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Sample records for subduction-driven fluid expulsion

  1. ROV observation of fluid expulsion in Monterey Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orange, D.L.; Barry, J.; Maher, N. (Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute., Pacific Grove, CA (United States)) (and others)

    1996-01-01

    ROV dives in Monterey Bay have been used to examine the relationship of fluid flow to tectonic and stratigraphic conduits along an active transpressional continental margin. We used side-scan sonar to identify dive targets for the ROV, since anomalous reflectivity can be caused by the presence of biological [open quote]cold seep[close quotes] communities or authigenic carbonate. On a compressional ridge west of the San Gregorio Fault, cold seep clams are found along with extensive fields of authigenic carbonate in an elliptical region of anomalous reflectivity [approximately]400m in diameter. The reflectivity and fluid expulsion suggest that this feature is an active mud volcano. Analyses of push cores from the ridge site indicate high concentrations of both methane and sulfide and the presence of higher-order hydrocarbons. Many carbon isotopic ratios of the carbonate crusts indicate a methane carbon source; some values represent a mixture of methane carbon and normal marine carbon. Fluids charging the seeps west of the San Gregorio Fault may originate in tectonically-compacted sediments affected by residual Pacific-North America plate convergence, and may have an additional component of hydrocarbon charging from the underlying Monterey Formation. At the intersection of the Monterey Fault Zone and the Monterey Canyon a number of cold seeps occur in headless side canyons characterized by intense fracturing. This supports the hypothesis that submarine canyons act as hydrologic sinks for any overpressured fluid flowing toward the surface. On the San Gregorio Fault itself we have found in echelon ridges of carbonate. The fluids seeping out along fault zones may originate deep in the section and utilize the deformation-induced fracture permeability of the fault zone. Alternatively, aquifer-forcing from the uplifted Santa Cruz Mountains may provide a source of fluids venting along these fault zones (aquicludes ) and at seeps east of the fault zones.

  2. ROV observation of fluid expulsion in Monterey Bay, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orange, D.L.; Barry, J.; Maher, N. [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute., Pacific Grove, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    ROV dives in Monterey Bay have been used to examine the relationship of fluid flow to tectonic and stratigraphic conduits along an active transpressional continental margin. We used side-scan sonar to identify dive targets for the ROV, since anomalous reflectivity can be caused by the presence of biological {open_quote}cold seep{close_quotes} communities or authigenic carbonate. On a compressional ridge west of the San Gregorio Fault, cold seep clams are found along with extensive fields of authigenic carbonate in an elliptical region of anomalous reflectivity {approximately}400m in diameter. The reflectivity and fluid expulsion suggest that this feature is an active mud volcano. Analyses of push cores from the ridge site indicate high concentrations of both methane and sulfide and the presence of higher-order hydrocarbons. Many carbon isotopic ratios of the carbonate crusts indicate a methane carbon source; some values represent a mixture of methane carbon and normal marine carbon. Fluids charging the seeps west of the San Gregorio Fault may originate in tectonically-compacted sediments affected by residual Pacific-North America plate convergence, and may have an additional component of hydrocarbon charging from the underlying Monterey Formation. At the intersection of the Monterey Fault Zone and the Monterey Canyon a number of cold seeps occur in headless side canyons characterized by intense fracturing. This supports the hypothesis that submarine canyons act as hydrologic sinks for any overpressured fluid flowing toward the surface. On the San Gregorio Fault itself we have found in echelon ridges of carbonate. The fluids seeping out along fault zones may originate deep in the section and utilize the deformation-induced fracture permeability of the fault zone. Alternatively, aquifer-forcing from the uplifted Santa Cruz Mountains may provide a source of fluids venting along these fault zones (aquicludes?) and at seeps east of the fault zones.

  3. Thermobarometric and fluid expulsion history of subduction zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, W.G. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1990-06-10

    Phanerozoic, unmetamorphosed, weathered, and altered lithotectonic complexes subjected to subduction exhibit the prograde metamorphic facies sequence: zeolite {r arrow} prehnite-pumpellyite {r arrow} glaucophane schist {r arrow} eclogite. Parageneses reflect relatively high-P trajectories, accompanied by semicontinuous devolatilization. The thermal evolution of convergent plate junctions results in early production of high-rank blueschists, high-P amphibolites, and eclogites at depth. Inclusion studies suggest that two-phase immiscible volatiles are evolved in turn during progressive metamorphism of the subducted sections. Expulsion of pore fluids and transitions from weathered and altered supracrustal rocks to zeolite facies assemblages release far more fluid than the better understood higher-grade transformations. Many blueschist parageneses (e.g., Western Alps) have been partially overprinted by later greenschist and/or epidote-amphibolite facies assemblages. Less common blueschist terranes (e.g., Franciscan belt of western California) preserve metamorphic aragonite and other high-P minerals, and lack a low-pressure overprint; physical conditions during retrogression approximately retraced the prograde path or, for early formed high-grade blocks, reflect somewhat higher pressures and lower temperatures. The ease with which volatiles are expelled from a subduction complex and migrate upward along the plate junction zone is roughly proportional to the sandstone/shale ratio: low-permeability mudstones tend to maintain P{sub fluid} values approaching lithostatic, lose strength, and deform chaotically (forming melange belts), whereas permeable sandstone-rich sections retain structural/stratigraphic coherence and fail brittlely (forming coherent terranes).

  4. Thermobarometric and fluid expulsion history of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.

    1990-06-01

    Phanerozoic, unmetamorphosed, weathered, and altered lithotectonic complexes subjected to subduction exhibit the prograde metamorphic facies sequence: zeolite → prehnite-pumpellyite → glaucophane schist → eclogite. Parageneses reflect relatively high-P trajectories, accompanied by semicontinuous devolatilization. The thermal evolution of convergent plate junctions results in early production of high-rank blueschists, high-P amphibolites, and eclogues at depth within narrow subduction zones while the hanging wall lithosphere is still hot. Protracted underflow drains heat from the nonsubducted plate and, even at profound depths, generates very low-T/high-P parageneses. Inclusion studies suggest that two-phase immiscible volatiles (liquid H2O, and gaseous high-hydrocarbons, CH4 and CO2) are evolved in turn during progressive metamorphism of the subducted sections. Expulsion of pore fluids and transitions from weathered and altered supracrustal rocks to zeolite facies assemblages release far more fluid than the better understood higher-grade transformations. Many blueschist parageneses, such as those of the internal Western Alps, have been partially overprinted by later greenschist and/or epidote-amphibolite facies assemblages. Alpine-type postblueschist metamorphic paths involved fairly rapid, nearly adiabatic decompression; some terranes even underwent modest continued heating and fluid evolution during early stages of ascent. Uplift probably occurred as a consequence of the underthrusting of low-density island arc or microcontinental crust along the convergent plate junction, resulting in marked deceleration or cessation of lithospheric underflow, decoupling, and nearly isothermal rise of the recrystallized subduction complex. Other, less common blueschist terranes, such as the eastern Franciscan belt of western California, preserve metamorphic aragonite and other high-P minerals, and lack a low-pressure overprint; physical conditions during retrogression

  5. Evidence for episodic expulsion of hot fluids along faults near diapiric structures of the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinong Xie; Sitian Li [China University of Geosciences, Wuhan (China). College of Earth Resources; Weiliang Dong; Zhongliang Hu [China Offshore Oil Nanhai West Corp., Zhanjiang (China)

    2001-06-01

    Diapiric structures are well developed and occur in most of the central part of the Yinggehai Basin, on the western side of the South China margin. A strong thermal anomaly due to hot fluid flows occurs in the diapiric zone, as evidenced from vitrinite reflectance (R{sub o}), clay mineral transformation, and fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures. This anomaly results from hydrothermal fluid flow along vertical faults from overpressured compartments into the overlying Late Miocene and Quaternary sand-rich layers. The magnitude of thermal anomaly is related not only to the distance to which the vertical fault is hydraulically open, but the permeability of rocks interconnected with the faults. Intense heat transfer for convection of fluids occurs in the sand-rich intervals adjacent to vertical faults. Abnormal organic-matter maturation, together with rapid transformation of clay minerals, which occurs at certain intervals within the present-day normally pressured system and normal conductive temperatures in a diapir, can be used to identify palaeo high pressure zones. Abnormal high temperatures measured from a drill-stem test in a diapir can be inferred to be the results of recent expulsion of hydrothermal fluid flow. The results of this study suggest that thermal fluid expulsion along faults plays an important role in the modification of thermal regimes, the enhancement of organic-matter maturation, and rapid transformation of clay minerals, as well as the accumulation of hydrocarbons in diapiric structures of the Yinggehai Basin, South China Sea. (author)

  6. Assessing fluid-gas expulsion geology and gas hydrate deposits across the Gulf of Mexico with multicomponent and multifrequency seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Sava, D.C.; Murray, P.E.; DeAngelo, M.V.; Backus, M.M.; Graebner, R.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Roberts, H.H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Coastal Studies Inst.

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study of 2 fluid-gas expulsion sites across a portion of the Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico, where deep-water fields and oil and gas seeps are numerous. Hydrates are pervasive across the 2 expulsion sites studied at Typhoon and Genesis Fields. The 2 sites GD 237 and GC 204 are positioned on the flank of an intraslope basin containing a thick sedimentary sequence. Major fluid-gas migration pathways occur near the edges of shallow subsurface salt masses. The two-fluid gas expulsion sites were investigated with 4-component ocean-bottom-cable (4C OBC) seismic data and chirp-sonar data acquired by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The study examined the near-seafloor geology of the deep-water, fluid-gas expulsion features to estimate hydrate concentrations in strata spanned by the hydrate stability zone local to these expulsion sites. In some units, hydrate concentrations were more than 30 per cent of the available pore space of the host sediment. A free-gas layer was discovered immediately under the base of the hydrate stability zone across each expulsion site area. It was revealed by a reduction in V{sub p} velocity. Although the amount of free-gas in this zone has not been estimated, it is expected that the zone has a gas saturation of only a few percentage points. This free-gas zone was not obviously different from hydrate-bearing zones when examining resistivity logs. It was concluded that interpreting the thickness of a hydrate stability zone from resistivity logs alone could result in an overestimation of the thickness of the hydrate stability zone and the amount of hydrate that exists near deep-water expulsion features. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Secession and Expulsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    If secession or expulsion ends in a `velvet divorce,' as with Czechoslovakia, costs areminimal and the split is relatively unimportant. High costs arise if a federation splits into mutuallyhostile, comparably sized regions. Perhaps the majority of splits lead to dangerous hostility. Awell...

  8. Expulsive choroidal haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan M

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Expulsive choroidal haemorrhage is a dramatic and serious complication of cataract surgery that occurred in five patients out of ten thousand consecutive cataract surgeries performed by the author during the year 1989 and 1990. Report about this dreaded complication after cataract surgery are scanty and as far as I can remember I have not seen any report in Indian ophthalmic literature recently. Since cataract surgery forms the major part of intra ocular surgeries performed in our country, I thought it would be appropriate to report about this rare complication which may occur to all of us. Out of five cases 3 were males and 2 were females in the age group ranging between 45-72 years. Two eyes regained vision up to 6/12 after intra operative expulsive haemorrhage. All the eyes were salvaged by doing anterior sclerotomy. Diabetes, hypertension, glaucoma and myopia are the commonest predisposing factors.

  9. Long-term fluid expulsion revealed by carbonate crusts and pockmarks connected to subsurface gas anomalies and palaeo-channels in the central North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Shyam; Crémière, Antoine; Lepland, Aivo; Thorsnes, Terje; Brunstad, Harald; Stoddart, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Gas seepage through the seafloor into the water column is inferred based on acoustic mapping, video observations and geochemical analyses at multiple locations in the Viking Graben and Utsira High areas of the central North Sea. Flares in the Viking Graben occur both inside and along the periphery of a submarine melt water channel where pockmarks (up to 500 m in diameter) and methane-derived carbonate crusts are found on the seafloor, indicating focussing of fluid flow in the vicinity of the channel. The flares can be related to gas accumulations close to the seafloor as well as in Quaternary and deeper strata, observed as high-amplitude reflections on seismic data. Many palaeo-channels, which act as accumulation zones, are observed in the subsurface of both the Viking Graben and Utsira High areas. The deeper origin of gas is partially supported by results of isotope analyses of headspace gas collected from sediment samples of the Viking Graben, which show a mixed microbial/thermogenic origin whereas isotope data on free seeping gas in the Viking Graben indicate a predominantly microbial origin. Based on these lines of evidence, a structure-controlled fluid flow model is proposed whereby hydrocarbons migrate in limited amount from deep thermogenic reservoirs along faults, and these deep fluids are strongly diluted by microbial methane. Moreover, the existence of subsurface pockmarks at several stratigraphic levels indicates long-term fluid flow, interpreted to be caused by gas hydrate destabilisation and stress-related high overpressures.

  10. Bilateral traumatic expulsive aniridia after phacoemulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltra, Erica Z; Chow, Clement C; Lunde, Mark W

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral traumatic expulsive aniridia after uneventful phacoemulsification through small clear corneal incisions. Phacoemulsification was performed 8 and 13 months prior to the trauma in the left and right eyes, respectively. In both eyes, the intraocular lens and capsular bag were undisturbed after trauma. After resolution of hyphema, transient elevated intraocular pressure, and anterior chamber inflammation, best corrected visual acuity returned to 20/25 in each eye 6 months later. Self-sealing clear corneal wounds likely serve as a decompression valve during blunt trauma, thus preventing devastating intraocular damage and globe rupture. The intraocular lens may absorb the external force, therefore preventing damage to the capsular bag and zonules as well as preventing prolapse of posterior structures. A review of previously reported cases of traumatic aniridia is also presented.

  11. Fluid Expulsion, Habitability, and the Search for Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; Allen, Carlton C.

    2012-01-01

    Habitability assessments are critical for identifying settings in which potential biosignatures could exist in quantities large enough to be detected by rovers. Habitability depends on 1) the potential for long-lived liquid water, 2) conditions affording protection from surface processes destructive to organic biomolecules, and 3) a source of renewing nutrients and energy. Of these criteria, the latter is often overlooked. Here we present an analysis of a large "ghost" crater in northern Chryse Planitia [1] that appears to have satisfied each of these requirements, with several processes providing potential sources of nutrient/energy renewal [1-2]. This analysis can serve as a model for identifying other localities that could provide similarly favorable settings in which to seek evidence of life on Mars.

  12. Magnetic Flux Expulsion Studies in Niobium SRF Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posen, Sam [Fermilab; Checchin, Mattia [Fermilab; Crawford, Anthony [Fermilab; Grassellino, Anna [Fermilab; Martinello, Martina [Fermilab; Melnychuk, Oleksandr [Fermilab; Romanenko, Alexander [Fermilab; Sergatskov, Dmitri [Fermilab; Trenikhina, Yulia [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    With the recent discovery of nitrogen doping treatment for SRF cavities, ultra-high quality factors at medium accelerating fields are regularly achieved in vertical RF tests. To preserve these quality factors into the cryomodule, it is important to consider background magnetic fields, which can become trapped in the surface of the cavity during cooldown and cause Q₀ degradation. Building on the recent discovery that spatial thermal gradients during cooldown can significantly improve expulsion of magnetic flux, a detailed study was performed of flux expulsion on two cavities with different furnace treatments that are cooled in magnetic fields amplitudes representative of what is expected in a realistic cryomodule. In this contribution, we summarize these cavity results, in order to improve understanding of the impact of flux expulsion on cavity performance.

  13. Multiple expulsions. Affective and material evictions in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ansaloni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available If we regard expulsions as the abrupt interruption along the territorialisation process of any body in search of refuge, we could see displaced people and migrants as those figures that have to cope with multiple expulsions until they can build a less vulnerable and precarious territory. Drawing on an ethnographic fieldwork in the makeshift camp of Calais known as the Jungle, I outline a relentless movement of expulsion-inclusion, which is both material and affective and operates on different dimensions. In the Jungle of Calais, from March 2015 to October 2016 lived thousands of people coming mainly from Afghanistan, Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Pakistan, who created a city-like system together with volunteers from UK and France. Both the French state and the aid groups built their own territories by establishing different kind of relations with the residents of the Jungle, thus contributing to (at least temporarily stabilise or destabilise their search for a territory of their own and engaging in less visible practices of expulsion.

  14. Expulsion of dominant submucosal fibroids after uterine artery embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radeleff, Boris, E-mail: Boris_radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.d [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Eiers, Michael; Bellemann, Nadine; Ramsauer, Stefanie [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Rimbach, Stefan [Department of Gynecology, University of Konstanz (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Richter, Goetz M. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Katharinenhospital, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: Purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, probability, and factors associated with expulsion of submucosal fibroids after uterine artery embolization (UAE) in addition to the technical and clinical results at 1-year follow-up. Materials and methods: We determined the preinterventional volume of each dominant submucosal fibroid using the commonly used ellipsoid formula and a 3D volumetry in the MRI to define a threshold value in milliliters that indicates the probability for a fibroid expulsion. Assessment of fibroid expulsion was done by MRI at 3-month intervals for a year. Assessment of clinical mid term success was achieved by applying questionnaires at 1-year follow-up. Results: Technical success was observed in all 20 patients (mean age of 41.4 {+-} 5.6 years; range: 29.2-51.1 years). Two (10%) minor and one (5%) major complications occurred. 10/20 dominant submucosal fibroids were completely expelled during the follow-up. Using 3D MRI volumetry the preinterventional mean volume of the later expelled fibroids was 56.8 {+-} 57.0 ml (range 2.3-198.0 ml) and the mean volume of non-expelled fibroids was 123.8 {+-} 147.3 ml (range 24.0-531.8 ml). This difference was statistically significant, but weak (p = 0.0494). Fibroids with a volume equal or less than the threshold value (66.0 ml) were 73% likely to be expelled and fibroids larger than 66.0 ml were 78% likely not to be expelled. All 20 patients demonstrated a significant reduction in the fibroid related symptoms. Conclusion: In our study the complication rate was low despite increased rates of fibroid expulsion (50%); simultaneously the rate of treatment satisfaction was very high. Patients with a dominant submucosal fibroid under 66.0 ml should be informed about the probability of fibroid expulsion and the accompanying symptoms.

  15. Postplacental intrauterine device expulsion by 12 weeks: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldthwaite, Lisa M; Sheeder, Jeanelle; Hyer, Jennifer; Tocce, Kristina; Teal, Stephanie B

    2017-12-01

    An intrauterine device placed immediately following a delivery can serve as an effective and safe contraceptive strategy in the postpartum period. There is limited evidence that the levonorgestrel intrauterine system may have a higher rate of expulsion compared to the copper intrauterine device; however, rates of expulsion for these 2 intrauterine device types have not been compared directly. We sought to compare expulsion rates by 12 weeks' postpartum for the levonorgestrel intrauterine system and copper intrauterine device. We enrolled women who received postplacental intrauterine devices at 2 urban hospitals. Eligible women were ≥18 years old, English- or Spanish-speaking, with singleton vaginal delivery at ≥35 weeks' gestation. Intrauterine devices were inserted within 10 minutes of placental delivery by trained providers using ring forceps or the operator's hand. Intrauterine device location was evaluated via abdominal ultrasound at 24-48 hours' postpartum, and via transvaginal ultrasound 6 and 12 weeks later, categorizing position of the intrauterine device at the fundus, below the fundus but above the internal os, any part of the intrauterine device below the internal os (partial expulsion), or no intrauterine device visualized. Outcomes included intrauterine device expulsion and method continuation. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with expulsion. We enrolled 123 women ages 18-40 years. Of these, 68 (55%) initiated levonorgestrel intrauterine system and 55 (45%) initiated copper intrauterine device. Groups were similar except more copper intrauterine device users were Hispanic (66% vs 38%) and fewer were primiparous (16% vs 31%). Among the 96 (78%) with 12-week follow-up, expulsion was higher for levonorgestrel intrauterine system users (21/55 or 38%) than for copper intrauterine device users (8/41 or 20%) (odds ratio, 2.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-6.55; P = .05). At 24 hours' postpartum, there was no

  16. Chin Prompt Plus Re-Presentation as Treatment for Expulsion in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Jonathan W.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Groff, Rebecca A.; Vaz, Petula C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Expulsion (spitting out food) is a problem behavior observed in many children with feeding disorders. In the current investigation, we identified 4 children diagnosed with a feeding disorder who exhibited high rates of expulsion. Treatment with re-presentation (placing expelled liquids or solids back into the child's mouth) was not effective in…

  17. A Review of Court Cases Involving Out-of-School Suspension and Expulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Research in the field of out-of-school suspension and expulsion in K-12 public schools is limited when focusing on violence, due process, weapons, drugs and alcohol, and search and seizure. Understanding the role of an administrator when dealing with out-of-school suspension an expulsion led the researcher to develop the following question: What…

  18. Summary report of project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion, Nuclear)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buden, D.

    1992-12-01

    Project SIREN (Search, Intercept, Retrieve, Expulsion, Nuclear) has evaluated the technologies and operational strategies needed to rendezvous with and capture aerospace radioactive materials (e.g., a distressed or spent space reactor core) before such materials can reenter the terrestrial atmosphere and to move these captured materials to a space destination for proper disposal. The use of systems external to a satellite allows multiple attempts to prevent the nuclear materials from reentering the atmosphere. SIREN also has investigated means to prevent the breakup of nuclear-powered systems already in space. The SIREN project has determined that external means can be used reliably to prevent nuclear materials from reentering the terrestrial environment, prepared a computer model that can be used to evaluate the means to dispose of radioactive materials, assessed the hazards from existing nuclear power systems in space, and in discussions with Russian Federation representatives determined interest in joint activities in this area.

  19. Aircraft icing and thermo-mechanical expulsion de-icing technology

    OpenAIRE

    MA, QINGLIN

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is Aircraft Icing and Aircraft Icing and Thermo-Mechanical Expulsion De-icing Technology. The main objectives are to investigate aircraft icing meteorology and effects on aircraft, ice protection systems and thermo-mechanical expulsion de-icing technology. Initially, the research project focuses on aircraft icing meteorology, ice accumulation and icing effects on flight safety. A basic understanding of aircraft icing is explained, including icing conditions and par...

  20. Behavior of perineum during delivery before fetal head expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Díaz, Enrique; Fernández Fernández, Camino; Fernández Galguera, Maria Jose; Fernández Corona, Alfonso

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe perineum deformation during the final part of delivery and suggest a modification of the episiotomy cut to increase accuracy for obtaining a suitable angle (45°) for surgical wound suture. This prospective study enrolled 45 primiparous women. The perineum at rest was marked with five lines (0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°), and each line was marked with two dots (point A-B: to 2-3 cm from initial point in fourchette, respectively). Two digital pictures were taken: one with the women at rest and the second during fetal head crowning; displacements were calculated for each point and angle. When the perineum is distending, the initial point of every line in the posterior fourchette moves laterally in introitus (only the 0° line remains at midline). The angle and the distance to points A and B of each line drawn do not change significantly from at rest to crowning. However, comparing original line configuration with an imaginary line from the fourchette to points A and B before expulsion, the angle and the distance is increased statistically significantly. Perineal distension at the moment of fetal head crowning causes a linear displacement of the perineum, which causes the difference in angle between the incision and episiotomy suture. Therefore, to obtain an episiotomy suture from fourchette with an angle of 45°, theoretically, we would have several angle incision options (between 45° and 60°), with a less acute angle when the introitus cut is closer to the fourchette (45° to 6 mm and ∼60° in the fourchette) and a sharper angle with a longer episiotomy.

  1. Gas expulsion in massive star clusters?. Constraints from observations of young and gas-free objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Martin G. H.; Charbonnel, Corinne; Bastian, Nate; Diehl, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Context. Gas expulsion is a central concept in some of the models for multiple populations and the light-element anti-correlations in globular clusters. If the star formation efficiency was around 30 per cent and the gas expulsion happened on the crossing timescale, this process could preferentially expel stars born with the chemical composition of the proto-cluster gas, while stars with special composition born in the centre would remain bound. Recently, a sample of extragalactic, gas-free, young massive clusters has been identified that has the potential to test the conditions for gas expulsion. Aims: We investigate the conditions required for residual gas expulsion on the crossing timescale. We consider a standard initial mass function and different models for the energy production in the cluster: metallicity-dependent stellar winds, radiation, supernovae and more energetic events, such as hypernovae, which are related to gamma ray bursts. The latter may be more energetic than supernovae by up to two orders of magnitude. Methods: We computed a large number of thin-shell models for the gas dynamics, and calculated whether the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is able to disrupt the shell before it reaches the escape speed. Results: We show that the success of gas expulsion depends on the compactness index of a star cluster C5 ≡ (M∗/ 105 M⊙)/(rh/ pc), with initial stellar mass M∗ and half-mass radius rh. For given C5, a certain critical, local star formation efficiency is required to remove the rest of the gas. Common stellar feedback processes may not lead to gas expulsion with significant loss of stars above C5 ≈ 1. Considering pulsar winds and hypernovae, the limit increases to C5 ≈ 30. If successful, gas expulsion generally takes place on the crossing timescale. Some observed young massive clusters have 1 age. Conclusions: Globular clusters should initially have C5 ≲ 100, if the gas expulsion paradigm was correct. Early gas expulsion, which is

  2. Cryogenic fluid management experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The cryogenic fluid management experiment (CFME), designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-q space environment, is discussed. The experiment utilizes a fine mesh screen fluid management device to accomplish gas-free liquid expulsion and a thermodynamic vent system to intercept heat leak and control tank pressure. The experiment design evolved from a single flight prototype to provision for a multimission (up to 7) capability. A detailed design of the CFME, a dynamic test article, and dedicated ground support equipment were generated. All materials and parts were identified, and components were selected and specifications prepared. Long lead titanium pressurant spheres and the flight tape recorder and ground reproduce unit were procured. Experiment integration with the shuttle orbiter, Spacelab, and KSC ground operations was coordinated with the appropriate NASA centers, and experiment interfaces were defined. Phase 1 ground and flight safety reviews were conducted. Costs were estimated for fabrication and assembly of the CFME, which will become the storage and supply tank for a cryogenic fluid management facility to investigate fluid management in space.

  3. Management of ureteral calculi and medical expulsive therapy in emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Picozzi C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Ureteral stones are a common problem in daily emergency department practice. Patients may be offered medical expulsive therapy (MET1 to facilitate stone expulsion and this should be offered as a treatment for patients with distal ureteral calculi, who are amenable to waiting management. Emergency department clinicians and family practitioners are often in the front line regarding the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic nephrolithiasis and this commentary is dedicated to them because their decisions directly influence the outcome of the acute stone episode and appropriate referral patterns. Materials and Methods : The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to understand the role of MET in the treatment of obstructing ureteral calculi. A bibliographic search covering the period from January 1980 to March 2010 was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE. The searches were restricted to publications in English. This analysis is based on the 21 studies that fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria. Results : A metaregression analysis of expulsion time showed a statistically significant advantage in the experimental group, in which the mean expulsion time was 6.2 days compared to 10.3 days in controls. The treatment effect on expulsion rate (P = 0.53 was partially lost as the size of the stones decreased because of the high spontaneous expulsion rate of small stones and the expulsion time was not influenced by pharmacological treatment (P = 0.76 if the stone size was smaller than 5 mm. Analysis of the tamsulosin database : A total of 1283 participants were included in the 17 studies. These studies showed that compared to standard therapy or placebo, tamsulosin had significant benefits, being associated with both a higher stone expulsion rate (P < 0.001 and reduction of the expulsion time (P = 0.02. Reductions in the need for analgesic therapy, hospitalization and surgery are also shown. Analysis of the nifedipine

  4. The expulsion of Jesuits from Nueva Granada in 185Oas key for understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Cortés Guerrero

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the confrontation between the liberal ideology of the mid nineteenth century and the conservative positions of the time as a result of the expulsion of the Society of Jesus from the Nueva Granada. The expulsion of the Jesuits encapsulates several key aspects of liberal ideology: the need to break with the colonial past; progress and civilization as attainable objectives; education as a neutral in terms of religious instruction; and the separation of the Catholic Church from the State as an important factor for reaching modernization and modernity. With the expulsion of the Jesuits one can also see the aligning of the nascent political parties, some defended the expulsión, others opposed it vehemently.

  5. Does using tampons or menstrual cups increase early IUD expulsion rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Trouton, Konia J

    2012-08-01

    Many intrauterine device (IUD) users utilize intravaginal menstrual cups or tampons during menses, but no studies have investigated the impact this practice may have on IUD expulsions. Retrospective chart survey. Of the 930 women having IUDs placed and reporting menstrual protection, 10.3% (96) used menstrual cups, 74.2% (690) used tampons, and 43.2% (402) used pads (many women reported using more than one method). In the 743 women with adequate follow-up information, there was a full or partial expulsion (i.e., part of the IUD in the cervical canal) rate of 2.5% (27) during the first 6 weeks after insertion. There was no difference in the women using cups, tampons or pads (confidence intervals overlap). From this study, there is no evidence that women who report using menstrual cups or tampons for menstrual protection had higher rates of early IUD expulsion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of UV radiation on the expulsion of Symbiodinium from the coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hui; Beardall, John; Gao, Kunshan

    2017-01-01

    The variation in density of the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinum in coral is a basic indicator of coral bleaching, i.e. loss of the symbiotic algae or their photosynthetic pigments. However, in the field corals constantly release their symbiotic algae to surrounding water. To explore the underlying mechanism, the rate of expulsion of zooxanthellae from the coral Pocillopora damicornis was studied over a three-day period under ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400nm) stress. The results showed that the algal expulsion rate appeared 10-20% higher under exposure to UV-A (320-395nm) or UV-B (295-320nm), though the differences were not statistically significant. When corals were exposed to UV-A and UV-B radiation, the maximum expulsion of zooxanthellae occurred at noon (10:00-13:00), and this timing was 1h earlier than in the control without UVR. UVR stress led to obvious decreases in the concentrations of chl a and carotenoids in the coral nubbins after a three-day exposure. Therefore, our results suggested that although the UVR effect on algal expulsion rate was a chronic stress and was not significant within a time frame of only three days, the reduction in chl a and carotenoids may potentially enhance the possibility of coral bleaching over a longer period. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Contemporary Deportation Raids and Historical Memory: Mexican Expulsions in the Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Jose Angel

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary situation in the United States with respect to Mexican migrants has reached a level of intensity that harkens back to the mass expulsions of the 1930s and the 1950s, when millions were forcefully removed south across the border. Recent deportation raids have targeted food processing plants and other large businesses hiring migrant…

  8. Is the expulsion of women as foreigners in Ezra 9-10 justifiably ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rather, it appears, the expulsion was based upon a partial or narrower view and interpretation of the Abrahamic and Mosaic covenants' codes concerning foreigners. A close reading of the story and the purported covenants' codes concerning foreigners reveals that first, these women were not foreigners as presupposed by ...

  9. Jewish responses to the decree of expulsion by king Ferdinand and queen Isabella of Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bekkum, W

    2005-01-01

    The expulsion of the Sephardim - the term for Spain's Jews - was a turning point in the history of the Iberian peninsula. A rising tide of religious fanaticism gradually engulfed Spain, leading to the persecution of 1391 and then, in March 1492, to the decree of the Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand and

  10. School Expulsions, Suspensions, and Dropouts: Understanding the Issues. Hot Topics Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Arnold, Ed.

    This collection of papers examines the causal and contextual issues surrounding the emerging rash of student expulsions, suspensions, and dropouts; discusses legal restrictions that school personnel must consider when establishing and implementing student codes of conduct; and presents promising programs and practices to reduce the number of…

  11. Suspension, Expulsion, and Achievement of English Learner Students in Six Oregon Districts. REL 2015-094

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the rates of exclusionary discipline (i.e., suspensions and expulsions) among English learners and non-English learners in six diverse Oregon districts that serve a third of the state's English learner students. Using 2011/12 databases from the Oregon Department of Education, the study found that differences in suspension and…

  12. Formation and Evolution of Target Patterns in Cahn-Hilliard Flows: An Extension of the Flux Expulsion Studies in MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiang; P H Diamond Collaboration; Luis Chacon Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Spinodal decomposition is a second order phase transition for a binary liquid mixture to evolve from a miscible phase (e.g., water + alcohol) to two co-existing phases (e.g., water + oil). The Cahn-Hilliard model for spinodal decomposition is analogous to 2D MHD. We study the evolution of the concentration field in a single eddy in the 2D Cahn-Hilliard system to better understand scalar mixing processes in that system. This study extends investigations of the classic studies of flux expulsion in 2D MHD and homogenization of potential vorticity in 2D fluids. Simulation results show that there are three stages in the evolution: (A) formation of a ``jelly roll'' pattern, for which the concentration field is constant along spirals; (B) a change in isoconcentration contour topology; and (C) formation of a target pattern, for which the isoconcentration contours follow concentric annuli. In the final target pattern stage, the isoconcentration bands align with stream lines. The results indicate that the target pattern is a metastable state. Band merger process continues on a time scale exponentially long relative to the eddy turnover time. The band merger process resembles step merger in drift-ZF staircases. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, under Award Number DE-FG02-04ER54738.

  13. Subduction-driven recycling of continental margin lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levander, A; Bezada, M J; Niu, F; Humphreys, E D; Palomeras, I; Thurner, S M; Masy, J; Schmitz, M; Gallart, J; Carbonell, R; Miller, M S

    2014-11-13

    Whereas subduction recycling of oceanic lithosphere is one of the central themes of plate tectonics, the recycling of continental lithosphere appears to be far more complicated and less well understood. Delamination and convective downwelling are two widely recognized processes invoked to explain the removal of lithospheric mantle under or adjacent to orogenic belts. Here we relate oceanic plate subduction to removal of adjacent continental lithosphere in certain plate tectonic settings. We have developed teleseismic body wave images from dense broadband seismic experiments that show higher than expected volumes of anomalously fast mantle associated with the subducted Atlantic slab under northeastern South America and the Alboran slab beneath the Gibraltar arc region; the anomalies are under, and are aligned with, the continental margins at depths greater than 200 kilometres. Rayleigh wave analysis finds that the lithospheric mantle under the continental margins is significantly thinner than expected, and that thin lithosphere extends from the orogens adjacent to the subduction zones inland to the edges of nearby cratonic cores. Taking these data together, here we describe a process that can lead to the loss of continental lithosphere adjacent to a subduction zone. Subducting oceanic plates can viscously entrain and remove the bottom of the continental thermal boundary layer lithosphere from adjacent continental margins. This drives surface tectonics and pre-conditions the margins for further deformation by creating topography along the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. This can lead to development of secondary downwellings under the continental interior, probably under both South America and the Gibraltar arc, and to delamination of the entire lithospheric mantle, as around the Gibraltar arc. This process reconciles numerous, sometimes mutually exclusive, geodynamic models proposed to explain the complex oceanic-continental tectonics of these subduction zones.

  14. A Reappraisal of the Expulsion of Illegal Immigrants from Nigeria in 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daouda Gary-Tounkara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Nigeria has been quietly expelling more and more immigrants from Niger, Mali, Chad and Cameroon. These foreigners – migrant workers or small traders – face the reinforcement of migration control and the blind fight of the government against Boko Haram. Despite its political instability, Nigeria remains a major immigration destination in West Africa. In this article, I analyze the “undocumented” expulsion of aliens in 1983, officially three million people. I argue that the expulsion was due to the economic crisis but also to a nationalist revenge against Ghana and a political calculation of President Shagari. This implies the exclusion of foreigners from the national labour market and the weakening of the supposed electoral base of his opponents.

  15. Spin transfer driven resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex core for efficient rf detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Menshawy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spin transfer magnetization dynamics have led to considerable advances in Spintronics, including opportunities for new nanoscale radiofrequency devices. Among the new functionalities is the radiofrequency (rf detection using the spin diode rectification effect in spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs. In this study, we focus on a new phenomenon, the resonant expulsion of a magnetic vortex in STNOs. This effect is observed when the excitation vortex radius, due to spin torques associated to rf currents, becomes larger than the actual radius of the STNO. This vortex expulsion is leading to a sharp variation of the voltage at the resonant frequency. Here we show that the detected frequency can be tuned by different parameters; furthermore, a simultaneous detection of different rf signals can be achieved by real time measurements with several STNOs having different diameters. This result constitutes a first proof-of-principle towards the development of a new kind of nanoscale rf threshold detector.

  16. Late Complication after Superficial Femoral Artery (SFA) Aneurysm: Stent-graft Expulsion Outside the Skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecoraro, Felice, E-mail: felicepecoraro@libero.it; Sabatino, Ermanno R.; Dinoto, Ettore; Rosa, Giuliana La; Corte, Giuseppe; Bajardi, Guido [University of Palermo, Vascular Surgery Unit (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    A 78-year-old man presented with a 7-cm aneurysm in the left superficial femoral artery, which was considered unfit and anatomically unsuitable for conventional open surgery for multiple comorbidities. The patient was treated with stent-graft [Viabhan stent-graft (WL Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ)]. Two years from stent-graft implantation, the patient presented a purulent secretion and a spontaneous external expulsion through a fistulous channel. No claudication symptoms or hemorrhagic signs were present. The pus and device cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to piperacillin/tazobactam. Patient management consisted of fistula drainage, systemic antibiotic therapy, and daily wound dressing. At 1-month follow-up, the wound was closed. To our knowledge, this is the first case of this type of stent-graft complication presenting with external expulsion.

  17. Shape oscillations of particle-coated bubbles and directional particle expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulichet, Vincent; Huerre, Axel; Garbin, Valeria

    2016-12-21

    Bubbles stabilised by colloidal particles can find applications in advanced materials, catalysis and drug delivery. For applications in controlled release, it is desirable to remove the particles from the interface in a programmable fashion. We have previously shown that ultrasound waves excite volumetric oscillations of particle-coated bubbles, resulting in precisely timed particle expulsion due to interface compression on a ultrafast timescale [Poulichet et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2015, 112, 5932]. We also observed shape oscillations, which were found to drive directional particle expulsion from the antinodes of the non-spherical deformation. In this paper we investigate the mechanisms leading to directional particle expulsion during shape oscillations of particle-coated bubbles driven by ultrasound at 40 kHz. We perform high-speed visualisation of the interface shape and of the particle distribution during ultrafast deformation at a rate of up to 10 4 s -1 . The mode of shape oscillations is found to not depend on the bubble size, in contrast with what has been reported for uncoated bubbles. A decomposition of the non-spherical shape in spatial Fourier modes reveals that the interplay of different modes determines the locations of particle expulsion. The n-fold symmetry of the dominant mode does not always lead to desorption from all 2n antinodes, but only those where there is favourable alignment with the sub-dominant modes. Desorption from the antinodes of the shape oscillations is due to different, concurrent mechanisms. The radial acceleration of the interface at the antinodes can be up to 10 5 -10 6 ms -2 , hence there is a contribution from the inertia of the particles localised at the antinodes. In addition, we found that particles migrate to the antinodes of the shape oscillation, thereby enhancing the contribution from the surface pressure in the monolayer.

  18. Expulsive therapy versus early endoscopic stone removal in patients with acute renal colic: a comparison of indirect costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauw, Casey A; Kaufman, Samuel R; Hollenbeck, Brent K; Roberts, William W; Faerber, Gary J; Wolf, J Stuart; Hollingsworth, John M

    2014-03-01

    While medical expulsive therapy is associated with lower health care expenditures compared to early endoscopic stone removal in patients with renal colic, little is known about the effect of medical expulsive therapy on indirect costs. Using a previously validated claims based algorithm we identified a cohort of patients with acute renal colic. After determining the up-front treatment type (ie an initial course of medical expulsive therapy vs early endoscopic stone removal) we compared differences in rates of short-term disability filing. We used propensity score matching to account for differences between treatment groups such that patients treated with medical expulsive therapy vs early endoscopic stone removal were similar with regard to measured characteristics. In total, 257 (35.8%) and 461 (64.2%) patients were treated with medical expulsive therapy or early endoscopic stone removal, respectively. There were no differences between treatment groups after propensity score matching. In the matched cohort the patients treated with medical expulsive therapy had a 6% predicted probability of filing a claim for short-term disability compared to 16.5% in the early endoscopic stone removal cohort (p indirect costs to the patient compared to early endoscopic stone removal. These findings have implications for providers when counseling patients with acute renal colic. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of fibroids or vaginal expulsion following uterine artery embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Ri; Kim, Nack Keun; Lee, Mee Hwa [Pochon CHA University, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Bundang CHA General Hospital, Sungnam-si, Kyonggi-do (Korea); Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Hee Jin; Yoon, Sang-Wook [Pochon CHA University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Bundang CHA General Hospital, Sungnam-si, Kyonggi-do (Korea); Park, Won Kyu [Yeungnam University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyongson, Dyongbuk (Korea)

    2005-09-01

    The aim of our study is to present our experience with uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of uterine fibroids or transvaginal expulsion following uterine artery embolization (UAE) and to determine its safety and outcome. One hundred and twenty-four women (mean age, 40.3 years; age range, 29-52 years) with symptomatic uterine fibroids were included in this retrospective study. We performed arterial embolization with poly(vinyl alcohol) particles (250-710 {mu}m). Clinical symptoms and follow-up information for each patient were obtained through medical records. At an average of 3.5 months (range, 1-8 months) after embolization, magnetic resonance imaging examinations with T1- and T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained for all patients. The mean follow-up duration was 120 days (90-240 days). Eight (6.5%) patients experienced uterine restoration after repeated sloughing of uterine fibroids or spontaneous transvaginal expulsion. The locations of the leiomyomas were submucosal (n=5), intramural (n=2) and transmural (n=1). The maximum diameter of the fibroids ranged from 3.5 to 18.0 cm, with a mean of 8.4 cm. The time interval from embolization to the uterine restoration was 7-150 days (mean 70.5 days). The clinical symptoms before and during vaginal sloughing or expulsion were lower abdominal pain (n=4), vaginal discharges (n=3), infection of necrotic myomas (n=2) and cramping abdominal pain (n=1). Gentle abdominal compression (n=1) and hysteroscopic assistance (n=1) were required to remove the whole fibroid. No other clinical sequelae, either early or delayed, were documented. Magnetic resonance images revealed the disappearance of leiomyomas, intracavitary rupture resulting in transformation of intramural or transmural myomas into submucosal myomas and localized uterine wall defects. Although the small size of this study precludes a strict conclusion, there appear to be few serious complications directly related to vaginal

  20. Role of uterine forces in intrauterine device embedment, perforation, and expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstuck, Norman D; Wildemeersch, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine factors that could help reduce primary perforation during insertion of a framed intrauterine device (IUD) and to determine factors that contribute in generating enough uterine muscle force to cause embedment and secondary perforation of an IUD. The objective was also to evaluate the main underlying mechanism of IUD expulsion. We compared known IUD insertion forces for "framed" devices with known perforation forces in vitro (hysterectomy specimens) and known IUD removal forces and calculated a range of possible intrauterine forces using pressure and surface area. These were compared with known perforation forces. IUD insertion forces range from 1.5 N to 6.5 N. Removal forces range from 1 N to 5.8 N and fracture forces from 8.7 N to 30 N depending upon device. Measured perforation forces are from 20 N to 54 N, and calculations show the uterus is capable of generating up to 50 N of myometrial force depending on internal pressure and surface area. Primary perforation with conventional framed IUDs may occur if the insertion pressure exceeds the perforation resistance of the uterine fundus. This is more likely to occur if the front end of the inserter/IUD is narrow, the passage through the cervix is difficult, and the procedure is complex. IUD embedment and secondary perforation and IUD expulsion may be due to imbalance between the size of the IUD and that of the uterine cavity, causing production of asymmetrical uterine forces. The uterine muscle seems capable of generating enough force to cause an IUD to perforate the myometrium provided it is applied asymmetrically. A physical theory for IUD expulsion and secondary IUD perforation is given.

  1. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried within the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate the systems and technologies associated with the efficient management of cryogens in space. Cryogenic fluid management consists of the systems and technologies for: (1) liquid storage and supply, including capillary acquisition/expulsion systems which provide single-phase liquid to the user system, (2) both passive and active thermal control systems, and (3) fluid transfer/resupply systems, including transfer lines and receiver tanks. The facility contains a storage and supply tank, a transfer line and a receiver tank, configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage and transfer processes. The facility will provide design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer system applications, such as Space Station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, and ground-based and space-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV).

  2. Trichinella spiralis: differences between early and late rapid expulsion evident from inhibition studies using cortisone and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, R.G.

    1987-12-01

    Cortisone administered once at 100 mg/kg during the first 3 weeks of infection inhibited rapid expulsion. In rats immunized with an abbreviated infection (T/M regime) inhibition averaged approximately 50%, whereas in rats given a complete infection (C.I.) 14% inhibition occurred. Sensitivity to 400 rad whole-body irradiation was greatest 7 days before a challenge infection in all immune rats. Three days after beginning the T/M infection rats were highly susceptible to cortisone but only weakly so to irradiation. Rats immunized by C.I. were equally, but only weakly, susceptible to either cortisone or irradiation 3 days after infection. Acute administration of cortisone 1 or 4 hr prior to challenge did not inhibit rapid expulsion but 60% inhibition occurred when cortisone was given 24 hr prior to challenge. Inhibition of rapid expulsion by irradiation 7 days prior to challenge was not reversed by immune serum and irradiation did not affect antibody titer in treated rats. It was suggested that irradiation 7 days before challenge compromised the intestinal, and not the immunological, component of rapid expulsion. Differences in sensitivity of early and late rapid expulsion to irradiation and cortisone therapy provide further evidence of functional differences between these rejection processes.

  3. Medical expulsive therapy in urolithiasis: a mixed treatment comparison network meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Kannan; Sivaramakrishnan, Gowri

    2017-10-01

    Medical expulsive therapy (MET) using alpha blockers, calcium channel blockers (CCB), phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEI) and spasmolytics have been shown to be effective in clinical trials on urolithiasis. The present study is a network meta-analysis comparing the above mentioned drug classes. Electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials comparing the above mentioned drug classes in patients with urolithiasis using appropriate search strategy. Inverse variance heterogeneity model was used for the mixed treatment comparisons. Stone expulsion rate (SER) was the primary and stone expulsion time (SET) was the main secondary outcome measure. We included a total of 114 studies for systematic review and 108 studies for the network meta-analysis. Alpha blockers, PDEI, and combined alpha blockers and corticosteroids had significantly increased SER and shorter SET than placebo or standard of care. Alpha blockers have the highest probability of being the 'best' in the pool with regard to SER. This effect persisted in patients with stones ≥ 5 mm, children, after shockwave lithotripsy, proximal ureteric stones and distal ureteric stones. To conclude, we observed a statistically significant increase in the expulsion rate and shorter expulsion time with alpha blockers, PDEI and combined alpha blockers with corticosteroids. Of these interventions, alpha blockers have the high probability of being the 'best'.

  4. The effect of inhibition of prostaglandin F2 alpha synthesis on placental expulsion in the ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassagne, M; Barnouin, J

    1993-01-01

    Five ewes were injected with two doses of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAI), lysine acetyl salicylate, at birth of their first lamb and one hour later, and five others were injected once only, at birth of their first lamb. A control group of six animals was constituted. The times needed for fetal expulsion and placental release were recorded. The peripheral plasma PgF2 alpha (as PGFM) levels were measured prepartum during the seven last days of gestation, at parturition, then 1 h, 2 h and 12 h after lambing. The results were compared among and within treatment groups. They indicate that the physiological increase in peripheral PGFM levels starts two days before lambing and that the level peaks at lambing. The normal decrease after parturition is emphasized by NSAI injections as detected 1 h and 2 h posttreatment (p animals 2 h after birth compared to once treated animals and the similar low levels in all three groups 12 h after birth. The fetal membranes were expelled normally in all treated and nontreated animals, but the time needed for placental expulsion in ewes injected with two doses of NSAI was longer than in controls (p PgF2 alpha appears to have a role in placental release in the ewe. PMID:8490813

  5. Release of leukotrienes during rapid expulsion of Trichinella spiralis from immune rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqbel, R; Wakelin, D; MacDonald, A J; King, S J; Grencis, R K; Kay, A B

    1987-01-01

    Rapid expulsion of the nematode Trichinella spiralis from immune rats is associated with an increase in volume of intestinal exudate and the presence of large numbers of tissue mucosal mast cells (MMC) and eosinophils. We have measured the concentrations of leukotrienes (LT) C4 (LTC4) and B4 (LTB4) in gut perfusates and mucosal homogenates at 30 min, 1, 3, 6 and 20 hr after challenge with larvae. Leukotrienes were identified by radioimmunoassay (RIA) combined with reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). There were significant elevations at 30 min and 1 hr in the concentrations of LTC4 in the perfusates from the gut of challenged immune rats compared to controls (infected unchallenged and uninfected naive rats). Similar increases in immunoreactive LTC4 and LTB4 were observed in mucosal homogenates from the gut of immune challenged animals. A second peak of LTB4 was also observed at 20 hr in both immune and naive challenged rats. There were also elevations in serum concentration of the MMC-associated specific serine protease, rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII). Since LTC4 causes smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability and stimulation of mucus hypersecretion, and LTB4 recruits and activates inflammatory cells, leukotrienes may participate in the process of rapid expulsion of T. spiralis. PMID:3032780

  6. Magnetic flux expulsions and secular acceleration pulses at the core surface: is there a link? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chulliat, A.

    2010-12-01

    Recent observational studies based upon satellite data have shown that magnetic flux is being expelled from the core in several regions of the core surface. This phenomenon is observed below the South Atlantic Anomaly, where at least two reversed flux patches have been growing for several decades, including one under St Helena Island, and below the North polar region, where a small reversed flux patch has emerged in the 1990s, contributing to the acceleration of the North magnetic pole over the same time interval. Secular acceleration pulses are rapid surges in the second order derivative of the radial magnetic field at the core surface. The most recent pulse occurred in 2005 and was at the origin of the 2003 and 2007 geomagnetic jerks, defined as sudden changes in the field second derivative at the Earth’s surface. It was largest under St Helena and Cocos Islands. The simultaneous occurrences in the 2000s of a flux expulsion and an acceleration pulse under the St Helena region are intriguing. Both phenomena were also simultaneously observed under the North polar region in the 1990s. This presentation will (a) briefly review recent evidence in favor of the existence of magnetic flux expulsions and secular acceleration pulses at the core surface, and (b) discuss possible kinematic and dynamical links between both phenomena.

  7. Strongyloides ratti: implication of mast cell-mediated expulsion through FcεRI-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe K.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine whether FcεRI-dependent degranulation of intestinal mast cells is required for expulsion of intestinal nematode Strongyloides ratti, CD45 exon6-deficient (CD45-/- mice were inoculated with S. ratti. In CD45-/- mice, egg excretion in feces persisted for more than 30 days following S. ratti larvae inoculation, whereas in wild-type (CD45+/+ mice, the eggs completely disappeared by day 20 post-infection. The number of intestinal mucosal mast cells, which are known effector cells for the expulsion of S. ratti, was 75% lower in CD45-/- mice compared with that in CD45+/+ mice. Adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells from CD45+/+ mice into CD45-/- mice reduced the duration of S. ratti infection to comparable levels observed in CD45+/+ mice, with concomitant increases in intestinal mucosal mast cells. These results showed that CD45 is not involved in the effector function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against S. ratti infection. Since FcεRI-dependent degranulation of mast cells is completely impaired in these CD45 knockout mice, we conclude that FcεRIdependent degranulation is not required in the protective function of intestinal mucosal mast cells against primary infection of S. ratti.

  8. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  9. Immune expulsion of the trichostrongylid Cooperia oncophora is associated with increased eosinophilia and mucosal IgA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanobana, K; Ploeger, H W; Vervelde, L

    2002-10-01

    Previous experiments have shown that a primary infection with 100000 infective larvae of the trichostrongylid Cooperia oncophora allows discrimination between different type of responder animals based on the speed by which the parasite is expelled from the host. In most of the animals (intermediate responders) the expulsion occurs 35-42 days after infection. This experiment was carried out to investigate which mechanisms contribute to the clearance of the parasite from the intestine. Sequential necropsy of the animals 14, 28 and 42 days after infection together with a segmental division of the small intestine, allowed us to characterise essential components associated with development of immunity and expulsion of the parasite from its niche. The results show that during the patent phase of the infection the parasite preferentially resides in the proximal gut. Forty-two days after infection ongoing expulsion is characterised by a migration of the worms to the more distal part of the intestine. Expulsion of the adult worm population appears to be mast-cell independent and is associated with a significant increase in parasite-specific mucous IgA and IgG1 as well as with an influx of eosinophils in the intestinal lamina propria. Although we did not observe a specific lymphocyte recruitment into the intestinal mucosa, the accumulation of eosinophils seems to be mediated by CD4+ cells. We measured significant negative correlations between the number of eosinophils and the expulsion rate of the parasite expressed by sex ratio and ratio eggs per gram faeces. Parasite-specific mucosal IgA levels were negatively correlated to the fecundity of the worms, expressed as number of eggs per female worm. Our results describe the involvement of both eosinophils and mucosal IgA in the regulation of C. oncophora expulsion and suggest the development of a Th2 effector immune response.

  10. Magma chamber cooling by episodic volatile expulsion as constrained by mineral vein distributions in the Butte, Montana Cu-Mo porphyry deposit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, K.; Karlstrom, L.; Reed, M. H.

    2016-12-01

    enthalpy of each fluid pulse. We then compare with models for conductive cooling and crystallization of the source magma chamber to estimate the importance of hydrothermal fluid expulsion in the total heat budget. Such models should also provide constraints on the timing and ultimately the origin of pulsed volatile release at Butte.

  11. Generation and expulsion of petroleum in two regions of the Lower Saxony Basin with respect to different heating rates; Genese und Expulsion von Kohlenwasserstoffen in zwei Regionen des Niedersaechsischen Beckens unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Aufheizraten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueppenbecker, S.J.

    1992-07-01

    The effects of various geologic heating rates on the generation and expulsion of petroleum in two regions of the Lower Saxony Basin were studied using an integrated basin modelling approach and organic geochemical methods. The Lower Saxony Basin represents the most petroliferous region in Germany and the Posidonia Shale (Lower Toarcium, Jurassic) is the major prolific and regionally extensive source rock in this basin. In the Upper Cretaceous the thermal regime of the basin was strongly influenced by the intrusion of deep-seated igneous massives in the central and souther part. This thermal event caused different heating rates in various parts of the basin which had a significant effect on petroleum generation and expulsion. The two study areas were located in the western and southeastern part of the basin. Computer aided integrated basin modelling was applied in order to study generation and expulsion of petroleum with respect to thermal history. This included kinetic modelling of petroleum generation using specific parameters for Posidonia Shale. A new numerical model for petroleum expulsion was developed which considered mass and volume balancing of petroleum generation with changing petroleum composition and pressure/temperature conditions, fracturing of the source rock due to overpressure build-up and a pressure-driven petroleum phase flow through the pore network and newly-formed fractures. (orig.).

  12. Spontaneous Fracture and Vaginal Expulsion of the Arm of Intra-Uterine Device: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ižlknur Mutlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine device (IUD is an effective and safe contraceptive method which is commonly used worldwide. However, spontaneous or iatrogenic IUD fracture was rarely occurred during usage. We present the case about spontaneous fracture of one arm of copper IUD and the spontaneous expulsion of the broken piece in a 30-year-old woman 2 years after insertion. The patient recoursed to our clinic due to finding of a foreign body at vaginal outlet. Copper IUD was dislocated in transvaginal ultrasonographic (TVUSG examination and echogenicity of left transverse arm was not identified in transvers section.Although IUD fracture seems rarely, it must be born in mind especially when dislocation exists. Distance to fundus and its location, besides the continuity of its echogenicity and integrity should be observed during routine controls.

  13. Massive blow-out craters formed by hydrate-controlled methane expulsion from the Arctic seafloor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, K; Hubbard, A; Winsborrow, M; Patton, H; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S; Plaza-Faverola, A; Gudlaugsson, E; Serov, P; Deryabin, A; Mattingsdal, R; Mienert, J; Bünz, S

    2017-06-02

    Widespread methane release from thawing Arctic gas hydrates is a major concern, yet the processes, sources, and fluxes involved remain unconstrained. We present geophysical data documenting a cluster of kilometer-wide craters and mounds from the Barents Sea floor associated with large-scale methane expulsion. Combined with ice sheet/gas hydrate modeling, our results indicate that during glaciation, natural gas migrated from underlying hydrocarbon reservoirs and was sequestered extensively as subglacial gas hydrates. Upon ice sheet retreat, methane from this hydrate reservoir concentrated in massive mounds before being abruptly released to form craters. We propose that these processes were likely widespread across past glaciated petroleum provinces and that they also provide an analog for the potential future destabilization of subglacial gas hydrate reservoirs beneath contemporary ice sheets. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. A TRP Channel Senses Lysosome Neutralization by Pathogens to Trigger Their Expulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuxuan; Li, Guojie; Zhang, Xiaoli; Xu, Haoxing; Abraham, Soman N.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Vertebrate cells have evolved elaborate cell-autonomous defense programs to monitor subcellular compartments for infection and to evoke counter-responses. These programs are activated by pathogen-associated pattern molecules and by various strategies intracellular pathogens employ to alter cellular microenvironments. Here, we show that when uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) infect bladder epithelial cells (BECs), they are targeted by autophagy but avoid degradation because of their capacity to neutralize lysosomal pH. This change is detected by mucolipin TRP channel 3 (TRPML3), a transient receptor potential cation channel localized to lysosomes. TRPML3 activation then spontaneously initiates lysosome exocytosis, resulting in expulsion of exosome-encased bacteria. These studies reveal a cellular default system for lysosome homeostasis that has been co-opted by the autonomous defense program to clear recalcitrant pathogens. PMID:26027738

  15. Spaces of life: Revolt, expulsion and a conceptual rebirth of the educative subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Sonja; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    Beyond knowledge, critical thinking, new ideas, rigorous science and scholarly development, the university is a space of life. It is a place for academic, moral and cultural citizenship, ethically entangled with ways of being, encountering and evolving thought and relationships with the self......, the Other and society. This paper examines this space of life as being also a place of resistance and revolt, of demise, and of re-birth. Approaching the university as a lived space and experiential place (Tuan, 1997; Casey, 1997) demonstrating morality through its design (Flusser 1999; Verbeek, 2005...... use Kristeva’s notions of revolt and abjection, to argue for the critical transformative functions of constant puzzlement and questioning. Such reformation, through expulsion and re-emergence, we argue, offer hopeful potentialities for a conceptual rebirth of both the educative subject...

  16. Expulsion of the swine whipworm, Trichuris suis 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene

    parasitological, immunological and pathological parameters were evaluated in the T. suis infected pigs during the course of infection. T. suis infections were found to be associated with increases in specific serum antibodies, blood eosinophilia and basophilia, eosinophil and mast cell infiltrations of the colon......The whipworm of swine, Trichuris suis, is a gastrointestinal nematode that lives attached to the large intestinal mucosa of its host. Except for when infection levels are high, this parasite rarely causes disease in pigs. Nevertheless, increased interest in T. suis has arisen from studies...... demonstrating the potential use of its eggs as immunomodulators, treating patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease and possibly other autoimmune diseases. The immune response induced by T. suis in its host and particularly, the resulting expulsion of worms is the focus of this thesis. Whipworms...

  17. Massive blow-out craters formed by hydrate-controlled methane expulsion from the Arctic seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, K.; Hubbard, A.; Winsborrow, M.; Patton, H.; Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Plaza-Faverola, A.; Gudlaugsson, E.; Serov, P.; Deryabin, A.; Mattingsdal, R.; Mienert, J.; Bünz, S.

    2017-06-01

    Widespread methane release from thawing Arctic gas hydrates is a major concern, yet the processes, sources, and fluxes involved remain unconstrained. We present geophysical data documenting a cluster of kilometer-wide craters and mounds from the Barents Sea floor associated with large-scale methane expulsion. Combined with ice sheet/gas hydrate modeling, our results indicate that during glaciation, natural gas migrated from underlying hydrocarbon reservoirs and was sequestered extensively as subglacial gas hydrates. Upon ice sheet retreat, methane from this hydrate reservoir concentrated in massive mounds before being abruptly released to form craters. We propose that these processes were likely widespread across past glaciated petroleum provinces and that they also provide an analog for the potential future destabilization of subglacial gas hydrate reservoirs beneath contemporary ice sheets.

  18. Parturition in gilts: duration of farrowing, birth intervals and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal, piglet and placental traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rens, van B.T.T.M.; Lende, van der T.

    2004-01-01

    Large White×Meishan F2 crossbred gilts (n=57) were observed continuously during farrowing while the placentae of their offspring were labeled in order to examine the duration of farrowing and placenta expulsion in relation to maternal-, piglet- and placental traits and the duration of birth interval

  19. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) from Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Lisa; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Sasaki, Kengo; Liao, Lawrence M; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae) in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C) and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C), and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  20. Terpene compound drug as medical expulsive therapy for ureterolithiasis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Michael Erlano; Park, Jane Hyeon; Castillo, Josefino Cortez; Morales, Marcelino Lopeztan

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of terpene compound drug (pinene, camphene, borneol, anethole, fenchone and cineol in olive oil) in facilitating spontaneous passage of ureteral calculi through meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT). Systematic literature search on MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID, Science Direct, Proquest, Google scholar, Cochrane Library databases and reference list of related literatures were done without language restriction. RCTs on ureterolithiasis medical expulsive therapy (MET) that compare terpene compound drug versus placebo/control group or alpha-blockers were identified. Articles retrieved were critically appraised by two independent reviewers according to Cochrane Collaboration recommendations. Data from included studies were extracted for calculation of risk ratio (RR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI). Effect estimates were pooled using Mantel-Haenszel method with random effect model. Inter-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed. The PRISMA guidelines for meta-analysis reporting were followed. Five RCTs (total of 344 subjects) of adequate methodological quality were included. Pooled effect estimates from homogenous studies showed that compared to placebo/control group, patients treated with terpene compound drug had significantly better ureteral calculi spontaneous expulsion rate (pooled RR: 1.34; 95 % CI 1.12, 1.61). Subgroup analysis of studies that compare terpene compound drug with alpha-blockers showed no significant difference (pooled RR: 0.79; 95 % CI 0.59, 1.06), while significant inter-study heterogeneity was noted. Only minor gastrointestinal adverse effect was reported on terpene compound drug use. The results suggest that terpene compound drug as MET is effective in augmenting spontaneous passage of ureterolithiasis. High quality large-scale RCTs comparing alpha-blockers and terpene compound drug are warranted to make a more definitive conclusion.

  1. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium from Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fujise

    Full Text Available The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium. Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C, and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  2. Expulsion of Hymenolepis nana from mice with congenital deficiencies of IgE production or of mast cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Nawa, Y; Okamoto, K; Kobayashi, A

    1994-03-01

    The roles of IgE and mast cells on expulsion of adult Hymenolepis nana from the intestine were examined in mice. IgE-dependency was determined by comparing congenitally IgE-deficient SJA/9 and IgE-producing SJL/J mice infected with 50 H. nana eggs. Anti-H. nana IgE antibody was detected at three weeks post infection (p.i.) in SJL but not in SJA mice. The number of adult worms in the intestines of SJA and of SJL mice were similar at two weeks, but significantly more were found in SJA mice at three weeks p.i. Treatment of mice with anti-epsilon antibody also resulted in an increased worm burden at three weeks, suggesting participation of IgE in expulsion of H. nana. Intestinal mastocytosis was induced by infection regardless of the IgE status of the mice. Mast cell-dependency was tested in mast cell-deficient W/Wv and in normal littermate +/+ mice infected with 100 H. nana eggs. Anti-H. nana antibody was detected in both groups of mice at three weeks p.i. Worm expulsion seemed to be mast cell dependent because expulsion was less complete in W/Wv mice at three weeks p.i. Peripheral blood eosinophilia was comparable at three weeks p.i. in both IgE and mast cell sufficient and deficient mice. These results suggest that IgE and mast cells participate in the expulsion of H. nana adults from intestine in mice.

  3. Expulsion and continuation rates after postabortion insertion of framed IUDs versus frameless IUDs – review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildemeersch D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dirk Wildemeersch,1 Norman D Goldstuck2 1Gynecological Outpatient Clinic and IUD Training Center, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Tygerberg Hospital, Western Cape, South Africa Background: Early intrauterine device (IUD discontinuation after insertion immediately following aspiration abortion or after early medical abortion occurs as a consequence of expulsion of the IUD or removal due to side effects. These are often the consequence of the uterine forces impacting on the IUD due to spatial discrepancy with the uterine cavity causing pain, abnormal bleeding, and eventually, removal of the IUD. These women are candidates for repeat pregnancy as they often select less-effective methods or no contraception at all. Repeat abortion could be reduced by giving attention to these factors. Study design: In order to have an indication on the magnitude of the problem of IUD expulsion or discontinuation, we searched the MEDLINE database for clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, and prospective observational studies related to immediate postaspiration termination of pregnancy (TOP and early medical abortion IUD insertion studies that reported IUD expulsion and IUD continuation rates. Results: The search identified 17 clinical trials that were suitable based on the data they presented. The majority concerned T-shape IUDs, inserted immediately following surgical (aspiration pregnancy termination. Two studies were conducted after medical TOP, and four studies were conducted with the frameless IUD inserted after surgical (vacuum aspiration TOP. The results showed expulsion rates between 0.8% and 17.3% at 8 weeks, up to 5 years after insertion, respectively. In four studies with the frameless IUD, totaling 553 insertions, the expulsion rate was 0.0% in three of them. Follow-up in the latter studies varied between 5 weeks and 54 months. Reported continuation rates

  4. Uptake and expulsion of sup 14 C-xylitol by xylitol-cultured Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederling, E.; Pihlanto-Leppaelae, A. (Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Dentistry, University of Turku, Turku (Finland))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of successive cultivations in the presence of 6% xylitol on the uptake and expulsion of {sup 14}C-xylitol was studied using the cells of Streptococcus mutans 25175. Three sequential cultivations did not alter the growth inhibition percentage (approximately 50%) observed in the presence of 6% xylitol. The {sup 14}C-xylitol uptake experiments performed with growing and resting cells showed that both the uptake and the expulsion of xylitol were enhanced by xylitolculturing. Both xylitol-cultured and resting control cells contained only one major labeled compound which was identified as {sup 14}C-xylitol 5-phosphate. The label subsequently was expelled from the cells as {sup 14}C-xylitol. These results indicate that S. mutans possesses an intracellular xylitol cycle and this cycle is regulated by adding xylitol to the growth medium. (author).

  5. Laboratory and Field Experiments on Expulsion of Selected Ions along Divergent Polar Geomagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A. Y.; Deng, B.; Quon, B.; Wang, R.; Hartzell, J.; Rosenthal, G.; Hazelton, L. R.

    2007-12-01

    Laboratory and Field Experiments on Expulsion of Selected Ions along Divergent Polar Geomagnetic Fields. Laboratory experiments have shown significant gyro-resonance acceleration of minority ion species in a magnetized plasma. Field aligned elctron drifts can provide free energy needed to make this process efficient. The linear magnetized device has a uniform magnetic field linked to two adjustable mirrors at the ends. Outdoor experiments at HIPAS Facility Ak(1) ( 84 MW ERP ) are used to test this process in the earth's "chimneys" at the two poles. The divergent polar geomagnetic field converts the perpendicular ion velocity into an upward motion. Satellites and ground-based ELF receivers,supplemented by UHF radars, LIDARs and infrared diagnostics , will monitor low-frequency EM waves and upflows of ions. The upward transport of ions in the lower atmosphere by field-induced diffusion and convection and the coupling to the free energy in the auroral region will be discussed. Computer modeling and theoeries complement our experiments. 1. Wong, A.Y. et al. AIP CIP 96-27719, Chap 3, pp 41-75, 1997

  6. Spontaneous Expulsion of Intramural Fibroid Six Weeks after Emergency Caesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balvinder Sagoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a thirty-six-year-old woman with a high risk pregnancy, complicated by multiple congenital anomalies, severe hyperemesis, a pulmonary embolus, and a large intramural fibroid. This fibroid grew in size during the pregnancy. At 34 + 5 weeks, there were reduced fetal movements and a pathological CTG. A live infant was delivered by an emergency cesarean section. Five weeks postpartum, she presented with abdominal pain, offensive vaginal discharge, and fevers. She was given antibiotics and ferrous sulphate. An abdominal ultrasound showed an 11 × 12 × 9 cm fibroid with a coarse degenerative appearance. Clinically, she showed signs of sepsis; a CT scan and laparotomy performed under general anesthetic did not find any collections as a source of sepsis. When stable, she was discharged. She re-presented two days later with a large mass (necrotic fibroid in her vagina. This is the first case of spontaneous expulsion of fibroid six weeks after caesarean section. Presentation of pain and fever after the delivery may be due to red degeneration of the fibroid, caused by diminished blood supply, ischaemia, and necrosis. This case highlights the importance of considering fibroids as a cause for abdominal pain during and after pregnancy, even up to 6 weeks after delivery.

  7. Importance of both innate immunity and acquired immunity for rapid expulsion of S. venezuelensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koubun eYasuda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this review, we described the relevant roles of endogenous IL-33 for accumulation of ILC2 and eosinophils even in the lungs of Rag2-/- mice. ATII cells express IL-33 in their nucleus and infection with S.venezuelensis induces IL-33 production by increasing the number of ATII cells possibly by the action of chitin. IL-33 from ATII cells induces ILC2 proliferation and at the same time activates them to produce IL-5 and IL-13, which in combination induce lung eosinophilic inflammation, aiding to expel infected worms in the lungs. In the second part, we showed that, although AID-/- mice normally develop Th2 cells and intestinal mastocytosis after infection with S.venezuelensis, they need adoptive transfers of immune sera from S.venezuelensis-infected mice to obtain the capacity to promptly expel S.venezuelensis. Thus, intestinal nematode infection induces various Th2 immune responses (eg., Th2 cell, ILC2, goblet cell hyperplasia, intestinal mastocytosis, smooth muscle cell contraction, local and systemic eosinophilia and high serum level of IgE and IgG1. However, all of them are not necessary for rapid expulsion of intestinal nematodes. Instead, some combinations of Th2 immune responses are essentially required.

  8. Take it or leave: a five-year prospective study of workplace bullying and indicators of expulsion in working life

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLAMBEK, Mats; SKOGSTAD, Anders; EINARSEN, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Workplace bullying is often held as a precursor of expulsion in working life, but the claim builds on sparse empirical groundwork. In the present study, bullying is investigated as an antecedent to indicators of expulsion, be it from the workplace (change of employer) or from working life itself (disability benefit recipiency and unemployment), using a nationally representative sample (n=1,613), a five-year time-lag as well as two separate measures of workplace bullying. In line with the hypotheses, logistic regression analyses revealed that both exposure to bullying behaviors and self-labeled bullying are significantly associated with change of employer (OR=1.77 and 2.42, respectively) and disability benefit recipiency (OR=2.81 and 2.95, respectively). Moreover, exposure to bullying behaviors was found to be significantly related to unemployment five years on (OR=4.6). For the self-labeling measure of bullying, this tendency only held true at the 0.1 significance level (OR=3.69, p=0.098). Together, the present results indicate that targets of bullying are at a greater risk of expulsion, both from the workplace and from working life itself, thus representing strong incentives to combat bullying both from the perspective of the individual, the organization and society at large. PMID:25475094

  9. Take it or leave: a five-year prospective study of workplace bullying and indicators of expulsion in working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glambek, Mats; Skogstad, Anders; Einarsen, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    Workplace bullying is often held as a precursor of expulsion in working life, but the claim builds on sparse empirical groundwork. In the present study, bullying is investigated as an antecedent to indicators of expulsion, be it from the workplace (change of employer) or from working life itself (disability benefit recipiency and unemployment), using a nationally representative sample (n=1,613), a five-year time-lag as well as two separate measures of workplace bullying. In line with the hypotheses, logistic regression analyses revealed that both exposure to bullying behaviors and self-labeled bullying are significantly associated with change of employer (OR=1.77 and 2.42, respectively) and disability benefit recipiency (OR=2.81 and 2.95, respectively). Moreover, exposure to bullying behaviors was found to be significantly related to unemployment five years on (OR=4.6). For the self-labeling measure of bullying, this tendency only held true at the 0.1 significance level (OR=3.69, p=0.098). Together, the present results indicate that targets of bullying are at a greater risk of expulsion, both from the workplace and from working life itself, thus representing strong incentives to combat bullying both from the perspective of the individual, the organization and society at large.

  10. Immune stimulation and Hymenolepis nana cysticercoid expulsion in C3H/He and BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, F; Ecca, A R; Palmas, C

    1993-12-01

    Adoptive transfer of immunity with heterologous and homologous immune serum, and drug-abbreviated immunizations were used in C3H and BALB/c mice to determine the strain-characteristic time of expulsion of H. nana cysts. Transfer of immune serum did not accelerate worm expulsion in C3H, while elimination of worms was virtually complete by day 8 in BALB/c mice. Loss of worms was also obtained when BALB/c mice were stimulated with abbreviated infections using 20 or 1000 H. nana eggs. The immunizing infection terminated immediately after the tissue phase. After similar immunizations C3H mice again appeared slow responders but were able to affect the intestinal worms population after the higher immunizing infection. The data obtained suggest that the time of worm expulsion was related to the genetically-determined ability of the mice to respond and was independent of the stimulations used for immunization. A quantitative difference in response is proposed to explain the slow responder status of C3H.

  11. Extractable alkyldibenzothiophenes in Posidonia Shale (Toarcian) source rocks: Relationship of yields to petroleum formation and expulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radke, M.; Willsch, H. [Institute of Petroleum and Organic Geochemistry, Juelich (Germany)

    1994-12-01

    Extractable C{sub 0} to C{sub 2} dibenzothiophenes were determined by capillary gas chromatography in 125 rock samples of the Posidonia Shale formation with vitrinite reflectance (R{sub r}) between 0.4 and 1.5% mostly derived from the Hils syncline area in northwestern Germany. Average yields of individual methyldibenzothiophenes in the range of 2-110 {mu}g/g total organic carbon (TOC) are comparable to respective data for forty-seven rock samples of the Kimmeridge Clay formation (0.4-0.9% R{sub r}) from the Dorset coast and different regions of the North Sea including the Brae Oilfield area. Alkyldibenzothiophenes in samples of either formation display distinct yield profiles which agree with those of C{sub 15+} soluble organic matter and hydrocarbon groups, i.e., an immature zone with low yields at 0.4-0.5% R{sub r} is followed by a zone of enhanced yields between 0.5 and 0.9% R{sub r}, which corresponds to the oil-generation window. Yields are low again in overmature Posidonia Shale samples beyond 1.4% R{sub r}. Yield profiles are disturbed towards their maximum around 0.7 R{sub r} due to highly variable depletion by erratic petroleum expulsion. Maturity parameters, such as the methyldibenzothiophene ratio (MDR) and the ethyldibenzothiophene ratio (EDR) are based on discrepancies in yield profiles among individual C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} dibenzothiophenes that can be attributed to variations in kinetic stability. The parameters are virtually unaffected by depletion, as evidenced by variabilities, much lower for MDR and EDR than for the yields of the components employed. They are likely to be influenced by geothermal heating rates, however. When compared to Kimmeridge Clay samples, MDR and EDR increase more gradually with R{sub r} beyond 0.7% in Posidonia Shale samples that have experienced enhanced geothermal heating rates owing to an intrusive body in the Hils syncline area.

  12. Effects of suture material and ultrasonic transmitter size on survival, growth, wound healing, and tag expulsion in rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivasauskas, Tomas J.; Bettoli, P.W.; Holt, T.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of suture material (braided silk versus Monocryl) and relative ultrasonic transmitter size on healing, growth, mortality, and tag retention in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In experiment 1, 40 fish (205-281mmtotal length [TL], 106-264 g) were implanted with Sonotronics IBT-96-2 (23??7 mm; weight in air, 4.4 g; weight in water, 2.4 g) or IBT 96-2E (30 ?? 7 mm; weight in air, 4.9 g; weight in water, 2.4 g) ultrasonic telemetry tags. In experiment 2, 20 larger fish (342-405 mm TL; 520-844 g) were implanted with Sonotronics IBT-96-5 ultrasonic tags (36 ?? 11 mm; weight in air, 9.1 g; weight in water, 4.1 g). The tag burdens for all implanted fish ranged from 1.1% to 3.4%, and fish in both studies were held at 10-15??C. At the conclusion of both experiments (65 d after surgery), no mortalities were observed in any of the 60 tagged fish, most incisions were completely healed, and all fish in both experiments grew in length, although tagged fish grew more slowly than control fish in experiment 1. In both experiments, fish sutured with silk expelled tags more frequently than those sutured with Monocryl. Expulsion was observed in 45-50% of the fish sutured with silk and 0-25% of the fish sutured withMonocryl. Tag expulsion was not observed until 25-35 d after surgery. Fish sutured with silk exhibited a more severe inflammatory response 3 weeks after surgery than those sutured with Monocryl. In experiment 1, the rate of expulsion was linked to the severity of inflammation. Although braided silk sutures were applied faster than Moncryl sutures in both experiments, knots tied with either material were equally reliable and fish sutured with Monocryl experienced less inflammation and lower rates of tag expulsion. American Fisheries Society 2012.

  13. Calculating the number of shock waves, expulsion time, and optimum stone parameters based on noncontrast computerized tomography characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Khaled; Abdeldaeim, Hussein; Youssif, Mohamed; Assem, Akram

    2013-11-01

    To define the parameters that accompanied a successful extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), namely the number of shock waves (SWs), expulsion time (ET), mean stone density (MSD), and the skin-to-stone distance (SSD). A total of 368 patients diagnosed with renal calculi using noncontrast computerized tomography had their MSD, diameter, and SSD recorded. All patients were treated using a Siemens lithotripter. ESWL success meant a stone-free status or presence of residual fragments 934 HUs and SSD >99 mm. The required number of SWs and the expected ET can be anticipated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Left ventricle function in patients with ischemic cardiopathy: determination of the expulsion fraction of the left ventricle with gated-SPECT. Experience in the CMN 20 de Noviembre ISSSTE; Funcion ventricular izquierda en pacientes con cardiopatia isquemica: determinacion de la fraccion de expulsion del ventriculo izquierdo con gated-SPECT. Experiencia en el CMN 20 de Noviembre ISSSTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, L.; Puente, A.; Hernandez, T.; Jimenez, L. [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear y Cardiologia, Hospital CMN 20 de Noviembre, ISSSTE, 03000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this work is to correlate the expulsion fraction of the left ventricle (FEVI) obtained by means of g-SPECT and other diagnostic methods: ECO 2D and ventriculography for heart catheterization (CTT). (Author)

  15. Amniotic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or movements Too much amniotic fluid is called polyhydramnios . This condition can occur with multiple pregnancies (twins ... development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Burton GJ, Sibley CP, Jauniaux ...

  16. Effect of estradiol and cloprostenol combination therapy on expulsion of mummified fetus and subsequent fertility in four crossbred cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, Arumugam; Chand, Subhash; Suresh, Sankaran; Mohanty, Tushar Kumar; Prasad, Shiv; Layek, Siddhartha Shankar; Behera, Kumaresh

    2013-01-01

    Four crossbred cows with mummified fetus were utilized for the study. The cows were subjected to gynecological examination and based on the findings the cases were diagnosed as mummified fetus. The cows were treated with 2 mg estradiol valerate and 500 µg cloprostenol and were examined every 12 hr after 24 hr of the treatment for cervical dilatation and other signs related to fetal expulsion. The time duration between treatment and starting of cervical dilatation ranged from 48 to 58h (53.00 ± 2.08 hr). Complete dilatation of cervix was observed after 70.00 ± 2.94 hr post treatment (Range = 64-76 hr). The mean fetal crown-rump length (CRL) was 31.5 cm, which ranged from 27.5 to 38 cm. The number of cotyledons in pregnant horn also showed wide variation (Range 24-38 numbers) with mean ± SE of 30.3 ± 3.07 numbers. In the placenta of three animals irregular shaped large adventitious cotyledons were observed in the inter-cotyledonary areas. Out of the four animals treated, three animals were conceived within three estrous cycles and one animal had cystic ovary in the next cycle and was not conceived even after four cycles. It was concluded that the estradiol and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) combination therapy was effective for expulsion of mummified fetus in crossbred cows without affecting much on future fertility. PMID:25653777

  17. Effect of estradiol and cloprostenol combination therapy on expulsion of mummified fetus and subsequent fertility in four crossbred cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Kumaresan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Four crossbred cows with mummified fetus were utilized for the study. The cows weresubjected togynecologicalexamination and based on the findings the cases were diagnosed asmummified fetus. The cows were treated with 2 mg estradiol valerate and 500 μg cloprostenoland were examined every 12 hr after 24 hr of the treatment for cervical dilatation and othersigns related to fetal expulsion. The time duration between treatment and starting of cervicaldilatation ranged from 48 to 58h (53.00 ± 2.08 hr. Complete dilatation of cervix was observedafter 70.00 ± 2.94 hr post treatment (Range = 64-76 hr. The mean fetalcrown-rump length(CRL was 31.5 cm, which ranged from 27.5 to 38 cm. The number of cotyledons in pregnanthorn also showed wide variation (Range 24-38 numbers with mean ± SE of 30.3 ± 3.07numbers. In the placenta of three animals irregular shaped large adventitious cotyledons wereobserved in the inter-cotyledonary areas. Out of the four animals treated, three animals wereconceived within three estrous cycles and one animal had cystic ovary in the next cycle and wasnot conceived even after four cycles. It was concluded that the estradiolandprostaglandin F2α(PGF2αcombinationtherapy was effective for expulsion of mummified fetus in crossbred cowswithout affecting much on future fertility.

  18. Expulsion of symbiotic algae during feeding by the green hydra--a mechanism for regulating symbiont density?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena Fishman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled through host modulation of the algal cell cycle. Alternatively, Chlorohydra may actively expel their endosymbionts, although this phenomenon has only been observed under experimentally contrived stress conditions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show, using light and electron microscopy, that Chlorohydra actively expel endosymbiotic algal cells during predatory feeding on Artemia. This expulsion occurs as part of the apocrine mode of secretion from the endodermal digestive cells, but may also occur via an independent exocytotic mechanism. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate, for the first time, active expulsion of endosymbiotic algae from cnidarians under natural conditions. We suggest this phenomenon may represent a mechanism whereby cnidarians can expel excess symbiotic algae when an alternative form of nutrition is available in the form of prey.

  19. Expulsion of symbiotic algae during feeding by the green hydra--a mechanism for regulating symbiont density?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Yelena; Zlotkin, Eliahu; Sher, Daniel

    2008-07-02

    Algal-cnidarian symbiosis is one of the main factors contributing to the success of cnidarians, and is crucial for the maintenance of coral reefs. While loss of the symbionts (such as in coral bleaching) may cause the death of the cnidarian host, over-proliferation of the algae may also harm the host. Thus, there is a need for the host to regulate the population density of its symbionts. In the green hydra, Chlorohydra viridissima, the density of symbiotic algae may be controlled through host modulation of the algal cell cycle. Alternatively, Chlorohydra may actively expel their endosymbionts, although this phenomenon has only been observed under experimentally contrived stress conditions. We show, using light and electron microscopy, that Chlorohydra actively expel endosymbiotic algal cells during predatory feeding on Artemia. This expulsion occurs as part of the apocrine mode of secretion from the endodermal digestive cells, but may also occur via an independent exocytotic mechanism. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, active expulsion of endosymbiotic algae from cnidarians under natural conditions. We suggest this phenomenon may represent a mechanism whereby cnidarians can expel excess symbiotic algae when an alternative form of nutrition is available in the form of prey.

  20. The European Convention of Human Rights and the Expulsion of foreigners. The danger of mistreatment in destination countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syméon Karagiannis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The right of States, for a variety of reasons, to expel aliens has never been disputed by the European Court of Human Rights insofar as a State party to the European Convention on Human Rights continues, quite naturally, to exercise its sovereignty over its territory. However, this right has to be reconciled with the obligation of States parties to the European Convention on Human Rights not to expose aliens and, more generally, persons under their jurisdiction to a risk of violation of the provisions of the Convention. Yet, guaranteeing that no human right recognized as such by the Convention be violated in case of expulsion is too heavy a task for States to assume. Imposing such an obligation would end up in invalidating the sovereign right of States to expel aliens. The Court of Strasbourg retains primarily the risk of Article 3 of the Convention being violated in expulsion cases, a provision according to which inhuman or degrading punishments or treatments and, of course, acts of torture are strictly prohibited. The Court’s case-law, abundant as well as rich in nuances, results in rather a thorough examination of the human rights situation in any country towards which a alien will be (or has already been expelled.

  1. «…In Accordance with Passport Regulations»: Mass Expulsion of «Insecure» Citizens from the Far East of the USSR in 1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Chernolutskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available . The article, basing on the analysis of the archive published and unpublished data, books of condolence, witnesses’ recollections, presents extended characteristics of mass compulsory expulsions from the Soviet Far East, realized in order to “houseclean” as a preventive security measure. Such acts were not ethnical in nature. Their aim was to grant region the status of secure territory and introduce passport limitations. Three campaigns, involving not less than 150 thousand people in total: 1 population passportization (1933–1934; 2 expulsion of families of the victims of Bolshoi Terror (1937–1939, 3 expulsion of the so-called «insecure» population of the Primorsky Region (1939 was analyzed. The author concludes that they had the form of Stalin’s mass deportations, aimed at the formation of discriminated social groups

  2. Laboratory Modeling of Space experiments on Expulsion of CO2 ions. Application to Global Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A. Y.

    2007-05-01

    An approach to expel minority species which can contribute to global warming from the upper atmosphere in the Arctic region by the use of HF electromagnetic waves has been proposed [1]. Laboratory plasma experiments have been designed to model various aspects of this concept - from the acquisiton of negative charges by green house gases such as CO2 to their ascent to the upper atmosphere and their acceleration and expulsion along the open magnetic field lines. Laboratory results are presented which confirmed the efficient gyro-resonance acceleration of minority ion species made possible through the space charge cancellation by majority species. The outflow of CO2 ions from the divergent magnetic field of a laboratory plasma device is measured at various background neutral pressures and for different amount of currents along the axial magnetic field. The central idea is to impart perpendicular energy to a selective ion species gyrating around the geomagnetic field at its cyclotron resonance. The wave field is produced by either modulating the auroral electrojet or from the nonlinear interaction between two electron plasma resonances. In the presence of the divergent polar geomagnetic field the accelerated perpendicular ion velocity is converted into an upward motion along open magnetic field lines. The ions thus removed will unlikely find their way back to the lower atmosphere. Negatively charged particles move upward by the fair-weather electric field and by atmospheric convection. When these ions reach above 120 km altitude where the ion gyro frequency is comparable to or greater than the ion- neutral collision frequency, they can be accelerated by EM fields through the gyro resonance interaction. The propagation of these low frequency waves to the upper atmosphere along the earth's magnetic field is permitted by the plasma dispersion relation. Laboratory experiments play an important role in confirming the theoretical prediction that ion cyclotron waves can grow

  3. IgG and IgE collaboratively accelerate expulsion of Strongyloides venezuelensis in a primary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Makoto; Sasaki, Yuki; Yasuda, Koubun; Takai, Toshiyuki; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Yoshimoto, Tomohiro; Nakanishi, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    The host deploys a subset of immune responses to expel helminths, which differs depending on the nature of the helminth. Strongyloides venezuelensis, a counterpart of the human pathogen S. stercoralis, naturally infects rodents and has been used as an experimental model. Here we show that induction of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgE is a prerequisite for rapid expulsion of S. venezuelensis during a primary infection. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase-deficient (AID(-/-)) mice, which lack the ability to switch IgM to other isotypes, normally developed T-helper 2 (Th2) cells and intestinal mastocytosis after infection with S. venezuelensis. Although AID(-/-) mice expelled Nippostrongylus brasiliensis normally, they required a much longer period to expel S. venezuelensis than wild-type (WT) mice. Adoptive transfers of immune sera from S. venezuelensis-infected but not N. brasiliensis-infected mice restored the ability of AID(-/-) mice to promptly expel S. venezuelensis. Immune serum-derived IgG and IgE induced worm expulsion via Fc γ receptor III (FcγRIII) and Fc ε receptor I (FcεRI), respectively, and a mixture of IgG and IgE showed collaborative effects. Whereas FcγRIII(-/-) mice or FcεRIα(-/-) mice normally could expel S. venezuelensis, FcγRIII(-/-) mice, when their IgE was neutralized by anti-IgE, or FcεRIα(-/-) mice, when their IgG binding to FcγRIII was blocked by anti-FcγRIII, showed a markedly reduced ability to expel S. venezuelensis. These data reveal that IgG and IgE play redundant roles but act in concert to accelerate S. venezuelensis expulsion. Mast cell-deficient mice, even those equipped with immune serum-derived IgG or IgE, failed to expel S. venezuelensis promptly, suggesting that mast cells are cellular targets of IgG and IgE.

  4. Galactose Expulsion during Lactose Metabolism in Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FD1 Due to Dephosphorylation of Intracellular Galactose 6-Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benthin, Stig; Nielsen, Jens; Villadsen, John

    1994-01-01

    In Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris FD1, galactose and lactose are both transported and phosphorylated by phosphotransferase systems. Lactose 6-phosphate (lactose-6P) is hydrolyzed intracellularly to galactose-6P and glucose. Glucose enters glycolysis as glucose-6P, whereas galactose-6P is metabolized via the tagatose-6P pathway and enters glycolysis at the tagatose diphosphate and fructose diphosphate pool. Galactose would therefore be a gluconeogenic sugar in L. lactis subsp. cremoris FD1, but since fructose 1,6-diphosphatase is not present in this strain, galactose cannot serve as an essential biomass precursor (glucose-6P or fructose-6P) but only as an energy (ATP) source. Analysis of the growth energetics shows that transition from N limitation to limitation by glucose-6P or fructose-6P gives rise to a very high growth-related ATP consumption (152 mmol of ATP per g of biomass) compared with the value in cultures which are not limited by glucose-6P or fructose-6P (15 to 50 mmol of ATP per g of biomass). During lactose metabolism, the galactose flux through the tagatose-6P pathway (rmax = 1.2 h-1) is lower than the glucose flux through glycolysis (rmax = 1.5 h-1) and intracellular galactose-6P is dephosphorylated; this is followed by expulsion of galactose. Expulsion of a metabolizable sugar has not been reported previously, and the specific rate of galactose expulsion is up to 0.61 g of galactose g of biomass -1 h-1 depending on the lactose flux and the metabolic state of the bacteria. Galactose excreted during batch fermentation on lactose is reabsorbed and metabolized when lactose is depleted from the medium. In vitro incubation of galactose-6P (50 mM) and permeabilized cells (8 g/liter) gives a supernatant containing free galactose (50 mM) but no Pi (less than 0.5 mM). No organic compound except the liberated galactose is present in sufficient concentration to bind the phosphate. Phosphate is quantitatively recovered in the supernatant as Pi by hydrolysis

  5. MIGRATION AND CHINESE ENTREPRENEURS IN MAZATLAN. SINCE ARRIVING IN MID- NINETEENTH CENTURY UNTIL THEIR EXPULSION IN 1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arturo Román Alarcón

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese migration to Mazatlan and Mexico, began in the mid-nineteenth century, via San Francisco. They were the most important foreign colony from the early decades of the twentieth century. On arrival the Chinese population lacked capital as largely devoted to provide their services as domestic workers, especially farmers and craft activities related to repairing and making shoes. With the advent of the twentieth century and the accumulation of some capital, began its foray into the retail trade, which was the domain of national merchants. The commercial importance of the Chinese was one of the causes of the hostility of Mexican traders, which coupled with the counter-arguments raised by the Labor Law, Health Code, the culmination of the Treaty with China and the effects of the 1929 crisis, served as sustenance for their expulsion in 1932.

  6. Membership expulsions for ethical violations from major counseling, psychology, and social work organizations in the United States: a 10-year analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, James E

    2007-08-01

    This report examined ethical violations as grounds for membership expulsions made by the major counseling, psychology, and social work organizations in the United States over a 10-yr. period. Data indicated that the rates of expulsions stayed steady or declined, were disproportional across organizations, and that organizational sanctioning may be even more rigid than that of state boards. In addition, not all organizations followed procedures in a consistent manner when reporting or processing cases. The most common reason for expulsion was for violations under the category of dual relationships, particularly those of a sexual nature. Further research is needed to show how the variations of membership types, the profiles of the offenders, or the potential biases of the committees' judges weigh in on the issued sanctions, particularly those of ambiguous nature (e.g., nonsexual violations). It is also recommended that the expulsion data be easily available to all, and that it be reported systemically for the analysis of trends and for the overall accountability of ethics committees.

  7. Exclusionary Discipline Highest in New Hampshire's Urban Schools: Suspension and Expulsion Found to Disproportionately Affect Disadvantaged Students. Regional Issue Brief Number 46

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Douglas J.; Jaffee, Eleanor M.; Kennedy, Reeve

    2016-01-01

    Exclusionary school discipline--that is, suspension and expulsion--disproportionately affects already disadvantaged students on both the national and state levels. In New Hampshire, students attending larger urban schools, male students, students of color, students eligible for free and reduced-price lunch, students with disabilities, and homeless…

  8. Pyrolytic assessment of oil generation and expulsion from a suite of vitrinite-rich New Zealand coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killops, S.D.; Mills, N.; Johansen, P.E. [Applied Petrology Technology AS, Kjeller (Norway)

    2008-08-15

    Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (PY-GC) of Tara-1 coals (Great South Basin, New Zealand) suggests a mean paraffinic oil potential of about to 85 kg/t C (range about 70-130 kg/t C), based oil n-alkane/alkene generation in the C{sub 6}-C{sub 31} range and typical proportions of these compounds in related oils from New Zealand. This maximum in the depth trend of pyrolysate yield is reached at -0.75-0.80% R{sub o}, comparable to the previously reported maximum in hydrogen index (HI). Thermal extraction-GC (TE-GC) provided higher yields than Rock-Eval S1 pyrolysis, but without the uniform trend exhibited by S1/C below the approx. 3.0 km below sea floor (about 0.75-0.80% R-0) onset of expulsion. In addition, the saturates:aromatics ratio in the thermal extract decreased with depth, indicating preferential retention of aromatics, which may affect the expulsion efficiency of paraffins. Thermal extracts suggest that at most similar to 15 kg/t C of paraffinic oil is retained within the Tara coals, which is lower than previous estimates of saturation threshold. However, it is likely to be adversely affected (lowered) by loss of the least volatile components during recovery and storage of cuttings and incomplete recovery of high molecular weight components (particularly C{sub 40+} paraffins) using TE-GC. Isopimarane generation appears to be restricted to the depth zone corresponding to the early oil window, although it is unclear whether this is directly related to the maturity range required for such generation or that only the latest Cretaceous coals in Tara-1 exhibit particularly high abundances of such gymnosperm-derived diterpanes.

  9. Randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of isosorbide-SR addition to current treatment in medical expulsive therapy for ureteral calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi Madani, Ali; Kazemzadeh, Majid; Pourreza, Farshid; Shakiba, Maryam; Farzan, Alireza; Asadollahzade, Ahmad; Esmaeili, Samaneh

    2011-10-01

    It has been suggested that nitrates are potent smooth muscle relaxants that may reduce pain and facilitate ureteral stone passage; therefore it may be an option for medical expulsive therapy in ureteral stones. In a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial, we evaluated the efficacy of medical expulsive therapy with isosorbide-SR 40 mg in patients with ureteral stones (≤10 mm). The patients with ureteral stones in KUB or urinary tract ultrasonography were randomized to receive methylprednisolone plus celecoxib without (control group), and with isosorbide-SR 40 mg (treatment group) for 21 days. 66 patients [33(50%) in control, 33(50%) in treatment group] were entered randomly to our study. The stone expulsion rate was not significantly different between two groups (54.5 vs. 45.5%) (P = 0.497). The need for surgical procedures were more common in control group within 21 days (9.4 vs. 6.1%) and more common in treatment group after 21 days (33.3 vs. 21.9%) (P = 0.756).Patients in the treatment group experienced more intractable pain (27.3 vs. 6.1%), intractable vomiting (3 vs. 0%) (P = 0.046) and hospitalization (3 vs. 0%) (P = 0.314). Drug side effects including headache and dizziness were more common in treatment group (39.4 vs. 9.1%) (P = 0.004). In our study, the use of isosorbide-SR in treatment group did not improve the stone expulsion rate in patients with ureteral stones (≤10 mm) but developed more side effects. Then it may not an appropriate alternative for medical expulsive therapy. Of course, further trials are recommended.

  10. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  11. Fluid Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    2001-01-01

    Fluid interaction, interaction by the user with the system that causes few breakdowns, is essential to many user interfaces. We present two concrete software systems that try to support fluid interaction for different work practices. Furthermore, we present specificity, generality, and minimality...... as design goals for fluid interfaces....

  12. Effects of smectite on the oil-expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale, San Joaquin Basin, California, based on hydrous-pyrolysis experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewan, Michael D.; Dolan, Michael P.; Curtis, John B.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of oil that maturing source rocks expel is expressed as their expulsion efficiency, which is usually stated in milligrams of expelled oil per gram of original total organic carbon (TOCO). Oil-expulsion efficiency can be determined by heating thermally immature source rocks in the presence of liquid water (i.e., hydrous pyrolysis) at temperatures between 350°C and 365°C for 72 hr. This pyrolysis method generates oil that is compositionally similar to natural crude oil and expels it by processes operative in the subsurface. Consequently, hydrous pyrolysis provides a means to determine oil-expulsion efficiencies and the rock properties that influence them. Smectite in source rocks has previously been considered to promote oil generation and expulsion and is the focus of this hydrous-pyrolysis study involving a representative sample of smectite-rich source rock from the Eocene Kreyenhagen Shale in the San Joaquin Basin of California. Smectite is the major clay mineral (31 wt. %) in this thermally immature sample, which contains 9.4 wt. % total organic carbon (TOC) comprised of type II kerogen. Compared to other immature source rocks that lack smectite as their major clay mineral, the expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen Shale was significantly lower. The expulsion efficiency of the Kreyenhagen whole rock was reduced 88% compared to that of its isolated kerogen. This significant reduction is attributed to bitumen impregnating the smectite interlayers in addition to the rock matrix. Within the interlayers, much of the bitumen is converted to pyrobitumen through crosslinking instead of oil through thermal cracking. As a result, smectite does not promote oil generation but inhibits it. Bitumen impregnation of the rock matrix and smectite interlayers results in the rock pore system changing from water wet to bitumen wet. This change prevents potassium ion (K+) transfer and dissolution and precipitation reactions needed for the conversion of smectite to

  13. Porphyry-Copper Ore Shells Form at Stable Pressure-Temperature Fronts Within Dynamic Fluid Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, P.; Driesner, T.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Porphyry-type ore deposits are major resources of copper and gold, precipitated from fluids expelled by crustal magma chambers. The metals are typically concentrated in confined ore shells within vertically extensive vein networks, formed through hydraulic fracturing of rock by ascending fluids. Numerical modeling shows that dynamic permeability responses to magmatic fluid expulsion can stabilize a front of metal precipitation at the boundary between lithostatically pressured up-flow of hot magmatic fluids and hydrostatically pressured convection of cooler meteoric fluids. The balance between focused heat advection and lateral cooling controls the most important economic characteristics, including size, shape, and ore grade. This self-sustaining process may extend to epithermal gold deposits, venting at active volcanoes, and regions with the potential for geothermal energy production.

  14. The Path to High Q-Factors in Superconducting Accelerating Cavities: Flux Expulsion and Surface Resistance Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinello, Martina [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Accelerating cavities are devices resonating in the radio-frequency (RF) range used to accelerate charged particles in accelerators. Superconducting accelerating cavities are made out of niobium and operate at the liquid helium temperature. Even if superconducting, these resonating structures have some RF driven surface resistance that causes power dissipation. In order to decrease as much as possible the power losses, the cavity quality factor must be increased by decreasing the surface resistance. In this dissertation, the RF surface resistance is analyzed for a large variety of cavities made with different state-of-the-art surface treatments, with the goal of finding the surface treatment capable to return the highest Q-factor values in a cryomodule-like environment. This study analyzes not only the superconducting properties described by the BCS surface resistance, which is the contribution that takes into account dissipation due to quasi-particle excitations, but also the increasing of the surface resistance due to trapped flux. When cavities are cooled down below their critical temperature inside a cryomodule, there is always some remnant magnetic field that may be trapped increasing the global RF surface resistance. This thesis also analyzes how the fraction of external magnetic field, which is actually trapped in the cavity during the cooldown, can be minimized. This study is performed on an elliptical single-cell horizontally cooled cavity, resembling the geometry of cavities cooled in accelerator cryomodules. The horizontal cooldown study reveals that, as in case of the vertical cooldown, when the cooling is performed fast, large thermal gradients are created along the cavity helping magnetic flux expulsion. However, for this geometry the complete magnetic flux expulsion from the cavity equator is more difficult to achieve. This becomes even more challenging in presence of orthogonal magnetic field, that is easily trapped on top of the cavity equator

  15. Re-Equilibration Processes in Fluid Inclusion Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Bakker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-entrapment modifications reduce the reliability of fluid inclusions to determine trapping conditions in rock. Processes that may modify fluid inclusion properties are experimentally identified in this study using synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz with a well-defined composition and density. Modifications are characterized with microthermometry (homogenization and dissolution temperatures and Raman-spectroscopy in binary fluid systems H2O-D2O and H2O-NaCl. Three distinct processes were identified in this study: (1 diffusion of H2O and D2O; (2 crystal-recovery, expulsion of H2O and accumulation of quartz in inclusions (preferential H2O loss; (3 irreversible total volume increase at the α-β quartz transition. Diffusion is caused by H2O fugacity gradients and can be modelled according to classical diffusion models. The variability of re-equilibrated properties in fluid inclusion assemblages depends on time, temperature, diffusion distance and the size of fluid inclusions. Negative pressure gradients (internal under-pressure induce the crystal-recovery process, in which H2O is preferentially extracted from inclusions that simultaneously shrink by the inward growth of quartz. This process reduces the H2O concentration and increases the fluid density by total volume loss. Temperature and time are also controlling factors of this process, which is able to transport H2O against fugacity gradients.

  16. Gas Expulsion in MOND: The Possible Origin of Diffuse Globular Clusters and Ultra-faint Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xufen; Kroupa, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    We study the evolution of star clusters located in the outer regions of a galaxy undergoing a sudden mass loss through gas expulsion in the framework of Milgromian dynamics (MOND) by means of N-body simulations. We find that, to leave a bound star cluster, the star formation efficiency (SFE) of an embedded cluster dominated by deep MOND gravity can be reduced down to 2.5 % . For a given SFE, the star clusters that survive in MOND can bind a larger fraction of mass compared to those of the Newtonian dynamics. Moreover, the more diffuse the embedded cluster is, the less substantial the size expansion of the final star cluster is. The density profiles of a surviving star cluster are more cuspy in the center for more massive embedded clusters, and the central density profiles are flatter for less massive embedded clusters or for lower SFE. This work may help to understand the low concentration and extension of the distant low-density globular clusters and ultra-faint and diffuse satellite galaxies around the Milky Way.

  17. Complete Expulsion of Testicular Prosthesis via the Scrotum: A Case-Based Review of the Preventive Surgical Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Donati-Bourne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testicular prostheses are regularly used in urological surgery and are important for postoperative psychological well-being in many patients undergoing orchiectomy. One of the recognised complications of this procedure is graft extrusion, which can result in significant morbidity for patients and require operative reintervention. Whilst most cases of extrusion involve upward graft migration to the external inguinal ring or direct displacement through the scrotal skin, we present an unusual case of complete expulsion of testicular implant three weeks postoperatively through a previously healthy scrotum. During surgical insertion of testicular prostheses, the urological surgeon must carefully consider the different surgical strategies at each step of the operation to prevent future extrusion of the graft. A stepwise review of the preventive surgical strategies to reduce the risk of graft extrusion encompasses the choice of optimal surgical incision, the technique of dissection to create the receiving anatomical pouch, the method of fixation of the implant within the receiving hemiscrotum, and the adoption of good postoperative care measures in line with the principles of sound scrotal surgery.

  18. Technical evaluation of the in situ vitrification melt expulsion at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on April 21, 1996, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    On April 21, 1996, at 6:12 p.m., approximately 20 tons of molten glass were expelled from a 216-ton body of molten (approximately 1600{degrees}C) radioactively contaminated soil (containing 2.4 Ci of {sup 137}Cs) at a field site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The melt expulsion was caused by pressurized steam venting rapidly through, rather than by the desired path around, the molten body. During the previous 17 days, an old seepage pit was undergoing in situ vitrification (ISV) to convert it from porous, leachable soil into a monolithic, impermeable vitreous waste form. Approximately 2 MW of electrical power was being delivered to the molten body, which was contained in the ground and covered with a stainless steel hood maintained under negative pressure to collect, filter, scrub, and monitor off-gas. Off-gas into the hood was rapidly heated by the melt expulsion from a typical operating temperature of 250{degrees}C to over 1000{degrees}C with an associated surge of pressure sufficient to lift the 15,000-lb hood approximately 12 in. off the ground. A small pool of molten glass was able to flow up to 3 ft outside the hood while it was raised off the ground. The escaping hot off-gas and molten glass ignited several small fires in combustible components near or attached to the external hood frame (e.g, wire insulation, plastic hose, fiberglass trays). Fire department personnel responded to the emergency notification within minutes but were not needed because the small fires self-extinguished within an hour. Four project personnel were performing tasks at the site at the time of the melt expulsion; none were injured or contaminated during the melt expulsion incident. Air samples taken from the hood perimeter near the small fires failed to detect any airborne contamination.

  19. the intestinal expulsion of the roundworm Ascaris suum is associated with eosinophils, intra-epithelial T cells and decreased intestinal transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao; Vlaminck, Johnny; Claerhoudt, Sarah; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Saunders, Jimmy; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections.

  20. the intestinal expulsion of the roundworm Ascaris suum is associated with eosinophils, intra-epithelial T cells and decreased intestinal transit time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections.

  1. Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorsen, Michael

    These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University.......These lecture notes are intended mainly for the 7th semester course "Fluid Dynamics" offered by the Study Committee on Civil Engineering, Aalborg University....

  2. 2D compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration in the Southern compartment of the Reconcavo Basin, Brazil; Modelisation compositionnelle 2D de la genese, expulsion et migration du petrole dans le compartiment sud du Bassin de Reconcavo, Bresil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroz Penteado, H.L. de

    1999-01-07

    The Reconcavo Basin is part of a rift formed between the Late Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous in northeastern Brazil. The objective of this thesis was the compositional modeling of petroleum generation, expulsion and migration along a cross-section in the Southern Compartment of the basin with the Temispack basin simulation software. A geochemical study of the lacustrine shales of the Gomo Member (Candelas Fm.) has been performed to determine their petroleum potential, the evolution of maturation with depth and changes in petroleum composition. Hydrogen indices of immature kerogens (400-850 mg/g TOC) were shown to be higher than those of whole rocks, thus indicating a retention of Rock-Eval pyrolysis products in the mineral matrix of these type I source rocks. Saturates (30-50% of organic extracts in the immature zone) increase both in absolute and in relative (60-80%) terms in the oil window (2000-2600 m) because of a partial secondary cracking of NSOs and aromatics. After having tested several scenarios of geodynamic evolution between the Aptian and the Oligocene, a variable thickness of post-rift sediments (maximum of 1200 m) has been shown to be necessary to calibrate maturity parameters. Petroleum migration has been modeled to understand migration pathways as well as the role of faults as drains. Thus, two petroleum migration systems have been identified for the Dom Joao and Cexis accumulations. Petroleum compositional variations have been modeled by coupling the processes of retention and secondary cracking. A good calibration of compositions was obtained with secondary cracking parameters for NSOs and aromatics which are close to those of the main primary cracking reaction of a type I kerogen, coupled with a retention of 50% of NSOs within the source rocks. (author)

  3. Terapia Expulsiva Medicamentosa na Litíase Ureteral: Revisão de Literatura/ Medicamental Expulsive Therapy in Ureteral Lithiasis: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Maeda Missima

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A terapia expulsiva medicamentosa na litíase ureteral tem ganhado importante espaço na prática clínica, visto que é um método não invasivo e de grande eficácia. Como se trata de uma afecção comum, de alta incidência e custo, a terapia expulsiva possibilita um manejo clínico menos dispendioso e invasivo, quando comparada a procedimentos intervencionistas. Há consenso na literatura que a terapia expulsiva medicamentosa é efetiva e deve ser utilizada em cálculos com cerca de 5 milímetros de diâmetro, visto que as drogas utilizadas aumentam a taxa e diminuem o tempo de expulsão, além de diminuir a dor e o número de internações. O tamanho e localização do cálculo são de extrema relevância para que se possa considerar o manejo conservador. As drogas que obtém as melhores taxas expulsivas são os bloqueadores dos receptores alfa-adrenérgicos e os bloqueadores dos canais de cálcio. Analgésicos também são utilizados para o alívio da dor e o uso de corticoides ainda é questionado. Medicamental expulsive therapy for ureteral stones has gained important place in clinical practice, because it is a noninvasive and highly effective method. As it is a common disorder with high incidence and cost, expulsive therapy provides a less costly and invasive clinical management when compared to interventional procedures. There is a consensus that the medicamental expulsive therapy is effective and should be used in calculations with about 5 millimeters in diameter, since the drugs used increase rate and decrease the time of expulsion, in addition to reducing the pain and the number of hospitalizations. The size and location of the calculi are very important for it to be considered conservative management. The drugs that get the best expulsive rates are alpha - adrenergic receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers. Analgesics are also used for pain relief and the use of corticosteroids is still questioned.

  4. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    A dense mixture of granules and liquid often shows a severe shear thickening and is called a dilatant fluid. We construct a fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid by introducing a phenomenological state variable for a local state of dispersed particles. With simple assumptions for an equation...... of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...... reveals that the shear thickening fluid shows an instability in a shear flow for some regime and exhibits the shear thickening oscillation (i.e., the oscillatory shear flow alternating between the thickened and the relaxed states). The results of numerical simulations are presented for one- and two...

  5. Surgically Implanted JSATS Micro-Acoustic Transmitters Effects on Juvenile Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Tag Expulsion and Survival, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodley, Christa M.; Carpenter, Scott M.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Wagner, Katie A.; Royer, Ida M.; Knox, Kasey M.; Kim, Jin A.; Gay, Marybeth E.; Weiland, Mark A.; Brown, Richard S.

    2011-09-16

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate survival model assumptions associated with a concurrent study - Acoustic Telemetry Evaluation of Dam Passage Survival and Associated Metrics at John Day, The Dalles, and Bonneville Dams, 2010 by Thomas Carlson and others in 2010 - in which the Juvenile Salmonid Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) was used to estimate the survival of yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) migrating through the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The micro-acoustic transmitter used in these studies is the smallest acoustic transmitter model to date (12 mm long x 5 mm wide x 4 mm high, and weighing 0.43 g in air). This study and the 2010 study by Carlson and others were conducted by researchers from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the University of Washington for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to meet requirements set forth by the 2008 FCRPS Biological Opinion. In 2010, we compared survival, tag burden, and tag expulsion in five spring groups of yearling Chinook salmon (YCH) and steelhead (STH) and five summer groups of subyearling Chinook salmon (SYC) to evaluate survival model assumptions described in the concurrent study. Each tagging group consisted of approximately 120 fish/species, which were collected and implanted on a weekly basis, yielding approximately 600 fish total/species. YCH and STH were collected and implanted from late April to late May (5 weeks) and SYC were collected and implanted from mid-June to mid-July (5 weeks) at the John Day Dam Smolt Monitoring Facility. The fish were collected once a week, separated by species, and assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) Control (no surgical treatment), (2) Sham (surgical implantation of only a passive integrated transponder [PIT] tag), and (3) Tagged (surgical implantation of JSATS micro-acoustic transmitter [AT] and PIT tags). The test fish were held for 30 days in indoor

  6. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  7. N-methyl-D-aspartate mechanisms in depolarization of augmenting expiratory neurons during the expulsive phase of fictive cough in decerebrate cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Akira; Ohi, Yoshiaki; Tsunekawa, Saori

    2008-06-01

    Cough reflex is characterized by a large expulsive phase for expelling the mucus or particles from the airway. The present study investigated the involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) mechanisms in the expulsive phase of cough reflex using decerebrate and paralyzed cats. A fictive cough was induced by repetitive stimulation of the superior laryngeal nerve, which was characterized by an increased inspiratory discharge in the phrenic nerve (the stage 1 of fictive cough; SC1) and large spindle-shaped discharge in the iliohypogastric nerve (the stage 2 of fictive cough; SC2). Intravenous injection of an antagonist of NMDA receptors, dizocilpine (0.1mg/kg), increased the threshold intensity of stimulation for inducing a fictive cough. The SC2 iliohypogastric response was more vulnerable to dizocilpine than the SC1 phrenic response. Membrane potential of augmenting expiratory (aug-E) neurons was recorded from the caudal ventral respiratory group. Aug-E neurons showed a large depolarization with a high frequency discharge during the SC2 in major cases (n=35) and hyperpolarization in minor cases (n=6). Dizocilpine inhibited the occurrence of these SC2 responses of aug-E neurons without any effect on the basal respiratory fluctuations of membrane potential. This drug had no significant effect on waves of excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials evoked in aug-E neurons by single pulse stimulation of the SLN. The present results demonstrated that NMDA mechanisms contribute preferentially to the expulsive phase response in aug-E neurons during fictive cough reflex.

  8. Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

    2014-05-01

    Syn- and post-depositional movement of fluids through sediments is one of the least understood aspects in the evolution of a basin. The conventional hydrostratigraphic view on marine sedimentary basins assumes that compactional and meteoric groundwater fluid circulation drives fluid movement and defines its timing. However, in the past few years, several examples of instantaneous and catastrophic release of fluids have been observed even through low-permeability sediments. A particularly complex case-study involves the presence of giant salt bodies in the depocentres of marine basins. Evaporites dramatically change the hydrostratigraphy and fluid-dynamics of the basin, and influence the P/T regimes, e.g. through changes in the geothermal gradient and in the compaction of underlying sediments. Our paper reviews the impact of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and evaporites on fluid flow in the Mediterranean sub-basins. The analysis of geological and geophysical sub-surface data provides examples from this basin, and the comparison with analogues in other well-known evaporitic provinces. During the MSC, massive sea-level changes occurred in a relatively limited time interval, and affected the balance of fluid dynamics, e.g. with sudden release or unusual trapping of fluids. Fluid expulsion events are here analysed and classified in relation to the long and short-term effects of the MSC. Our main aim is to build a framework for the correct identification of the fluid flow-related events, and their genetic mechanisms. On basin margins, where evaporites are thin or absent, the sea-level changes associated with the MSC force a rapid basinward shift of the mixing zone of meteoric/gravity flow and saline/compactional flow, 100s-km away from its pre-MSC position. This phenomenon changes the geometry of converging flows, creates hydraulic traps for fluids, and triggers specific diagenetic reactions in pre-MSC deep marine sediments. In basin-centre settings, unloading and

  9. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  10. Fluid Fascinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; Zwart, Valerie; Haveman, Martha J.

    De Art & Science show “Fluid Fascinations��? omvat een presentatie over de wetenschappelijke context, inclusief een live experiment (ontworpen samen met kunstenaar/designer Wout Zweers); en, gemengde media en olieverfschilderijen, en digitale fotowerken van kunstenares Valerie Zwart. De show is

  11. Do the bullies survive? A five-year, three-wave prospective study of indicators of expulsion in working life among perpetrators of workplace bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    GLAMBEK, Mats; SKOGSTAD, Anders; EINARSEN, Ståle

    2015-01-01

    In recent series of studies, we have shown that targets of workplace bullying are at risk of expulsion in working life, both from current employment (e.g. in terms of changing employer) and from working life itself (e.g. becoming unemployed). The most recent of these, Take It or Leave: A Five-Year Prospective Study of Workplace Bullying and Indicators of Expulsion in Working Life was recently published in Industrial Health, and the present short communication aims to follow up that paper, investigating the possible job “survival” of the perpetrators. A nationally representative sample was employed (n=1,613), and responses were gathered at three time points with a two-year and a five-year time-lag. Outcomes were intention to leave and sickness absence at T1, and sickness absence, change of employer, disability benefit recipiency and unemployment at T2 and T3. The results of regression analyses clearly indicate that the perpetrators’ occupational status is largely unchanged, and remains so over time, as opposed to earlier findings regarding the targets of bullying. PMID:26320732

  12. Temperature-dependent kinetics of charge transfer, hydrogen-atom transfer, and hydrogen-atom expulsion in the reaction of CO+ with CH4 and CD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melko, Joshua J; Ard, Shaun G; Johnson, Ryan S; Shuman, Nicholas S; Guo, Hua; Viggiano, Albert A

    2014-09-18

    We have determined the rate constants and branching ratios for the reactions of CO(+) with CH4 and CD4 in a variable-temperature selected ion flow tube. We find that the rate constants are collisional for all temperatures measured (193-700 K for CH4 and 193-500 K for CD4). For the CH4 reaction, three product channels are identified, which include charge transfer (CH4(+) + CO), H-atom transfer (HCO(+) + CH3), and H-atom expulsion (CH3CO(+) + H). H-atom transfer is slightly preferred to charge transfer at low temperature, with the charge-transfer product increasing in contribution as the temperature is increased (H-atom expulsion is a minor product for all temperatures). Analogous products are identified for the CD4 reaction. Density functional calculations on the CO(+) + CH4 reaction were also conducted, revealing that the relative temperature dependences of the charge-transfer and H-atom transfer pathways are consistent with an initial charge transfer followed by proton transfer.

  13. Expulsion d’etrangers et Convention européenne des droits de l’homme Le risque de mauvais traitements dans l’Etat de destinatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syméon Karagiannis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The right of States, for a variety of reasons, to expel aliens hasnever been disputed by the European Court of Human Rights insofar as aState party to the European Convention on Human Rights continues, quite naturally, to exercise its sovereignty over its territory. However, this right has to be reconciled with the obligation of States parties to the European Convention on Human Rights not to expose aliens and, more generally, persons under their jurisdictionto a risk of violation of the provisions of the Convention. Yet, guaranteeing that no human right recognized as such by the Convention be violated in case of expulsion is too heavy a task for States to assume. Imposing such an obligation would end up in invalidatingthe sovereign right of States to expel aliens. The Court ofStrasbourg retains primarily the risk of Article 3 of the Convention being violated in expulsion cases, a provision according to which inhuman or degrading punishments or treatments and, of course, acts of torture are strictly prohibited. The Court’s case-law, abundant aswell as rich in nuances, results in rather a thorough examination of the human rights situation in any country towards which a alien will be (or has already been expelled.

  14. Fluid Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  15. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  16. Multiple vertebral fluid-fluid levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bladt, O.; Demaerel, P.; Catry, F.; Breuseghem, I. Van [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ballaux, F. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Pathology, Leuven (Belgium); Samson, I. [University Hospitals Gasthuisberg, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leuven (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    We present a case of multiple vertebral metastases, with multiple fluid-fluid levels, from a moderately to poorly differentiated carcinoma of unknown origin. We suggest that fluid-fluid levels in multiple vertebral lesions are highly suggestive of bone metastases. (orig.)

  17. A delayed spontaneous expulsion of a three teeth bridge after 6 months period of aspiration in the right lung following cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Tayeb Areeg Magzoub

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspiration of loose teeth is a well-known complication of endo-tracheal intubation hence the importance of oral check by anesthetist prior to ventilation. Artificaial teeth crown (single or bridges (multiple can be fixed or removable by the patient. The presence of a foreign body in the lung tissue or airways is a clinical situation that needs aggressive management as it can lead to refractory infections and possible death. We report this unique case of aspirarin of a three bridge teeth (10 mm × 30 mm following cardiac surgery. The case is complicated by pneumonia, chronic cough and severe bouts of cyanosis and finally removed by spontaneous expulsion after 6 months following forceful cough.

  18. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  19. The expulsion of Echinostoma trivolvis: suppressive effects of dexamethasone on goblet cell hyperplasia and worm rejection in C3H/HeN mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, T; Ichikawa, H; Fried, B; Fukuda, K

    1996-09-01

    C3H/HeN mice were infected with Echinostoma trivolvis metacercariae on day 0, given intramuscular injections of dexamethasone daily for 5 or 7 days, and necropsied on days 5, 8, 12, 15, 20 and 30 p. i. Controls consisted of mice that were infected with echinostomes, but were not treated with dexamethasone. Dexamethasone treatment caused a delay in worm expulsion from the small intestine of the hosts, and the increase in goblet cell numbers that occurred in untreated mice was markedly delayed in the treated mice. Mast cell number in the small intestine increased rapidly from just after day 5 p. i. and reached a peak on day 15 p. i. in both dexamethasone-treated and control mice, although the increase in cell numbers was delayed slightly in the dexamethasone-treated mice. The eosinophil number in the small intestine of dexamethasone-treated mice was suppressed until 8 days p. i. and then increased reaching a peak on day 12 p. i., although the number was about one half that of the control. As determined on day 12 p. i., the mean body area of worms from dexamethasone-treated animals was significantly greater than that of the controls. Histological examination of the small intestine showed that the goblet and Paneth cell hyperplasia seen in mice infected with E. trivolvis was suppressed by dexamethasone treatment. Transmission electron microscopy revealed no marked ultrastructural differences in the small intestine of the dexamethasone-treated and control mice except that the former had an increased number of intracristal granules in mitochondria, an increase in vesicles in the apical epithelial cells and an increase in amorphous bodies and autophagic vacuoles in the Paneth cells. These results indicate that dexamethasone treatment delayed the expulsion of E. trivolvis from the small intestine of the host mouse in association with the suppression of goblet cell hyperplasia and increase in the number of mast cells and eosinophils.

  20. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  1. Automatic fluid dispenser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaris, P. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Fluid automatically flows to individual dispensing units at predetermined times from a fluid supply and is available only for a predetermined interval of time after which an automatic control causes the fluid to drain from the individual dispensing units. Fluid deprivation continues until the beginning of a new cycle when the fluid is once again automatically made available at the individual dispensing units.

  2. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  3. Fluid mixing and recycling during Pyrenean thrusting: evidence from fluid inclusion halogen ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaig, A. M.; Tritlla, J.; Banks, D. A.

    2000-10-01

    higher thrust sheets. At one locality where Triassic evaporites are still present, high Cl/Br ratios at relatively low salinities are present in inclusions within the underlying Triassic redbeds, but low Cl/Br ratios at higher salinities are seen lower in the sequence. This is consistent with dissolution of halite by a dilute fluid, but with limited penetration downwards. We suggest that the fluid history of the Pyrenees evolved through a series of stages: (1) Upper Triassic evaporite formation with sinking of brines into underlying redbeds and fractured basement rocks; (2) Circulation of brines with formation of Pb-Zn deposits along faults at some time between the Triassic and the Upper Cretaceous; (3) Renewed extension with erosion of Triassic rocks in many areas and further drawing down of Triassic brines into the basement; (4) Deposition of U. Cretaceous and Palaeocene carbonates containing connate waters of marine origin; (5) Formation of the Pyrenean thrust belt with overpressuring and expulsion of the brines along shear zones and faults; (6) Creation of topography with a high-level circulation system in the Mesozoic thrust sheets driven largely by topography. At the southern margin of the Axial Zone there was limited mixing of the deeper, overpressured brines with these more dilute, hydrostatically pressured fluids. An important point is that because of their density, hypersaline brines are difficult to expel from the upper crust, and may be involved in a succession of alteration and mineralisation events in the same general area over hundreds of millions of years.

  4. Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) trunnion verification testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, W. J.; Fester, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Experiment (CFME) was designed to characterize subcritical liquid hydrogen storage and expulsion in the low-g space environment. The CFME has now become the storage and supply tank for the Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility, which includes transfer line and receiver tanks, as well. The liquid hydrogen storage and supply vessel is supported within a vacuum jacket to two fiberglass/epoxy composite trunnions which were analyzed and designed. Analysis using the limited available data indicated the trunnion was the most fatigue critical component in the storage vessel. Before committing the complete storage tank assembly to environmental testing, an experimental assessment was performed to verify the capability of the trunnion design to withstand expected vibration and loading conditions. Three tasks were conducted to evaluate trunnion integrity. The first determined the fatigue properties of the trunnion composite laminate materials. Tests at both ambient and liquid hydrogen temperatures showed composite material fatigue properties far in excess of those expected. Next, an assessment of the adequacy of the trunnion designs was performed (based on the tested material properties).

  5. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  6. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid...... be chosen. The fabrication of a prototype flow meter and experimental verification of the analytical data were reported. The fabricated prototype is able to measure the velocity of the water in an open channel....... and with measuring its travel time between two different positions, its velocity could be calculated. Given the velocity of the auxiliary fluid, the velocity of the main fluid could be calculated. Using this technique, it is possible to measure the velocity of any kind of fluids, if an appropriate auxiliary fluid...

  7. MHCII-Mediated Dialog between Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells and CD4+ T Cells Potentiates Type 2 Immunity and Promotes Parasitic Helminth Expulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Christopher J.; Hwang, You Yi; Walker, Jennifer A.; Salimi, Maryam; Wong, See Heng; Brewer, James M.; Englezakis, Alexandros; Barlow, Jillian L.; Hams, Emily; Scanlon, Seth T.; Ogg, Graham S.; Fallon, Padraic G.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) release interleukin-13 (IL-13) during protective immunity to helminth infection and detrimentally during allergy and asthma. Using two mouse models to deplete ILC2s in vivo, we demonstrate that T helper 2 (Th2) cell responses are impaired in the absence of ILC2s. We show that MHCII-expressing ILC2s interact with antigen-specific T cells to instigate a dialog in which IL-2 production from T cells promotes ILC2 proliferation and IL-13 production. Deletion of MHCII renders IL-13-expressing ILC2s incapable of efficiently inducing Nippostrongylus brasiliensis expulsion. Thus, during transition to adaptive T cell-mediated immunity, the ILC2 and T cell crosstalk contributes to their mutual maintenance, expansion and cytokine production. This interaction appears to augment dendritic-cell-induced T cell activation and identifies a previously unappreciated pathway in the regulation of type-2 immunity. PMID:25088770

  8. MHCII-mediated dialog between group 2 innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) T cells potentiates type 2 immunity and promotes parasitic helminth expulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Christopher J; Hwang, You Yi; Walker, Jennifer A; Salimi, Maryam; Wong, See Heng; Brewer, James M; Englezakis, Alexandros; Barlow, Jillian L; Hams, Emily; Scanlon, Seth T; Ogg, Graham S; Fallon, Padraic G; McKenzie, Andrew N J

    2014-08-21

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) release interleukin-13 (IL-13) during protective immunity to helminth infection and detrimentally during allergy and asthma. Using two mouse models to deplete ILC2s in vivo, we demonstrate that T helper 2 (Th2) cell responses are impaired in the absence of ILC2s. We show that MHCII-expressing ILC2s interact with antigen-specific T cells to instigate a dialog in which IL-2 production from T cells promotes ILC2 proliferation and IL-13 production. Deletion of MHCII renders IL-13-expressing ILC2s incapable of efficiently inducing Nippostrongylus brasiliensis expulsion. Thus, during transition to adaptive T cell-mediated immunity, the ILC2 and T cell crosstalk contributes to their mutual maintenance, expansion and cytokine production. This interaction appears to augment dendritic-cell-induced T cell activation and identifies a previously unappreciated pathway in the regulation of type-2 immunity. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Outcome of uncomplicated ureteric calculi managed with medical expulsive therapy in the outpatient clinic of a urology unit in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardene, Malaka Dharmakeerthi; Balagobi, Balasingam; Ambegoda, A L A M C; Vidanapathirana, Sanjeewa; Wijayagunawardane, G W A S K; Senthan, V; Ranasinghe, D D; Abeygunasekera, Anuruddha M

    2017-11-28

    Although medical expulsive therapy (MET) is shown to be effective for ureteric calculi, the optimum duration and the stone size suitable for MET are not well established yet. The objectives of the study were to determine the optimum duration and maximum stone size suitable for MET. All patients with radiologically confirmed uncomplicated ureteric calculi treated with MET using tamsulosin over a period of 6 months in the outpatient setting were followed up. There were 213 patients. 165 were men. Mean age was 42 years. At presentation 42 stones were in upper ureter (19.7%), 51 in mid ureter (23.9%), 120 in lower ureter (56.3%). The majority (82.7%) of stones were less than 10 mm. Seven stones (3.3%) were over 15 mm. Ninety-two (43.2%) patients had spontaneous passage of stones within 6-weeks of MET. Another 38.9% passed the stone within the next 6-weeks. Thirty-eight patients (17.8%) required surgery. Uncomplicated ureteric stones up to 10 mm can be given a trial of MET using tamsulosin which can be extended up to 12-weeks with a success rate over 92%. This may have substantial clinical and fiscal benefits by reducing the number of interventional procedures especially in resource-poor settings.

  10. Subsurface Fluid Escape at the Palmachim Disturbance in the Levant Basin, SE Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eruteya, Ovie; Waldmann, Nicolas; Reshef, Moshe; Ben-Avraham, Zvi

    2017-04-01

    Submarine fluid escape is a pervasive phenomenon occurring along continental margins and is usually deciphered by the presence of geomorphic structures such as pockmarks, mud volcanoes and mounds. In the present study we have analyzed a new high-resolution three-dimensional seismic reflection dataset covering the compressive domain of the Palmachim disturbance. The Palmachim disturbance is a 20 x 10 km salient slump body offshore southern Israel, which detach above the Messinian evaporites and extend upwards to the present day seafloor. In this contribution we present a new set of pockmarks having diameters and depths of up to 400 and 35 m, respectively. Interestingly, the majority of these pockmarks are localized on the crest and flanks of seafloor ridges associated with the evolution of the Palmachim disturbance. We show that significant populations of these pockmarks are coupled with subsurface fluid flow conduits above fault system detaching onto the Messinian evaporites, within a complex region of their withdrawal. Other pockmarks are related to regions characterized by channel-levee complex in the supra-evaporites stratigraphy. We propose a dual fluid source driving subsurface fluid plumbing within the vicinity of the Palmachim disturbance: (1) shallow fluid source derived from the channel-levee complex and likewise the possibility of sapropels within the supra-evaporites stratigraphy; and (2) a deeper-source of fluids emanating from Pre-Messinian reservoirs and possible intra-Messinian clastic sequence. Structural deformations associated with the Palmachim disturbance may as well act as seal-by-pass systems whereby fluids from the Messinian realm can be channeled to shallower levels through trust faults. The presence of mass transport deposits and channel-levee complexes in Pliocene overburden may serve as transient reservoirs for redistributing and focusing fluids toward the seafloor for expulsion. The findings from this study are relevant for better

  11. Postoperative fluid management

    OpenAIRE

    Kayilioglu, Selami Ilgaz; Dinc, Tolga; Sozen, Isa; Bostanoglu, Akin; Cete, Mukerrem; Coskun, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative care units are run by an anesthesiologist or a surgeon, or a team formed of both. Management of postoperative fluid therapy should be done considering both patients’ status and intraoperative events. Types of the fluids, amount of the fluid given and timing of the administration are the main topics that determine the fluid management strategy. The main goal of fluid resuscitation is to provide adequate tissue perfusion without harming the patient. The endothelial glycocalyx dysf...

  12. Using maya chair during the expulsive phase of delivery and its relation to the lower incidence of episiotomy or perineal tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López Quirós

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this article is to present the results obtained from the development of a clinical question about using maya obstetric chair during the expulsive phase of delivery and its relation to the lower incidence of episiotomy and perineal tears. In traditional cultures, the women give birth naturally in vertical positions as kneeling, standing, among others. In Western societies, physicians have influenced women will deliver in the supine position, sometimes with legs raised using stirrups. For women of our country is difficult to adopt "alternative" positions that have traditionally been seen as 'normal'. The maya chair is used in the countries of South America, and it appears to be an effective way to prevent perineal tears and the lower incidence of episiotomy duringchildbirth. To carry out this secondary research methodology for clinical practice based on evidence that consists of five steps was used. A question was developed in PICO format (patient, intervention, comparison and observation, then an information search was performed in different databases like Ebsco Host, Google Scholar, PubMed, Medline plus, Embase. 30 articles were found, were analyzed according to the criteria set FCL version 2.0, of which only one was close to answering the clinical question. Information was socialized in a formalpresentation by CIEBE-CR. It is conclude that there is insufficient evidence that the use of maya chair during theexpulsive phase of delivery significantly reduces the risk of perianal tear and lower incidence of episiotomy.

  13. Leaf swallowing and parasite expulsion in Khao Yai white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar), the first report in an Asian ape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barelli, Claudia; Huffman, Michael A

    2017-03-01

    Leaf swallowing behavior, known as a form of self-medication for the control of nematode and tapeworm infection, occurs widely in all the African great apes (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, P. t. troglodytes, P. t. verus, P. t. vellerosus, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla graueri), except mountain gorillas. It is also reported to occur in a similar context across a wide array of other animal taxa including, domestic dogs, wolves, brown bears, and civets. Despite long-term research on Asian great and small apes, this is the first report of leaf swallowing in an Asian species, the white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) in Khao Yai National Park, central Thailand. We present the first evidence of leaf swallowing (Gironniera nervosa Planch CANNABACEA) behavior (N = 5 cases) and parasite (Streptopharagus pigmentatus) expulsion (N = 4 cases), recorded during 4,300 hr of direct animal observations during two distinct research projects. We recovered 4-18 rough, hairy, and hispid surfaced leaves from each sample, undigested and folded, from the freshly evacuated feces of five different individuals (2 males, 3 females, 5 to 34+ years old) living in three different social groups, between the hours of 06:00 to 10:30. Based on close inspection of the leaves, as observed in chimpanzees, it was clear that they were taken into the mouth, one at a time, folded and detached from the stem with the teeth before swallowing them whole. All instances occurred during the rainy season, the time when nematode worms were also found in the feces, although they were not found together with leaves in the same feces. These striking similarities in the details of leaf swallowing between white-handed gibbons and African great apes, and other animal species, suggest a similar self-medicative function. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Amniotic fluid embolism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kaur, Kiranpreet; Bhardwaj, Mamta; Kumar, Prashant; Singhal, Suresh; Singh, Tarandeep; Hooda, Sarla

    2016-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse...

  15. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  16. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  17. Amniotic fluid water dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beall, M. H.; van den Wijngaard, J. P. H. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; Ross, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and

  18. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article we derive equations for variation of pressure in a static fluid or in one that is moving as a rigid body. Also, we show that surfaces of constant pressure and constant density should coincide. Various types of instabilities related to submerged bodies and multi layerd fluids are briefly discussed. Pressure in Fluids.

  19. Fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Heat transfer and pressure drop test results for a fluid to fluid contact heat exchanger are reported. The heat exchanger, fabricated and tested to demonstrate one method of transferring heat between structures in space, had a total contact area of 0.18 sq m. It utilized contact surfaces which were flexible and conformed to the mating contact surfaces upon pressurization of the fluid circulating within the heat exchanger. During proof-of-concept performance tests, the heat exchanger was operated in a typical earth environment. It demonstrated a contact conductance of 3.8 kW/sq m C at contact pressures in the 15 to 70 kPa range.

  20. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  1. Upward flow of magmatic fluids from the Old Woman granodiorite, Old Woman Mountains southeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Jean; Hoisch, Thomas D.

    1994-05-01

    Isotopic compositions, mineral equilibrium, and field relations at the contact between the midcrustal Cretaceous Old Woman granodiorite and Paleozoic carbonates indicate that water-rich, silica-saturated magmatic fluids were transported upward, away from the pluton, across an impermeable 30- to 40-m thick marble which caps the granodiorite, to higher structural levels along a complex network of hydrologically induced fractures. Within the fractures, fluids reacted to form symmetrical radiating splays of wollastonite with minor amounts of diopside, vesuvianite, and quartz. In many cases, pegmatites are found in the center of these calc-silicate skarns. Cross-cutting pegmatites and wollastonite veins in the aureole indicate that during late stages of crystallization of the granodiorite there were multiple episodes of fluid expulsion. Above the marble layer at higher structural levels, magmatic fluids flowed both laterally and vertically, interacting with lithologies in a more pervasive manner. Values of delta O-18 for calcite in the vein skarns average 11.8% and pegmatite whole rock silicate delta O-18 values average 9.4%. Thus oxygen isotopic compositions are consistent with a magmatic origin for the skarn-forming fluids. Away from the vein skarns, values of delta O-18 for the capping marble range from 18.7 to 22.1% (avg. = 21%) and values of delta C-13 range from -3.8 to -3.0% (avg. = -3.4%). The high delta O-18 values provide evidence that the marble largely retained its premetamorphic isotopic composition, indicating that fluids from the granodiorite did not flow pervasively across the unit. Lithologies at higher structural levels show evidence of more pervasive interaction with magmatic fluids: forsterite-bearing calc-silicates have delta O-18 values down to 11.8% and coarse-grained vesuvianite- and wollastonite-bearing skarns have delta O-18 values of approximately 13%.

  2. On the feasibility of inducing oil mobilization in existing reservoirs via wellbore harmonic fluid action

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Chanseok

    2011-03-01

    Although vibration-based mobilization of oil remaining in mature reservoirs is a promising low-cost method of enhanced oil recovery (EOR), research on its applicability at the reservoir scale is still at an early stage. In this paper, we use simplified models to study the potential for oil mobilization in homogeneous and fractured reservoirs, when harmonically oscillating fluids are injected/produced within a well. To this end, we investigate first whether waves, induced by fluid pressure oscillations at the well site, and propagating radially and away from the source in a homogeneous reservoir, could lead to oil droplet mobilization in the reservoir pore-space. We discuss both the fluid pore-pressure wave and the matrix elastic wave cases, as potential agents for increasing oil mobility. We then discuss the more realistic case of a fractured reservoir, where we study the fluid pore-pressure wave motion, while taking into account the leakage effect on the fracture wall. Numerical results show that, in homogeneous reservoirs, the rock-stress wave is a better energy-delivery agent than the fluid pore-pressure wave. However, neither the rock-stress wave nor the pore-pressure wave is likely to result in any significant residual oil mobilization at the reservoir scale. On the other hand, enhanced oil production from the fractured reservoir\\'s matrix zone, induced by cross-flow vibrations, appears to be feasible. In the fractured reservoir, the fluid pore-pressure wave is only weakly attenuated through the fractures, and thus could induce fluid exchange between the rock formation and the fracture space. The vibration-induced cross-flow is likely to improve the imbibition of water into the matrix zone and the expulsion of oil from it. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Spinning fluids reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  4. Engineering fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended to serve as a unique and comprehensive textbook for scientists and engineers as well as advanced students in thermo-fluid courses. It provides an intensive monograph essential for understanding dynamics of ideal fluid, Newtonian fluid, non-Newtonian fluid and magnetic fluid. These distinct, yet intertwined subjects are addressed in an integrated manner. It starts with coherent treatment of fundamental continuum mechanics, with an emphasis on the intrinsic angular momentum, by which the concepts of ferrohydrodynamics are progressively built up, and serve as a foundation for later development. Flows of ideal and Newtonian fluids are followed by a detailed presentation of basic continuum equations for applications of fluid engineering, which cover the design and operations of various turbomachines, heat exchangers and flow elements. The study of the deformation and flow of matter, namely rheology, is discussed primarily with regard to the stresses generated during the flow of complex materi...

  5. Traumatic expulsive aniridia after phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhu Avinash

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt trauma is usually associated with severe ocular damage particularly in eyes following cataract surgery. Small, self-sealing incision cataract surgery is changing the pattern of presentation of such cases, with relatively favorable outcomes. We describe a case of blunt trauma following phacoemulsification leading to aniridia.

  6. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  7. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Mikhail A.; Duška, Michal; Caupin, Frédéric; Amrhein, Lauren E.; Rosenbaum, Amanda; Sadus, Richard J.

    2018-01-01

    Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  8. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  9. Sphere based fluid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleman, Daniel D. (Inventor); Wang, Taylor G. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Systems are described for using multiple closely-packed spheres. In one system for passing fluid, a multiplicity of spheres lie within a container, with all of the spheres having the same outside diameter and with the spheres being closely nested in one another to create multiple interstitial passages of a known size and configuration and smooth walls. The container has an inlet and outlet for passing fluid through the interstitial passages formed between the nested spheres. The small interstitial passages can be used to filter out material, especially biological material such as cells in a fluid, where the cells can be easily destroyed if passed across sharp edges. The outer surface of the spheres can contain a material that absorbs a constitutent in the flowing fluid, such as a particular contamination gas, or can contain a catalyst to chemically react the fluid passing therethrough, the use of multiple small spheres assuring a large area of contact of these surfaces of the spheres with the fluid. In a system for storing and releasing a fluid such as hydrogen as a fuel, the spheres can include a hollow shell containing the fluid to be stored, and located within a compressable container that can be compressed to break the shells and release the stored fluid.

  10. Garden City Vein Complex, Gale Crater, Mars: Implications for Late Diagenetic Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronyak, R. E.; Kah, L. C.; Blaney, D. L.; Sumner, D. Y.; Fisk, M. R.; Rapin, W.; Nachon, M.; Mangold, N.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Wiens, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Calcium sulfate filled fractures are observed in nearly all stratigraphic units encountered by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. The mm-scale of veins, however, provides little evidence for emplacement style. From sols 924-949, Curiosity observed a vein rich outcrop called Garden City, which shows variation in both thickness and complexity of veins. Extensive Mastcam and MAHLI imaging was conducted across the outcrop to provide textural detail that can be related to emplacement mechanisms. Additionally, Curiosity collected geochemical data on 17 ChemCam targets and 7 APXS targets, shedding light on the composition and variety of potential vein fluids. The Garden City vein system records (1) the presence of distinct dark-toned and light-toned (calcium sulfate) mineralization, and (2) the presence of laminated, epitaxial, and brecciated fabrics that suggest multiple emplacement modes. Dark-toned mineralization is observed as erosionally resistant ridges predominantly along fracture walls. Although erosional resistance may reflect the permeability of host rock to fracture-borne fluids, at Garden City, laminated textures suggest that at least some mineralization may have occurred as fracture-fill. Light-toned mineralization often bisects dark-toned material, indicating re-use of fluid pathways. Light-toned veinlets permeate fracture walls, and the largest veins entrain host rock and dark-toned material within calcium sulfate matrix. Such brecciation indicates high forces associated with fluid expulsion. Elsewhere, linear patterns occur broadly perpendicular to fracture walls, and are interpreted to represent epitaxial crystal growth, suggesting lower flow rates and fluid flow pressures within the fracture system. Together these observations indicate multiple episodes of fluid flow in the Gale Crater system.

  11. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  12. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Bhattacharya

    engineers to efficiently simulate turbulent flows, was in fact first devised by Joseph Smagorinsky, a researcher in atmo- spheric science. ... Over the last few decades, mainly due to the rapid improvement in computational efficiency, cameras, optics and instrumentation, both ... towards design of fluid power systems. Asim and ...

  13. Dynamics of Complex Fluid-Fluid Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of recent progress in modelling the behaviour of complex fluid–fluid interfaces with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. We will limit ourselves to frameworks employing the Gibbs dividing surface model, and start with a general discussion of the surface excess

  14. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluid Statics and Archimedes. Jaywant H Arakeri C Dharuman. General Article Volume 11 Issue 10 October 2006 pp 28- ... Keywords. Fluid statics; buoyancy; stratification; instability. Author Affiliations. Jaywant H Arakeri1 C Dharuman1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 ...

  15. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  16. Fluid loading responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Bart

    2011-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in the peri-operative phase are dependent on physicians and nurses for their fluid intake. Volume status optimization is required to maximize oxygen delivery to vital organs. Unnecessary fluid administration can, however, lead to general and pulmonary

  17. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern.

  18. Micromachined Fluid Inertial Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive. Many studies and various designs have been reported in the past two decades. This review firstly introduces the working principles of fluid inertial sensors, followed by the relevant research developments. The micromachined thermal accelerometers based on thermal convection have developed maturely and become commercialized. However, the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, which are based on jet flow or thermal flow, are less mature. The key issues and technologies of the thermal accelerometers, mainly including bandwidth, temperature compensation, monolithic integration of tri-axis accelerometers and strategies for high production yields are also summarized and discussed. For the micromachined fluid gyroscopes, improving integration and sensitivity, reducing thermal errors and cross coupling errors are the issues of most concern. PMID:28216569

  19. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  20. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  1. Cascadia subducting plate fluids channelled to fore-arc mantle corner: ETS and silica deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, Roy D; McCrory, Patricia A.; Wech, Aaron; Kao, Han; Ague, Jay j

    2015-01-01

    In this study we first summarize the constraints that on the Cascadia subduction thrust, there is a 70 km gap downdip between the megathrust seismogenic zone and the Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS) that lies further landward; there is not a continuous transition from unstable to conditionally stable sliding. Seismic rupture occurs mainly offshore for this hot subduction zone. ETS lies onshore. We then suggest what does control the downdip position of ETS. We conclude that fluids from dehydration of the downgoing plate, focused to rise above the fore-arc mantle corner, are responsible for ETS. There is a remarkable correspondence between the position of ETS and this corner along the whole margin. Hydrated mineral assemblages in the subducting oceanic crust and uppermost mantle are dehydrated with downdip increasing temperature, and seismic tomography data indicate that these fluids have strongly serpentinized the overlying fore-arc mantle. Laboratory data show that such fore-arc mantle serpentinite has low permeability and likely blocks vertical expulsion and restricts flow updip within the underlying permeable oceanic crust and subduction shear zone. At the fore-arc mantle corner these fluids are released upward into the more permeable overlying fore-arc crust. An indication of this fluid flux comes from low Poisson's Ratios (and Vp/Vs) found above the corner that may be explained by a concentration of quartz which has exceptionally low Poisson's Ratio. The rising fluids should be silica saturated and precipitate quartz with decreasing temperature and pressure as they rise above the corner.

  2. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...... into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets...... for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed...

  3. Amniotic Fluid Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type, as well as a complete blood count (CBC) Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) to evaluate your heart's ... mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/amniotic-fluid-embolism/basics/definition/CON-20035462 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  4. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... Peritoneal fluid glucose, amylase, tumor markers, bilirubin, creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) Microscopic examination – may be performed if infection ...

  5. Pleural Fluid Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Analysis Kidney Stone Risk Panel KRAS Mutation Lactate Lactate Dehydrogenase (LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL ... set of tests (cell count, protein, albumin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LD) level, and appearance of the fluid) to ...

  6. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get Tested? To help diagnose the cause of peritonitis, an inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen, ... fever and your healthcare practitioner suspects you have peritonitis or ascites Sample Required? A peritoneal fluid sample ...

  7. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  8. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Seismic and structural characterization of the fluid bypass system using 3D and partial stack seismic from passive margin: inside the plumbing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacopini, David; Maestrelli, Daniele; Jihad, Ali; Bond, Clare; Bonini, Marco

    2017-04-01

    In recent years enormous attention has been paid to the understanding of the process and mechanism controlling the gas seepage and more generally the fluid expulsion affecting the earth system from onshore to offshore environment. This is because of their demonstrated impact to our environment, climate change and during subsea drilling operation. Several example from active and paleo system has been so far characterized and proposed using subsurface exploration, geophysical and geochemical monitoring technology approaches with the aims to explore what trigger and drive the overpressure necessary maintain the fluid/gas/material expulsion and what are the structure that act as a gateway for gaseous fluid and unconsolidated rock. In this contribution we explore a series of fluid escape structure (ranging from seepage pipes to large blowout pipes structure of km length) using 3D and partial stack seismic data from two distinctive passive margin from the north sea (Loyal field, West Shetland) and the Equatorial Brazil (Ceara' Basin). We will focuses on the characterization of the plumbing system internal architecture and, for selected example, exploring the AVO response (using partial stack) of the internal fluid/unconsolidated rock. The detailed seismic mapping and seismic attributes analysis of the conduit system helped us to recover some detail from the signal response of the chimney internal structures. We observed: (1) small to medium seeps and pipes following structural or sedimentary discontinuities (2) large pipes (probably incipient mud volcanoes) and blowup structures propagating upward irrespective of pre-existing fault by hydraulic fracturing and assisted by the buoyancy of a fluidised and mobilised mud-hydrocarbon mixture. The reflector termination observed inside the main conduits, the distribution of stacked bright reflectors and the AVO analysis suggests an evolution of mechanisms (involving mixture of gas, fluid and probably mud) during pipe birth and

  11. statistical fluid theory for associating fluids containing alternating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Statistical associating fluid theory of homonuclear dimerized chain fluids and homonuclear monomer-dimer mixture chain fluids are extended to fluids containing al- ternating heteronuclear chain molecules separately. The proposed models account for the appropriate site-site correlation functions at contact.

  12. Geophysical signatures of fluids in a reactivated Precambrian collisional suture in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naganjaneyulu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Central India Tectonic Zone (CITZ marks the trace of a major suture zone along which the south Indian and the north Indian continental blocks were assembled through subduction-accretion-collision tectonics in the Mesoproterozoic. The CITZ also witnessed the major, plume-related, late Cretaceous Deccan volcanic activity, covering substantial parts of the region with continental flood basalts and associated magmatic provinces. A number of major fault zones dissect the region, some of which are seismically active. Here we present results from gravity modeling along five regional profiles in the CITZ, and combine these results with magnetotelluric (MT modeling results to explain the crustal architecture. The models show a resistive (more than 2000 Ω·m and a normal density (2.70 g/cm3 upper crust suggesting dominant tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG composition. There is a marked correlation between both high-density (2.95 g/cm3 and low-density (2.65 g/cm3 regions with high conductive zones (<80 Ω·m in the deep crust. We infer the presence of an interconnected grain boundary network of fluids or fluid-hosted structures, where the conductors are associated with gravity lows. Based on the conductive nature, we propose that the lower crustal rocks are fluid reservoirs, where the fluids occur as trapped phase within minerals, fluid-filled porosity, or as fluid-rich structural conduits. We envisage that substantial volume of fluids were transferred from mantle into the lower crust through the younger plume-related Deccan volcanism, as well as the reactivation, fracturing and expulsion of fluids transported to depth during the Mesoproterozoic subduction tectonics. Migration of the fluids into brittle fault zones such as the Narmada North Fault and the Narmada South Fault resulted in generating high pore pressures and weakening of the faults, as reflected in the seismicity. This inference is also supported by the presence of broad

  13. Optimizing intraoperative fluid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Robert; Mythen, Monty

    2003-08-01

    Correcting the fluid status of the surgical patient is an integral part of good anaesthetic practice. There have been few areas in anaesthesia and perioperative medicine as controversial as fluid resuscitation. Uncertainties still exist as to what the best solution to give is, whether it be a colloid or a crystalloid, and how and when to give it. As well as increasing awareness of the different properties of various colloids, there has been interest in the nature of the carrier solutions, essentially a choice between saline or Ringer's lactate (compound sodium lactate or Hartmann's solution). In this article we review recent studies involving crystalloids, the 'new colloids', and on the amount and timing of fluid therapy. Saline based fluids (including most colloids) are associated with a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and a hypocoagulable state, although these may not necessarily harm the patient. Saline may have deleterious effects on renal function. Colloids in solutions similar to Ringer's lactate ('balanced solutions') may avoid these effects although few are currently available. Several studies that have used fluids (along with other therapies) to improve organ perfusion around the time of surgery have been associated with a better outcome. Compared with Ringer's lactate, saline, and saline-based colloids are associated with a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, and a hypocoagulable state although they may not be associated with adverse patient outcomes. Increasing awareness of the 'Stewart hypothesis' has led to new ways of managing hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. The 'crystalloid-colloid debate' continues, and has led to an awareness that these different fluids, along with their carrier solutions are drugs with different effects. Several studies, in which patients have received more fluid in the protocol group, have found better clinical outcomes in the 'optimized' patients.

  14. Intravenous Fluid Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; McKay, Terri; Brown, Daniel; Zoldak, John

    2013-01-01

    The ability to stabilize and treat patients on exploration missions will depend on access to needed consumables. Intravenous (IV) fluids have been identified as required consumables. A review of the Space Medicine Exploration Medical Condition List (SMEMCL) lists over 400 medical conditions that could present and require treatment during ISS missions. The Intravenous Fluid Generation System (IVGEN) technology provides the scalable capability to generate IV fluids from indigenous water supplies. It meets USP (U.S. Pharmacopeia) standards. This capability was performed using potable water from the ISS; water from more extreme environments would need preconditioning. The key advantage is the ability to filter mass and volume, providing the equivalent amount of IV fluid: this is critical for remote operations or resource- poor environments. The IVGEN technology purifies drinking water, mixes it with salt, and transfers it to a suitable bag to deliver a sterile normal saline solution. Operational constraints such as mass limitations and lack of refrigeration may limit the type and volume of such fluids that can be carried onboard the spacecraft. In addition, most medical fluids have a shelf life that is shorter than some mission durations. Consequently, the objective of the IVGEN experiment was to develop, design, and validate the necessary methodology to purify spacecraft potable water into a normal saline solution, thus reducing the amount of IV fluids that are included in the launch manifest. As currently conceived, an IVGEN system for a space exploration mission would consist of an accumulator, a purifier, a mixing assembly, a salt bag, and a sterile bag. The accumulator is used to transfer a measured amount of drinking water from the spacecraft to the purifier. The purifier uses filters to separate any air bubbles that may have gotten trapped during the drinking water transfer from flowing through a high-quality deionizing cartridge that removes the impurities in

  15. Determination of reservoir fluid and reservoir fluid behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Mihočová

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The report gives the comprehensive information about reservoir fluids. The five reservoir fluids (black oils, volatile oils,retrograde gas – condensates, wet gases and dry gases are defined because production of each fluid requires different engineeringtechniques. The fluid type must be determined very early in the life of a reservoir (often before sampling or initial production becausefluid type is the critical factor in many of the decisions that must be made about producing the fluid form the reservoir.

  16. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  17. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  18. Fluid Flow in Low Permeable, Porous Media Écoulements fluides dans un milieu poreux peu perméable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta N. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Migration of hydrocarbons deals with the subsequent movement of petroleum after expulsion from the source rock through water saturated reservoirs or through permeability created by fractures and faults. Although the underlying principles that control the fluid movement in porous media (reservoirs are well understood by reservoir engineers, less is known about the flow characteristics in low-permeable, porous media, such as clays and shales. For flow considerations, the primary parameters are porosity, permeability and the fluid potential gradients. For clays and shales, these parameters are poorly known; yet these control the time periods during which fluid flow occurs in sedimentary basins (100 years to 100 million years. In this paper, I examine the parametric dependence of the time constantsof fluid flow in low permeability sediments on its porosity and permeability. This is accomplished in two parts. In the first part, a technique is presented to investigate the effect of fluid flow in shales which causes undercompaction and buildup of fluid pressures in excess of normal hydrostatic pressure. The technique is pre-drill in nature; it uses seismic velocity analysis of common depth point gather of surface seismic data and is based on the concept developed by Hottmann and Johnson (1965 and Pennebaker (1968. In the second part of the paper, the flow characteristics are discussed in the basin scale. I develop a model that describes the fluid flow in a continuously accreting and subsiding clastics basins, such as the Gulf of Mexico. I examine the pressure characteristics of such a basin by digital simulations and study the effect of the permeability variation of shales on the geologic time dependence of the fluid flux in the sediments, the basin subsidence rate and the pressure buildup with depth. The model incorporates both mechanical compaction and burial diagenesis involving smectite to illite conversion of shales. The latter is based on a

  19. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  20. Fluid Mechanics: The Pamphlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variano, Evan

    2012-11-01

    One impediment to student learning in introductory fluid mechanics courses is that the fundamental laws of physics can become lost in the ``noise'' of dozens of semi-empirical equations describing special cases. This can be exacerbated by trends in textbooks and other teaching media. This talk will explore a minimalist approach, whereby the entire content of introductory fluids is distilled to a single 1-page pamphlet, designed to emphasize the governing equations and their near-universal applicability. We are particularly interested in hearing feedback from the audience on ways to further distill the content while keeping it accessible and useful. To further emphasize the difference between the fundamental laws and the many specific cases, we have begun assembling a complementary resource: a field guide to fluid phenomena, which mixes the approach of Van Dyke's book with a standard field guide. This is designed to emphasize that there is a ``zoology'' of fluid phenomena, to which the same small set of fundamental laws has been applied repeatedly. These materials may be useful in helping AP Physics teachers cover fluid mechanics, which is an under-utilized opportunity to introduce young scientists to our field of study.

  1. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  2. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  3. Pore fluid chemistry of cold seeps in the Sea of Marmara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M. D.; Cagatay, N.; Henry, P.; Zitter, T.; Géli, L.; Charlou, J.; Shipboard Scientific Party, M.

    2007-12-01

    During the Marnaut cruise in the Sea of Marmara, south of Istanbul, fluid and gas seeps were identified and explored along the Main Marmara Fault, the submerged western extension of the North Anatolian Fault Zone that cuts across the entire length of the sea. Our objective was to study the relationship between fluid expulsion sites and active faults at a transform plate boundary. Utilizing the Nautile submersible, ten cold seep sites spanning the fault zone were explored. The tectonic environments of the seeps included strike-slip faults in transtensional and transpressive contexts, normal faults, folds and landslides. Most seeps were extensive, patchy, and diffuse, displaying patches of black sulfidic sediment with typically white to yellow/orange microbial mat on the surface. One endmember type was highly focused, emitted ambient temperature shimmering fluids of low salinity that precipitated chimney structures. At other sites gas bubbles were seen coming from both the sediment cover and from open fractures. Another type had the appearance of a mud volcano with bacteria covered sediment and a fan morphology extending downslope from the seep. This latter site was associated with very high salinity fluids and significant traces of hydrocarbons and included shallow gas hydrate well outside its normal stability field. Hypothetically, the brackish water seeps (already known from Marmarascarps ROV cruise) can be explained by a local fluid source of lake water trapped in the first 100 m of sediment during the last glaciation. However, deeper sources are required at the hydrocarbon emission site and, probably, contribute to steady gas bubble flow at other sites. Push cores were collected, where possible, at the seeps for chemical and biological analysis. As all seeps had carbonate crusts or outcrops to a varying degree this was not always successful. Kullenberg piston cores of up to 10 m were also collected in the seep areas during night operations. Fluids were extracted

  4. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Magoules, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Exploring new variations of classical methods as well as recent approaches appearing in the field, Computational Fluid Dynamics demonstrates the extensive use of numerical techniques and mathematical models in fluid mechanics. It presents various numerical methods, including finite volume, finite difference, finite element, spectral, smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), mixed-element-volume, and free surface flow.Taking a unified point of view, the book first introduces the basis of finite volume, weighted residual, and spectral approaches. The contributors present the SPH method, a novel ap

  6. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  7. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  8. Synovial fluid analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Eliseo; Jovaní, Vega

    2005-06-01

    Synovial fluid (SF) accumulates in the joint cavity in different conditions; this review outlines the data from those analyses that help in their differential and definitive diagnosis. The gross appearance of the fluid can provide a quick bedside orientation with regard to the amount of inflammation present in the joint: totally transparent SF originates in non-inflammatory conditions--of which osteoarthritis is the most common--and the amount of turbidity grossly relates to the amount of inflammation. Most turbid to purulent fluids usually come from infected joints, but exceptions are not uncommon. The white cell count offers quantitative information, but the boundaries between non-inflammatory and inflammatory SF and between this and septic fluid are very hazy and figures have to be interpreted in the clinical setting. Detection and identification of monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals allow a precise diagnosis of gout and CPPD crystal-related arthropathy. Only one in five CPPD crystals have sufficient birefringence for easy detection and they are easily missed if searched for only using a polarised microscope. Instructions for beginners are given. Proper microbiological studies of the SF is the key to the diagnosis of infectious conditions.

  9. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the role of symmetries for charged perfect fluids by assuming that spacetime admits a conformal Killing vector. The existence of a conformal symmetry places restrictions on the model. It is possible to find a general relationship for the Lie derivative of the electromagnetic field along the integral curves ...

  10. in ovarian fluid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... programs of kutum within 8 h at temperatures ranging from 4 to 12°C. Key words: Rutilus frisii kutum, egg storage, temperature, ovarian fluid. INTRODUCTION. Although cryopreservation methods which are especially desirable for gene banking, might eventually be effective for restocking programs because ...

  11. Fluid Jet Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this thesis research was to investigate the possibilities and limitations of the Fluid Jet Polishing (FJP) technique. FJP is a new optical fabrication technique that is capable of making shape corrections and reducing the surface roughness of glass and other materials. The principle of

  12. Crystalloid fluid therapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reddy, Sumeet; Weinberg, Laurence; Young, Paul

    2016-01-01

    ..., 8 AD). Our desire to find solutions that rejuvenate and resuscitate is captured in the story of Medea revitalizing Jason's elderly father by filling his veins with a specially prepared elixir. Although no such elixir exists, intravenous fluids are an integral component of the multimodal resuscitation strategy used in medicine. Intrave...

  13. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soendergaard Jensen, J.

    1996-08-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating uni-directional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analyzed numerically mode of vibration seems to be most effective for high mean fluid speed, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with the same fluid speed but with smaller magnitude of pipe vibrations. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analyzed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement with theoretical predictions. (au) 16 refs.

  14. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  15. Abdominal muscle electrical activity during labor expulsive stage: a cross-sectional study Atividade elétrica muscular abdominal durante os esforços expulsivos do parto: um estudo transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisa D. R. Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the second stage of labor, the progression of the fetal expulsion depends on many factors related to maternal and fetal parameters, including the voluntary abdominal pushing. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to correlate the maternal and fetal parameters that may influence the voluntary maternal pushes during the second stage of labor by using surface electromyography. METHODS: The electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles were measured during the second stage of labor in 24 Brazilian pregnant women. The diastasis of the rectus abdominis, the body mass index and the uterine fundal height were analyzed as maternal parameters and the fetal weight, cephalic circumference, APGAR scores and arterial pH and CO2 were analyzed as fetal parameters. The oxytocin usage and the expulsive phase duration were considered. RESULTS: A negative correlation between the rectus abdominis diastasis and the rectus abdomini muscle electromyographic parameters was found (r=-0.407 p=0.04. No statistically significant correlations were found among the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles electromyography and the other maternal or fetal parameters, as well as among expulsive phase duration and the oxytocin usage. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the rectus abdominis diastasis may be an influential parameter in generating voluntary pushes during the second stage of labor, however it cannot be considered the only necessary parameter for a successful labor.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Durante o segundo estágio do parto, a progressão da expulsão fetal depende de vários fatores ligados a parâmetros maternos e fetais, dentre eles, o esforço abdominal voluntário. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar os parâmetros maternos e fetais que podem influenciar os esforços voluntários durante a fase do segundo estágio do parto por meio da eletromiografia de superfície. MÉTODOS: As atividades eletromiográficas dos m

  16. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  17. Production of MHD fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, James J.; Kurtzrock, Roy C.; Bienstock, Daniel

    1976-08-24

    A hot gaseous fluid of low ash content, suitable for use in open-cycle MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) power generation, is produced by means of a three-stage process comprising (1) partial combustion of a fossil fuel to produce a hot gaseous product comprising CO.sub.2 CO, and H.sub.2 O, (2) reformation of the gaseous product from stage (1) by means of a fluidized char bed, whereby CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O are converted to CO and H.sub.2, and (3) combustion of CO and H.sub.2 from stage (2) to produce a low ash-content fluid (flue gas) comprising CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O and having a temperature of about 4000.degree. to 5000.degree.F.

  18. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.

  19. Galilean relativistic fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Ván, Péter

    2015-01-01

    Single component Galilean-relativistic (nonrelativistic) fluids are treated independently of reference frames. The basic fields are given, their balances, thermodynamic relations and the entropy production is calculated. The usual relative basic fields, the mass, momentum and energy densities, the diffusion current density, the pressure tensor and the heat flux are the time- and spacelike components of the third order mass-momentum-energy density tensor according to a velocity field. The transformation rules of the basic fields are derived and prove that the non-equilibrium thermodynamic background theory, that is the Gibbs relation, extensivity condition and the entropy production is absolute, that is independent of the reference frame and also of the fluid velocity. --- Az egykomponensu Galilei-relativisztikus (azaz nemrelativisztikus) disszipativ folyadekokat vonatkoztatasi rendszertol fuggetlenul targyaljuk. Megadjuk az alapmennyisegeket, ezek merlegeit, a termodinamikai osszefuggeseket es kiszamoljuk az ...

  20. Metallization of fluid hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nellis, W.J.; Louis, A.A.; Ashcroft, N.W.

    1997-05-14

    The electrical activity of liquid hydrogen has been measured at the high dynamic pressures, and temperatures that can be achieved with a reverberating shock wave. The resulting data are most naturally interpreted in terms of a continuous transition from a semiconducting to a metallic, largely diatomic fluid, the latter at 140 CPa, (ninefold compression) and 3000 K. While the fluid at these conditions resembles common liquid metals by the scale of its resistivity of 500 micro-ohm-cm, it differs by retaining a strong pairing character, and the precise mechanism by which a metallic state might be attained is still a matter of debate. Some evident possibilities include (i) physics of a largely one-body character, such as a band-overlap transition, (ii) physics of a strong-coupling or many-body character,such as a Mott-Hubbard transition, and (iii) process in which structural changes are paramount.

  1. Flows of Reactive Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Prud'homme, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The modeling of reactive flows has progressed mainly with advances in aerospace, which gave birth to a new science called aerothermochemistry, as well as through developments in chemical and process engineering. The methods employed, the phenomena investigated, and the aims of modeling differ for each field; however, in all cases, the results obtained have considerably enriched the working knowledge of reactive flows. This work examines basic concepts and methods necessary to study reactive flows and transfer phenomena in areas such as fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, and chemistry. Specific topics covered include: * Equations of state * Transfer phenomena and chemical kinetics * Balance equations of reactive flows * Dimensionless numbers and similarity * Chemical reactors * Coupled phenomena * Turbulent flow concepts * Boundary layers and fluid layers * Reactive and nonreactive waves * Interface phenomena * Multiphase flow concepts The book presents tools of interest to graduate students, researchers in math...

  2. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  3. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  4. The mixing of fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottino, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    What do the eruption of Krakatau, the manufacture of puff pastry and the brightness of stars have in common Each involves some aspect of mixing. Mixing also plays a critical role in modern technology. Chemical engineers rely on mixing to ensure that substances react properly, to produce polymer blends that exhibit unique properties and to disperse drag-reducing agents in pipelines. Yet in spite of its of its ubiquity in nature and industry, mixing is only imperfectly under-stood. Indeed, investigators cannot even settle on a common terminology: mixing is often referred to as stirring by oceanographers and geophysicists, as blending by polymer engineers and as agitation by process engineers. Regardless of what the process is called, there is little doubt that it is exceedingly complex and is found in a great variety of systems. In constructing a theory of fluid mixing, for example, one has to take into account fluids that can be miscible or partially miscible and reactive or inert, and flows that are slow and orderly or very fast and turbulent. It is therefore not surprising that no single theory can explain all aspect of mixing in fluids and that straightforward computations usually fail to capture all the important details. Still, both physical experiments and computer simulations can provide insight into the mixing process. Over the past several years the authors and his colleague have taken both approaches in an effort to increase understanding of various aspect of the process-particularly of mixing involving slow flows and viscous fluids such as oils.

  5. Fluid Genetic Algorithm (FGA)

    OpenAIRE

    Jafari-Marandi, Ruholla; Smith, Brian K.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) has been one of the most popular methods for many challenging optimization problems when exact approaches are too computationally expensive. A review of the literature shows extensive research attempting to adapt and develop the standard GA. Nevertheless, the essence of GA which consists of concepts such as chromosomes, individuals, crossover, mutation, and others rarely has been the focus of recent researchers. In this paper method, Fluid Genetic Algorithm (FGA), some ...

  6. Corrosion in supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propp, W.A.; Carleson, T.E.; Wai, Chen M.; Taylor, P.R.; Daehling, K.W.; Huang, Shaoping; Abdel-Latif, M.

    1996-05-01

    Integrated studies were carried out in the areas of corrosion, thermodynamic modeling, and electrochemistry under pressure and temperature conditions appropriate for potential applications of supercritical fluid (SCF) extractive metallurgy. Carbon dioxide and water were the primary fluids studied. Modifiers were used in some tests; these consisted of 1 wt% water and 10 wt% methanol for carbon dioxide and of sulfuric acid, sodium sulfate, ammonium sulfate, and ammonium nitrate at concentrations ranging from 0.00517 to 0.010 M for the aqueous fluids. The materials studied were Types 304 and 316 (UNS S30400 and S31600) stainless steel, iron, and AISI-SAE 1080 (UNS G10800) carbon steel. The thermodynamic modeling consisted of development of a personal computer-based program for generating Pourbaix diagrams at supercritical conditions in aqueous systems. As part of the model, a general method for extrapolating entropies and related thermodynamic properties from ambient to SCF conditions was developed. The experimental work was used as a tool to evaluate the predictions of the model for these systems. The model predicted a general loss of passivation in iron-based alloys at SCF conditions that was consistent with experimentally measured corrosion rates and open circuit potentials. For carbon-dioxide-based SCFs, measured corrosion rates were low, indicating that carbon steel would be suitable for use with unmodified carbon dioxide, while Type 304 stainless steel would be suitable for use with water or methanol as modifiers.

  7. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  8. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1982-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which land my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same tim...

  9. Supercritical fluids cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, S.; Hjeresen, D.; Silva, L.; Spall, D.; Stephenson, R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a proposed multi-party research and development program which seeks to develop supercritical fluid cleaning technology as an alternative to existing solvent cleaning applications. While SCF extraction technology has been in commercial use for several years, the use of these fluids as cleaning agents poses several new technical challenges. Problems inherent in the commercialization of SCF technology include: the cleaning efficacy and compatibility of supercritical working fluids with the parts to be cleaned must be assessed for a variety of materials and components; process parameters and equipment design Have been optimized for extractive applications and must be reconsidered for application to cleaning; and co-solvents and entrainers must be identified to facilitate the removal of polar inorganic and organic contaminants, which are often not well solvated in supercritical systems. The proposed research and development program would address these issues and lead to the development and commercialization of viable SCF-based technology for precision cleaning applications. This paper provides the technical background, program scope, and delineates the responsibilities of each principal participant in the program.

  10. Geophysical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pedlosky, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    The content of this book is based, largely, on the core curriculum in geophys­ ical fluid dynamics which I and my colleagues in the Department of Geophysical Sciences at The University of Chicago have taught for the past decade. Our purpose in developing a core curriculum was to provide to advanced undergraduates and entering graduate students a coherent and systematic introduction to the theory of geophysical fluid dynamics. The curriculum and the outline of this book were devised to form a sequence of courses of roughly one and a half academic years (five academic quarters) in length. The goal of the sequence is to help the student rapidly advance to the point where independent study and research are practical expectations. It quickly became apparent that several topics (e. g. , some aspects of potential theory) usually thought of as forming the foundations of a fluid-dynamics curriculum were merely classical rather than essential and could be, however sadly, dispensed with for our purposes. At the same ti...

  11. Astrophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2016-06-01

    > These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.

  12. Microfluidics with fluid walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Edmond J; Feuerborn, Alexander; Wheeler, James H R; Tan, Ann Na; Durham, William M; Foster, Kevin R; Cook, Peter R

    2017-10-10

    Microfluidics has great potential, but the complexity of fabricating and operating devices has limited its use. Here we describe a method - Freestyle Fluidics - that overcomes many key limitations. In this method, liquids are confined by fluid (not solid) walls. Aqueous circuits with any 2D shape are printed in seconds on plastic or glass Petri dishes; then, interfacial forces pin liquids to substrates, and overlaying an immiscible liquid prevents evaporation. Confining fluid walls are pliant and resilient; they self-heal when liquids are pipetted through them. We drive flow through a wide range of circuits passively by manipulating surface tension and hydrostatic pressure, and actively using external pumps. Finally, we validate the technology with two challenging applications - triggering an inflammatory response in human cells and chemotaxis in bacterial biofilms. This approach provides a powerful and versatile alternative to traditional microfluidics.The complexity of fabricating and operating microfluidic devices limits their use. Walsh et al. describe a method in which circuits are printed as quickly and simply as writing with a pen, and liquids in them are confined by fluid instead of solid walls.

  13. Microevents produced by gas migration and expulsion at the seabed: a study based on sea bottom recordings from the Sea of Marmara

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tary, J. B.; Géli, L.; Guennou, C.; Henry, P.; Sultan, N.; ćaǧatay, N.; Vidal, V.

    2012-08-01

    Different types of 4-component ocean bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed for variable durations ranging from 1 week to about 4 months in 2007, over soft sediments covering the seafloor of the Tekirdag Basin (western part of the Sea of Marmara, Turkey). Non-seismic microevents were recorded by the geophones, but generally not by the hydrophones, except when the hydrophone is located less than a few tens of centimetres above the seafloor. The microevents are characterized by short durations of less than 0.8 s, by frequencies ranging between 4 and 30 Hz, and by highly variable amplitudes. In addition, no correlation between OBSs was observed, except for two OBSs, located 10 m apart. Interestingly, a swarm of ˜400 very similar microevents (based on principal component analysis) was recorded in less than one day by an OBS located in the close vicinity of an active, gas-prone fault cutting through the upper sedimentary layers. The presence of gas in superficial sediments, together with analogies with laboratory experiments, suggest that gas migration followed by the collapse of fluid-filled cavities or conduits could be the source of the observed microevents. This work shows that OBSs may provide valuable information to improve our understanding of natural degassing processes from the seafloor.

  14. Regulation of amniotic fluid volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beall, M. H.; van den Wijngaard, J. P. H. M.; van Gemert, M. J. C.; Ross, M. G.

    2007-01-01

    Water arrives in the mammalian gestation from the maternal circulation across the placenta. It then circulates between the fetal water compartments, including the fetal body compartments, the placenta and the amniotic fluid. Amniotic fluid is created by the flow of fluid from the fetal lung and

  15. Modelling of magnetic fluid support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashtovoi, V.G. E-mail: bashv@reol1.itmo.by; Bossis, G.; Kabachnikov, D.N.; Krakov, M.S.; Volkova, O

    2002-11-01

    One kind of elastic magnetic fluid support representing the magnetic fluid drop with permanent magnet inside is investigated experimentally and numerically. The dependencies between the magneto static force in support and the geometrical parameters and properties of the magnet and the magnetic fluid are established.

  16. Numerical Methods in Fluid Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    treatment of time-dependent three-dimensional flows; Un example de modele mathematique complexe en mecanique des fluides ....des equations de Navier-Stokes des fluides visqueux incompressibles; Numerical solution of steady state Navier-Stokes equations; Numerical solution of...dynamics; Application of finite elements methods in fluid dynamics; Computational methods for inviscid transonic flows with inbedded shock waves; Numerical

  17. Intraoperative fluid therapy in neonates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: fluid responsiveness, fluid therapy, intraoperative, neonates. Introduction. Fluid therapy should ensure ... therapy, replacement for blood loss and for insensible and sensible water loss due to surgery and ..... of Paediatric Anaesthetists (APA) and the French-language. Society of Paediatric Anaesthesiologists ...

  18. Fluid transport due to nonlinear fluid-structure interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    1997-01-01

    This work considers nonlinear fluid-structure interaction for a vibrating pipe containing fluid. Transverse pipe vibrations will force the fluid to move relative to the pipe creating unidirectional fluid flow towards the pipe end. The fluid flow induced affects the damping and the stiffness...... of the pipe. The behavior of the system in response to lateral resonant base excitation is analysed numerically and by the use of a perturbation method (multiple scales). Exciting the pipe in the fundamental mode of vibration seems to be most effective for transferring energy from the shaker to the fluid......, whereas higher modes of vibration can be used to transport fluid with pipe vibrations of smaller amplitude. The effect of the nonlinear geometrical terms is analysed and these terms are shown to affect the response for higher modes of vibration. Experimental investigations show good agreement...

  19. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  20. Structural Transition in Supercritical Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris I. Sedunov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The extension of the saturation curve ( on the PT diagram in the supercritical region for a number of monocomponent supercritical fluids by peak values for different thermophysical properties, such as heat capacities and and compressibility has been studied. These peaks signal about some sort of fluid structural transition in the supercritical region. Different methods give similar but progressively diverging curves st( for this transition. The zone of temperatures and pressures near these curves can be named as the zone of the fluid structural transition. The outstanding properties of supercritical fluids in this zone help to understand the physical sense of the fluid structural transition.

  1. Plane waves in noncommutative fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M.C.B., E-mail: mabdalla@ift.unesp.br [Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Bloco 2, Barra-Funda, Caixa Postal 70532-2, 01156-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Holender, L., E-mail: holender@ufrrj.br [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil); Santos, M.A., E-mail: masantos@cce.ufes.br [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES), Avenida Fernando Ferarri S/N, Goiabeiras, 29060-900 Vitória, ES (Brazil); Vancea, I.V., E-mail: ionvancea@ufrrj.br [Grupo de Física Teórica e Matemática Física, Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Cx. Postal 23851, BR 465 Km 7, 23890-000 Seropédica, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-08-01

    We study the dynamics of the noncommutative fluid in the Snyder space perturbatively at the first order in powers of the noncommutative parameter. The linearized noncommutative fluid dynamics is described by a system of coupled linear partial differential equations in which the variables are the fluid density and the fluid potentials. We show that these equations admit a set of solutions that are monochromatic plane waves for the fluid density and two of the potentials and a linear function for the third potential. The energy–momentum tensor of the plane waves is calculated.

  2. Undulatory swimming in viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiaoning

    2011-01-01

    The effects of fluid elasticity on the swimming behavior of the nematode \\emph{Caenorhabditis elegans} are experimentally investigated by tracking the nematode's motion and measuring the corresponding velocity fields. We find that fluid elasticity hinders self-propulsion. Compared to Newtonian solutions, fluid elasticity leads to 35% slower propulsion speed. Furthermore, self-propulsion decreases as elastic stresses grow in magnitude in the fluid. This decrease in self-propulsion in viscoelastic fluids is related to the stretching of flexible molecules near hyperbolic points in the flow.

  3. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Michael D.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  4. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Michael W.; Kaduchak, Gregory

    2017-08-15

    Disclosed herein is a acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow that includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  5. Essential Computational Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zikanov, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a complete and self-contained introduction to the principles of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analysis. It is deliberately short (at approximately 300 pages) and can be used as a text for the first part of the course of applied CFD followed by a software tutorial. The main objectives of this non-traditional format are: 1) To introduce and explain, using simple examples where possible, the principles and methods of CFD analysis and to demystify the `black box’ of a CFD software tool, and 2) To provide a basic understanding of how CFD problems are set and

  6. An emulsion wash fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Yu.G.; Kasyanenko, N.I.; Nedoseko, L.V.; Yablonovskaya, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    The advantage of making a wash fluid at drill wells far from the clay works from concentrates of pastes delivered there is demonstrated. A formula is cited for the EP-1 emulsion paste, developed in the Dnepropetrovsk section of the Institute of Mineral Resources (IMR), along with its production technology. The low clay emulsion wash liquid, EPZh-1, obtained directly from the drill well from the EP-1 paste, after adding one of the polymers of the acrylic series (hydrolized polyacrylamide, hypan, K-4 and so on) to it is a volume of 1 to 2 percent of the total mass is suitable for use in different geological conditions. Based on the results of broad testing in the geological organizations of the Sevukreologiya and Yuzhukrgeologiya PO, it is established that the EPZh-1 wash fluid promotes an increase in the speed of well passage on the average by 13.7 percent and an increase in the technical drilling speed of 17.3 percent and a reduction in downtime due to the absence of the clearing agent by 53 percent and due to complications by 50 percent. More than 100,000 meters of wells have been drilled using EPZh-1 and a savings of 1.37 rubles per meter drilled has been achieved.

  7. Solitary waves in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Grimshaw, RHJ

    2007-01-01

    After the initial observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary wave in a canal, his insightful laboratory experiments and the subsequent theoretical work of Boussinesq, Rayleigh and Korteweg and de Vries, interest in solitary waves in fluids lapsed until the mid 1960's with the seminal paper of Zabusky and Kruskal describing the discovery of the soliton. This was followed by the rapid development of the theory of solitons and integrable systems. At the same time came the realization that solitary waves occur naturally in many physical systems, and play a fundamental role in many circumstances. The aim of this text is to describe the role that soliton theory plays in fluids in several contexts. After an historical introduction, the book is divided five chapters covering the basic theory of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the subsequent application to free-surface solitary waves in water to internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean and the atmospheric boundary layer, solitary waves in rotating flows, ...

  8. Fluid resuscitation in acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Aakash; Manrai, Manish; Kochhar, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis remains a clinical challenge, despite an exponential increase in our knowledge of its complex pathophysiological changes. Early fluid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment and is universally recommended; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding the type, rate, amount and end points of fluid replacement. Further confusion is added with the newer studies reporting better results with controlled fluid therapy. This review focuses on the pathophysiology of fluid depletion in acute pancreatitis, as well as the rationale for fluid replacement, the type, optimal amount, rate of infusion and monitoring of such patients. The basic goal of fluid epletion should be to prevent or minimize the systemic response to inflammatory markers. For this review, various studies and reviews were critically evaluated, along with authors’ recommendations, for predicted severe or severe pancreatitis based on the available evidence. PMID:25561779

  9. [Fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Madaria, Enrique

    2013-12-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with an increased need for fluids due to fluid sequestration and, in the most severe cases, with decreased peripheral vascular tone. For several decades, clinical practice guidelines have recommended aggressive fluid therapy to improve the prognosis of AP. This recommendation is based on theoretical models, animal studies, and retrospective studies in humans. Recent studies suggest that aggressive fluid administration in all patients with AP could have a neutral or harmful effect. Fluid therapy based on Ringer's lactate could improve the course of the disease, although further studies are needed to confirm this possibility. Most patients with AP do not require invasive monitoring of hemodynamic parameters to guide fluid therapy administration. Moreover, the ability of these parameters to improve prognosis has not been demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  10. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-07

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  11. Fluid mechanics fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cengel, Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Cengel and Cimbala's Fluid Mechanics Fundamentals and Applications, communicates directly with tomorrow's engineers in a simple yet precise manner. The text covers the basic principles and equations of fluid mechanics in the context of numerous and diverse real-world engineering examples. The text helps students develop an intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics by emphasizing the physics, using figures, numerous photographs and visual aids to reinforce the physics. The highly visual approach enhances the learning of Fluid mechanics by students. This text distinguishes itself from others by the way the material is presented - in a progressive order from simple to more difficult, building each chapter upon foundations laid down in previous chapters. In this way, even the traditionally challenging aspects of fluid mechanics can be learned effectively. McGraw-Hill is also proud to offer ConnectPlus powered by Maple with the third edition of Cengel/Cimbabla, Fluid Mechanics. This innovative and powerful new sy...

  12. Fluid inclusions in stony meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, J. L.; Ashwal, L. D.; Bergman, S. C.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Henry, D. J.; Lee-Berman, R.; Roedder, E.; Belkin, H. E.

    1983-01-01

    The fluid inclusions presently described for five stony meteorites brings to seven the number of such meteorites confirmed. Homogenization temperatures are reproducible in each inclusion, and range from 25 C to over 225 C, with some vapor plus liquid inclusions remaining at 225 C, the highest temperature in these microthermometric experiments. Upon cooling, the fluid in some inclusions appears to freeze, as indicated by deformation and immobilization of the vapor bubble at low temperatures. Melting temperatures are by contrast difficult to observe and are not reproducible. Microthermometric data for the fluid in diogenite ALPHA 77256 and inclusions in four chondrites suggest that the fluid is aqueous, with a high solute content.

  13. The fluid dynamics of climate

    CERN Document Server

    Palazzi, Elisa; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an overview of the fluid aspects of the climate system, focusing on basic aspects as well as recent research developments. It will bring together contributions from diverse fields of the physical, mathematical and engineering sciences. The volume will be useful to doctorate students, postdocs and researchers working on different aspects of atmospheric, oceanic and environmental fluid dynamics. It will also be of interest to researchers interested in quantitatively understanding how fluid dynamics can be applied to the climate system, and to climate scientists willing to gain a deeper insight into the fluid mechanics underlying climate processes.

  14. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  15. Inflationary universe in fluid description

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a fluid description of inflationary cosmology. It is shown that the three observables of the inflationary universe: the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be compatible with the Planck analysis. In addition, we reconstruct the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations consistent with the Planck results. We explicitly demonstrate that the universe can gracefully exit from inflation in the reconstructed fluid models. Furthermore, we explore the singular inflation for a fluid model.

  16. FLUID CONTACTOR APPARATUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, R.; Streeton, R.J.W.

    1956-04-17

    The fluid contactor apparatus comprises a cylindrical column mounted co- axially and adapted to rotate within a cylindrical vessel, for the purpose of extracting a solute from am aqueous solution by means of an organic solvent. The column is particularly designed to control the vortex pattern so as to reduce the height of the vortices while, at the same time, the width of the annular radius in the radial direction between the vessel and column is less than half the radius of the column. A plurality of thin annular fins are spaced apart along the rotor approximately twice the radial dimension of the column such that two contrarotating substantially circular vortices are contained within each pair of fins as the column is rotated.

  17. Fluid Genetic Algorithm (FGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruholla Jafari-Marandi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algorithm (GA has been one of the most popular methods for many challenging optimization problems when exact approaches are too computationally expensive. A review of the literature shows extensive research attempting to adapt and develop the standard GA. Nevertheless, the essence of GA which consists of concepts such as chromosomes, individuals, crossover, mutation, and others rarely has been the focus of recent researchers. In this paper method, Fluid Genetic Algorithm (FGA, some of these concepts are changed, removed, and furthermore, new concepts are introduced. The performance of GA and FGA are compared through seven benchmark functions. FGA not only shows a better success rate and better convergence control, but it can be applied to a wider range of problems including multi-objective and multi-level problems. Also, the application of FGA for a real engineering problem, Quadric Assignment Problem (AQP, is shown and experienced.

  18. Magnetoviscous model fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, M; Hess, S

    2003-01-01

    We review, apply and compare diverse approaches to the theoretical understanding of the dynamical and rheological behaviour of ferrofluids and magnetorheological (MR) fluids subject to external magnetic and flow fields. Simple models are introduced which are directly solvable by nonequilibrium Brownian or molecular dynamics computer simulation. In particular, the numerical results for ferrofluids quantify the domain of validity of uniaxial alignment of magnetic moments (in and) out of equilibrium. A Fokker-Planck equation for the dynamics of the magnetic moments - corresponding to the Brownian dynamics approach - and its implications are analysed under this approximation. The basic approach considers the effect of external fields on the dynamics of ellipsoid shaped permanent ferromagnetic domains (aggregates), whose size should depend on the strength of flow and magnetic field, the magnetic interaction parameter and concentration (or packing fraction). Results from analytic calculations and from simulation ar...

  19. Fluid Mechanics of Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Alexis; Bhatia, Nitesh; Carter, Taren; Hu, David

    2015-11-01

    Saliva plays a key role in digestion, speech and tactile sensation. Lack of saliva, also known as dry mouth syndrome, increases risk of tooth decay and alters sense of taste; nearly 10% of the general population suffer from this syndrome. In this experimental study, we investigate the spreading of water drops on wet and dry tongues of pigs and cows. We find that drops spread faster on a wet tongue than a dry tongue. We rationalize the spreading rate by consideration of the tongue microstructure, such as as papillae, in promoting wicking. By investigating how tongue microstructure affects spreading of fluids, we may begin to how understand taste receptors are activated by eating and drinking.

  20. Respiratory fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotberg, James B

    2011-02-01

    This article covers several aspects of respiratory fluid mechanics that have been actively investigated by our group over the years. For the most part, the topics involve two-phase flows in the respiratory system with applications to normal and diseased lungs, as well as therapeutic interventions. Specifically, the topics include liquid plug flow in airways and at airway bifurcations as it relates to surfactant, drug, gene, or stem cell delivery into the lung; liquid plug rupture and its damaging effects on underlying airway epithelial cells as well as a source of crackling sounds in the lung; airway closure from "capillary-elastic instabilities," as well as nonlinear stabilization from oscillatory core flow which we call the "oscillating butter knife;" liquid film, and surfactant dynamics in an oscillating alveolus and the steady streaming, and surfactant spreading on thin viscous films including our discovery of the Grotberg-Borgas-Gaver shock.

  1. Fluid Leakage Pathways and Shallow Gas Accumulation in Peon field, northern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadakkepuliyambatta, S.; Planke, S.; Bunz, S.

    2012-12-01

    different stratigraphic levels above the reservoir indicating past fluid expulsions. The present day seafloor shows no fluid flow expressions and may suggest that the fluid flow system is not active now. Conventional 3D seismic data show chaotic reflections and high amplitude anomalies beneath the reservoir indicating gas migration. Polygonal faults observed below the reservoir could be acting as pathways of the migration of hydrocarbons from deeper formations. These observations suggest a previously active hydrocarbon plumbing system in the area.

  2. Fetal fluid and protein dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis fetal fluid and protein dynamics are investigated to gain insight in fetal (patho-)physiology. Studies were performed in fetuses with severe anemia and/or hydrops fetalis. Measurements were performed in fetal blood or amniotic fluid, obtained before or during intrauterine

  3. Fluid Inclusions in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, J.; Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Le L.; Schwandt, C.

    2001-01-01

    Fluid inclusions are present in carbonaceous chondrites. Of the chondrites studied (CI1, CM1 and 2, CV3) fluid inclusions were found only in CM2s and CI1s, and by extrapolation are most likely to be found there in the future. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  4. Materials processing using supercritical fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Aleksandar M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most interesting areas of supercritical fluids applications is the processing of novel materials. These new materials are designed to meet specific requirements and to make possible new applications in Pharmaceuticals design, heterogeneous catalysis, micro- and nano-particles with unique structures, special insulating materials, super capacitors and other special technical materials. Two distinct possibilities to apply supercritical fluids in processing of materials: synthesis of materials in supercritical fluid environment and/or further processing of already obtained materials with the help of supercritical fluids. By adjusting synthesis parameters the properties of supercritical fluids can be significantly altered which further results in the materials with different structures. Unique materials can be also obtained by conducting synthesis in quite specific environments like reversed micelles. This paper is mainly devoted to processing of previously synthesized materials which are further processed using supercritical fluids. Several new methods have been developed to produce micro- and nano-particles with the use of supercritical fluids. The following methods: rapid expansion of supercritical solutions (RESS supercritical anti-solvent (SAS, materials synthesis under supercritical conditions and encapsulation and coating using supercritical fluids were recently developed.

  5. Fluid simulation for computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Bridson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Animating fluids like water, smoke, and fire using physics-based simulation is increasingly important in visual effects, in particular in movies, like The Day After Tomorrow, and in computer games. This book provides a practical introduction to fluid simulation for graphics. The focus is on animating fully three-dimensional incompressible flow, from understanding the math and the algorithms to the actual implementation.

  6. Introduction to mathematical fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    An introduction to the behavior of liquids and gases, this volume provides excellent coverage of kinematics, momentum principle, Newtonian fluid, rotating fluids, compressibility, and more. It is geared toward advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mathematics and general science, and it requires a background in calculus and vector analysis. 1971 edition.

  7. Applied Fluid Mechanics. Lecture Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Newton D.

    This set of lecture notes is used as a supplemental text for the teaching of fluid dynamics, as one component of a thermodynamics course for engineering technologists. The major text for the course covered basic fluids concepts such as pressure, mass flow, and specific weight. The objective of this document was to present additional fluids…

  8. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Bellazzini, Brando, E-mail: guillermo.ballesteros@unige.ch, E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  9. Tumbling sandpiles in a fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radjai, Farhang; Topin, Vincent; Perales, Frédéric; Monerie, Yann

    2013-06-01

    By means of contact dynamics simulations interfaced with computational fluid dynamics, we analyze the effect of a suspending fluid on the dynamics of collapse and spread of a granular column. We find that the runout distance increases as a power law with the aspect ratio of the column and, for a given aspect ratio, it may be the same in the grain-inertial and fluid-inertial regimes but with considerably longer duration in the latter case. We show that, in both viscous and fluid-inertial regimes, this behavior results from compensation between two effects of the fluid: 1) reduction of the kinetic energy during collapse and 2) enhancement of the flow by lubrication during spread.

  10. Fluid Dynamics of Bottle Filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, Patrick; Gao, Haijing; Appathurai, Santosh; Basaran, Osman

    2011-11-01

    Filling of bottles is a widely practiced operation in a large number of industries. Well known examples include filling of ``large'' bottles with shampoos and cleaners in the household products and beauty care industries and filling of ``small'' bottles in the pharmaceutical industry. Some bottle filling operations have recently drawn much attention from the fluid mechanics community because of the occurrence of a multitude of complex flow regimes, transitions, and instabilities such as mounding and coiling that occur as a bottle is filled with a fluid. In this talk, we present a primarily computational study of the fluid dynamical challenges that can arise during the rapid filling of bottles. Given the diversity of fluids used in filling applications, we consider four representative classes of fluids that exhibit Newtonian, shear-thinning, viscoelastic, and yield-stress rheologies. The equations governing the dynamics of bottle filling are solved either in their full 3D but axisymmetric form or using the slender-jet approximation.

  11. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  12. Critical fluid light scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The objective is to measure the decay rates of critical density fluctuations in a simple fluid (xenon) very near its liquid-vapor critical point using laser light scattering and photon correlation spectroscopy. Such experiments were severely limited on Earth by the presence of gravity which causes large density gradients in the sample when the compressibility diverges approaching the critical point. The goal is to measure fluctuation decay rates at least two decades closer to the critical point than is possible on earth, with a resolution of 3 microK. This will require loading the sample to 0.1 percent of the critical density and taking data as close as 100 microK to the critical temperature. The minimum mission time of 100 hours will allow a complete range of temperature points to be covered, limited by the thermal response of the sample. Other technical problems have to be addressed such as multiple scattering and the effect of wetting layers. The experiment entails measurement of the scattering intensity fluctuation decay rate at two angles for each temperature and simultaneously recording the scattering intensities and sample turbidity (from the transmission). The analyzed intensity and turbidity data gives the correlation length at each temperature and locates the critical temperature. The fluctuation decay rate data from these measurements will provide a severe test of the generalized hydrodynamic theories of transport coefficients in the critical regions. When compared to equivalent data from binary liquid critical mixtures they will test the universality of critical dynamics.

  13. Computational fluid dynamic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-L.; Lottes, S. A.; Zhou, C. Q.

    2000-04-03

    The rapid advancement of computational capability including speed and memory size has prompted the wide use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes to simulate complex flow systems. CFD simulations are used to study the operating problems encountered in system, to evaluate the impacts of operation/design parameters on the performance of a system, and to investigate novel design concepts. CFD codes are generally developed based on the conservation laws of mass, momentum, and energy that govern the characteristics of a flow. The governing equations are simplified and discretized for a selected computational grid system. Numerical methods are selected to simplify and calculate approximate flow properties. For turbulent, reacting, and multiphase flow systems the complex processes relating to these aspects of the flow, i.e., turbulent diffusion, combustion kinetics, interfacial drag and heat and mass transfer, etc., are described in mathematical models, based on a combination of fundamental physics and empirical data, that are incorporated into the code. CFD simulation has been applied to a large variety of practical and industrial scale flow systems.

  14. Fluid flow monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Mark D.; Sweeney, Chad E.; Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel

    1993-01-01

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  15. Noncommutative geometry and fluid dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Praloy; Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Kolkata (India)

    2016-11-15

    In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy, thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in the charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the study of kinematics and dynamics of NC fluid. In the second part we construct an extension of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing about anisotropy and inhomogeneity in the model. We also derive a NC extended Friedmann equation. (orig.)

  16. Hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truzzolillo, Domenico; Cipelletti, Luca

    2018-01-01

    Hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids are ubiquitous, from natural phenomena up to geological scales, to industrial and technological applications, where they represent the only way to control and promote mixing at low Reynolds numbers, well below the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. As for immiscible fluids, the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids is directly related to the physics of their interfaces. The focus of this review is therefore on the general mechanisms driving the growth of disturbances at the boundary between miscible fluids, under a variety of forcing conditions. In the absence of a regularizing mechanism, these disturbances would grow indefinitely. For immiscible fluids, interfacial tension provides such a regularizing mechanism, because of the energy cost associated to the creation of new interface by a growing disturbance. For miscible fluids, however, the very existence of interfacial stresses that mimic an effective surface tension is debated. Other mechanisms, however, may also be relevant, such as viscous dissipation. We shall review the stabilizing mechanisms that control the most common hydrodynamic instabilities, highlighting those cases for which the lack of an effective interfacial tension poses deep conceptual problems in the mathematical formulation of a linear stability analysis. Finally, we provide a short overview on the ongoing research on the effective, out of equilibrium interfacial tension between miscible fluids.

  17. Fluid Dynamics with Cryogenic Fluid Transfer in Space Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During chilldown of cryogenic fluid tanks and lines, the interface between the liquid and vapor rapidly changes. Understanding these rapid changes is key...

  18. Cerebrospinal fluid sodium rhythms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sodium levels have been reported to rise during episodic migraine. Since migraine frequently starts in early morning or late afternoon, we hypothesized that natural sodium chronobiology may predispose susceptible persons when extracellular CSF sodium increases. Since no mammalian brain sodium rhythms are known, we designed a study of healthy humans to test if cation rhythms exist in CSF. Methods Lumbar CSF was collected every ten minutes at 0.1 mL/min for 24 h from six healthy participants. CSF sodium and potassium concentrations were measured by ion chromatography, total protein by fluorescent spectrometry, and osmolarity by freezing point depression. We analyzed cation and protein distributions over the 24 h period and spectral and permutation tests to identify significant rhythms. We applied the False Discovery Rate method to adjust significance levels for multiple tests and Spearman correlations to compare sodium fluctuations with potassium, protein, and osmolarity. Results The distribution of sodium varied much more than potassium, and there were statistically significant rhythms at 12 and 1.65 h periods. Curve fitting to the average time course of the mean sodium of all six subjects revealed the lowest sodium levels at 03.20 h and highest at 08.00 h, a second nadir at 09.50 h and a second peak at 18.10 h. Sodium levels were not correlated with potassium or protein concentration, or with osmolarity. Conclusion These CSF rhythms are the first reports of sodium chronobiology in the human nervous system. The results are consistent with our hypothesis that rising levels of extracellular sodium may contribute to the timing of migraine onset. The physiological importance of sodium in the nervous system suggests that these rhythms may have additional repercussions on ultradian functions.

  19. Boundary effect in electrorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, X L; Yang, F; Xuan, S H; Zong, L H; Zhu, W; Jiang, W Q

    2011-12-01

    The effect of the boundary friction coefficient on the rheological properties of the electrorheological (ER) fluids in quasistatic and dynamic states is investigated by computer simulation. The relation between the shear stress and the boundary friction coefficient in quasistatic and dynamic states is discussed qualitatively and quantitatively, and the trend matches the previously reported experimental results well. The flow curves of ER fluids, under different friction coefficients, are calculated, and it is found that the friction coefficient affects the flow curves. In two dimensions, the transitions in structure corresponding to the shear stress variations are presented to understand the mechanism of ER fluids.

  20. Finite element computational fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Finite element analysis as applied to the broad spectrum of computational fluid mechanics is analyzed. The finite element solution methodology is derived, developed, and applied directly to the differential equation systems governing classes of problems in fluid mechanics. The heat conduction equation is used to reveal the essence and elegance of finite element theory, including higher order accuracy and convergence. The algorithm is extended to the pervasive nonlinearity of the Navier-Stokes equations. A specific fluid mechanics problem class is analyzed with an even mix of theory and applications, including turbulence closure and the solution of turbulent flows.

  1. Message Passing in computational fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Argentini, G

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present the concept of MPF, Message Passing Fluid, an abstract fluid where the molecules move by mean of the informations that they exchange each other, on the basis of rules and methods of a generalized Cellular Automaton. The model is intended for a simulation by mean of message passing libraries on the field of parallel computing, which seems to offer a natural environment for this subject. The first results show that by mean of simple mathematical models it's possible to obtain realistic simulations of fluid motion, in the case of a general geometry too.

  2. Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Lloyd L

    2013-01-01

    Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept

  3. Quantum field theory of fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gripaios, Ben; Sutherland, Dave

    2015-02-20

    The quantum theory of fields is largely based on studying perturbations around noninteracting, or free, field theories, which correspond to a collection of quantum-mechanical harmonic oscillators. The quantum theory of an ordinary fluid is "freer", in the sense that the noninteracting theory also contains an infinite collection of quantum-mechanical free particles, corresponding to vortex modes. By computing a variety of correlation functions at tree and loop level, we give evidence that a quantum perfect fluid can be consistently formulated as a low-energy, effective field theory. We speculate that the quantum behavior is radically different from both classical fluids and quantum fields.

  4. Basic developments in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Basic Developments in Fluid Dynamics, Volume 2 focuses on the developments, approaches, methodologies, reactions, and processes involved in fluid dynamics, including sea motion, wave interactions, and motion of spheres in a viscous fluid.The selection first offers information on inviscid cavity and wake flows and weak-interaction theory of ocean waves. Discussions focus on steady and unsteady cavity flows, radiation balance, theory of weak interactions in random fields, interactions between gravity waves and the atmosphere, and interactions within the ocean. The text then examines low Reynolds

  5. Fluid intelligence: A brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    The concept of fluid and crystallized intelligence was introduced to the psychological community approximately 75 years ago by Raymond B. Cattell, and it continues to be an area of active research and controversy. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the origin of the concept, early efforts to define intelligence and uses of intelligence tests to address pressing social issues, and the ongoing controversies associated with fluid intelligence and the structure of intelligence. The putative neuropsychological underpinnings and neurological substrates of fluid intelligence are discussed.

  6. Advances in Environmental Fluid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mihailovic, Dragutin T

    2010-01-01

    Environmental fluid mechanics (EFM) is the scientific study of transport, dispersion and transformation processes in natural fluid flows on our planet Earth, from the microscale to the planetary scale. This book brings together scientists and engineers working in research institutions, universities and academia, who engage in the study of theoretical, modeling, measuring and software aspects in environmental fluid mechanics. It provides a forum for the participants, and exchanges new ideas and expertise through the presentations of up-to-date and recent overall achievements in this field.

  7. Extension of Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program's Fluid Property Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kishan

    2011-01-01

    This internship focused on the development of additional capabilities for the General Fluid Systems Simulation Program (GFSSP). GFSSP is a thermo-fluid code used to evaluate system performance by a finite volume-based network analysis method. The program was developed primarily to analyze the complex internal flow of propulsion systems and is capable of solving many problems related to thermodynamics and fluid mechanics. GFSSP is integrated with thermodynamic programs that provide fluid properties for sub-cooled, superheated, and saturation states. For fluids that are not included in the thermodynamic property program, look-up property tables can be provided. The look-up property tables of the current release version can only handle sub-cooled and superheated states. The primary purpose of the internship was to extend the look-up tables to handle saturated states. This involves a) generation of a property table using REFPROP, a thermodynamic property program that is widely used, and b) modifications of the Fortran source code to read in an additional property table containing saturation data for both saturated liquid and saturated vapor states. Also, a method was implemented to calculate the thermodynamic properties of user-fluids within the saturation region, given values of pressure and enthalpy. These additions required new code to be written, and older code had to be adjusted to accommodate the new capabilities. Ultimately, the changes will lead to the incorporation of this new capability in future versions of GFSSP. This paper describes the development and validation of the new capability.

  8. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  9. An overview of the statistical properties of two-dimensional turbulence in fluids with particles, conducting fluids, fluids with polymer additives, binary-fluid mixtures, and superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Rahul; Banerjee, Debarghya; Bhatnagar, Akshay; Brachet, Marc; Gupta, Anupam; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pal, Nairita; Perlekar, Prasad; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Shukla, Vishwanath; Vincenzi, Dario

    2017-11-01

    We present an overview of the statistical properties of turbulence in two-dimensional (2D) fluids. After a brief recapitulation of well-known results for statistically homogeneous and isotropic 2D fluid turbulence, we give an overview of recent progress in this field for such 2D turbulence in conducting fluids, fluids with polymer additives, binary-fluid mixtures, and superfluids; we also discuss the statistical properties of particles advected by 2D turbulent fluids.

  10. Fluid Mechanics Can Be Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, Robert F.

    1979-01-01

    A humanistic approach to teaching fluid mechanics is described which minimizes lecturing, increases professor-student interaction, uses group and individual problem solving sessions, and allows for student response. (BB)

  11. PREFACE: XXI Fluid Mechanics Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmyd, Janusz S.; Fornalik-Wajs, Elzbieta; Jaszczur, Marek

    2014-08-01

    This Conference Volume contains the papers presented at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) held at AGH - University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland, 15-18 June 2014, and accepted for Proceedings published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, a total of forty years. The 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXI FMC) is being organized under the auspices of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Committee of Mechanics. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for the exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. Conference topics include, but are not limited to Aerodynamics, Atmospheric Science, Bio-Fluids, Combustion and Reacting Flows, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Experimental Fluid Mechanics, Flow Machinery, General Fluid Dynamics, Hydromechanics, Heat and Fluid Flow, Measurement Techniques, Micro- and Nano- Flow, Multi-Phase Flow, Non-Newtonian Fluids, Rotating and Stratified Flows, Turbulence. Within the general subjects of this conference, the Professor Janusz W. Elsner Competition for the best fluid mechanics paper presented during the Conference is organized. Authors holding a M.Sc. or a Ph.D. degree and who are not older than 35 years of age may enter the Competition. Authors with a Ph.D. degree must present individual papers; authors with a M.Sc. degree may present papers with their supervisor as coauthor, including original results of experimental, numerical or analytic research. Six state-of-the-art keynote papers were delivered by world leading experts. All contributed papers were peer reviewed. Recommendations were received from the International Scientific Committee, reviewers and the advisory board. Accordingly, of the 163 eligible extended abstracts submitted, after a review process by the International Scientific Committee, 137 papers were selected for presentation at the 21st Fluid Mechanics Conference, 68

  12. Improved perfluoroalkyl ether fluid development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William R., Jr.; Paciorek, Kazimiera J. L.; Nakahara, James H.; Smythe, Mark E.; Kratzer, Reinhold H.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of transforming a commercial linear perfluoroalkylether fluid into a material stable in the presence of metals and metal alloys in oxidizing atmospheres at 300 C without the loss of the desirable viscosity temperature characteristics was determined. The approach consisted of thermal oxidative treatment in the presence of catalyst to remove weak links, followed by transformation of the created functional groups into phospha-s-triazine linkages. It is found that the experimental material obtained in 66 percent yield from the commercial fluid exhibits, over an 8 hr period at 300 C in the presence of Ti(4Al, 4Mn) alloy, thermal oxidative stability better by a factor of 2.6 x 1000 based on volatiles evolved than the commercial product. The viscosity and molecular weight of the developed fluid are unchanged and are essentially identical with the commercial material. No metal corrosion occurs with the experimental fluid at 300 C.

  13. Heart failure - fluids and diuretics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000112.htm Heart failure - fluids and diuretics To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Heart failure is a condition in which the heart is ...

  14. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  15. Vitamin Fortification of Fluid Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Eileen B; Barbano, David M; Drake, MaryAnne

    2017-04-01

    Vitamin concentrates with vitamins A and D are used for fortification of fluid milk. Although many of the degradation components of vitamins A and D have an important role in flavor/fragrance applications, they may also be source(s) of off-flavor(s) in vitamin fortified milk due to their heat, oxygen, and the light sensitivity. It is very important for the dairy industry to understand how vitamin concentrates can impact flavor and flavor stability of fluid milk. Currently, little research on vitamin degradation products can be found with respect to flavor contributions. In this review, the history, regulations, processing, and storage stability of vitamins in fluid milk are addressed along with some hypotheses for the role of vitamin A and D fortification on flavor and stability of fluid milk. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  17. Thermodynamic properties of cryogenic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Leachman, Jacob; Lemmon, Eric; Penoncello, Steven

    2017-01-01

    This update to a classic reference text provides practising engineers and scientists with accurate thermophysical property data for cryogenic fluids. The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties. It begins with a chapter introducing the thermodynamic relations and functional forms for equations of state, and goes on to describe the requirements for thermodynamic property formulations, needed for the complete definition of the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. The core of the book comprises extensive data tables and charts for the most commonly-encountered cryogenic fluids. This new edition sees significant updates to the data presented for air, argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, ethane, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen and xenon. The book supports and complements NIST’s REFPROP - an interactive database and tool for the calculation of thermodynamic propertie...

  18. Spherically symmetric perfect fluid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj-Boutros, J.

    1985-04-01

    Many exact solutions for the spherically symmetric perfect fluid distribution of matter with shear, acceleration, and expansion are obtained. One of them is expressed in terms of Painleve's third transcendent.

  19. Surgical Robotics Under Fluid Power

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Devin

    2013-01-01

    Existing robotic surgical platforms face limitations which include the balance between the scale of the robot and its capability. These limitations can be overcome by taking advantage of fluid power as an enabling technology with its inherent power density and controllability. The adaptation of fluid power for this purpose involves many challenges such as miniaturization of the necessary components and identifying the unique requirements of the surgical field. These challenges were explored t...

  20. Hamiltonian analysis of interacting fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Rabin; Mitra, Arpan Krishna [S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata (India); Ghosh, Subir [Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2015-05-15

    Ideal fluid dynamics is studied as a relativistic field theory with particular stress on its hamiltonian structure. The Schwinger condition, whose integrated version yields the stress tensor conservation, is explicitly verified both in equal-time and light-cone coordinate systems. We also consider the hamiltonian formulation of fluids interacting with an external gauge field. The complementary roles of the canonical (Noether) stress tensor and the symmetric one obtained by metric variation are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Apparatus for Pumping a Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeyen, Robert Van; Reeh, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    A fluid pump has been developed for mechanically pumped fluid loops for spacecraft thermal control. Lynntech's technology utilizes a proprietary electrochemically driven pumping mechanism. Conventional rotodynamic and displacement pumps typically do not meet the stringent power and operational reliability requirements of space applications. Lynntech's developmental pump is a highly efficient solid-state pump with essentially no rotating or moving components (apart from metal bellows).

  2. Partial vaginal expulsion of a leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Yokochi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Uterine sarcomas are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of tumors that account for 3-7% of the malignant neoplasms of the uterus and approximately 1% of all malignant tumors of the female genital system. The main clinical manifestations are abnormal uterine bleeding in pre- or postmenopausal women. Pelvic pain, abdominal distension, urinary urgency, and profuse and fetid leukorrhea are other frequent complaints. The authors present a case of a 48-year-old patient that was in amenorrhea for 2 years, who sought treatment for vaginal bleeding. On physical examination, the abdomen was distended, painful in the hypogastrium and upon examination of the external genitalia, it was observed the exteriorization of an amorphous “mass”. The patient was submitted to uterine curettage. The results of the histological examination revealed leiomyosarcoma. Staging workup showed an enlarged uterus with endometrial lesion, and non-calcified pulmonary nodules. The patient underwent a pan-hysterectomy and chemotherapy, and is under oncologic treatment. The authors call attention for the unusual form of presentation of this entity.

  3. Intravenous fluid use in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givan, Gordon V; Diehl, Jason J

    2012-07-01

    Time allowing, euhydration can be achieved in the vast majority of individuals by drinking and eating normal beverages and meals. Important to the competitive athlete is prevention and treatment of dehydration and exercise-associated muscle cramps, as they are linked to a decline in athletic performance. Intravenous (IV) prehydration and rehydration has been proposed as an ergogenic aid to achieve euhydration more effectively and efficiently. PubMed database was searched in November 2011 for all English-language articles related to IV utilization in sport using the keywords intravenous, fluid requirements, rehydration, hydration, athlete, sport, exercise, volume expansion, and performance. Limited evidence exists for prehydration with IV fluids. Although anecdotal evidence does exist, at this time there are no high-level studies confirming that IV prehydration prevents dehydration or the onset of exercise-associated muscle cramps. Currently, there are no published studies describing IV fluid use during the course of an event, at intermission, or after the event as an ergogenic aid. The use of IV fluid may be beneficial for a subset of fluid-sensitive athletes; this should be reserved for high-level athletes with strong histories of symptoms in well-monitored settings. Volume expanders may also be beneficial for some athletes. IV fluids and plasma binders are not allowed in World Anti-Doping Agency-governed competitions. Routine IV therapy cannot be recommended as best practice for the majority of athletes.

  4. Fluid resuscitation for critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-hu ZHOU

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluid overload is frequently found in patients with intravenous fluid resuscitation, and recent studies showed the potential risks of fluid overload for organ failure and mortality. To avoid volume overload and its associated complications, strategies to identify fluid responsiveness are necessary. Apart from the amount of fluid utilized for resuscitation, the type of fluid used also impacts patient outcome. In recent years, there has also been an increasing focus on comparing various resuscitation fluids with respect to both benefits and risks. In this article, through analyzing the impact of fluid overload on patient outcome, we describe the differences in static and dynamic estimates of fluid responsiveness, and review the current literature regarding choice of intravenous fluids for resuscitation in critically ill patients to help clinicians to make appropriative decision on intravenous fluids prescription and to optimize patient outcome. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.02.04

  5. Dynamics of particle clusters at fluid/fluid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavan, Srinath; Minev, Peter; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy

    2009-11-01

    This talk is oriented toward research that describes the hydrodynamics of dense (relative to the lower fluid in a gravitational field) rigid particles at fluid-fluid interfaces through Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS). Understanding the factors that control the formation and stability of the complex rag layer (typically encountered during oil-water separation) is a motivation for the current study. The fundamental aspects of the problem at hand bear a connection with the formation of tight clusters of floating particles. Strong capillary forces are thought to promote this behavior. One of the challenges toward realizing the same in a numerical simulation is the implementation of a physically realistic boundary condition for the three phase moving contact line (MCL). To this end, we implement the recently proposed continuum form of the Generalized Navier Boundary Condition (Gerbeau and Lelievre, 2009) in a levelset and fictitious-domain based finite-element scheme and demonstrate its usefulness and accuracy through case studies.

  6. Fluid Mechanics An Introduction to the Theory of Fluid Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Durst, Franz

    2008-01-01

    Advancements of fluid flow measuring techniques and of computational methods have led to new ways to treat laminar and turbulent flows. These methods are extensively used these days in research and engineering practise. This also requires new ways to teach the subject to students at higher educational institutions in an introductory manner. The book provides the knowledge to students in engineering and natural science needed to enter fluid mechanics applications in various fields. Analytical treatments are provided, based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Introductions are also given into numerical and experimental methods applied to flows. The main benefit the reader will derive from the book is a sound introduction into all aspects of fluid mechanics covering all relevant subfields.

  7. 7 CFR 2902.41 - Metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... operations such as cutting, drilling, grinding, machining, and tapping. (2) Metalworking fluids for which... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Metalworking fluids. 2902.41 Section 2902.41... Items § 2902.41 Metalworking fluids. (a) Definition. (1) Fluids that are designed to provide cooling...

  8. Fluid therapy in the emergency unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solutions, e.g. 0.2% saline. How much fluid? When shock is diagnosed fluid resuscitation should commence with a rapid (over 5 - 10 min) bolus infusion of 20 ml/kg isotonic crystalloid,. e.g. Ringer's lactate. During the period of rapid bolus fluid therapy check for signs of fluid overload (laboured respiration, chest crackles,.

  9. Drug testing in oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummer, Olaf H

    2006-08-01

    Over the last decade there have been considerable developments in the use of oral fluid (saliva) for drug testing. Oral fluid can provide a quick and non-invasive specimen for drug testing. However, its collection may be thwarted by lack of available fluid due to a range of physiological factors, including drug use itself. Food and techniques designed to stimulate production of oral fluid can also affect the concentration of drugs. Current applications are mainly focused on drugs of abuse testing in employees at workplaces where drug use has safety implications, in drivers of vehicles at the roadside and in other situations where drug impairment is suspected. Testing has included alcohol (ethanol) and a range of clinical tests eg antibodies to HIV, therapeutic drugs and steroids. Its main application has been for testing for drugs of abuse such as the amphetamines, cocaine and metabolites, opioids such as morphine, methadone and heroin, and for cannabis. Oral fluid concentrations of basic drugs such as the amphetamines, cocaine and some opioids are similar or higher than those in plasma. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major species present from cannabis use, displays similar concentrations in oral fluid compared to blood in the elimination phase. However, there is significant local absorption of the drug in the oral cavity which increases the concentrations for a period after use of drug. Depot effects occur for other drugs introduced into the body that allow local absorption, such as smoking of tobacco (nicotine), cocaine, amphetamines, or use of sub-lingual buprenorphine. Screening techniques are usually an adaptation of those used in other specimens, with an emphasis on the parent drug since this is usually the dominant species present in oral fluid. Confirmatory techniques are largely based on mass spectrometry (MS) with an emphasis on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), due to low sample volumes and the low detection limits required. Drug testing

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  11. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  12. Fluid science laboratory for Columbus, executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defilippi, V.

    1988-03-01

    The role of the fluid science laboratory (FSL) on Columbus; FSL scientific objectives; and Columbus resources and interfaces to FSL are summarized. The FSL concept comprises a fully contained fluid facility, a partially contained fluid facility, a containerless fluid facility, and a convection controlled fluid facility; two double racks; non dedicated containers for fluids, and conditioning loops; fully automated working; diagnostic techniques; and possibilities to intervene when changing fluids, diagnostics, stimuli, or geometric environmental conditions. A power conditioning subsystem is necessary. A man tended free flyer option is also feasible.

  13. Fluid Therapy: Options and Rational Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Christopher G

    2017-03-01

    Administration of appropriate types and volumes of parenteral fluids is of paramount importance when treating sick and debilitated patients, especially those fighting critical illness. Fluid selection and accurate calculations must be performed logically and accurately to maximize positive outcomes. Knowledge of fluid types, as well as the complex relationship of the body's fluid compartments, helps clinicians develop rational fluid therapy plans for their patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasonic techniques for fluids characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Povey, Malcolm J W

    1997-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive and practical guide to the use of ultrasonic techniques for the characterization of fluids. Focusing on ultrasonic velocimetry, the author covers the basic topics and techniques necessaryfor successful ultrasound measurements on emulsions, dispersions, multiphase media, and viscoelastic/viscoplastic materials. Advanced techniques such as scattering, particle sizing, and automation are also presented. As a handbook for industrial and scientific use, Ultrasonic Techniques for Fluids Characterization is an indispensable guide to chemists and chemical engineers using ultrasound for research or process monitoring in the chemical, food processing, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, biotechnology,and fuels industries. Key Features * Appeals to anyone using ultrasound to study fluids * Provides the first detailed description of the ultrasound profiling technique for dispersions * Describes new techniques for measuring phase transitions and nucleation, such as water/ice and oil/fat * Presents the l...

  15. Fluid replacement in burned patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolani, A; Governa, M; Barisoni, D

    1996-01-01

    Burn injury involves a large amount of water, electrolytes and proteins loss trough the burn wound. For this reason, to avoid shock, a wide infusion of fluid is necessary in the first hours after trauma. Many reanimation formulas were proposed in the past years, with different composition: saline, colloids, plasma. The authors have studied 40 burned patients admitted in Verona Burn Center within 4 hours after burn, with burns over 30% of the body surface area. Twenty of them were treated with Baxter reanimation formula (ringer lactated saline, RLS) while the others with Monafo hypertonic lactated saline (HLS), modified by Milan Burn Center. The two randomized groups were assessed and compared. In RLS group total fluid volume infused was higher while sodium requirements was lower than in HLS patients, with statistically significative difference (p electrolytes balance with lower fluid load, reducing tissue oedema and complication rate. Mortality rate was higher in HLS, may be for an higher Roy index in this group.

  16. Rotational superradiance in fluid laboratories

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, Vitor; Richartz, Mauricio; Weinfurtner, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Rotational superradiance has been predicted theoretically decades ago, and is the chief responsible for a number of important effects and phenomenology in black hole physics. However, rotational superradiance has never been observed experimentally. Here, with the aim of probing superradiance in the lab, we investigate the behaviour of sound and surface waves in fluids resting in a circular basin at the center of which a rotating cylinder is placed. We show that with a suitable choice for the material of the cylinder, surface and sound waves are amplified. By confining the superradiant modes near the rotating cylinder, an instability sets in. Our findings are experimentally testable in existing fluid laboratories and hence offer experimental exploration and comparison of dynamical instabilities arising from rapidly rotating boundary layers in astrophysical as well as in fluid dynamical systems.

  17. Early Management and Fluid Resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaya Yorgancı

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Initial management of severely burned patient is similar with a trauma victim. Determination of airway patency, evaluation of respiration and circulation, early recognition of concomitant trauma has vital importance in burn patients. In the early phase, mortality mainly depends on missed or un-treated severe injuries or pathologies, but not burn injury itself.In patients that have TBSA greater than 15 %, fluid resuscitation should be started. In the first 24 hours, crystalloid solutions should be preferred. .Several formulas can guide fluid resuscitation; however the amount of fluid that is given to the patient should be individualized according to the patient’s need. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9 Suppl: 7-10

  18. Fluid fragmentation from hospital toilets

    CERN Document Server

    Traverso, G; Lu, C -C; Maa, R; Langer, R; Bourouiba, L

    2013-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections represent significant health and financial burdens to society. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a particularly challenging bacteria with the potential to cause severe diarrhea and death. One mode of transmission for C. difficile, as well as other pathogens, which has received little attention is the potential air contamination by pathogen-bearing droplets emanating from toilets. In the fluid dynamics video submitted to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2013, we present flow visualizations via high-speed recordings showing the capture of the product of the fluid fragmentation generated by hospital toilet high-pressure flushes. Important quantities of both large and small droplets are observed. We illustrate how high-pressure flushes and cleaning products currently used in hospital toilets result in aggravating, rather than alleviating, the suspension and recirculation of tenacious airborne pathogen-bearing droplets.

  19. IV fluids. Where are we currently with fluid administration in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this ubiquitous endothelial layer probably holds the key to the distribution of fluid amongst the body compartments. It is well documented that there is a loss of integrity with regard to the glycocalyx in the clinical scenario physicians' recognise as the “leaky capillary”. The glycocalyx is susceptible to damage by many of the ...

  20. Editorial Special Issue on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research in bio-fluid mechanics has tremendous growth recently, partly to address important questions in biological systems, like clogging of arteries, and partly to see if we can develop new engineering systems mimicking natural ones. The recent editorial by Prof. N. Viswanadham "Why Sadhana?" (Vol. 39, June 2014, p.

  1. Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brieger, Emmet F. (HC 67 Box 58, Nogal, NM 88341)

    2001-01-01

    A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

  2. Fluid mechanics problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Spurk, Joseph H

    1997-01-01

    his collection of over 200 detailed worked exercises adds to and complements the textbook Fluid Mechanics by the same author, and illustrates the teaching material through examples. In the exercises the fundamental concepts of Fluid Mechanics are applied to obtaining the solution of diverse concrete problems, and in doing this the student's skill in the mathematical modeling of practical problems is developed. In addition, 30 challenging questions without detailed solutions have been included, and while lecturers will find these questions suitable for examinations and tests, the student himself can use them to check his understanding of the subject.

  3. Fluid systems for RICH detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ullaland, O

    2005-01-01

    The optical properties of the radiator media are of prime importance in Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The main requirements for the radiator fluid are a stable refractive index and a photon absorption as low as possible. We will in this note cover some of the cleaning procedures which are required together with distillation and similar separation procedures. Thin film membranes have been introduced during the last decade. They have proven particularly interesting in separating air from some Cherenkov fluids. We will also discuss the use of molecular sieves.

  4. Estimation of cerebrospinal fluid protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock, C. A.; Passant, L. P.; Bolton, F. G.

    1968-01-01

    Three turbidometric methods and one method using ultraviolet spectrophotometry for estimating total cerebrospinal fluid protein have been examined. The necessity for preliminary dialysis renders the ultraviolet method unsuitable for routine use. The turbidometric method of Meulemans (1960) using a sulphosalicylic acid-sodium sulphate precipitating fluid is better than a method using sulphosalicylic acid alone which is affected by the albumin-globulin ratio, and has a greater sensitivity and better reproducibility than a method using trichloracetic acid as a precipitant. Turbidity may be measured with a spectrophotometer or an MRC grey wedge photometer with human or bovine albumin as a standard. This method deserves wider acceptance. PMID:5697354

  5. Structured fluids polymers, colloids, surfactants

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, the study of liquids containing polymers, surfactants, or colloidal particles has developed from a loose assembly of facts into a coherent discipline with substantial predictive power. These liquids expand our conception of what condensed matter can do. Such structured-fluid phenomena dominate the physical environment within living cells. This book teaches how to think of these fluids from a unified point of view showing the far-reaching effects ofthermal fluctuations in producing forces and motions. Keeping mathematics to a minimum, the book seeks the simplest expl

  6. Sideload vanes for fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Scott R. (Inventor); Dills, Michael H. (Inventor); Rodriguez, Jose L. (Inventor); Tepool, John Eric (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A fluid pump assembly includes a rotatable component that can be rotated about an axis and a static vane assembly located adjacent to the rotatable component. The static vane assembly includes a circumferential surface axially spaced from the rotatable component, and one or more vanes extending from the circumferential surface toward the rotatable component. The one or more vanes are configured to produce a radial load on the rotatable component when the rotatable component is rotating about the axis and a fluid is present between the static vane assembly and the rotatable component.

  7. Enteral fluid therapy in large animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainger, J E; Dart, A J

    2006-12-01

    Enteral fluids administered alone, or in conjunction with intravenous fluids, are reported to be useful for the treatment of dehydration and electrolyte loss associated with diarrhoea in a number of species, following exercise in horses and for feed impaction of the large intestine of horses. Enteral fluids are suitable for treatment of mild to moderately dehydrated patients with some intact intestinal epithelium and motile small intestine. In patients that will drink voluntarily or tolerate nasal intubation the use of enteral fluids may avoid the complications associated with intravenous fluid administration. However the labour costs associated with repeated nasal intubation in intensively managed patients requiring large volumes of fluids may make the use of enteral fluids less economical than intravenous fluid administration. Enteral fluid use alone is contraindicated in patients that are severely dehydrated and/or in hypovolaemic shock, however, if used in conjunction with intravenous fluids, the effects of villous atrophy and malnutrition may be ameliorated and the duration of hospitalisation shortened. There is a variety of commercially available enteral fluids available to veterinary practitioners. While the key components of these fluids are sodium, chloride and carbohydrates, the amounts of ions and other ingredients such as potassium, alkalising agents, amino acids and shortchain fatty acids may vary. The species of the animal, the underlying condition, and the constituents of the fluid, should influence the choice of an enteral fluid.

  8. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 1. Fluid Mechanics of Fish Swimming - Lift-based Propulsion. Jaywant H Arakeri. General Article Volume 14 Issue 1 January 2009 pp 32-46. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  9. Founder of Modern Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 12. Founder of Modern Fluid Mechanics. Jaywant H Arakeri. Article-in-a-Box Volume 5 Issue 12 December 2000 pp 2-3. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/005/12/0002-0003 ...

  10. Somatomedin activity in synovial fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, C L; Burwell, R G; Buttery, P J; Walker, G; Woodward, P M

    1977-01-01

    Abnormalities of synovial fluid, as a lubricant and nutrient, may have relevance to the causation of certain articular diseases. The somatomedin activity in normal synovial fluid obtained from the knee joint of the ox has been studied and compared with the activity in serum from the same animal. The porcine costal cartilage bioassay of Van den Brande and Du Caju (1974) has been used with the isotopes 35S-sulphate and 3H-thymidine. The mean potency ratio of ox synovial fluid in terms of ox serum for 35S-sulphate incorporation was 0-28 (range 0-19-0-47) and for 3H-thymidine incorporation 0-35 (range 0-21-0-63). A significant correlation was found between the somatomedin activity (as measured by 35S-sulphate incorporation) and the total protein and albumin concentrations in the ox synovial fluids and the ox sera, but there was no significant relationship between the somatomedin potency ratios and the globulin concentrations. The possible relevance of these findings to injury and disease in synovial joint is discussed. PMID:843111

  11. Rip Cosmology via Inhomogeneous Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Timoshkin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the appearance of the Little Rip, Pseudo Rip and Quasi Rip universes in the terms of the parameters in the equation of state of some dark fluid are investigated. Several examples of the Rip cosmologies are investigated.

  12. Fundamentals of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, James C.

    2006-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere and oceans exhibit complex patterns of fluid motion over a vast range of space and time scales. These patterns combine to establish the climate in response to solar radiation that is inhomogeneously absorbed by the materials comprising air, water, and land. Spontaneous, energetic variability arises from instabilities in the planetary-scale circulations, appearing in many different forms such as waves, jets, vortices, boundary layers, and turbulence. Geophysical fluid dynamics (GFD) is the science of all these types of fluid motion. This textbook is a concise and accessible introduction to GFD for intermediate to advanced students of the physics, chemistry, and/or biology of Earth's fluid environment. The book was developed from the author's many years of teaching a first-year graduate course at the University of California, Los Angeles. Readers are expected to be familiar with physics and mathematics at the level of general dynamics (mechanics) and partial differential equations. Covers the essential GFD required for atmospheric science and oceanography courses Mathematically rigorous, concise coverage of basic theory and applications to both oceans and atmospheres Author is a world expert; this book is based on the course he has taught for many years Exercises are included, with solutions available to instructors from solutions@cambridge.org

  13. Contextual Analysis of Fluid Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salthouse, Timothy A.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.

    2008-01-01

    The nature of fluid intelligence was investigated by identifying variables that were, and were not, significantly related to this construct. Relevant information was obtained from three sources: re-analyses of data from previous studies, a study in which 791 adults performed storage-plus-processing working memory tasks, and a study in which 236…

  14. Inertia, Electromagnetism and Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Alexandre A.; Pinheiro, Mario J.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the vector potential created by a charged particle in motion acts as an ideal space flow that surrounds the particle. The interaction between the particle and the entrained space flow gives rise to the observed properties of inertia and the relativistic increase of mass. Parallels are made between the inertia property of matter, electromagnetism and the hydrodynamic drag in potential flow. Accordingly, in this framework the non resistance of a particle in uniform motion through an ideal fluid (Paradox of Dirichlet) corresponds to Newton's first law. The law of inertia suggests that the physical vacuum can be modeled as an ideal fluid. It is shown that the force exerted on a particle by an ideal fluid produces two effects: i) resistance to acceleration and, ii) an increase of mass with velocity which is due to the fluid dragged by the particle, where the bare mass of the particle at rest changes when in motion ("dressed" particle). From this theoretical ground, the inertia property of matter appears in a new light representing a promising avenue to create new propulsion concepts.

  15. Protein profiling of cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Anja H

    2012-01-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) perfuses the brain and spinal cord. CSF contains proteins and peptides important for brain physiology and potentially also relevant for brain pathology. Hence, CSF is the perfect source to search for new biomarkers to improve diagnosis of neurological diseases as well...

  16. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  17. Intraoperative Fluids and Fluid Management for Ambulatory Dental Sedation and General Anesthesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saraghi, Mana

    2015-01-01

    .... The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of body-water distribution and fluid dynamics at the vascular endothelium, evaluation of fluid status, calculation of fluid requirements...

  18. Instrumentation, measurements, and experiments in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Rathakrishnan, E

    2007-01-01

    NEED AND OBJECTIVE OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDY Some Fluid Mechanics MeasurementsMeasurement SystemsSome of the Important Quantities Associated with FluidFlow MeasurementsFUNDAMENTALS OF FLUID MECHANICSProperties of FluidsThermodynamic PropertiesSurface TensionAnalysis of Fluid FlowBasic and Subsidiary Laws for Continuous MediaKinematics of Fluid FlowStreamlinesPotential FlowViscous FlowsGas DynamicsWIND TUNNELSLow-Speed Wind TunnelsPower Losses in a Wind TunnelHigh-Speed Wind TunnelsHypersonic TunnelsInstrume

  19. Properties and applications of magnetorheological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Fu, L. J.; Wang, G. C.

    2005-12-01

    The Magnetic, yield and rheological properties of the Magnetorheological (MR) fluids are discussed. Based on the microstructure of a magnetic chain a theoretical model was developed to analyze the effect of the applied magnetic field on the yield stress of the MR fluids. A bingham model was used to describe the rheological characteristics of the MR fluids subject to an applied magnetic field. The results show that the MR fluid exhibits super paramagnetic behavior. The yield stress increases as the applied magnetic field increases. The MR fluids can be used in clutch, valve, and damper devices because the yield stress of these fluids can be continuously adjusted by the applied magnetic field.

  20. Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCready, M. J.; Chang, H.-C.; Leighton, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the major results of the grant "Fundamental Processes of Atomization in Fluid-Fluid Flows." These include: 1) the demonstration that atomization in liquid/liquid shear flow is driven by a viscous shear instability that triggers the formation of a long thin sheet; 2) discovery of a new mode of interfacial instability for oscillatory two-layer systems whereby a mode that originates within the less viscous liquid phase causes interfacial deformation as the oscillation proceeds; 3) the demonstration that rivulet formation from gravity front occurs because the local front shape specified by gravity and surface tension changes from a nose to a wedge geometry, thus triggering a large increase in viscous resistance; and 4) extension of the studies on nonlinear wave evolution on falling films and in stratified flow, particularly the evolution towards large-amplitude solitary waves that tend to generate drops.

  1. Visualization and microrheology of complex fluid/fluid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Siyoung Q.; Zasadzinski, Joseph; Squires, Todd

    2009-11-01

    We describe a novel microrheological technique to measure the rheological properties of fluid/fluid interfaces, which can dramatically affect the flow properties and dynamics of multiphase materials (emulsions, foams, cells and organs). Such measurements can be particularly challenging, as one needs to measure the influence of molecularly thin, two-dimensional layers but be insensitive to the three-dimensional bulk fluids on either side. However, dimensionality helps here: interfacial forces on a probe are exerted along a contact perimeter, whereas the bulk forces are exerted on the contact area. Smaller probes thus increase the perimeter/area ratio, and therefore the relative sensitivity to interfacial viscoelasticity. We fabricate micron-scale ferromagnetic amphiphilic disks (with versatile surface chemistry), place them on the interface, use external electromagnets to exert a known torque (stress), and measure the resulting rotational displacement (strain). In addition to its sensitivity, our technique can measure frequency dependent linear/nonlinear viscoelastic properties and yield stresses. Simultaneous visualization of the interface by fluorescence microscopy allows us to correlate local dynamics withe measured rheology. We validate our technique and highlight its capabilities with measurements on a variety of systems, including two-dimensional colloidal monolayers, fatty acid and phospholipid monolayers.

  2. Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Laboureur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review enlightens the role of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC in the field of lipid analysis. SFC has been popular in the late 1980s and 1990s before almost disappearing due to the commercial success of liquid chromatography (LC. It is only 20 years later that a regain of interest appeared when new commercial instruments were introduced. As SFC is fully compatible with the injection of extracts in pure organic solvent, this technique is perfectly suitable for lipid analysis and can be coupled with either highly universal (UV or evaporative light scattering or highly specific (mass spectrometry detection methods. A short history of the use of supercritical fluids as mobile phase for the separation oflipids will be introduced first. Then, the advantages and drawbacks of SFC are discussed for each class of lipids (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, prenols, polyketides defined by the LIPID MAPS consortium.

  3. Advanced working fluids: Thermodynamic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lloyd L.; Gering, Kevin L.

    1990-10-01

    Electrolytes are used as working fluids in gas fired heat pump chiller engine cycles. To find out which molecular parameters of the electrolytes impact on cycle performance, a molecular theory is developed for calculating solution properties, enthalpies, vapor-liquid equilibria, and engine cycle performance. Aqueous and ammoniac single and mixed salt solutions in single and multisolvent systems are investigated. An accurate correlation is developed to evaluate properties for concentrated electrolyte solutions. Sensitivity analysis is used to determine the impact of molecular parameters on the thermodynamic properties and cycle performance. The preferred electrolytes are of 1-1 valence type, small ion size, high molecular weight, and in strongly colligative cosolvent. The operating windows are determined for a number of absorption fluids of industrial importance.

  4. Cosmological perturbations for imperfect fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-01-01

    Interacting fluids, endowed with bulk viscous stresses, are discussed in a unified perspective with the aim of generalizing the treatment of cosmological perturbation theory to the case where both fluctuating decay rates and fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficients are simultaneously present in the relativistic plasma. A gauge-invariant treatment of the qualitatively new phenomena arising in this context is provided. In a complementary approach, faithful gauge-fixed descriptions of the gravitational and hydrodynamical fluctuations are developed and exploited. To deepen the interplay between bulk viscous stresses and fluctuating decay rates, illustrative examples are proposed and discussed both analytically and numerically. Particular attention is paid to the coupled evolution of curvature and entropy fluctuations when, in the relativistic plasma, at least one of the interacting fluids possesses a fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficient. It is argued that this class of models may be usefully employed as an effec...

  5. Lipidomics by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Ollero, Mario; Touboul, David

    2015-01-01

    This review enlightens the role of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in the field of lipid analysis. SFC has been popular in the late 1980s and 1990s before almost disappearing due to the commercial success of liquid chromatography (LC). It is only 20 years later that a regain of interest appeared when new commercial instruments were introduced. As SFC is fully compatible with the injection of extracts in pure organic solvent, this technique is perfectly suitable for lipid analysis and can be coupled with either highly universal (UV or evaporative light scattering) or highly specific (mass spectrometry) detection methods. A short history of the use of supercritical fluids as mobile phase for the separation oflipids will be introduced first. Then, the advantages and drawbacks of SFC are discussed for each class of lipids (fatty acyls, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols, prenols, polyketides) defined by the LIPID MAPS consortium. PMID:26090714

  6. Validation of computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, P. W.; Bradley, R. G., Jr.; Schmidt, W.

    1989-05-01

    The Fluid Dynamics Panel AGARD Symposium entitled Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics is reviewed and evaluated. The purpose of the Symposium was to assess the state of the art of Validation of Computer Codes and to ensure that the mathematical and numerical schemes employed in the codes correctly model the critical physics of the flow field under consideration. The evaluator addresses each of the papers presented separately and makes general comments on the seven major topic sessions. In addition, a Poster Session is reviewed in detail. It is evident that the new possibilities of CFD provide efficient tools for Analysis and Design in the Aeronautical Industry, but it is also evident that in spite of the existence of a number of excellent experimental databases, there is still a need for efforts in validating the computer programs both by experiment as well as by numerical exercises.

  7. Gel Evolution in Oil Based Drilling Fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Sandvold, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Drilling fluids make up an essential part of the drilling operation. Successful drilling operations rely on adequate drilling fluid quality. With the development of new drilling techniques such as long deviated sections and drilling in ultra-deep waters, the standard of required performance of the drilling fluids continue to increase. Narrow pressure margins and low tolerance for barite sag requires accurate prediction of the gel evolution in drilling fluids. Increased knowledge of how dri...

  8. Fluid dynamics theoretical and computational approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Warsi, ZUA

    2005-01-01

    Important Nomenclature Kinematics of Fluid Motion Introduction to Continuum Motion Fluid Particles Inertial Coordinate Frames Motion of a Continuum The Time Derivatives Velocity and Acceleration Steady and Nonsteady Flow Trajectories of Fluid Particles and Streamlines Material Volume and Surface Relation between Elemental Volumes Kinematic Formulas of Euler and Reynolds Control Volume and Surface Kinematics of Deformation Kinematics of Vorticity and Circulation References Problems The Conservation Laws and the Kinetics of Flow Fluid Density and the Conservation of Mass Prin

  9. Elastic support of magnetic fluids bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuang; Hu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, a kind of gas support generated by the magnetic fluids seal is investigated numerically and experimentally. Theoretical analysis and experimental tests both indicate that the load carrying capacity of the bearing is mainly determined by the sealing capacity of the magnetic fluids. The experiments also reveal that the load capacity may change with the volumes of magnetic fluids and the air sealed by magnetic fluids.

  10. Fluid Annotations in a Open World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zellweger, Polle Trescott; Bouvin, Niels Olof; Jehøj, Henning

    2001-01-01

    Fluid Documents use animated typographical changes to provide a novel and appealing user experience for hypertext browsing and for viewing document annotations in context. This paper describes an effort to broaden the utility of Fluid Documents by using the open hypermedia Arakne Environment to l...... to layer fluid annotations and links on top of abitrary HTML pages on the World Wide Web. Changes to both Fluid Documents and Arakne are required....

  11. Body fluids and salt metabolism - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettinelli Alberto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is a high frequency of diarrhea and vomiting in childhood. As a consequence the focus of the present review is to recognize the different body fluid compartments, to clinically assess the degree of dehydration, to know how the equilibrium between extracellular fluid and intracellular fluid is maintained, to calculate the effective blood osmolality and discuss both parenteral fluid maintenance and replacement.

  12. Electrokinetic micro-fluid mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Phillip H.; Rakestraw, David J.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for efficiently and rapidly mixing liquids in a system operating in the creeping flow regime such as would be encountered in capillary-based systems. By applying an electric field to each liquid, the present invention is capable of mixing together fluid streams in capillary-based systems, where mechanical or turbulent stirring cannot be used, to produce a homogeneous liquid.

  13. Spray formation with complex fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustig, S; Rosen, M, E-mail: mrosen@fi.uba.ar [Grupo de Medios Porosos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, LIA (Laboratoire International Associe).Argentina (Argentina)

    2011-05-01

    Droplet formation through Faraday excitation has been tested in the low driving frequency limit. Kerosene was used to model liquid fuel with the addition of PIB in different proportions. All fluids were characterized in detail. The mechanisms of ejection were investigated to identify the relative influence of viscosity and surface tension. It was also possible to characterize the type of instability leading to the emission drop process.

  14. Fluid management in space construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard

    1989-01-01

    The low-g fluids management group with the Center for Space Construction is engaged in active research on the following topics: gauging; venting; controlling contamination; sloshing; transfer; acquisition; and two-phase flow. Our basic understanding of each of these topics at present is inadequate to design space structures optimally. A brief report is presented on each topic showing the present status, recent accomplishings by our group and our plans for future research. Reports are presented in graphic and outline form.

  15. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. In this article the author critically reviews the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring, and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Saliva as a Diagnostic Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Malamud, Daniel; Rodriguez-Chavez, Isaac R.

    2011-01-01

    Salivary diagnostics is a dynamic and emerging field utilizing nanotechnology and molecular diagnostics to aid in the diagnosis of oral and systemic diseases. Here, we critically review the latest advances using oral biomarkers for disease detection. The use of oral fluids is broadening perspectives in clinical diagnosis, disease monitoring and decision making for patient care. Important elements determining the future possibilities and challenges in this field are also discussed.

  17. Brake Fluid Compatibility with Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Fluid, DOT III, DOT V, MIL-PRF-46176, deposition 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...UNCLASSIFIED ix ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS DC Direct Current, amps DOT Department of Transportation ECU Electronic Control Unit EOT End of test...triggers the Electronic Control Unit ( ECU ) to turn on the pump motors to raise the system pressure again. It is the cycling of the dump and pump that

  18. Fluid Resuscitation in Trauma Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Acikalin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic shock may be defined as a syndrome that begun the insufficient sytemic perfusion causes the tissue hypoxia and vital organ dysfunction. The most important point is to achieve the efficient volume. In this review we tried to discuss the recommended blood and blood products, syntethic blood, isotonic and hypertonic cristalloids and their structures, tenancy areas, advantages and dysadvantages and fluid resuscitation intended to coagulopathy in trauma cases. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(2.000: 89-106

  19. Fluid pumping using magnetic cilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasoge, Srinivas; Ballard, Matt; Alexeev, Alexander; Hesketh, Peter; Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering Team

    2016-11-01

    Using experiments and computer simulations, we examine fluid pumping by artificial magnetic cilia fabricated using surface micromachining techniques. An asymmetry in forward and recovery strokes of the elastic cilia causes the net pumping in a creeping flow regime. We show this asymmetry in the ciliary strokes is due to the change in magnetization of the elastic cilia combined with viscous force due to the fluid. Specifically, the time scale for forward stroke is mostly governed by the magnetic forces, whereas the time scale for the recovery stroke is determined by the elastic and viscous forces. These different time scales result in different cilia deformation during forward and backward strokes which in turn lead to the asymmetry in the ciliary motion. To disclose the physics of magnetic cilia pumping we use a hybrid lattice Boltzmann and lattice spring method. We validate our model by comparing the simulation results with the experimental data. The results of our study will be useful to design microfluidic systems for fluid mixing and particle manipulation including different biological particles. USDA and NSF.

  20. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  1. Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samelson, Roger M.

    The fluid kaleidoscope of the Earth's ocean and atmosphere churns and sparkles with jets, gyres, eddies, waves, streams, and cyclones. These vast circulations, essential elements of the physical environment that support human life, are given a special character by the Earth's rotation and by their confinement to a shallow surficial layer, thin relative to the solid Earth in roughly the same proportion as an apple skin is to an apple. Geophysical fluid dynamics exploits this special character to develop a unified theoretical approach to the physics of the ocean and atmosphere.With Lectures on Geophysical Fluid Dynamics, Rick Salmon has added an insightful and provocative volume to the handful of authoritative texts currently available on the subject. The book is intended for first-year graduate students, but advanced students and researchers also will find it useful. It is divided into seven chapters, the first four of these adapted from course lectures. The book is well written and presents a fresh and stimulating perspective that complements existing texts. It would serve equally well either as the main text for a core graduate curriculum or as a supplementary resource for students and teachers seeking new approaches to both classical and contemporary problems. A lively set of footnotes contains many references to very recent work. The printing is attractive, the binding is of high quality, and typographical errors are few.

  2. Cosmological perturbations for imperfect fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannini, Massimo [Centro ' Enrico Fermi' , Compendio del Viminale, Via Panisperna 89/A, 00184 Rome (Italy); Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2005-12-21

    Interacting fluids, endowed with bulk viscous stresses, are discussed in a unified perspective with the aim of generalizing the treatment of cosmological perturbation theory to the case where both fluctuating decay rates and fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficients are simultaneously present in the relativistic plasma. A gauge-invariant treatment of the qualitatively new phenomena arising in this context is provided. In a complementary approach, faithful gauge-fixed descriptions of the gravitational and hydrodynamical fluctuations are developed and exploited. To deepen the interplay between bulk viscous stresses and fluctuating decay rates, illustrative examples are proposed and discussed both analytically and numerically. Particular attention is paid to the coupled evolution of curvature and entropy fluctuations when, in the relativistic plasma, at least one of the interacting fluids possesses a fluctuating bulk viscosity coefficient. It is argued that this class of models may be usefully employed as an effective description of the decay of the inflaton as well as of other phenomena involving imperfect relativistic fluids.

  3. Method of drilling with magnetorheological fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A method of drilling a bore hole into a stratum, wherein via the drill hole drilling fluid is introduced and fed to the drill head. In order to avoid dilution or leak-off of the drilling fluid the same is in accordance with the invention a magnetorheological drilling fluid, and when an undesirable

  4. Optimal composition of fluid-replacement beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lindsay B; Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this article is to provide a review of the fundamental aspects of body fluid balance and the physiological consequences of water imbalances, as well as discuss considerations for the optimal composition of a fluid replacement beverage across a broad range of applications. Early pioneering research involving fluid replacement in persons suffering from diarrheal disease and in military, occupational, and athlete populations incurring exercise- and/or heat-induced sweat losses has provided much of the insight regarding basic principles on beverage palatability, voluntary fluid intake, fluid absorption, and fluid retention. We review this work and also discuss more recent advances in the understanding of fluid replacement as it applies to various populations (military, athletes, occupational, men, women, children, and older adults) and situations (pathophysiological factors, spaceflight, bed rest, long plane flights, heat stress, altitude/cold exposure, and recreational exercise). We discuss how beverage carbohydrate and electrolytes impact fluid replacement. We also discuss nutrients and compounds that are often included in fluid-replacement beverages to augment physiological functions unrelated to hydration, such as the provision of energy. The optimal composition of a fluid-replacement beverage depends upon the source of the fluid loss, whether from sweat, urine, respiration, or diarrhea/vomiting. It is also apparent that the optimal fluid-replacement beverage is one that is customized according to specific physiological needs, environmental conditions, desired benefits, and individual characteristics and taste preferences.

  5. Markov-modulated and feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.

    1998-01-01

    In the last twenty years the field of Markov-modulated fluid queues has received considerable attention. In these models a fluid reservoir receives and/or releases fluid at rates which depend on the actual state of a background Markov chain. In the first chapter of this thesis we give a short

  6. Fluid therapy in the emergency unit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    require immediate vascular access and intravenous fluid administration. Choosing the correct fluid and administering effective and safe amounts of fluid for resuscitation are important determinants of morbidity and mortality outcomes. The American College of Critical Care. Medicine (ACCM) Clinical Practice. Parameters for ...

  7. Fluid flow meter using thermal tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, Arno Willem Frederik; Blokland, Huibert; Velthuis, Johannes Fransiscus Maria; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2007-01-01

    Fluid flows through a conduit. To measure flow speed the fluid is heated at a heating location in the conduit with a time-dependent heating strength. A speed of sound in fluid flowing in the conduit is measured at a plurality of sensing locations downstream from said heating location. The flow speed

  8. Fluid flow meter using thermal tracers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volker, Arno Willem Frederik; Blokland, Huibert; Velthuis, Johannes Fransiscus Maria; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2011-01-01

    Fluid flows through a conduit. To measure flow speed the fluid is heated at a heating location in the conduit with a time-dependent heating strength. A speed of sound in fluid flowing in the conduit is measured at a plurality of sensing locations downstream from said heating location. The flow speed

  9. Fluid Mud in Energetic Systems: FLUMES II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    FINAL REPORT Fluid Mud in Energetic Systems: FLUMES II Gail C. Kineke Dept of...the dynamics of fluid mud and its role in the transport and deposition of sediment in coastal environments. In particular, we sought greater...understanding of the processes that influence the formation and maintenance of fluid mud in energetic environments. OBJECTIVES The research is a process

  10. Fluid management in acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Prowle, John; Joannidis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    of fluid and brought attention to the delicate balance between benefits and harms of different aspects of fluid management in critically ill patients, in particular those with AKI. This narrative review addresses various aspects of fluid management in AKI outlining physiological aspects, the effects...

  11. Charcot-Leyden crystals in pleural fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, B; Novak, P M

    1985-01-01

    Charcot-Leyden crystals have rarely been reported in serous fluids. We present eight examples of Charcot-Leyden crystals, all found in eosinophilic pleural effusions. The crystals were found in toluidine blue-stained wet films of pleural fluid after either the fluid or the wet film had stood for at least 24 hours at 4 C.

  12. Fluid Power/Basic Hydraulics. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbery, Richard

    This guide is designed to assist industrial vocational instructors in teaching a course on fluid power and basic hydraulics. Covered in the unit on the basics of fluid power and hydraulics are the following topics: the fundamentals of fluid power and hydraulics, basic hydraulic circuits, and servicing a hydraulic jack. The second unit, consisting…

  13. Thanatochemistry: Study of synovial fluid potassium | Tumram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to test previously developed regression formulae for estimating death interval based on synovial fluid potassium and to assess its reliability in estimating death interval. Synovial fluid potassium was measured on a sample of 308 individuals. Death interval was regressed on synovial fluid ...

  14. Selected topics of fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindsvater, Carl E.

    1958-01-01

    The fundamental equations of fluid mechanics are specific expressions of the principles of motion which are ascribed to Isaac Newton. Thus, the equations which form the framework of applied fluid mechanics or hydraulics are, in addition to the equation of continuity, the Newtonian equations of energy and momentum. These basic relationships are also the foundations of river hydraulics. The fundamental equations are developed in this report with sufficient rigor to support critical examinations of their applicability to most problems met by hydraulic engineers of the Water Resources Division of the United States Geological Survey. Physical concepts are emphasized, and mathematical procedures are the simplest consistent with the specific requirements of the derivations. In lieu of numerical examples, analogies, and alternative procedures, this treatment stresses a brief methodical exposition of the essential principles. An important objective of this report is to prepare the user to read the literature of the science. Thus, it begins With a basic vocabulary of technical symbols, terms, and concepts. Throughout, emphasis is placed on the language of modern fluid mechanics as it pertains to hydraulic engineering. The basic differential and integral equations of simple fluid motion are derived, and these equations are, in turn, used to describe the essential characteristics of hydrostatics and piezometry. The one-dimensional equations of continuity and motion are defined and are used to derive the general discharge equation. The flow net is described as a means of demonstrating significant characteristics of two-dimensional irrotational flow patterns. A typical flow net is examined in detail. The influence of fluid viscosity is described as an obstacle to the derivation of general, integral equations of motion. It is observed that the part played by viscosity is one which is usually dependent on experimental evaluation. It follows that the dimensionless ratios known as

  15. Flutter Instability of a Fluid-Conveying Fluid-Immersed Pipe Affixed to a Rigid Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    304–307. Bourri eres, F.-J., 1939. Sur en phenomene d’oscillation auto entrenue en mecanique des fluides reels. Publications Scientifiques et...Flutter instability of a fluid -conveying fluid -immersed pipe affixed to a rigid body Aren Helluma, Ranjan Mukherjee a,, Andrew J. Hull b a...Article history: Received 28 June 2010 Accepted 11 March 2011 Available online 6 April 2011 Keywords: Fluid -conveying pipe Fluid -immersed pipe External

  16. Shock Re-equilibration of Fluid Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, M. E. Elwood; Horz, F.; Bodnar, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Fluid inclusions (microscopic volumes of fluid trapped within minerals as they precipitate) are extremely common in terrestrial minerals formed under a wide range of geological conditions from surface evaporite deposits to kimberlite pipes. While fluid inclusions in terrestrial rocks are nearly ubiquitous, only a few fluid inclusion-bearing meteorites have been documented. The scarcity of fluid inclusions in meteoritic materials may be a result of (a) the absence of fluids when the mineral was formed on the meteorite parent body or (b) the destruction of fluid inclusions originally contained in meteoritic materials by subsequent shock metamorphism. However, the effects of impact events on pre-existing fluid inclusions trapped in target and projectile rocks has received little study. Fluid inclusions trapped prior to the shock event may be altered (re-equilibrated) or destroyed due to the high pressures, temperatures, and strain rates associated with impact events. By examining the effects of shock deformation on fluid inclusion properties and textures we may be able to better constrain the pressure-temperature path experienced by terrestrial and meteoritic shocked materials and also gain a clearer understanding of why fluid inclusions are rarely found in meteorite samples.

  17. Contra la normalización de la ilegalidad: la protección judicial de los extranjeros frente a las expulsiones colectivas y las devoluciones “en caliente” | Against the Normalization of Illegality: the Judicial Protection of Foreigners Facing Collective Expulsions and Police “Push-Backs”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángeles Solanes Corella

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las expulsiones colectivas de extranjeros, aun estando prohibidas por el derecho internacional, son una práctica que sistemáticamente se ha aplicado en el ámbito del control de los flujos migratorios. En el caso de España, en su frontera sur terrestre, se han generalizado las denominadas “devoluciones en caliente”. Las vulneraciones de derechos que conllevan estas medidas son incompatibles con el Convenio Europeo para la Protección de los Derechos Humanos y de las Libertades Fundamentales, del que derivan obligaciones concretas para los Estados parte. Este trabajo, propone un análisis crítico de la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos para delimitar cuándo se produce una expulsión colectiva. Con ello se pretende evitar la aparente normalización de una medida que es ilegal e insistir en los mecanismos garantistas de los derechos de los extranjeros. Abstract: The collective expulsion of foreigners, although prohibited by International Law, is a practice that has been systematically applied in the field of control of migration flows. In the case of Spain, on its southern land border, the so-called police "push-backs" have become widespread. The violations of rights entailed by these measures are incompatible with the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, from which obligations derive for the States Parties. This paper proposes a critical analysis of the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights to delimit when a collective expulsion occurs. This is intended to avoid the apparent normalization of a measure that is illegal and to insist on mechanisms that guarantee the rights of foreigners.

  18. Phosphoproteome Discovery in Human Biological Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Giorgianni

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulating protein function and thus influences a vast spectrum of cellular processes. With the advent of modern bioanalytical technologies, examination of protein phosphorylation on a global scale has become one of the major research areas. Phosphoproteins are found in biological fluids and interrogation of the phosphoproteome in biological fluids presents an exciting opportunity for discoveries that hold great potential for novel mechanistic insights into protein function in health and disease, and for translation to improved diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for the clinical setting. This review focuses on phosphoproteome discovery in selected human biological fluids: serum/plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Bioanalytical workflows pertinent to phosphoproteomics of biological fluids are discussed with emphasis on mass spectrometry-based approaches, and summaries of studies on phosphoproteome discovery in major fluids are presented.

  19. Fluid therapy in mature cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Allen J

    2014-07-01

    Fluid therapy for mature cattle differs from that for calves because the common conditions that result in dehydration and the metabolic derangements that accompany these conditions are different. The veterinarian needs to know which problem exists, what to administer to correct the problem, in what quantity, by what route, and at what rate. Mature cattle more frequently suffer from alkalosis; therefore, acidifying solutions containing K(+) and Cl(-) in concentrations greater than that of plasma are frequently indicated. The rumen provides a large-capacity reservoir into which oral rehydration solutions may be administered, which can save time and money. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Scattering methods in complex fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2015-01-01

    Summarising recent research on the physics of complex liquids, this in-depth analysis examines the topic of complex liquids from a modern perspective, addressing experimental, computational and theoretical aspects of the field. Selecting only the most interesting contemporary developments in this rich field of research, the authors present multiple examples including aggregation, gel formation and glass transition, in systems undergoing percolation, at criticality, or in supercooled states. Connecting experiments and simulation with key theoretical principles, and covering numerous systems including micelles, micro-emulsions, biological systems, and cement pastes, this unique text is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers looking to explore and understand the expanding field of complex fluids.

  1. Simulations of Astrophysical fluid instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, A. C.; Fryxell, B.; Rosner, R.; Dursi, L. J.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P. M.; Timmes, F. X.; Zingale, M.; MacNeice, P.; Tufo, H. M.

    2001-10-01

    We present direct numerical simulations of mixing at Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interfaces performed with the FLASH code, developed at the ASCI/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. We present initial results of single-mode studies in two and three dimensions. Our results indicate that three-dimensional instabilities grow significantly faster than two-dimensional instabilities and that grid resolution can have a significant effect on instability growth rates. We also find that unphysical diffusive mixing occurs at the fluid interface, particularly in poorly resolved simulations. .

  2. Fundamental fluid mechanics and magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hosking, Roger J

    2016-01-01

    This book is primarily intended to enable postgraduate research students to enhance their understanding and expertise in Fluid Mechanics and Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), subjects no longer treated in isolation. The exercises throughout the book often serve to provide additional and quite significant knowledge or to develop selected mathematical skills, and may also fill in certain details or enhance readers’ understanding of essential concepts. A previous background or some preliminary reading in either of the two core subjects would be advantageous, and prior knowledge of multivariate calculus and differential equations is expected.

  3. Sensors for Fluid Leak Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluid leak detection represents a problem that has attracted the interest of researchers, but not exclusively because in industries and services leaks are frequently common. Indeed, in water or gas supplies, chemical or thermal plants, sea-lines or cooling/heating systems leakage rates can cause important economic losses and sometimes, what it is more relevant, environmental pollution with human, animal or plant lives at risk. This last issue has led to increased national and international regulations with different degrees of severity regarding environmental conservation.[...

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Allard, Francis; Awbi, Hazim B.

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics in Ventilation Design is a new title in the is a new title in the REHVA guidebook series. The guidebook is written for people who need to use and discuss results based on CFD predictions, and it gives insight into the subject for those who are not used to work with CFD....... The guidebook is also written for people working with CFD which have to be more aware of how this numerical method is applied in the area of ventilation. The guidebook has, for example, chapters that are very important for CFD quality control in general and for the quality control of ventilation related...

  5. Complex fluids modeling and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Saramito, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the modeling of complex fluids, including many common substances, such as toothpaste, hair gel, mayonnaise, liquid foam, cement and blood, which cannot be described by Navier-Stokes equations. It also offers an up-to-date mathematical and numerical analysis of the corresponding equations, as well as several practical numerical algorithms and software solutions for the approximation of the solutions. It discusses industrial (molten plastics, forming process), geophysical (mud flows, volcanic lava, glaciers and snow avalanches), and biological (blood flows, tissues) modeling applications. This book is a valuable resource for undergraduate students and researchers in applied mathematics, mechanical engineering and physics.

  6. Molecular Rheology of Complex Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Qian; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    fluids as a function of molecular chemistry has attracted a long history of collaboration between industry and academia. In industrial polymer processes, there is usually a combination of both shear and extensional flows. In some processing operations such as blow molding and fiber spinning, extensional......–state viscosity between melts and solutions is still an open question. Branched polymer melts have more complex molecular structures. A stress maximum during the start–up of uniaxial extensional flow was reported in 1979 for a low–density polyethylene (LDPE) melt. Subsequently observations of a steady stress...

  7. Fluid inclusions — What can we learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Maria Luisa

    1992-01-01

    Fluid inclusions have been reported from all types of metamorphic rocks hence a free fluid phase must be present even at deep crustal levels. Mobile and chemically reactive fluids are thus available to transport both heat and matter through crustal rocks. The most important information gained from fluid inclusion studies is a detailed knowledge of the composition of the fluid phase(s) present during metamorphism. Early studies drew attention to the presence of variable and sometimes highly saline aqueous brines in most metamorphic environments as well as CH 4 in low grade rocks and CO 2 at higher grades. Subsequently the role played by brines in expanding the unmixing solvus of the aqueous and carbonic components of common metamorphic fluids to cover a wide P-T range has been emphasized. Metamorphic petrologists have only slowly adapted their thermodynamic models for metamorphic equilibria to these data. More recently, studies have demonstrated that N 2 is a common phase especially in late or lower temperature fluids. Little is known of the role of nitrogen in the solid phases involved in metamorphism. Do the high nitrogen contents observed in some fluids reflect a significant nitrogen component in the minerals in those rocks? Or do processes related to the compositional evolution of the fluid phase act to concentrate nitrogen in later stage fluids?

  8. Measurement of interleukins in vitreous infusion fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kase, Satoru; Yokoi, Masahiko; Ishida, Susumu; Kase, Manabu

    2015-11-01

    Measurements of interleukin (IL)-6 and -10 concentrations in the vitreous can be used to differentiate intraocular lymphoma (IOL) from uveitis. This is the first study reporting the IL-6 and -10 concentrations in the undiluted vitreous fluid and vitreous infusion fluid, which were simultaneously examined in the patients. A total of 2 females presented with intraocular inflammation, and underwent pars plana vitrectomy. Undiluted anterior vitreous and vitreous infusion fluid were collected simultaneously. IL concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems. Vitreous infusion fluid of 20 ml was eventually collected following completion of core vitrectomy in the two patients. IL-6 concentrations of the first patient were 513 and 106 pg/ml in the undiluted vitreous and the infusion fluid, respectively, while those of the second patient were 263 and 29 pg/ml. By contrast, IL-10 was under the detectable levels in all the fluids. The IL-10/-6 ratio was vitreous fluid. The two patients were eventually diagnosed with uveitis. Measurements of IL concentrations in the vitreous infusion fluid provided significant evidence on the differential diagnosis between IOL and uveitis, when considering how vitreous infusion fluid was diluted. The present study highlighted a novel application of cytokine analyses using the vitreous infusion fluid, which may contribute to the development of future translational researches on uveitis/IOL patients.

  9. Human papillomavirus in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swan David C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence to suggest that human papillomavirus (HPV can cross the placenta resulting in in-utero transmission. The goal of this study was to determine if HPV can be detected in amniotic fluid from women with intact amniotic membranes. Methods Residual amniotic fluid and cultured cell pellets from amniocentesis performed for prenatal diagnosis were used. PGMY09/11 L1 consensus primers and GP5+/GP6+ primers were used in a nested polymerase chain reaction assay for HPV. Results There were 146 paired samples from 142 women representing 139 singleton pregnancies, 2 twin pregnancies, and 1 triplet pregnancy. The women were 78% Caucasian, 5% African American, 14% Asian, and 2% Hispanic. The average age was 35.2 years with a range of 23–55 years. All samples were β-globin positive. HPV was not detected in any of the paired samples. Conclusion Given the age range, race, and ethnicity of the study population, one would anticipate some evidence of HPV if it could easily cross the placenta, but there was none.

  10. Einstein viscosity with fluid elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Jonas; Yang, Mengfei; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2018-01-01

    We give the first correction to the suspension viscosity due to fluid elasticity for a dilute suspension of spheres in a viscoelastic medium. Our perturbation theory is valid to O (ϕ Wi2) in the particle volume fraction ϕ and the Weissenberg number Wi =γ ˙λ , where γ ˙ is the typical magnitude of the suspension velocity gradient, and λ is the relaxation time of the viscoelastic fluid. For shear flow we find that the suspension shear-thickens due to elastic stretching in strain "hot spots" near the particle, despite the fact that the stress inside the particles decreases relative to the Newtonian case. We thus argue that it is crucial to correctly model the extensional rheology of the suspending medium to predict the shear rheology of the suspension. For uniaxial extensional flow we correct existing results at O (ϕ Wi ) , and find dramatic strain-rate thickening at O (ϕ Wi2) . We validate our theory with fully resolved numerical simulations.

  11. Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leboeuf, J. N.; Carreras, B. A.; Charlton, L. A.; Drake, J. B.; Lynch, V. E.; Newman, D. E.; Sidikman, K. L.; Spong, D. A.

    The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center's CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated.

  12. Computational methods for fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ferziger, Joel H

    2002-01-01

    In its 3rd revised and extended edition the book offers an overview of the techniques used to solve problems in fluid mechanics on computers and describes in detail those most often used in practice. Included are advanced methods in computational fluid dynamics, like direct and large-eddy simulation of turbulence, multigrid methods, parallel computing, moving grids, structured, block-structured and unstructured boundary-fitted grids, free surface flows. The 3rd edition contains a new section dealing with grid quality and an extended description of discretization methods. The book shows common roots and basic principles for many different methods. The book also contains a great deal of practical advice for code developers and users, it is designed to be equally useful to beginners and experts. The issues of numerical accuracy, estimation and reduction of numerical errors are dealt with in detail, with many examples. A full-feature user-friendly demo-version of a commercial CFD software has been added, which ca...

  13. Synovial fluid over the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with the most meaningful historical topics on the study of synovial fluid, by starting from the Greco- Roman Medicine, up to Paracelsus (1493-1541, who introduced the term “synovia” to name the intra-articular humour. Afterwards, some till now unreported historical sources are recorded, e.g., a short text by the Italian XVIII century physician Giambattista Contoli (“Breve Instruzione sopre il Glutine, ò Colla…, 1699”. Then, in keeping with some recent researches, a brief history of arthrocentesis is outlined, by considering the first procedures, which should have been performed in Mexico, during the precolonial period. Moreover, the first chemical analysis of synovial fluid, as carried out by the French chemist Jean-Louis Margueron (1792, and the first modern study on the synovial membrane by Marie-François-Xavier Bichat (1800 are explained. Finally, some XIX century investigations concerning the synovial pharmacodynamics, in particular an Italian one based on the elimination of certain chemical substances through the synovial membrane, are discussed.

  14. Parametric Modeling for Fluid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Martinez, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Fluid Systems involves different projects that require parametric modeling, which is a model that maintains consistent relationships between elements as is manipulated. One of these projects is the Neo Liquid Propellant Testbed, which is part of Rocket U. As part of Rocket U (Rocket University), engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida have the opportunity to develop critical flight skills as they design, build and launch high-powered rockets. To build the Neo testbed; hardware from the Space Shuttle Program was repurposed. Modeling for Neo, included: fittings, valves, frames and tubing, between others. These models help in the review process, to make sure regulations are being followed. Another fluid systems project that required modeling is Plant Habitat's TCUI test project. Plant Habitat is a plan to develop a large growth chamber to learn the effects of long-duration microgravity exposure to plants in space. Work for this project included the design and modeling of a duct vent for flow test. Parametric Modeling for these projects was done using Creo Parametric 2.0.

  15. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Thomas P. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States). Dept. of Polymer Science and Engineering

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  16. Fluid-fluid level on MR image: significance in Musculoskeletal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine; Song, Chi Sung [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Sang Wook; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul Naitonal University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Coll. of Medicine

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency, number and signal intensity of fluid-fluid levels of musculoskeletal diseases on MR images, and to determine the usefulness of this information for the differentiation of musculoskeletal diseases. MR images revealed fluid-fluid levels in the following diseases : giant cell tumor(6), telangiectatic osteosarcoma(4), aneurysmal bone cyst(3), synovial sarcoma(3), chondroblastoma(2), soft tissue tuberculous abscess(2), hematoma(2), hemangioma (1), neurilemmoma(1), metastasis(1), malignant fibrous histiocytoma(1), bursitis(1), pyogenic abscess(1), and epidermoid inclusion cyst(1). Fourteen benign tumors and ten malignant, three abscesses, and the epidermoid inclusion cyst showed only one fluid-fluid level in a unilocular cyst. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensities of fluid varied, but on T2-weighted images, superior layers were in most cases more hyperintense than inferior layers. Because fluid-fluid layers are a nonspecific finding, it is difficult to specifically diagnose each disease according to the number of fluid-fluid levels or signal intensity of fluid. In spite of the nonspecificity of fluid-fluid levels, they were frequently seen in cases of giant cell tumor, telangiectatic osteosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cycle, and synovial sarcoma. Nontumorous diseases such abscesses and hematomas also demonstrated this finding. (author). 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  17. Geochemical modeling of fluid-fluid and fluid-mineral interactions during geological CO2 storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C.; Ji, X.; Lu, P.

    2013-12-01

    The long time required for effective CO2 storage makes geochemical modeling an indispensable tool for CCUS. One area of geochemical modeling research that is in urgent need is impurities in CO2 streams. Permitting impurities, such as H2S, in CO2 streams can lead to potential capital and energy savings. However, predicting the consequences of co-injection of CO2 and impurities into geological formations requires the understanding of the phase equilibrium and fluid-fluid interactions. To meet this need, we developed a statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT)-based equation of state (EOS) for the H2S-CO2-H2O-NaCl system at 373.15 concentration of NaCl up to 6 mol/kgH2O. The EoS allows us to predict equilibrium composition in both liquid and vapor phases, fugacity coefficients of components, and phase densities. Predictions show that inclusion of H2S in CO2 streams may lead to two-phase flow in pipelines. For H2S-CO2 mixtures at a given temperature the bubble and dew pressures decrease with increasing H2S content, while the mass density increases at low pressures and decreases at high pressures. Furthermore, the EoS can be incorporated into reservoir simulators so that the dynamic development of mixed fluid plumes in the reservoir can be simulated. Accurate modeling of fluid-mineral interactions must confront unresolved uncertainties of silicate dissolution - precipitation reaction kinetics. Most prominent among these uncertainties is the well-known lab-field apparent discrepancy in dissolution rates. Although reactive transport models that simulate the interactions between reservoir rocks and brine, and their attendant effects on porosity and permeability changes, have proliferated, whether these results have acceptable uncertainties are unknown. We have conducted a series of batch experiments at elevated temperatures and numerical simulations of coupled dissolution and precipitation reactions. The results show that taking into account of reaction coupling is able

  18. Arachnoid cysts do not contain cerebrospinal fluid: A comparative chemical analysis of arachnoid cyst fluid and cerebrospinal fluid in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haaland Øystein A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arachnoid cyst (AC fluid has not previously been compared with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from the same patient. ACs are commonly referred to as containing "CSF-like fluid". The objective of this study was to characterize AC fluid by clinical chemistry and to compare AC fluid to CSF drawn from the same patient. Such comparative analysis can shed further light on the mechanisms for filling and sustaining of ACs. Methods Cyst fluid from 15 adult patients with unilateral temporal AC (9 female, 6 male, age 22-77y was compared with CSF from the same patients by clinical chemical analysis. Results AC fluid and CSF had the same osmolarity. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium or glucose. We found significant elevated concentration of phosphate in AC fluid (0.39 versus 0.35 mmol/L in CSF; p = 0.02, and significantly reduced concentrations of total protein (0.30 versus 0.41 g/L; p = 0.004, of ferritin (7.8 versus 25.5 ug/L; p = 0.001 and of lactate dehydrogenase (17.9 versus 35.6 U/L; p = 0.002 in AC fluid relative to CSF. Conclusions AC fluid is not identical to CSF. The differential composition of AC fluid relative to CSF supports secretion or active transport as the mechanism underlying cyst filling. Oncotic pressure gradients or slit-valves as mechanisms for generating fluid in temporal ACs are not supported by these results.

  19. Fluid-solid modeling of lymphatic valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulk, Alexander; Ballard, Matthew; Nepiyushchikh, Zhanna; Dixon, Brandon; Alexeev, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The lymphatic system performs important physiological functions such as the return of interstitial fluid to the bloodstream to maintain tissue fluid balance, as well as the transport of immune cells in the body. It utilizes contractile lymphatic vessels, which contain valves that open and close to allow flow in only one direction, to directionally pump lymph against a pressure gradient. We develop a fluid-solid model of geometrically representative lymphatic valves. Our model uses a hybrid lattice-Boltzmann lattice spring method to capture fluid-solid interactions with two-way coupling between a viscous fluid and lymphatic valves in a lymphatic vessel. We use this model to investigate the opening and closing of lymphatic valves, and its effect on lymphatic pumping. This helps to broaden our understanding of the fluid dynamics of the lymphatic system.

  20. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Swol, F. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Eckert, C.A. (Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Chemical Engineering)

    1988-09-15

    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  1. New trends in fluid mechanics research. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, F.G. [China Aerospace Corporation, Beijing (China). Science and Technology Council; Li, J.C. (eds.) [Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing (China). Inst. of Mechanics

    2008-07-01

    This volume is the proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Fluid Mechanics (ICFM-V), the primary forum for the presentation of technological advances and research results in the fields of theoretical, experimental, and computational Fluid Mechanics. Following the previous conferences in Beijing (1987, 1993 and 1998) and Dalian (2004) organized by the Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, the Scientific Committee for ICFM presents ICFM-V to provide a forum for researchers to exchange original ideas and recent advances in Fluid Mechanics and relevant interdisciplinary subjects. Topics include: flow instability and turbulence, aerodynamics and gas dynamics, hydrodynamics, industrial and environmental fluid mechanics, biofluid mechanics, geophysical fluid mechanics, plasma and magneto-hydrodynamics, multiphase flows, non-Newtonian flows and flows in porous media, flow of reacting fluid, microscale flow and others.The CD-ROM includes all papers presented at the conference in PDF format, including those that were not selected for the book. (orig.)

  2. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathies, Richard A.; Grover, William H.; Skelley, Alison; Lagally, Eric; Liu, Chung N.

    2017-05-09

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  3. Thermodynamics of Angular Propulsion in Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polihronov, Jeliazko G.; Straatman, Anthony G.

    2012-08-01

    The presented study examines the energetics of confined fluid flow in a rotating reference frame. Parallels are drawn to the corresponding scenario of rectilinear motion, where ejection of fluid results in linear propulsion of the frame. Absorption of flow energy into the frame motion leads to cooling of the ejected fluid. Relevance of the observed energetics to the temperature separation phenomenon in Ranque-Hilsch vortex tubes is discussed.

  4. Electrorheological (ER) Fluids: A Research Needs Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    arising from charges on the particles and modified by the presence and distribution of free ions. Magnetorheological (MR) fluids undergo strong...separate control of cab and trailer motions is probably the way to go. Other automotive uses that may come in the near future include vibration dampers ...this work used very simple fluids offering less than optimum performance, but provided some useful guidelines to damper and clutch design using ER fluids

  5. A Magnetorheological Fluid Damper for Rotor Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Forte, P.; Paternò, M.; Rustighi, E.

    2004-01-01

    Even though we are still far from industrial applications, in the last decade there has been increasing attention directed toward the employment of electrorheological (ER) and magnetorheological (MR) fluids in active bearings and active squeeze film dampers in rotordynamics. MR fluids react to magnetic fields undergoing reversible changes in their mechanical characteristics, viscosity, and stiffness in particular. In previous literature, some applications of ER fluids in rotor squeeze film da...

  6. Studies of complexity in fluid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagel, Sidney R.

    2000-06-12

    This is the final report of Grant DE-FG02-92ER25119, ''Studies of Complexity in Fluids'', we have investigated turbulence, flow in granular materials, singularities in evolution of fluid surfaces and selective withdrawal fluid flows. We have studied numerical methods for dealing with complex phenomena, and done simulations on the formation of river networks. We have also studied contact-line deposition that occurs in a drying drop.

  7. Hole fluids for deep ice core drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Talalay, P.G.; Gundestrup, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is based on the data published in research report of P. G. Talalay and N. S. Gundestrup; Hole fluids for deep ice core drilling : A review. Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, 1999,120p. In the practice of deep ice core drilling only three types of bore-hole fluids have been used : 1) petroleum oil products (fuels or solvents) containing densifier, 2) aqueous ethylene glycol or ethanol solutions, 3) n-butyl acetate. The main parameters of drilling fluids are 1) density and fluid top...

  8. Introduction to thermo-fluids systems design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia McDonald, André

    2012-01-01

    A fully comprehensive guide to thermal systems design covering fluid dynamics, thermodynamics, heat transfer and thermodynamic power cycles Bridging the gap between the fundamental concepts of fluid mechanics, heat transfer and thermodynamics, and the practical design of thermo-fluids components and systems, this textbook focuses on the design of internal fluid flow systems, coiled heat exchangers and performance analysis of power plant systems. The topics are arranged so that each builds upon the previous chapter to convey to the reader that topics are not stand-alone i

  9. An introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    1999-01-01

    CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building.......CFD is the shortname for Computational Fluid Dynamics and is a numerical method by means of which we can analyze systems containing fluids. For instance systems dealing with heat flow or smoke control systems acting when a fire occur in a building....

  10. Fundamental trends in fluid-structure interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Galdi, Giovanni P

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of a fluid with a solid body is a widespread phenomenon in nature, occurring at different scales and different applied disciplines. Interestingly enough, even though the mathematical theory of the motion of bodies in a liquid is one of the oldest and most classical problems in fluid mechanics, mathematicians have, only very recently, become interested in a systematic study of the basic problems related to fluid-structure interaction, from both analytical and numerical viewpoints. ""Fundamental Trends in Fluid-Structure Interaction"" is a unique collection of important papers wr

  11. Predicting and measuring fluid responsiveness with echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Echocardiography is ideally suited to guide fluid resuscitation in critically ill patients. It can be used to assess fluid responsiveness by looking at the left ventricle, aortic outflow, inferior vena cava and right ventricle. Static measurements and dynamic variables based on heart–lung interactions all combine to predict and measure fluid responsiveness and assess response to intravenous fluid esuscitation. Thorough knowledge of these variables, the physiology behind them and the pitfalls in their use allows the echocardiographer to confidently assess these patients and in combination with clinical judgement manage them appropriately.

  12. Dynamic analysis of conical shells conveying fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, D.; Ganesan, N.

    2008-02-01

    A formulation, based on the semi-analytical finite element method, is proposed for elastic conical shells conveying fluids. The structural equations are based on the shell element proposed by Ramasamy and Ganesan [Finite element analysis of fluid-filled isotropic cylindrical shells with constrained viscoelastic damping, Computers & Structures 70 (1998) 363-376] while the fluid model is based on velocity potential formulation used by Jayaraj et al. [A semi-analytical coupled finite element formulation for composite shells conveying fluids, Journal of Sound and Vibration 258(2) (2002) 287-307]. Dynamic pressure acting on the walls is derived from Bernoulli's equation. By imposing the requirement that the normal component of velocity of the solid and fluid are equal leads to fluid-structure coupling. The computer code developed has been validated using results available in the literature for cylindrical shells conveying fluid. The study has been carried out for conical shells of different cone angles and for boundary condition like clamped-clamped, simply supported and clamped free. In general, instability occurs at a critical fluid velocity corresponding to the shell circumferential mode with the lowest natural frequency. Critical fluid velocities are lower than that of equivalent cylindrical shells. This result holds good for all boundary conditions.

  13. A viable dark fluid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhateeb, Esraa

    2018-01-01

    We consider a cosmological model based on a generalization of the equation of state proposed by Nojiri and Odintsov (2004) and Štefančić (2005, 2006). We argue that this model works as a dark fluid model which can interpolate between dust equation of state and the dark energy equation of state. We show how the asymptotic behavior of the equation of state constrained the parameters of the model. The causality condition for the model is also studied to constrain the parameters and the fixed points are tested to determine different solution classes. Observations of Hubble diagram of SNe Ia supernovae are used to further constrain the model. We present an exact solution of the model and calculate the luminosity distance and the energy density evolution. We also calculate the deceleration parameter to test the state of the universe expansion.

  14. Principles of computational fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wesseling, Pieter

    2001-01-01

    The book is aimed at graduate students, researchers, engineers and physicists involved in flow computations. An up-to-date account is given of the present state-of-the-art of numerical methods employed in computational fluid dynamics. The underlying numerical principles are treated with a fair amount of detail, using elementary mathematical analysis. Attention is given to difficulties arising from geometric complexity of the flow domain and of nonuniform structured boundary-fitted grids. Uniform accuracy and efficiency for singular perturbation problems is studied, pointing the way to accurate computation of flows at high Reynolds number. Much attention is given to stability analysis, and useful stability conditions are provided, some of them new, for many numerical schemes used in practice. Unified methods for compressible and incompressible flows are discussed. Numerical analysis of the shallow-water equations is included. The theory of hyperbolic conservation laws is treated. Godunov's order barrier and ho...

  15. Saliva as a diagnostic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, Lakshman

    2007-10-01

    The use of saliva as a diagnostic fluid for various human ailments is gaining popularity as it offers distinct advantages over serum. These include the non-invasive nature of saliva collection compared with phlebotomy, simplicity of collection even for individuals with a modest training and the cost-effective applicability for screening large populations. Whole saliva is most frequently used for diagnosis of systemic diseases since it is readily collected and contains serum constituents while gland-specific saliva is useful for investigating pathology of major salivary glands. Broadly, saliva analysis is currently used for the diagnosis of infectious and malignant diseases, hereditary disorders, autoimmune diseases, and endocrine disorders, as well as for the assessment of therapeutic drug levels, particularly in monitoring drug abuse. This review addresses the current status of salivary diagnostics and their future potential.

  16. Modeling of Biological Fluid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak

    2003-01-01

    This study presents a detailed methodology for modeling and validating three- dimensional fluid flow in realistic reconstructed vasculature geometry. Optical scanned data from a sectioned stenotic lumen having -65% area constriction within an arterial vessel of 9 mm diameter is processed and converted into a finite-element mesh. Mass and momentum transfer equations within the reconstructed stenotic vessel with a-flow rate of 200 ml/rnin is solved using the Galarkin Finite Element formulation. The calculated velocities at several axial locations along the length of the vessel are compared with the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The computation results are in agreement with the initial steady state PIV measurements. In addition, initial results from pulsatile flow computations at different time points of a pulse cycle will be presented.

  17. A primer on quantum fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Barenghi, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this primer is to cover the essential theoretical information, quickly and concisely, in order to enable senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students to tackle projects in topical research areas of quantum fluids, for example, solitons, vortices and collective modes. The selection of the material, both regarding the content and level of presentation, draws on the authors analysis of the success of relevant research projects with newcomers to the field, as well as of the students feedback from many taught and self-study courses on the subject matter. Starting with a brief historical overview, this text covers particle statistics, weakly interacting condensates and their dynamics and finally superfluid helium and quantum turbulence. At the end of each chapter (apart from the first) there will be some exercises. Detailed solutions can be made available to instructors upon request to the authors. .

  18. SALIVA AS A DIAGNOSTIC FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezelj-Ribarić Sonja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is a readily available oral fluid with many functions, from digestion, maintenance of oral tissues' integrity, to caries prevention. Changes regarding its secretion may be divided into qualitative and quantitative: both of them are a consequence of certain conditions/diseases (e.g. internal factors or nutrients/drugs ingested (e.g. external factors. During the last 15 years, technological advances gave a significant momentum to utilization of saliva as a diagnostic tool. Analysis of saliva, just like the blood analysis, has two main objectives: to identify the subjects suffering from a certain disorder, and to follow the development and progress of therapy. This paper provides an overview of possibilities for the use of saliva for diagnostic purposes and gives specific examples of some clinical investigations, with the final aim to stimulate the use of this noninvasive means for the health care promotion.

  19. Concerted processes in supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timashev, S. F.; Solov'eva, A. B.; Buslaeva, E. Yu.; Gubin, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining concerted mechanisms of chemical activation in supercritical fluids (SCFs) with the formation of a multicenter general transition state that includes a group of reagent atoms in which the subsequent breaking of chemical bonds and the formation of new chemical bonds start and proceed simultaneously is discussed. Two processes are considered that can occur only in SCF media: the reduction of anthracene in an isopropyl alcohol SCF and the impregnation of the photochromic compound spiroanthrooxazine (SAO) in a polycarbonate matrix in SC CO2 accompanied by an irreversible conformational rearrangement of the SAO structure. Concepts of the possible dependence of the concerted mechanism of the considered processes on the intertwining or entanglement of electron subsystems in forming multicenter transition states are developed. The decisive role of the electromagnetic component of a physical vacuum in obtaining a high degree of correlation in systems of entangled electrons is discussed.

  20. Fluid Mechanics Optimising Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivadarou, Evgenia; Dalziel, Stuart

    2015-11-01

    The Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD) is a new ``green'' approach in the synthesis of organic chemicals with many industrial applications in biodiesel generation, cosmetics, protein folding and pharmaceutical production. The VFD is a rapidly rotating tube that can operate with a jet feeding drops of liquid reactants to the base of the tube. The aim of this project is to explain the fluid mechanics of the VFD that influence the rate of reactions. The reaction rate is intimately related to the intense shearing that promotes collision between reactant molecules. In the VFD, the highest shears are found at the bottom of the tube in the Rayleigh and the Ekman layer and at the walls in the Stewardson layers. As a step towards optimising the performance of the VFD we present experiments conducted in order to establish the minimum drop volume and maximum rotation rate for maximum axisymmetric spreading without fingering instability. PhD candidate, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics.

  1. Fluid mechanics of Windkessel effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, C C; Zhang, J; Jing, H X

    2018-01-08

    We describe a mechanistic model of Windkessel phenomenon based on the linear dynamics of fluid-structure interactions. The phenomenon has its origin in an old-fashioned fire-fighting equipment where an air chamber serves to transform the intermittent influx from a pump to a more steady stream out of the hose. A similar mechanism exists in the cardiovascular system where blood injected intermittantly from the heart becomes rather smooth after passing through an elastic aorta. In existing haeodynamics literature, this mechanism is explained on the basis of electric circuit analogy with empirical impedances. We present a mechanistic theory based on the principles of fluid/structure interactions. Using a simple one-dimensional model, wave motion in the elastic aorta is coupled to the viscous flow in the rigid peripheral artery. Explicit formulas are derived that exhibit the role of material properties such as the blood density, viscosity, wall elasticity, and radii and lengths of the vessels. The current two-element model in haemodynamics is shown to be the limit of short aorta and low injection frequency and the impedance coefficients are derived theoretically. Numerical results for different aorta lengths and radii are discussed to demonstrate their effects on the time variations of blood pressure, wall shear stress, and discharge. Graphical Abstract A mechanistic analysis of Windkessel Effect is described which confirms theoretically the well-known feature that intermittent influx becomes continuous outflow. The theory depends only on the density and viscosity of the blood, the elasticity and dimensions of the vessel. Empirical impedence parameters are avoided.

  2. Fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors demonstrated by MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, Miyuki; Ehara, Shigeru; Sasaki, Makoto; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko; Tamakawa, Yoshiharu; Shiraishi, Hideo; Abe, Masataka (Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-08-01

    Fluid-fluid levels in bone tumors have been described in aneurysmal bone cysts and other cystic tumors of bones and soft tissue tumors. We experienced three bone tumors (simple bone cyst, bone metastasis, and osteosarcoma) and three soft tissue tumors (fibrosarcoma, two cases of cavernous hemangioma) that showed fluid-fluid levels on MR, and investigated their cause. Causes included blood in the cystic spaces, hemorrhage in the tumor, the telangiectatic component of the osteosarcoma, and the cavernous component of the hemangioma. No specific diagnosis could be made based on the finding of fluid-fluid levels. We concluded that fluid-fluid levels on MR are rather nonspecific findings in bone and soft tissue tumors and that the diagnosis should be made on the basis of other radiological and clinical findings. (author).

  3. Differentiating benign from malignant bone tumors using fluid-fluid level features on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hong; Cui, Jian Ling; Cui, Sheng Jie; Sun, Ying Cal; Cui, Feng Zhen [Dept. of Radiology, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Hebei Province Biomechanical Key Laborary of Orthopedics, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2014-12-15

    To analyze different fluid-fluid level features between benign and malignant bone tumors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was approved by the hospital ethics committee. We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients diagnosed with benign (n = 29) or malignant (n = 18) bone tumors demonstrated by biopsy/surgical resection and who showed the intratumoral fluid-fluid level on pre-surgical MRI. The maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level and the ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane were investigated for use in distinguishing benign from malignant tumors using the Mann-Whitney U-test and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Fluid-fluid level was categorized by quantity (multiple vs. single fluid-fluid level) and by T1-weighted image signal pattern (high/low, low/high, and undifferentiated), and the findings were compared between the benign and malignant groups using the chi2 test. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of bone tumors in the sagittal plane that allowed statistically significant differentiation between benign and malignant bone tumors had an area under the ROC curve of 0.758 (95% confidence interval, 0.616-0.899). A cutoff value of 41.5% (higher value suggests a benign tumor) had sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 83%. The ratio of the maximum length of the largest fluid-fluid level to the maximum length of a bone tumor in the sagittal plane may be useful to differentiate benign from malignant bone tumors.

  4. Metalworking fluids: oil mist and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Stephen L

    2003-11-01

    This article is based upon my own experiences with metalworking fluids and the adverse health effects and medical conditions associated with exposure to metalworking fluids. I have researched and witnessed the benefits that can be achieved when metalworking fluids are properly maintained and managed. My experiences have provided insight into how a shop operates, including comprehension of the equipment used, processes, mist generating points, engineering controls currently being adopted, and procedures that are used to maintain metalworking fluids. I have been able to share my personal experiences with the country's leading experts in the field of metalworking fluids. I have presented my insights on the topic in Washington, D.C., to the Standard Advisory Committee of OSHA, as well as at many other conferences nationwide. I have provided awareness training for a number of union and nonunion workers. Being a part of developing successful metal removal fluid programs, I realize the importance of transferring and sharing information. Many times an organization is not fully aware of certain conditions and how to combat them. My mission and intent is to properly educate those who are exposed to the harm that metalworking fluids can invoke and to inform those involved of the possible methods of reducing long- and short-term risk. One thing that must be kept in mind is the way we view these fluids. Many shops categorize the fluids as a type of "operating expense" when they should actually be seen as a sort of investment. Just as performing a scheduled maintenance on a machine promises the best possible longevity of that machine, the upkeep of metalworking fluid also provides longer "tool life." Monitoring and maintaining the fluids also provides for more effective and efficient productivity. If we fail to consider that proper management of the fluids can cut cost dramatically, then we will miss out on the financial impact they can have on a company. Try looking at the

  5. Inflation in a viscous fluid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Kazuharu [Fukushima University, Division of Human Support System, Faculty of Symbiotic Systems Science, Fukushima (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, Institut de Ciencies de lEspai (IEEC-CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Passeig Lluis Companys, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    We explore a fluid description of the inflationary universe. In particular, we investigate a fluid model in which the equation of state (EoS) for a fluid includes bulk viscosity. We find that the three observables of inflationary cosmology, i.e., the spectral index of the curvature perturbations, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations, and the running of the spectral index, can be consistent with the recent Planck results. We also reconstruct the explicit EoS for a fluid from the spectral index of the curvature perturbations compatible with the Planck analysis. In the reconstructed models of a fluid, the tensor-to-scalar ratio of the density perturbations can satisfy the constraints obtained from the Planck satellite. The running of the spectral index can explain the Planck data. In addition, it is demonstrated that in the reconstructed models of a fluid, the graceful exit from inflation can be realized. Moreover, we show that the singular inflation can occur in a fluid model. Furthermore, we show that a fluid description of inflation can be equivalent to the description of inflation in terms of scalar field theories. (orig.)

  6. The Fluid Foil: The Seventh Simple Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitts, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    A simple machine does one of two things: create a mechanical advantage (lever) or change the direction of an applied force (pulley). Fluid foils are unique among simple machines because they not only change the direction of an applied force (wheel and axle); they convert fluid energy into mechanical energy (wind and Kaplan turbines) or vice versa,…

  7. Fluid viscoelasticity promotes collective swimming of sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Lin, Chungwei; Harvey, Benedict; Fiore, Alyssa G; Ardon, Florencia; Wu, Mingming; Suarez, Susan S

    2017-06-09

    From flocking birds to swarming insects, interactions of organisms large and small lead to the emergence of collective dynamics. Here, we report striking collective swimming of bovine sperm in dynamic clusters, enabled by the viscoelasticity of the fluid. Sperm oriented in the same direction within each cluster, and cluster size and cell-cell alignment strength increased with viscoelasticity of the fluid. In contrast, sperm swam randomly and individually in Newtonian (nonelastic) fluids of low and high viscosity. Analysis of the fluid motion surrounding individual swimming sperm indicated that sperm-fluid interaction was facilitated by the elastic component of the fluid. In humans, as well as cattle, sperm are naturally deposited at the entrance to the cervix and must swim through viscoelastic cervical mucus and other mucoid secretions to reach the site of fertilization. Collective swimming induced by elasticity may thus facilitate sperm migration and contribute to successful fertilization. We note that almost all biological fluids (e.g. mucus and blood) are viscoelastic in nature, and this finding highlights the importance of fluid elasticity in biological function.

  8. NASA Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sanford (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research program is presented in a series of research briefs. Nineteen projects covering aeronautical fluid mechanics and related areas are discussed and augmented with the publication and presentation output of the Branch for the period 1990-1993.

  9. Fluid composition analysis device and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates in particular to a device for determining one or more fluid properties of a fluid. The device preferably comprises a flow distributor comprising a cavity, an inlet to the cavity, one or more outlets from the cavity, and one or more flow deflecting elements present in the cav...

  10. Steady laminar flow of fractal fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balankin, Alexander S., E-mail: abalankin@ipn.mx [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico); Mena, Baltasar [Laboratorio de Ingeniería y Procesos Costeros, Instituto de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Sisal, Yucatán, 97355 (Mexico); Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier [Grupo Mecánica Fractal, ESIME, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D.F., 07738 (Mexico)

    2017-02-12

    We study laminar flow of a fractal fluid in a cylindrical tube. A flow of the fractal fluid is mapped into a homogeneous flow in a fractional dimensional space with metric induced by the fractal topology. The equations of motion for an incompressible Stokes flow of the Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. It is found that the radial distribution for the velocity in a steady Poiseuille flow of a fractal fluid is governed by the fractal metric of the flow, whereas the pressure distribution along the flow direction depends on the fractal topology of flow, as well as on the fractal metric. The radial distribution of the fractal fluid velocity in a steady Couette flow between two concentric cylinders is also derived. - Highlights: • Equations of Stokes flow of Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. • Pressure distribution in the Newtonian fractal fluid is derived. • Velocity distribution in Poiseuille flow of fractal fluid is found. • Velocity distribution in a steady Couette flow is established.

  11. Cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, Erich

    1987-01-01

    The Lewis Research Center's cryogenic fluid management program flight concept definition is presented in viewgraph form. Diagrams are given of the cryogenic fluid management subpallet and its configuration with the Delta launch vehicle. Information is given in outline form on feasibility studies, requirements definition, and flight experiments design.

  12. Fluid Limits of Optimally Controlled Queueing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Guodong Pang; Day, Martin V.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a class of queueing processes represented by a Skorokhod problem coupled with a controlled point process. Posing a discounted control problem for such processes, we show that the optimal value functions converge, in the fluid limit, to the value of an analogous deterministic control problem for fluid processes. Peer Reviewed

  13. Fluid Limits of Optimally Controlled Queueing Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Pang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a class of queueing processes represented by a Skorokhod problem coupled with a controlled point process. Posing a discounted control problem for such processes, we show that the optimal value functions converge, in the fluid limit, to the value of an analogous deterministic control problem for fluid processes.

  14. Reagent for treatment of drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryakov, A.S.; Balitskaya, Z.A.; Bereshchaka, I.G.; Khariv, I.Yu.

    1979-10-05

    The use of arabinogalactan as a reagent for treatment of drilling fluids, useful for drilling footage in wells, improves the quality of the fluids, reduces their cost, allows starch to be replaced, and improves the performance in drilling footage in wells.

  15. Core-shell particles at fluid interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchcic, C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing interest in the use of particles as stabilizers for foams and emulsions. Applying hard particles for stabilization of fluid interface is referred to as Pickering stabilization. By using hard particles instead of surfactants and polymers, fluid interfaces can be effectively

  16. Sound propagation in fluids and neutron spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilhof, M.J.; Cohen, E.G.D.; Schepper, I.M. de

    1984-01-01

    Using a model kinetic equation the properties of very short wavelength sound modes in fluids are studied over a wide range of wavenumbers and densities. The main features, in particular propagation gaps at high densities, agree with those found in real fluids and molecular dynamics simulations.

  17. Qualitative Reasoning about Fluids and Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    fluids ( Halliday & Resnick , 1974). • Pressure transmission : Pressure is transmitted to solid boundaries or across arbitrary sections of fluid at right...Publishers, Inc ., Los Altos, CA, 1987. [35] David Halliday and Robert Resnick . Fundamentals of Physics . John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1974. [36

  18. [Kidney, Fluid, and Acid-Base Balance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioji, Naohiro; Hayashi, Masao; Morimatsu, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Kidneys play an important role to maintain human homeostasis. They contribute to maintain body fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base balance. Especially in fluid control, we, physicians can intervene body fluid balance using fluid resuscitation and diuretics. In recent years, one type of fluid resuscitation, hydroxyl ethyl starch has been extensively studied in the field of intensive care. Although their effects on fluid resuscitation are reasonable, serious complications such as kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy occur frequently. Now we have to pay more attention to this important complication. Another topic of fluid management is tolvaptan, a selective vasopressin-2 receptor antagonist Recent randomized trial suggested that tolvaptan has a similar supportive effect for fluid control and more cost effective compared to carperitide. In recent years, Stewart approach is recognized as one important tool to assess acid-base balance in critically ill patients. This approach has great value, especially to understand metabolic components in acid-base balance. Even for assessing the effects of kidneys on acid-base balance, this approach gives us interesting insight. We should appropriately use this new approach to treat acid-base abnormality in critically ill patients.

  19. Viscous fingering with partially miscible fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-10-01

    Viscous fingering—the fluid-mechanical instability that takes place when a low-viscosity fluid displaces a high-viscosity fluid—has traditionally been studied under either fully miscible or fully immiscible fluid systems. Here we study the impact of partial miscibility (a common occurrence in practice) on the fingering dynamics. Through a careful design of the thermodynamic free energy of a binary mixture, we develop a phase-field model of fluid-fluid displacements in a Hele-Shaw cell for the general case in which the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility into one another. We show, by means of high-resolution numerical simulations, that partial miscibility exerts a powerful control on the degree of fingering: fluid dissolution hinders fingering while fluid exsolution enhances fingering. We also show that, as a result of the interplay between compositional exchange and the hydrodynamic pattern-forming process, stronger fingering promotes the system to approach thermodynamic equilibrium more quickly.

  20. Compressibility measurement of fluid-system ullage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzienis, D. A.; See, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    Portable self-contained instrument measures volume of free gas or air trapped in closed fluid systems, such as lubricating-oil lines or hydraulic brakes. In response to measurement readings, operator may use device to accurately add or withdraw fluid to or from system.

  1. Fast fluid registration of medical images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten; Gramkow, Claus

    1996-01-01

    This paper offers a new fast algorithm for non-rigid viscous fluid registration of medical images that is at least an order of magnitude faster than the previous method by (Christensen et al., 1994). The core algorithm in the fluid registration method is based on a linear elastic deformation...

  2. Particle-fluid interactions for flow measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, N. S.

    1973-01-01

    Study has been made of the motion of single particle and of group of particles, emphasizing solid particles in gaseous fluid. Velocities of fluid and particle are compared for several conditions of physical interest. Mean velocity and velocity fluctuations are calculated for single particle, and some consideration is given to multiparticle systems.

  3. Fluid therapy and the hypovolemic microcirculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruartmoner, G.; Mesquida, J.; Ince, Can

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review In shock states, optimizing intravascular volume is crucial to promote an adequate oxygen delivery to the tissues. Our current practice in fluid management pivots on the Frank-Starling law of the heart, and the effects of fluids are measured according to the induced changes on

  4. Steady laminar flow of fractal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Mena, Baltasar; Susarrey, Orlando; Samayoa, Didier

    2017-02-01

    We study laminar flow of a fractal fluid in a cylindrical tube. A flow of the fractal fluid is mapped into a homogeneous flow in a fractional dimensional space with metric induced by the fractal topology. The equations of motion for an incompressible Stokes flow of the Newtonian fractal fluid are derived. It is found that the radial distribution for the velocity in a steady Poiseuille flow of a fractal fluid is governed by the fractal metric of the flow, whereas the pressure distribution along the flow direction depends on the fractal topology of flow, as well as on the fractal metric. The radial distribution of the fractal fluid velocity in a steady Couette flow between two concentric cylinders is also derived.

  5. FORMATE-BASED FLUIDS: FORMULATION AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Formate-based fluids has been successfully used in over hunders HPHT well operations since they introduced in field practice. They have many advantages when compared with conventional HPHT drilling and completion fluids such as: minimal formation damage, maintenance of additve properties at high temperatures, reduced hydraulic flow resistance, low potential for differential sticking, naturally lubricating, very low corrosion rates, biodegradable and pose little risk to the environment etc. Formate-based fluids can be applied during deep slim hole drilling, shale drilling, reservoir drilling, salt and gas hydrate formations drilling. The laboratory research was carried out to evaluate the rheological behavior of formate-based fluids as a function of temperature. Formate-based fluids were formulated using potassium formate brine, xanthan polymer, PAC, starch and calcium carbonate. Experimental results show that potassium formate improves the thermal stability of polymers.

  6. Bifurcated SEN with Fluid Flow Conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rivera-Perez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the performance of a novel design for a bifurcated submerged entry nozzle (SEN used for the continuous casting of steel slabs. The proposed design incorporates fluid flow conditioners attached on SEN external wall. The fluid flow conditioners impose a pseudosymmetric pattern in the upper zone of the mold by inhibiting the fluid exchange between the zones created by conditioners. The performance of the SEN with fluid flow conditioners is analyzed through numerical simulations using the CFD technique. Numerical results were validated by means of physical simulations conducted on a scaled cold water model. Numerical and physical simulations confirmed that the performance of the proposed SEN is superior to a traditional one. Fluid flow conditioners reduce the liquid free surface fluctuations and minimize the occurrence of vortexes at the free surface.

  7. Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, Constantine

    2009-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics: Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner. The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming. This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice. There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes. Two distinguishing features of the discourse are: solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty. Matlab codes are presented and discussed for ...

  8. Fluid dynamics theory, computation, and numerical simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pozrikidis, C

    2001-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Theory, Computation, and Numerical Simulation is the only available book that extends the classical field of fluid dynamics into the realm of scientific computing in a way that is both comprehensive and accessible to the beginner The theory of fluid dynamics, and the implementation of solution procedures into numerical algorithms, are discussed hand-in-hand and with reference to computer programming This book is an accessible introduction to theoretical and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), written from a modern perspective that unifies theory and numerical practice There are several additions and subject expansions in the Second Edition of Fluid Dynamics, including new Matlab and FORTRAN codes Two distinguishing features of the discourse are solution procedures and algorithms are developed immediately after problem formulations are presented, and numerical methods are introduced on a need-to-know basis and in increasing order of difficulty Matlab codes are presented and discussed for a broad...

  9. Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Weitsman, Y Jack

    2012-01-01

    Fluid Effects in Polymers and Polymeric Composites, written by the late Dr. Y. Jack Weitsman, addresses the wide range of parameters that affect the interaction of fluids with polymers and polymeric composites. The book aims at broadening the scope of available data, mostly limited up to this time to weight-gain recordings of fluid ingress into polymers and composites, to the practical circumstances of fluctuating exposure. Various forms of experimental data are given, in conjunction with theoretical models derived from basic scientific principles, and correlated with severity of exposure conditions and interpreted by means of rationally based theoretical models. The practical implications of the effects of fluids are discussed. The issue of fluid effects on polymers and polymeric composites is of concern to engineers and scientists active in aerospace and naval structures, as an increasing portion of these structures are made of polymeric composites and employ polymeric adhesives as a joining device. While...

  10. Rotating Polygons on a Fluid Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Jansson, Thomas; Haspang, Martin

    The free surface of a rotating fluid will, due to the centrifugal force, be pressed radially outward. If the fluid rotates as a rigid body in a cylindrical container the surface will assume a parabolic shape. If, however, the flow is driven by rotating the bottom plate, the axial symmetry can bre...... and R. Miraghaie, ”Symmetry breaking in free-surface cylinder flows”, J. Fluid Mech., 502, 99 (2004)). The polygons occur at much larger Reynolds numbers, for water around 500.000. Correspondingly, the dependence on viscosity is rather small.......The free surface of a rotating fluid will, due to the centrifugal force, be pressed radially outward. If the fluid rotates as a rigid body in a cylindrical container the surface will assume a parabolic shape. If, however, the flow is driven by rotating the bottom plate, the axial symmetry can break...

  11. The Imperfect Fluid behind Kinetic Gravity Braiding

    CERN Document Server

    Pujolas, Oriol; Vikman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We present a standard hydrodynamical description for non-canonical scalar field theories with kinetic gravity braiding. In particular, this picture applies to the simplest galileons and k-essence. The fluid variables not only have a clear physical meaning but also drastically simplify the analysis of the system. The fluid carries charges corresponding to shifts in field space. This shift-charge current contains a spatial part responsible for diffusion of the charges. Moreover, in the incompressible limit, the equation of motion becomes the standard diffusion equation. The fluid is indeed imperfect because the energy flows neither along the field gradient nor along the shift current. The fluid has zero vorticity and is not dissipative: there is no entropy production, the energy-momentum is exactly conserved, the temperature vanishes and there is no shear viscosity. Still, in an expansion around a perfect fluid one can identify terms which correct the pressure in the manner of bulk viscosity. We close by formul...

  12. Absorption fluids data survey: 1989 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macriss, R.A.; Zawacki, T.S. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is an update of a series of prior reports on absorption fluids and data, ORNL/Sub/84-47989/1, 2, 3. It covers additional data developed and published mainly during 1985--88, and cites 44 additional references. Seventy-four different worldwide publications containing data relating to properties of binary, ternary, and multicomponent absorption fluids were identified. Of these, 30 manuscripts include applications of absorption fluid properties data toward evaluation, assessment, or design of chillers or heat pumps but do not include actual fluid properties data. The remaining 44 publications date as far back as 1929, but over 50% of these documents were published between 1985 and 1988. The texts of the 44 manuscripts are in English, German, Japanese, Russian, or French. The absorption fluids discussed in the 44 documents are combinations of 9 different refrigerant'' compounds and 30 single, 7 binary, and 1 ternary absorbent'' compounds. 44 refs., 21 tabs.

  13. Basic research needs in fluid mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, O.C. Jr.; Kreith, F.; White, F.M.

    1979-03-01

    A small segment of the engineering community was surveyed to obtain their judgment regarding the long-range needs for basic research in fluid mechanics. This segment consisted of approximately 600 persons active in heat transfer and fluid mechanics committees within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Close to 200 persons responded giving useful information relating to needed research. Of the many topics identified, six generic areas stood out: turbulence; multiphase flows; fluid structure interactions; boundary layer effects; biological, geological, and environmental fluid flow; and the need for new facilities and improved instrumentation. These six areas were summarized and an initial estimate of the research priorities presented to the DOE-ESCOE workshop on Fluid Dynamics and Thermal Processes held at the University of Kentucky on February 1 and 2, 1979. The priorities were modified and the final results of the workshop are presented.

  14. Fluid mechanics in the perivascular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Olbricht, William L

    2011-04-07

    Perivascular space (PVS) within the brain is an important pathway for interstitial fluid (ISF) and solute transport. Fluid flowing in the PVS can affect these transport processes and has significant impacts on physiology. In this paper, we carry out a theoretical analysis to investigate the fluid mechanics in the PVS. With certain assumptions and approximations, we are able to find an analytical solution to the problem. We discuss the physical meanings of the solution and particularly examine the consequences of the induced fluid flow in the context of convection-enhanced delivery (CED). We conclude that peristaltic motions of the blood vessel walls can facilitate fluid and solute transport in the PVS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deep Mantle Fluids Bottled Up in Diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Y.; Pearson, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Many mantle xenoliths and mineral inclusions in diamonds reflect refertilisation and enrichment by mantle metasomatism, a key mechanism for controlling abrupt changes in the chemical and physical properties of the continental lithospheric mantle (CLM) globally. However, the nature of the fluids involved can normally only be constrained indirectly from geochemical proxies or calculated using mineral/melt partition coefficients. Direct samples of mantle metasomatic fluids, shielded from any late stage alteration, are encased as microinclusions in fast-growing diamonds - "fibrous diamonds". These trapped high-density fluids (HDFs) provide a unique chemical and physical record for tracing the sources of deep mantle fluids and constraining the processes that shape their nature.Diamond HDFs vary between four major compositional types: saline, silicic and high-Mg plus low-Mg carbonatitic. A strong connection has been established between high-Mg carbonatitic HDFs and a carbonated peridotite source. In addition, the silicic and low-Mg carbonatitic HDFs have been related to hydrous eclogite (±carbonate). However, the compositionally extreme saline fluid endmember remained enigmatic and its source in the deep lithosphere has remained ambiguous. Our new data on fluid-rich diamonds show the geochemical fingerprints of a subducting slab as the source of deep mantle fluids of saline composition. In addition, for the first time, we show that these deep saline fluids are parental, via fluid rock interaction, to in-situ forming carbonatitic and silicic melts in the lithosphere. This model provides a strong platform for resolving the effects of the compositional spectrum of mantle fluids, which alter the deep lithosphere globally and play key roles in diamond formation.

  16. Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, P. van; Venstermans, C.; Gielen, J.; Parizel, P.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Duffel/Mechelen (Belgium); Vogel, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Schepper, A.M.A. de [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors. Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels. Extension (single, multiple and proportion of the lesion occupied by fluid-fluid levels) and signal characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging of fluid-fluid levels were determined. In all patients, pathologic correlation was available. Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), ''brown tumor'' (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases). Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma ''not otherwise specified'' (2 cases). In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively. Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can

  17. Fluid-fluid levels in a simple bone cyst on magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, E.J.; Craig, J.G.; Amin, M.B.; Marcus, N. [Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit (United States). Departments of Radiology, Pathology and Orthopedic Surgery; Swisher, P.K. [Providence Hospital, Southfield, Michigan (United States). Department of Radiology

    1998-08-01

    An unusual case is presented here of simple bone cyst (SBC) with fluid-fluid levels on MR and cementum-like substance on microscopy in an atypical location in the distal femur. Fluid-fluid levels are commonly described in the literature within aneurysmal bone cysts, giant cell tumour, chondroblastomas and telangiectatic osteosarcomas, but a literature review revealed only one reported case with multiple fluid levels occurring in a simple bone cyst on MRI. A cementum like matrix is diagnostic of SBC and is seen in approximately 10% of cases. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 7 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Effective interactions between fluid membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Bing-Sui

    2016-01-01

    A self-consistent theory is proposed for the general problem of interacting undulating fluid membranes subject to the constraint that they do not interpenetrate. We implement the steric constraint via an exact functional integral representation, and through the use of a saddle-point approximation transform it into a novel effective steric potential. The steric potential is found to consist of two contributions: one generated by zero mode fluctuations of the membranes, and the other by thermal bending fluctuations. For membranes of cross-sectional area $S$, we find that the bending fluctuation part scales with the inter-membrane separation $d$ as $d^{-2}$ for $d \\ll \\sqrt{S}$, but crosses over to $d^{-4}$ scaling for $d \\gg \\sqrt{S}$, whereas the zero mode part of the steric potential always scales as $d^{-2}$. For membranes interacting exclusively via the steric potential, we obtain closed-form expressions for the effective interaction potential and for the rms undulation amplitude $\\sigma$, which becomes sma...

  19. Stability of fluid motions I

    CERN Document Server

    Joseph, Daniel D

    1976-01-01

    The study of stability aims at understanding the abrupt changes which are observed in fluid motions as the external parameters are varied. It is a demanding study, far from full grown"whose most interesting conclusions are recent. I have written a detailed account of those parts of the recent theory which I regard as established. Acknowledgements I started writing this book in 1967 at the invitation of Clifford Truesdell. It was to be a short work on the energy theory of stability and if I had stuck to that I would have finished the writing many years ago. The theory of stability has developed so rapidly since 1967 that the book I might then have written would now have a much too limited scope. I am grateful to Truesdell, not so much for the invitation to spend endless hours of writing and erasing, but for the generous way he has supported my efforts and encouraged me to higher standards of good work. I have tried to follow Truesdell's advice to write this work in a clear and uncomplicated style. This is not ...

  20. Polariton devices and quantum fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, D.; De Giorgi, M.; Lerario, G.; Cannavale, A.; Cancellieri, E.; Bramati, A.; Gigli, G.; Laussy, F.; Sanvitto, D.

    2014-02-01

    Exciton-polaritons, composite particles resulting from the strong coupling between excitons and photons, have shown the capability to undergo condensation into a macroscopically coherent quantum state, demonstrating strong non-linearities and unique propagation properties. These strongly-coupled light-matter particles are promising candidates for the realization of semiconductor all-optical devices with fast time response and small energy consumption. Recently, quantum fluids of polaritons have been used to demonstrate the possibility to implement optical functionalities as spin switches, transistors or memories, but also to provide a channel for the transmission of information inside integrated circuits. In this context, the possibility to extend the range of light-matter interaction up to room temperature becomes of crucial importance. One of the most intriguing promises is to use organic Frenkel excitons, which, thanks to their huge oscillator strength, not only sustain the polariton picture at room temperature, but also bring the system into the unexplored regime of ultra-strong coupling. The combination of these materials with ad-hoc designed structures may allow the control of the propagation properties of polaritons, paving the way towards their implementation of the polariton functionalities in actual devices for opto-electronic applications.

  1. Protein-stabilized magnetic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soenen, S.J.H. [Interdisciplinary Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven-Campus Kortrijk, University Campus, B-8500 Kortrijk (Belgium); Hodenius, M.; Schmitz-Rode, T. [Helmholtz Institute, Applied Medical Engineering, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); De Cuyper, M. [Interdisciplinary Research Center, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven-Campus Kortrijk, University Campus, B-8500 Kortrijk (Belgium)], E-mail: Marcel.DeCuyper@KULeuven-Kortrijk.be

    2008-03-15

    The adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and egg yolk phosvitin on magnetic fluid particles was investigated. Incubation mixtures were prepared by mixing an alkaline suspension of tetramethylammonium-coated magnetite cores with protein solutions at various protein/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} ratios, followed by dialysis against a 5 mM TES buffer (pH 7.0), after which separation of bound and non-bound protein by high-gradient magnetophoresis was executed. Both the kinetic profiles as well as the isotherms of adsorption strongly differed for both proteins. In case of the spherical BSA, initially, abundant adsorption occurred, then it decreased and-at high protein concentrations-it slowly raised again. In contrast, with the highly phosphorylated phosvitin, binding slowly started and the extent of protein adsorption remained unchanged both as a function of time and phosvitin concentration. Competition binding studies, using binary protein mixtures composed of equal weight amounts of BSA and phosvitin, showed that binding of the latter protein is 'unrealistically' high. Based on the geometry of the two proteins, putative pictures on their orientation on the particle's surface in the various experimental conditions were deduced.

  2. 7 CFR 1160.107 - Fluid milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Fluid milk product. 1160.107 Section 1160.107... Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FLUID MILK PROMOTION PROGRAM Fluid Milk Promotion Order Definitions § 1160.107 Fluid milk product. Fluid milk product means any product that meets the...

  3. Isotonic vs Hypotonic Intravenous Fluids for Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Sarah

    2015-08-18

    Is isotonic fluid associated with a lower incidence of hyponatremia when compared with hypotonic fluid for maintenance intravenous fluid therapy in children? Compared with hypotonic fluid, isotonic fluid is associated with a lower incidence of hyponatremia, without evidence of an increase in adverse outcomes.

  4. Evidence of focused fluid flow associated to the gas hydrate wedge on the angolan margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casenave, Viviane; Imbert, Patrice; Gay, Aurélien

    2013-04-01

    , in present-day water depth ranging from 750 to 850 m. These buried depressions cover a stripe in that depth range all over the area covered by the 3D seismic data. These two observations, made both on the seafloor and on it subsurface, seem to correspond to the same phenomenon of fluid expulsion, for the views of the seismic morphology similarities, but in different periods. It is interpreted as a result of a downward migration of the BSR, because of the last sea-level rise, which would have meant an upslope migration of the intersection of the BSR with the seafloor. Based on the evidence of gas hydrate dissociation phenomenon in the Lower Congo Basin, the pinch-out of the BSR may be considered as a natural laboratory for investigating a possible massive greenhouse gas release due to global warming.

  5. Viscous fingering with partially miscible fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Cueto-Felgueroso, L.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    When a less viscous fluid displaces a more viscous fluid, the contrast in viscosity destabilizes the interface between the two fluids, leading to the formation of fingers. Experimental and numerical studies of viscous fingering have focused on fluids that are either fully miscible (e.g. water and glycerol) or perfectly immiscible (e.g. water and oil). In practice, however, the miscibility of two fluids can change appreciably with temperature and pressure, and often falls into the case of partial miscibility, where two fluids have limited solubility in each other (e.g. CO2 and water). Following our recent work for miscible systems (Jha et al., PRL 2011, 2013) and immiscible systems (Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes, PRL 2012, JFM 2014), here we propose a phase-field model for fluid-fluid displacements in a porous medium, when the two fluids have limited (but nonzero) solubility in one another. In our model, partial miscibility is characterized through the design of the thermodynamic free energy of the two-fluid system. We express the model in dimensionless form and elucidate the key dimensionless groups that control the behavior of the system. We present high-resolution numerical simulations of the model applied to the viscous fingering problem. On one hand, we demonstrate the effect of partial miscibility on the hydrodynamic instability. On the other, we elucidate the role of the degree of fingering on the rate of mutual fluid dissolution. Figure caption: final snapshots in simulations of viscous fingering with a two-fluid system mimicking that of CO2 and water. The colormap corresponds to the concentration of CO2. A band of less viscous gas phase rich in CO2 (red) displaces through the more viscous liquid phase that is undersaturated with CO2 (blue). At the fluid interface, an exchange of CO2 occurs as a result of local chemical potentials that drives the system towards thermodynamic equilibrium. This results in a shrinkage of gas phase as well as a local increase in

  6. Reliability of the fluid balance in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asperen, Yvette; Brand, Paul L P; Bekhof, Jolita

    2012-05-01

    To assess the reliability of fluid balance charts in neonates. An observational study in 170 nonbreastfed neonates, requiring continuous monitoring on a high-care unit, but not critically ill. The fluid balance was compared to daily body weight changes using Bland-Altman analysis. Differences more than 20% of daily fluid intake were considered clinically relevant. The mean gestational age was 36 + 2 weeks (SD 18.7 days) and mean birth weight 2782 g (SD 749 g). The mean difference between 394 fluid balances over 24 h (in mL) and daily weight changes (in g) was -12.1 (limits of agreement -128.1 to 103.8). In 40% of comparisons, the difference with daily weight change was more than 20% of daily fluid intake. Fluid balance charts both over- and underestimate body weight changes in an unpredictable pattern and are therefore unreliable as a single measure of fluid status in neonates. © 2012 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2012 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Variational principles for stochastic fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Darryl D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper derives stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) for fluid dynamics from a stochastic variational principle (SVP). The paper proceeds by taking variations in the SVP to derive stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations; writing their Itô representation; and then investigating the properties of these stochastic fluid models in comparison with each other, and with the corresponding deterministic fluid models. The circulation properties of the stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations are found to closely mimic those of the deterministic ideal fluid models. As with deterministic ideal flows, motion along the stochastic Stratonovich paths also preserves the helicity of the vortex field lines in incompressible stochastic flows. However, these Stratonovich properties are not apparent in the equivalent Itô representation, because they are disguised by the quadratic covariation drift term arising in the Stratonovich to Itô transformation. This term is a geometric generalization of the quadratic covariation drift term already found for scalar densities in Stratonovich's famous 1966 paper. The paper also derives motion equations for two examples of stochastic geophysical fluid dynamics; namely, the Euler–Boussinesq and quasi-geostropic approximations. PMID:27547083

  8. Colloid solutions for fluid resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Frances; Trivedi, Daksha

    2012-06-13

    Colloids are widely used in the replacement of fluid volume. However doubts remain as to which colloid is best. Different colloids vary in their molecular weight and therefore in the length of time they remain in the circulatory system. Because of this and their other characteristics, they may differ in their safety and efficacy. To compare the effects of different colloid solutions in patients thought to need volume replacement. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Specialised Register (searched 1 Dec 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials 2011, issue 4 (The Cochrane Library); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1948 to November Week 3 2011); EMBASE (Ovid) (1974 to 2011 Week 47); ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to 1 Dec 2011); ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (1990 to 1 Dec 2011); CINAHL (EBSCO) (1982 to 1 Dec 2011); National Research Register (2007, Issue 1) and PubMed (searched 1 Dec 2011). Bibliographies of trials retrieved were searched, and for the initial version of the review drug companies manufacturing colloids were contacted for information (1999). Randomised controlled trials comparing colloid solutions in critically ill and surgical patients thought to need volume replacement. Two authors independently extracted the data and assessed the quality of the trials. The outcomes sought were death, amount of whole blood transfused, and incidence of adverse reactions. Ninety trials, with a total of 5678 participants, met the inclusion criteria. Quality of allocation concealment was judged to be adequate in 35 trials and poor or uncertain in the rest.Deaths were obtained in 61 trials. For albumin or PPF versus hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 32 trials (n = 1769) reported mortality. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.07 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.32). When the trials by Boldt were removed from the analysis the pooled RR was 0.90 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.20). For albumin or PPF versus gelatin, nine trials (n = 824) reported

  9. LUBRICATED TRANSPORT OF VISCOUS FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPH, DANIEL D

    2004-06-21

    We became the acknowledged world leaders in the science fundamentals of the technology of water lubricated pipelines focusing on stability, numerical and experimental studies. We completed the first direct numerical simulation of axisymmetric core flow. We showed that the pressure at the front of the wave is large (the fluid enters a converging region) and it pushes the interface in, steepening the wave at its front. At the backside of the wave, behind the crest, the pressure is low (diverging flow) and it pulls the interface to the wall, smoothing the backside of the wave. The steepening of the wave can be regarded as a shock up by inertia and it shows that dynamics works against the formation of long waves which are often assumed but not justified in the analysis of such problems. We showed that the steep wave persists even as the gap between the core and the wall decreases to zero. The wave length also decreases in proportion, so that the wave shape is preserved in this limit. This leads to the first mathematical solution giving rise sharkskin. The analysis also showed that there is a threshold Reynolds number below which the total force reckoned relative to a zero at the wave crest is negative, positive above, and we conjectured, therefore that inertia is required to center a density matched core and to levitate the core off the wall when the density is not matched. Other work relates to self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth and self-lubricated transport of bitumen froth.

  10. Synoviocyte cultures from synovial fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Punzi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of the pathogenetic mechanisms of rheumatic diseases is in general carried out through “in vitro” systems based on cellular cultures models. The difficulties to achieve fresh human tissue prompted us to develop a simpler method to obtain fibroblast-like synovial cells from synovial fluid (SF. Methods: SF was collected from the knees of 5 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA, 4 with osteoarthritis (OA and 5 with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. The pellet obtained after centrifugation was resuspended in DMEM/HamF12 containing 10% fetal calf serum, 1% peni-streptomicin, 4ng/ml of fibroblast grow factor and incubated at 37°C in T25 culture flasks. Synoviocytes were also obtained from fresh synovial membranes (SM by explants technique. Both types of cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry and their inflammatory response to synthetic monosodium urate crystals was studied through the measurement of nitric oxide (NO. Results: Adherent synoviocytes were obtained from the culture of 2/5 SF from RA, 4/4 SF from OA and 5/5 SF from PsA. Synoviocytes isolated from both SF and SM expressed surface antigens CD90, CD55, and the intracellular prolyl- 4-hydroxylase. Morphologically, the cells showed the typical spindle-shape fibroblast-like appearance. NO levels induced by UMS crystals in SF synoviocytes were similar to those obtained in SM synoviocytes. Conclusion: Adherent cells obtained from SF showed the phenotype and the reactivity of tissue synoviocytes. Due to the easy accessibility of SF, this method may represents an useful alternative when synovial tissues is not promptly available.

  11. [Synoviocyte cultures from synovial fluid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanu, A; Oliviero, F; Braghetto, L; Ramonda, R; Luisetto, R; Calabrese, F; Pozzuoli, A; Punzi, L

    2007-01-01

    The study of the pathogenetic mechanisms of rheumatic diseases is in general carried out through "in vitro" systems based on cellular cultures models. The difficulties to achieve fresh human tissue prompted us to develop a simpler method to obtain fibroblast-like synovial cells from synovial fluid (SF). SF was collected from the knees of 5 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 4 with osteoarthritis (OA) and 5 with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The pellet obtained after centrifugation was resuspended in DMEM/HamF12 containing 10% foetal calf serum, 1% peni-streptomycin, 4 ng/ml of fibroblast grow factor and incubated at 37 degrees C in T25 culture flasks. Synoviocytes were also obtained from fresh synovial membranes (SM) by explants technique. Both types of cells were characterized by immunocytochemistry and their inflammatory response to synthetic monosodium urate crystals was studied through the measurement of nitric oxide (NO). Adherent synoviocytes were obtained from the culture of 2/5 SF from RA, 4/4 SF from OA and 5/5 SF from PsA. Synoviocytes isolated from both SF and SM expressed surface antigens CD90, CD55, and the intracellular prolyl-4-hydroxylase. Morphologically, the cells showed the typical spindle-shape fibroblast-like appearance. NO levels induced by UMS crystals in SF synoviocytes were similar to those obtained in SM synoviocytes. Adherent cells obtained from SF showed the phenotype and the reactivity of tissue synoviocytes. Due to the easy accessibility of SF, this method may represents an useful alternative when synovial tissues is not promptly available.

  12. Experimental and theoretical advances in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Klapp, Jaime; Fuentes, Oscar Velasco

    2011-01-01

    The book is comprised of lectures and selected contributions presented at the Enzo Levi and XVI Annual Meeting of the Fluid Dynamic Division of the Mexican Physical Society in 2010. It is aimed at fourth year undergraduate and graduate students, as well as scientists in the fields of physics, engineering and chemistry with an interest in fluid dynamics from the experimental and theoretical point of view. The lectures are introductory and avoid the use of complicated mathematics. The other selected contributions are also geared to fourth year undergraduate and graduate students. The fluid dynam

  13. Dynamic Characteristics of Magneto-Fluid Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Chernobai

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a vibro-protective magneto-fluid support that uses elastic properties of magnetic fluid with a free surface in magnetic field.The paper has experimentally revealed that the analyzed structure is characterized by better noise absorbing characteristics.The conducted experiments have made it possible to conclude that there is a possibility to use vibro-protective magneto-fluid supports within the frequency range from 0 to 300 Hz, amplitudes up to 2 mm and unit load up to 2,5 · 10 4 Н/м².

  14. Serpentinization and fluids in the forearc mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, B.

    2016-12-01

    In the forearc region, aqueous fluids are released from the subducting slab, and tend to rise vertically unless they meet permeability barriers such as the deformed plate interface or the Moho of the overriding plate. Above the subducting plate, intense reactions between dehydration fluids from the subducting slab and ultramafic rocks result in extensive serpentinization in the forearc mantle wedge. The plate interface is mechanically decoupled, most likely because serpentines are low strength material, isolating the forearc mantle wedge from convection. Geophysical observations are unique probes to the interactions between fluids and rocks in the forearc mantle, and experimental constrains on rock properties are used to infer fluid migration and fluid/rock reactions from geophysical data. Seismic velocities reveal high degree of serpentinization of the forearc mantle in hot subduction zones, and little serpentinization in the coldest subduction zones because the warmer the subduction zone, the higher the amount of water released by dehydration of the hydrothermally altered oceanic lithosphere. Interpretation of seismic data from petrophysical constrain is limited by complex effects due to anisotropy that need to be assessed both in the analysis and interpretation of seismic data. Electrical conductivity of dry peridotites and serpentinites is similar, and high conductivities are found to be diagnostic of increasing fluid content, fluid salinity. Conductivities in the forearc increase with the temperature of the subduction. A notable exception is the forearc mantle of Northern Cascadia, the hottest subduction zone where extensive serpentinization was first demonstrated, that shows only modest electrical conductivity. Detailed electrical conductivity profiles suggest fluid content and chemistry may vary not only with the thermal state of the subduction zone but also with time through variations of fluid salinity. High-Cl fluids produced by serpentinization can mix

  15. Conformal symmetry inheritance in null fluid spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Tupper, B O J; Hall, G S; Coley, Alan A; Carot, J

    2003-01-01

    We define inheriting conformal Killing vectors for null fluid spacetimes and find the maximum dimension of the associated inheriting Lie algebra. We show that for non-conformally flat null fluid spacetimes, the maximum dimension of the inheriting algebra is seven and for conformally flat null fluid spacetimes the maximum dimension is eight. In addition, it is shown that there are two distinct classes of non-conformally flat generalized plane wave spacetimes which possess the maximum dimension, and one class in the conformally flat case.

  16. Geothermal energy production with supercritical fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donald W.

    2003-12-30

    There has been invented a method for producing geothermal energy using supercritical fluids for creation of the underground reservoir, production of the geothermal energy, and for heat transport. Underground reservoirs are created by pumping a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide into a formation to fracture the rock. Once the reservoir is formed, the same supercritical fluid is allowed to heat up and expand, then is pumped out of the reservoir to transfer the heat to a surface power generating plant or other application.

  17. Mécanique des fluides fondamentale

    CERN Document Server

    Zeytounian, Radyadour K

    1991-01-01

    Ce cours de mecanique des fluides est avant tout un cours theorique qui repond aux questions fondamentales de ce sujet de recherche. Les quatre premiers chapitres presentent les equations propres a determiner l'ecoulement de fluide considere et diverses solutions. Les chapitres 5 et 6sont consacres aux problemes lies la stabilite, aux bifurcations et aux comportements chaotiques. Le livre donne un vision globale des questions traitees en mecanique des fluides qui sont a la base de toute la recherche, de la modelisation et de toutes les applications dans ce domaine.

  18. A microsphere suspension model of metamaterial fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Duan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drawing an analogy to the liquid phase of natural materials, we theoretically propose a microsphere suspension model to realize a metamaterial fluid with artificial electromagnetic indexes. By immersing high-ε, micrometer-sized dielectric spheres in a low-ε insulating oil, the structured fluid exhibits liquid-like properties from dispersing phase as well as the isotropic negative electromagnetic parameters caused by Mie resonances from dispersed microspheres. The work presented here will benefit the development of structured fluids toward metamaterials.

  19. Forward osmosis process for dialysis fluid regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaat, Khaled Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    In a preliminary experiment, 38% of the spent dialysis fluid water was reclaimed by a forward osmosis process through a cellulose triacetate membrane. The simplicity of forward osmosis and its minimal external energy requirements may allow the construction of a small bulk device that can reclaim a considerable portion of the water used in the patient's dialysis process. For developing an acceptable ambulatory dialysis system, decreasing the bulk of the fluid and equipment carried on the patient is essential. Forward osmosis may feasibly be used for dialysis fluid regeneration in ambulatory dialysis systems.

  20. Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems.

  1. Performance Comparison and Selection of Transformer Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformer fluid directly affects the working state of the components and the cooling efficiency of transformer. There are three kinds of transformer fluid used for electric locomotive, EMU and suburban rail vehicles: mineral oil, silicone liquid and synthetic ester based insulating oil. In this paper, the three kinds of oil are compared from the fire safety, environmental protection, reliability and low maintenance. It provides a strong basis for the selection of transformer fluid. By comprehensive analysis, synthetic ester based insulating oil can completely replace mineral oil and silicone liquid. With rail transport safety and environmental protection standards improving, synthetic ester based insulating oil will be the best choice for transformer.

  2. DRILLING FLUIDS DIFFERENTIAL STICKING TENDENCY DETERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Simon

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Differential sticking is defined as stuck pipe caused by the differential pressure forces from an overbalanced mud column acting on the drillstring against filter cake deposited on a permeable formation. It is influenced by drilling fluid properties and characteristics of rock formations and has major impact on drilling efficiency and well costs respectively. Differential sticking tendency of two drilling fluids were determined in laboratory using sticking tester as well as influence of lubricant and increase of solids content on fluid properties. Results of the testing are presented in the paper.

  3. Maintenance Fluid Therapy: Isotonic Versus Hypotonic Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bernie; Vigani, Alessio

    2017-03-01

    The goal of maintenance fluid therapy in small animals is to replace normal ongoing losses of water and salts when oral intake is withheld. Hospitalized dogs and cats may have multiple stimuli for antidiuretic hormone release that disrupt normal osmoregulation and predispose to water retention. Severe illness promotes retention of both sodium and water as edema. Commercially available fluids have electrolyte concentrations that are very different from dietary maintenance requirements, and potential consequences include development of hypoosmolality, edema, or both when excesses of water or sodium are administered. Suggestions for tailoring fluid administration toward specific goals are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fluid structure interaction problems in large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Tallec, Patrick; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric; Hauret, Patrice; Vidrascu, Marina

    2005-12-01

    The present article deals with the simulation of fluid structure interaction problems in large deformation, and discusses two aspects of their numerical solution: (i) the derivation of energy conserving time integration schemes in presence of fluid structure coupling, moving grids, and nonlinear kinematic constraints such as incompressibility and contact, (ii) the introduction of adequate preconditioners efficiently chaining local fluid and structure solvers. Solutions are proposed, analyzed and tested using nonlinear energy correcting terms, and added mass based Dirichlet Neumann preconditioners. Numerical applications include nonlinear impact problems in elastodynamics and blood flows predictions within flexible arteries. To cite this article: P. Le Tallec et al., C. R. Mecanique 333 (2005).

  5. Technical Competencies Applied in Experimental Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagg, Randall

    2017-11-01

    The practical design, construction, and operation of fluid dynamics experiments require a broad range of competencies. Three types are instrumental, procedural, and design. Respective examples would be operation of a spectrum analyzer, soft-soldering or brazing flow plumbing, and design of a small wind tunnel. Some competencies, such as the selection and installation of pumping systems, are unique to fluid dynamics and fluids engineering. Others, such as the design and construction of electronic amplifiers or optical imaging systems, overlap with other fields. Thus the identification and development of learning materials and methods for instruction are part of a larger effort to identify competencies needed in active research and technical innovation.

  6. Ultrasound thermometry in transparent and opaque fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fife, S.; Andereck, C.D. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 43210, Columbus, OH (United States); Rahal, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Batna, Batna (Algeria)

    2003-08-01

    We have exploited the temperature dependence of sound velocity to measure the thermal fields in transparent and opaque fluids. A chamber containing glycerol undergoing Rayleigh-Benard convection was probed with an ultrasound transducer operating in the pulse-echo mode. The times-of-flight for the ultrasound pulse to traverse the fluid at several transducer locations were converted into a temperature profile that is in qualitative agreement with simultaneous thermochromic liquid crystal visualization of the flow pattern. Temperature profiles in a mercury-filled stainless steel chamber have also been obtained, both for quiescent and turbulent flows, thereby validating the ultrasound thermometry concept for opaque fluids as well. (orig.)

  7. Device useful as a borehole fluid sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freifeld, Barry M.

    2018-01-09

    The present invention provides a device comprising: (a) a proximal end of the device comprises an inner first conduit within the lumen of an outer second conduit, (b) a distal end of the device comprises the outer second conduit in fluid communication with a third conduit and a fourth conduit through a Y-shaped, T-shaped or U-shaped junction, (c) the third conduit terminates in a triggering mechanism, and (d) the fourth conduit is in fluid communication through a one-way valve, wherein fluid can only convey in a direction from the fourth conduit towards the second outer conduit, with an aperture.

  8. Damping of a fluid-conveying pipe surrounded by a viscous annulus fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjolsing, Eric J.; Todd, Michael D.

    2017-04-01

    To further the development of a downhole vibration based energy harvester, this study explores how fluid velocity affects damping in a fluid-conveying pipe stemming from a viscous annulus fluid. A linearized equation of motion is formed which employs a hydrodynamic forcing function to model the annulus fluid. The system is solved in the frequency domain through the use of the spectral element method. The three independent variables investigated are the conveyed fluid velocity, the rotational stiffness of the boundary (using elastic springs), and the annulus fluid viscosity. It was found that, due to the hydrodynamic functions frequency-dependence, increasing the conveyed fluid velocity increases the systems damping ratio. It was also noted that stiffer systems saw the damping ratio increase at a slower rate when compared to flexible systems as the conveyed fluid velocity was increased. The results indicate that overestimating the stiffness of a system can lead to underestimated damping ratios and that this error is made worse if the produced fluid velocity or annulus fluid viscosity is underestimated. A numeric example was provided to graphically illustrate these errors. Approved for publication, LA-UR-15-28006.

  9. The Valsalva maneuver duration during labor expulsive stage: repercussions on the maternal and neonatal birth condition Duração da manobra de Valsalva durante o período expulsivo do parto: repercussões maternas e nas condições neonatais de nascimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lemos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This cross-sectional study was designed to examine the effects of the Valsalva Maneuver (VM and its duration on the acid- base equilibrium of the neonate and its maternal repercussions during the expulsive stage of labor, after standard breathing and pushing instructions were given. METHODS: A convenience sample of women with low risk pregnancy (n=33; mean age 22.5±3.7y and gestational age 38.1±1.12wks and their newborns were studied during the expulsive stage of vaginal labor. Coaching consisted of standard recommendations for breathing including prolonged VMs coordinated with pushing. Maternal outcomes included the need for uterus fundal pressure maneuver and episiotomy, perineal trauma and posture. Neonatal outcomes included blood gases sampled from the umbilical cord, and Apgar scores. Data were analyzed with the Fisher's exact test, chi-square test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. RESULTS: None of the maternal outcomes were associated with VM duration. With respect to neonatal outcomes, increased VM duration was associated with reduced venous umbilical pH (r=-0.40; p=0.020, venous base excess (r=-0.42; p=0.014 and with arterial base excess (r=-0.36; p=0.043. Expulsive stage time was negatively associated with umbilical venous and arterial pH. CONCLUSIONS: VM duration during fetal expulsion in labor negatively affects fetal acid-base equilibrium and potentially the wellbeing of the neonate. Our results support the need to consider respiratory strategies during labor, to minimize potential risk to the mother and neonate.OBJETIVOS: O presente estudo de corte transversal teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da Manobra de Valsalva (MV e sua duração no equilíbrio ácido-básico fetal e nas repercussões maternas durante o período expulsivo do parto, após instrução respiratória padronizada. MÉTODOS: Uma amostra de conveniência em gestantes de baixo risco (n=33, média de idade 22,5±3.7 anos e idade gestacional 38.1

  10. Energy performance indicator report: fluid milk plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In Canada, the dairy sector consumes significant amounts of energy and is looking for new ways of saving energy. The aim of this study, performed by the Competitive Analysis Centre Inc., was to find novel energy savings ideas for fluid milk plants. For this purpose, the energy consumption of 17 fluid milk plants, which accounts for over 50% of total Canadian output, was analyzed; first, at the plant level, and then by 8 categories at the sub-plant level in order to develop benchmarks that could be applied at both these levels. The paper provides background information on Canada's fluid milk sector and outlines the methodology used to develop and apply energy efficiency measures in the sector; the study findings are also presented. This report found that the energy consumption of the Canadian fluid milk sector could be lowered by applying the energy saving proposals developed herein.

  11. Effective fluid description of the dark universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cadoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an effective anisotropic fluid description for a generic infrared-modified theory of gravity. In our framework, the additional component of the acceleration, commonly attributed to dark matter, is explained as a radial pressure generated by the reaction of the dark energy fluid to the presence of baryonic matter. Using quite general assumptions, and a microscopic description of the fluid in terms of a Bose–Einstein condensate of gravitons, we find the static, spherically symmetric solution for the metric in terms of the Misner–Sharp mass function and the fluid pressure. At galactic scales, we correctly reproduce the leading MOND-like log⁡(r and subleading (1/rlog⁡(r terms in the weak-field expansion of the potential. Our description also predicts a tiny (of order 10−6 for a typical spiral galaxy Machian modification of the Newtonian potential at galactic scales, which is controlled by the cosmological acceleration.

  12. Introduction of Residue Fluid Catalytic Cracking Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    SAKAKURA, Kei

    2014-01-01

    .... Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is one of the most important conversion processes in a petroleum refinery, it also occupies very significant position in the refinery due to its economic benefits...

  13. Superconfinement tailors fluid flow at microscales.

    KAUST Repository

    Setu, Siti Aminah

    2015-06-15

    Understanding fluid dynamics under extreme confinement, where device and intrinsic fluid length scales become comparable, is essential to successfully develop the coming generations of fluidic devices. Here we report measurements of advancing fluid fronts in such a regime, which we dub superconfinement. We find that the strong coupling between contact-line friction and geometric confinement gives rise to a new stability regime where the maximum speed for a stable moving front exhibits a distinctive response to changes in the bounding geometry. Unstable fronts develop into drop-emitting jets controlled by thermal fluctuations. Numerical simulations reveal that the dynamics in superconfined systems is dominated by interfacial forces. Henceforth, we present a theory that quantifies our experiments in terms of the relevant interfacial length scale, which in our system is the intrinsic contact-line slip length. Our findings show that length-scale overlap can be used as a new fluid-control mechanism in strongly confined systems.

  14. Mechanics of couple-stress fluid coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    The formal development of a theory of viscoelastic surface fluids with bending resistance - their kinematics, dynamics, and rheology are discussed. It is relevant to the mechanics of fluid drops and jets coated by a thin layer of immiscible fluid with rather general rheology. This approach unifies the hydrodynamics of two-dimensional fluids with the mechanics of an elastic shell in the spirit of a Cosserat continuum. There are three distinct facets to the formulation of surface continuum mechanics. Outlined are the important ideas and results associated with each: the kinematics of evolving surface geometries, the conservation laws governing the mechanics of surface continua, and the rheological equations of state governing the surface stress and moment tensors.

  15. A Course in Fluid Mechanics of Suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a course focusing on fluid mechanics and physical chemistry of suspensions. Describes the main themes of the lectures and includes a list of course outlines. Possible textbooks and many journal articles are listed. (YP)

  16. Relativistic elasticity of stationary fluid branes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armas, J.; Obers, N.A.

    2013-01-01

    Fluid mechanics can be formulated on dynamical surfaces of arbitrary codimension embedded in a background space-time. This has been the main object of study of the blackfold approach in which the emphasis has primarily been on stationary fluid configurations. Motivated by this approach we show...... under certain conditions that a given stationary fluid configuration living on a dynamical surface of vanishing thickness and satisfying locally the first law of thermodynamics will behave like an elastic brane when the surface is subject to small deformations. These results, which are independent...... of the number of space-time dimensions and of the fluid arising from a gravitational dual, reveal the (electro)elastic character of (charged) black branes when considering extrinsic perturbations....

  17. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  18. Simulation based engineering in fluid flow design

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, J S

    2017-01-01

    This volume offers a tool for High Performance Computing (HPC). A brief historical background on the subject is first given. Fluid Statics dealing with Pressure in fluids at rest, Buoyancy and Basics of Thermodynamics are next presented. The Finite Volume Method, the most convenient process for HPC, is explained in one-dimensional approach to diffusion with convection and pressure velocity coupling. Adiabatic, isentropic and supersonic flows in quasi-one dimensional flows in axisymmetric nozzles is considered before applying CFD solutions. Though the theory is restricted to one-dimensional cases, three-dimensional CFD examples are also given. Lastly, nozzle flows with normal shocks are presented using turbulence models. Worked examples and exercises are given in each chapter. Fluids transport thermal energy for its conversion to kinetic energy, thus playing a major role that is central to all heat engines. With the advent of rotating machinery in the 20th century, Fluid Engineering was developed in the form o...

  19. Amniotic Fluid Aspiration in Medicolegal Autopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermet Koç

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid aspiration occurs due to intrauterine anoxia. Being one of the causes of respiratory insufficiency and death in newborns, it can be diagnosed solely by histopathological examination. In the present paper, 12 cases with the diagnosis of amniotic fluid aspiration in autopsies between 1996-1997 in the mortuary section of the Council of Forensic Medicine are reevaluated from the medicolegal point of view. In the majority of the cases, delivery took place in locations other than hospitals, and the lack of medical intervention has been an important factor for the infavorable outcome of the autopsies. Findings of amniotic fluid aspiration stained with meconium were detected in four cases. Key words: Amniotic fluid aspiration, intrauterin asphyxia, Neonatal death, Medicolegal autopsy.

  20. Fracture Fluid Additive and Formation Degradations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation is on reactions that describe the degradation of fracturing fluids & formations during the hydraulic fracturing process & the clean‐up period. It contains a description of primary chemical reaction controls, & common degradation reactions

  1. International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Yukihito

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents original papers ranging from an experimental study on cavitation jets to an up-to-date mathematical analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations for free boundary problems, reflecting topics featured at the International Conference on Mathematical Fluid Dynamics, Present and Future, held 11–14 November 2014 at Waseda University in Tokyo. The contributions address subjects in one- and two-phase fluid flows, including cavitation, liquid crystal flows, plasma flows, and blood flows. Written by internationally respected experts, these papers highlight the connections between mathematical, experimental, and computational fluid dynamics. The book is aimed at a wide readership in mathematics and engineering, including researchers and graduate students interested in mathematical fluid dynamics.

  2. Odd viscosity in chiral active fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debarghya; Souslov, Anton; Abanov, Alexander G; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2017-11-17

    We study the hydrodynamics of fluids composed of self-spinning objects such as chiral grains or colloidal particles subject to torques. These chiral active fluids break both parity and time-reversal symmetries in their non-equilibrium steady states. As a result, the constitutive relations of chiral active media display a dissipationless linear-response coefficient called odd (or equivalently, Hall) viscosity. This odd viscosity does not lead to energy dissipation, but gives rise to a flow perpendicular to applied pressure. We show how odd viscosity arises from non-linear equations of hydrodynamics with rotational degrees of freedom, once linearized around a non-equilibrium steady state characterized by large spinning speeds. Next, we explore odd viscosity in compressible fluids and suggest how our findings can be tested in the context of shock propagation experiments. Finally, we show how odd viscosity in weakly compressible chiral active fluids can lead to density and pressure excess within vortex cores.

  3. Endogenous opioid peptides in uterine fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraglia, F; Facchinetti, F; M'Futa, K; Ruspa, M; Bonavera, J J; Gandolfi, F; Genazzani, A R

    1986-08-01

    The present study demonstrates the presence of the endogenous opioid peptides beta-endorphin (beta-EP) and methionine-enkephalin (MET-ENK), in the uterine fluid of fertile women and normally cycling and superovulated cows. The two peptides are undetectable in the uterine fluid of untreated postmenopausal women, whereas they are present following estrogen-progesterone treatment. Immunoreactive (IR) MET-ENK concentrations were higher in the secretory than in the proliferative phase of the menstrual cycle. IR beta-EP and IR MET-ENK are present also in the follicular, oviductal, and uterine fluid of cows, and in the uterine fluid, concentrations of IR MET-ENK are higher in the superovulated than in the control animals. Because opioids play important roles on endocrine and immune functions, the present data support the potential physiologic role of endometrial secretions.

  4. A multistage adaptive test of fluid intelligence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martín-Fernández, Manuel; Ponsoda, Vicente; Olea, Julio; Shih, Pei-Chun; Revuelta, Javier

    2016-01-01

    .... The current study details a new multistage test to assess fluid intelligence. An item pool of progressive matrices with constructed response format was developed, and divided into six subtests...

  5. Computational fluid dynamics modeling in yarn engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patanaik, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This chapter deals with the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling in reducing yarn hairiness during the ring spinning process and thereby “engineering” yarn with desired properties. Hairiness significantly affects the appearance...

  6. Modern fluid dynamics for physics and astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Regev, Oded; Yecko, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    This book grew out of the need to provide students with a solid introduction to modern fluid dynamics. It offers a broad grounding in the underlying principles and techniques used, with some emphasis on applications in astrophysics and planetary science. The book comprehensively covers recent developments, methods and techniques, including, for example, new ideas on transitions to turbulence (via transiently growing stable linear modes), new approaches to turbulence (which remains the enigma of fluid dynamics), and the use of asymptotic approximation methods, which can give analytical or semi-analytical results and complement fully numerical treatments. The authors also briefly discuss some important considerations to be taken into account when developing a numerical code for computer simulation of fluid flows. Although the text is populated throughout with examples and problems from the field of astrophysics and planetary science, the text is eminently suitable as a general introduction to fluid dynamics. It...

  7. Current research in cavitating fluid films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, D. E. (Editor); Ball, J. H. (Editor); Khonsari, M. M. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A review of the current research of cavitation in fluid films is presented. Phenomena and experimental observations include gaseous cavitation, vapor cavitation, and gas entrainment. Cavitation in flooded, starved, and dynamically loaded journal bearings, as well as squeeze films are reviewed. Observations of cavitation damage in bearings and the possibility of cavitation between parallel plates with microasperities were discussed. The transcavity fluid transport process, meniscus motion and geometry or form of the film during rupture, and reformation were summarized. Performance effects were related to heat transfer models in the cavitated region and hysteresis influence on rotor dynamics coefficients. A number of cavitation algorithms was presented together with solution procedures using the finite difference and finite element methods. Although Newtonian fluids were assumed in most of the discussions, the effect of non-Newtonian fluids on cavitation was also discussed.

  8. 'Liberal' vs. 'restrictive' perioperative fluid therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard-Nielsen, M; Secher, N H; Kehlet, H

    2009-01-01

    clinical trials and cited studies, comparing two different fixed fluid volumes on post-operative clinical outcome in major surgery. Studies were assessed for the type of surgery, primary and secondary outcome endpoints, the type and volume of administered fluid and the definition of the perioperative...... found differences in the selected outcome parameters. CONCLUSION: Liberal vs. restrictive fixed-volume regimens are not well defined in the literature regarding the definition, methodology and results, and lack the use of or information on evidence-based standardized perioperative care-principles (fast...... for fluid therapy and outcome endpoints were inconsistently defined and only two studies reported perioperative care principles and discharge criteria. Three studies found an improved outcome (morbidity/hospital stay) with a restrictive fluid regimen whereas two studies found no difference and two studies...

  9. High-temperature heat-pump fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertinat, M. P.

    1988-05-01

    Heat pumps could be immensely useful in many industrial processes, but standard working fluids are unsuitable for the high temperatures involved. The ideal high-temperature heat-pump fluid should have a high (but not too high) critical temperature, a moderate critical pressure ( approximately=5.0 MPa) and a low (but not too low) boiling point. There are many organic fluids that do meet the above thermodynamic criteria The author's list of 250 contained dozens of them including many of the common laboratory solvents such as ethanol, ether and especially acetone. Unfortunately most of them are highly flammable. The ideal work fluid for high-temperature heat pumps will probably always remain elusive and water, despite its drawbacks will continue to be the best choice in most applications

  10. Method and apparatus for fluid dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Howard A; Anna, Shelley L; Bontoux, Nathalie; Link, Darren Roy; Weitz, David A; Gitlin, Irina; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Garstecki, Piotr; Diluzio, Willow R; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-24

    A microfluidic method and device for focusing and/or forming discontinuous sections of similar or dissimilar size in a fluid is provided. The device can be fabricated simply from readily-available, inexpensive material using simple techniques.

  11. Removal of hydrogen sulfide from drilling fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilligan Jr., T. J.

    1985-10-22

    The present invention relates to a process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide which frequently becomes entrained in drilling fluid during the course of drilling operations through subterranean formations. The process consists of introducing a solid oxidant in powdered form into the circulating drilling fluid when hydrogen sulfide is encountered. The solid oxidants are selected from the group consisting of calcium hypochlorite (Ca-(OCl)/sub 2/), sodium perborate (NaBO/sub 3/), potassium permanganate (KMnO/sub 4/), and potassium peroxydisulfate (K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 8/). The solid oxidants are soluble in the drilling fluid, promoting fast and complete scavenging reactions without adversely altering the drilling fluid rheology.

  12. On the fluid mechanics of fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TIESZEN,SHELDON R.

    2000-02-29

    Fluid mechanics research related to fire is reviewed with focus on canonical flows, multiphysics coupling aspects, experimental and numerical techniques. Fire is a low-speed, chemically-reacting, flow in which buoyancy plans an important role. Fire research has focused on two canonical flows, the reacting boundary-layer and the reacting free plume. There is rich, multi-lateral, bi-directional, coupling among fluid mechanics and scalar transport, combustion, and radiation. There is only a limited experimental fluid-mechanics database for fire due to measurement difficulties in the harsh environment, and the focus within the fire community on thermal/chemical consequences. Increasingly, computational fluid dynamics techniques are being used to provide engineering guidance on thermal/chemical consequences and to study fire phenomenology.

  13. Effective fluid description of the dark universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoni, M.; Casadio, R.; Giusti, A.; Mück, W.; Tuveri, M.

    2018-01-01

    We propose an effective anisotropic fluid description for a generic infrared-modified theory of gravity. In our framework, the additional component of the acceleration, commonly attributed to dark matter, is explained as a radial pressure generated by the reaction of the dark energy fluid to the presence of baryonic matter. Using quite general assumptions, and a microscopic description of the fluid in terms of a Bose-Einstein condensate of gravitons, we find the static, spherically symmetric solution for the metric in terms of the Misner-Sharp mass function and the fluid pressure. At galactic scales, we correctly reproduce the leading MOND-like log ⁡ (r) and subleading (1 / r) log ⁡ (r) terms in the weak-field expansion of the potential. Our description also predicts a tiny (of order 10-6 for a typical spiral galaxy) Machian modification of the Newtonian potential at galactic scales, which is controlled by the cosmological acceleration.

  14. Computational fluid dynamics incompressible turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kajishima, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents numerical solution techniques for incompressible turbulent flows that occur in a variety of scientific and engineering settings including aerodynamics of ground-based vehicles and low-speed aircraft, fluid flows in energy systems, atmospheric flows, and biological flows. This book encompasses fluid mechanics, partial differential equations, numerical methods, and turbulence models, and emphasizes the foundation on how the governing partial differential equations for incompressible fluid flow can be solved numerically in an accurate and efficient manner. Extensive discussions on incompressible flow solvers and turbulence modeling are also offered. This text is an ideal instructional resource and reference for students, research scientists, and professional engineers interested in analyzing fluid flows using numerical simulations for fundamental research and industrial applications. • Introduces CFD techniques for incompressible flow and turbulence with a comprehensive approach; • Enr...

  15. Ultrasonic Doppler Velocity Profiler for Fluid Flow

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) method, first developed in medical engineering, is now widely used in clinical settings. The fluid mechanical basis of UVP was established in investigations by the author and his colleagues with work demonstrating that UVP is a powerful new tool in experimental fluid mechanics. There are diverse examples, ranging from problems in fundamental fluid dynamics to applied problems in mechanical, chemical, nuclear, and environmental engineering. In all these problems, the methodological principle in fluid mechanics was converted from point measurements to spatio-temporal measurements along a line. This book is the first monograph on UVP that offers comprehensive information about the method, its principles, its practice, and applied examples, and which serves both current and new users. Current users can confirm that their application configurations are correct, which will help them to improve the configurations so as to make them more efficient and effective. New users will be...

  16. Analogy between fluid cavitation and fracture mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Mullen, R. L.; Braun, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    When the stresses imposed on a fluid are sufficiently large, rupture or cavitation can occur. Such conditions can exist in many two-phase flow applications, such as the choked flows, which can occur in seals and bearings. Nonspherical bubbles with large aspect ratios have been observed in fluids under rapid acceleration and high shear fields. These bubbles are geometrically similar to fracture surface patterns (Griffith crack model) existing in solids. Analogies between crack growth in solid and fluid cavitation are proposed and supported by analysis and observation (photographs). Healing phenomena (void condensation), well accepted in fluid mechanics, have been observed in some polymers and hypothesized in solid mechanics. By drawing on the strengths of the theories of solid mechanics and cavitation, a more complete unified theory can be developed.

  17. Fluid Mechanics of Blood Clot Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelson, Aaron L; Neeves, Keith B

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular blood clots form in an environment in which hydrodynamic forces dominate and in which fluid-mediated transport is the primary means of moving material. The clotting system has evolved to exploit fluid dynamic mechanisms and to overcome fluid dynamic challenges to ensure that clots that preserve vascular integrity can form over the wide range of flow conditions found in the circulation. Fluid-mediated interactions between the many large deformable red blood cells and the few small rigid platelets lead to high platelet concentrations near vessel walls where platelets contribute to clotting. Receptor-ligand pairs with diverse kinetic and mechanical characteristics work synergistically to arrest rapidly flowing cells on an injured vessel. Variations in hydrodynamic stresses switch on and off the function of key clotting polymers. Protein transport to, from, and within a developing clot determines whether and how fast it grows. We review ongoing experimental and modeling research to understand these and related phenomena.

  18. Relativistic perfect fluids in local thermal equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Coll, Bartolomé; Sáez, Juan Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The inverse problem for conservative perfect fluid energy tensors provides a striking result. Namely that, in spite of its name, its historic origin or its usual conceptualization, the notion of {\\em local thermal equilibrium} for a perfect fluid is a {\\em purely hydrodynamic}, not thermodynamic, notion. This means that it may be thought, defined and detected using exclusively hydrodynamic quantities, without reference to temperature or any other thermodynamic concept, either of equilibrium or irreversible: a relativistic perfect fluid evolves in local thermal equilibrium if, and only if, its hydrodynamic variables evolve keeping a certain relation among them. This relation fixes, but only fixes, a precise fraction of the thermodynamics of the fluid, namely that relating the speed of its sound waves to the hydrodynamic variables. All thermodynamic schemes (sets of thermodynamic variables and their mutual relations) compatible with such a relation on the sole hydrodynamic variables are obtained. This hydrodyna...

  19. Fluid entrainment by isolated vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabiri, John O.; Gharib, Morteza

    2004-07-01

    Of particular importance to the development of models for isolated vortex ring dynamics in a real fluid is knowledge of ambient fluid entrainment by the ring. This time-dependent process dictates changes in the volume of fluid that must share impulse delivered by the vortex ring generator. Therefore fluid entrainment is also of immediate significance to the unsteady forces that arise due to the presence of vortex rings in starting flows. Applications ranging from industrial and transportation, to animal locomotion and cardiac flows, are currently being investigated to understand the dynamical role of the observed vortex ring structures. Despite this growing interest, fully empirical measurements of fluid entrainment by isolated vortex rings have remained elusive. The primary difficulties arise in defining the unsteady boundary of the ring, as well as an inability to maintain the vortex ring in the test section sufficiently long to facilitate measurements. We present a new technique for entrainment measurement that utilizes a coaxial counter-flow to retard translation of vortex rings generated from a piston cylinder apparatus, so that their growth due to fluid entrainment can be observed. Instantaneous streamlines of the flow are used to determine the unsteady vortex ring boundary and compute ambient fluid entrainment. Measurements indicate that the entrainment process does not promote self-similar vortex ring growth, but instead consists of a rapid convection-based entrainment phase during ring formation, followed by a slower diffusive mechanism that entrains ambient fluid into the isolated vortex ring. Entrained fluid typically constitutes 30% to 40% of the total volume of fluid carried with the vortex ring. Various counter-flow protocols were used to substantially manipulate the diffusive entrainment process, producing rings with entrained fluid fractions up to 65%. Measurements of vortex ring growth rate and vorticity distribution during diffusive entrainment

  20. Determination of solvation kinetics in supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bright, F.V.

    1993-01-01

    Objective was to study solvation processes in pure and entrainer-modified supercritical fluids. Specific topics were: Kinetics for solvation in supercritical media, influence on entrainers on solvation, reversibility of solvation, effects of solvation on intramolecular solute-solute interaction kinetics, and impact of fluid density on these processes. Time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy was used as the main analytical tool. A summary is given of the 2.5 years' research.