic pressure that leads to an inhibition of matrix gene expression. We further show that non-specific changes in osmotic pressure also inhibit matrix gene expression and do so by activating the histidine kinase KinD. KinD, in turn, directs the phosphorylation of the master regulatory protein Spo0A, which at high levels represses matrix gene expression. Sensing a physical cue such as osmotic pressure, in addition to chemical cues, could be a strategy to non-specifically co-ordinate the behaviour of cells in communities composed of many different species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Bioengineering Human Myocardium on Native Extracellular Matrix (United States)

    Guyette, Jacques P.; Charest, Jonathan M; Mills, Robert W; Jank, Bernhard J.; Moser, Philipp T.; Gilpin, Sarah E.; Gershlak, Joshua R.; Okamoto, Tatsuya; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Milan, David J.; Gaudette, Glenn R.; Ott, Harald C.


    Rationale More than 25 million individuals suffer from heart failure worldwide, with nearly 4,000 patients currently awaiting heart transplantation in the United States. Donor organ shortage and allograft rejection remain major limitations with only about 2,500 hearts transplanted each year. As a theoretical alternative to allotransplantation, patient-derived bioartificial myocardium could provide functional support and ultimately impact the treatment of heart failure. Objective The objective of this study is to translate previous work to human scale and clinically relevant cells, for the bioengineering of functional myocardial tissue based on the combination of human cardiac matrix and human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes. Methods and Results To provide a clinically relevant tissue scaffold, we translated perfusion-decellularization to human scale and obtained biocompatible human acellular cardiac scaffolds with preserved extracellular matrix composition, architecture, and perfusable coronary vasculature. We then repopulated this native human cardiac matrix with cardiac myocytes derived from non-transgenic human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and generated tissues of increasing three-dimensional complexity. We maintained such cardiac tissue constructs in culture for 120 days to demonstrate definitive sarcomeric structure, cell and matrix deformation, contractile force, and electrical conduction. To show that functional myocardial tissue of human scale can be built on this platform, we then partially recellularized human whole heart scaffolds with human iPSC-derived cardiac myocytes. Under biomimetic culture, the seeded constructs developed force-generating human myocardial tissue, showed electrical conductivity, left ventricular pressure development, and metabolic function. Conclusions Native cardiac extracellular matrix scaffolds maintain matrix components and structure to support the seeding and engraftment of human iPS-derived cardiac myocytes, and enable

  19. A note on matrix differentiation


    Kowal, Pawel


    This paper presents a set of rules for matrix differentiation with respect to a vector of parameters, using the flattered representation of derivatives, i.e. in form of a matrix. We also introduce a new set of Kronecker tensor products of matrices. Finally we consider a problem of differentiating matrix determinant, trace and inverse.

  20. Modifying Matrix Materials to Increase Wetting and Adhesion (United States)

    Zhong, Katie


    In an alternative approach to increasing the degrees of wetting and adhesion between the fiber and matrix components of organic-fiber/polymer matrix composite materials, the matrix resins are modified. Heretofore, it has been common practice to modify the fibers rather than the matrices: The fibers are modified by chemical and/or physical surface treatments prior to combining the fibers with matrix resins - an approach that entails considerable expense and usually results in degradation (typically, weakening) of fibers. The alternative approach of modifying the matrix resins does not entail degradation of fibers, and affords opportunities for improving the mechanical properties of the fiber composites. The alternative approach is more cost-effective, not only because it eliminates expensive fiber-surface treatments but also because it does not entail changes in procedures for manufacturing conventional composite-material structures. The alternative approach is best described by citing an example of its application to a composite of ultra-high-molecular- weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers in an epoxy matrix. The epoxy matrix was modified to a chemically reactive, polarized epoxy nano-matrix to increase the degrees of wetting and adhesion between the fibers and the matrix. The modification was effected by incorporating a small proportion (0.3 weight percent) of reactive graphitic nanofibers produced from functionalized nanofibers into the epoxy matrix resin prior to combining the resin with the UHMWPE fibers. The resulting increase in fiber/matrix adhesion manifested itself in several test results, notably including an increase of 25 percent in the maximum fiber pullout force and an increase of 60-65 percent in fiber pullout energy. In addition, it was conjectured that the functionalized nanofibers became involved in the cross linking reaction of the epoxy resin, with resultant enhancement of the mechanical properties and lower viscosity of the matrix.

  1. Colonization of bone matrices by cellular components (United States)

    Shchelkunova, E. I.; Voropaeva, A. A.; Korel, A. V.; Mayer, D. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Kirilova, I. A.


    Practical surgery, traumatology, orthopedics, and oncology require bioengineered constructs suitable for replacement of large-area bone defects. Only rigid/elastic matrix containing recipient's bone cells capable of mitosis, differentiation, and synthesizing extracellular matrix that supports cell viability can comply with these requirements. Therefore, the development of the techniques to produce structural and functional substitutes, whose three-dimensional structure corresponds to the recipient's damaged tissues, is the main objective of tissue engineering. This is achieved by developing tissue-engineering constructs represented by cells placed on the matrices. Low effectiveness of carrier matrix colonization with cells and their uneven distribution is one of the major problems in cell culture on various matrixes. In vitro studies of the interactions between cells and material, as well as the development of new techniques for scaffold colonization by cellular components are required to solve this problem.

  2. The cellulose resource matrix. (United States)

    Keijsers, Edwin R P; Yılmaz, Gülden; van Dam, Jan E G


    The emerging biobased economy is causing shifts from mineral fossil oil based resources towards renewable resources. Because of market mechanisms, current and new industries utilising renewable commodities, will attempt to secure their supply of resources. Cellulose is among these commodities, where large scale competition can be expected and already is observed for the traditional industries such as the paper industry. Cellulose and lignocellulosic raw materials (like wood and non-wood fibre crops) are being utilised in many industrial sectors. Due to the initiated transition towards biobased economy, these raw materials are intensively investigated also for new applications such as 2nd generation biofuels and 'green' chemicals and materials production (Clark, 2007; Lange, 2007; Petrus & Noordermeer, 2006; Ragauskas et al., 2006; Regalbuto, 2009). As lignocellulosic raw materials are available in variable quantities and qualities, unnecessary competition can be avoided via the choice of suitable raw materials for a target application. For example, utilisation of cellulose as carbohydrate source for ethanol production (Kabir Kazi et al., 2010) avoids the discussed competition with easier digestible carbohydrates (sugars, starch) deprived from the food supply chain. Also for cellulose use as a biopolymer several different competing markets can be distinguished. It is clear that these applications and markets will be influenced by large volume shifts. The world will have to reckon with the increase of competition and feedstock shortage (land use/biodiversity) (van Dam, de Klerk-Engels, Struik, & Rabbinge, 2005). It is of interest - in the context of sustainable development of the bioeconomy - to categorize the already available and emerging lignocellulosic resources in a matrix structure. When composing such "cellulose resource matrix" attention should be given to the quality aspects as well as to the available quantities and practical possibilities of processing the

  3. Random matrix theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy


    This book features a unified derivation of the mathematical theory of the three classical types of invariant random matrix ensembles-orthogonal, unitary, and symplectic. The authors follow the approach of Tracy and Widom, but the exposition here contains a substantial amount of additional material, in particular, facts from functional analysis and the theory of Pfaffians. The main result in the book is a proof of universality for orthogonal and symplectic ensembles corresponding to generalized Gaussian type weights following the authors' prior work. New, quantitative error estimates are derive

  4. Matrix Encryption Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Chillali


    Full Text Available In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. In this work, we proposed a new problem applicable to the public key cryptography, based on the Matrices, called “Matrix discrete logarithm problem”, it uses certain elements formed by matrices whose coefficients are elements in a finite field. We have constructed an abelian group and, for the cryptographic part in this unreliable group, we then perform the computation corresponding to the algebraic equations, Returning the encrypted result to a receiver. Upon receipt of the result, the receiver can retrieve the sender’s clear message by performing the inverse calculation.

  5. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre


    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  6. Matrix vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenman, Richard L


    This outstanding text and reference applies matrix ideas to vector methods, using physical ideas to illustrate and motivate mathematical concepts but employing a mathematical continuity of development rather than a physical approach. The author, who taught at the U.S. Air Force Academy, dispenses with the artificial barrier between vectors and matrices--and more generally, between pure and applied mathematics.Motivated examples introduce each idea, with interpretations of physical, algebraic, and geometric contexts, in addition to generalizations to theorems that reflect the essential structur

  7. Ceramic matrix composites using polymer pyrolysis and liquid densification processing (United States)

    Davis, H. O.; Petrak, D. R.


    The polymer precursor approach for manufacture of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) is both flexible and tailorable to shape and engineering requirements. The tailorability includes a wide range of reinforcements, polymer matrix precursors and fillers. Processing is selected based on cure/pressure requirements to best produce the required shape, radii, fiber volume and fiber orientation. Combinations of tooling used for cure/pressure applications are discussed and fabricated components are shown.

  8. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl


    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  9. Matrix algebra for linear models

    CERN Document Server

    Gruber, Marvin H J


    Matrix methods have evolved from a tool for expressing statistical problems to an indispensable part of the development, understanding, and use of various types of complex statistical analyses. This evolution has made matrix methods a vital part of statistical education. Traditionally, matrix methods are taught in courses on everything from regression analysis to stochastic processes, thus creating a fractured view of the topic. Matrix Algebra for Linear Models offers readers a unique, unified view of matrix analysis theory (where and when necessary), methods, and their applications. Written f

  10. Characteristics of global organic matrix in normal and pimpled chicken eggshells. (United States)

    Liu, Z; Song, L; Zhang, F; He, W; Linhardt, R J


    The organic matrix from normal and pimpled calcified chicken eggshells were dissociated into acid-insoluble, water-insoluble, and facultative-soluble (both acid- and water-soluble) components, to understand the influence of shell matrix on eggshell qualities. A linear correlation was shown among these 3 matrix components in normal eggshells but was not observed in pimpled eggshells. In pimpled eggshells, the percentage contents of all 4 groups of matrix (the total matrix, acid-insoluble matrix, water-insoluble matrix, and facultative-soluble matrix) were significantly higher than that in normal eggshells. The amounts of both total matrix and acid-insoluble matrix in individual pimpled calcified shells were high, even though their weight was much lower than a normal eggshell. In both normal and pimpled eggshells, the calcified eggshell weight and shell thickness significantly and positively correlated with the amounts of all 4 groups of matrix in an individual calcified shell. In normal eggshells, the calcified shell thickness and shell breaking strength showed no significant correlations with the percentage contents of all 4 groups of matrix. In normal eggshells, only the shell membrane weight significantly correlated with the constituent ratios of both acid-insoluble matrix and facultative-soluble matrix in the whole matrix. In pimpled eggshells, 3 variables (calcified shell weight, shell thickness, and breaking strength) were significantly correlated with the constituent proportions of both acid-insoluble matrix and facultative-matrix. This study suggests that mechanical properties of normal eggshells may not linearly depend on the organic matrix content in the calcified eggshells and that pimpled eggshells might result by the disequilibrium enrichment of some proteins with negative effects. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component (United States)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose


    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  12. Photochemical Degradation of Composition B and Its Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pennington, Judith C; Thorn, Kevin A; Cox, Larry G; MacMillan, Denise K; Yost, Sally; Laubscher, Randy D


    .... The significance of photolysis of explosive formulations on training ranges is unknown. Therefore, photolysis of a common explosive formulation, Composition B, and its components in a soil matrix were evaluated...

  13. CMH-17 Volume 5 Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Andrulonis, Rachael; Kiser, J. Douglas; David, Kaia E.; Davies, Curtis; Ashforth, Cindy


    A wide range of issues must be addressed during the process of certifying CMC (ceramic matrix composite) components for use in commercial aircraft. The Composite Materials Handbook-17, Volume 5, Revision A on ceramic matrix composites has just been revised to help support FAA certification of CMCs for elevated temperature applications. The handbook supports the development and use of CMCs through publishing and maintaining proven, reliable engineering information and standards that have been thoroughly reviewed. Volume 5 contains detailed sections describing CMC materials processing, design analysis guidelines, testing procedures, and data analysis and acceptance. A review of the content of this latest revision will be presented along with a description of how CMH-17, Volume 5 could be used by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and others in the future.

  14. Matrix fluid chemistry experiment. Final report June 1998 - March 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smellie, John A.T. [Conterra AB, Luleaa (Sweden); Waber, H. Niklaus [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland). Inst. of Geology; Frape, Shaun K. [Univ. of Waterloo (Canada). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    The Matrix Fluid Chemistry Experiment set out to determine the composition and evolution of matrix pore fluids/waters in low permeable rock located at repository depths in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). Matrix pore fluids/waters can be highly saline in composition and, if accessible, may influence the near-field groundwater chemistry of a repository system. Characterising pore fluids/waters involved in-situ borehole sampling and analysis integrated with laboratory studies and experiments on rock matrix drill core material. Relating the rate of in-situ pore water accumulation during sampling to the measured rock porosity indicated a hydraulic conductivity of 10{sup -14}-10{sup -13} m/s for the rock matrix. This was in accordance with earlier estimated predictions. The sampled matrix pore water, brackish in type, mostly represents older palaeo- groundwater mixtures preserved in the rock matrix and dating back to at least the last glaciation. A component of matrix pore 'fluid' is also present. One borehole section suggests a younger groundwater component which has accessed the rock matrix during the experiment. There is little evidence that the salinity of the matrix pore waters has been influenced significantly by fluid inclusion populations hosted by quartz. Crush/leach, cation exchange, pore water diffusion and pore water displacement laboratory experiments were carried out to compare extracted/calculated matrix pore fluids/waters with in-situ sampling. Of these the pore water diffusion experiments appear to be the most promising approach and a recommended site characterisation protocol has been formulated. The main conclusions from the Matrix Fluid Chemistry Experiment are: Groundwater movement within the bedrock hosting the experimental site has been enhanced by increased hydraulic gradients generated by the presence of the tunnel, and to a much lesser extent by the borehole itself. Over experimental timescales {approx}4 years) solute transport

  15. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites: A comparison (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.


    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  16. Ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites - A comparison (United States)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.


    The underlying theory of continuous fiber reinforcement of ceramic matrix and resin matrix composites, their fabrication, microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are contrasted. The growing use of organometallic polymers as precursors to ceramic matrices is discussed as a means of providing low temperature processing capability without the fiber degradation encountered with more conventional ceramic processing techniques. Examples of ceramic matrix composites derived from particulate-filled, high char yield polymers and silsesquioxane precursors are provided.

  17. Google matrix of Twitter (United States)

    Frahm, K. M.; Shepelyansky, D. L.


    We construct the Google matrix of the entire Twitter network, dated by July 2009, and analyze its spectrum and eigenstate properties including the PageRank and CheiRank vectors and 2DRanking of all nodes. Our studies show much stronger inter-connectivity between top PageRank nodes for the Twitter network compared to the networks of Wikipedia and British Universities studied previously. Our analysis allows to locate the top Twitter users which control the information flow on the network. We argue that this small fraction of the whole number of users, which can be viewed as the social network elite, plays the dominant role in the process of opinion formation on the network.

  18. Matrix membranes and integrability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zachos, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Fairlie, D. [University of Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mathematical Sciences; Curtright, T. [University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics


    This is a pedagogical digest of results reported in Curtright, Fairlie, {ampersand} Zachos 1997, and an explicit implementation of Euler`s construction for the solution of the Poisson Bracket dual Nahm equation. But it does not cover 9 and 10-dimensional systems, and subsequent progress on them Fairlie 1997. Cubic interactions are considered in 3 and 7 space dimensions, respectively, for bosonic membranes in Poisson Bracket form. Their symmetries and vacuum configurations are explored. Their associated first order equations are transformed to Nahm`s equations, and are hence seen to be integrable, for the 3-dimensional case, by virtue of the explicit Lax pair provided. Most constructions introduced also apply to matrix commutator or Moyal Bracket analogs.

  19. Light cone matrix product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  20. Matrix optical system for plane-point correlation (United States)

    Curatu, Eugen O.


    Matrices of optical components (like LEDs, microlenses, microzone plates, microspatial filters) are used in some arrangements to obtain the optical transformation from an area of a frontal plane to a point and vice versa. By use of these matrices the following arrangement are established: a matrix optical relay-system, a multichannel optoelectronic hybrid computer, an optical system for pattern recognition by spatial multichannel filtering, and uniform illumination system. The established relationships are applied to calculate the positions, the component sizes, and the system performance. Matrix configuration is shown to be advantageous for maximizing the performance for plane-point correlation and, also, for a miniature solution.

  1. Snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter using polarization gratings. (United States)

    Kudenov, Michael W; Escuti, Michael J; Hagen, Nathan; Dereniak, Eustace L; Oka, Kazuhiko


    A snapshot imaging Mueller matrix polarimeter (SIMMP) is theoretically described and empirically demonstrated through simulation. Spatial polarization fringes are localized onto a sample by incorporating polarization gratings (PGs) into a polarization generator module. These fringes modulate the Mueller matrix (MM) components of the sample, which are subsequently isolated with PGs in an analyzer module. The MM components are amplitude modulated onto spatial carrier frequencies which, due to the PGs, maintain high visibility in spectrally broadband illumination. An interference model of the SIMMP is provided, followed by methods of reconstruction and calibration. Lastly, a numerical simulation is used to demonstrate the system's performance in the presence of noise. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  2. Homolumo Gap and Matrix Model

    CERN Document Server

    Andric, I; Jurman, D; Nielsen, H B


    We discuss a dynamical matrix model by which probability distribution is associated with Gaussian ensembles from random matrix theory. We interpret the matrix M as a Hamiltonian representing interaction of a bosonic system with a single fermion. We show that a system of second-quantized fermions influences the ground state of the whole system by producing a gap between the highest occupied eigenvalue and the lowest unoccupied eigenvalue.

  3. Collagen in the spicule organic matrix of the gorgonian Leptogorgia virgulata (United States)

    Kingsley, R. J.; Tsuzaki, M.; Watabe, N.; Mechanic, G. L.


    Decalcification of the calcareous spicules from the gorgonian Leptogorgia virgulata reveals an organic matrix that may be divided into water insoluble and soluble fractions. The insoluble fraction displays characteristics typical of collagen, which is an unusual component of an invertebrate calcium carbonate structure. This matrix fraction exhibits a collagenous amino acid profile and behavior upon SDS-PAGE. Furthermore, the reducible crosslink, dihydroxylysinonorleucine (DHLNL), is detected in this fraction. The composition of the matrix varies seasonally; i.e., the collagenous composition is most prevalent in the summer. These results indicate that the insoluble matrix is a dynamic structure. Potential roles of this matrix in spicule calcification are discussed.

  4. Shunt Active and Series Active Filters-Based Power Quality Conditioner for Matrix Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jeno Paul


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a series active filter and shunt active filter to minimize the power quality impact present in matrix converters instead of passive filter. A matrix converter produces significant harmonics and nonstandard frequency components into load. The proposed system compensates the sag and swell problems efficiently in matrix converter. The proposed system has been tested and validated on the matrix converter using MATLAB/Simulink software. Simulated results confirm that the active power filters can maintain high performance for matrix converter.

  5. Matrix Depot: an extensible test matrix collection for Julia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Zhang


    Full Text Available Matrix Depot is a Julia software package that provides easy access to a large and diverse collection of test matrices. Its novelty is threefold. First, it is extensible by the user, and so can be adapted to include the user’s own test problems. In doing so, it facilitates experimentation and makes it easier to carry out reproducible research. Second, it amalgamates in a single framework two different types of existing matrix collections, comprising parametrized test matrices (including Hansen’s set of regularization test problems and Higham’s Test Matrix Toolbox and real-life sparse matrix data (giving access to the University of Florida sparse matrix collection. Third, it fully exploits the Julia language. It uses multiple dispatch to help provide a simple interface and, in particular, to allow matrices to be generated in any of the numeric data types supported by the language.

  6. Optical Coherency Matrix Tomography (United States)


    Esat Kondakci, Ayman F. Abouraddy & Bahaa E. A. Saleh The coherence of an optical beam having multiple degrees of freedom (DoFs) is described by a...measurement yields a real number Ilm (projection l for polarization and m for the spatial DoF) corresponding to the projection of a tomographic...hermiticity, and semi-positive-definiteness of G50. We portray the real and imaginary components of G using the standard visualization from quantum state

  7. Ceramic matrix composite article and process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite article (United States)

    Cairo, Ronald Robert; DiMascio, Paul Stephen; Parolini, Jason Robert


    A ceramic matrix composite article and a process of fabricating a ceramic matrix composite are disclosed. The ceramic matrix composite article includes a matrix distribution pattern formed by a manifold and ceramic matrix composite plies laid up on the matrix distribution pattern, includes the manifold, or a combination thereof. The manifold includes one or more matrix distribution channels operably connected to a delivery interface, the delivery interface configured for providing matrix material to one or more of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The process includes providing the manifold, forming the matrix distribution pattern by transporting the matrix material through the manifold, and contacting the ceramic matrix composite plies with the matrix material.

  8. Proposed framework for thermomechanical life modeling of metal matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halford, G.R.; Lerch, B.A.; Saltsman, J.F.


    The framework of a mechanics of materials model is proposed for thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) life prediction of unidirectional, continuous-fiber metal matrix composites (MMC's). Axially loaded MMC test samples are analyzed as structural components whose fatigue lives are governed by local stress-strain conditions resulting from combined interactions of the matrix, interfacial layer, and fiber constituents. The metallic matrix is identified as the vehicle for tracking fatigue crack initiation and propagation. The proposed framework has three major elements. First, TMF flow and failure characteristics of in situ matrix material are approximated from tests of unreinforced matrix material, and matrix TMF life prediction equations are numerically calibrated. The macrocrack initiation fatigue life of the matrix material is divided into microcrack initiation and microcrack propagation phases. Second, the influencing factors created by the presence of fibers and interfaces are analyzed, characterized, and documented in equation form. Some of the influences act on the microcrack initiation portion of the matrix fatigue life, others on the microcrack propagation life, while some affect both. Influencing factors include coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch strains, residual (mean) stresses, multiaxial stress states, off-axis fibers, internal stress concentrations, multiple initiation sites, nonuniform fiber spacing, fiber debonding, interfacial layers and cracking, fractured fibers, fiber deflections of crack fronts, fiber bridging of matrix cracks, and internal oxidation along internal interfaces. Equations exist for some, but not all, of the currently identified influencing factors. The third element is the inclusion of overriding influences such as maximum tensile strain limits of brittle fibers that could cause local fractures and ensuing catastrophic failure of surrounding matrix material.

  9. An Application of Matrix Multiplication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    linguistics, graph theory applications to biological networks, social networks, electrical engineering. We are well aware of the ever increasing impor- tance of graphical and matrix representations in applications to several day-to-day real life prob- lems. The interconnectedness of the notion of graph, matrix, probability, limits, ...

  10. Matrix Methods to Analytic Geometry. (United States)

    Bandy, C.


    The use of basis matrix methods to rotate axes is detailed. It is felt that persons who have need to rotate axes often will find that the matrix method saves considerable work. One drawback is that most students first learning to rotate axes will not yet have studied linear algebra. (MP)

  11. How to Study a Matrix (United States)

    Jairam, Dharmananda; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Kauffman, Douglas F.; Zhao, Ruomeng


    This study investigated how best to study a matrix. Fifty-three participants studied a matrix topically (1 column at a time), categorically (1 row at a time), or in a unified way (all at once). Results revealed that categorical and unified study produced higher: (a) performance on relationship and fact tests, (b) study material satisfaction, and…

  12. Developments in Random Matrix Theory


    Snaith, N. C.; Forrester, P. J.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.


    In this preface to the Journal of Physics A, Special Edition on Random Matrix Theory, we give a review of the main historical developments of random matrix theory. A short summary of the papers that appear in this special edition is also given.

  13. QCD and random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, A.D. [Niels Bohr Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Chiral random matrix theory has recently been shown to provide a tool useful for both modeling chiral symmetry restoration in QCD and for providing analytic descriptions of the microscopic spectral content of lattice gauge simulations. The basic ideas of chiral random matrix theory and some recent results are discussed. (orig.) 24 refs.

  14. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Li


    Full Text Available Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA and discrete wavelet transform (DWT were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%.

  15. Multispectral palmprint recognition using a quaternion matrix. (United States)

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng


    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%.

  16. Quantum mechanics in matrix form

    CERN Document Server

    Ludyk, Günter


    This book gives an introduction to quantum mechanics with the matrix method. Heisenberg's matrix mechanics is described in detail. The fundamental equations are derived by algebraic methods using matrix calculus. Only a brief description of Schrödinger's wave mechanics is given (in most books exclusively treated), to show their equivalence to Heisenberg's matrix  method. In the first part the historical development of Quantum theory by Planck, Bohr and Sommerfeld is sketched, followed by the ideas and methods of Heisenberg, Born and Jordan. Then Pauli's spin and exclusion principles are treated. Pauli's exclusion principle leads to the structure of atoms. Finally, Dirac´s relativistic quantum mechanics is shortly presented. Matrices and matrix equations are today easy to handle when implementing numerical algorithms using standard software as MAPLE and Mathematica.

  17. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server


    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  18. Assembly of Fibronectin Extracellular Matrix (United States)

    Singh, Purva; Carraher, Cara; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.


    In the process of matrix assembly, multivalent extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are induced to self-associate and to interact with other ECM proteins to form fibrillar networks. Matrix assembly is usually initiated by ECM glycoproteins binding to cell surface receptors, such as fibronectin (FN) dimers binding to α5β1 integrin. Receptor binding stimulates FN self-association mediated by the N-terminal assembly domain and organizes the actin cytoskeleton to promote cell contractility. FN conformational changes expose additional binding sites that participate in fibril formation and in conversion of fibrils into a stabilized, insoluble form. Once assembled, the FN matrix impacts tissue organization by contributing to the assembly of other ECM proteins. Here, we describe the major steps, molecular interactions, and cellular mechanisms involved in assembling FN dimers into fibrillar matrix while highlighting important issues and major questions that require further investigation. PMID:20690820

  19. Metal Matrix Composites for Rocket Engine Applications (United States)

    McDonald, Kathleen R.; Wooten, John R.


    This document is from a presentation about the applications of Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) in rocket engines. Both NASA and the Air Force have goals which would reduce the costs and the weight of launching spacecraft. Charts show the engine weight distribution for both reuseable and expendable engine components. The presentation reviews the operating requirements for several components of the rocket engines. The next slide reviews the potential benefits of MMCs in general and in use as materials for Advanced Pressure Casting. The next slide reviews the drawbacks of MMCs. The reusable turbopump housing is selected to review for potential MMC application. The presentation reviews solutions for reusable turbopump materials, pointing out some of the issues. It also reviews the development of some of the materials.

  20. Human hematopoietic stem cell adherence to cytokines and matrix molecules.


    Long, M. W.; Briddell, R.; Walter, A W; Bruno, E; Hoffman, R.


    The hematopoietic microenvironment is a complex structure in which stem cells, progenitor cells, stromal cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules each interact to direct the coordinate regulation of blood cell development. While much is known concerning the individual components of this microenvironment, little is understood of the interactions among these various components or, in particular, the nature of those interactions responsible for the regional localization of...

  1. Batch derivation of piezoresistive coefficient tensor by matrix algebra (United States)

    Bao, Minhang; Huang, Yiping


    To commemorate the important discovery of the piezoresistance effect of germanium and silicon by C S Smith half a century ago, we present a new method of deriving the piezoresistive (PR) coefficient tensor for diamond structure material using matrix algebra. Using this method, all the components of the PR coefficient tensor (of the fourth rank) in an arbitrary Cartesian coordinate system can be obtained in a batch and the relation between the components is clearly shown.

  2. Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments and of the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a maximum of 2% from the free molecule matrix elements. 2. Theoretical details and method of computation. In a linear molecule, the strength of the 2 -pole moment tensor of ranki is characterized by a single (scalar) component Q , and i is necessarily even valued if the molecule is centro- symmetric like H2. If we align the ...

  3. Cooled Ceramic Matrix Composite Propulsion Structures Demonstrated (United States)

    Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Dickens, Kevin W.


    NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program has successfully demonstrated cooled ceramic matrix composite (CMC) technology in a scramjet engine test. This demonstration represented the world s largest cooled nonmetallic matrix composite panel fabricated for a scramjet engine and the first cooled nonmetallic composite to be tested in a scramjet facility. Lightweight, high-temperature, actively cooled structures have been identified as a key technology for enabling reliable and low-cost space access. Tradeoff studies have shown this to be the case for a variety of launch platforms, including rockets and hypersonic cruise vehicles. Actively cooled carbon and CMC structures may meet high-performance goals at significantly lower weight, while improving safety by operating with a higher margin between the design temperature and material upper-use temperature. Studies have shown that using actively cooled CMCs can reduce the weight of the cooled flow-path component from 4.5 to 1.6 lb/sq ft and the weight of the propulsion system s cooled surface area by more than 50 percent. This weight savings enables advanced concepts, increased payload, and increased range. The ability of the cooled CMC flow-path components to operate over 1000 F hotter than the state-of-the-art metallic concept adds system design flexibility to space-access vehicle concepts. Other potential system-level benefits include smaller fuel pumps, lower part count, lower cost, and increased operating margin.

  4. New pole placement algorithm - Polynomial matrix approach (United States)

    Shafai, B.; Keel, L. H.


    A simple and direct pole-placement algorithm is introduced for dynamical systems having a block companion matrix A. The algorithm utilizes well-established properties of matrix polynomials. Pole placement is achieved by appropriately assigning coefficient matrices of the corresponding matrix polynomial. This involves only matrix additions and multiplications without requiring matrix inversion. A numerical example is given for the purpose of illustration.

  5. Variability and component composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Storm (Tijs)


    textabstractIn component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the

  6. Mitigating component performance variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.


    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  7. The Role of Stromal Myofibroblast and Extracellular Matrix in Tumor Angiogenesis (United States)

    Vong, Sylvia


    Tumor angiogenesis, the building of blood vessels in an expanding tumor mass, is an elegantly coordinated process that dictates tumor growth and progression. Stromal components of the tumor microenvironment, such as myofibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, collaborate with tumor cells in regulating development. Such myofibroblasts and the extracellular matrix have ever-expanding roles in the angiogenic process as well. This review summarizes how stromal myofibroblasts and the extracellular matrix can modulate tumor angiogenesis, highlighting recent findings. PMID:22866205

  8. [Progress on matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors]. (United States)

    Lingling, Jia; Qianbing, Wan


    Continuing advances in dentin bonding technology and adhesives revolutionized bonding of resin-based composite restorations. However, hybrid layers created by contemporary dentin adhesives present imperfect durability, and degradation of collagen matrix by endogenous enzymes is a significant factor causing destruction of hybrid layers. Bond durability can be improved by using enzyme inhibitors to prevent collagen degradation and to preserve integrity of collagen matrix. This review summarizes progress on matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (including chlorhexidine, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, quaternary ammonium salt, tetracycline and its derivatives, hydroxamic acid inhibitors, bisphosphonate derivative, and cross-linking agents) and suggests prospects for these compounds.

  9. Principal Component Analysis In Radar Polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Danklmayer


    Full Text Available Second order moments of multivariate (often Gaussian joint probability density functions can be described by the covariance or normalised correlation matrices or by the Kennaugh matrix (Kronecker matrix. In Radar Polarimetry the application of the covariance matrix is known as target decomposition theory, which is a special application of the extremely versatile Principle Component Analysis (PCA. The basic idea of PCA is to convert a data set, consisting of correlated random variables into a new set of uncorrelated variables and order the new variables according to the value of their variances. It is important to stress that uncorrelatedness does not necessarily mean independent which is used in the much stronger concept of Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Both concepts agree for multivariate Gaussian distribution functions, representing the most random and least structured distribution. In this contribution, we propose a new approach in applying the concept of PCA to Radar Polarimetry. Therefore, new uncorrelated random variables will be introduced by means of linear transformations with well determined loading coefficients. This in turn, will allow the decomposition of the original random backscattering target variables into three point targets with new random uncorrelated variables whose variances agree with the eigenvalues of the covariance matrix. This allows a new interpretation of existing decomposition theorems.

  10. Vector and matrix states for Mueller matrices of nondepolarizing optical media. (United States)

    Kuntman, Ertan; Ali Kuntman, M; Arteaga, Oriol


    Nondepolarizing Mueller matrices contain up to seven independent parameters. However, these seven parameters typically do not appear explicitly among the measured 16 parameters of a Mueller matrix, so that they are not directly accessible for physical interpretation. This work shows that all the information contained in a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix can be conveniently expressed in terms of a four component covariance vector state or a generating 4×4 matrix, which can be understood as a matrix state. The generating matrix, besides being directly related to the nondepolarizing Mueller matrix, mimics all properties of the Jones matrix and provides a powerful mathematical tool for formulating all properties of nondepolarizing systems, including the Mueller symmetries and the anisotropy coefficients.

  11. An Alternative Method for Computing Mean and Covariance Matrix of Some Multivariate Distributions (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, R.; Choudhury, Askar


    Computing the mean and covariance matrix of some multivariate distributions, in particular, multivariate normal distribution and Wishart distribution are considered in this article. It involves a matrix transformation of the normal random vector into a random vector whose components are independent normal random variables, and then integrating…

  12. Metal matrix composites synthesis, wear characteristics, machinability study of MMC brake drum

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Nanjappan; Davim, J Paulo


    This book is dedicated to composite materials, presenting different synthesis processes, composite properties and their machining behaviour. The book describes also the problems on manufacturing of metal matrix composite components. Among others, it provides procedures for manufacturing of metal matrix composites and case studies.

  13. Development of an integrated system for activity-based profiling of matrix metallo-proteases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Freije, Jan Robert


    Matrix metallo-proteases constitute a family of extracellular zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are involved in degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components and other bioactive non-ECM molecules. A plethora of studies have implicated important roles for MMPs in many diseases (including

  14. Down the Rabbit Hole: Using "The Matrix" to Reflect on Teacher Education (United States)

    Batchelor, Katherine; Sander, Scott A.


    In this article we use "The Matrix" movie as a heuristic device that offers two possibilities for conceptualizing teacher education: as a mirror (looking at ourselves) and as a window (looking at teacher education). We begin by sharing our interests and reason for using self-study while examining the components of "The Matrix,"…

  15. Visualizing the dental biofilm matrix by means of fluorescence lectin-binding analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawakoli, Pune Nina; Neu, Thomas R; Busck, Mette Marie


    The extracellular matrix is a poorly studied, yet important component of dental biofilms. Fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) is a powerful tool to characterize glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. This study aimed to systematically investigate the ability of 75 fluorescently labeled...

  16. The dynamic extracellular matrix: intervention strategies during heart failure and atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeneman, Sylvia; Cleutjens, Jack P.; Faber, Birgit C.; Creemers, Esther E.; van Suylen, Robert-Jan; Lutgens, Esther; Cleutjens, Kitty B.; Daemen, Mat J.


    The extracellular matrix is no longer seen as the static embedding in which cells reside; it has been shown to be involved in cell proliferation, migration and cell-cell interactions. Turnover of the different extracellular matrix components is an active process with multiple levels of regulation.

  17. GoM Diet Matrix (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set was taken from CRD 08-18 at the NEFSC. Specifically, the Gulf of Maine diet matrix was developed for the EMAX exercise described in that center...

  18. Newtonian M(atrix) cosmology (United States)

    Álvarez, Enrique; Meessen, Patrick


    A Newtonian matrix cosmology, corresponding to the Banks, Fischler, Shenker and Susskind model of eleven-dimensional M-theory in the infinite momentum frame as a supersymmetric (0+1) M(atrix) model is constructed. Interesting new results are obtained, such as the existence of (much sought for in the past) static solutions. The possible interpretation of the off-diagonal entries as a background geometry is also briefly discussed.

  19. Superstatistics in Random Matrix Theory


    Abul-Magd, A. Y.


    Random matrix theory (RMT) provides a successful model for quantum systems, whose classical counterpart has a chaotic dynamics. It is based on two assumptions: (1) matrix-element independence, and (2) base invariance. Last decade witnessed several attempts to extend RMT to describe quantum systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics. Most of the proposed generalizations keep the first assumption and violate the second. Recently, several authors presented other versions of the theory that keep...

  20. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N


    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  1. Stress corrosion cracking of metal matrix composites: Modeling and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.H.


    The stress corrosion crack growth ate of metal matrix composites has been described by a model which is dependent on the length-to- diameter ({ell}/d) ratio and volume fraction of the reinforcing phase and matrix creep component. The model predicts a large dependence of the stress corrosion crack growth rate of a metal matrix composite on {ell}/d and matrix creep component and a small dependence on the volume fraction of reinforcement. Experimentally determined crack growth rates for 7090 Al/SiC tested in 3.5% NcCl solution, 6061 Al/SiC tested in moist air with NaCl and immersed in NaCl solution, and Mg/Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} tested in a chloride/chromate solution are all consistent with the model. The close correspondence between the model and experiment for a matrix creep stress exponent of 3 suggest that there is little corrosion damage to the reinforcing phase in these systems. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Enamel matrix proteins; old molecules for new applications. (United States)

    Lyngstadaas, S P; Wohlfahrt, J C; Brookes, S J; Paine, M L; Snead, M L; Reseland, J E


    Emdogain (enamel matrix derivative, EMD) is well recognized in periodontology, where it is used as a local adjunct to periodontal surgery to stimulate regeneration of periodontal tissues lost to periodontal disease. The biological effect of EMD is through stimulation of local growth factor secretion and cytokine expression in the treated tissues, inducing a regenerative process that mimics odontogenesis. The major (>95%) component of EMD is Amelogenins (Amel). No other active components have so far been isolated from EMD, and several studies have shown that purified amelogenins can induce the same effect as the complete EMD. Amelogenins comprise a family of highly conserved extracellular matrix proteins derived from one gene. Amelogenin structure and function is evolutionary well conserved, suggesting a profound role in biomineralization and hard tissue formation. A special feature of amelogenins is that under physiological conditions the proteins self-assembles into nanospheres that constitute an extracellular matrix. In the body, this matrix is slowly digested by specific extracellular proteolytic enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase) in a controlled process, releasing bioactive peptides to the surrounding tissues for weeks after application. Based on clinical and experimental observations in periodontology indicating that amelogenins can have a significant positive influence on wound healing, bone formation and root resorption, several new applications for amelogenins have been suggested. New experiments now confirm that amelogenins have potential for being used also in the fields of endodontics, bone regeneration, implantology, traumatology, and wound care.

  3. Quantification of fibronectin as a method to assess ex vivo extracellular matrix remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Cecilie Liv; Gudmann, N.; Willumsen, N.


    Altered architecture, composition and quality of the extracellular matrix (ECM) are pathological hallmarks of several inflammatory and fibro-proliferative pathological processes such as osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), fibrosis and cancer. One of the most important components...

  4. Durability and Damage Tolerance of High Temperature Advanced Titanium Metal Matrix Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghonem, H


    .... The basic components of these mechanisms are examined in this program. The evolution features of residual stresses indicated that stress relaxation occurred in the Ti matrix phase of the composite following post-fabrication cool down to 600 00...

  5. Determination of In Situ-Generated Dimethyldioxirane From an Aqueous Matrix Using Selected Ion Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delcomyn, Carrie A; MacLean, H. S; Renard, Jean J; Henley, Michael V


    ... of other reactive components, peroxymonosulfate and acetone, within the solution matrix. This paper is the first to report the use of a MS method for the quantitation of DMDO from these complex matrices by utilizing an isothermal 30...

  6. Organic matrix composition and ultrastructure of eggshell: a comparative study. (United States)

    Panheleux, M; Bain, M; Fernandez, M S; Morales, I; Gautron, J; Arias, J L; Solomon, S E; Hincke, M; Nys, Y


    1. The avian eggshell is a biomineralised composite ceramic consisting of calcium carbonate embedded in an organic matrix. Matrix components are supposed to be involved in the control of mineralisation, crystallographic texture and biomechanical properties of eggshell. 2. The structure and eggshell matrix composition of various domesticated bird species were compared to gain insight into the universality of the eggshell mineralisation process. 3. The SDS-PAGE profiles of soluble eggshell matrix were specific within groups of birds (a: laying hen, breeder hen, quail, pheasant and possibly turkey; b: guinea fowl; c: duck and goose) but some of the protein bands were common to all groups. 4. Analogies between species were confirmed by Western blotting using hen protein antibodies. Ovocleidin-17 (OC-17) and ovalbumin were revealed in all species (except quail for OC-17). Lysozyme was present only in hen eggshell. Another egg white protein: ovotransferrin showed a positive signal in hens, turkey and quail. Osteopontin was observed in laying and breeder hens and quail. 5. Different proteoglycans were localised to discrete regions within the eggshell. Dermatan sulphate was observed within the matrix of the calcified shell of all species except quail which contained chondroitin-6-sulfate. Keratan sulphate was observed in mammillary bodies of breeder and laying hen, quail, pheasant and turkey while chondroitin sulphate was also present in guinea fowl and duck. 6. The general structural organisation of the different avian eggshells was similar but specific differences were observed in the ultrastructure of the mammillary layer. Species of the same taxonomic family could be grouped according to their structural analogies: breeder hen, turkey and pheasant resembled that of the domestic fowl. Guinea fowl was unique. Goose and duck were quite similar with large and confluent mammillary bodies. 7. Some matrix components are therefore common to eggshells of various species but

  7. Random matrix theory and portfolio optimization in Moroccan stock exchange (United States)

    El Alaoui, Marwane


    In this work, we use random matrix theory to analyze eigenvalues and see if there is a presence of pertinent information by using Marčenko-Pastur distribution. Thus, we study cross-correlation among stocks of Casablanca Stock Exchange. Moreover, we clean correlation matrix from noisy elements to see if the gap between predicted risk and realized risk would be reduced. We also analyze eigenvectors components distributions and their degree of deviations by computing the inverse participation ratio. This analysis is a way to understand the correlation structure among stocks of Casablanca Stock Exchange portfolio.

  8. Impairment of endothelial and subendothelial sites by a circulating plasma factor associated with minimal change disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, PK; Baller, JFW; Bakker, WW


    Background. The pathogenesis of albuminuria in minimal change disease (MCD) is unknown. A human plasma factor (denoted as 100KF) is able to induce minimal change-like glomerular alterations, i.e. loss of glomerular sialoglycoproteins and decreased expression of glomerular ecto-ATPase, following in

  9. Reusable Component Services (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  10. Noisy independent component analysis of autocorrelated components (United States)

    Knollmüller, Jakob; Enßlin, Torsten A.


    We present a method for the separation of superimposed, independent, autocorrelated components from noisy multichannel measurement. The presented method simultaneously reconstructs and separates the components, taking all channels into account, and thereby increases the effective signal-to-noise ratio considerably, allowing separations even in the high-noise regime. Characteristics of the measurement instruments can be included, allowing for application in complex measurement situations. Independent posterior samples can be provided, permitting error estimates on all desired quantities. Using the concept of information field theory, the algorithm is not restricted to any dimensionality of the underlying space or discretization scheme thereof.

  11. Identification of the major proteins of the organic matrix of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) and rhea (Rhea americana) eggshell calcified layer. (United States)

    Mann, K


    1. The eggshell is a composite consisting of 95% calcite and an organic matrix. 2. While many proteins of the chicken eggshell matrix have already been identified, little is known about the matrix of other birds. 3. Isolation of the emu and rhea eggshell matrix and analysis of its major constituents showed that the predominant components were C-type lectin-like proteins related to those of ostrich, chicken and goose. 4. Serum albumin, vitelline membrane outer layer protein I (VMO-I) and the turpentine-induced acute phase serum protein 18-B were identified as minor components of the emu shell matrix. Both eggshell matrices also contained a novel proline- and alanine-rich protein. 5. Like ostrich, and unlike chicken and goose, both emu and rhea eggshell matrix contained two different C-type lectin-like proteins as major components, indicating that the occurrence of two proteins of this family may be widespread among ratites.

  12. Matrix factorizations and elliptic fibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Omer


    Full Text Available I use matrix factorizations to describe branes at simple singularities of elliptic fibrations. Each node of the corresponding Dynkin diagrams of the ADE-type singularities is associated with one indecomposable matrix factorization which can be deformed into one or more factorizations of lower rank. Branes with internal fluxes arise naturally as bound states of the indecomposable factorizations. Describing branes in such a way avoids the need to resolve singularities. This paper looks at gauge group breaking from E8 fibers down to SU(5 fibers due to the relevance of such fibrations for local F-theory GUT models. A purpose of this paper is to understand how the deformations of the singularity are understood in terms of its matrix factorizations. By systematically factorizing the elliptic fiber equation, this paper discusses geometries which are relevant for building semi-realistic local models. In the process it becomes evident that breaking patterns which are identical at the level of the Kodaira type of the fibers can be inequivalent at the level of matrix factorizations. Therefore the matrix factorization picture supplements information which the conventional less detailed descriptions lack.

  13. Source Signals Separation and Reconstruction Following Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Cheng


    Full Text Available For separation and reconstruction of source signals from observed signals problem, the physical significance of blind source separation modal and independent component analysis is not very clear, and its solution is not unique. Aiming at these disadvantages, a new linear and instantaneous mixing model and a novel source signals separation reconstruction solving method from observed signals based on principal component analysis (PCA are put forward. Assumption of this new model is statistically unrelated rather than independent of source signals, which is different from the traditional blind source separation model. A one-to-one relationship between linear and instantaneous mixing matrix of new model and linear compound matrix of PCA, and a one-to-one relationship between unrelated source signals and principal components are demonstrated using the concept of linear separation matrix and unrelated of source signals. Based on this theoretical link, source signals separation and reconstruction problem is changed into PCA of observed signals then. The theoretical derivation and numerical simulation results show that, in despite of Gauss measurement noise, wave form and amplitude information of unrelated source signal can be separated and reconstructed by PCA when linear mixing matrix is column orthogonal and normalized; only wave form information of unrelated source signal can be separated and reconstructed by PCA when linear mixing matrix is column orthogonal but not normalized, unrelated source signal cannot be separated and reconstructed by PCA when mixing matrix is not column orthogonal or linear.

  14. Matrix production of smooth muscle cells from rat aorta in vitro. (United States)

    Stiemer, B; Springmeier, G; el-Jarad, L; Schröter-Kermani, C


    Immunofluorescence microscopic methods served to demonstrate the production of the following matrix components in cultures of vascular smooth muscle cells from rat aorta: fibronectin; nidogen; heparan sulphate-proteoglycan (HS-PG); laminin; and collagen types I, III, IV, V, and VI. A time-dependence of synthesis and secretion could be shown for a number of components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), such as laminin. The results revealed the following estimated quantitative differences of the collagen types: type I > type III > types V and VI. A filamentous/fibrillar matrix and also occasionally a typical basal lamina could be demonstrated electron microscopically around the smooth muscle cells.

  15. Multiple graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan


    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has been widely used as a data representation method based on components. To overcome the disadvantage of NMF in failing to consider the manifold structure of a data set, graph regularized NMF (GrNMF) has been proposed by Cai et al. by constructing an affinity graph and searching for a matrix factorization that respects graph structure. Selecting a graph model and its corresponding parameters is critical for this strategy. This process is usually carried out by cross-validation or discrete grid search, which are time consuming and prone to overfitting. In this paper, we propose a GrNMF, called MultiGrNMF, in which the intrinsic manifold is approximated by a linear combination of several graphs with different models and parameters inspired by ensemble manifold regularization. Factorization metrics and linear combination coefficients of graphs are determined simultaneously within a unified object function. They are alternately optimized in an iterative algorithm, thus resulting in a novel data representation algorithm. Extensive experiments on a protein subcellular localization task and an Alzheimer\\'s disease diagnosis task demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Matrix metalloproteinases in stem cell mobilization. (United States)

    Klein, Gerd; Schmal, Olga; Aicher, Wilhelm K


    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the capability to migrate back and forth between their preferred microenvironment in bone marrow niches and the peripheral blood, but under steady-state conditions only a marginal number of stem cells can be found in the circulation. Different mobilizing agents, however, which create a highly proteolytic milieu in the bone marrow, can drastically increase the number of circulating HSCs. Among other proteases secreted and membrane-bound matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be involved in the induced mobilization process and can digest niche-specific extracellular matrix components and cytokines responsible for stem cell retention to the niches. Iatrogenic stem cell mobilization and stem cell homing to their niches are clinically employed on a routine basis, although the exact mechanisms of both processes are still not fully understood. In this review we provide an overview on the various roles of MMPs in the induced release of HSCs from the bone marrow. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Support Vector Components Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Michiel; Roerdink, Johannes; Phillips, Christophe; Garraux, Gaetan; Salmon, Eric; Wiering, Marco


    In this paper we propose a novel method for learning a distance metric in the process of training Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with the radial basis function kernel. A transformation matrix is adapted in such a way that the SVM dual objective of a classification problem is optimized. By using a

  18. Bayesian Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt


    of the method are two mean field techniques-the variational Bayes and the expectation consistent framework-and the cost function relating to these methods are optimized using the adaptive overrelaxed expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and the easy gradient recipe. The entire framework, implemented...... in a Matlab toolbox, is demonstrated for non-negative decompositions and compared with non-negative matrix factorization....

  19. Lectures on matrix field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ydri, Badis


    These lecture notes provide a systematic introduction to matrix models of quantum field theories with non-commutative and fuzzy geometries. The book initially focuses on the matrix formulation of non-commutative and fuzzy spaces, followed by a description of the non-perturbative treatment of the corresponding field theories. As an example, the phase structure of non-commutative phi-four theory is treated in great detail, with a separate chapter on the multitrace approach. The last chapter offers a general introduction to non-commutative gauge theories, while two appendices round out the text. Primarily written as a self-study guide for postgraduate students – with the aim of pedagogically introducing them to key analytical and numerical tools, as well as useful physical models in applications – these lecture notes will also benefit experienced researchers by providing a reference guide to the fundamentals of non-commutative field theory with an emphasis on matrix models and fuzzy geometries.

  20. Matrix formalism of synchrobetatron coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobiao Huang


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a complete linear synchrobetatron coupling formalism by studying the transfer matrix which describes linear horizontal and longitudinal motions. With the technique established in the linear horizontal-vertical coupling study [D. Sagan and D. Rubin, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 074001 (1999PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.2.074001], we found a transformation to block diagonalize the transfer matrix and decouple the betatron motion and the synchrotron motion. By separating the usual dispersion term from the horizontal coordinate first, we were able to obtain analytic expressions of the transformation under reasonable approximations. We also obtained the perturbations to the betatron tune and the Courant-Snyder functions. The closed-orbit changes due to finite energy gains at rf cavities and radiation energy losses were studied by the 5×5 extended transfer matrix with the fifth column describing kicks in the 4-dimension phase space.

  1. Supersymmetry in random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieburg, Mario


    I study the applications of supersymmetry in random matrix theory. I generalize the supersymmetry method and develop three new approaches to calculate eigenvalue correlation functions. These correlation functions are averages over ratios of characteristic polynomials. In the first part of this thesis, I derive a relation between integrals over anti-commuting variables (Grassmann variables) and differential operators with respect to commuting variables. With this relation I rederive Cauchy- like integral theorems. As a new application I trace the supermatrix Bessel function back to a product of two ordinary matrix Bessel functions. In the second part, I apply the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation to arbitrary rotation invariant ensembles of real symmetric and Hermitian self-dual matrices. This extends the approach for unitarily rotation invariant matrix ensembles. For the k-point correlation functions I derive supersymmetric integral expressions in a unifying way. I prove the equivalence between the generalized Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and the superbosonization formula. Moreover, I develop an alternative mapping from ordinary space to superspace. After comparing the results of this approach with the other two supersymmetry methods, I obtain explicit functional expressions for the probability densities in superspace. If the probability density of the matrix ensemble factorizes, then the generating functions exhibit determinantal and Pfaffian structures. For some matrix ensembles this was already shown with help of other approaches. I show that these structures appear by a purely algebraic manipulation. In this new approach I use structures naturally appearing in superspace. I derive determinantal and Pfaffian structures for three types of integrals without actually mapping onto superspace. These three types of integrals are quite general and, thus, they are applicable to a broad class of matrix ensembles. (orig.)

  2. Symmetries and Interactions in Matrix String Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hacquebord, F.H.


    This PhD-thesis reviews matrix string theory and recent developments therein. The emphasis is put on symmetries, interactions and scattering processes in the matrix model. We start with an introduction to matrix string theory and a review of the orbifold model that flows out of matrix string theory

  3. Properties of the matrix A-XY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steerneman, A.G.M.; van Perlo -ten Kleij, Frederieke


    The main topic of this paper is the matrix V = A - XY*, where A is a nonsingular complex k x k matrix and X and Y are k x p complex matrices of full column rank. Because properties of the matrix V can be derived from those of the matrix Q = I - XY*, we will consider in particular the case where A =

  4. Interactions between Skeletal Muscle Myoblasts and their Extracellular Matrix Revealed by a Serum Free Culture System. (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Vishal; Dye, Danielle E; Kinnear, Beverley F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Grounds, Miranda D; Coombe, Deirdre R


    Decellularisation of skeletal muscle provides a system to study the interactions of myoblasts with muscle extracellular matrix (ECM). This study describes the efficient decellularisation of quadriceps muscle with the retention of matrix components and the use of this matrix for myoblast proliferation and differentiation under serum free culture conditions. Three decellularisation approaches were examined; the most effective was phospholipase A2 treatment, which removed cellular material while maximizing the retention of ECM components. Decellularised muscle matrices were then solubilized and used as substrates for C2C12 mouse myoblast serum free cultures. The muscle matrix supported myoblast proliferation and differentiation equally as well as collagen and fibronectin. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that myoblasts seeded on muscle matrix and fibronectin differentiated to form long, well-aligned myotubes, while myoblasts seeded on collagen were less organized. qPCR analyses showed a time dependent increase in genes involved in skeletal muscle differentiation and suggested that muscle-derived matrix may stimulate an increased rate of differentiation compared to collagen and fibronectin. Decellularized whole muscle three-dimensional scaffolds also supported cell adhesion and spreading, with myoblasts aligning along specific tracts of matrix proteins within the scaffolds. Thus, under serum free conditions, intact acellular muscle matrices provided cues to direct myoblast adhesion and migration. In addition, myoblasts were shown to rapidly secrete and organise their own matrix glycoproteins to create a localized ECM microenvironment. This serum free culture system has revealed that the correct muscle ECM facilitates more rapid cell organisation and differentiation than single matrix glycoprotein substrates.

  5. A T Matrix Method Based upon Scalar Basis Functions (United States)

    Mackowski, D.W.; Kahnert, F. M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.


    A surface integral formulation is developed for the T matrix of a homogenous and isotropic particle of arbitrary shape, which employs scalar basis functions represented by the translation matrix elements of the vector spherical wave functions. The formulation begins with the volume integral equation for scattering by the particle, which is transformed so that the vector and dyadic components in the equation are replaced with associated dipole and multipole level scalar harmonic wave functions. The approach leads to a volume integral formulation for the T matrix, which can be extended, by use of Green's identities, to the surface integral formulation. The result is shown to be equivalent to the traditional surface integral formulas based on the VSWF basis.

  6. Mueller coherency matrix method for contrast image in tissue polarimetry (United States)

    Arce-Diego, J. L.; Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Samperio-García, D.; Pereda-Cubián, D.


    In this work, we propose the use of the Mueller Coherency matrix of biological tissues in order to increase the information from tissue images and so their contrast. This method involves different Mueller Coherency matrix based parameters, like the eigenvalues analysis, the entropy factor calculation, polarization components crosstalks, linear and circular polarization degrees, hermiticity or the Quaternions analysis in case depolarisation properties of tissue are sufficiently low. All these parameters make information appear clearer and so increase image contrast, so pathologies like cancer could be detected in a sooner stage of development. The election will depend on the concrete pathological process under study. This Mueller Coherency matrix method can be applied to a single tissue point, or it can be combined with a tomographic technique, so as to obtain a 3D representation of polarization contrast parameters in pathological tissues. The application of this analysis to concrete diseases can lead to tissue burn depth estimation or cancer early detection.

  7. Towards Google matrix of brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelyansky, D.L., E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), Universite de Toulouse, UPS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); LPT - IRSAMC, CNRS, F-31062 Toulouse (France); Zhirov, O.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)


    We apply the approach of the Google matrix, used in computer science and World Wide Web, to description of properties of neuronal networks. The Google matrix G is constructed on the basis of neuronal network of a brain model discussed in PNAS 105 (2008) 3593. We show that the spectrum of eigenvalues of G has a gapless structure with long living relaxation modes. The PageRank of the network becomes delocalized for certain values of the Google damping factor {alpha}. The properties of other eigenstates are also analyzed. We discuss further parallels and similarities between the World Wide Web and neuronal networks.

  8. Implementation Challenges for Ceramic Matrix Composites in High Temperature Applications (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay


    Ceramic matrix composites are leading candidate materials for a number of applications in aeronautics, space, energy, electronics, nuclear, and transportation industries. In the aeronautics and space exploration systems, these materials are being considered for applications in hot sections of jet engines such as the combustor liner, nozzle components, nose cones, leading edges of reentry vehicles and space propulsion components. Applications in the energy and environmental industries include radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, heat recuperators, gas and diesel particulate filters (DPFs), and components for land based turbines for power generation. These materials are also being considered for use in the first wall and blanket components of fusion reactors. There are a number of critical issues and challenges related to successful implementation of composite materials. Fabrication of net and complex shape components with high density and tailorable matrix properties is quite expensive, and even then various desirable properties are not achievable. In this presentation, microstructure and thermomechanical properties of composites fabricated by two techniques (chemical vapor infiltration and melt infiltration), will be presented. In addition, critical need for robust joining and assembly technologies in successful implementation of these systems will be discussed. Other implementation issues will be discussed along with advantages and benefits of using these materials for various components in high temperature applications.


    Haleem-Smith, Hana; Calderon, Raul; Song, Yingjie; Tuan, Rocky S.; Chen, Faye H.


    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein/thrombospondin-5 (COMP/TSP5) is an abundant cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that interacts with major cartilage ECM components, including aggrecan and collagens. To test our hypothesis that COMP/TSP5 functions in the assembly of the ECM during cartilage morphogenesis, we have employed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro as a model to examine the effects of COMP over-expression on neo-cartilage formation. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs were transfected with either full-length COMP cDNA or control plasmid, followed by chondrogenic induction in three-dimensional pellet or alginate-hydrogel culture. MSC chondrogenesis and ECM production was estimated based on quantitation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) accumulation, immunohistochemistry of the presence and distribution of cartilage ECM proteins, and real-time RT-PCR analyis of mRNA expression of cartilage markers. Our results showed that COMP over-expression resulted in increased total sGAG content during the early phase of MSC chondrogenesis, and increased immuno-detectable levels of aggrecan and collagen type II in the ECM of COMP-transfected pellet and alginate cultures, indicating more abundant cartilaginous matrix. COMP transfection did not significantly increase the transcript levels of the early chondrogenic marker, Sox9, or aggrecan, suggesting that enhancement of MSC cartilage ECM was effected at post-transcriptional levels. These findings strongly suggest that COMP functions in mesenchymal chondrogenesis by enhancing cartilage ECM organization and assembly. The action of COMP is most likely mediated not via direct changes in cartilage matrix gene expression but via interactions of COMP with other cartilage ECM proteins, such as aggrecan and collagens, that result in enhanced assembly and retention. PMID:22095699

  10. Random matrix theory and multivariate statistics


    Diaz-Garcia, Jose A.; Jáimez, Ramon Gutiérrez


    Some tools and ideas are interchanged between random matrix theory and multivariate statistics. In the context of the random matrix theory, classes of spherical and generalised Wishart random matrix ensemble, containing as particular cases the classical random matrix ensembles, are proposed. Some properties of these classes of ensemble are analysed. In addition, the random matrix ensemble approach is extended and a unified theory proposed for the study of distributions for real normed divisio...

  11. Matrix theory selected topics and useful results

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Madan Lal


    Matrices and operations on matrices ; determinants ; elementary operations on matrices (continued) ; eigenvalues and eigenvectors, diagonalization of normal matrices ; functions of a matrix ; positive definiteness, various polar forms of a matrix ; special matrices ; matrices with quaternion elements ; inequalities ; generalised inverse of a matrix ; domain of values of a matrix, location and dispersion of eigenvalues ; symmetric functions ; integration over matrix variables ; permanents of doubly stochastic matrices ; infinite matrices ; Alexander matrices, knot polynomials, torsion numbers.

  12. Extracellular Matrix-Based Biohybrid Materials for Engineering Compliant, Matrix-Dense Tissues. (United States)

    Bracaglia, Laura G; Fisher, John P


    An ideal tissue engineering scaffold should not only promote, but take an active role in, constructive remodeling and formation of site appropriate tissue. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-derived proteins provide unmatched cellular recognition, and therefore influence cellular response towards predicted remodeling behaviors. Materials built with only these proteins, however, can degrade rapidly or begin too weak to substitute for compliant, matrix-dense tissues. The focus of this Progress Report is on biohybrid materials that incorporate polymer components with ECM-derived proteins, to produce a substrate with desired mechanical and degradation properties, as well as actively guide tissue remodeling. Materials are described through four fabrication methods: 1) polymer and ECM-protein fibers woven together, 2) polymer and ECM proteins combined in a bilayer, 3) cell-built ECM on polymer scaffold, and 4) ECM proteins and polymers combined in a single hydrogel. Scaffolds from each fabrication method can achieve characteristics suitable for different types of tissue. In vivo testing has shown progressive remodeling in injury models, and suggests ECM-based biohybrid materials promote a prohealing immune response over single component alternatives. The prohealing immune response is associated with lasting success and long term host maintenance of the implant. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Supply chain components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieraşu, T.


    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  14. Polarimetric characterization of birefringent filter components. (United States)

    Mudge, Jason; Mitchell, Keith; Tarbell, Theodore


    Over the past 75 years, birefringent filter technology has evolved significantly. For nearly that same period of time, these filters have been designed and used by solar scientists to study the Sun. Prior to assembling these types of filters, each component, e.g., polarizers and wave plates, is characterized to determine its polarimetric parameters to ensure the desired filter design performance. With time and cost becoming an ever increasing issue, it is imperative to test components designated for a birefringent filter efficiently. This article addresses a shift to increased efficiency when testing components of very low volume (solar research filters that minimizes high-priced hardware expenditures, i.e., Mueller matrix spectropolarimeter.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The core component pot is an open top vessel used to hold both new and irradiated core components for storage in the IDS and for holding the components submerged in sodium while being trasported inside CLEM. The top of the CCP is equipped with a grapple lip which is engaged by the hoisting grapples. Heat for maintaining the preheat of new components and dissipation of decay heat of irradiated fuel assemblies is conducted between the wall of the pot and the surrounding environment by thermal radiation and convection.

  16. Hot gas path component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward


    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  17. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  18. Parallel Sparse Matrix - Vector Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Joe; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Dammann, Bernd

    This technical report contains a case study of a sparse matrix-vector product routine, implemented for parallel execution on a compute cluster with both pure MPI and hybrid MPI-OpenMP solutions. C++ classes for sparse data types were developed and the report shows how these class can be used...

  19. Supersymmetry in Random Matrix Theory


    Guhr, Thomas


    Supersymmetry is nowadays indispensable for many problems in Random Matrix Theory. It is presented here with an emphasis on conceptual and structural issues. An introduction to supermathematics is given. The Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation as well as its generalization and superbosonization are explained. The supersymmetric non-linear sigma model, Brownian motion in superspace and the color-flavor transformation are discussed.

  20. The COMPADRE Plant Matrix Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    COMPADRE contains demographic information on hundreds of plant species. The data in COMPADRE are in the form of matrix population models and our goal is to make these publicly available to facilitate their use for research and teaching purposes. COMPADRE is an open-access database. We only request...

  1. Open Membranes in Matrix Theory


    Li, Miao


    We discuss how to construct open membranes in the recently proposed matrix model of M theory. In order to sustain an open membrane, two boundary terms are needed in the construction. These boundary terms are available in the system of the longitudinal five-branes and D0-branes.

  2. Hyper-systolic matrix multiplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippert, Th.; Petkov, N.; Palazzari, P.; Schilling, K.

    A novel parallel algorithm for matrix multiplication is presented. It is based on a 1-D hyper-systolic processor abstraction. The procedure can be implemented on all types of parallel systems. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bilateral matrix-exponential distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Esparza, Luz Judith R; Nielsen, Bo Friis


    In this article we define the classes of bilateral and multivariate bilateral matrix-exponential distributions. These distributions have support on the entire real space and have rational moment-generating functions. These distributions extend the class of bilateral phasetype distributions of [1]...

  4. Extracellular matrix and wound healing. (United States)

    Maquart, F X; Monboisse, J C


    Extracellular matrix has been known for a long time as an architectural support for the tissues. Many recent data, however, have shown that extracellular matrix macromolecules (collagens, elastin, glycosaminoglycans, proteoglycans and connective tissue glycoproteins) are able to regulate many important cell functions, such as proliferation, migration, protein synthesis or degradation, apoptosis, etc., making them able to play an important role in the wound repair process. Not only the intact macromolecules but some of their specific domains, that we called "Matrikines", are also able to regulate many cell activities. In this article, we will summarize main findings showing the effects of extracellular matrix macromolecules and matrikines on connective tissue and epithelial cells, particularly in skin, and their potential implication in the wound healing process. These examples show that extracellular matrix macromolecules or some of their specific domains may play a major role in wound healing. Better knowledge of these interactions may suggest new therapeutic targets in wound healing defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Unravelling the nuclear matrix proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C; Jimenez, Connie R


    The nuclear matrix (NM) model posits the presence of a protein/RNA scaffold that spans the mammalian nucleus. The NM proteins are involved in basic nuclear function and are a promising source of protein biomarkers for cancer. Importantly, the NM proteome is operationally defined as the proteins...

  6. Random matrix theory and fund of funds portfolio optimisation (United States)

    Conlon, T.; Ruskin, H. J.; Crane, M.


    The proprietary nature of Hedge Fund investing means that it is common practise for managers to release minimal information about their returns. The construction of a fund of hedge funds portfolio requires a correlation matrix which often has to be estimated using a relatively small sample of monthly returns data which induces noise. In this paper, random matrix theory (RMT) is applied to a cross-correlation matrix C, constructed using hedge fund returns data. The analysis reveals a number of eigenvalues that deviate from the spectrum suggested by RMT. The components of the deviating eigenvectors are found to correspond to distinct groups of strategies that are applied by hedge fund managers. The inverse participation ratio is used to quantify the number of components that participate in each eigenvector. Finally, the correlation matrix is cleaned by separating the noisy part from the non-noisy part of C. This technique is found to greatly reduce the difference between the predicted and realised risk of a portfolio, leading to an improved risk profile for a fund of hedge funds.

  7. A General Method of Empirical Q-matrix Validation. (United States)

    de la Torre, Jimmy; Chiu, Chia-Yi


    In contrast to unidimensional item response models that postulate a single underlying proficiency, cognitive diagnosis models (CDMs) posit multiple, discrete skills or attributes, thus allowing CDMs to provide a finer-grained assessment of examinees' test performance. A common component of CDMs for specifying the attributes required for each item is the Q-matrix. Although construction of Q-matrix is typically performed by domain experts, it nonetheless, to a large extent, remains a subjective process, and misspecifications in the Q-matrix, if left unchecked, can have important practical implications. To address this concern, this paper proposes a discrimination index that can be used with a wide class of CDM subsumed by the generalized deterministic input, noisy "and" gate model to empirically validate the Q-matrix specifications by identifying and replacing misspecified entries in the Q-matrix. The rationale for using the index as the basis for a proposed validation method is provided in the form of mathematical proofs to several relevant lemmas and a theorem. The feasibility of the proposed method was examined using simulated data generated under various conditions. The proposed method is illustrated using fraction subtraction data.

  8. A Framework for Integrated Component and System Analyses of Instabilities (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Erwin, James; Arunajatesan, Srinivasan; Cattafesta, Lou; Liu, Fei


    Instabilities associated with fluid handling and operation in liquid rocket propulsion systems and test facilities usually manifest themselves as structural vibrations or some form of structural damage. While the source of the instability is directly related to the performance of a component such as a turbopump, valve or a flow control element, the associated pressure fluctuations as they propagate through the system have the potential to amplify and resonate with natural modes of the structural elements and components of the system. In this paper, the authors have developed an innovative multi-level approach that involves analysis at the component and systems level. The primary source of the unsteadiness is modeled with a high-fidelity hybrid RANS/LES based CFD methodology that has been previously used to study instabilities in feed systems. This high fidelity approach is used to quantify the instability and understand the physics associated with the instability. System response to the driving instability is determined through a transfer matrix approach wherein the incoming and outgoing pressure and velocity fluctuations are related through a transfer (or transmission) matrix. The coefficients of the transfer matrix for each component (i.e. valve, pipe, orifice etc.) are individually derived from the flow physics associated with the component. A demonstration case representing a test loop/test facility comprised of a network of elements is constructed with the transfer matrix approach and the amplification of modes analyzed as the instability propagates through the test loop.

  9. Interaction between main components in wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Koldby, Erik

    The purpose of the research documented in this thesis was to establish technical and scientific methods and tools for characterizing offshore wind farms’ electrical main components and their interaction in medium- and high-frequency, taking into account different electrical conditions and wind...... response analyser. The method was validated on a 300 kVA power transformer with wye-wye winding connections giving accurate results. Large disproportions between magnitudes of eigenvalues of sub-matrices of admittance matrix are introduced when one of the windings of the transformer is ungrounded....... This results in poor fitting and the entire model being inaccurate. The accuracy of small eigenvalues was improved by performing additional measurements of zero-sequence admittance elements and approximating using vector fitting and constant-transformation matrix. The robustness of the measurement device...

  10. Metal-Matrix Composite Parts With Metal Inserts (United States)

    Majkowski, T.; Kashalikar, U.


    Developmental fabrication process produces metal-matrix composite (MMC) parts with integral metal inserts. With inserts, MMC parts readily joined to similar parts by use of brazing, welding, or mechanical fasteners. Process conceived to make strong, lightweight components of structures erected in outer space. Also useful on Earth, in such automotive parts as rocker arms, cylinder liners, and pistons. Potential industrial applications include parts subjected to high stresses at high temperatures, as in power-generation, mining, and oil-drilling equipment.

  11. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja

    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are

  12. Matrix metalloproteinases in fish biology and matrix turnover. (United States)

    Pedersen, Mona E; Vuong, Tram T; Rønning, Sissel B; Kolset, Svein O


    Matrix metalloproteinases have important functions for tissue turnover in fish, with relevance both for the fish industry and molecular and cellular research on embryology, inflammation and tissue repair. These metalloproteinases have been studied in different fish types, subjected to both aquaculture and experimental conditions. This review highlights studies on these metalloproteinases in relation to both fish quality and health and further, the future importance of fish for basic research studies. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Method Developed for Improving the Thermomechanical Properties of Silicon Carbide Matrix Composites (United States)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; DiCarlo, James A.


    Today, a major thrust for achieving engine components with improved thermal capability is the development of fiber-reinforced silicon-carbide (SiC) matrix composites. These materials are not only lighter and capable of higher use temperatures than state-of-the-art metallic alloys and oxide matrix composites (approx. 1100 C), but they can provide significantly better static and dynamic toughness than unreinforced silicon-based monolithic ceramics. However, for successful application in advanced engine systems, the SiC matrix composites should be able to withstand component service stresses and temperatures for the desired component lifetime. Since the high-temperature structural life of ceramic materials is typically controlled by creep-induced flaw growth, a key composite property requirement is the ability to display high creep resistance under these conditions. Also, because of the possibility of severe thermal gradients in the components, the composites should provide maximum thermal conductivity to minimize the development of thermal stresses. State-of-the-art SiC matrix composites are typically fabricated via a three-step process: (1) fabrication of a component-shaped architectural preform reinforced by high-performance fibers, (2) chemical vapor infiltration of a fiber coating material such as boron nitride (BN) into the preform, and (3) infiltration of a SiC matrix into the remaining porous areas in the preform. Generally, the highest performing composites have matrices fabricated by the CVI process, which produces a SiC matrix typically more thermally stable and denser than matrices formed by other approaches. As such, the CVI SiC matrix is able to provide better environmental protection to the coated fibers, plus provide the composite with better resistance to crack propagation. Also, the denser CVI SiC matrix should provide optimal creep resistance and thermal conductivity to the composite. However, for adequate preform infiltration, the CVI SiC matrix

  14. Vascular Extracellular Matrix and Arterial Mechanics (United States)



    An important factor in the transition from an open to a closed circulatory system was a change in vessel wall structure and composition that enabled the large arteries to store and release energy during the cardiac cycle. The component of the arterial wall in vertebrates that accounts for these properties is the elastic fiber network organized by medial smooth muscle. Beginning with the onset of pulsatile blood flow in the developing aorta, smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall produce a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) that will ultimately define the mechanical properties that are critical for proper function of the adult vascular system. This review discusses the structural ECM proteins in the vertebrate aortic wall and will explore how the choice of ECM components has changed through evolution as the cardiovascular system became more advanced and pulse pressure increased. By correlating vessel mechanics with physiological blood pressure across animal species and in mice with altered vessel compliance, we show that cardiac and vascular development are physiologically coupled, and we provide evidence for a universal elastic modulus that controls the parameters of ECM deposition in vessel wall development. We also discuss mechanical models that can be used to design better tissue-engineered vessels and to test the efficacy of clinical treatments. PMID:19584318

  15. Interplay of extracellular matrix and leukocytes in lung inflammation. (United States)

    Wight, Thomas N; Frevert, Charles W; Debley, Jason S; Reeves, Stephen R; Parks, William C; Ziegler, Steven F


    During inflammation, leukocytes influx into lung compartments and interact with extracellular matrix (ECM). Two ECM components, versican and hyaluronan, increase in a range of lung diseases. The interaction of leukocytes with these ECM components controls leukocyte retention and accumulation, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and activation as part of the inflammatory phase of lung disease. In addition, bronchial epithelial cells from asthmatic children co-cultured with human lung fibroblasts generate an ECM that is adherent for monocytes/macrophages. Macrophages are present in both early and late lung inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinase 10 (MMP10) is induced in alveolar macrophages with injury and infection and modulates macrophage phenotype and their ability to degrade collagenous ECM components. Collectively, studies outlined in this review highlight the importance of specific ECM components in the regulation of inflammatory events in lung disease. The widespread involvement of these ECM components in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation make them attractive candidates for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial and temporal variations in extracellular matrix of periocular and corneal regions during corneal stromal development. (United States)

    Doane, K J; Ting, W H; McLaughlin, J S; Birk, D E


    The development of the avian corneal stroma occurs in discrete developmental stages. During this sequence of events, the neural crest-derived corneal fibroblast precursor cells are surrounded by distinct extracellular matrices which change both spatially and temporally. To elucidate the role of these matrices, extracellular matrix components in the periocular mesenchyme and cornea were analysed prior to and during migration and differentiation of corneal fibroblasts using antibodies against collagens, proteoglycans and glycoproteins. Previous work has concentrated on the matrix of the corneal stroma rather than the matrix of the periocular mesenchyme. Since the precursors of the corneal fibroblasts are present within the must migrate through the periocular mesenchyme prior to entry into the cornea proper, this environment was fully evaluated. The present study documents the matrix composition of both the cornea and periocular mesenchyme at developmental stages that are prior to and after initiation of corneal invasion by the corneal fibroblast precursors. Variations in matrix molecules comprising both the periocular mesenchyme and cornea were demonstrated. These include changes in the distribution of collagen types I, II, III, IV and VI; the proteoglycans decorin and lumican; as well as the adhesive glycoproteins tenascin, fibronectin and laminin. It is hypothesized that the variations in matrix localization are important in the regulation of cell migration and differentiation during normal corneal development. Any regulation is likely to involve a combination of components found in the extracellular matrices and therefore, a consideration of the matrix rather than isolated components is required.

  17. Predicting Component Failures Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Liu


    Full Text Available Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA is a statistical topic model that has been widely used to abstract semantic information from software source code. Failure refers to an observable error in the program behavior. This work investigates whether semantic information and failures recorded in the history can be used to predict component failures. We use LDA to abstract topics from source code and a new metric (topic failure density is proposed by mapping failures to these topics. Exploring the basic information of topics from neighboring versions of a system, we obtain a similarity matrix. Multiply the Topic Failure Density (TFD by the similarity matrix to get the TFD of the next version. The prediction results achieve an average 77.8% agreement with the real failures by considering the top 3 and last 3 components descending ordered by the number of failures. We use the Spearman coefficient to measure the statistical correlation between the actual and estimated failure rate. The validation results range from 0.5342 to 0.8337 which beats the similar method. It suggests that our predictor based on similarity of topics does a fine job of component failure prediction.

  18. More accurate matrix-matched quantification using standard superposition method for herbal medicines. (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Shi, Xiao-Wei; Liu, E-Hu; Sheng, Long-Sheng; Qi, Lian-Wen; Li, Ping


    Various analytical technologies have been developed for quantitative determination of marker compounds in herbal medicines (HMs). One important issue is matrix effects that must be addressed in method validation for different detections. Unlike biological fluids, blank matrix samples for calibration are usually unavailable for HMs. In this work, practical approaches for minimizing matrix effects in HMs analysis were proposed. The matrix effects in quantitative analysis of five saponins from Panax notoginseng were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Matrix components were found to interfere with the ionization of target analytes when mass spectrometry (MS) detection were employed. To compensate the matrix signal suppression/enhancement, two matrix-matched methods, standard addition method with the target-knockout extract and standard superposition method with a HM extract were developed and tested in this work. The results showed that the standard superposition method is simple and practical for overcoming matrix effects for quantitative analysis of HMs. Moreover, the interference components were observed to interfere with light scattering of target analytes when evaporative light scattering detection (ELSD) was utilized for quantitative analysis of HMs but was not indicated when Ultraviolet detection (UV) were employed. Thus, the issue of interference effects should be addressed and minimized for quantitative HPLC-ELSD and HPLC-MS methodologies for quality control of HMs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientific Software Component Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.


    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  20. Matrix Factorization for Evolution Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Huang


    Full Text Available We study a matrix factorization problem, that is, to find two factor matrices U and V such that R≈UT×V, where R is a matrix composed of the values of the objects O1,O2,…,On at consecutive time points T1,T2,…,Tt. We first present MAFED, a constrained optimization model for this problem, which straightforwardly performs factorization on R. Then based on the interplay of the data in U, V, and R, a probabilistic graphical model using the same optimization objects is constructed, in which structural dependencies of the data in these matrices are revealed. Finally, we present a fitting algorithm to solve the proposed MAFED model, which produces the desired factorization. Empirical studies on real-world datasets demonstrate that our approach outperforms the state-of-the-art comparison algorithms.

  1. The gravitational S-matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B


    We investigate the hypothesized existence of an S-matrix for gravity, and some of its expected general properties. We first discuss basic questions regarding existence of such a matrix, including those of infrared divergences and description of asymptotic states. Distinct scattering behavior occurs in the Born, eikonal, and strong gravity regimes, and we describe aspects of both the partial wave and momentum space amplitudes, and their analytic properties, from these regimes. Classically the strong gravity region would be dominated by formation of black holes, and we assume its unitary quantum dynamics is described by corresponding resonances. Masslessness limits some powerful methods and results that apply to massive theories, though a continuation path implying crossing symmetry plausibly still exists. Physical properties of gravity suggest nonpolynomial amplitudes, although crossing and causality constrain (with modest assumptions) this nonpolynomial behavior, particularly requiring a polynomial bound in c...

  2. Octonions in random matrix theory (United States)

    Forrester, Peter J.


    The octonions are one of the four normed division algebras, together with the real, complex and quaternion number systems. The latter three hold a primary place in random matrix theory, where in applications to quantum physics they are determined as the entries of ensembles of Hermitian random matrices by symmetry considerations. Only for N=2 is there an existing analytic theory of Hermitian random matrices with octonion entries. We use a Jordan algebra viewpoint to provide an analytic theory for N=3. We then proceed to consider the matrix structure X†X, when X has random octonion entries. Analytic results are obtained from N=2, but are observed to break down in the 3×3 case.

  3. Baselining Network-Wide Traffic by Time-Frequency Constrained Stable Principal Component Pursuit


    Hu, Kai; Wang, Zhe; Yin, Baolin


    The Internet traffic analysis is important to network management,and extracting the baseline traffic patterns is especially helpful for some significant network applications.In this paper, we study on the baseline problem of the traffic matrix satisfying a refined traffic matrix decomposition model,since this model extends the assumption of the baseline traffic component to characterize its smoothness, and is more realistic than the existing traffic matrix models. We develop a novel baseline ...

  4. Random matrix improved subspace clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Couillet, Romain


    This article introduces a spectral method for statistical subspace clustering. The method is built upon standard kernel spectral clustering techniques, however carefully tuned by theoretical understanding arising from random matrix findings. We show in particular that our method provides high clustering performance while standard kernel choices provably fail. An application to user grouping based on vector channel observations in the context of massive MIMO wireless communication networks is provided.

  5. Random matrix theory within superstatistics


    Abul-Magd, A. Y.


    We propose a generalization of the random matrix theory following the basic prescription of the recently suggested concept of superstatistics. Spectral characteristics of systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics are expressed as weighted averages of the corresponding quantities in the standard theory assuming that the mean level spacing itself is a stochastic variable. We illustrate the method by calculating the level density, the nearest-neighbor-spacing distributions and the two-level co...

  6. Staggered chiral random matrix theory


    Osborn, James C.


    We present a random matrix theory (RMT) for the staggered lattice QCD Dirac operator. The staggered RMT is equivalent to the zero-momentum limit of the staggered chiral Lagrangian and includes all taste breaking terms at their leading order. This is an extension of previous work which only included some of the taste breaking terms. We will also present some results for the taste breaking contributions to the partition function and the Dirac eigenvalues.

  7. Octonions in random matrix theory


    Forrester, Peter J.


    The octonions are one of the four normed division algebras, together with the real, complex and quaternion number systems. The latter three hold a primary place in random matrix theory, where in applications to quantum physics they are determined as the entries of ensembles of Hermitian random by symmetry considerations. Only for $N=2$ is there an existing analytic theory of Hermitian random matrices with octonion entries. We use a Jordan algebra viewpoint to provide an analytic theory for $N...

  8. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis


    In this article we consider the distributions of non-negative random vectors with a joint rational Laplace transform, i.e., a fraction between two multi-dimensional polynomials. These distributions are in the univariate case known as matrix-exponential distributions, since their densities can be ...... for the multivariate normal distribution. However, the proof is different and involves theory for rational function based on continued fractions and Hankel determinants....

  9. Distributed-memory matrix computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Susanne Mølleskov


    The main goal of this project is to investigate, develop, and implement algorithms for numerical linear algebra on parallel computers in order to acquire expertise in methods for parallel computations. An important motivation for analyzaing and investigating the potential for parallelism in these......The main goal of this project is to investigate, develop, and implement algorithms for numerical linear algebra on parallel computers in order to acquire expertise in methods for parallel computations. An important motivation for analyzaing and investigating the potential for parallelism....... Several areas in the numerical linear algebra field are investigated and they illustrate the problems that arise as well as the techniques that are related to the use of massively parallel computers: 1.Study of Strassen's matrix-matrix multiplication on the Connection Machine model CM-200. What...... performance can we expect to achieve? Why? 2.Solving systems of linear equations using a Strassen-type matrix-inversion algorithm. A good way to solve systems of linear equations on massively parallel computers? 3.Aspects of computing the singular value decomposition on the Connec-tion Machine CM-5/CM-5E...

  10. MALDI Matrix Research for Biopolymers (United States)

    Fukuyama, Yuko


    Matrices are necessary materials for ionizing analytes in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The choice of a matrix appropriate for each analyte controls the analyses. Thus, in some cases, development or improvement of matrices can become a tool for solving problems. This paper reviews MALDI matrix research that the author has conducted in the recent decade. It describes glycopeptide, carbohydrate, or phosphopeptide analyses using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB), 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium (TMG) salts of p-coumaric acid (CA) (G3CA), 3-aminoquinoline (3-AQ)/α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) (3-AQ/CHCA) or 3-AQ/CA and gengeral peptide, peptide containing disulfide bonds or hydrophobic peptide analyses using butylamine salt of CHCA (CHCAB), 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (1,5-DAN), octyl 2,5-dihydroxybenzoate (alkylated dihydroxybenzoate, ADHB), or 1-(2,4,6-trihydroxyphenyl)octan-1-one (alkylated trihydroxyacetophenone, ATHAP). PMID:26819908

  11. Superstatistics in Random Matrix Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Abul-Magd


    Full Text Available Random matrix theory (RMT provides a successful model for quantum systems, whose classical counterpart has chaotic dynamics. It is based on two assumptions: (1 matrix-element independence, and (2 base invariance. The last decade witnessed several attempts to extend RMT to describe quantum systems with mixed regular-chaotic dynamics. Most of the proposed generalizations keep the first assumption and violate the second. Recently, several authors have presented other versions of the theory that keep base invariance at the expense of allowing correlations between matrix elements. This is achieved by starting from non-extensive entropies rather than the standard Shannon entropy, or by following the basic prescription of the recently suggested concept of superstatistics. The latter concept was introduced as a generalization of equilibrium thermodynamics to describe non-equilibrium systems by allowing the temperature to fluctuate. We here review the superstatistical generalizations of RMT and illustrate their value by calculating the nearest-neighbor-spacing distributions and comparing the results of calculation with experiments on billiards modeling systems in transition from order to chaos.

  12. LGMCA: Local-Generalized Morphological Component Analysis (United States)

    Bobin, Jerome


    LGMCA (Local-Generalized Morphological Component Analysis) is an extension to GMCA (ascl:1710.015). Similarly to GMCA, it is a Blind Source Separation method which enforces sparsity. The novel aspect of LGMCA, however, is that the mixing matrix changes across pixels allowing LGMCA to deal with emissions sources which vary spatially. These IDL scripts compute the CMB map from WMAP and Planck data; running LGMCA on the WMAP9 temperature products requires the main script and a selection of mandatory files, algorithm parameters and map parameters.

  13. Source / component separation with NMF and scarlet (United States)

    Melchior, Peter; Moolekamp, Fred; LSST Data Management, WFIRST Preparatory Science


    Astronomical data are often superpositions of multiple source signals. I will introduce the open-source analysis framework scarlet, based on the Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF), that achieves efficient source separation and enables flexible constraints or priors on the shape of the signals and/or the signal amplitude across multiple observations.I will demonstrate scarlet's capabilities of separating multi-component photo-z distributions, AGN jets from host galaxies, and more generally: crowded extragalactic fields in the HSC survey. I will also discuss extensions for joint pixel-level deblending with images from LSST and WFIRST, and for hyperspectral or grism data.

  14. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan


    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representi...... semantics, not only in text, but also in dynamic text (chat), images, and combinations of text and images. Here we further expand on the relevance of the ICA model for representing context, including two new analyzes of abstract data: social networks and musical features.......Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  15. Explosive Components Facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  16. Extracellular matrix changes in human corneas after radial keratotomy. (United States)

    Ljubimov, A V; Alba, S A; Burgeson, R E; Ninomiya, Y; Sado, Y; Sun, T T; Nesburn, A B; Kenney, M C; Maguen, E


    Extracellular matrix and basement membrane alterations were identified in human corneas after radial keratotomy. Ten normal and five radial keratotomy autopsy corneas (two at 6 months post surgery, and three at 3 years post surgery) were studied by immunofluorescence with antibodies to 28 extracellular matrix and basement membrane components. Outside of radial keratotomy scars, all studied components had a normal distribution. Of stromal extracellular matrix, only type III collagen accumulated around the scars. The basement membrane around epithelial plugs had a normal composition except for type IV collagen. Its alpha1-alpha2 chains, normally present only in the limbal basement membrane, appeared around all plugs. alpha3 and alpha4 chains were very weak or absent in these areas, contrary to nonscarred areas. This basement membrane pattern was similar to the normal limbal but not to the central corneal pattern. Keratin 3 also had a limbal-like, suprabasal expression in the plug epithelium. The stroma around the scars accumulated tenascin-C, fibrillin-1, types VIII and XIV collagen, all of which were absent from normal corneal basement membrane and extracellular matrix. Only tenascin-C showed less staining in anterior scars 3 years post surgery than 6 months post surgery, but still persisted in posterior scars. Incomplete scar healing was evident even 3 years post radial keratotomy. It was manifested by the accumulation of abnormal extracellular matrix in the anterior and posterior scars and by the limbal-like pattern of type IV collagen isoforms in the basement membrane around epithelial plugs. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  17. Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis


    de Leeuw, Jan


    Two quite different forms of nonlinear principal component analysis have been proposed in the literature. The first one is associated with the names of Guttman, Burt, Hayashi, Benzécri, McDonald, De Leeuw, Hill, Nishisato. We call it multiple correspondence analysis. The second form has been discussed by Kruskal, Shepard, Roskam, Takane, Young, De Leeuw, Winsberg, Ramsay. We call it nonmetric principal component analysis. The two forms have been related and combined, both geometricall...

  18. Metaloproteinázy mezibuněčné matrix v předním očním segmentu


    Paračková, Zuzana


    Matrix metalloproteinases belong to the group of proteases which in normal tissue are responsible for degradation a and remodeling of extracellular matrix components and their activity is regulated by endogenous inhibitors. However, many patological conditions of the anterior eye segment are characterized by increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases and conversely decreased activity of their tissue inhibitors.The imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors can lead ...

  19. Cysteine cathepsins and extracellular matrix degradation. (United States)

    Fonović, Marko; Turk, Boris


    Cysteine cathepsins are normally found in the lysosomes where they are involved in intracellular protein turnover. Their ability to degrade the components of the extracellular matrix in vitro was first reported more than 25years ago. However, cathepsins were for a long time not considered to be among the major players in ECM degradation in vivo. During the last decade it has, however, become evident that abundant secretion of cysteine cathepsins into extracellular milieu is accompanying numerous physiological and disease conditions, enabling the cathepsins to degrade extracellular proteins. In this review we will focus on cysteine cathepsins and their extracellular functions linked with ECM degradation, including regulation of their activity, which is often enhanced by acidification of the extracellular microenvironment, such as found in the bone resorption lacunae or tumor microenvironment. We will further discuss the ECM substrates of cathepsins with a focus on collagen and elastin, including the importance of that for pathologies. Finally, we will overview the current status of cathepsin inhibitors in clinical development for treatment of ECM-linked diseases, in particular osteoporosis. Cysteine cathepsins are among the major proteases involved in ECM remodeling, and their role is not limited to degradation only. Deregulation of their activity is linked with numerous ECM-linked diseases and they are now validated targets in a number of them. Cathepsins S and K are the most attractive targets, especially cathepsin K as a major therapeutic target for osteoporosis with drugs targeting it in advanced clinical trials. Due to their major role in ECM remodeling cysteine cathepsins have emerged as an important group of therapeutic targets for a number of ECM-related diseases, including, osteoporosis, cancer and cardiovascular diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. "On some definitions in matrix algebra"



    Many definitions in matrix algebra are not standardized. This notediscusses some of thepitfalls associated with undesirable orwrong definitions, anddealswith central conceptslikesymmetry, orthogonality, square root, Hermitian and quadratic forms, and matrix derivatives.

  1. Analytic matrix elements with shifted correlated Gaussians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, D. V.


    Matrix elements between shifted correlated Gaussians of various potentials with several form-factors are calculated analytically. Analytic matrix elements are of importance for the correlated Gaussian method in quantum few-body physics....

  2. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond


    Yoshiharu, KAWAMURA; Department of Physics, Shinshu University


    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a 'quantum' generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  3. Cubic Matrix, Nambu Mechanics and Beyond


    Kawamura, Y.


    We propose a generalization of cubic matrix mechanics by introducing a canonical triplet and study its relation to Nambu mechanics. The generalized cubic matrix mechanics we consider can be interpreted as a “quantum” generalization of Nambu mechanics.

  4. Analysis of Queues with Rational Arrival Process Components - A General Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bean, Nigel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    the matrix-geometric form for a certain kind of operators on the stationary measure for discrete time Markov chains of GI/M/1 type. We apply this result to an embedded chain with RAP components. We then discuss the straight- forward modification of the standard algorithms for calculating the matrix R...

  5. The Theory of Quaternion Matrix Derivatives


    Xu, Dongpo; Mandic, Danilo P.


    A systematic theory is introduced for calculating the derivatives of quaternion matrix function with respect to quaternion matrix variables. The proposed methodology is equipped with the matrix product rule and chain rule and it is able to handle both analytic and nonanalytic functions. This corrects a flaw in the existing methods, that is, the incorrect use of the traditional product rule. In the framework introduced, the derivatives of quaternion matrix functions can be calculated directly ...

  6. Efficient Robust Matrix Factorization with Nonconvex Penalties


    Yao, Quanming


    Robust matrix factorization (RMF) is a fundamental tool with lots of applications. The state-of-art is robust matrix factorization by majorization and minimization (RMF-MM) algorithm. It iteratively constructs and minimizes a novel surrogate function. Besides, it is also the only RMF algorithm with convergence guarantee. However, it can only deal with the convex $\\ell_1$-loss and does not utilize sparsity when matrix is sparsely observed. In this paper, we proposed robust matrix factorization...

  7. The matrix reorganized: extracellular matrix remodeling and integrin signaling. (United States)

    Larsen, Melinda; Artym, Vira V; Green, J Angelo; Yamada, Kenneth M


    Via integrins, cells can sense dimensionality and other physical and biochemical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cells respond differently to two-dimensional substrates and three-dimensional environments, activating distinct signaling pathways for each. Direct integrin signaling and indirect integrin modulation of growth factor and other intracellular signaling pathways regulate ECM remodeling and control subsequent cell behavior and tissue organization. ECM remodeling is critical for many developmental processes, and remodeled ECM contributes to tumorigenesis. These recent advances in the field provide new insights and raise new questions about the mechanisms of ECM synthesis and proteolytic degradation, as well as the roles of integrins and tension in ECM remodeling.

  8. Extracellular matrix of the bovine ovarian membrana granulosa. (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Irving Rodgers, H F


    Much is known about the control of the development of ovarian follicles by growth factors and hormones. The study of extracellular matrix in the ovary, though, is a relatively new area. To date much research has focused on identifying the matrix components present, and more recently, its production and the physiological roles. In this review we focus on the changes that occur in the follicular basal lamina from primordial follicles through to ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum, the changes that occur during follicular atresia, and we discuss our observations of a novel matrix which forms in the membrana granulosa. The follicular basal lamina changes considerably during follicular development in its expression pattern of type IV collagens. Of the laminin chains examined, there appears only to be an increase in amount, except for laminin alpha2. It is expressed only in a small proportion of healthy antral follicles and in the majority of atretic antral follicles. Call-Exner bodies have the same composition as the basal lamina, except they do not contain laminin alpha2, even when the follicular basal lamina does. The novel matrix that develops within the membrana granulosa is similar in composition to Call-Exner bodies which occur predominantly in preantral follicles, except that it is far more common in large antral follicles, does not induce polarization of the surrounding granulosa cells, and does not contain follicular fluid-like material as the Call-Exner bodies of some species do. The expression of this matrix occurs prior to and during the time when granulosa cells express steroidogenic enzymes. It does not exist in corpora lutea. In addition large luteal cells, derived from granulosa cells, do not appear to have a basal lamina. These findings suggest that the maturational changes in the membrana granulosa are accompanied by changes in the matrix.

  9. Matrix recruitment and calcium sequestration for spatial specific otoconia development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    Full Text Available Otoconia are bio-crystals anchored to the macular sensory epithelium of the utricle and saccule in the inner ear for motion sensing and bodily balance. Otoconia dislocation, degeneration and ectopic calcification can have detrimental effects on balance and vertigo/dizziness, yet the mechanism underlying otoconia formation is not fully understood. In this study, we show that selected matrix components are recruited to form the crystal matrix and sequester Ca(2+ for spatial specific formation of otoconia. Specifically, otoconin-90 (Oc90 binds otolin through both domains (TH and C1q of otolin, but full-length otolin shows the strongest interaction. These proteins have much higher expression levels in the utricle and saccule than other inner ear epithelial tissues in mice. In vivo, the presence of Oc90 in wildtype (wt mice leads to an enrichment of Ca(2+ in the luminal matrices of the utricle and saccule, whereas absence of Oc90 in the null mice leads to drastically reduced matrix-Ca(2+. In vitro, either Oc90 or otolin can increase the propensity of extracellular matrix to calcify in cell culture, and co-expression has a synergistic effect on calcification. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis predict structural features that may underlie the interaction and Ca(2+-sequestering ability of these proteins. Together, the data provide a mechanism for the otoconial matrix assembly and the role of this matrix in accumulating micro-environmental Ca(2+ for efficient CaCO(3 crystallization, thus uncover a critical process governing spatial specific otoconia formation.

  10. Modeling elastic and thermal properties of 2.5D carbon fiber and carbon/SiC hybrid matrix composites by homogenization method


    Luiz Claudio Pardini; Maria Luisa Gregori


    Abstract: Advanced carbon fiber hybrid carbon-ceramic matrix composites are realizing their potential in many thermostructural components for aerospace vehicles. This work presents ab-initio predictions of elastic constants and thermal properties for 2.5D carbon fiber reinforced carbon-silicon carbide hybrid matrix composites, by using the homogenization technique. The homogenization technique takes properties of individual components of the composites (fiber and matrix) and characteristics o...

  11. The extracellular matrix: Structure, composition, age-related differences, tools for analysis and applications for tissue engineering. (United States)

    Kular, Jaspreet K; Basu, Shouvik; Sharma, Ram I


    The extracellular matrix is a structural support network made up of diverse proteins, sugars and other components. It influences a wide number of cellular processes including migration, wound healing and differentiation, all of which is of particular interest to researchers in the field of tissue engineering. Understanding the composition and structure of the extracellular matrix will aid in exploring the ways the extracellular matrix can be utilised in tissue engineering applications especially as a scaffold. This review summarises the current knowledge of the composition, structure and functions of the extracellular matrix and introduces the effect of ageing on extracellular matrix remodelling and its contribution to cellular functions. Additionally, the current analytical technologies to study the extracellular matrix and extracellular matrix-related cellular processes are also reviewed.

  12. Matrix algebra for higher order moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Erik


    A large part of statistics is devoted to the estimation of models from the sample covariance matrix. The development of the statistical theory and estimators has been greatly facilitated by the introduction of special matrices, such as the commutation matrix and the duplication matrix, and the

  13. Collagen type V enhances matrix contraction by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts seeded in three-dimensional collagen gels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.D.; Bronckers, A.L.; Smit, T.H.; Walboomers, X.F.; Everts, V.


    Extracellular matrix components play an important role in modulating cellular activity. To study such capacities of the matrix, fibroblasts are frequently cultured in a three-dimensional gel and contraction is assessed as a measure of cellular activity. Since a connective tissue contains several

  14. Facilitative and competitive interaction components among New England salt marsh plants. (United States)

    Bruno, John F; Rand, Tatyana A; Emery, Nancy C; Bertness, Mark D


    Intra- and interspecific interactions can be broken down into facilitative and competitive components. The net interaction between two organisms is simply the sum of these counteracting elements. Disentangling the positive and negative components of species interactions is a critical step in advancing our understanding of how the interaction between organisms shift along physical and biotic gradients. We performed a manipulative field experiment to quantify the positive and negative components of the interactions between a perennial forb, Aster tenuifolius, and three dominant, matrix-forming grasses and rushes in a New England salt marsh. Specifically, we asked whether positive and negative interaction components: (1) are unique or redundant across three matrix-forming species (two grasses; Distichlis spicata and Spartina patens, and one rush; Juncus gerardi), and (2) change across Aster life stages (seedling, juvenile, and adult). For adult Aster the strength of the facilitative component of the matrix-forb interaction was stronger than the competitive component for two of the three matrix species, leading to net positive interactions. There was no statistically significant variation among matrix species in their net or component effects. We found little difference in the effects of J. gerardi on Aster at later life-history stages; interaction component strengths did not differ between juveniles and adults. However, mortality of seedlings in neighbor removal plots was 100%, indicating a particularly strong and critical facilitative effect of matrix species on this forb during the earliest life stages. Overall, our results indicate that matrix forming grasses and rushes have important, yet largely redundant, positive net effects on Aster performance across its life cycle. Studies that untangle various components of interactions and their contingencies are critical to both expanding our basic understanding of community organization, and predicting how natural

  15. Scientific Component Technology Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S; Bosl, B; Dahlgren, T; Kumfert, G; Smith, S


    The laboratory has invested a significant amount of resources towards the development of high-performance scientific simulation software, including numerical libraries, visualization, steering, software frameworks, and physics packages. Unfortunately, because this software was not designed for interoperability and re-use, it is often difficult to share these sophisticated software packages among applications due to differences in implementation language, programming style, or calling interfaces. This LDRD Strategic Initiative investigated and developed software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address problems of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology is an extension of scripting and object-oriented software development techniques that specifically focuses on the needs of software interoperability. Component approaches based on CORBA, COM, and Java technologies are widely used in industry; however, they do not support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. Our research focused on the unique requirements of scientific computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections among components, language interoperability for scientific languages, and data distribution support for massively parallel SPMD components.

  16. Heparinization of a biomimetic bone matrix: integration of heparin during matrix synthesis versus adsorptive post surface modification. (United States)

    König, Ulla; Lode, Anja; Welzel, Petra B; Ueda, Yuichiro; Knaack, Sven; Henß, Anja; Hauswald, Anke; Gelinsky, Michael


    This study intended to evaluate a contemporary concept of scaffolding in bone tissue engineering in order to mimic functions of the extracellular matrix. The investigated approach considered the effect of the glycosaminoglycan heparin on structural and biological properties of a synthetic biomimetic bone graft material consisting of mineralized collagen. Two strategies for heparin functionalization were explored in order to receive a three-component bone substitute material. Heparin was either incorporated during matrix synthesis by mixing with collagen prior to simultaneous fibril reassembly and mineralization (in situ) or added to the matrix after fabrication (a posteriori). Both methods resulted in an incorporation of comparable amounts of heparin, though its distribution in the matrix varied as indicated by TOF-SIMS analyses, and a similar modulation of their protein binding properties. Differential scanning calorimetry revealed that the thermal stability and thereby the degree of crosslinking of the heparinized matrices was increased. However, in contrast to the a posteriori modification, the in situ integration of heparin led to considerable changes of morphology and composition of the matrix: a more open network of collagen fibers yielding a more porous surface and a reduced mineral content were observed. Cell culture experiments with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) revealed a strong influence of the mode of heparin functionalization on cellular processes, as demonstrated for proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSC. Our results indicate that not only heparin per se but also the way of its incorporation into a collagenous matrix determines the cell response. In conclusion, the a posteriori modification was beneficial to support adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of hMSC.

  17. Minimal solution for inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations


    Nikuie, M.; M.K. Mirnia


    The fuzzy matrix equations $Ailde{X}=ilde{Y}$ is called a singular fuzzy matrix equations while the coefficients matrix of its equivalent crisp matrix equations be a singular matrix. The singular fuzzy matrix equations are divided into two parts: consistent singular matrix equations and inconsistent fuzzy matrix equations. In this paper, the inconsistent singular fuzzy matrix equations is studied and the effect of generalized inverses in finding minimal solution of an inconsistent singular fu...

  18. Non-negative matrix factorization in texture feature for classification of dementia with MRI data (United States)

    Sarwinda, D.; Bustamam, A.; Ardaneswari, G.


    This paper investigates applications of non-negative matrix factorization as feature selection method to select the features from gray level co-occurrence matrix. The proposed approach is used to classify dementia using MRI data. In this study, texture analysis using gray level co-occurrence matrix is done to feature extraction. In the feature extraction process of MRI data, we found seven features from gray level co-occurrence matrix. Non-negative matrix factorization selected three features that influence of all features produced by feature extractions. A Naïve Bayes classifier is adapted to classify dementia, i.e. Alzheimer's disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and normal control. The experimental results show that non-negative factorization as feature selection method able to achieve an accuracy of 96.4% for classification of Alzheimer's and normal control. The proposed method also compared with other features selection methods i.e. Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

  19. Biological Matrix Effects in Quantitative Tandem Mass Spectrometry-Based Analytical Methods: Advancing Biomonitoring (United States)

    Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E.; D’Souza, Priya E.; Chen, Xianyu; Radford, Samantha A.; Cohen, Jordan R.; Marder, M. Elizabeth; Kartavenka, Kostya; Ryan, P. Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd


    The ability to quantify levels of target analytes in biological samples accurately and precisely, in biomonitoring, involves the use of highly sensitive and selective instrumentation such as tandem mass spectrometers and a thorough understanding of highly variable matrix effects. Typically, matrix effects are caused by co-eluting matrix components that alter the ionization of target analytes as well as the chromatographic response of target analytes, leading to reduced or increased sensitivity of the analysis. Thus, before the desired accuracy and precision standards of laboratory data are achieved, these effects must be characterized and controlled. Here we present our review and observations of matrix effects encountered during the validation and implementation of tandem mass spectrometry-based analytical methods. We also provide systematic, comprehensive laboratory strategies needed to control challenges posed by matrix effects in order to ensure delivery of the most accurate data for biomonitoring studies assessing exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:25562585

  20. The Effect of Fiber Architecture on Matrix Cracking in Sic/sic Cmc's (United States)

    Morscher, Gregory N.


    Applications incorporating silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composites (CMC's) will require a wide range of fiber architectures in order to fabricate complex shape. The stress-strain response of a given SiC/SiC system for different architectures and orientations will be required in order to design and effectively life-model future components. The mechanism for non-linear stress-strain behavior in CMC's is the formation and propagation of bridged-matrix cracks throughout the composite. A considerable amount of understanding has been achieved for the stress-dependent matrix cracking behavior of SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix systems containing melt-infiltrated Si. This presentation will outline the effect of 2D and 3D architectures and orientation on stress-dependent matrix-cracking and how this information can be used to model material behavior and serve as the starting point foe mechanistic-based life-models.

  1. Protective effects of the pericellular matrix of chondrocyte on articular cartilage against the development of osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Liu, Chenlu; Wang, Beiyu; Xiao, Li; Li, Yefu; Xu, Lin; Zhao, Zhihe; Zhang, Lin


    Understanding the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) provides invaluable information in the search of therapeutic targets for the development of disease-modifying OA drugs. Emerging results from investigations demonstrate that the pericellular matrix of chondrocytes plays important roles in protecting articular cartilages from being degraded. Thus, maintaining the structural integrity of the pericellular matrix may be an effective approach to prevent the development of osteoarthritic joints. In this review article, we discuss the consequences of lacking one or more components of the pericellular matrix, and biological effects of the destruction of the pericellular matrix in the development of OA. We believe that more attention should be directed towards the pericellular matrix for the identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for the prevention and treatment of OA.

  2. ASTM and VAMAS activities in titanium matrix composites test methods development (United States)

    Johnson, W. S.; Harmon, D. M.; Bartolotta, P. A.; Russ, S. M.


    Titanium matrix composites (TMC's) are being considered for a number of aerospace applications ranging from high performance engine components to airframe structures in areas that require high stiffness to weight ratios at temperatures up to 400 C. TMC's exhibit unique mechanical behavior due to fiber-matrix interface failures, matrix cracks bridged by fibers, thermo-viscoplastic behavior of the matrix at elevated temperatures, and the development of significant thermal residual stresses in the composite due to fabrication. Standard testing methodology must be developed to reflect the uniqueness of this type of material systems. The purpose of this paper is to review the current activities in ASTM and Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS) that are directed toward the development of standard test methodology for titanium matrix composites.

  3. Integrative systems and synthetic biology of cell-matrix adhesion sites. (United States)

    Zamir, Eli


    The complexity of cell-matrix adhesion convolves its roles in the development and functioning of multicellular organisms and their evolutionary tinkering. Cell-matrix adhesion is mediated by sites along the plasma membrane that anchor the actin cytoskeleton to the matrix via a large number of proteins, collectively called the integrin adhesome. Fundamental challenges for understanding how cell-matrix adhesion sites assemble and function arise from their multi-functionality, rapid dynamics, large number of components and molecular diversity. Systems biology faces these challenges in its strive to understand how the integrin adhesome gives rise to functional adhesion sites. Synthetic biology enables engineering intracellular modules and circuits with properties of interest. In this review I discuss some of the fundamental questions in systems biology of cell-matrix adhesion and how synthetic biology can help addressing them.

  4. The COMPADRE Plant Matrix Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salguero-Gomez, Roberto; Jones, Owen; Archer, C. Ruth


    biological interpretations, facilitating comparisons among populations and species. 3. Thousands of plant matrix population models have been parameterized from empirical data, but they are largely dispersed through peer reviewed and grey literature, and thus remain inaccessible for synthetic analysis. Here...... information (e.g. ecoregion, growth form, taxonomy, phylogeny, etc.) that facilitates interpretation of the numerous demographic metrics that can be derived from the matrices. 4. Synthesis: Large collections of datasets allow broad questions to be addressed at the global scale, e.g. in genetics (Gen...

  5. An integrated magnetics component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an integrated magnetics component comprising a magnetically permeable core comprising a base member extending in a horizontal plane and first, second, third and fourth legs protruding substantially perpendicularly from the base member. First, second, third...... and fourth output inductor windings are wound around the first, second, third and fourth legs, respectively. A first input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a first conductor axis and extends in-between the first, second, third and fourth legs to induce a first magnetic flux through a first...... flux path of the magnetically permeable core. A second input conductor of the integrated magnetics component has a second coil axis extending substantially perpendicularly to the first conductor axis to induce a second magnetic flux through a second flux path of the magnetically permeable core...

  6. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Ibbetson, James; Morgan, Frederick; Dowling, Kevin; Lys, Ihor


    An LED component according to the present invention comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The array can comprise LED chips emitting at two colors of light wherein the LED component emits light comprising the combination of the two colors of light. A single lens is included over the array of LED chips. The LED chip array can emit light of greater than 800 lumens with a drive current of less than 150 milli-Amps. The LED chip component can also operate at temperatures less than 3000 degrees K. In one embodiment, the LED array is in a substantially circular pattern on the submount.

  7. Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Ling


    -documented that unsupervised learning discovers statistical regularities. However human cognition is too complicated and not yet fully understood. Nevertheless, in our approach we represent human cognitive processes as a classification rule in supervised learning. Thus we have devised a testable protocol to test......This dissertation concerns the investigation of the consistency of statistical regularities in a signaling ecology and human cognition, while inferring appropriate actions for a speech-based perceptual task. It is based on unsupervised Independent Component Analysis providing a rich spectrum...... of audio contexts along with pattern recognition methods to map components to known contexts. It also involves looking for the right representations for auditory inputs, i.e. the data analytic processing pipelines invoked by human brains. The main ideas refer to Cognitive Component Analysis, defined...



    A.Sreenivasulu *, A.Naresh Kumar, D.Archana Vyjayanthi


    The controlling and transforming methodd of electrical energy are the most important process in the field of electrical engineering.. The increased complexity of their control and usage of more number of elements led to work with of new type of converter called Matrix Converter which is very simple and compact. The Matrix Converter is an ac–ac power converter topology, mainly based on semiconductor switches with minimal requirements for passive components. In this paper the performanc...

  9. Extracellular Matrix in Plants and Animals: Hooks and Locks for Viruses


    Stavolone, Livia; Lionetti, Vincenzo


    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of animal and plants cells plays important roles in viral diseases. While in animal cells extracellular matrix components can be exploited by viruses for recognition, attachment and entry, the plant cell wall acts as a physical barrier to viral entry and adds a higher level of difficulty to intercellular movement of viruses. Interestingly, both in plant and animal systems, ECM can be strongly remodeled during virus infection, and the understanding of remodeling ...

  10. Visualizing the dental biofilm matrix by means of fluorescence lectin-binding analysis


    Tawakoli, Pune N.; Neu, Thomas R.; Busck, Mette M.; Kuhlicke, Ute; Schramm, Andreas; Attin, Thomas; Wiedemeier, Daniel B.; Schlafer, Sebastian


    ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix is a poorly studied, yet important component of dental biofilms. Fluorescence lectin-binding analysis (FLBA) is a powerful tool to characterize glycoconjugates in the biofilm matrix. This study aimed to systematically investigate the ability of 75 fluorescently labeled lectins to visualize and quantify extracellular glycoconjugates in dental biofilms. Lectin binding was screened on pooled supragingival biofilm samples collected from 76 subjects using confocal...

  11. Modulus design multiwavelength polarization microscope for transmission Mueller matrix imaging. (United States)

    Zhou, Jialing; He, Honghui; Chen, Zhenhua; Wang, Ye; Ma, Hui


    We have developed a polarization microscope based on a commercial transmission microscope. We replace the halogen light source by a collimated LED light source module of six different colors. We use achromatic polarized optical elements that can cover the six different wavelength ranges in the polarization state generator (PSG) and polarization state analyzer (PSA) modules. The dual-rotating wave plate method is used to measure the Mueller matrix of samples, which requires the simultaneous rotation of the two quarter-wave plates in both PSG and PSA at certain angular steps. A scientific CCD detector is used as the image receiving module. A LabView-based software is developed to control the rotation angels of the wave plates and the exposure time of the detector to allow the system to run fully automatically in preprogrammed schedules. Standard samples, such as air, polarizers, and quarter-wave plates, are used to calibrate the intrinsic Mueller matrix of optical components, such as the objectives, using the eigenvalue calibration method. Errors due to the images walk-off in the PSA are studied. Errors in the Mueller matrices are below 0.01 using air and polarizer as standard samples. Data analysis based on Mueller matrix transformation and Mueller matrix polarization decomposition is used to demonstrate the potential application of this microscope in pathological diagnosis. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  12. Linear algebra and matrix analysis for statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Sudipto


    Matrices, Vectors, and Their OperationsBasic definitions and notations Matrix addition and scalar-matrix multiplication Matrix multiplication Partitioned matricesThe ""trace"" of a square matrix Some special matricesSystems of Linear EquationsIntroduction Gaussian elimination Gauss-Jordan elimination Elementary matrices Homogeneous linear systems The inverse of a matrixMore on Linear EquationsThe LU decompositionCrout's Algorithm LU decomposition with row interchanges The LDU and Cholesky factorizations Inverse of partitioned matrices The LDU decomposition for partitioned matricesThe Sherman-W

  13. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole


    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...... about the sequences (e.g. a sequence logo profile) along the edges of the plot, as well as zoom in on any region in the plot. Availability : MatrixPlot can be obtained on request, and can also be accessed online at http://www. Contact :

  14. Component Reengineering Workshops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Christensen, Henrik Bærbak


    In mature domains, a number of competing product lines may emerge, and from the point of view of customers of such product lines, reengineering and reuse of assets across product lines from different vendors becomes important. To address this issue we present a low-cost approach, component...... reengineering workshops, for assessing reengineering costs of reusing components between different product lines. The approach works on the level of software architectures, and relies critically on input from various (technical) stakeholders. It has been validated through case studies that are also presented...

  15. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H


    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  16. Adaptable component frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Simonsen, Bo


    provide at least one realization for each container that has the specified characteristics with respect to performance and safety. In the CPH STL project, our goal is to provide several alternative realizations for each STL container. For example, for associative containers we can provide almost any kind...... of balanced search tree. Also, we do provide safe and compact versions of each container. To ease the maintenance of this large collection of implementations, we have developed component frameworks for the STL containers. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a component framework...

  17. Economical Fabrication of Thick-Section Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Babcock, Jason; Ramachandran, Gautham; Williams, Brian; Benander, Robert


    A method was developed for producing thick-section [>2 in. (approx.5 cm)], continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). Ultramet-modified fiber interface coating and melt infiltration processing, developed previously for thin-section components, were used for the fabrication of CMCs that were an order of magnitude greater in thickness [up to 2.5 in. (approx.6.4 cm)]. Melt processing first involves infiltration of a fiber preform with the desired interface coating, and then with carbon to partially densify the preform. A molten refractory metal is then infiltrated and reacts with the excess carbon to form the carbide matrix without damaging the fiber reinforcement. Infiltration occurs from the inside out as the molten metal fills virtually all the available void space. Densification to fabrication, and testing in two complementary efforts. In a project for the Army, involving SiC/SiC blisk development, nominally 0.8 in. thick x 8 in. diameter (approx. 2 cm thick x 20 cm diameter) components were successfully infiltrated. Blisk hubs were machined using diamond-embedded cutting tools and successfully spin-tested. Good ply uniformity and extremely low residual porosity (matrix composites fabricated via CVI or PIP. The pyrolytic carbon/zirconium nitride interface coating optimized in this work for use on carbon fibers was incorporated in the SiC/SiC composites and yielded a >41 ksi (approx. 283 MPa) flexural strength.

  18. Human hematopoietic stem cell adherence to cytokines and matrix molecules. (United States)

    Long, M W; Briddell, R; Walter, A W; Bruno, E; Hoffman, R


    The hematopoietic microenvironment is a complex structure in which stem cells, progenitor cells, stromal cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules each interact to direct the coordinate regulation of blood cell development. While much is known concerning the individual components of this microenvironment, little is understood of the interactions among these various components or, in particular, the nature of those interactions responsible for the regional localization of specific developmental signals. We hypothesized that cytokines act together with ECM molecules to anchor stem cells within the microenvironment, thus modulating their function. In order to analyze matrix-cytokine-stem cell interactions, we developed an ECM model system in which purified stem cell populations and plastic-immobilized individual proteins are used to assess the role of various matrix molecules and/or cytokines in human hematopoietic cell development. Analysis of these interactions revealed that a single ECM protein, thrombospondin, in conjunction with a single cytokine (e.g., c-kit ligand), constitutes a developmental signal that synergistically modulates hematopoietic stem cell function.

  19. Matrix stiffening promotes a tumor vasculature phenotype. (United States)

    Bordeleau, Francois; Mason, Brooke N; Lollis, Emmanuel Macklin; Mazzola, Michael; Zanotelli, Matthew R; Somasegar, Sahana; Califano, Joseph P; Montague, Christine; LaValley, Danielle J; Huynh, John; Mencia-Trinchant, Nuria; Negrón Abril, Yashira L; Hassane, Duane C; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Butcher, Jonathan T; Weiss, Robert S; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A


    Tumor microvasculature tends to be malformed, more permeable, and more tortuous than vessels in healthy tissue, effects that have been largely attributed to up-regulated VEGF expression. However, tumor tissue tends to stiffen during solid tumor progression, and tissue stiffness is known to alter cell behaviors including proliferation, migration, and cell-cell adhesion, which are all requisite for angiogenesis. Using in vitro, in vivo, and ex ovo models, we investigated the effects of matrix stiffness on vessel growth and integrity during angiogenesis. Our data indicate that angiogenic outgrowth, invasion, and neovessel branching increase with matrix cross-linking. These effects are caused by increased matrix stiffness independent of matrix density, because increased matrix density results in decreased angiogenesis. Notably, matrix stiffness up-regulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, and inhibiting MMPs significantly reduces angiogenic outgrowth in stiffer cross-linked gels. To investigate the functional significance of altered endothelial cell behavior in response to matrix stiffness, we measured endothelial cell barrier function on substrates mimicking the stiffness of healthy and tumor tissue. Our data indicate that barrier function is impaired and the localization of vascular endothelial cadherin is altered as function of matrix stiffness. These results demonstrate that matrix stiffness, separately from matrix density, can alter vascular growth and integrity, mimicking the changes that exist in tumor vasculature. These data suggest that therapeutically targeting tumor stiffness or the endothelial cell response to tumor stiffening may help restore vessel structure, minimize metastasis, and aid in drug delivery.

  20. Blind estimation of channel parameters and source components for EEG signals: a sparse factorization approach. (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Cichocki, Andrzej; Amari, Shun-Ichi


    In this paper, we use a two-stage sparse factorization approach for blindly estimating the channel parameters and then estimating source components for electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. EEG signals are assumed to be linear mixtures of source components, artifacts, etc. Therefore, a raw EEG data matrix can be factored into the product of two matrices, one of which represents the mixing matrix and the other the source component matrix. Furthermore, the components are sparse in the time-frequency domain, i.e., the factorization is a sparse factorization in the time frequency domain. It is a challenging task to estimate the mixing matrix. Our extensive analysis and computational results, which were based on many sets of EEG data, not only provide firm evidences supporting the above assumption, but also prompt us to propose a new algorithm for estimating the mixing matrix. After the mixing matrix is estimated, the source components are estimated in the time frequency domain using a linear programming method. In an example of the potential applications of our approach, we analyzed the EEG data that was obtained from a modified Sternberg memory experiment. Two almost uncorrelated components obtained by applying the sparse factorization method were selected for phase synchronization analysis. Several interesting findings were obtained, especially that memory-related synchronization and desynchronization appear in the alpha band, and that the strength of alpha band synchronization is related to memory performance.

  1. Mueller matrix roots algorithm and computational considerations. (United States)

    Noble, H D; Chipman, R A


    Recently, an order-independent Mueller matrix decomposition was proposed in an effort to elucidate the nine depolarization degrees of freedom [Handbook of Optics, Vol. 1 of Mueller Matrices (2009)]. This paper addresses the critical computational issues involved in applying this Mueller matrix roots decomposition, along with a review of the principal matrix root and common methods for its calculation. The calculation of the pth matrix root is optimized around p = 10(5) for a 53 digit binary double precision calculation. A matrix roots algorithm is provided which incorporates these computational results. It is applied to a statistically significant number of randomly generated physical Mueller matrices in order to gain insight on the typical ranges of the depolarizing Matrix roots parameters. Computational techniques are proposed which allow singular Mueller matrices and Mueller matrices with a half-wave of retardance to be evaluated with the matrix roots decomposition.

  2. Metal Matrix Composite LOX Turbopump Housing via Novel Tool-less Net-Shape Pressure Infiltration Casting Technology (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep; Lee, Jonathan; Bhat, Biliyar; Wells, Doug; Gregg, Wayne; Marsh, Matthew; Genge, Gary; Forbes, John; Salvi, Alex; Cornie, James A.


    Metal matrix composites for propulsion components offer high performance and affordability, resulting in low weight and cost. The following sections in this viewgraph presentation describe the pressure infiltration casting of a metal matrix composite LOX turbopump housing: 1) Baseline Pump Design and Stress Analysis; 2) Tool-less Advanced Pressure Infiltration Casting Process; 3) Preform Splicing and Joining for Large Components such as Pump Housing; 4) Fullscale Pump Housing Redesign.

  3. Diffraction efficiency behavior of photopolymer based on P(MMA-co-MAA) copolymer matrix (United States)

    Kim, Won Sun; Jeong, Yong-Cheol; Park, Jung-Ki; Shin, Chang-Won; Nam-Kim


    New acrylamide-based photopolymers with poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) as a polymer matrix were prepared and their optical properties including diffraction efficiency and optical transparency were investigated. As the content of methacrylic acid unit was increased, the phase stability of photopolymer was enhanced, while the diffraction efficiency decreased. The enhancement in phase stability is explained in terms of miscibility enhancement between the polymer matrix and photopolymerizable components, and the decrease in diffraction efficiency is mainly attributed to the inhibition of diffusion of acryl amide probably due to the hydrogen bonding induced between polymer matrix and acrylamide with the increase of the acid content.

  4. Interpolation of rational matrix functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Joseph A; Rodman, Leiba


    This book aims to present the theory of interpolation for rational matrix functions as a recently matured independent mathematical subject with its own problems, methods and applications. The authors decided to start working on this book during the regional CBMS conference in Lincoln, Nebraska organized by F. Gilfeather and D. Larson. The principal lecturer, J. William Helton, presented ten lectures on operator and systems theory and the interplay between them. The conference was very stimulating and helped us to decide that the time was ripe for a book on interpolation for matrix valued functions (both rational and non-rational). When the work started and the first partial draft of the book was ready it became clear that the topic is vast and that the rational case by itself with its applications is already enough material for an interesting book. In the process of writing the book, methods for the rational case were developed and refined. As a result we are now able to present the rational case as an indepe...

  5. Characterization of Metal Matrix Composites (United States)

    Daniel, I. M.; Chun, H. J.; Karalekas, D.


    Experimental methods were developed, adapted, and applied to the characterization of a metal matrix composite system, namely, silicon carbide/aluminim (SCS-2/6061 Al), and its constituents. The silicon carbide fiber was characterized by determining its modulus, strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion. The aluminum matrix was characterized thermomechanically up to 399 C (750 F) at two strain rates. The unidirectional SiC/Al composite was characterized mechanically under longitudinal, transverse, and in-plane shear loading up to 399 C (750 F). Isothermal and non-isothermal creep behavior was also measured. The applicability of a proposed set of multifactor thermoviscoplastic nonlinear constitutive relations and a computer code was investigated. Agreement between predictions and experimental results was shown in a few cases. The elastoplastic thermomechanical behavior of the composite was also described by a number of new analytical models developed or adapted for the material system studied. These models include the rule of mixtures, composite cylinder model with various thermoelastoplastic analyses and a model based on average field theory. In most cases satisfactory agreement was demonstrated between analytical predictions and experimental results for the cases of stress-strain behavior and thermal deformation behavior at different temperatures. In addition, some models yielded detailed three-dimensional stress distributions in the constituents within the composite.

  6. Autonomous component carrier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Luis Guilherme Uzeda; Pedersen, Klaus; Mogensen, Preben


    in local areas, basing our study case on LTE-Advanced. We present extensive network simulation results to demonstrate that a simple and robust interference management scheme, called autonomous component carrier selection allows each cell to select the most attractive frequency configuration; improving...

  7. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  8. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya


    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  9. Component-oriented programming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, J; Szyperski, C; Weck, W; Buschmann, F; Buchmann, AP; Cilia, MA


    This report covers the eighth Workshop on Component-Oriented Programming (WCOP). WCOP has been affiliated with ECOOP since its inception in 1996. The report summarizes the contributions made by authors of accepted position papers as well as those made by all attendees of the workshop sessions.

  10. An Ensemble Algorithm Based Component for Geomagnetic Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Sun and Weijia Kuang


    Full Text Available Geomagnetic data assimilation is one of the most recent developments in geomagnetic studies. It combines geodynamo model outputs and surface geomagnetic observations to provide more accurate estimates of the core dynamic state and provide accurate geomagnetic secular variation forecasting. To facilitate geomagnetic data assimilation studies, we develop a stand-alone data assimilation component for the geomagnetic community. This component is used to calculate the forecast error covariance matrices and the gain matrix from a given geodynamo solution, which can then be used for sequential geomagnetic data assimilation. This component is very flexible and can be executed independently. It can also be easily integrated with arbitrary dynamo models.

  11. Automatic Generation of Partitioned Matrix Expressions for Matrix Operations (United States)

    Fabregat-Traver, Diego; Bientinesi, Paolo


    We target the automatic generation of formally correct algorithms and routines for linear algebra operations. Given the broad variety of architectures and configurations with which scientists deal, there does not exist one algorithmic variant that is suitable for all scenarios. Therefore, we aim to generate a family of algorithmic variants to attain high-performance for a broad set of scenarios. One of the authors has previously demonstrated that automatic derivation of a family of algorithms is possible when the Partitioned Matrix Expression (PME) of the target operation is available. The PME is a recursive definition that states the relations between submatrices in the input and the output operands. In this paper we describe all the steps involved in the automatic derivation of PMEs, thus making progress towards a fully automated system.

  12. Metal-Matrix/Hollow-Ceramic-Sphere Composites (United States)

    Baker, Dean M.


    A family of metal/ceramic composite materials has been developed that are relatively inexpensive, lightweight alternatives to structural materials that are typified by beryllium, aluminum, and graphite/epoxy composites. These metal/ceramic composites were originally intended to replace beryllium (which is toxic and expensive) as a structural material for lightweight mirrors for aerospace applications. These materials also have potential utility in automotive and many other terrestrial applications in which there are requirements for lightweight materials that have high strengths and other tailorable properties as described below. The ceramic component of a material in this family consists of hollow ceramic spheres that have been formulated to be lightweight (0.5 g/cm3) and have high crush strength [40.80 ksi (.276.552 MPa)]. The hollow spheres are coated with a metal to enhance a specific performance . such as shielding against radiation (cosmic rays or x rays) or against electromagnetic interference at radio and lower frequencies, or a material to reduce the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the final composite material, and/or materials to mitigate any mismatch between the spheres and the matrix metal. Because of the high crush strength of the spheres, the initial composite workpiece can be forged or extruded into a high-strength part. The total time taken in processing from the raw ingredients to a finished part is typically 10 to 14 days depending on machining required.

  13. Two new constraints for the cumulant matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Cordoba, Eloy; Salvador, Pedro; Matito, Eduard [Institut de Química Computacional i Catàlisi (IQCC) and Department de Química, Universitat de Girona, Campus de Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain); Piris, Mario [Kimika Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea UPV/EHU, and Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC). P.K. 1072, 20080 Donostia, Euskadi (Spain)


    We suggest new strict constraints that the two-particle cumulant matrix should fulfill. The constraints are obtained from the decomposition of 〈S-^{sup 2}〉, previously developed in our laboratory, and the vanishing number of electrons shared by two non-interacting fragments. The conditions impose stringent constraints into the cumulant structure without any need to perform an orbital optimization procedure thus carrying very small or no computational effort. These constraints are tested on the series of Piris natural orbital functionals (PNOF), which are among the most accurate ones available in the literature. Interestingly, even though all PNOF cumulants ensure correct overall 〈S{sup ^2}〉 values, none of them is consistent with the local spin structure of systems that dissociate more than one pair of electrons. A careful analysis of the local spin components reveals the most important missing contributions in the cumulant expression thus suggesting a means to improve PNOF5. The constraints provide an inexpensive tool for the construction and testing of cumulant structures that complement previously known conditions such as the N-representability or the square of the total spin angular momentum, 〈S{sup ^2}〉.

  14. Defining the extracellular matrix using proteomics (United States)

    Byron, Adam; Humphries, Jonathan D; Humphries, Martin J


    The cell microenvironment has a profound influence on the behaviour, growth and survival of cells. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides not only mechanical and structural support to cells and tissues but also binds soluble ligands and transmembrane receptors to provide spatial coordination of signalling processes. The ability of cells to sense the chemical, mechanical and topographical features of the ECM enables them to integrate complex, multiparametric information into a coherent response to the surrounding microenvironment. Consequently, dysregulation or mutation of ECM components results in a broad range of pathological conditions. Characterization of the composition of ECM derived from various cells has begun to reveal insights into ECM structure and function, and mechanisms of disease. Proteomic methodologies permit the global analysis of subcellular systems, but extracellular and transmembrane proteins present analytical difficulties to proteomic strategies owing to the particular biochemical properties of these molecules. Here, we review advances in proteomic approaches that have been applied to furthering our understanding of the ECM microenvironment. We survey recent studies that have addressed challenges in the analysis of ECM and discuss major outcomes in the context of health and disease. In addition, we summarize efforts to progress towards a systems-level understanding of ECM biology. PMID:23419153

  15. Financial Accounting Constitution or its Referential Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga


    Full Text Available Using a simplified approach it may be stated that the financial accounting theoretical framework is structured on three levels. At the first level, reference is made to the accounting objectives. These objectives are fundamental for the theoretical framework. At the second level, we find the accounting information characteristics and explicit mentions about the headings of financial statements. The mentioned characteristics of accounting information represent the basic issues for ensuring its utility. The headings represent the main categories of elements disclosed in the financial statements, like assets and liabilities – these two elements’ definitions brought radical changes both in the accounting thinking and practices. Overall, the second level’s components represent the basis for building the practice directives as a matter of recognition (identification and measurement (evaluation. Inside the third level, the recognition and measurement directives are being detailed, which will be further used by the accounting specialist in order to identify and apply the accounting standards. These two directives enclose postulates, principles and restrictions. Such specifications prove to be useful whenever precise answers must be given to relative financial information issues. Usually, it is accepted that the theoretical framework, also called the accounting framework is the standard-setting, metaphorically speaking is actually the constitution of financial accounting, or in other words, its reference matrix.

  16. Jones matrix treatment for optical Fourier processors with structured polarization. (United States)

    Moreno, Ignacio; Iemmi, Claudio; Campos, Juan; Yzuel, Maria J


    We present a Jones matrix method useful to analyze coherent optical Fourier processors employing structured polarization. The proposed method is a generalization of the standard classical optical Fourier transform processor, but considering vectorial spatial functions with two complex components corresponding to two orthogonal linear polarizations. As a result we derive a Jones matrix that describes the polarization output in terms of two vectorial functions defining respectively the structured polarization input and the generalized polarization impulse response. We apply the method to show and analyze an experiment in which a regular scalar diffraction grating is converted into equivalent polarization diffraction gratings by means of an appropriate polarization filtering. The technique is further demonstrated to generate arbitrary structured polarizations. Excellent experimental results are presented.

  17. Maximizing sparse matrix vector product performance in MIMD computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLay, R.T.; Kohli, H.S.; Swift, S.L.; Carey, G.F.


    A considerable component of the computational effort involved in conjugate gradient solution of structured sparse matrix systems is expended during the Matrix-Vector Product (MVP), and hence it is the focus of most efforts at improving performance. Such efforts are hindered on MIMD machines due to constraints on memory, cache and speed of memory-cpu data transfer. This paper describes a strategy for maximizing the performance of the local computations associated with the MVP. The method focuses on single stride memory access, and the efficient use of cache by pre-loading it with data that is re-used while bypassing it for other data. The algorithm is designed to behave optimally for varying grid sizes and number of unknowns per gridpoint. Results from an assembly language implementation of the strategy on the iPSC/860 show a significant improvement over the performance using FORTRAN.

  18. Update on CMH-17 Volume 5 Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Andrulonis, Rachael; Kiser, J. Douglas; David, Kaia E.; Davies, Curtis R.; Ashforth, Cindy


    A wide range of issues must be addressed during the process of certifying CMC (ceramic matrix composite) components for use in commercial aircraft. The Composite Materials Handbook-17, Volume 5, Revision A on ceramic matrix composites has just been revised to help support FAA certification of CMCs for elevated temperature applications. The handbook supports the development and use of CMCs through publishing and maintaining proven, reliable engineering information and standards that have been thoroughly reviewed. Volume 5 contains detailed sections describing CMC materialsprocessing design, analysisguidelines, testing procedures, and data analysis and acceptance. A review of the content of this latest revision will be presented along with a description of how CMH-17, Volume 5 could be used by the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) and others in the future.

  19. Random Matrix Theory of Rigidity in Soft Matter (United States)

    Yamanaka, Masanori


    We study the rigidity or softness of soft matter using the characteristic scale of coupling formation developed in random matrix theory. The eigensystems of the timescale-dependent cross-correlation matrix, which are obtained from the time series data of the atomic coordinates of a protein produced by the all-atom molecular dynamics of the solvent, are analyzed. As an example, we present a result for a protein lysozyme, PDBID:1AKI. We find that there are at least three different time scales involved in the coupling formation of correlated sectors of atoms and at least two different time scales for the size of the correlated sectors. These five time scales coexist simultaneously. We compare the results with those of the normal mode analysis and find a crossover of the distribution of the dominant vibrational components.

  20. Collagen matrix as a tool in studying fibroblastic cell behavior (United States)

    Kanta, Jiří


    Type I collagen is a fibrillar protein, a member of a large family of collagen proteins. It is present in most body tissues, usually in combination with other collagens and other components of extracellular matrix. Its synthesis is increased in various pathological situations, in healing wounds, in fibrotic tissues and in many tumors. After extraction from collagen-rich tissues it is widely used in studies of cell behavior, especially those of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts. Cells cultured in a classical way, on planar plastic dishes, lack the third dimension that is characteristic of body tissues. Collagen I forms gel at neutral pH and may become a basis of a 3D matrix that better mimics conditions in tissue than plastic dishes. PMID:25734486

  1. Extracellular matrix and its receptors in Drosophila neural development (United States)

    Broadie, Kendal; Baumgartner, Stefan; Prokop, Andreas


    Extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix receptors are intimately involved in most biological processes. The ECM plays fundamental developmental and physiological roles in health and disease, including processes underlying the development, maintenance and regeneration of the nervous system. To understand the principles of ECM-mediated functions in the nervous system, genetic model organisms like Drosophila provide simple, malleable and powerful experimental platforms. This article provides an overview of ECM proteins and receptors in Drosophila. It then focuses on their roles during three progressive phases of neural development: 1) neural progenitor proliferation, 2) axonal growth and pathfinding and 3) synapse formation and function. Each section highlights known ECM and ECM-receptor components and recent studies done in mutant conditions to reveal their in vivo functions, all illustrating the enormous opportunities provided when merging work on the nervous system with systematic research into ECM-related gene functions. PMID:21688401

  2. Production, properties and applications of ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlratzer, A. (MAN Technologie AG, Karlsfeld (Germany))


    Of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials reinforced with long fibers, only those with SiC matrix applications have until now achieved technological meaning because production processes that do not adversely affect these fibers are well developed for these ceramics. This includes chemical vapour infiltration (CVI), the impregnation and pyrolysis of organic silicon polymers (LPI), and the infiltration of melted silicon in CMCs. These processes result in different materials with specific individual properties that correspond to the demands from the application areas. The CVI materials C/SiC and SiC/SiC, which display the best mechanical properties, are preferred for use as bearing components. The LPI technique is chosen for the production of large, complex C/SiC structures for aerospace applications. The liquid silicon process supplies a material (C/C-SiC) that is excellent for the use in brake discs. (orig.) 17 refs.

  3. LCD panel characterization by measuring full Jones matrix of individual pixels using polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy. (United States)

    Park, Jongchan; Yu, Hyeonseung; Park, Jung-Hoon; Park, YongKeun


    We present measurements of the full Jones matrix of individual pixels in a liquid-crystal display (LCD) panel. Employing a polarization-sensitive digital holographic microscopy based on Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the complex amplitudes of the light passing through individual LCD pixels are precisely measured with respect to orthogonal bases of polarization states, from which the full Jones matrix components of individual pixels are obtained. We also measure the changes in the Jones matrix of individual LCD pixels with respect to an applied bias. In addition, the complex optical responses of a LCD panel with respect to arbitrary polarization states of incident light were characterized from the measured Jones matrix.

  4. Flexible and efficient implementations of Bayesian independent component analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ole; Petersen, Kaare Brandt


    In this paper we present an empirical Bayes method for flexible and efficient independent component analysis (ICA). The method is flexible with respect to choice of source prior, dimensionality and constraints of the mixing matrix (unconstrained or non-negativity), and structure of the noise...... covariance matrix. Parameter optimization is handled by variants of the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm: overrelaxed adaptive EM and the easy gradient recipe. These retain the simplicity of EM while converging faster. The required expectations over the source posterior, the sufficient statistics...

  5. Matrix Effects in the Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method of Analysis. (United States)

    Liu, H-C; Lin, D-L; McCurdy, H H


    Matrix effects are dependent on biological fluid, ionization type, and sample preparation method. Although matrix effects are observed for both ionization types, ESI is especially susceptible, while APCI has proved to be less vulnerable. Sample preparation method has a clear influence on matrix effects as does, in particular, the choice of internal standard. When matrix effects result in severe ion suppression or enhancement of the target analyte by co-eluting residual components, they are typically located in isolated regions of the chromatogram. Postcolumn infusion and postextraction addition methods have been developed for the assessments of matrix effects. Approaches used for eliminating, minimizing, or compensating for matrix effects include improved sample preparation and chromatographic separation, sample dilution, and the utilization of internal standards. Matrix effects may not always be fully circumventable because a perfectly consistent matrix does not exist, but they can be significantly minimized and largely compensated for by various approaches, such as standard addition, matrixmatched calibration, and the use of isotopic analogs of the analytes as internal standards. Copyright © 2013 Central Police University.

  6. Differential effect of extracellular matrix derived from papillary and reticular fibroblasts on epidermal development in vitro. (United States)

    Janson, David; Rietveld, Marion; Mahé, Christian; Saintigny, Gaëlle; El Ghalbzouri, Abdoelwaheb


    Papillary and reticular fibroblasts have different effects on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these effects are caused by differential secretion of soluble factors or by differential generation of extracellular matrix from papillary and reticular fibroblasts. To study the effect of soluble factors, keratinocyte monolayer cultures were grown in papillary or reticular fibroblast-conditioned medium. To study the effect of extracellular matrix, keratinocytes were grown on papillary or reticular-derived matrix. Conditioned medium from papillary or reticular fibroblasts did not differentially affect keratinocyte viability or epidermal development. However, keratinocyte viability was increased when grown on matrix derived from papillary, compared with reticular, fibroblasts. In addition, the longevity of the epidermis was increased when cultured on papillary fibroblast-derived matrix skin equivalents compared with reticular-derived matrix skin equivalents. The findings indicate that the matrix secreted by papillary and reticular fibroblasts is the main causal factor to account for the differences in keratinocyte growth and viability observed in our study. Differences in response to soluble factors between both populations were less significant. Matrix components specific to the papillary dermis may account for the preferential growth of keratinocytes on papillary dermis.

  7. A Candida biofilm-induced pathway for matrix glucan delivery: implications for drug resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather T Taff

    Full Text Available Extracellular polysaccharides are key constituents of the biofilm matrix of many microorganisms. One critical carbohydrate component of Candida albicans biofilms, β-1,3 glucan, has been linked to biofilm protection from antifungal agents. In this study, we identify three glucan modification enzymes that function to deliver glucan from the cell to the extracellular matrix. These enzymes include two predicted glucan transferases and an exo-glucanase, encoded by BGL2, PHR1, and XOG1, respectively. We show that the enzymes are crucial for both delivery of β-1,3 glucan to the biofilm matrix and for accumulation of mature matrix biomass. The enzymes do not appear to impact cell wall glucan content of biofilm cells, nor are they necessary for filamentation or biofilm formation. We demonstrate that mutants lacking these genes exhibit enhanced susceptibility to the commonly used antifungal, fluconazole, during biofilm growth only. Transcriptional analysis and biofilm phenotypes of strains with multiple mutations suggest that these enzymes act in a complementary fashion to distribute matrix downstream of the primary β-1,3 glucan synthase encoded by FKS1. Furthermore, our observations suggest that this matrix delivery pathway works independently from the C. albicans ZAP1 matrix formation regulatory pathway. These glucan modification enzymes appear to play a biofilm-specific role in mediating the delivery and organization of mature biofilm matrix. We propose that the discovery of inhibitors for these enzymes would provide promising anti-biofilm therapeutics.

  8. Gini covariance matrix and its affine equivariant version (United States)

    Weatherall, Lauren Anne

    Gini's mean difference (GMD) and its derivatives such as Gini index have been widely used as alternative measures of variability over one century in many research fields especially in finance, economics and social welfare. In this dissertation, we generalize the univariate GMD to the multivariate case and propose a new covariance matrix so called the Gini covariance matrix (GCM). The extension is natural, which is based on the covariance representation of GMD with the notion of multivariate spatial rank function. In order to gain the affine equivariance property for GCM, we utilize the transformation-retransformation (TR) technique and obtain TR version GCM that turns out to be a symmetrized M-functional. Indeed, both GCMs are symmetrized approaches based on the difference of two independent variables without reference of a location, hence avoiding some arbitrary definition of location for non-symmetric distributions. We study the properties of both GCMs. They possess the so-called independence property, which is highly important, for example, in independent component analysis. Influence functions of two GCMs are derived to assess their robustness. They are found to be more robust than the regular covariance matrix but less robust than Tyler and Dumbgen M-functional. Under elliptical distributions, the relationship between the scatter parameter and the two GCM are obtained. With this relationship, principal component analysis (PCA) based on GCM is possible. Estimation of two GCMs is presented. We study asymptotical behavior of the estimators. √n-consistency and asymptotical normality of estimators are established. Asymptotic relative efficiency (ARE) of TR-GCM estimator with respect to sample covariance matrix is compared to that of Tyler and Dumbgen M-estimators. With little loss on efficiency (UCI machine learning repository. Relying on some graphical and numerical summaries, Gini-based PCA demonstrates its competitive performance.

  9. Inequalities involving upper bounds for certain matrix operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 116; Issue 3. Inequalities Involving Upper Bounds for Certain Matrix Operators. R Lashkaripour D Foroutannia. Volume ... Keywords. Inequality; norm; summability matrix; Hausdorff matrix; Hilbert matrix; weighted sequence space; Lorentz sequence space.

  10. CD154 Induces Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Secretion in Human Podocytes. (United States)

    Rigothier, Claire; Daculsi, Richard; Lepreux, Sébastien; Auguste, Patrick; Villeneuve, Julien; Dewitte, Antoine; Doudnikoff, Evelyne; Saleem, Moin; Bourget, Chantal; Combe, Christian; Ripoche, Jean


    Matrix remodeling is a key feature of glomerulosclerosis secondary to diabetes or hypertension. Podocytes contribute to glomerular basement membrane (GBM) turnover by producing matrix components and matrix remodelling enzymes, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The CD40/CD154 signaling pathway modulates matrix remodeling through the synthesis of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs. Platelets are a primary blood reservoir of CD154. Here we studied, the impact of the CD154/CD40 pathway on MMP-9 expression by cultured human podocytes. The role of CD40/CD154 was evaluated upon exposure of podocytes to recombinant human CD154 (rhCD154) or activated platelet supernatants from healthy human subjects. We first showed by protein and mRNA expression that CD40 was synthesized by podocytes and detectable on kidney tissue sections. CD40 expression was acquired during podocyte differentiation and enhanced upon exposure to rhCD154. In podocytes, rhCD154 induced an increase of MMP-9 production as shown by RT-PCR, Western blot and and gelatin zymography. Activated platelet supernatants induced MMP-9 mRNA synthesis in podocytes, an effect reduced by anti-CD40 antibody. Our results underscore a potential role for platelets through the CD40/CD154 signaling pathway in the control of GBM synthesis and degradation, via its regulatory role on MMP-9 production. CD154 secretion by activated platelets may contribute to GBM alterations in proteinuric nephropathies. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2737-2747, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr


    the growth of these bacteria (prebiotics) are added to food to achieve health effects exceeding its pure nutritional function. Several of these effects are mediated by enzyme systems involved in xenobiotic and drug metabolism, and in some cases this might lead to undesired interactions with medication.......g., secondary plant metabolites such as flavonoids), or as contaminants that enter the food chain at different stages or during the food production process. For these components, a wide spectrum of biological effects was observed that ranges from health-threatening impacts (e.g., polycyclic aromatic amines...... cases, nutrients, food contaminants, and secondary plant metabolites can themselves become substrates for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, resulting in health-promoting or health-threatening products. This chapter focuses on how important components of our daily nutrition and supplements can interfere...

  12. Collision matrix for Leo satellites (United States)

    McKnight, Darren; Lorenzen, Gary

    The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is becoming cluttered with thousands of satellites, rocket bodies, and a variety of space garbage. This collection of objects crossing paths at speeds on the order of 10 km/s is creating an increasing collision hazard to many operational systems. The effect that the destruction of LEO satellites will have on other users of the near-Earth environment is of great concern. A model is examined which quantifies the effect of one satellite fragmentation on neighboring satellites. This model is used to evaluate the interdependent hazard to a series of satellite systems. A number of space system fragmentation events are numerically simulated and the collision hazard to each is tabulated. Once all satellites in the matrix have been fragmented separately, a complete collision hazard representation can be depicted. This model has potential for developing an enhanced understanding of a number of aspects of the growing debris hazard in LEO.

  13. The Biblical Matrix of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore PIROŞCĂ


    Full Text Available The rationale of this paper is a prime pattern of history of economic thought in the previous ages of classic ancient times of Greek and Roman civilizations using a methodological matrix able to capture the mainstream ideas from social, political and religious events within the pages of Bible. The economic perspective of these events follows the evolution of the seeds of economic thinking within the Fertile Crescent, focused on the Biblical patriarchic heroes’ actions, but also on the empires which their civilization interacted to. The paper aims to discover the path followed by the economic doctrines from the Bible in order to find a match with economic actuality of present days.

  14. Towards Software Component Procurement Automation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, H.G.; Lormans, M.; Zhou, J.


    One of the first steps of component procurement is the identification of required component features in large repositories of existing components. On the highest level of abstraction, component requirements as well as component descriptions are usually written in natural language. Therefore, we can

  15. Solid state lighting component (United States)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald


    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  16. Components of laboratory accreditation. (United States)

    Royal, P D


    Accreditation or certification is a recognition given to an operation or product that has been evaluated against a standard; be it regulatory or voluntary. The purpose of accreditation is to provide the consumer with a level of confidence in the quality of operation (process) and the product of an organization. Environmental Protection Agency/OCM has proposed the development of an accreditation program under National Environmental Laboratory Accreditation Program for Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) laboratories as a supplement to the current program. This proposal was the result of the Inspector General Office reports that identified weaknesses in the current operation. Several accreditation programs can be evaluated and common components identified when proposing a structure for accrediting a GLP system. An understanding of these components is useful in building that structure. Internationally accepted accreditation programs provide a template for building a U.S. GLP accreditation program. This presentation will discuss the traditional structure of accreditation as presented in the Organization of Economic Cooperative Development/GLP program, ISO-9000 Accreditation and ISO/IEC Guide 25 Standard, and the Canadian Association for Environmental Analytical Laboratories, which has a biological component. Most accreditation programs are managed by a recognized third party, either privately or with government oversight. Common components often include a formal review of required credentials to evaluate organizational structure, a site visit to evaluate the facility, and a performance evaluation to assess technical competence. Laboratory performance is measured against written standards and scored. A formal report is then sent to the laboratory indicating accreditation status. Usually, there is a scheduled reevaluation built into the program. Fee structures vary considerably and will need to be examined closely when building a GLP program.



    Assoc. Prof. Buşe Florin Răzvan Ph.D


    CRM concerns all forms of managing relationships with customers making use of Information Technology, also integrates internal organization resources and external marketing strategies to understand and fulfill their customers’ needs. Worldwide CRM market increased with 12.5 percent from 2007 to 2008 according to Gartner Inc. analysts and will keep this trend in the near future. The components of the CRM are focused on sales, marketing, advertising and customers behaviors. A solution for SMB’s...

  18. Solid state lighting component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald


    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  19. Classification of finger extension and flexion of EMG and Cyberglove data with modified ICA weight matrix. (United States)

    Naik, Ganesh R; Acharyya, Amit; Nguyen, Hung T


    This paper reports the classification of finger flexion and extension of surface Electromyography (EMG) and Cyberglove data using the modified Independent Component Analysis (ICA) weight matrix. The finger flexion and extension data are processed through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and next separated using modified ICA for each individual with customized weight matrix. The extension and flexion features of sEMG and Cyberglove (extracted from modified ICA) were classified using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) with near 90% classification accuracy. The applications of this study include Human Computer Interface (HCI), virtual reality and neural prosthetics.

  20. Association of Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin with the extracellular matrix. (United States)

    Fukui-Miyazaki, Aya; Kamitani, Shigeki; Miyake, Masami; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko


    Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) causes the turbinate atrophy in swine atrophic rhinitis, caused by a Bordetella bronchiseptica infection of pigs, by inhibiting osteoblastic differentiation. The toxin is not actively secreted from the bacteria, and is presumed to be present in only small amounts in infected areas. How such small amounts can affect target tissues is unknown. Fluorescence microscopy revealed that DNT associated with a fibrillar structure developed on cultured cells. A cellular component cross-linked with DNT conjugated with a cross-linker was identified as fibronectin by mass spectrometry. Colocalization of the fibronectin network on the cells with DNT was also observed by fluorescence microscope. Several lines of evidence suggested that DNT interacts with fibronectin not directly, but through another cellular component that remains to be identified. The colocalization was observed in not only DNT-sensitive cells but also insensitive cells, indicating that the fibronectin network neither serves as a receptor for the toxin nor is involved in the intoxicating procedures. The fibronectin network-associated toxin was easily liberated when the concentration of toxin in the local environment decreased, and was still active. Components in the extracellular matrix are known to regulate activities of various growth factors by binding and liberating them in response to alterations in the extracellular environment. Similarly, the fibronectin-based extracellular matrix may function as a temporary storage system for DNT, enabling small amounts of the toxin to efficiently affect target tissues or cells.

  1. Association of Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin with the extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake Masami


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bordetella dermonecrotic toxin (DNT causes the turbinate atrophy in swine atrophic rhinitis, caused by a Bordetella bronchiseptica infection of pigs, by inhibiting osteoblastic differentiation. The toxin is not actively secreted from the bacteria, and is presumed to be present in only small amounts in infected areas. How such small amounts can affect target tissues is unknown. Results Fluorescence microscopy revealed that DNT associated with a fibrillar structure developed on cultured cells. A cellular component cross-linked with DNT conjugated with a cross-linker was identified as fibronectin by mass spectrometry. Colocalization of the fibronectin network on the cells with DNT was also observed by fluorescence microscope. Several lines of evidence suggested that DNT interacts with fibronectin not directly, but through another cellular component that remains to be identified. The colocalization was observed in not only DNT-sensitive cells but also insensitive cells, indicating that the fibronectin network neither serves as a receptor for the toxin nor is involved in the intoxicating procedures. The fibronectin network-associated toxin was easily liberated when the concentration of toxin in the local environment decreased, and was still active. Conclusions Components in the extracellular matrix are known to regulate activities of various growth factors by binding and liberating them in response to alterations in the extracellular environment. Similarly, the fibronectin-based extracellular matrix may function as a temporary storage system for DNT, enabling small amounts of the toxin to efficiently affect target tissues or cells.

  2. Extracellular matrix remodeling in wound healing of critical size defects in the mitral valve leaflet. (United States)

    Stephens, Elizabeth H; Nguyen, Tom C; Blazejewski, Jack G; Vekilov, Dragoslava P; Connell, Jennifer P; Itoh, Akinobu; Ingels, Neil B; Miller, D Craig; Grande-Allen, K Jane


    The details of valvular leaflet healing following valvuloplasty and leaflet perforation from endocarditis are poorly understood. In this study, the synthesis and turnover of valvular extracellular matrix due to healing of a critical sized wound was investigated. Twenty-nine sheep were randomized to either CTRL (n = 11) or HOLE (n = 18), in which a 2.8-4.8 mm diameter hole was punched in the posterior mitral leaflet. After 12 weeks, posterior leaflets were harvested and histologically stained to localize extracellular matrix components. Immunohistochemistry was also performed to assess matrix components and markers of matrix turnover. A semi-quantitative grading scale was used to quantify differences between HOLE and CTRL. After 12 weeks, the hole diameter was reduced by 71.3 ± 1.4 % (p matrix turnover (prolyl 4-hydroxylase, metalloproteases, and lysyl oxidase, each p ≤ 0.025), along with fibrin accumulation. Two distinct remodeling regions were evident surrounding the hole, one directly bordering the hole rich in versican and hyaluronan and a second adjacent region with abundant collagen and elastic fiber turnover. The remodeling also caused reduced delineation between valve layers (p = 0.002), more diffuse staining of matrix components and markers of matrix turnover (p matrix composition and structure, resulting in partial wound closure. Because these changes could also affect leaflet mechanics and valve function, it will be important to determine their impact on healing wounds.

  3. Optimized Projection Matrix for Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Xu


    Full Text Available Compressive sensing (CS is mainly concerned with low-coherence pairs, since the number of samples needed to recover the signal is proportional to the mutual coherence between projection matrix and sparsifying matrix. Until now, papers on CS always assume the projection matrix to be a random matrix. In this paper, aiming at minimizing the mutual coherence, a method is proposed to optimize the projection matrix. This method is based on equiangular tight frame (ETF design because an ETF has minimum coherence. It is impossible to solve the problem exactly because of the complexity. Therefore, an alternating minimization type method is used to find a feasible solution. The optimally designed projection matrix can further reduce the necessary number of samples for recovery or improve the recovery accuracy. The proposed method demonstrates better performance than conventional optimization methods, which brings benefits to both basis pursuit and orthogonal matching pursuit.

  4. Logarithmic universality in random matrix theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splittorff, K. E-mail:


    Universality in unitary invariant random matrix ensembles with complex matrix elements is considered. We treat two general ensembles which have a determinant factor in the weight. These ensembles are relevant, e.g., for spectra of the Dirac operator in QCD. In addition to the well established universality with respect to the choice of potential, we prove that microscopic spectral correlators are unaffected when the matrix in the determinant is replaced by an expansion in powers of the matrix. We refer to this invariance as logarithmic universality. The result is used in proving that a simple random matrix model with Ginsparg-Wilson symmetry has the same microscopic spectral correlators as chiral random matrix theory.

  5. Eigenvalues properties of terms correspondences matrix (United States)

    Bondarchuk, Dmitry; Timofeeva, Galina


    Vector model representations of text documents are widely used in the intelligent search. In this approach a collection of documents is represented in the form of the term-document matrix, reflecting the frequency of terms. In the latent semantic analysis the dimension of the vector space is reduced by the singular value decomposition of the term-document matrix. Authors use a matrix of terms correspondences, reflecting the relationship between the terms, to allocate a semantic core and to obtain more simple presentation of the documents. With this approach, reducing the number of terms is based on the orthogonal decomposition of the matrix of terms correspondences. Properties of singular values of the term-document matrix and eigenvalues of the matrix of terms correspondences are studied in the case when documents differ substantially in length.

  6. Corner Transfer Matrix Renormalization Group Method


    Nishino, T.; Okunishi, K.


    We propose a new fast numerical renormalization group method,the corner transfer matrix renormalization group (CTMRG) method, which is based on a unified scheme of Baxter's corner transfer matrix method and White's density matrix renormalization groupmethod. The key point is that a product of four corner transfer matrices gives the densitymatrix. We formulate the CTMRG method as a renormalization of 2D classical models.

  7. Matrix-assisted peptide synthesis on nanoparticles. (United States)

    Khandadash, Raz; Machtey, Victoria; Weiss, Aryeh; Byk, Gerardo


    We report a new method for multistep peptide synthesis on polymeric nanoparticles of differing sizes. Polymeric nanoparticles were functionalized via their temporary embedment into a magnetic inorganic matrix that allows multistep peptide synthesis. The matrix is removed at the end of the process for obtaining nanoparticles functionalized with peptides. The matrix-assisted synthesis on nanoparticles was proved by generating various biologically relevant peptides. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. A Generalization of the Alias Matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, S.


    The investigation of aliases or biases is important for the interpretation of the results from factorial experiments. For two-level fractional factorials this can be facilitated through their group structure. For more general arrays the alias matrix can be used. This tool is traditionally based...... on the assumption that the error structure is that associated with ordinary least squares. For situations where that is not the case, we provide in this article a generalization of the alias matrix applicable under the generalized least squares assumptions. We also show that for the special case of split plot error...... structure, the generalized alias matrix simplifies to the ordinary alias matrix....

  9. Biglycan Modulates Osteoblast Differentiation and Matrix Mineralization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parisuthiman, Duenpim; Mochida, Yoshiyuki; Duarte, Wagner R; Yamauchi, Mitsuo


    .... The processes of cell differentiation and matrix mineralization were accelerated in S but delayed in AS, indicating that BGN modulates osteoblastic cell differentiation. Introduction : Biglycan (BGN...

  10. Finding Nonoverlapping Substructures of a Sparse Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinar, Ali; Vassilevska, Virginia


    Many applications of scientific computing rely on computations on sparse matrices. The design of efficient implementations of sparse matrix kernels is crucial for the overall efficiency of these applications. Due to the high compute-to-memory ratio and irregular memory access patterns, the performance of sparse matrix kernels is often far away from the peak performance on a modern processor. Alternative data structures have been proposed, which split the original matrix A into A{sub d} and A{sub s}, so that A{sub d} contains all dense blocks of a specified size in the matrix, and A{sub s} contains the remaining entries. This enables the use of dense matrix kernels on the entries of A{sub d} producing better memory performance. In this work, we study the problem of finding a maximum number of nonoverlapping dense blocks in a sparse matrix, which is previously not studied in the sparse matrix community. We show that the maximum nonoverlapping dense blocks problem is NP-complete by using a reduction from the maximum independent set problem on cubic planar graphs. We also propose a 2/3-approximation algorithm that runs in linear time in the number of nonzeros in the matrix. This extended abstract focuses on our results for 2x2 dense blocks. However we show that our results can be generalized to arbitrary sized dense blocks, and many other oriented substructures, which can be exploited to improve the memory performance of sparse matrix operations.

  11. Basic matrix algebra and transistor circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Zelinger, G


    Basic Matrix Algebra and Transistor Circuits deals with mastering the techniques of matrix algebra for application in transistors. This book attempts to unify fundamental subjects, such as matrix algebra, four-terminal network theory, transistor equivalent circuits, and pertinent design matters. Part I of this book focuses on basic matrix algebra of four-terminal networks, with descriptions of the different systems of matrices. This part also discusses both simple and complex network configurations and their associated transmission. This discussion is followed by the alternative methods of de

  12. A random matrix theory of decoherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorin, T [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Blvd Marcelino GarcIa Barragan y Calzada OlImpica, Guadalajara CP 44840, JalIsco (Mexico); Pineda, C [Institut fuer Physik und Astronomie, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam (Germany); Kohler, H [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, D-47057 Duisburg (Germany); Seligman, T H [Instituto de Ciencias FIsicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico)], E-mail:, E-mail:


    Random matrix theory is used to represent generic loss of coherence of a fixed central system coupled to a quantum-chaotic environment, represented by a random matrix ensemble, via random interactions. We study the average density matrix arising from the ensemble induced, in contrast to previous studies where the average values of purity, concurrence and entropy were considered; we further discuss when one or the other approach is relevant. The two approaches agree in the limit of large environments. Analytic results for the average density matrix and its purity are presented in linear response approximation. The two-qubit system is analysed, mainly numerically, in more detail.

  13. Titanium Matrix Composite Pressure Vessel Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For over 15 years, FMW Composite Systems has developed Metal Matrix Composite manufacturing methodologies for fabricating silicon-carbide-fiber-reinforced titanium...

  14. Matrix Krylov subspace methods for image restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    khalide jbilou


    Full Text Available In the present paper, we consider some matrix Krylov subspace methods for solving ill-posed linear matrix equations and in those problems coming from the restoration of blurred and noisy images. Applying the well known Tikhonov regularization procedure leads to a Sylvester matrix equation depending the Tikhonov regularized parameter. We apply the matrix versions of the well known Krylov subspace methods, namely the Least Squared (LSQR and the conjugate gradient (CG methods to get approximate solutions representing the restored images. Some numerical tests are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  15. Risk matrix model for rotating equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassan Rano Khan


    Full Text Available Different industries have various residual risk levels for their rotating equipment. Accordingly the occurrence rate of the failures and associated failure consequences categories are different. Thus, a generalized risk matrix model is developed in this study which can fit various available risk matrix standards. This generalized risk matrix will be helpful to develop new risk matrix, to fit the required risk assessment scenario for rotating equipment. Power generation system was taken as case study. It was observed that eight subsystems were under risk. Only vibration monitor system was under high risk category, while remaining seven subsystems were under serious and medium risk categories.

  16. Oxytocin prevents cartilage matrix destruction via regulating matrix metalloproteinases. (United States)

    Wu, Yixin; Wu, Tongyu; Xu, Binbin; Xu, Xiaoyan; Chen, Honggan; Li, Xiyao


    Degradation of the extracellular matrix type II Collagen (Col II) induced by proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is an important hallmark of Osteoarthritis (OA). Oxytocin (OT) is a well-known neurohypophysical hormone that is synthesized in the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) of the hypothalamus. In this study, we have found that oxytocin receptor (OTR) was expressed in human primary chondrocytes, and the expression of which was reduced in chondrocytes from OA patients and in response to TNF-α treatment in a dose dependent manner. Notably, it was shown that TNF-α -induced degradation of Col II was restored by treatment with OT in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, TNF-α treatment (10 ng/mL) highly elevated the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-13 in SW1353 chondrocytes, which were reversed by OT in a dose dependent manner at both gene and protein expression levels. In addition, it was demonstrated that the JAK2/STAT1 pathway was involved in the restoration effects of OT in the degradation of Col II. Lastly, knockdown of OTR abolished the inhibitory effects of OT on the degradation of col II and the induction of MMP-1 and MMP-13 expression, suggesting the involvement of OTR. Our study implied the therapeutic potential of OT for cartilage degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A principal component analysis of transmission spectra of wine distillates (United States)

    Rogovaya, M. V.; Sinitsyn, G. V.; Khodasevich, M. A.


    A chemometric method of decomposing multidimensional data into a small-sized space, the principal component method, has been applied to the transmission spectra of vintage Moldovan wine distillates. A sample of 42 distillates aged from four to 7 years from six producers has been used to show the possibility of identifying a producer in a two-dimensional space of principal components describing 94.5% of the data-matrix dispersion. Analysis of the loads into the first two principal components has shown that, in order to measure the optical characteristics of the samples under study using only two wavelengths, it is necessary to select 380 and 540 nm, instead of the standard 420 and 520 nm, to describe the variability of the distillates by one principal component or 370 and 520 nm to describe the variability by two principal components.

  18. Reduction of multipartite qubit density matrixes to bipartite qubit density matrixes and criteria of partial separability of multipartite qubit density matrixes


    Zhong, Zai-Zhe


    The partial separability of multipartite qubit density matrixes is strictly defined. We give a reduction way from N-partite qubit density matrixes to bipartite qubit density matrixes, and prove a necessary condition that a N-partite qubit density matrix to be partially separable is its reduced density matrix to satisfy PPT condition.

  19. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein specific antibodies are pathogenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geng, Hui; Nandakumar, Kutty Selva; Pramhed, Anna


    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) is a major non-collagenous component of cartilage. Earlier, we developed a new mouse model for rheumatoid arthritis using COMP. This study was undertaken to investigate the epitope specificity and immunopathogenicity of COMP......-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). METHODS: B cell immunodominant regions on the COMP molecule were measured with a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using mammalian expressed full-length mouse COMP as well as a panel of recombinant mouse COMP fragments. 18 mAbs specific to COMP were generated...

  20. Matrix display panel based on gas discharge technology (United States)

    Schiekel, M.; Suessenbach, H.; Schwedes, W.; Keiner, H.; Peppel, G.; Hellwig, W.; Knoll, A.; Rettich, R.; Unbehaun, R.


    The components for a slim, gas discharge display panel of stacked tube geometry were developed and characterized for the presentation of color pictures. The technology of pulsed matrix display panels with a four-electrode configuration, having inherent memory, was considered. A breadboard model with maximum panel dimensions of 380 x 250 x 14 cu mm (70,000 pixels) was built. Results show that displays with long positive columns and conically shaped pixels give best brightness and efficiency values. The reliability of such display panels is considerably increased.

  1. Hadronic matrix elements for TAUOLA: 3 π and KKπ channels (United States)

    Roig, P.


    We emphasize that the motivation for including our hadronic matrix elements in TAUOLA is not only theoretical. We also show that our expressions describe better the τ→3π ALEPH data and are able to fit BABAR data on the isovector component of ee→KKπ. The theoretical foundations of our framework are the large- N limit of QCD, the chiral structure exhibited at low energies and the proper asymptotic behaviour, ruled by QCD, that is demanded to the associated form factors.

  2. One-component nanomedicine. (United States)

    Su, Hao; Koo, Jin Mo; Cui, Honggang


    One-component nanomedicine (OCN) represents an emerging class of therapeutic nanostructures that contain only one type of chemical substance. This one-component feature allows for fine-tuning and optimization of the drug loading and physicochemical properties of nanomedicine in a precise manner through molecular engineering of the underlying building blocks. Using a precipitation procedure or effective molecular assembly strategies, molecularly crafted therapeutic agents (e.g. polymer-drug conjugates, small molecule prodrugs, or drug amphiphiles) could involuntarily aggregate, or self-assemble into nanoscale objects of well-defined sizes and shapes. Unlike traditional carrier-based nanomedicines that are inherently multicomponent systems, an OCN does not require the use of additional carriers and could itself possess desired physicochemical features for preferential accumulation at target sites. We review here recent progress in the molecular design, conjugation methods, and fabrication strategies of OCN, and analyze the opportunities that this emerging platform could open for the new and improved treatment of devastating diseases such as cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Interactions between photodegradation components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi Yadollah


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interactions of p-cresol photocatalytic degradation components were studied by response surface methodology. The study was designed by central composite design using the irradiation time, pH, the amount of photocatalyst and the p-cresol concentration as variables. The design was performed to obtain photodegradation % as actual responses. The actual responses were fitted with linear, two factor interactions, cubic and quadratic model to select an appropriate model. The selected model was validated by analysis of variance which provided evidences such as high F-value (845.09, very low P-value (2 = 0.999, adjusted R-squared (Radj2 = 0.998, predicted R-squared (Rpred2 = 0.994 and the adequate precision (95.94. Results From the validated model demonstrated that the component had interaction with irradiation time under 180 min of the time while the interaction with pH was above pH 9. Moreover, photocatalyst and p-cresol had interaction at minimal amount of photocatalyst (p-cresol. Conclusion These variables are interdependent and should be simultaneously considered during the photodegradation process, which is one of the advantages of the response surface methodology over the traditional laboratory method.

  4. Advanced Power Electronics Components (United States)

    Schwarze, Gene E.


    This paper will give a description and status of the Advanced Power Electronics Materials and Components Technology program being conducted by the NASA Glenn Research Center for future aerospace power applications. The focus of this research program is on the following: 1) New and/or significantly improved dielectric materials for the development of power capacitors with increased volumetric efficiency, energy density, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and composite ceramic dielectrics and diamond-like carbon films; 2) New and/or significantly improved high frequency, high temperature, low loss soft magnetic materials for the development of transformers/inductors with increased power/energy density, electrical efficiency, and operating temperature. Materials being investigated include nanocrystalline and nanocomposite soft magnetic materials; 3) Packaged high temperature, high power density, high voltage, and low loss SiC diodes and switches. Development of high quality 4H- and 6H- SiC atomically smooth substrates to significantly improve device performance is a major emphasis of the SiC materials program; 4) Demonstration of high temperature (> 200 C) circuits using the components developed above.

  5. Prognostics for Microgrid Components (United States)

    Saxena, Abhinav


    Prognostics is the science of predicting future performance and potential failures based on targeted condition monitoring. Moving away from the traditional reliability centric view, prognostics aims at detecting and quantifying the time to impending failures. This advance warning provides the opportunity to take actions that can preserve uptime, reduce cost of damage, or extend the life of the component. The talk will focus on the concepts and basics of prognostics from the viewpoint of condition-based systems health management. Differences with other techniques used in systems health management and philosophies of prognostics used in other domains will be shown. Examples relevant to micro grid systems and subsystems will be used to illustrate various types of prediction scenarios and the resources it take to set up a desired prognostic system. Specifically, the implementation results for power storage and power semiconductor components will demonstrate specific solution approaches of prognostics. The role of constituent elements of prognostics, such as model, prediction algorithms, failure threshold, run-to-failure data, requirements and specifications, and post-prognostic reasoning will be explained. A discussion on performance evaluation and performance metrics will conclude the technical discussion followed by general comments on open research problems and challenges in prognostics.

  6. Mueller matrix microscopy for label-free histopathology examinations (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Lv, Donghong; He, Honghui; Zhou, Jialing; Ma, Hui


    In clinical medicine, a pathologist often needs to examine cells or thin slices of tissues to identify abnormalities that are markers or precursors of diseases. Various chemical and immunohistochemical staining techniques have been developed to selectively label certain components to bring up the contrasts of specific microstructures. It is well known that a Mueller matrix contains rich information on the microstructure and optical properties of a sample. Using proper data analysis techniques, Mueller matrix images can also be transformed into new polarization parameters sensitive only to specific microstructural features. These new polarization parameters can selectively enhance the contrast of specific features in images of unstained pathological slide to help identify abnormalities. In recent studies, we set up a modulus design Mueller matrix microscope by adding polarization optics components into the optical path of a commercial transmission microscope. We take multiple measurements of the unstained pathological slide at different polar and azimuth angles, then derive an intrinsic Mueller matrix (IMM) which represents only the microstructural characters of the sample without the interference by the sample orientation. Such orientation-independent IMM images preserve to the maximum extent the pathological information of the tissue samples. Using Mueller matrix decomposition and transformation techniques, we demonstrate in preliminary tests that we are able to selectively enhance different characteristic features in different cancer tissues. With the fast advances in big-data analysis techniques, it is expected that label-free Mueller matrix microscopy is a potentially powerful tool for the histopathologists to identify characteristic features in complex tissue samples.

  7. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans of rat embryo fibroblasts. A hydrophobic form may link cytoskeleton and matrix components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woods, A; Couchman, J R; Höök, M


    properties in that it showed no affinity for octyl-Sepharose and could not be inserted into liposomes. The other HSPG type had an estimated Mr of 3-5 X 10(5), was retained on octyl-Sepharose, and could be inserted into liposomes. In addition, the cells contained low molecular weight heparan sulfate...

  8. Alumina Fiber-Reinforced 9310 Steel Metal Matrix Composite for Rotorcraft Drive System Components Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AISI 9310 nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy steel is used extensively in military helicopter rotor shafts and gears. This reliable alloy provides excellent fatigue...

  9. Effect of Mono Aluminum Phosphate as New Matrix Component on Cracking Performance of FCC Catalyst

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saka, Yuji; Chiyoda, Norihito; Watanabe, Katsuya


      Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) commercial units require catalysts with high cracking activity to produce high octane number gasoline fraction to satisfy fuel oil demand and environmental regulations...

  10. Growth factor PDGF-BB stimulates cultured cardiomyocytes to synthesize the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Hellman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan (HA is a glycosaminoglycan located in the interstitial space which is essential for both structural and cell regulatory functions in connective tissue. We have previously shown that HA synthesis is up-regulated in a rat model of experimental cardiac hypertrophy and that cardiac tissue utilizes two different HA synthases in the hypertrophic process. Cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts are two major cell types in heart tissue. The fibroblasts are known to produce HA, but it has been unclear if cardiomyocytes share the same feature, and whether or not the different HA synthases are activated in the different cell types. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study shows, for the first time that cardiomyocytes can produce HA. Cardiomyocytes (HL-1 and fibroblasts (NIH 3T3 were cultivated in absence or presence of the growth factors FGF2, PDGF-BB and TGFB2. HA concentration was quantified by ELISA, and the size of HA was estimated using dynamic light scattering. Cardiomyocytes synthesized HA but only when stimulated by PDGF-BB, whereas fibroblasts synthesized HA without addition of growth factors as well as when stimulated by any of the three growth factors. When fibroblasts were stimulated by the growth factors, reverse dose dependence was observed, where the highest dose induced the least amount of HA. With the exception of TGFB2, a trend of reverse dose dependence of HA size was also observed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Co-cultivation of cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts (80%/20% increased HA concentration far more that can be explained by HA synthesis by the two cell types separately, revealing a crosstalk between cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts that induces HA synthesis. We conclude that dynamic changes of the myocardium, such as in cardiac hypertrophy, do not depend on the cardiomyocyte alone, but are achieved when both cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts are present.

  11. Components of Cell-Matrix Linkage as Potential New Markers for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navdaev, Alexey; Eble, Johannes A., E-mail: [Center for Molecular Medicine, Deptartment Vascular Matrix Biology, Excellence Cluster Cardio-Pulmonary System, Frankfurt University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)


    Prostate cancer is one of the most common tumor diseases worldwide. Often being non-aggressive, prostate tumors in these cases do not need immediate treatment. However, about 20% of diagnosed prostate cancers tend to metastasize and require treatment. Existing diagnostic methods may fail to accurately recognize the transition of a dormant, non-aggressive tumor into highly malignant prostate cancer. Therefore, new diagnostic tools are needed to improve diagnosis and therapy of prostate carcinoma. This review evaluates existing methods to diagnose prostate carcinoma, such as the biochemical marker prostate-specific antigen (PSA), but also discusses the possibility to use the altered expression of integrins and laminin-332 in prostate carcinomas as diagnostic tools and therapeutic targets of prostate cancer.

  12. Weak matrix elements of kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, C. (California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (USA). Inst. for Theoretical Physics); Soni, A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))


    We present results from the Wilson fermion part of the Grand Challenge'' weak matrix element project. A new procedure for correcting the chiral behavior of {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd}, the K{sup 0}-{bar K}{sup 0} {Beta} parameter,'' is proposed and applied. On our largest lattice (24{sup 3} {times} 40 at {beta} = 6.0), we get {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd} = .86 {plus minus} .11 {plus minus} .05, where the first error is statistical and the second is a measure of the systematic errors due to the procedure and to related finite-size effects. Results for the direct K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0} amplitude are also presented. There is some evidence for higher order chiral effects which may make these results compatible both with experiment and with the {Beta}{sub LL}{sup sd} computation. The status of the direct K{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {pi} {sup +} {pi}{sup {minus}} {Delta}I = 1/2 amplitude is then discussed. 11 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Matrix metalloproteinases in myasthenia gravis. (United States)

    Helgeland, Geir; Petzold, Axel; Luckman, Steven Paul; Gilhus, Nils Erik; Plant, Gordon T; Romi, Fredrik Robert


    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease with weakness in striated musculature due to anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibodies or muscle specific kinase at the neuromuscular junction. A subgroup of patients has periocular symptoms only; ocular MG (OMG). Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are increased in several autoimmune diseases, including generalized MG (GMG), and have been suggested to play a role in immune cell infiltration, basement membrane breakdown and autoimmune pathogenesis. Total levels of MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 were measured in serum by ELISA. The MG patients had increased serum levels of MMP2 (median values 200.7 vs. 159.7 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and MMP9 (median values 629.6 vs. 386.4 ng/ml, p < 0.001) compared to controls. A subgroup of patients had increased MMP3 concentration (p = 0.001). The differences were not dependent on presence of AChR antibodies. No difference was observed between GMG and OMG patients with regard to MMP2 (p = 0.598), MMP3 (p = 0.450) and MMP9 (p = 0.271). The increased MMP levels in our MG patients group and the lack of dependence on anti-AChR antibodies suggest that MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 play a role in the development of MG. The similarities between GMG and OMG support OMG as a systemic disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Analysis Matrix for Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E. Branchi


    Full Text Available The current digital revolution has ignited the evolution of communications grids and the development of new schemes for productive systems. Traditional technologic scenarios have been challenged, and Smart Cities have become the basis for urban competitiveness. The citizen is the one who has the power to set new scenarios, and that is why a definition of the way people interact with their cities is needed, as is commented in the first part of the article. At the same time, a lack of clarity has been detected in the way of describing what Smart Cities are, and the second part will try to set the basis for that. For all before, the information and communication technologies that manage and transform 21st century cities must be reviewed, analyzing their impact on new social behaviors that shape the spaces and means of communication, as is posed in the experimental section, setting the basis for an analysis matrix to score the different elements that affect a Smart City environment. So, as the better way to evaluate what a Smart City is, there is a need for a tool to score the different technologies on the basis of their usefulness and consequences, considering the impact of each application. For all of that, the final section describes the main objective of this article in practical scenarios, considering how the technologies are used by citizens, who must be the main concern of all urban development.

  15. Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (United States)

    Duong, Vu; Duong, Tuan


    A recently written computer program implements dominant-element-based gradient descent and dynamic initial learning rate (DOGEDYN), which was described in Method of Real-Time Principal-Component Analysis (NPO-40034) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 1 (January 2005), page 59. To recapitulate: DOGEDYN is a method of sequential principal-component analysis (PCA) suitable for such applications as data compression and extraction of features from sets of data. In DOGEDYN, input data are represented as a sequence of vectors acquired at sampling times. The learning algorithm in DOGEDYN involves sequential extraction of principal vectors by means of a gradient descent in which only the dominant element is used at each iteration. Each iteration includes updating of elements of a weight matrix by amounts proportional to a dynamic initial learning rate chosen to increase the rate of convergence by compensating for the energy lost through the previous extraction of principal components. In comparison with a prior method of gradient-descent-based sequential PCA, DOGEDYN involves less computation and offers a greater rate of learning convergence. The sequential DOGEDYN computations require less memory than would parallel computations for the same purpose. The DOGEDYN software can be executed on a personal computer.

  16. Matrix perturbations: bounding and computing eigenvalues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis da Silva, R.J.


    Despite the somewhat negative connotation of the word, not every perturbation is a bad perturbation. In fact, while disturbing the matrix entries, many perturbations still preserve useful properties such as the orthonormality of the basis of eigenvectors or the Hermicity of the original matrix. In

  17. On the Subspace Projected Approximate Matrix method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.H.; Reis da Silva, R.


    We provide a comparative study of the Subspace Projected Approximate Matrix method, abbreviated SPAM, which is a fairly recent iterative method of computing a few eigenvalues of a Hermitian matrix A. It falls in the category of inner-outer iteration methods and aims to reduce the costs of

  18. Differential analysis of matrix convex functions II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Tomiyama, Jun


    We continue the analysis in [F. Hansen, and J. Tomiyama, Differential analysis of matrix convex functions. Linear Algebra Appl., 420:102--116, 2007] of matrix convex functions of a fixed order defined in a real interval by differential methods as opposed to the characterization in terms of divide...

  19. Fabrication of hybrid ceramic matrix composites (United States)

    Haug, S. B.; Dharani, L. R.; Carroll, D. R.


    The desire to improve the transverse properties and microcracking stress of unidirectional continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites has led to development of the hybrid ceramic matrix composite (HCMC). This paper discusses the techniques we used in the fabrication of HCMC specimens used for mechanical characterization.

  20. The Matrix exponential, Dynamic Systems and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    The matrix exponential can be found in various connections in analysis and control of dynamic systems. In this short note we are going to list a few examples. The matrix exponential usably pops up in connection to the sampling process, whatever it is in a deterministic or a stochastic setting...

  1. Modeling and Simulation of Matrix Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fu-rong; Klumpner, Christian; Blaabjerg, Frede


    This paper discusses the modeling and simulation of matrix converter. Two models of matrix converter are presented: one is based on indirect space vector modulation and the other is based on power balance equation. The basis of these two models is• given and the process on modeling is introduced...

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Sustained Release Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate matrix type sustained-release (SR) tablets of tizanidine hydrochloride (TH) for prolonged drug release and improvement in motor activity after spinal injuries. Methods: Matrix tablets were prepared by the wet granulation method using four polymers (hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose [HPMC] K 100, ethyl ...

  3. Efficient Matrix Models for Relational Learning (United States)


    New York, 1994. [63] Daniel D. Lee and H. Sebastian Seung . Algorithms for non-negative matrix factor- ization. In Todd K. Leen, Thomas G. Dietterich...135] Shenghuo Zhu, Kai Yu, Yun Chi, and Yihong Gong. Combining content and link for classification using matrix factorization. In Wessel Kraaij

  4. Matrix subordinators and related Upsilon transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Pérez-Abreu, V.


    A class of upsilon transformations of Lévy measures for matrix subordinators is introduced. Some regularizing properties of these transformations are derived, such as absolute continuity and complete monotonicity. The class of Lévy measures with completely monotone matrix densities is characterized....... Examples of infinitely divisible nonnegative definite random matrices are constructed using an upsilon transformation....

  5. Photoacoustic measurement of lutein in biological matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Luterotti, S.; Becucci, M.; Fogliano, V.; Versloot, P.


    Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy was applied for the first time to quantify lutein in a complex biological matrix. Standard addition of lutein to a biological low-lutein matrix was used for the calibration. The PA signal was found linearly proportional (R > 0.98) to lutein concentration up to 0.3%

  6. Confocal microscopy imaging of the biofilm matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlafer, Sebastian; Meyer, Rikke L


    The extracellular matrix is an integral part of microbial biofilms and an important field of research. Confocal laser scanning microscopy is a valuable tool for the study of biofilms, and in particular of the biofilm matrix, as it allows real-time visualization of fully hydrated, living specimens...

  7. Some thoughts about matrix coordinate transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Joke [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail:; Janssen, Bert [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Andaluz de Fisica de Particulas Elementales, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail:; Troost, Walter [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail:; Herck, Walter van [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, K.U. Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)], E-mail:


    Matrix coordinate transformations are defined as substitution operators without requiring an ordering prescription or an inclusion function from the Abelian coordinate transformations. We construct transforming objects mimicking most of the properties of tensors. We point out some problems with the matrix generalization of contravariant vectors. We suggest to use the substitution operators to search for an inclusion function.

  8. Matrix multiplication operators on Banach function spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we study the matrix multiplication operators on Banach function spaces and discuss their applications in semigroups for solving the abstract. Cauchy problem. Keywords. Banach function spaces; closed operators; compact operators; Fredholm operators; matrix multiplication operators; semigroups. 1.

  9. Matrix approach to modelling of SAR signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lidicky, L.; Hoogeboom, P.


    The paper presents a matrix approach to implementation of SAR signal generating and processing schemes. This approach is advantageous when matrix oriented software such as Matlab is used. Algorithms written in this type of software packages run faster compared to the same algorithms written for the

  10. Matrix model description of baryonic deformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bena, Iosif; Murayama, Hitoshi; Roiban, Radu; Tatar, Radu


    We investigate supersymmetric QCD with N{sub c} + 1 flavors using an extension of the recently proposed relation between gauge theories and matrix models.The impressive agreement between the two sides provides a beautiful confirmation of the extension of the gauge theory-matrix model relation to this case.

  11. Matrix 3-Lie superalgebras and BRST supersymmetry (United States)

    Abramov, Viktor

    Given a matrix Lie algebra one can construct the 3-Lie algebra by means of the trace of a matrix. In the present paper, we show that this approach can be extended to the infinite-dimensional Lie algebra of vector fields on a manifold if instead of the trace of a matrix we consider a differential 1-form which satisfies certain conditions. Then we show that the same approach can be extended to matrix Lie superalgebras 𝔤𝔩(m,n) if instead of the trace of a matrix we make use of the supertrace of a matrix. It is proved that a graded triple commutator of matrices constructed with the help of the graded commutator and the supertrace satisfies a graded ternary Filippov-Jacobi identity. In two particular cases of 𝔤𝔩(1, 2) and 𝔤𝔩(2, 2), we show that the Pauli and Dirac matrices generate the matrix 3-Lie superalgebras, and we find the non-trivial graded triple commutators of these algebras. We propose a Clifford algebra approach to 3-Lie superalgebras induced by Lie superalgebras. We also discuss an application of matrix 3-Lie superalgebras in BRST-formalism.

  12. Infinite Matrix Products and the Representation of the Matrix Gamma Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Cortés


    Full Text Available We introduce infinite matrix products including some of their main properties and convergence results. We apply them in order to extend to the matrix scenario the definition of the scalar gamma function given by an infinite product due to Weierstrass. A limit representation of the matrix gamma function is also provided.

  13. Component Composition Using Feature Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichberg, Michael; Klose, Karl; Mitschke, Ralf


    In general, components provide and require services and two components are bound if the first component provides a service required by the second component. However, certain variability in services - w.r.t. how and which functionality is provided or required - cannot be described using standard i...

  14. Rapid Prototyping of Continuous Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Green, C.; Phillips, T.; Cipriani, R.; Yarlagadda, S.; Gillespie, J. W., Jr.; Effinger, M.; Cooper, K. C.


    For ceramics to be used as structural components in high temperature applications, their fracture toughness is improved by embedding continuous ceramic fibers. Ceramic matrix composite (CMC) materials allow increasing the overall operating temperature, raising the temperature safety margins, avoiding the need for cooling, and improving the damping capacity, while reducing the weight at the same time. They also need to be reliable and available in large quantities as well. In this paper, an innovative rapid prototyping technique to fabricate continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. The process is simple, robust and will be widely applicable to a number of high temperature material systems. This technique was originally developed at the University of Delaware Center for Composite Materials (UD-CCM) for rapid fabrication of polymer matrix composites by a technique called automated tow placement or ATP. The results of mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are presented, together with examples of complex shapes and parts. It is believed that the process will be able to create complex shaped parts at an order of magnitude lower cost than current chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) and polymer impregnation and pyrolysis (PIP) processes.

  15. [Antioxidant properties of the pollen exine polymer matrix]. (United States)

    Smirnova, A V; Timoffev, K N; Breĭgina, M A; Matveeva, N P; Ermakov, I P


    The antioxidant properties of exine polymer matrix which forms the outer layer of pollen grain wall were studied. The main component of this matrix is sporopollenin - a unique biopolymer resistant to mechanical and chemical damage. The samples of isolated exine, purified from soluble compounds, were studied with EPR using stable nitroxyl radical TEMPO and DMPO spin trap. At the same time, we analyzed changes in fluorescence of DCFH which detected ROS in the solution. It has been established that exine effectively reduces TEMPO radical and eliminates hydroxyl radical. Also, the fluorometric analysis demonstrated that the exine eliminated H2O2, and this ability significantly decreased after treatment of exine with feruloyl esterase or mild alkaline hydrolysis (1M NaOH), i.e. after hydrolysis of hydroxycinnamic acid esters. After harsh hydrolysis (4M NaOH, 170 degrees C) of ethers bonds a large amount of hydroxycinnamic acids has been released, and exines have lost their antioxidant capacity almost completely. The obtained results point to the ability of extracellular polymer matrix of the exine to eliminate free radicals and H2O2 during crucial periods of male gametophyte development. The participation of ferulic acid and, possibly, of other hydroxycinnamic acids of sporopollenin in these processes has been demonstrated.

  16. Isolation, characterization, and aggregation of a structured bacterial matrix precursor. (United States)

    Chai, Liraz; Romero, Diego; Kayatekin, Can; Akabayov, Barak; Vlamakis, Hera; Losick, Richard; Kolter, Roberto


    Biofilms are surface-associated groups of microbial cells that are embedded in an extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM is a network of biopolymers, mainly polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. ECM proteins serve a variety of structural roles and often form amyloid-like fibers. Despite the extensive study of the formation of amyloid fibers from their constituent subunits in humans, much less is known about the assembly of bacterial functional amyloid-like precursors into fibers. Using dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, circular dichroism, and infrared spectroscopy, we show that our unique purification method of a Bacillus subtilis major matrix protein component results in stable oligomers that retain their native α-helical structure. The stability of these oligomers enabled us to control the external conditions that triggered their aggregation. In particular, we show that stretched fibers are formed on a hydrophobic surface, whereas plaque-like aggregates are formed in solution under acidic pH conditions. TasA is also shown to change conformation upon aggregation and gain some β-sheet structure. Our studies of the aggregation of a bacterial matrix protein from its subunits shed new light on assembly processes of the ECM within bacterial biofilms.

  17. Clara cell adhesion and migration to extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    deMello Daphne


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clara cells are the epithelial progenitor cell of the small airways, a location known to be important in many lung disorders. Although migration of alveolar type II and bronchiolar ciliated epithelial cells has been examined, the migratory response of Clara cells has received little attention. Methods Using a modification of existing procedures for Clara cell isolation, we examined mouse Clara cells and a mouse Clara-like cell line (C22 for adhesion to and migration toward matrix substrate gradients, to establish the nature and integrin dependence of migration in Clara cells. Results We observed that Clara cells adhere preferentially to fibronectin (Fn and type I collagen (Col I similar to previous reports. Migration of Clara cells can be directed by a fixed gradient of matrix substrates (haptotaxis. Migration of the C22 cell line was similar to the Clara cells so integrin dependence of migration was evaluated with this cell line. As determined by competition with an RGD containing-peptide, migration of C22 cells toward Fn and laminin (Lm 511 (formerly laminin 10 was significantly RGD integrin dependent, but migration toward Col I was RGD integrin independent, suggesting that Clara cells utilize different receptors for these different matrices. Conclusion Thus, Clara cells resemble alveolar type II and bronchiolar ciliated epithelial cells by showing integrin mediated pro-migratory changes to extracellular matrix components that are present in tissues after injury.

  18. 3-D extracellular matrix from sectioned human tissues. (United States)

    Campbell, Catherine B; Cukierman, Edna; Artym, Vira V


    Cell adhesion, migration, and signaling in physiologically normal and pathological processes depend highly on the extracellular matrix that the cell interacts with. A variety of in vitro models of two-dimensional and three-dimensional extracellular matrices have been developed to study multiple aspects of cellular behavior. However, there is a profound need for in vitro models of extracellular matrices to closely mimic both biochemical and physical aspects of a three-dimensional in vivo cellular environment. This unit outlines the preparation of human-tissue-derived, cell-free, three-dimensional extracellular matrices for studying cellular behavior and cell-extracellular matrix interactions ex vivo. These protocols can be used to prepare cell-free matrices from a variety of normal and cancerous tissues. This unit also provides protocols for quality control of acellular matrix preparations, and for immunostaining of cells for specific cellular proteins as well as of extracellular matrices for their components. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  19. Block Hadamard measurement matrix with arbitrary dimension in compressed sensing (United States)

    Liu, Shaoqiang; Yan, Xiaoyan; Fan, Xiaoping; Li, Fei; Xu, Wen


    As Hadamard measurement matrix cannot be used for compressing signals with dimension of a non-integral power-of-2, this paper proposes a construction method of block Hadamard measurement matrix with arbitrary dimension. According to the dimension N of signals to be measured, firstly, construct a set of Hadamard sub matrixes with different dimensions and make the sum of these dimensions equals to N. Then, arrange the Hadamard sub matrixes in a certain order to form a block diagonal matrix. Finally, take the former M rows of the block diagonal matrix as the measurement matrix. The proposed measurement matrix which retains the orthogonality of Hadamard matrix and sparsity of block diagonal matrix has highly sparse structure, simple hardware implements and general applicability. Simulation results show that the performance of our measurement matrix is better than Gaussian matrix, Logistic chaotic matrix, and Toeplitz matrix.

  20. Aluminum-Alloy-Matrix/Alumina-Reinforcement Composites (United States)

    Kashalikar, Uday; Rozenoyer, Boris


    Isotropic composites of aluminum-alloy matrices reinforced with particulate alumina have been developed as lightweight, high-specific-strength, less-expensive alternatives to nickel-base and ferrous superalloys. These composites feature a specific gravity of about 3.45 grams per cubic centimeter and specific strengths of about 200 MPa/(grams per cubic centimeter). The room-temperature tensile strength is 100 ksi (689 MPa) and stiffness is 30 Msi (206 GPa). At 500 F (260 C), these composites have shown 80 percent retention in strength and 95 percent retention in stiffness. These materials also have excellent fatigue tolerance and tribological properties. They can be fabricated in net (or nearly net) sizes and shapes to make housings, pistons, valves, and ducts in turbomachinery, and to make structural components of such diverse systems as diesel engines, automotive brake systems, and power-generation, mining, and oil-drilling equipment. Separately, incorporation of these metal matrix composites within aluminum gravity castings for localized reinforcement has been demonstrated. A composite part of this type can be fabricated in a pressure infiltration casting process. The process begins with the placement of a mold with alumina particulate preform of net or nearly net size and shape in a crucible in a vacuum furnace. A charge of the alloy is placed in the crucible with the preform. The interior of the furnace is evacuated, then the furnace heaters are turned on to heat the alloy above its liquidus temperature. Next, the interior of the furnace is filled with argon gas at a pressure about 900 psi (approximately equal to 6.2 MPa) to force the molten alloy to infiltrate the preform. Once infiltrated, the entire contents of the crucible can be allowed to cool in place, and the composite part recovered from the mold.