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Sample records for subdivision vertebrata class

  1. ORTHODONTIC TREATMENT ALTERNATIVE TO A CLASS III SUBDIVISION MALOCCLUSION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Guilherme; de Souza, José Eduardo Prado; Barros, Sérgio Estelita Cavalcante; Andrade, Pedro; Nakamura, Alexandre Yudi

    2009-01-01

    Class III malocclusions are considered one of the most complex and difficult orthodontic problems to diagnose and treat. Skeletal and/or dental asymmetries in patients presenting with Class III malocclusions can worsen the prognosis. Recognizing the dentoalveolar and skeletal characteristics of subdivision malocclusions and their treatment possibilities is essential for a favorable nonsurgical correction. Therefore, this article presents a nonsurgical asymmetric extraction approach to Class III subdivision malocclusion treatment which can significantly improve the occlusal and facial discrepancies. PMID:19668997

  2. Lateral cephalometric diagnosis of asymmetry in Angle Class II subdivision compared to Class I and II

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meloti, Aparecida Fernanda; Gonçalves, Renata de Cássia; Silva, Ertty; Martins, Lídia Parsekian; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary

    2014-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study was to use lateral cephalometric radiographs to identify existing skeletal and dentoalveolar morphological alterations in Class II subdivision and to compare...

  3. Classification and treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Sara E; Jackson, Stona R; Turpin, David L; Ramsay, Douglas S; Spiekerman, Charles; Huang, Greg J

    2014-04-01

    Patients with Class II subdivision malocclusions are a challenge for clinicians because reestablishing symmetry in 1 arch or both arches is often a treatment goal. In patients with mandibular skeletal asymmetry, surgery is often a treatment option. However, patients may be unwilling to undergo surgery, and other options might have to be considered. The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiologies and outcomes of Class II subdivision patients treated at the University of Washington graduate orthodontic clinic in Seattle from 1995 through 2011. A search of patients treated between 1995 and 2011 resulted in the identification of 110 consecutively treated Class II subdivision subjects with complete records. Ninety-eight subjects could be classified into 1 of 3 groups, based on midline position and dental or skeletal etiology. Initial and final models were used to measure the peer assessment rating scores, midlines, overjet, overbite, and molar positions. Initial and final cephalograms were traced and measured. Charts were reviewed for information regarding treatment. Twenty-five percent of the 98 subjects had their maxillary and mandibular midlines coincident with the facial midline; their asymmetries were due to a maxillary posterior dental asymmetry. Another 15% had maxillary midlines deviated from their facial midlines, caused by maxillary anterior and posterior dental asymmetry. About 50% of the subjects had mandibular midlines that were not coincident with their facial midlines, and most of them exhibited some degree of mandibular skeletal asymmetry. Over the past 15 years, treatment strategies used at the University of Washington indicated trends toward less surgery, fewer extractions, less use of headgear, and more reliance on fixed functional appliances. Ideal correction of midlines was not always achieved, especially in patients with mandibular skeletal asymmetry, with undercorrection occurring more commonly than overcorrection. Final peer assessment

  4. Influence of unilateral maxillary first molar extraction treatment on second and third molar inclination in Class II subdivision patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Booij, Johan Willem; Halazonetis, Demetrios J.; Katsaros, Christos; Ren, Yijin

    Objective: To assess the maxillary second molar (M2) and third molar (M3) inclination following orthodontic treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with unilateral maxillary first molar (M1) extraction. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 21 Class II subdivision adolescents (eight

  5. Computed tomography evaluation of temporomandibular joint alterations in class II Division 1 subdivision patients: condylar symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Telles, Carlos De Souza

    2002-04-01

    Thirty persons ranging from 12 years 8 months to 42 years of age with Class II Division 1 subdivision malocclusions underwent computed tomography of the temporomandibular joints. The images obtained from axial slices were evaluated for possible asymmetries in size and position that may exist between the condylar processes associated with this malocclusion. Paired Student t tests were applied, and Pearson product moment correlations were determined after measurements on both Class I and Class II sides were obtained. The results of this study showed no statistically significant asymmetries between the condylar processes evaluated in this sample.

  6. Dental and alveolar arch asymmetries in normal occlusion and Class II Division 1 and Class II subdivision malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Kurt, Gokmen; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    To compare the degree of intra- and interarch dentoalveolar asymmetry among patients with a normal occlusion, Class II Division 1 malocclusion, and Class II subdivision malocclusion. The sample comprised dental casts of 150 (72 males [ages 22. 1 +/- 3.11 and 78 females [ages 21.1 +/- 2.1]) normal occlusion subjects, 106 (45 males [ages 17.8 +/- 1.8] and 61 females [ages 16.5 +/- 2.91) Class II Division 1 patients, and 40 (18 males [ages 15.8 +/- 2.8] and 22 females [ages 15.2 +/- 3.3]) Class II subdivision malocclusions. Maxillary and mandibular reference lines were constructed and used for the intraarch asymmetry measurements. Thirty-six width measurements were performed on the dental casts of each subject. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparisons of the groups, and Pearson's correlation coefficients were computed to determine the interarch associations. No statistically significant intra-arch asymmetry was found for maxillary and mandibular dental arch and alveolar width in any of the three groups. All variables were larger on the right side in the normal occlusion subjects. Further, the left side maxillary dental and alveolar arch width measurements were larger in the Class II Division 1 group. None of these differences, however, were statistically significant. In the Class II subdivision group, only the Class II sides' mandibular dental arch measurements were larger (P dental arch and alveolar width dimensions differed among the groups (P dental and alveolar landmarks were significantly correlated with the transverse dimensions. Although some landmarks in the current study showed statistically significant and insignificant differences, the mean arithmetic differences were small, inconsistent, and not likely clinically important.

  7. Treatment of Class II subdivision malocclusion with congenitally missing upper lateral incisors: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivision malocclusion case with bilateral congenitally missing upper lateral incisors.

  8. Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the β Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalchuk, George A.; Naoumenko, Zinaida S.; Derikx, Piet J. L.; Felske, Andreas; Stephen, John R.; Arkhipchenko, Irina A.

    1999-01-01

    Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous compound in composting material, and the conversion of this compound to nitrite in the environment by chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is an essential step in nitrogen cycling. Therefore, the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing members of the β subdivision of the class Proteobacteria in a variety of composting materials was assessed by amplifying 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 16S rRNA by PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The PCR and RT-PCR products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and were identified by hybridization with a hierarchical set of oligonucleotide probes designed to detect ammonia oxidizer-like sequence clusters in the genera Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas. Ammonia oxidizer-like 16S rDNA was detected in almost all of the materials tested, including industrial and experimental composts, manure, and commercial biofertilizers. A comparison of the DGGE and hybridization results after specific PCR and RT-PCR suggested that not all of the different ammonia oxidizer groups detected in compost are equally active. amoA, the gene encoding the active-site-containing subunit of ammonia monooxygenase, was also targeted by PCR, and template concentrations were estimated by competitive PCR. Detection of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the composts tested suggested that such materials may not be biologically inert with respect to nitrification and that the fate of nitrogen during composting and compost storage may be affected by the presence of these organisms. PMID:9925559

  9. Recursively-regular subdivisions and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafel Jaume

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We generalize regular subdivisions (polyhedral complexes resulting from the projection of the lower faces of a polyhedron introducing the class of recursively-regular subdivisions. Informally speaking, a recursively-regular subdivision is a subdivision that can be obtained by splitting some faces of a regular subdivision by other regular subdivisions (and continue recursively. We also define the finest regular coarsening and the regularity tree of a polyhedral complex. We prove that recursively-regular subdivisions are not necessarily connected by flips and that they are acyclic with respect to the in-front relation. We show that the finest regular coarsening of a subdivision can be efficiently computed, and that whether a subdivision is recursively regular can be efficiently decided. As an application, we also extend a theorem known since 1981 on illuminating space by cones and present connections of recursive regularity to tensegrity theory and graph-embedding problems.     

  10. PENGEMBANGAN BUKU SUPLEMEN PENDEKATAN MOLEKULAR TAKSONOMI HEWAN VERTEBRATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haqqi Anajili Setyanto

    2016-06-01

    Buku ajar merupakan buku yang digunakan untuk mencapai tujuan pembelajaran dalam kegiatan pembelajaran. Salah satu jenis buku ajar adalah buku suplemen. Buku suplemen memiliki karakteristik tidak terintegrasi dengan tujuan pembelajaran secara langsung, namun memiliki tujuan untuk memperkuat konsep-konsep pada tujuan pembelajaran yang ingin dicapai. Buku suplemen yang dikembangkan menggunakan merupakan buku berisi pendekatan molekular untuk matakuliah Taksonomi Hewan Vertebrata dengan model pengembangan Borg and Gall. Buku suplemen divalidasi oleh ahli materi, ahli pengembangan, dan diuji coba perorangan pada 12 mahasiswa. Hasil validasi materi menunjukkan nilai 90,53%, validasi pengembangan buku 87,63%, dan hasil uji keterbacaan 85,06%. Secara keseluruhan buku yang dikembangkan dalam kategori valid dan baik.

  11. Condylar and mandibular morphological criteria in the 2D and 3D MSCT imaging for patients with Class II division 1 subdivision malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisjane, Zane; Urtane, Ilga; Krumina, Gaida; Bieza, Anvita; Zepa, Katrina; Rogovska, Irena

    2007-01-01

    The condyle has a special multidirectional capacity for the growth and adaptive remodeling of temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Being part of TMJ structure, it plays an important role in the stability of long-term treatment results for orthodontic and orthognatic patients with Class II division 1 subdivision malocclusions. Several computed tomography (CT) investigation modes have been used to evaluate the craniofacial morphology and particularly, for TMJ. Dimensional images, acquired using new generation multislice CT (MSCT) and cone beam CT scanning data, are becoming increasingly popular in the clinical work and research. The aim of the study was to develop a new CT investigation protocol for the quantification of morphological structures and skeletal landmarks of condyle, procesus condylaris and mandible. For this purpose we created two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) reconstruction images from primary axial MSCT scans using IAC review and Transparent bone programms and acquired accordant measurements of condylar and mandibular structures. This technic allowed to get truly volumetric reflexion of the joint components in its real anatomical size and avoided the bony superimpositions. Our material included 12 patients with skeletal Class II division 1 subdivision malocclusion who had indications for combined orthodontic and orthognatic treatment. CT examination was performed before the start of treatment. For statistical analysis paired Student t-tests were applied to test the diferences of mean values and correlation coefficients were calculated to assess possible interrelations between measurements. The preliminary results showed weak corrrelation between condylar and mandibular measurements. More significant correlation was observed between procesus condylaris and mandible. It was a significant difference between right and left side in the height of procesus condylaris in patients without clinicaly relevant facial asymetry which could be considered in

  12. Brevitalea aridisoli, B. deliciosa and Arenimicrobium luteum, three novel species of Acidobacteria subdivision 4 (class Blastocatellia) isolated from savanna soil and description of the novel family Pyrinomonadaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüst, Pia K; Foesel, Bärbel U; Geppert, Alicia; Huber, Katharina J; Luckner, Manja; Wanner, Gerhard; Overmann, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Three novel strains of the phylum Acidobacteria (Ac_11_E3T, Ac_12_G8T and Ac_16_C4T) were isolated from Namibian semiarid savanna soils by a high-throughput cultivation approach using low-nutrient growth media. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis placed all three strains in the order Blastocatellales of the class Blastocatellia (Acidobacteria subdivision 4). However, 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to their closest relative Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes K22T were ≤90 %. Cells of strains Ac_11_E3T, Ac_12_G8T and Ac_16_C4T were Gram-staining-negative and non-motile and divided by binary fission. Ac_11_E3T and Ac_16_C4T formed white colonies, while those of Ac_12_G8T were orange-yellowish. All three strains were aerobic chemoorganoheterotrophic mesophiles with a broad pH range for growth. All strains used a very limited spectrum of carbon and energy sources for growth, with a preference for complex proteinaceous substrates. The major respiratory quinone was MK-8. The major shared fatty acid was iso-C15 : 0. The DNA G+C contents of strains Ac_11_E3T, Ac_12_G8T and Ac_16_C4T were 55.9 mol%, 66.9 mol% and 54.7 mol%, respectively. Based on these characteristics, the two novel genera Brevitaleagen. nov. and Arenimicrobiumgen. nov. are proposed, harboring the novel species Brevitaleaaridisoli sp. nov. (Ac_11_E3T=DSM 27934T=LMG 28618T), Brevitalea deliciosa sp. nov. (Ac_16_C4T=DSM 29892T=LMG 28995T) and Arenimicrobium luteum sp. nov. (Ac_12_G8T=DSM 26556T=LMG 29166T), respectively. Since these novel genera are only distantly related to established families, we propose the novel family Pyrinomonadaceaefam. nov. that accommodates the proposed genera and the genus Pyrinomonas(Crowe et al., 2014).

  13. Má oclusão Classe III de Angle, subdivisão direita, tratada sem exodontias e com controle de crescimento Angle Class III malocclusion, subdivision right, treated without extractions and with growth control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Casarim Fernandes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A Classe III de Angle é uma má oclusão caracterizada por discrepâncias anteroposteriores dentárias e faciais, normalmente acompanhadas por alterações esqueléticas, com componente genético associado. O diagnóstico precoce e correto e o tratamento adequado são de suma importância para promover o controle do crescimento e evitar recidivas. Este artigo relata o tratamento, executado em duas fases, de uma paciente do sexo feminino de 12 anos de idade, apresentando uma má oclusão de Classe III de Angle, subdivisão direita, com mordida cruzada anterior em máxima intercuspidação habitual (MIH e topo em relação cêntrica (RC, apresentando, ainda, falta de espaço na maxila, que foi tratada sem exodontias e com controle de crescimento. Esse caso foi apresentado à Diretoria do Board Brasileiro de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (BBO, representando a categoria 1, ou seja, uma má oclusão Classe III de Angle, tratada sem exodontias e com controle de crescimento, como parte dos requisitos para a obtenção do título de Diplomado pelo BBOAngle Class III malocclusion is characterized by anteroposterior dental and facial discrepancies usually accompanied by skeletal changes associated with a genetic component. Early, accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are of paramount importance to promote growth control and prevent relapse. This article reports the two-phase treatment of a female patient, aged 12 years, with an Angle Class III, subdivision right malocclusion with anterior crossbite in maximum intercuspation (MIC and end-on bite in centric relation, further presenting with lack of maxillary space. The case was treated without extractions and with growth control. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Facial Orthopedics (BBO as representative of Category 1, i.e., Angle Class III malocclusion treated without tooth extractions, as part of the requirements for obtaining the BBO Diploma

  14. Simplifying massive planar subdivisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Truelsen, Jakob; Yang, Jungwoo

    2014-01-01

    (SORT(N)) I/Os, where N is the size of the decomposition and SORT(N) is the number of I/Os need to sort in the standard external-memory model of computation. Previously, such an algorithm was only known for the special case of contour map simplification. Our algorithm is simple enough to be of practical......We present the first I/O- and practically-efficient algorithm for simplifying a planar subdivision, such that no point is moved more than a given distance εxy and such that neighbor relations between faces (homotopy) are preserved. Under some practically realistic assumptions, our algorithm uses...... interest. In fact, although more general, it is significantly simpler than the previous contour map simplification algorithm. We have implemented our algorithm and present results of experimenting with it on massive real-life data. The experiments confirm that the algorithm is efficient in practice...

  15. Avaliação da concordância entre a classificação dos tipos de Classe II, subdivisão, em fotografias e em radiografias póstero-anteriores Photographic and radiographic classification agreement evaluation of Class II subdivision malocclusion types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Jerônimo Rodrigues Santiago de Lima

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de concordância entre a classificação dos dois principais tipos de Classe II, subdivisão, em fotografias e em radiografias póstero-anteriores. A amostra consistiu de 44 indivíduos que apresentavam má oclusão de Classe II, subdivisão, com idade média de 15,3 anos, apresentando os dentes permanentes superiores e inferiores, até os primeiros molares e que não haviam sido submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico. Duas examinadoras realizaram uma avaliação subjetiva das fotografias frontais, classificando a Classe II, subdivisão, como tipo 1 quando havia coincidência da linha média dentária superior com a linha média facial e desvio da linha média dentária inferior. O tipo 2 apresentava características opostas. A avaliação nas radiografias PA foi realizada por uma examinadora, analisando os desvios das linhas médias dentárias superior e inferior em relação à linha X. Avaliou-se a concordância entre os dois métodos de classificação dos tipos de Classe II, subdivisão, utilizando-se o coeficiente Kappa. Os resultados obtidos permitiram-nos concluir que, mesmo havendo a mesma tendência de distribuição dos tipos de Classe II, subdivisão, nas fotografias frontais e nas radiografias PA, a concordância entre estes dois métodos de avaliação não foi estatisticamente significante.The objective of this study was to evaluate the photographic and radiographic classification agreement of the two main types of Class II subdivision malocclusions. The sample consisted of 44 untreated Class II subdivision malocclusion subjects with a mean age of 15.3 years. All possessed a full complement of permanent teeth up to the first molars and had not been submitted to orthodontic treatment. Frontal photographic evaluation was performed by means of a subjective evaluation by two examiners. Type I Class II subdivision malocclusion presents a coincidence of the maxillary dental midline with the

  16. Subdivision depth for triangular surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this attempt was to present an efficient algorithm for the evaluation of error bound of triangular subdivision surfaces. The error estimation technique is based on first order difference and this process is independent of parametrization. This technique can be easily generalized to higher arity triangular surfaces. The estimated error bound is expressed in-terms of initial control point sequence and constants. Here, we efficiently estimate error bound between triangular surface and its control polygon after k-fold subdivision and further extended to evaluate subdivision depth of the scheme.

  17. Analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria of the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria in coastal sand dunes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and sequencing of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Stephen, J.R.; De Boer, W.; Prosser, J.I.; Embley, T.M.; Woldendorp, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is a powerful and convenient tool for analyzing the sequence diversity of complex natural microbial populations, DGGE was evaluated for the identification of ammonia oxidizers of the beta subdivision of the Proteobacteria based on the mobility of

  18. Nanothermodynamics: a subdivision potential approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Moussavi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available  Classical thermodynamic laws and relations have been developed for macroscopic systems that satisfy the thermodynamic limit. These relations are challenged as the system size decreases to the scale of nano-systems, in which thermodynamic properties are overshadowed by system size, and the usual classical concepts of extensivity and intensivity are no longer valid. The challenges to the classical thermodynamics in relation to small systems are demonstrated, and via the approach introduced by Hill, the concept of sub-division potential is clarified in details. The fundamental thermodynamic relations are obtained using a rational-based method.

  19. Diverzita vybraných skupin obratlovců (Vertebrata) v Národním parku Podyjí

    OpenAIRE

    Bohuslavová, Markéta

    2014-01-01

    Main goal of this thesis, named "Diversity of selected groups of vertebrates (Vertebrata) in the National Park Podyjí" was to detect and research the existence of animal species in the area of individual biotope. There are 8 groups of biotopes in this area. The goal was to focus on the species that ranked amongst the endangered, highly endangered or critically endangered, according to the Ministry of Environment. There are also many plant communities besides the animal species, which are also...

  20. Effect of Watertight Subdivision on Subdivision Index for Medium Size Ro–Ro Passenger Ferries

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    M. Pawlowski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ro-pax vessels should fulfil the requirements of the current harmonised SOLAS Convention. The study analyses the effect of various ro-pax vessel subdivision arrangements on the subdivision index. A Polish ferry was chosen as a generic ship to perform the study. For illustration of damage survivability, the attained subdivision index A was calculated for a number of modified configurations. The arrangements included single and double sides above and below the car deck, with and without a double buoyant car deck. The conclusions of the study can be used in the design of new ro-pax vessels.

  1. Planet map generation by tetrahedral subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for generating pseudo-random, zoomable planet maps for games and art.  The method is based on spatial subdivision using tetrahedrons.  This ensures planet maps without discontinuities caused by mapping a flat map onto a sphere. We compare the method to other map...

  2. 46 CFR 179.212 - Watertight bulkheads for subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) SUBDIVISION, DAMAGE STABILITY, AND WATERTIGHT INTEGRITY Subdivision and Damage... passengers; or (2) Is constructed of wood on or after March 11, 2001, and operates in cold water. As an...

  3. 38 CFR 3.1002 - Political subdivisions of United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivisions of... Political subdivisions of United States. No part of any accrued benefits will be used to reimburse any political subdivision of the United States for expenses incurred in the last sickness or burial of any...

  4. 29 CFR 541.103 - Department or subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... example, a large employer's human resources department might have subdivisions for labor relations, pensions and other benefits, equal employment opportunity, and personnel management, each of which has a...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1219 - Dissolution of political subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dissolution of political subdivision. 404... Agreements Is Obtained and Continues § 404.1219 Dissolution of political subdivision. If a political... satisfactory evidence of its dissolution or nonexistence. The evidence must establish that the entity is not...

  6. Orienting the Neighborhood: A Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, C.; Horowitz, S.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes a new computerized Subdivision Energy Analysis Tool being developed to allow users to interactively design subdivision street layouts while receiving feedback about energy impacts based on user-specified building design variants and availability of roof surfaces for photovoltaic and solar water heating systems.

  7. Avaliação da concordância entre a classificação dos tipos de Classe II, subdivisão, em fotografias e em radiografias póstero-anteriores Photographic and radiographic classification agreement evaluation of Class II subdivision malocclusion types

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Jerônimo Rodrigues Santiago de Lima; Guilherme Janson; José Fernando Castanha Henriques; Marcos Roberto de Freitas; Arnaldo Pinzan

    2005-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de concordância entre a classificação dos dois principais tipos de Classe II, subdivisão, em fotografias e em radiografias póstero-anteriores. A amostra consistiu de 44 indivíduos que apresentavam má oclusão de Classe II, subdivisão, com idade média de 15,3 anos, apresentando os dentes permanentes superiores e inferiores, até os primeiros molares e que não haviam sido submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico. Duas examinadoras realizaram uma avaliação s...

  8. Key Technical Aspects Influencing the Accuracy of Tablet Subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Maíra T; Sá-Barreto, Lívia C L; Gratieri, Taís; Gelfuso, Guilherme M; Silva, Izabel C R; Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S

    2017-05-01

    Tablet subdivision is a common practice used mainly for dose adjustment. The aim of this study was to investigate how the technical aspects of production as well as the method of tablets subdivision (employing a tablet splitter or a kitchen knife) influence the accuracy of this practice. Five drugs commonly used as subdivided tablets were selected. For each drug, the innovator drug product, a scored-generic and a non-scored generic were investigated totalizing fifteen drug products. Mechanical and physical tests, including image analysis, were performed. Additionally, comparisons were made between tablet subdivision method, score, shape, diluent composition and coating. Image analysis based on surface area was a useful tool as an alternative assay to evaluate the accuracy of tablet subdivision. The tablet splitter demonstrates an advantage relative to a knife as it showed better results in weight loss and friability tests. Oblong, coated and scored tablets had better results after subdivision than round, uncoated and non-scored tablets. The presence of elastic diluents such as starch and dibasic phosphate dehydrate conferred a more appropriate behaviour for the subdivision process than plastic materials such as microcrystalline cellulose and lactose. Finally, differences were observed between generics and their innovator products in all selected drugs with regard the quality control assays in divided tablet, which highlights the necessity of health regulations to consider subdivision performance at least in marketing authorization of generic products.

  9. SIA matrices and non-negative stationary subdivision

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xianjun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with SIA matrices and non-negative stationary subdivision, and is organized as follows: After an introducing chapter where some basic notation is given we describe, in Chapter 3, how non-negative subdivision is connected to a corresponding non-homogenous Markov process. The family of matrices A, built from the mask of the subdivision scheme, is introduced. Among other results, Lemma 3.1 and Lemma 3.2 relate the coefficients of the iterated masks to matrix produc...

  10. Rainbow game domination subdivision number of a graph

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    J. Amjadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The rainbow game domination subdivision number of a graph G is defined by the following game. Two players D and A, D playing first, alternately mark or subdivide an edge of G which is not yet marked nor subdivided. The game ends when all the edges of G are marked or subdivided and results in a new graph G'. . The purpose of D is to minimize the 2-rainbow dominating number \\gamma_{r2}(G' of G' while A tries to maximize it. If both A and D play according to their optimal strategies,\\gamma_{r2}(G' is well defined. We call this number the rainbow game domination subdivision number of G and denote it by \\gamma_{r2}(G' . In this paper we initiate the study of the rainbow game domination subdivision number of a graph and present sharp bounds on the rainbow game domination subdivision number of a tree.

  11. Celestial Walk: A Terminating Oblivious Walk for Convex Subdivisions

    OpenAIRE

    Kuijper, Wouter; Ermolaev, Victor; Devillers, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    We present a new oblivious walking strategy for convex subdivisions. Our walk is faster than the straight walk and more generally applicable than the visibility walk. To prove termination of our walk we use a novel monotonically decreasing distance measure.

  12. PEMBELAJARAN INTERAKTIF BERBASIS ICT (INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY DALAM MATERI VERTEBRATA PADA SISWA MA MUHAMMADIYAH 1 MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurisma Afifatun Nisa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of ICT in Indonesia increasing along with the time passed by. Hopefully little by little the teacher start to accustomed to used ICT based learning to adapt with the mushroom growth of time mowdays. Interactive learning media based on ICT hopefully be able to help students in comprehend the difficult materials which complicates to be mastered by the students especially in vertebrate material. In this interactive learing media development research at vertebrate material serve the purpose of learning media for student and teacher to facilitate teacher in deliver the material, also the researcher be able to know the usage of interactive learning media based on ICT in the effectiveness of student learning. This research codunsted at 10 March 2013 until 19 Octobeer 2013 in MA Muhammadiyah 1 Malang. The result of this development is produce interactive learning media product based on ICT (Information and Communication Technology that have been made.which is had pass through testing process and revised based on suggestion and input from material expert and media expert also comment from the trial run student. Student learning activity getting off the ground from dependent class to independent class. The effectiveness of learning result and process in interactive learning media development based on ICT to increasing student achievement grade X student of MA Muhammadiyah 1 Malang getting off the ground based the data that have been obtained.

  13. Divided Spheres Geodesics and the Orderly Subdivision of the Sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Popko, Edward S

    2012-01-01

    This well-illustrated book-in color throughout-presents a thorough introduction to the mathematics of Buckminster Fuller's invention of the geodesic dome, which paved the way for a flood of practical applications as diverse as weather forecasting and fish farms. The author explains the principles of spherical design and the three main categories of subdivision based on geometric solids (polyhedra). He illustrates how basic and advanced CAD techniques apply to spherical subdivision and covers modern applications in product design, engineering, science, games, and sports balls.

  14. Roman game domination subdivision number of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Amjadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A {em Roman dominating function} on a graph $G = (V ,E$ is a function $f : Vlongrightarrow {0, 1, 2}$ satisfying the condition that every vertex $v$ for which $f (v = 0$ is adjacent to at least one vertex $u$ for which $f (u = 2$. The {em weight} of a Roman dominating function is the value $w(f=sum_{vin V}f(v$. The Roman domination number of a graph $G$, denoted by $gamma_R(G$, equals the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. The Roman game domination subdivision number of a graph $G$ is defined by the following game. Two players $mathcal D$ and $mathcal A$, $mathcal D$ playing first, alternately mark or subdivide an edge of $G$ which is not yet marked nor subdivided. The game ends when all the edges of $G$ are marked or subdivided and results in a new graph $G'$. The purpose of $mathcal D$ is to minimize the Roman dominating number $gamma_R(G'$ of $G'$ while $mathcal A$ tries to maximize it. If both $mathcal A$ and $mathcal D$ play according to their optimal strategies, $gamma_R(G'$ is well defined. We call this number the {em Roman game domination subdivision number} of $G$ and denote it by $gamma_{Rgs}(G$. In this paper we initiate the study of the Roman game domination subdivision number of a graph and present sharp bounds on the Roman game domination subdivision number of a tree.

  15. Convexity preservation of the four-point interpolatory subdivision scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyn, Nira; Kuijt, F.; Levin, David; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this note we examine the convexity preserving properties of the (linear) four-point interpolatory subdivision scheme of Dyn, Gregory and Levin when applied to functional univariate strictly-convex data. Conditions on the tension parameter guaranteeing preservation of convexity are derived. These

  16. 24 CFR 1710.215 - Subdivision characteristics and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) LAND REGISTRATION Reporting... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subdivision characteristics and climate. 1710.215 Section 1710.215 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban...

  17. A Critical Analysis of Football Bowl Subdivision Coaching Contract Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Justin Keith

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study is designed to inventory and analyze contract components used by Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) institutions in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) to further contribute to the body research. The FBS is comprised of 120 institutions and 94 of those institutions submitted contracts to "USA Today"…

  18. 29 CFR 1975.5 - States and political subdivisions thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subdivisions of a State: (5) The term “employer” means a person engaged in a business affecting commerce who..., not subject to the Act as an employer. (c) Factors for meeting the tests. Various factors will be... of these factors are: Are the individuals who administer the entity appointed by a public official or...

  19. 24 CFR 1710.115 - Subdivision characteristics and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., ditches, outlet channels, waterway stabilizers and sediment control basins.) (f) Nuisances. Are there any... purchaser is responsible, what are the estimated costs? (d) Flood plain. Is the subdivision located within a flood plain or an area designated by any Federal, State or local agency as being flood prone? What lots...

  20. Clustering of Expression Data in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Reveals New Molecular Subdivisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Yepes

    Full Text Available Although the identification of inherent structure in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL gene expression data using class discovery approaches has not been extensively explored, the natural clustering of patient samples can reveal molecular subdivisions that have biological and clinical implications. To explore this, we preprocessed raw gene expression data from two published studies, combined the data to increase the statistical power, and performed unsupervised clustering analysis. The clustering analysis was replicated in 4 independent cohorts. To assess the biological significance of the resultant clusters, we evaluated their prognostic value and identified cluster-specific markers. The clustering analysis revealed two robust and stable subgroups of CLL patients in the pooled dataset. The subgroups were confirmed by different methodological approaches (non-negative matrix factorization NMF clustering and hierarchical clustering and validated in different cohorts. The subdivisions were related with differential clinical outcomes and markers associated with the microenvironment and the MAPK and BCR signaling pathways. It was also found that the cluster markers were independent of the immunoglobulin heavy chain variable (IGVH genes mutational status. These findings suggest that the microenvironment can influence the clinical behavior of CLL, contributing to prognostic differences. The workflow followed here provides a new perspective on differences in prognosis and highlights new markers that should be explored in this context.

  1. Centric slide in different Angle's classes of occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čimić, Samir; Badel, Tomislav; Šimunković, Sonja Kraljević; Pavičin, Ivana Savić; Ćatić, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the possible differences in centric slide values between different Angle's classes of occlusion. The study included 98 participants divided into four groups: Angle's class I, Angle's class II, subdivision 1, Angle's class II, subdivision 2 and Angle's class III. All recordings were obtained using an ultrasound jaw tracking device with six degrees of freedom. The distance between the maximum intercuspation (reference position) and the centric occlusion was recorded at the condylar level. Anteroposterior, superoinferior and transversal distance of the centric slide were calculated for each participant, and the data were statistically analyzed (analysis of variance and Newman-Keuls post hoc test). No statistically significant difference was found in the anteroposterior and transversal distance of the centric slide between tested groups, while Angle's class II, subdivision 2 showed smaller vertical amount of the centric slide compared to Angle's class I and class II, subdivision 1. None of the 98 participants showed coincidence of centric occlusion and maximum intercuspation. Our results suggest that coincidence of the maximum intercuspation with the centric occlusion should not be expected. Smaller extent of the vertical distance of the centric slide could be morphological and a functional expression characteristic of the Angle's class II, subdivision 2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Outline of The probabilistic Concept of Ship Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    concept. This may facilitate our present efforts in developing a sound assessment, consistent with the results of damage stability model tests. A new method is provided regarding the capsizal probability, based on the theory underlying numerical simulations of damaged ship behaviour in natural sea......An outline of the whole probabilistic concept of ship subdivision is given, comprising the latest advances in determination of pi and s1 factors - the two probabilistic factors that form the basis of the new regulations.The method for calculating the pi factor for dry cargo ships is thoroughly...... presented and compared with the original method, developed by IMO inthe late 60's for passenger ships. After that, a review is presented of the past efforts to develop an estimate for the factor si - the most difficultand controversial part of the new subdivision regulations based on the probabilistic...

  3. Optimized medium culture for Acidobacteia subdivision 1 strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campanharo, J.C.; Kielak, A.M.; Castellane, T.C.; Kuramae, E.E.; Lemos, E.G.

    2016-01-01

    The members of subdivision 1 Acidobacterium were grown at different pH values in a new medium formulation named PSYL 5 includes sucrose, as a carbon source and other compounds (such as KH2PO4 and MgSO4.7H2O). Growth rate was nearly constant at pH 5 and declined at pH 3–4 and 6–7. However, it was

  4. A subdivision algorithm for phase equilibrium calculations at high pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Corazza

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Phase equilibrium calculations at high pressures have been a continuous challenge for scientists and engineers. Traditionally, this task has been performed by solving a system of nonlinear algebraic equations originating from isofugacity equations. The reliability and accuracy of the solutions are strongly dependent on the initial guess, especially due to the fact that the phase equilibrium problems frequently have multiple roots. This work is focused on the application of a subdivision algorithm for thermodynamic calculations at high pressures. The subdivision algorithm consists in the application of successive subdivisions at a given initial interval (rectangle of variables and a systematic test to verify the existence of roots in each subinterval. If the interval checked passes in the test, then it is retained; otherwise it is discharged. The algorithm was applied for vapor-liquid, solid-fluid and solid-vapor-liquid equilibrium as well as for phase stability calculations for binary and multicomponent systems. The results show that the proposed algorithm was capable of finding all roots of all high-pressure thermodynamic problems investigated, independent of the initial guess used.

  5. Terrain Quantization Model Based on Global Subdivision Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MENG Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the current problems in terrain quantization, such as the limitation of grid levels, the difficulties in data organization and management, and other issues, a quadrilateral terrain quantization model based on global subdivision grid is proposed. The model adopts GeoSOT as the spatial reference, and realize the correlation and retrieval of quantization data among different layers based on GeoSOT location identification code, which provides methods of the the quantization procession, the organization and storage, the data aggregation of the vector data and regular grid data.

  6. Reclassification to the NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision: A Case Study at Western Kentucky University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upright, Paula A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the reclassification process of Western Kentucky University's football program from the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) to the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS), the highest and most visible level of NCAA competition. Three research questions guided the study: (a) Why did Western Kentucky University…

  7. Stability Verification for Energy-Aware Hydraulic Pressure Control via Simplicial Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a linear programming-based method for finding Lyapunov functions of dynamical systems with polynomial vector fields. We propose to utilize a certificate of positivity in the Bernstein basis based on subdivisioning to find a Lyapunov function. The subdivision-based method is pr...

  8. 40 CFR 35.6060 - Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial... Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Pre-Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6060 Political subdivision-lead pre-remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) If the Award Official determines that a political...

  9. 40 CFR 35.6115 - Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Political subdivision-lead remedial... Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Remedial Response Cooperative Agreements § 35.6115 Political subdivision-lead remedial Cooperative Agreements. (a) General. If the State concurs, EPA may allow a political...

  10. 14 CFR 1261.405 - Subdivision of claims not authorized; other administrative proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... administrative proceedings. 1261.405 Section 1261.405 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Subdivision of claims not authorized; other administrative proceedings. (a) Subdivision of claims. Claims may...). The debtor's liability arising from a particular transaction or contract shall be considered a single...

  11. Interactive Display of Surfaces Using Subdivision Surfaces and Wavelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchaineau, M A; Bertram, M; Porumbescu, S; Hamann, B; Joy, K I

    2001-10-03

    Complex surfaces and solids are produced by large-scale modeling and simulation activities in a variety of disciplines. Productive interaction with these simulations requires that these surfaces or solids be viewable at interactive rates--yet many of these surfaced solids can contain hundreds of millions of polygondpolyhedra. Interactive display of these objects requires compression techniques to minimize storage, and fast view-dependent triangulation techniques to drive the graphics hardware. In this paper, we review recent advances in subdivision-surface wavelet compression and optimization that can be used to provide a framework for both compression and triangulation. These techniques can be used to produce suitable approximations of complex surfaces of arbitrary topology, and can be used to determine suitable triangulations for display. The techniques can be used in a variety of applications in computer graphics, computer animation and visualization.

  12. Edge subdivision and edge multisubdivision versus some domination related parameters in generalized corona graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Dettlaff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph \\(G=(V,E\\, the subdivision of an edge \\(e=uv\\in E(G\\ means the substitution of the edge \\(e\\ by a vertex \\(x\\ and the new edges \\(ux\\ and \\(xv\\. The domination subdivision number of a graph \\(G\\ is the minimum number of edges of \\(G\\ which must be subdivided (where each edge can be subdivided at most once in order to increase the domination number. Also, the domination multisubdivision number of \\(G\\ is the minimum number of subdivisions which must be done in one edge such that the domination number increases. Moreover, the concepts of paired domination and independent domination subdivision (respectively multisubdivision numbers are defined similarly. In this paper we study the domination, paired domination and independent domination (subdivision and multisubdivision numbers of the generalized corona graphs.

  13. Electromyography Activation Levels of the 3 Gluteus Medius Subdivisions During Manual Strength Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otten, Roald; Tol, Johannes L; Holmich, Per

    2015-01-01

    deficits and guide specific rehabilitation programs. However, the optimal positions for assessing the strength and activation of these subdivisions are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The first aim was to establish which strength-testing positions produce the highest surface electromyography (sEMG) activation levels...... of the individual GM subdivisions. The second aim was to evaluate differences in sEMG activation levels between the tested and contralateral (stabilizing) leg. METHOD: Twenty healthy physically active male subjects participated in this study. Muscle activity using sEMG was recorded for the GM subdivisions in 8...... different strength-testing positions and analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. RESULTS: Significant differences between testing positions for all 3 GM subdivisions were found. There were significant differences between the tested and the contralateral anterior and middle GM subdivisions (P...

  14. 75 FR 76038 - Zach System Corporation a Subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA Including On-Site Leased Workers of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Employment and Training Administration Zach System Corporation a Subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA Including... Corporation, a subdivision of Zach System SPA, La Porte, Texas, including on-site leased workers from Turner... subdivision of Zambon Company, SPA, not Zach System SPA. Based on these findings, the Department is amending...

  15. Simulating Sand Behavior through Terrain Subdivision and Particle Refinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, M.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in computer graphics, GPUs, and parallel processing hardware have provided researchers with new methods to visualize scientific data. In fact, these advances have spurred new research opportunities between computer graphics and other disciplines, such as Earth sciences. Through collaboration, Earth and planetary scientists have benefited by using these advances in hardware technology to process large amounts of data for visualization and analysis. At Oregon State University, we are collaborating with the Oregon Space Grant and IGERT Ecosystem Informatics programs to investigate techniques for simulating the behavior of sand. In addition, we have also been collaborating with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's DARTS Lab to exchange ideas on our research. The DARTS Lab specializes in the simulation of planetary vehicles, such as the Mars rovers. One aspect of their work is testing these vehicles in a virtual "sand box" to test their performance in different environments. Our research builds upon this idea to create a sand simulation framework to allow for more complex and diverse environments. As a basis for our framework, we have focused on planetary environments, such as the harsh, sandy regions on Mars. To evaluate our framework, we have used simulated planetary vehicles, such as a rover, to gain insight into the performance and interaction between the surface sand and the vehicle. Unfortunately, simulating the vast number of individual sand particles and their interaction with each other has been a computationally complex problem in the past. However, through the use of high-performance computing, we have developed a technique to subdivide physically active terrain regions across a large landscape. To achieve this, we only subdivide terrain regions where sand particles are actively participating with another object or force, such as a rover wheel. This is similar to a Level of Detail (LOD) technique, except that the density of subdivisions are determined by

  16. Studying the Prevalence and Etiology of Class II Subdivision Malocclusion Utilizing Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    Col, 1971. 26. Sato, H, Kawamura A, Yamaguchi M, Kasai K. Relationship between masticatory function and internal structure of the mandible based on...the maxillary arch with protrusive incisors accompanied by abnormal function of the lips and some form of nasal obstruction and mouth breathing. The...maxillary incisors. Angle believed the Division 2 malocclusion to be associated with normal nasal and lip function . A malocclusion is further classified

  17. Deep structure beneath Lake Ontario: Crustal-scale Grenville subdivisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. A.; Milkereit, B.; Zelt, Colin A.; White, D. J.; Easton, R. M.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1994-01-01

    Lake Ontario marine seismic data reveal major Grenville crustal subdivisions beneath central and southern Lake Ontario separated by interpreted shear zones that extend to the lower crust. A shear zone bounded transition between the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes exposed north of Lake Ontario is linked to a seismically defined shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario by prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, easterly dipping wide-angle reflections, and fractures in Paleozoic strata. We suggest the central Lake Ontario zone represents crustal-scale deformation along an Elzevir–Frontenac boundary zone that extends from outcrop to the south shore of Lake Ontario.Seismic images from Lake Ontario and the exposed western Central Metasedimentary Belt are dominated by crustal-scale shear zones and reflection geometries featuring arcuate reflections truncated at their bases by apparent east-dipping linear reflections. The images show that zones analogous to the interpreted Grenville Front Tectonic Zone are also present within the Central Metasedimentary Belt and support models of northwest-directed crustal shortening for Grenvillian deep crustal deformation beneath most of southeastern Ontario.A Precambrian basement high, the Iroquoian high, is defined by a thinning of generally horizontal Paleozoic strata over a crestal area above the basement shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario. The Iroquoian high helps explain the peninsular extension into Lake Ontario forming Prince Edward County, the occurrence of Precambrian inlier outcrops in Prince Edward County, and Paleozoic fractures forming the Clarendon–Linden structure in New York.

  18. Macroscopic Subdivision of Silica Aerogel Collectors for Sample Return Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, H A; Bradley, J P

    2005-09-14

    Silica aerogel collector tiles have been employed for the collection of particles in low Earth orbit and, more recently, for the capture of cometary particles by NASA's Stardust mission. Reliable, reproducible methods for cutting these and future collector tiles from sample return missions are necessary to maximize the science output from the extremely valuable embedded particles. We present a means of macroscopic subdivision of collector tiles by generating large-scale cuts over several centimeters in silica aerogel with almost no material loss. The cut surfaces are smooth and optically clear allowing visual location of particles for analysis and extraction. This capability is complementary to the smaller-scale cutting capabilities previously described [Westphal (2004), Ishii (2005a, 2005b)] for removing individual impacts and particulate debris in tiny aerogel extractions. Macroscopic cuts enable division and storage or distribution of portions of aerogel tiles for immediate analysis of samples by certain techniques in situ or further extraction of samples suited for other methods of analysis.

  19. The angular gyrus: multiple functions and multiple subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seghier, Mohamed L

    2013-02-01

    There is considerable interest in the structural and functional properties of the angular gyrus (AG). Located in the posterior part of the inferior parietal lobule, the AG has been shown in numerous meta-analysis reviews to be consistently activated in a variety of tasks. This review discusses the involvement of the AG in semantic processing, word reading and comprehension, number processing, default mode network, memory retrieval, attention and spatial cognition, reasoning, and social cognition. This large functional neuroimaging literature depicts a major role for the AG in processing concepts rather than percepts when interfacing perception-to-recognition-to-action. More specifically, the AG emerges as a cross-modal hub where converging multisensory information is combined and integrated to comprehend and give sense to events, manipulate mental representations, solve familiar problems, and reorient attention to relevant information. In addition, this review discusses recent findings that point to the existence of multiple subdivisions in the AG. This spatial parcellation can serve as a framework for reporting AG activations with greater definition. This review also acknowledges that the role of the AG cannot comprehensibly be identified in isolation but needs to be understood in parallel with the influence from other regions. Several interesting questions that warrant further investigations are finally emphasized.

  20. About the Subdivision of Indoor Spaces in Indoorgml

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakité, A. A.; Zlatanova, S.; Li, K.-J.

    2017-10-01

    Boosted by the dynamic urbanization of cities, indoor environments are getting more and more complex in order to be able to host people properly. While most of our time is spent inside buildings, the need of GIS tools to assist our daily activities that can become tedious, such as indoor navigation or facility management, became more and more urgent. In that perspective, the IndoorGML standard is aiming to address the gaps left by other standards regarding the spatial modelling for indoor navigation. It includes several concepts such as the organization of the spaces into cells along with their network representation and the possibility to represent multiple connected layers. However, being at its first stage, several concepts of the standard could be improved. One of these is the cell subspacing that is not enough discussed in the current version of the standard. In this paper, we explore all the aspects involved in the subdivision process, from the identification of the navigable and non-navigable space cells to the generation of a navigation graph. We propose several criteria on which the indoor sub-spacing can rely to be automatically performed and and illustrate them on a 3D indoor model.

  1. ABOUT THE SUBDIVISION OF INDOOR SPACES IN INDOORGML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Diakité

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Boosted by the dynamic urbanization of cities, indoor environments are getting more and more complex in order to be able to host people properly. While most of our time is spent inside buildings, the need of GIS tools to assist our daily activities that can become tedious, such as indoor navigation or facility management, became more and more urgent. In that perspective, the IndoorGML standard is aiming to address the gaps left by other standards regarding the spatial modelling for indoor navigation. It includes several concepts such as the organization of the spaces into cells along with their network representation and the possibility to represent multiple connected layers. However, being at its first stage, several concepts of the standard could be improved. One of these is the cell subspacing that is not enough discussed in the current version of the standard. In this paper, we explore all the aspects involved in the subdivision process, from the identification of the navigable and non-navigable space cells to the generation of a navigation graph. We propose several criteria on which the indoor sub-spacing can rely to be automatically performed and and illustrate them on a 3D indoor model.

  2. Census County Subdivisions for the United States Virgin Islands (CENSUS.COUNTY_SUBDIV_USVI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — County subdivisions are the primary divisions of counties and statistically equivalent entities for the reporting of decennial census data. They include census...

  3. Research of subdivision driving technology for brushless DC motors in optical fiber positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Yi; Gu, Yonggang; Zhu, Ye; Zhai, Chao

    2016-07-01

    In fiber spectroscopic telescopes, optical fiber positioning units are used to position thousands of fibers on the focal plane quickly and precisely. Stepper motors are used in existing units, however, it has some inherent deficiencies, such as serious heating and low efficiency. In this work, the universally adopted subdivision driving technology for stepper motors is transplanted to brushless DC motors. It keeps the advantages of stepper motors such as high positioning accuracy and resolution, while overcomes the disadvantages mentioned above. Thus, this research mainly focuses on develop a novel subdivision driving technology for brushless DC motor. By the proving of experiments of online debug and subdivision speed and position, the proposed brushless DC motor subdivision technology can achieve the expected functions.

  4. Dynamic Functional Network Connectivity Reveals Unique and Overlapping Profiles of Insula Subdivisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomi, Jason S.; Farrant, Kristafor; Damaraju, Eswar; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Calhoun, Vince D.; Uddin, Lucina Q.

    2016-01-01

    The human insular cortex consists of functionally diverse subdivisions that engage during tasks ranging from interoception to cognitive control. The multiplicity of functions subserved by insular subdivisions calls for a nuanced investigation of their functional connectivity profiles. Four insula subdivisions (dorsal anterior, dAI; ventral, VI; posterior, PI; middle, MI) derived using a data-driven approach were subjected to static- and dynamic-functional network connectivity (s-FNC and d-FNC) analyses. Static-FNC analyses replicated previous work demonstrating a cognition-emotion-interoception division of the insula, where the dAI is functionally connected to frontal areas, the VI to limbic areas, and the PI and MI to sensorimotor areas. Dynamic-FNC analyses consisted of k-means clustering of sliding windows to identify variable insula connectivity states. The d-FNC analysis revealed that the most frequently occurring dynamic state mirrored the cognition-emotion-interoception division observed from the s-FNC analysis, with less frequently occurring states showing overlapping and unique subdivision connectivity profiles. In two of the states, all subdivisions exhibited largely overlapping profiles, consisting of subcortical, sensory, motor, and frontal connections. Two other states showed the dAI exhibited a unique connectivity profile compared with other insula subdivisions. Additionally, the dAI exhibited the most variable functional connections across the s-FNC and d-FNC analyses, and was the only subdivision to exhibit dynamic functional connections with regions of the default mode network. These results highlight how a d-FNC approach can capture functional dynamics masked by s-FNC approaches, and reveal dynamic functional connections enabling the functional flexibility of the insula across time. PMID:26880689

  5. Optimal Subdivision for Treatment and Management of Catastrophic Landslides in a Watershed Using Topographic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Yuan; Fu, Kuei-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Recent extreme rainfall events led to many landslides due to climate changes in Taiwan. How to effectively promote post-disaster treatment and/or management works in a watershed/drainage basin is a crucial issue. Regarding the processes of watershed treatment and/or management works, disaster hotspot scanning and treatment priority setup should be carried out in advance. A scanning method using landslide ratio to determine the appropriate outlet of an interested watershed, and an optimal subdivision system with better homogeneity and accuracy in landslide ratio estimation were developed to help efficient executions of treatment and/or management works. Topography is a key factor affecting watershed landslide ratio. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the natural phenomenon, multivariate analysis was applied to understand the relationship between topographic factors and landslide ratio in the interested watershed. The concept of species-area curve, which is usually adopted at on-site vegetation investigation to determinate the suitable quadrate size, was used to derive the optimal threshold in subdivisions. Results show that three main component axes including factors of scale, network and shape extracted from Digital Terrain Model coupled with areas of landslide can effectively explain the characteristics of landslide ratio in the interested watershed, and a relation curve obtained from the accuracy of landslide ratio classification and number of subdivisions could be established to derive optimal subdivision of the watershed. The subdivision method promoted in this study could be further used for priority rank and benefit assessment of landslide treatment in a watershed.

  6. Class Schedules Need Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfette, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that college publications, including class schedules, must be accurate, timely, and easy to read and follow. Describes Schoolcraft College's unified format approach to publications marketing. Offers suggestions on the design, format, and distribution of class schedules. (DMM)

  7. Maxillary first molar extraction in Class II malocclusion : Follow-up studies on treatment effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livas, Christos

    2015-01-01

    This PhD research investigated treatment effects of extraction of one and two maxillary first molars in Class II subdivision and Class II/1 malocclusion cases respectively from a longer time perspective. Private practice records were scrutinized to evaluate aspects of a treatment technique combining

  8. 30 CFR 219.416 - How will the qualified OCS revenues be allocated to coastal political subdivisions within the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... population bears to the population of all coastal political subdivisions in the producing State; (b) Twenty... allocated to coastal political subdivisions within the Gulf producing States? 219.416 Section 219.416... DISTRIBUTION AND DISBURSEMENT OF ROYALTIES, RENTALS, AND BONUSES Oil and Gas, Offshore § 219.416 How will the...

  9. 77 FR 8287 - Quad/Graphics, a Subdivision of Quad Graphics, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From SPS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Employment and Training Administration Quad/Graphics, a Subdivision of Quad Graphics, Inc., Including On-Site... filed on March 15, 2011, on behalf of workers of Quad/Graphics, a Subdivision of Quad Graphics, Inc... (TA-W-73,441G) applicable to workers and former workers of Quad Graphics, Inc., a wholly-owned...

  10. Does Becoming a Member of the Football Bowl Subdivision Increase Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Willis A.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to pursue membership in the NCAA's Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) with the idea that participating in higher profile intercollegiate football can help attract students to their institution. This belief, however, has not been empirically examined. Using…

  11. Effects of subdivision and access restrictions on private land recreation opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ken Cordell; Donald B.K. English; Sharon A. Randall

    1993-01-01

    Continuing conversion of woodlands, greater restrictions on recreational access, and subdivision are trends seeming to have important implicaitons for future public recreation supply. The nature of these implicaitons has not been adequately explored in previous research, a void that has led to questions about the actual effects these factors have on future recreational...

  12. 46 CFR 46.10-40 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes). 46.10-40 Section 46.10-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... (Great Lakes). (a) Passenger vessels on the Great Lakes of 150 gross tons or over shall not submerge the...

  13. 24 CFR 1715.50 - Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with HUD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising disclaimers; subdivisions registered and effective with HUD. 1715.50 Section 1715.50 Housing and Urban Development...

  14. 24 CFR 1710.15 - Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Regulatory exemption-multiple site subdivision-determination required. 1710.15 Section 1710.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating...

  15. Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 strains display a difference in the colonization of the leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2011-01-01

    Strains CHC12 and CHC8, belonging to, respectively, Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria (Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1), were recently isolated from the leek rhizosphere. The key question addressed in this study was: does attraction to and colonization of the rhizosphere occur in the

  16. Organization of development of plans of a production association and participation of enterprises and their subdivisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubenko, I.V.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental development of plans with participation of enterprises and their subdivisions is presented. The method of determining the intensity of the plans of the drilling enterprises is revealed. Data are presented on the use of a computer to develop a technical-industrial financial plan of the enterprise and association.

  17. Manûtu ša Bābili = the Babylonian subdivision of the mina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, R.J.

    A new interpretation of the term Manûtu ša Bābili is presented here. It is not the exchange rate between shekels and drachmas, as was generally assumed, but it is the Babylonian subdivision ("counting") of the mina as opposed to the Greek mina. A Babylonian mina counts 30 staters, a Greek mina 25

  18. Simple Derivation of the Lifetime and the Distribution of Faces for a Binary Subdivision Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hayashi, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The iterative random subdivision of rectangles is used as a generation model of networks in physics, computer science, and urban planning. However, these researches were independent. We consider some relations in them, and derive fundamental properties for the average lifetime depending on birth-time and the balanced distribution of rectangle faces.

  19. Guide for subdivision of spent fuel pool. Project UNESA MAAP5-SFP; Guia para subdivision de la piscina de combustible gastado. Proyecto UNESA MAAP5-SFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Barrios, M.; Garcia Gonzalez, M.; Perez Martin, F. J.

    2013-07-01

    The main goal of the UNESA MAAP5-SFP project is to analyze the capabilities of MAAP5 code and, particularly, the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) module in order to tackle its modeling and facilitate the development of specific SFP models of Spanish NPPs. Within the project, Empresarios Agrupados (EEAA) is the responsible for the development of the Guide for the subdivision of the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP). This Guide includes a theoretical description of the model that is used by the code and a sequence of practical cases with the aim to evaluate the influence of specific parameters.

  20. Subdivision of Holocene Baltic sea sediments by their physical properties [Gliederung holozaner ostseesedimente nach physikalischen Eigenschaften

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harff, Jan; Bohling, G.C.; Endler, R.; Davis, J.C.; Olea, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Holocene sediment sequence of a core taken within the centre of the Eastern Gotland Basin was subdivided into 12 lithostratigraphic units based on MSCL-data (sound velocity, wet bulk density, magnetic susceptibility) using a multivariate classification method. The lower 6 units embrace the sediments until the Litorina transgression, and the upper 6 units subdivide the brackish-marine Litorina- and post-Litorina sediments. The upper lithostratigraphic units reflect a change of anoxic (laminated) and oxic (non-laminated) sediments. By application of a numerical stratigraphic correlation method the zonation was extended laterally onto contiguous sediment cores within the central basin. Consequently the change of anoxic and oxic sediments can be used for a general lithostratigraphic subdivision of sediments of the Gotland Basin. A quantitative criterion based on the sediment-physical lithofacies is added to existing subdivisions of the Holocene in the Baltic Sea.

  1. Dopaminergic basis for impairments in functional connectivity across subdivisions of the striatum in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter T; Gilat, Moran; O'Callaghan, Claire; Copland, David A; Frank, Michael J; Lewis, Simon J G; Shine, James M

    2015-04-01

    The pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease is the degeneration of dopaminergic nigrostriatal neurons, leading to depletion of striatal dopamine. Recent neuroanatomical work has identified pathways for communication across striatal subdivisions, suggesting that the striatum provides a platform for integration of information across parallel corticostriatal circuits. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dopaminergic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease was associated with impairments in functional connectivity across striatal subdivisions, which could potentially reflect reduced integration across corticostriatal circuits. Utilizing resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we analyzed functional connectivity in 39 patients with Parkinson's disease, both "on" and "off" their regular dopaminergic medications, along with 40 age-matched healthy controls. Our results demonstrate widespread impairments in connectivity across subdivisions of the striatum in patients with Parkinson's disease in the "off" state. The administration of dopaminergic medication significantly improved connectivity across striatal subdivisions in Parkinson's disease, implicating dopaminergic deficits in the pathogenesis of impaired striatal interconnectivity. In addition, impaired striatal interconnectivity in the Parkinson's disease "off" state was associated with pathological decoupling of the striatum from the thalamic and sensorimotor (SM) networks. Specifically, we found that although the strength of striatal interconnectivity was positively correlated with both (i) the strength of internal thalamic connectivity, and (ii) the strength of internal SM connectivity, in both healthy controls and the Parkinson's disease "on" state, these relationships were absent in Parkinson's disease when in the "off" state. Taken together our findings emphasize the central role of dopamine in integrated striatal function and the pathological consequences of striatal dopamine

  2. Zinc-finger genes Fez and Fez-like function in the establishment of diencephalon subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Tsutomu; Nakazawa, Masato; Muraoka, Osamu; Nakayama, Rika; Suda, Yoko; Hibi, Masahiko

    2006-10-01

    Fez and Fez-like (Fezl) are zinc-finger genes that encode transcriptional repressors expressed in overlapping domains of the forebrain. By generating Fez;Fezl-deficient mice we found that a redundant function of Fez and Fezl is required for the formation of diencephalon subdivisions. The caudal forebrain can be divided into three transverse subdivisions: prethalamus (also called ventral thalamus), thalamus (dorsal thalamus) and pretectum. Fez;Fezl-deficient mice showed a complete loss of prethalamus and a strong reduction of the thalamus at late gestation periods. Genetic marker analyses revealed that during early diencephalon patterning in Fez;Fezl-deficient mice, the rostral diencephalon (prospective prethalamus) did not form and the caudal diencephalon (prospective thalamus and pretectum) expanded rostrally. Fez;Fezl-deficient mice also displayed defects in the formation of the zona limitans intrathalamica (ZLI), which is located on the boundary between the prethalamus and thalamus. Fez and Fezl are expressed in the region rostral to the rostral limit of Irx1 expression, which marks the prospective position of the ZLI. Transgene-mediated misexpression of Fezl or Fez caudal to the ZLI repressed the caudal diencephalon fate and affected the formation of the Shh-expressing ZLI. These data indicate that Fez and Fezl repress the caudal diencephalon fate in the rostral diencephalon, and ZLI formation probably depends on Fez/Fezl-mediated formation of diencephalon subdivisions.

  3. Integration and management of massive remote-sensing data based on GeoSOT subdivision model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Cheng, Chengqi; Chen, Bo; Meng, Li

    2016-07-01

    Owing to the rapid development of earth observation technology, the volume of spatial information is growing rapidly; therefore, improving query retrieval speed from large, rich data sources for remote-sensing data management systems is quite urgent. A global subdivision model, geographic coordinate subdivision grid with one-dimension integer coding on 2n-tree, which we propose as a solution, has been used in data management organizations. However, because a spatial object may cover several grids, ample data redundancy will occur when data are stored in relational databases. To solve this redundancy problem, we first combined the subdivision model with the spatial array database containing the inverted index. We proposed an improved approach for integrating and managing massive remote-sensing data. By adding a spatial code column in an array format in a database, spatial information in remote-sensing metadata can be stored and logically subdivided. We implemented our method in a Kingbase Enterprise Server database system and compared the results with the Oracle platform by simulating worldwide image data. Experimental results showed that our approach performed better than Oracle in terms of data integration and time and space efficiency. Our approach also offers an efficient storage management system for existing storage centers and management systems.

  4. A Subdivision Method to Unify the Existing Latitude and Longitude Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqi Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As research on large regions of earth progresses, many geographical subdivision grids have been established for various spatial applications by different industries and disciplines. However, there is no clear relationship between the different grids and no consistent spatial reference grid that allows for information exchange and comprehensive application. Sharing and exchange of data across departments and applications are still at a bottleneck. It would represent a significant step forward to build a new grid model that is inclusive of or compatible with most of the existing geodesic grids and that could support consolidation and exchange within existing data services. This study designs a new geographical coordinate global subdividing grid with one dimension integer coding on a 2n tree (GeoSOT that has 2n coordinate subdivision characteristics (global longitude and latitude subdivision and can form integer hierarchies at degree, minute, and second levels. This grid has the multi-dimensional quadtree hierarchical characteristics of a digital earth grid, but also provides good consistency with applied grids, such as those used in mapping, meteorology, oceanography and national geographical, and three-dimensional digital earth grids. No other existing grid codes possess these characteristics.

  5. Large Scale Isosurface Bicubic Subdivision-Surface Wavelets for Representation and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, M.; Duchaineau, M.A.; Hamann, B.; Joy, K.I.

    2000-01-05

    We introduce a new subdivision-surface wavelet transform for arbitrary two-manifolds with boundary that is the first to use simple lifting-style filtering operations with bicubic precision. We also describe a conversion process for re-mapping large-scale isosurfaces to have subdivision connectivity and fair parameterizations so that the new wavelet transform can be used for compression and visualization. The main idea enabling our wavelet transform is the circular symmetrization of the filters in irregular neighborhoods, which replaces the traditional separation of filters into two 1-D passes. Our wavelet transform uses polygonal base meshes to represent surface topology, from which a Catmull-Clark-style subdivision hierarchy is generated. The details between these levels of resolution are quickly computed and compactly stored as wavelet coefficients. The isosurface conversion process begins with a contour triangulation computed using conventional techniques, which we subsequently simplify with a variant edge-collapse procedure, followed by an edge-removal process. This provides a coarse initial base mesh, which is subsequently refined, relaxed and attracted in phases to converge to the contour. The conversion is designed to produce smooth, untangled and minimally-skewed parameterizations, which improves the subsequent compression after applying the transform. We have demonstrated our conversion and transform for an isosurface obtained from a high-resolution turbulent-mixing hydrodynamics simulation, showing the potential for compression and level-of-detail visualization.

  6. Optimal Synthesis of Compliant Mechanisms using Subdivision and Commercial FEA (DETC2004-57497)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Patrick V.; Canfield, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The field of distributed-compliance mechanisms has seen significant work in developing suitable topology optimization tools for their design. These optimal design tools have grown out of the techniques of structural optimization. This paper will build on the previous work in topology optimization and compliant mechanism design by proposing an alternative design space parameterization through control points and adding another step to the process, that of subdivision. The control points allow a specific design to be represented as a solid model during the optimization process. The process of subdivision creates an additional number of control points that help smooth the surface (for example a C(sup 2) continuous surface depending on the method of subdivision chosen) creating a manufacturable design free of some traditional numerical instabilities. Note that these additional control points do not add to the number of design parameters. This alternative parameterization and description as a solid model effectively and completely separates the design variables from the analysis variables during the optimization procedure. The motivation behind this work is to create an automated design tool from task definition to functional prototype created on a CNC or rapid-prototype machine. This paper will describe the proposed compliant mechanism design process and will demonstrate the procedure on several examples common in the literature.

  7. Exploring land developer perspectives on conservation subdivision design and environmentally sustainable land development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göçmen, Z Aslıgül

    2014-11-01

    Insight into land developers' perspectives on alternative residential developments and the barriers they experience in trying to develop them can be crucial in efforts to change environmentally damaging low-density, large-lot, and automobile-dependent residential patterns. Using a semi-structured interview instrument followed by short surveys, I examined the views of 16 developers in Waukesha County, WI, USA, a county that has experienced significant development pressures and widespread implementation of conservation subdivision design. The land developer investigation focused on conservation subdivision design familiarity and implementation, and identified a number of barriers that developers experienced in implementing the design. While the majority of the developers appeared familiar with the design and had experience developing conservation subdivisions, their motivations for developing them varied, as did their on-site conservation practices. The barriers included the lack of land use regulations supporting the design, economic factors, community opposition, and a lack of knowledge about sustainable residential development practices. Strategies to promote more environmentally sustainable residential land development patterns include providing a more supportive institutional environment, enacting different regulations and guidelines for natural resources protection, and offering education on ecologically sound development and planning practices.

  8. Cities, Towns and Villages, Sedgwick County subdivision or platted areas. Derived from countywide parcel-lot-block cover. Each polygon represents one or more contiguous parcels or lots having the same plat subdivision code. Legally defined subdivision boundaries are not included., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cities, Towns and Villages dataset current as of 2008. Sedgwick County subdivision or platted areas. Derived from countywide parcel-lot-block cover. Each polygon...

  9. Inference of population subdivision from the VNTR distributions of New Zealanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A G; Hamilton, J F; Chambers, G K

    1995-01-01

    A population sample from people of diverse ethnic origins living in New Zealand serves as a database to test methods for inference of population subdivision. The initial null hypothesis, that the population sample is homogeneous across ethnic groups, is easily rejected by likelihood ratio tests. Beyond this, methods for quantifying subdivision can be based on the probability of drawing alleles identical by descent (FST), probabilities of matching multiple locus genotypes, and occurrence of unique alleles. Population genetic theory makes quantitative predictions about the relation between FST, population sizes, and rates of migration and mutation. Some VNTR loci have mutation rates of 10(-2) per generation, but, contrary to theory, we find no consistent association between the degree of population subdivision and mutation rate. Quantification of population substructure also allows us to relate the magnitudes of genetic distances between ethnic groups in New Zealand to the colonization history of the country. The data suggests that the closest relatives to the Maori are Polynesians, and that no severe genetic bottleneck occurred when the Maori colonized New Zealand. One of the central points of contention regarding the application of VNTR loci in forensics is the appropriate means for estimating match probabilities. Simulations were performed to test the merits of the product rule in the face of subpopulation heterogeneity. Population heterogeneity results in large differences in estimates of multilocus genotype frequencies depending on which subpopulation is used for reference allele frequencies, but, of greater importance for forensic purposes, no five locus genotype had an expected frequency greater than 10(-6). Although this implies that a match with an innocent individual is unlikely, in a large urban area such chance matches are going to occur.

  10. Dependent Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasiunas, Vaidas; Mezini, Mira; Ostermann, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Virtual classes allow nested classes to be refined in subclasses. In this way nested classes can be seen as dependent abstractions of the objects of the enclosing classes. Expressing dependency via nesting, however, has two limitations: Abstractions that depend on more than one object cannot...... be modeled and a class must know all classes that depend on its objects. This paper presents dependent classes, a generalization of virtual classes that expresses similar semantics by parameterization rather than by nesting. This increases expressivity of class variations as well as the flexibility...... of their modularization. Besides, dependent classes complement multi-methods in scenarios where multi-dispatched abstractions rather than multi-dispatched method are needed. They can also be used to express more precise signatures of multi-methods and even extend their dispatch semantics. We present a formal semantics...

  11. Subdivision, Sampling, and Initialization Strategies for Simplical Branch and Bound in Global Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jens; Zilinskas, A,

    2002-01-01

    are based on the sampling of function values. We propose a branch and bound algorithm based on regular simplexes. Initially, the domain in question is covered with regular simplexes, and our subdivision scheme maintains this property. The bound calculation becomes both simple and efficient, and we describe...... two schemes for sampling points of the function: midpoint sampling and vertex sampling. The convergence of the algorithm is proved, and numerical results are presented for the two dimensional case, for which also a special initial covering is presented. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights...

  12. Subdivision design and stewardship affect bird and mammal use of conservation developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Cooper M; Pejchar, Liba; Reed, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    Developing effective tools for conservation on private lands is increasingly important for global biodiversity conservation; private lands are located in more productive and biologically diverse areas, and they face accelerated rates of land conversion. One strategy is conservation development (CD) subdivisions, which cluster houses in a small portion of a property and preserve the remaining land as protected open space. Despite widespread use, the characteristics that make CD more or less effective at achieving biodiversity conservation are not well understood. We investigated CD's ability to successfully protect animal populations by examining bird and mammal occurrences in 14 CD subdivisions and four undeveloped areas (range: 14-432 ha) in northern Colorado, USA. Using point count and camera trap data in an occupancy modeling framework, we evaluated the relative importance of nine subdivision design factors (e.g., housing density, proportion of CD protected) and 14 stewardship factors (e.g., presence of livestock, percent native vegetation cover) in influencing the overall community composition and the probability of use by 16 birds and six mammals. We found that habitat use by 75% of birds and 83% of mammals was associated with design characteristics that maximized the natural or undisturbed land area both within and near the development (e.g., proportion of CD protected, total area of protected open space, proportion of natural land cover in the surrounding landscape). These factors were also associated with an increasing dominance of human-sensitive bird species, larger-bodied mammals, and mammals with larger home ranges. Habitat use by birds was also influenced by local land use composition and quality, and use by several bird and mammal species decreased with increased localized disturbances. We found few differences in habitat use between sampling sites in undeveloped areas and in CD subdivisions. These similarities indicate that, if CDs are large enough

  13. Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the ß Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Naoumenko, Z.S.; Derikx, P.J.L.; Felske, A.; Stephen, J.R.; Arkhipchenko, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous

  14. Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 strains display a difference in the colonization of the leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2011-11-01

    Strains CHC12 and CHC8, belonging to, respectively, Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria (Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1), were recently isolated from the leek rhizosphere. The key question addressed in this study was: does attraction to and colonization of the rhizosphere occur in the same way for both strains? Therefore, the fate of the two strains was studied near in vitro-grown leek roots and in soil zones proximate to and at a further distance from roots in a model plant-soil microcosm set-up. Quantitative PCR detection with specific primers was used, as the cultivation of these bacteria from soil is extremely fastidious. The data indicated that natural populations of Luteolibacter (akin to strain CHC12) had lower numbers in the rhizosphere than in the corresponding bulk soil. On the other hand, the populations of Candidatus genus Rhizospheria, i.e. strain CHC8, showed higher numbers in the rhizosphere than in the bulk soil. Increased strain CHC8 cell-equivalent numbers in the rhizosphere were not only the result of in situ cell multiplication, but also of the migration of cells towards the roots. Luteolibacter and Candidatus genus Rhizospheria cells displayed differences in attraction to the rhizosphere and colonization thereof, irrespective of the fact that both belonged to Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A 3D Voronoi and subdivision model for calibration of rock properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, De-Fu; Tu, Shi-Hao; Ma, Hang-sheng; Zhang, Xin-wang

    2017-12-01

    Rock cleavages consist of the cracks between blocks and the internal faults in blocks. The built-in modeling module in the Three-dimension Distinct Element Code cannot accurately describe the internal structure and the cleavage development characteristics of rock. This study combined 3D Voronoi block elements and scanning electron microscope images, to construct a numerical model equivalent to the rock meso structures. Three strategies are proposed to refine the initial model by block subdivision to achieve a function that allows cleavages in the model to cross through the blocks. A physical uniaxial compression test was performed in the laboratory to calibrate the mechanical parameters of the siltstone and the calibrated parameters then were validated by a Brazilian disc test. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the relationship between the meso-parameters and the model’s macro-response, and a calibration procedure was established for accurate replication of rock mechanical behavior. The statistics and analyses of failure characteristics for joints in the model showed that when the compressive and tensile strength values peaked, the percentages of tensile failures were approximately 37% and 10%, respectively. Comparing the cleavages after sample failure in lab tests with the cleavage development paths predicted by the models, the compressive and tensile characteristics were analyzed and the results confirmed the reliability of applying the 3D Voronoi block and subdivision modeling method in the numerical simulation study of the mechanical properties of the rock.

  16. Multiple approaches to valuation of conservation design and low-impact development features in residential subdivisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Troy; Tyndall, John C; Thompson, Janette; Kliebenstein, James; Colletti, Joe P

    2012-08-15

    Residents, developers and civic officials are often faced with difficult decisions about appropriate land uses in and around metropolitan boundaries. Urban expansion brings with it the potential for negative environmental impacts, but there are alternatives, such as conservation subdivision design (CSD) or low-impact development (LID), which offer the possibility of mitigating some of these effects at the development site. Many urban planning jurisdictions across the Midwest do not currently have any examples of these designs and lack information to identify public support or barriers to use of these methods. This is a case study examining consumer value for conservation and low-impact design features in one housing market by using four different valuation techniques to estimate residents' willingness to pay for CSD and LID features in residential subdivisions. A contingent valuation survey of 1804 residents in Ames, IA assessed familiarity with and perceptions of subdivision development and used an ordered value approach to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. A majority of residents were not familiar with CSD or LID practices. Residents indicated a willingness to pay for most CSD and LID features with the exception of clustered housing. Gender, age, income, familiarity with LID practices, perceptions of attractiveness of features and the perceived effect of CSD and LID features on ease of future home sales were important factors influencing residents' willingness to pay. A hypothetical referendum measured willingness to pay for tax-funded conservation land purchases and estimated that a property tax of around $50 would be the maximum increase that would pass. Twenty-seven survey respondents participated in a subsequent series of experimental real estate negotiations that used an experimental auction mechanism to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. Participants indicated that clustered housing (with interspersed preserved forest

  17. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class......Sammenfatning af de mest væsentlige pointer fra hovedrapporten: Dokumentation og evaluering af Coding Class...

  18. Association of dentoskeletal morphology with incisor inclination in angle class II patients: a retrospective cephalometric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to identify possible dentoskeletal parameters associated with variation of anterior tooth inclination in Angle Class II subdivisions. Methods Pre-treatment lateral radiographs of 144 Class II patients (68 males, 76 females) aged 9 to 17 years were classified for upper incisor inclination into three groups (proclined, normally inclined, retroclined) homogeneous for gender and skeletal jaw relationship. The effect of age on the 22 cephalometric variables was controlled by covariance analysis. Results Multivariate analysis of the cephalometric parameters indicated significant inter-group differences. Systematic associations with incisor inclination were revealed using rank correlation: Lower incisor proclination, Wits appraisal and gonial angle significantly decreased (0.04 ≥ p ≥ 0.002), while intercisal angle, mandibular total and corpus length and nasolabial angle increased (0.04 ≥ p ≥ 0.001) with decreasing incisor proclination. Conclusions Clear-cut classification criteria and control of confounding effects may clarify conflicting previous findings on dentoskeletal differences between Class II subdivisions in the mixed dentition. Only minor dentoskeletal differences appear to be associated with incisor inclination. The increased interincisal and nasolabial angle in Class II division 2 subjects are due to reclination of both upper and lower incisors. Jaw positions and chin prominence are not significantly different between the subdivisions. However, Wits appraisal is decreased in Class II division 2. The increased mandibular length observed in Class II division 2 requires further scrutinization. PMID:24004488

  19. Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ganz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species. Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain. Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish

  20. General sum-connectivity index, general product-connectivity index, general Zagreb index and coindices of line graph of subdivision graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harishchandra S. Ramane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The general sum-connectivity index, general product-connectivity index, general Zagreb index and coindices of line graphs of subdivision graphs of tadpole graphs, wheels and ladders have been reported in the literature. In this paper, we obtain general expressions for these topological indices for the line graph of the subdivision graphs, thus generalizing the existing results.

  1. Intersection Group Dynamic Subdivision and Coordination at Intraregional Boundaries in Sudden Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciyun Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at the traffic flow agglomeration effect characteristics and rapid evacuation requirement in sudden disaster; operation time of intraregional boundaries traffic signal coordination was presented firstly. Then intraregional boundaries intersection group dynamic subdivision and consolidation method based on relative similarity degree and similarity coefficient of adjacent intersections was put forward. As to make the traffic control strategy adapt to traffic condition of different intraregional boundaries intersection groups, this paper proposes an intraregional boundaries traffic signal coordination and optimization technology based on organic computing theory. Finally, this paper uses Delphi 7.0, MapX, and Oracle developing a software package, combined with Paramics V6 Simulator to validate the methods of this paper. The result shows that it can obviously improve disaster affected regional traffic signal control efficiency which reduces average traffic delay by 30–35%, decreases vehicle queue by more than 20% and reduces evacuation time more than 13.06%.

  2. Assessment of Water Pollution in Tipparthy Revenue Sub-Division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medikondu Kishore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study has been carried out to explore the physicochemical characteristics of drinking water sources of Tipparthy revenue sub-division, Nalgonda (District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Totally 49 water samples were collected from the different locations (22 villages of the study area including bore well, open well and hand pump water and analyzed for pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, total hardness, fluoride, chloride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, phosphates, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, Iron and dissolved oxygen. On an average, in almost all the samples, one or the other chemical constituent was beyond the permissible limits it was also concluded that water sources in the study area not fit for potability. Sodium absorption ratio (SAR and water quality (WQI studies indicate water available from all sources not fit for irrigation also. The study indicates the need for periodic monitoring of ground water in the study area.

  3. Franz Kossmat - Subdivision of the Variscan Mountains - a translation of the German text with supplementary notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, Guido

    2017-04-01

    This work is in honour of Franz Kossmat (1871-1938) and his esteemed paper the Gliederung des varistischen Gebirgsbaues published 1927 in Abhandlungen des Sächsischen Geologischen Landesamts, Volume 1, pages 1 to 39. It constitutes the foundation of the general subdivision of the Central European Variscides into several geotectonic zones and the idea of large-scale nappe transport of individual units. In the English translation presented here an attempt is made to provide a readable text, which should still reflect Kossmat's style but would also be readable for a non-German speaking community either working in the Variscan Mountains or having specific interests in historical aspects of geosciences. Supplementary notes provide information about Kossmat's life and the content of the text. Kossmat's work is a superb example of how important geological fieldwork and mapping are for progress in geoscientific research.

  4. Differential Functional Connectivity Alterations of Two Subdivisions within the Right dlPFC in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Julian; Mathys, Christian; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Südmeyer, Martin; Cieslik, Edna C.; Rubbert, Christian; Hartmann, Christian J.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Reetz, Kathrin; Grefkes, Christian; Michely, Jochen; Turowski, Bernd; Schnitzler, Alfons; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) often show impairments in executive function (EF) like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function. To investigate whether these functionally distinct subdivisions of right dlPFC are differentially affected in PD, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 39 PD patients and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined both after at least 12 h withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs (OFF) and under their regular dopaminergic medication (ON). We found that only the posterior right dlPFC subdivision shows FC alterations in PD, while the anterior part remains unaffected. PD-related decreased FC with posterior right dlPFC was found in the bilateral medial posterior parietal cortex (mPPC) and left dorsal premotor region (PMd) in the OFF state. In the medical ON, FC with left PMd normalized, while decoupling with bilateral mPPC remained. Furthermore, we observed increased FC between posterior right dlPFC and the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in PD in the ON state. Our findings point to differential disturbances of right dlPFC connectivity in PD, which relate to its hierarchical organization of EF processing by stronger affecting the functionally basal posterior aspect than the hierarchically higher anterior part. PMID:28611616

  5. Differential Functional Connectivity Alterations of Two Subdivisions within the Right dlPFC in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Caspers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD often show impairments in executive function (EF like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function. To investigate whether these functionally distinct subdivisions of right dlPFC are differentially affected in PD, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity (FC in 39 PD patients and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined both after at least 12 h withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs (OFF and under their regular dopaminergic medication (ON. We found that only the posterior right dlPFC subdivision shows FC alterations in PD, while the anterior part remains unaffected. PD-related decreased FC with posterior right dlPFC was found in the bilateral medial posterior parietal cortex (mPPC and left dorsal premotor region (PMd in the OFF state. In the medical ON, FC with left PMd normalized, while decoupling with bilateral mPPC remained. Furthermore, we observed increased FC between posterior right dlPFC and the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC in PD in the ON state. Our findings point to differential disturbances of right dlPFC connectivity in PD, which relate to its hierarchical organization of EF processing by stronger affecting the functionally basal posterior aspect than the hierarchically higher anterior part.

  6. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: The Upper Jurassic of Europe: its subdivision and correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeiss, Arnold

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 40 years, the stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic of Europe has received much attention and considerable revision; much of the impetus behind this endeavour has stemmed from the work of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy. The Upper Jurassic Series consists of three stages, the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian which are further subdivided into substages, zones and subzones, primarily on the basis of ammonites. Regional variations between the Mediterranean, Submediterranean and Subboreal provinces are discussed and correlation possibilities indicated. The durations of the Oxfordian, Kimmeridgian and Tithonian Stages are reported to have been 5.3, 3.4 and 6.5 Ma, respectively. This review of the present status of Upper Jurassic stratigraphy aids identification of a number of problems of subdivision and definition of Upper Jurassic stages; in particular these include correlation of the base of the Kimmeridgian and the top of the Tithonian between Submediterranean and Subboreal Europe. Although still primarily based on ammonite stratigraphy, subdivision of the Upper Jurassic is increasingly being refined by the incorporation of other fossil groups; these include both megafossils, such as aptychi, belemnites, bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods, echinoderms, corals, sponges and vertebrates, and microfossils such as foraminifera, radiolaria, ciliata, ostracodes, dinoflagellates, calcareous nannofossils, charophyaceae, dasycladaceae, spores and pollen. Important future developments will depend on the detailed integration of these disparate biostratigraphic data and their precise combination with the abundant new data from sequence stratigraphy, utilising the high degree of stratigraphic resolution offered by certain groups of fossils. This article also contains some notes on the recent results of magnetostratigraphy and sequence chronostratigraphy.

  7. The Shark Alar Hypothalamus: Molecular Characterization of Prosomeric Subdivisions and Evolutionary Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Durán, Gabriel N.; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Menuet, Arnaud; Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Mazan, Sylvie; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Candal, Eva

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamus is an important physiologic center of the vertebrate brain involved in the elaboration of individual and species survival responses. To better understand the ancestral organization of the alar hypothalamus we revisit previous data on ScOtp, ScDlx2/5, ScTbr1, ScNkx2.1 expression and Pax6 immunoreactivity jointly with new data on ScNeurog2, ScLhx9, ScLhx5, and ScNkx2.8 expression, in addition to immunoreactivity to serotonin (5-HT) and doublecortin (DCX) in the catshark Scyliorhinus canicula, a key species for this purpose since cartilaginous fishes are basal representatives of gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates). Our study revealed a complex genoarchitecture for the chondrichthyan alar hypothalamus. We identified terminal (rostral) and peduncular (caudal) subdivisions in the prosomeric paraventricular and subparaventricular areas (TPa/PPa and TSPa/PSPa, respectively) evidenced by the expression pattern of developmental genes like ScLhx5 (TPa) and immunoreactivity against Pax6 (PSPa) and 5-HT (PPa and PSPa). Dorso-ventral subdivisions were only evidenced in the SPa (SPaD, SPaV; respectively) by means of Pax6 and ScNkx2.8 (respectively). Interestingly, ScNkx2.8 expression overlaps over the alar-basal boundary, as Nkx2.2 does in other vertebrates. Our results reveal evidences for the existence of different groups of tangentially migrated cells expressing ScOtp, Pax6, and ScDlx2. The genoarchitectonic comparative analysis suggests alternative interpretations of the rostral-most alar plate in prosomeric terms and reveals a conserved molecular background for the vertebrate alar hypothalamus likely acquired before/during the agnathan-gnathostome transition, on which Otp, Pax6, Lhx5, and Neurog2 are expressed in the Pa while Dlx and Nkx2.2/Nkx2.8 are expressed in the SPa. PMID:27932958

  8. 46 CFR 171.080 - Damage stability standards for vessels with Type I or Type II subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... damage stability required for that vessel by the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Damage stability standards for vessels with Type I or... (CONTINUED) SUBDIVISION AND STABILITY SPECIAL RULES PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Large Vessels...

  9. 24 CFR 1710.20 - Requirements for registering a subdivision-Statement of Record-filing and form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements for registering a subdivision-Statement of Record-filing and form. 1710.20 Section 1710.20 Housing and Urban Development...

  10. Disjunct distribution of highly diverged mitochondrial lineage clade and population subdivision in a marine bivalve with pelagic larval dispersal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttikhuizen, PC; Drent, J; Baker, AJ

    Mitochondrial DNA sequence data for 295 individuals of the marine bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) were collected from 10 sites across the European distribution, and from Alaska. The data were used to infer population subdivision history and estimate current levels of gene flow. Inferred historical

  11. Towards an improved lithostratigraphic subdivision of the chalk group in the Netherlands North Sea area - A seismic stratigraphic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, A.S. van der; Wong, Th.E.

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands North Sea area, the Chalk Group has thus far been subdivided into the Cenomanian Texel Formation, the Turonian to Maastrichtian Ommelanden Formation and the Danian Ekofisk Formation. This paper describes the attempt to arrive at a more detailed lithostratigraphic subdivision for

  12. Ether- and Ester-Bound iso-Diabolic Acid and Other Lipids in Members of Acidobacteria Subdivision 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijpstra, W. Irene C.; Hopmans, Ellen C.; Foesel, Bärbel U.; Wüst, Pia K.; Overmann, Jörg; Tank, Marcus; Bryant, Donald A.; Dunfield, Peter F.; Houghton, Karen; Stott, Matthew B.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, iso-diabolic acid (13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid) has been identified as a major membrane-spanning lipid of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum within the Bacteria. This finding pointed to the Acidobacteria as a potential source for the bacterial glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers that occur ubiquitously in peat, soil, lakes, and hot springs. Here, we examined the lipid composition of seven phylogenetically divergent strains of subdivision 4 of the Acidobacteria, a bacterial group that is commonly encountered in soil. Acid hydrolysis of total cell material released iso-diabolic acid derivatives in substantial quantities (11 to 48% of all fatty acids). In contrast to subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria, 6 out of the 7 species of subdivision 4 (excepting “Candidatus Chloracidobacterium thermophilum”) contained iso-diabolic acid ether bound to a glycerol in larger fractional abundance than iso-diabolic acid itself. This is in agreement with the analysis of intact polar lipids (IPLs) by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS), which showed the dominance of mixed ether-ester glycerides. iso-Diabolic acid-containing IPLs were not identified, because these IPLs are not released with a Bligh-Dyer extraction, as observed before when studying lipid compositions of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the Acidobacteria. The presence of ether bonds in the membrane lipids does not seem to be an adaptation to temperature, because the five mesophilic isolates contained a larger amount of ether lipids than the thermophile “Ca. Chloracidobacterium thermophilum.” Furthermore, experiments with Pyrinomonas methylaliphatogenes did not reveal a major influence of growth temperature over the 50 to 69°C range. PMID:24928878

  13. Class size versus class composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Sam

    Raising schooling quality in low-income countries is a pressing challenge. Substantial research has considered the impact of cutting class sizes on skills acquisition. Considerably less attention has been given to the extent to which peer effects, which refer to class composition, also may affect...

  14. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  15. Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms, Suzie Aparicio; Welch Bacon, Cailee E; Parsons, John T; Bay, R Curtis; Cohen, Randy P; DeZeeuw, Terry; McLeod, Tamara C Valovich

    2015-12-01

    The "Appropriate Medical Coverage for Intercollegiate Athletics" (AMCIA) document was created to support assessment and calculation of athletic training personnel requirements. However, little is known regarding disparities between current and recommended staffing practices. To identify the staffing and employment characteristics of athletic health care services at Football Bowl Subdivision-level institutions. Cross-sectional study. Web-based survey. Head athletic trainers and athletic training staff members who were knowledgeable about budget and staff. The survey, Assessment of Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions, was used to evaluate personal, university, and staff demographics; staffing and employment topics; and AMCIA variables and use. The survey was accessed and partially completed by 104 individuals (response rate = 84.6%). A total of 79 athletic trainers (response rate = 76%) completed the entire survey. One-third of the respondents (34.2%, n = 26) met the recommended number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) for football, two-thirds of the respondents (65.7%, n = 50) failed to meet the recommendation, and 26.2% (n = 27) were missing data needed for FTE calculation. Among those who did not meet the recommended FTEs (n = 50), 38.0% (n = 19) were within 1 FTE of being compliant, 26.0% (n = 13) were within 2 FTEs, and 24.0% (n = 12) were within 3 FTEs. About one-third of respondents (35.9%, n = 37) reported not using the AMCIA, citing lack of funding (29.7%, n = 11), lack of administrative support (21.6%, n = 8), and other reasons (37.8%, n = 14). The majority of institutions that used the AMCIA were able to provide justification for staffing. For most of the institutions that failed to meet their recommendation, adding 1-3 FTE athletic trainers for football would change their compliance status. A uniform definition of the term FTE within collegiate athletics is needed to allow for structured

  16. Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    MS, Suzie Aparicio; Welch Bacon, Cailee E.; Parsons, John T.; Bay, R. Curtis; Cohen, Randy P.; DeZeeuw, Terry; McLeod, Tamara C. Valovich

    2015-01-01

    Context The “Appropriate Medical Coverage for Intercollegiate Athletics” (AMCIA) document was created to support assessment and calculation of athletic training personnel requirements. However, little is known regarding disparities between current and recommended staffing practices. Objective To identify the staffing and employment characteristics of athletic health care services at Football Bowl Subdivision-level institutions. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants Head athletic trainers and athletic training staff members who were knowledgeable about budget and staff. Main Outcome Measure(s) The survey, Assessment of Staffing Levels at National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision-Level Institutions, was used to evaluate personal, university, and staff demographics; staffing and employment topics; and AMCIA variables and use. Results The survey was accessed and partially completed by 104 individuals (response rate = 84.6%). A total of 79 athletic trainers (response rate = 76%) completed the entire survey. One-third of the respondents (34.2%, n = 26) met the recommended number of full-time equivalents (FTEs) for football, two-thirds of the respondents (65.7%, n = 50) failed to meet the recommendation, and 26.2% (n = 27) were missing data needed for FTE calculation. Among those who did not meet the recommended FTEs (n = 50), 38.0% (n = 19) were within 1 FTE of being compliant, 26.0% (n = 13) were within 2 FTEs, and 24.0% (n = 12) were within 3 FTEs. About one-third of respondents (35.9%, n = 37) reported not using the AMCIA, citing lack of funding (29.7%, n = 11), lack of administrative support (21.6%, n = 8), and other reasons (37.8%, n = 14). Conclusions The majority of institutions that used the AMCIA were able to provide justification for staffing. For most of the institutions that failed to meet their recommendation, adding 1–3 FTE athletic trainers for football would change their

  17. 'Combined reflectance stratigraphy' - subdivision of loess successions by diffuse reflectance spectrometry (DRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberényi, Jozsef; Bradak-Hayashi, Balázs; Kiss, Klaudia; Kovács, József; Varga, György; Balázs, Réka; Szalai, Zoltán; Viczián, István

    2016-04-01

    The different varieties of loess (and intercalated paleosol layers) together constitute one of the most widespread terrestrial sediments, which was deposited, altered, and redeposited in the course of the changing climatic conditions of the Pleistocene. To reveal more information about Pleistocene climate cycles and/or environments the detailed lithostratigraphical subdivision and classification of the loess variations and paleosols are necessary. Beside the numerous method such as various field measurements, semi-quantitative tests and laboratory investigations, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is one of the well applied method on loess/paleosol sequences. Generally, DRS has been used to separate the detrital and pedogenic mineral component of the loess sections by the hematite/goethite ratio. DRS also has been applied as a joint method of various environmental magnetic investigations such as magnetic susceptibility- and isothermal remanent magnetization measurements. In our study the so-called "combined reflectance stratigraphy method" were developed. At First, complex mathematical method was applied to compare the results of the spectral reflectance measurements. One of the most preferred multivariate methods is cluster analysis. Its scope is to group and compare the loess variations and paleosol based on the similarity and common properties of their reflectance curves. In the Second, beside the basic subdivision of the profiles by the different reflectance curves of the layers, the most characteristic wavelength section of the reflectance curve was determined. This sections played the most important role during the classification of the different materials of the section. The reflectance value of individual samples, belonged to the characteristic wavelength were depicted in the function of depth and well correlated with other proxies like grain size distribution and magnetic susceptibility data. The results of the correlation showed the significance of

  18. Birthing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... class setting. Some hospitals are beginning to offer online courses, too.Expect to be required to pay ... called The Mongan Method, HypnoBirthing helps women learn self-hypnosis techniques to deliver their babies in a ...

  19. The Tools of Financial Policy in the Dairy Products Subdivision of the Agroindustrial Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bielosviet Oleksandr. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at definition and classification of tools of the State financial policy in the dairy products subdivision of the agroindustrial complex (DPS of AIC. The article considers the financial policy tools used in terms of targeted programs of the State support for the DPS of AIC: the State target program for development of Ukrainian villages, sectoral program for dairy breeding and the project of the conception of the State target program for development of dairy breeding in Ukraine for the period up to 2020. The existing tools are divided into direct and indirect action tools. As of 2016, the tasks that were relevant to the corresponding targeted programs have not been implemented on any item, except for the milk productivity of cows. Still the productivity indicator of 4500 kg/year of milk from a cow is low enough and does not correspond to the general world-wide tendencies. This suggests the need for further assessment of the existing list of tools with a view to adjusting them and defining priorities for the State support of the DPS of AIC.

  20. Adaptive subdivision and the length and energy of Bézier curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Jens

    1997-01-01

    It is an often used fact that the control polygon of a Bézier curve approximates the curve and that the approximation gets better when the curve is subdivided. In particular, if a Bézier curve is subdivided into some number of pieces, then the arc-length of the original curve is greater than...... the sum of the chord-lengths of the pieces, and less than the sum of the polygon-lengths of the pieces. Under repeated subdivisions, the difference between this lower and upper bound gets arbitrarily small.If $L_c$ denotes the total chord-length of the pieces and $L_p$ denotes the total polygon...... combination, and it forms the basis for a fast adaptive algorithm, which determines the arc-length of a Bézier curve.The energy of a curve is half the square of the curvature integrated with respect to arc-length. Like in the case of the arc-length, it is possible to use the chord-length and polygon...

  1. Population subdivision in Europe's great bustard inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitra, C; Lieckfeldt, D; Alonso, J C

    2000-08-01

    A continent-wide survey of sequence variation in mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear (n) DNA of the endangered great bustard (Otis tarda) was conducted to assess the extent of phylogeographic structure in a morphologically monotypic bird. DNA sequence variation in a combined 809 bp segment of the mtDNA genome from 66 individuals from the last six breeding regions showed relatively low levels of intraspecific sequence diversity (n = 0.32%) but significant differences in the regional distribution of 11 haplotypes (phiST = 0.49). Despite their exceptional potential for dispersal, a complete and long-term historical separation between the populations from the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and mainland Europe (Hungary, Slovakia, Germany, and Russia) was demonstrated. Divergence between populations based on a 3-bp insertion-deletion polymorphism within the intron region of the nuclear CHD-Z gene was geographically concordant with the primary subdivision identified within the mtDNA sequences. Inferred aspects of phylogeography were used to formulate conservation recommendations for this endangered species.

  2. Medically Important Parasites Carried by Cockroaches in Melong Subdivision, Littoral, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Atiokeng Tatang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cockroaches have been recognized as mechanical vectors of pathogens that can infest humans or animals. A total of 844 adult cockroaches (436 males and 408 females were caught. In the laboratory, cockroaches were first washed in saturated salt solution to remove ectoparasites and then rinsed with 70% alcohol, dried, and dissected for endoparasites. An overall transport rate of 47.39% was recorded. Six genera of parasites were identified. These were Ascaris (33.76%, Trichuris (11.97%, Capillaria (6.16%, Toxocara (4.86%, Hook Worm (4.86%, and Eimeria (2.73%. The parasites were more recorded on the external surface (54.27% of cockroaches than in the internal surface (GIT, 38.51%. The same tendency was obtained between sexes with female cockroaches having a higher transport rate (36.69%. Cockroaches caught in toilets carried more parasites (31.99% as compared to those from kitchens (22.63% and houses (11.14%. Almost all encountered parasites were recognized as responsible of zoonosis and they can be consequently released in nature by hosts and easily disseminated by cockroaches as mechanical vectors. Sanitary education, reenforcement of worms’ eradication programs, and the fight against these insects remain a necessity in the Mélong Subdivision.

  3. Hepatitis A outbreak in Ba subdivision, Fiji, October–December 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneley Getahun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A cluster of suspected hepatitis A cases was notified to the Fiji Ministry of Health on 22 October 2013. An outbreak investigation team was mobilized to confirm the existence of an outbreak of hepatitis A and advise appropriate public health interventions. Methods: A case definition for the outbreak investigation was established, and standardized data collection tools were used to collect information on clinical presentation and risk factors. An environmental assessment was also conducted. Results: There were 160 clinical cases of hepatitis A of which 15 were laboratory-confirmed. The attack rate was 349 per 10 000 population in the Nukuloa nursing zone; there were no reported deaths. Residents of the Nukuloa settlement were 6.6 times more likely to present with symptomatic hepatitis A infection (95% confidence interval: 3.8–12.6 compared with residents of another village with a different water supply. Discussion: This is the first significant hepatitis A outbreak documented in Ba subdivision and possibly in Fiji. Enhanced surveillance of hepatitis A may reveal other clusters in the country. Improving the primary water source dramatically reduced the occurance of disease in the affected community and adjacent areas.

  4. Hepatitis A outbreak in Ba subdivision, Fiji, October-December 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Aneley; Rafai, Eric; Tolosa, Maria Ximena; Dawainavesi, Akanisi; Tabua, Anaseini Maisema; Tabua, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of suspected hepatitis A cases was notified to the Fiji Ministry of Health on 22 October 2013. An outbreak investigation team was mobilized to confirm the existence of an outbreak of hepatitis A and advise appropriate public health interventions. A case definition for the outbreak investigation was established, and standardized data collection tools were used to collect information on clinical presentation and risk factors. An environmental assessment was also conducted. There were 160 clinical cases of hepatitis A of which 15 were laboratory-confirmed. The attack rate was 349 per 10,000 population in the Nukuloa nursing zone; there were no reported deaths. Residents of the Nukuloa settlement were 6.6 times more likely to present with symptomatic hepatitis A infection (95% confidence interval: 3.8-12.6) compared with residents of another village with a different water supply. This is the first significant hepatitis A outbreak documented in Ba subdivision and possibly in Fiji. Enhanced surveillance of hepatitis A may reveal other clusters in the country. Improving the primary water source dramatically reduced the occurance of disease in the affected community and adjacent areas.

  5. The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovenden, Jenny R; Kashiwagi, Tom; Broderick, Damien; Giles, Jenny; Salini, John

    2009-02-12

    The territorial fishing zones of Australia and Indonesia are contiguous to the north of Australia in the Timor and Arafura Seas and in the Indian Ocean to the north of Christmas Island. The area surrounding the shared boundary consists of a variety of bio-diverse marine habitats including shallow continental shelf waters, oceanic trenches and numerous offshore islands. Both countries exploit a variety of fisheries species, including whaler (Carcharhinus spp.) and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.). Despite their differences in social and financial arrangements, the two countries are motivated to develop complementary co-management practices to achieve resource sustainability. An essential starting point is knowledge of the degree of population subdivision, and hence fisheries stock status, in exploited species. Populations of four commercially harvested shark species (Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna lewini) were sampled from northern Australia and central Indonesia. Neutral genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and allelic variation at co-dominant microsatellite loci) revealed genetic subdivision between Australian and Indonesian populations of C. sorrah. Further research is needed to address the possibility of genetic subdivision among C. obscurus populations. There was no evidence of genetic subdivision for P. glauca and S. lewini populations, but the sampling represented a relatively small part of their distributional range. For these species, more detailed analyses of population genetic structure is recommended in the future. Cooperative management between Australia and Indonesia is the best option at present for P. glauca and S. lewini, while C. sorrah and C. obscurus should be managed independently. On-going research on these and other exploited shark and ray species is strongly recommended. Biological and ecological similarity between species may not be a predictor of population genetic structure, so

  6. The extent of population genetic subdivision differs among four co-distributed shark species in the Indo-Australian archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Jenny

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The territorial fishing zones of Australia and Indonesia are contiguous to the north of Australia in the Timor and Arafura Seas and in the Indian Ocean to the north of Christmas Island. The area surrounding the shared boundary consists of a variety of bio-diverse marine habitats including shallow continental shelf waters, oceanic trenches and numerous offshore islands. Both countries exploit a variety of fisheries species, including whaler (Carcharhinus spp. and hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna spp.. Despite their differences in social and financial arrangements, the two countries are motivated to develop complementary co-management practices to achieve resource sustainability. An essential starting point is knowledge of the degree of population subdivision, and hence fisheries stock status, in exploited species. Results Populations of four commercially harvested shark species (Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus sorrah, Prionace glauca, Sphyrna lewini were sampled from northern Australia and central Indonesia. Neutral genetic markers (mitochondrial DNA control region sequence and allelic variation at co-dominant microsatellite loci revealed genetic subdivision between Australian and Indonesian populations of C. sorrah. Further research is needed to address the possibility of genetic subdivision among C. obscurus populations. There was no evidence of genetic subdivision for P. glauca and S. lewini populations, but the sampling represented a relatively small part of their distributional range. For these species, more detailed analyses of population genetic structure is recommended in the future. Conclusion Cooperative management between Australia and Indonesia is the best option at present for P. glauca and S. lewini, while C. sorrah and C. obscurus should be managed independently. On-going research on these and other exploited shark and ray species is strongly recommended. Biological and ecological similarity between species may

  7. The spatial scale of genetic subdivision in populations of Ifremeria nautilei, a hydrothermal-vent gastropod from the southwest Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler Andrew D

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep-sea hydrothermal vents provide patchy, ephemeral habitats for specialized communities of animals that depend on chemoautotrophic primary production. Unlike eastern Pacific hydrothermal vents, where population structure has been studied at large (thousands of kilometres and small (hundreds of meters spatial scales, population structure of western Pacific vents has received limited attention. This study addresses the scale at which genetic differentiation occurs among populations of a western Pacific vent-restricted gastropod, Ifremeria nautilei. Results We used mitochondrial and DNA microsatellite markers to infer patterns of gene flow and population subdivision. A nested sampling strategy was employed to compare genetic diversity in discrete patches of Ifremeria nautilei separated by a few meters within a single vent field to distances as great as several thousand kilometres between back-arc basins that encompass the known range of the species. No genetic subdivisions were detected among patches, mounds, or sites within Manus Basin. Although I. nautilei from Lau and North Fiji Basins (~1000 km apart also exhibited no evidence for genetic subdivision, these populations were genetically distinct from the Manus Basin population. Conclusions An unknown process that restricts contemporary gene flow isolates the Manus Basin population of Ifremeria nautilei from widespread populations that occupy the North Fiji and Lau Basins. A robust understanding of the genetic structure of hydrothermal vent populations at multiple spatial scales defines natural conservation units and can help minimize loss of genetic diversity in situations where human activities are proposed and managed.

  8. Social Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aktor, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general....... Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas...

  9. [Effect of gluco- and mineralocorticoids on the structure and function of the insular apparatus of the pancreas in representatives of different classes of vertebrates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliakova, T I

    1984-07-01

    By means of histological, historadioautographical and biochemical methods the effect produced by disturbances in hormonal balance of the adrenal cortex (corticosteroids) on the islet apparatus of the pancreas in the lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis), the frog (Rana temporaria), the tortoise (Testudo horsfieldi), the pigeon (Columbia livia), the white rat (Rattus rattus) has been studied during autumn-winter period. Chronic injections of hydrocortisone and desoxycorticosterone-acetate are used to change the hormonal balance in the adrenal cortex. In Cyclostomata, Amphibia and Reptilia gluco- and mineralocorticoids produce similar effects by increasing glycemia level. In birds and Mammalia glucocorticoids increase glycemia level, and mineralocorticoids do not change it. An increased glucose level in the organism of the representatives of various Mammalian classes after an excess injection of glucocorticoids is accompanied with a mainfested degranulation, hypertrophy of the Golgi complex, vacuolization of aldehydefuchsin-positive B-cell. Glucocorticoides increase the level of 35S-methyonine incorporation into B-cells of Langerhans islet in the representatives of all the vertebral classes studied. Mineralocorticoids act similarly as glucocorticoids stimulating protein metabolism only in Amphibia and birds. The level of immunoreactive insulin (IRI) in response to glucocorticoids injection increases in Amphibia and Mammalia and remains unchanged in Cyclostomata, Reptilia and birds. IRI remains unchanged after injection of mineralocorticoids in all representatives of Vertebrata, besides Cyclostomata in which IRI decreases.

  10. Sex, Subdivision, and Domestic Dispersal of Trypanosoma cruzi Lineage I in Southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Costales, Jaime A.; Miles, Michael A.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Molecular epidemiology at the community level has an important guiding role in zoonotic disease control programmes where genetic markers are suitably variable to unravel the dynamics of local transmission. We evaluated the molecular diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, in southern Ecuador (Loja Province). This kinetoplastid parasite has traditionally been a paradigm for clonal population structure in pathogenic organisms. However, the presence of naturally occurring hybrids, mitochondrial introgression, and evidence of genetic exchange in the laboratory question this dogma. Methodology/Principal Findings Eighty-one parasite isolates from domiciliary, peridomiciliary, and sylvatic triatomines and mammals were genotyped across 10 variable microsatellite loci. Two discrete parasite populations were defined: one predominantly composed of isolates from domestic and peridomestic foci, and another predominantly composed of isolates from sylvatic foci. Spatial genetic variation was absent from the former, suggesting rapid parasite dispersal across our study area. Furthermore, linkage equilibrium between loci, Hardy-Weinberg allele frequencies at individual loci, and a lack of repeated genotypes are indicative of frequent genetic exchange among individuals in the domestic/peridomestic population. Conclusions/Significance These data represent novel population-level evidence of an extant capacity for sex among natural cycles of T. cruzi transmission. As such they have dramatic implications for our understanding of the fundamental genetics of this parasite. Our data also elucidate local disease transmission, whereby passive anthropogenic domestic mammal and triatomine dispersal across our study area is likely to account for the rapid domestic/peridomestic spread of the parasite. Finally we discuss how this, and the observed subdivision between sympatric sylvatic and domestic/peridomestic foci, can inform efforts at Chagas disease

  11. Coyote movements and social structure along a cryptic population genetic subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Benjamin N; Mitchell, Brian R; Williams, Christen L; Ernest, Holly B

    2005-04-01

    A recent region-wide study determined that the central California coyote (Canis latrans) population was genetically subdivided according to habitat bioregions, supporting the hypothesis that coyotes exhibit a dispersal bias toward their natal habitat type. Here, we further investigated this hypothesis using radio-collared coyotes captured on a 150-km(2) study site on the border of (i.e. overlapping) two bioregions (Great Valley and Cascade Mountains). As predicted, most coyotes were assigned (based on a priori genetic criteria) to genetic clusters corresponding to one of these two bioregions. All of those assigned to the Great Valley genetic cluster were caught in (and for the most part, remained in) the Great Valley bioregion. However, contrary to expectations, the coyotes assigned to the Cascades genetic cluster occurred commonly in both bioregions. Nearly all resident individuals on the study site, regardless of the particular bioregion, were assigned to the Cascades genetic cluster, whereas a sizable fraction of nonresident (transient or dispersing) coyotes caught in the Great Valley bioregion were assigned to the Great Valley cluster. Even among resident coyotes, interrelatedness of packs was greater within than between bioregions, and packs with territories overlapping both bioregions were more closely related to those with territories completely within the Cascades bioregion than territories completely within the Great Valley bioregion. Finally, direct estimates indicated that gene flow was twice as high from the Cascades bioregion to the Great Valley bioregion than in the reverse direction. Collectively, these findings reveal the anatomy of the genetic subdivision as beginning abruptly at the bioregion boundary and ending diffusely within the Great Valley bioregion.

  12. Molecular phylogeny restores the supra-generic subdivision of homoscleromorph sponges (Porifera, Homoscleromorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Gazave

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Homoscleromorpha is the fourth major sponge lineage, recently recognized to be distinct from the Demospongiae. It contains <100 described species of exclusively marine sponges that have been traditionally subdivided into 7 genera based on morphological characters. Because some of the morphological features of the homoscleromorphs are shared with eumetazoans and are absent in other sponges, the phylogenetic position of the group has been investigated in several recent studies. However, the phylogenetic relationships within the group remain unexplored by modern methods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe the first molecular phylogeny of Homoscleromorpha based on nuclear (18S and 28S rDNA and complete mitochondrial DNA sequence data that focuses on inter-generic relationships. Our results revealed two robust clades within this group, one containing the spiculate species (genera Plakina, Plakortis, Plakinastrella and Corticium and the other containing aspiculate species (genera Oscarella and Pseudocorticium, thus rejecting a close relationship between Pseudocorticium and Corticium. Among the spiculate species, we found affinities between the Plakortis and Plakinastrella genera, and between the Plakina and Corticium. The validity of these clades is furthermore supported by specific morphological characters, notably the type of spicules. Furthermore, the monophyly of the Corticium genus is supported while the monophyly of Plakina is not. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As the result of our study we propose to restore the pre-1995 subdivision of Homoscleromorpha into two families: Plakinidae Schulze, 1880 for spiculate species and Oscarellidae Lendenfeld, 1887 for aspiculate species that had been rejected after the description of the genus Pseudocorticium. We also note that the two families of homoscleromorphs exhibit evolutionary stable, but have drastically distinct mitochondrial genome organizations that differ in gene content

  13. Molecular phylogeny restores the supra-generic subdivision of homoscleromorph sponges (Porifera, Homoscleromorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazave, Eve; Lapébie, Pascal; Renard, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Rocher, Caroline; Ereskovsky, Alexander V; Lavrov, Dennis V; Borchiellini, Carole

    2010-12-14

    Homoscleromorpha is the fourth major sponge lineage, recently recognized to be distinct from the Demospongiae. It contains sponges that have been traditionally subdivided into 7 genera based on morphological characters. Because some of the morphological features of the homoscleromorphs are shared with eumetazoans and are absent in other sponges, the phylogenetic position of the group has been investigated in several recent studies. However, the phylogenetic relationships within the group remain unexplored by modern methods. Here we describe the first molecular phylogeny of Homoscleromorpha based on nuclear (18S and 28S rDNA) and complete mitochondrial DNA sequence data that focuses on inter-generic relationships. Our results revealed two robust clades within this group, one containing the spiculate species (genera Plakina, Plakortis, Plakinastrella and Corticium) and the other containing aspiculate species (genera Oscarella and Pseudocorticium), thus rejecting a close relationship between Pseudocorticium and Corticium. Among the spiculate species, we found affinities between the Plakortis and Plakinastrella genera, and between the Plakina and Corticium. The validity of these clades is furthermore supported by specific morphological characters, notably the type of spicules. Furthermore, the monophyly of the Corticium genus is supported while the monophyly of Plakina is not. As the result of our study we propose to restore the pre-1995 subdivision of Homoscleromorpha into two families: Plakinidae Schulze, 1880 for spiculate species and Oscarellidae Lendenfeld, 1887 for aspiculate species that had been rejected after the description of the genus Pseudocorticium. We also note that the two families of homoscleromorphs exhibit evolutionary stable, but have drastically distinct mitochondrial genome organizations that differ in gene content and gene order.

  14. Coding Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing-Duun, Stine; Hansbøl, Mikala

    Denne rapport rummer evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet1. Coding Class projektet blev igangsat i skoleåret 2016/2017 af IT-Branchen i samarbejde med en række medlemsvirksomheder, Københavns kommune, Vejle Kommune, Styrelsen for IT- og Læring (STIL) og den frivillige forening...... Coding Pirates2. Rapporten er forfattet af Docent i digitale læringsressourcer og forskningskoordinator for forsknings- og udviklingsmiljøet Digitalisering i Skolen (DiS), Mikala Hansbøl, fra Institut for Skole og Læring ved Professionshøjskolen Metropol; og Lektor i læringsteknologi, interaktionsdesign......, design tænkning og design-pædagogik, Stine Ejsing-Duun fra Forskningslab: It og Læringsdesign (ILD-LAB) ved Institut for kommunikation og psykologi, Aalborg Universitet i København. Vi har fulgt og gennemført evaluering og dokumentation af Coding Class projektet i perioden november 2016 til maj 2017...

  15. Origin and plasticity of the subdivisions of the inferior olivary complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Sánchez, Matías; Backer, Stéphanie; Puelles, Luis; Bloch-Gallego, Evelyne

    2012-11-15

    The precerebellar nuclei (PCN) originate from the rhombic lip, a germinal neuroepithelium adjacent to the roof plate of the fourth ventricle. We first report here that, in chicken, the Brn3a-expressing postmitotic medullary cells that produce the inferior olive (ION, the source of cerebellar climbing fibres) originate from a dorso-ventral domain roughly coinciding with the hindbrain vestibular column. Whereas Foxd3 expression labels the whole mature ION but is only detected in a subpopulation of ION neuroblasts initiating their migration, we report that Brn3a allows the visualization of the whole population of ION neurons from the very beginning of their migration. We show that Brn3a-positive neurons migrate tangentially ventralwards through a characteristic dorso-ventral double submarginal stream. Cath1 expressing progenitors lying just dorsal to the ION origin correlated dorso-ventral topography with the prospective cochlear column (caudal to it) and generate precerebellar nuclei emitting mossy-fiber cerebellar afferents. We used the chick-quail chimaera technique with homotopic grafts at HH10 to determine the precise fate map of ION precursors across the caudal cryptorhombomeric subdivisions of the medullary hindbrain (r8-r11). We demonstrate that each crypto-rhombomere contributes to two lamellae of the ION, while each ION sub-nucleus originates from at least two contiguous crypto-rhombomeres. We then questioned how rhombomere identity is related to the plasticity of cell type specification in the dorsal hindbrain. The potential plasticity of ectopically HH10 grafted ION progenitors to change their original fate in alternative rostrocaudal environments was examined. Heterotopic grafts from the presumptive ION territory to the pontine region (r4-r5) caused a change of fate, since the migrated derivatives adopted a pontine phenotype. The reverse experiment caused pontine progenitors to produce derivatives appropriately integrated into the ION complex. Grafts of

  16. A new subdivision of the central Sesia Zone (Aosta Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Engi, Martin; Manzotti, Paola; Ballèvre, Michel

    2015-04-01

    The Sesia Zone in the Western Alps is a continental terrane probably derived from the NW-Adriatic margin and polydeformed at HP conditions during Alpine convergence. Subdivisions of the Sesia Zone classically have been based on the dominant lithotypes: Eclogitic Micaschist Complex, Seconda Zona Diorito-Kinzigitica, and Gneiss Minuti Complex. However, recent work (Regis et al., 2014) on what was considered a single internal unit has revealed that it comprises two or more tectonic slices that experienced substantially different PTDt-evolutions. Therefore, detailed regional petrographic and structural mapping (1:3k to 1:10k) was undertaken and combined with extensive sampling for petrochronological analysis. Results allow us to propose a first tectonic scheme for the Sesia Zone between the Aosta Valley and Val d'Ayas. A set of field criteria was developed and applied, aiming to recognize and delimit the first order tectonic units in this complex structural and metamorphic context. The approach rests on three criteria used in the field: (1) Discontinuously visible metasedimentary trails (mostly carbonates) considered to be monocyclic (Permo-Mesozoic protoliths); (2) mappable high-strain zones; and (3) visible differences in the metamorphic imprint. None of these key features used are sufficient by themselves, but in combination they allow us to propose a new map that delimits main units. We propose an Internal Complex with three eclogitic sheets, each 0.5-3 km thick. Dominant lithotypes include micaschists associated with mafic rocks and minor orthogneiss. The main foliation is of HP, dipping moderately NW. Each of these sheets is bounded by (most likely monometamorphic) sediments, glaucophane, and garnet occur as relics. Towards the SW, the width of the Intermediate Complex is reduced from 0.5 km to a few meters. In the External Complex several discontinuous lenses occur; these comprise 2DK-lithotypes and are aligned with greenschist facies shear zones mapped within

  17. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Pallabi; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Das, Dilip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  18. The use of pregame hyperhydration with intravenous fluids in National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesik, Nicole Y; Tan, Sabrina K G; Prentiss, Gale T; Fitzsimmons, Sean; Nichols, Andrew W

    2013-11-01

    To determine the frequency of pregame intravenous fluid hyperhydration (PIVFH) usage, administration protocols, indications, complications, and perceived efficacy by National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision (NCAA-FBS) teams. Cross-sectional survey study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Football Bowl Subdivision. Head athletic trainers from NCAA-FBS institutions. Voluntary, anonymous 15-item validated online survey instrument. Number of teams reporting use of PIVFH. The survey response rate was 64% (77 of 120). Thirty percent of respondents reported the utilization of PIVFH, administered to an average of 2 to 3 players. The most common reasons cited for using PIVFH were to prevent muscle cramps (95%), heat illness (79%), and dehydration (68%). Additionally, 47% of programs used PIVFH to improve player exercise tolerance and 47% per player request. Twenty-four percent of programs that used PIVFH reported the occurrence of associated complications. Only 15% of respondents believed that PIVFH improved their teams' overall performance. PIVFH is a common practice among NCAA-FBS teams. PIVFH is used most often to prevent muscle cramps, dehydration, and heat illness. The relatively few numbers of players per team who receive PIVFH suggest that higher risk individuals were targeted for administration.

  19. Differences in the activation and co-activation ratios of the four subdivisions of trapezius between genders following a computer typing task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Kimberly A; Molnar, Megan

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a description of gender differences of the activation patterns of the four subdivisions of the trapezius (clavicular, upper, middle, lower) following a 60min computer work task. Surface EMG was collected from these subdivisions from 21 healthy subjects during bilateral arm elevation pre-/post- task. Subjects completed a standardized 60min computer work task at a standard, ergonomic workstation. Normalized activation and activation ratios of each trapezius subdivision were compared between genders and condition with repeated measures ANOVAs. The interaction effect of Gender×Condition for upper trapezius% activation approached significance at p=0.051with males demonstrating greater activation post-task. The main effect of Condition was statistically significant for% activation of middle and lower trapezius (pcomputer typing task. Imbalances in muscle activation and activation ratios following computer work may affect total shoulder kinematics and should be further explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Subdivisions of the adult zebrafish pallium based on molecular marker analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4m2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ganz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The telencephalon shows a remarkable structural diversity among vertebrates. In particular, the everted telencephalon of ray-finned fishes has a markedly different morphology compared to the evaginated telencephalon of all other vertebrates. This difference in development has hampered the comparison between different areas of the pallium of ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei of all other vertebrates. Various models of homology between pallial subdivisions in ray-finned fishes and the pallial nuclei in tetrapods have been proposed based on connectional, neurochemical, gene expression and functional data. However, no consensus has been reached so far. In recent years, the analysis of conserved developmental marker genes has assisted the identification of homologies for different parts of the telencephalon among several tetrapod species. Results: We have investigated the gene expression pattern of conserved marker genes in the adult zebrafish (Danio rerio pallium to identify pallial subdivisions and their homology to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Combinatorial expression analysis of ascl1a, eomesa, emx1, emx2, emx3, and Prox1 identifies four main divisions in the adult zebrafish pallium. Within these subdivisions, we propose that Dm is homologous to the pallial amygdala in tetrapods and that the dorsal subdivision of Dl is homologous to part of the hippocampal formation in mouse. We have complemented this analysis be examining the gene expression of emx1, emx2 and emx3 in the zebrafish larval brain. Conclusions: Based on our gene expression data, we propose a new model of subdivisions in the adult zebrafish pallium and their putative homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods. Pallial nuclei control sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, like memory, learning and emotion. The identification of pallial subdivisions in the adult zebrafish and their homologies to pallial nuclei in tetrapods will contribute to the use of the zebrafish

  1. Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorptive Media - U.S. EPA Demonstration Project at Geneseo Hills Subdivision, in Geneseo, IL Final Performance Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report documents the activities performed and the results obtained from the arsenic removal treatment technology demonstration project at the Geneseo Hills Subdivision in Geneseo, IL. The main objective of the project was to evaluate the effectiveness of AdEdge Technologies...

  2. 13,16-Dimethyl octacosanedioic acid (iso-diabolic acid), a common membrane-spanning lipid of Acidobacteria subdivisions 1 and 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; Hopmans, E.C.; Weijers, J.W.H.; Foesel, B.U.; Overmann, J.; Dedysh, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of membrane lipids of 17 different strains representing 13 species of subdivisions 1 and 3 of the phylum Acidobacteria, a highly diverse phylum of the Bacteria, were examined by hydrolysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) and by high-performance liquid

  3. Projections from the subdivisions of the fastigial nucleus to the vestibular complex and the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus in the albino rat: an anterograde tracing study using biocytin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, O; Umetani, T; Sugioka, K

    1997-02-01

    Differential projections from the subdivisions of the fastigial nucleus to the vestibular complex and the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus were investigated by an anterograde tracing method using biocytin in the albino rat. The caudomedial subdivision of the nucleus projected ipsilaterally to the dorsal and medial parts of the superior vestibular nucleus (Su Ve), the dorsomedial part of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVe), and the dorsal parts of the medial (MVe) and spinal (Sp Ve) vestibular nuclei, and projected contralaterally to the ventrolateral corners of the Su Ve and LVe, the ventral part of the MVe, and the lateral part of the Sp Ve. The bilateral prepositus hypoglossal nuclei received sparse projections from the caudomedial subdivision. The middle subdivision of the fastigial nucleus projected ipsilaterally to the dorsal and/or ventral parts of the Su Ve, the dorsomedial pats of the LVe and Sp Ve, and the dorsolateral part of the MVe, and projected contralaterally to the dorsal margin of the Su Ve, the ventrolateral part of the LVe, and the lateral part of the Sp Ve. The dorsolateral protuberance of the fastigial nucleus projected ipsilaterally to the dorsal margin of the Su Ve, the dorsomedial part of the LVe, the dorsal or lateral parts of the Sp Ve, and the lateral part of the MVe, and projected contralaterally to the ventrolateral part of the LVe and the lateral part of the Sp Ve. The subnuclei x, y, and f, interstitial nucleus of the vestibular nerve, and the infracerebellar nucleus received bilateral or ipsilateral fastigiovestibular projections.

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.370 - May a State, or any political subdivision thereof, certify to a disposal agency that it needs a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a State, or any political subdivision thereof, certify to a disposal agency that it needs a surplus power transmission line and the right-of-way acquired for its construction to meet the requirements of a public or cooperative power project? 102-75.370 Section 102...

  5. Three-dimensional visualization of morphology and ventilation procedure (air flow and diffusion) of a subdivision of the acinus using synchrotron radiation microtomography of the human lung specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kenji; Ikura, Hirohiko; Ikezoe, Junpei; Nagareda, Tomofumi; Yagi, Naoto; Umetani, Keiji; Imai, Yutaka

    2004-04-01

    We have previously reported a synchrotron radiation (SR) microtomography system constructed at the bending magnet beamline at the SPring-8. This system has been applied to the lungs obtained at autopsy and inflated and fixed by Heitzman"s method. Normal lung and lung specimens with two different types of pathologic processes (fibrosis and emphysema) were included. Serial SR microtomographic images were stacked to yield the isotropic volumetric data with high-resolution (12 μm3 in voxel size). Within the air spaces of a subdivision of the acinus, each voxel is segmented three-dimensionally using a region growing algorithm ("rolling ball algorithm"). For each voxel within the segmented air spaces, two types of voxel coding have been performed: single-seeded (SS) coding and boundary-seeded (BS) coding, in which the minimum distance from an initial point as the only seed point and all object boundary voxels as a seed set were calculated and assigned as the code values to each voxel, respectively. With these two codes, combinations of surface rendering and volume rendering techniques were applied to visualize three-dimensional morphology of a subdivision of the acinus. Furthermore, sequentially filling process of air into a subdivision of the acinus was simulated under several conditions to visualize the ventilation procedure (air flow and diffusion). A subdivision of the acinus was reconstructed three-dimensionally, demonstrating the normal architecture of the human lung. Significant differences in appearance of ventilation procedure were observed between normal and two pathologic processes due to the alteration of the lung architecture. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the microstructure of a subdivision of the acinus and visualization of the ventilation procedure (air flow and diffusion) with SR microtomography would offer a new approach to study the morphology, physiology, and pathophysiology of the human respiratory system.

  6. RxClass

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The RxClass Browser is a web application for exploring and navigating through the class hierarchies to find the RxNorm drug members associated with each class....

  7. A Virtual Class Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Ostermann, Klaus; Cook, William Randall

    2006-01-01

    Virtual classes are class-valued attributes of objects. Like virtual methods, virtual classes are defined in an object's class and may be redefined within subclasses. They resemble inner classes, which are also defined within a class, but virtual classes are accessed through object instances......, not as static components of a class. When used as types, virtual classes depend upon object identity - each object instance introduces a new family of virtual class types. Virtual classes support large scale program composition techniques, including higher-order hierarchies and family polymorphism. The original...... definition of virtual classes in BETA left open the question of static type safety, since some type errors were not caught until runtime. Later the languages Caesar and gbeta have used a more strict static analysis in order to ensure static type safety. However, the existence of a sound, statically typed...

  8. Orthodontic retreatment of a Class III patient with significant midline asymmetry and bilateral posterior crossbite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir R. Brunetto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Posterior crossbite might cause serious long-term functional problems if not early treated. Nevertheless, in older patients, treatment might include palatal expansion in order to correct such malocclusion. In view of the above, this article aims at reporting late correction of bilateral posterior crossbite associated with Angle Class III malocclusion, right subdivision, with consequent midline shift (good skeletal pattern. The case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO, with DI equal to or greater than 10, as a requirement for the title of certified by the BBO.

  9. Differential regulation of fos family genes in the ventrolateral and dorsomedial subdivisions of the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, W J; Carpino, A; de la Iglesia, H O; Baler, R; Klein, D C; Nakabeppu, Y; Aronin, N

    2000-01-01

    Extensive studies have established that light regulates c-fos gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the site of an endogenous circadian clock, but relatively little is known about the expression of genes structurally related to c-fos, including fra-1, fra-2 and fosB. We analysed the photic and temporal regulation of these genes at the messenger RNA and immunoreactive protein levels in rat suprachiasmatic nucleus, and we found different expression patterns after photic stimulation and depending on location in the ventrolateral or dorsomedial subdivisions. In the ventrolateral suprachiasmatic nucleus, c-fos, fra-2 and fosB expression was stimulated after a subjective-night (but not subjective-day) light pulse. Expression of the fra-2 gene was prolonged following photic stimulation, with elevated messenger RNA and protein levels that appeared unchanged for at least a few hours beyond the c-fos peak. Unlike c-fos and fra-2, the fosB gene appeared to be expressed constitutively in the ventrolateral suprachiasmatic nucleus throughout the circadian cycle; immunohistochemical analysis suggested that delta FosB was the protein product accounting for this constitutive expression, while FosB was induced by the subjective-night light pulse. In the dorsomedial suprachiasmatic nucleus, c-fos and fra-2 expression exhibited an endogenous circadian rhythm, with higher levels during the early subjective day, although the relative abundance was much lower than that measured after light pulses in the ventrolateral suprachiasmatic nucleus. Double-label immunohistochemistry suggested that some of the dorsomedial cells responsible for the circadian expression of c-Fos also synthesized arginine vasopressin. No evidence of suprachiasmatic nucleus fra-1 expression was found. In summary, fos family genes exhibit differences in their specific expression patterns in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, including their photic and circadian regulation in separate cell populations in the

  10. Management system for the budgetary exercise of the subdivision of technology and professional development (STDP) of Petroleos Mexicanos; Sistema de administracion para el ejercicio presupuestal de la subdivision de tecnologia y desarrollo profesional (STDP) de Petroleos Mexicanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nava Lara, Eric Rafael; Santos Dominguez, Martin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Herrera Lavin, Jesus Xavier [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The Management System for the Budgetary Exercise (SAEP) arises from the necessity of supporting the programming processes for the budget allocation to the technological projects of the Subdivision of Technology and Profesional Development (STPD). This system allows recovering the budget partial or complete information facilitating the adjustments to this same one before integrating them to the budget assignation system (SAP). It also allows to control the expenses of the projects as well as of the exercise of the budget, and orchestrates an internal control for the technical and financial approval of the countable commitments and the budget expenses before taking the proceeding through the mechanisms of registry with the SAP. [Spanish] El Sistema de Administracion para el Ejercicio Presupuestal (SAEP) surge de la necesidad de apoyar los procesos de programacion para la asignacion del presupuesto a los proyectos tecnologicos de la Subdireccion de Tecnologia y Desarrollo Profesional (STPD). Este sistema permite recuperar la informacion parcial o completa del presupuesto facilitando las adecuaciones a este mismo antes de integrarlas al Sistema de Asignacion de Presupuesto (SAP). Tambien permite controlar los gastos, tanto de los proyectos como de los ejercicios del presupuesto e instrumenta un control interno para la aprobacion tecnica y financiera de los compromisos contables y las erogaciones del presupuesto antes de llevar el tramite a traves de los mecanismos de registro con el (SAP).

  11. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    Families of mutually dependent classes that may be accessed polymor- phically provide an advanced tool for separation of concerns, in that it enables client code to use a group of instances of related classes safely without depending on the exact classes involved. However, class families which ar...

  12. Heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in Quercus ilex L. leaves fit an a priori subdivision in site typologies based on human management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Flavia; Baldantoni, Daniela; Maisto, Giulia; Alfani, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Concentrations of four heavy metals (HMs) (Cd, Cr, Fe, Pb) and four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (fluoranthene, phenanthrene, chrysene, benzo[a]pyrene) in Quercus ilex L. leaves collected at the Campania Region (Southern Italy) in previous air biomonitoring studies were employed to (1) test the correspondence with an a priori site subdivision (remote, periurban, and urban) and (2) evaluate long temporal trends of HM (approximately 20 years) and PAH (approximately 10 years) air contaminations. Overall, Q. ilex leaf HM and PAH concentrations resulted along the gradient: remote < periurban < urban sites, reflecting the a priori subdivision based on human management. Over a long time, although a clear decrease of leaf Pb, chrysene, fluoranthene, and phenanthrene concentrations occurred at the urban sites, a high contamination level persists.

  13. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri Kalervo; Oksanen, Tarja Maarit; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C.; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-01-01

    According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate and vegetation along the gradient from Siberian tundra via northernmost Fennoscandia to the al...

  14. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri Kalervo; Oksanen, Tarja Maarit; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C.; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This is the published version of the article. Published source: http://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1837. According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate...

  15. RESEARCH OF APPROACHES TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF FUNCTIONING OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT SUBDIVISIONS FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kharchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Modern transport systems are not stable and can not stand up to the destabilizing factors. Global track record in the economic and commercial management systems is the use of the concept of sustainable development. It is necessary on the basis of analysis of literary sources to define the directions of efficiency increase of functioning of railway transport subdivisions from the point of view of sustainable development. Methodology. To achieve the purpose the features of the use of sustainable development conception and its realization were investigated at a management of the complex systems. The existent models were also analyzed in the field of efficiency increase of functioning of railway transport subdivisions. Findings. On the basis of literary sources analysis, keeping up the conceptual essence of the sustainable development, the main directions of efficiency increase of subdivisions functioning were selected. They take into account the basic requirements of steady development and should be considered as a complex. Originality. New directions to consider the efficiency increase issues from position of sustainable development were offered by the author. Three components of conceptions of sustainable development (economic, ecological and social should be examined in a balanced way. Thus, the above mentioned theoretical studies can promote the forming of new economy model corresponding to the purposes and principles of sustainable development. Practical value. The conducted analysis development confirms the necessity of researches on perspective directions of development of railway transport subdivisions, which are marked by the guidance of Ukrzaliznytsia. It enables to select basic directions for further research in the area of efficiency increase.

  16. Monitoring brain development of chick embryos in vivo using 3.0 T MRI: subdivision volume change and preliminary structural quantification using DTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zien; Chen, Zengai; Shan, Jiehui; Ma, Weiwei; Li, Lei; Zu, Jinyan; Xu, Jianrong

    2015-07-25

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has many advantages in the research of in vivo embryonic brain development, specifically its noninvasive aspects and ability to avoid skeletal interference. However, few studies have focused on brain development in chick, which is a traditional animal model in developmental biology. We aimed to serially monitor chick embryo brain development in vivo using 3.0 T MRI. Ten fertile Hy-line white eggs were incubated and seven chick embryo brains were monitored in vivo and analyzed serially from 5 to 20 days during incubation using 3.0 T MRI. A fast positioning sequence was pre-scanned to obtain sagittal and coronal brain planes corresponding to the established atlas. T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) was performed for volume estimation of the whole brain and subdivision (telencephalon, cerebellum, brainstem, and lateral ventricle [LV]); diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to reflect the evolution of neural bundle structures. The chick embryos' whole brain and subdivision grew non-linearly over time; the DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) value within the telencephalon increased non-linearly as well. All seven scanned eggs hatched successfully. MRI avoids embryonic sacrifice in a way that allows serial monitoring of longitudinal developmental processes of a single embryo. Feasibility for analyzing subdivision of the brain during development, and adding structural information related to neural bundles, makes MRI a powerful tool for exploring brain development.

  17. Connectivity-based parcellation of the nucleus accumbens into core and shell portions for stereotactic target localization and alterations in each NAc subdivision in mTLE patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xixi; Yang, Ru; Wang, Kewan; Zhang, Zhongping; Wang, Junling; Tan, Xiangliang; Zhang, Jiajun; Mei, Yingjie; Chan, Queenie; Xu, Jun; Feng, Qianjin; Xu, Yikai

    2017-12-20

    The nucleus accumbens (NAc), an important target of deep brain stimulation for some neuropsychiatric disorders, is thought to be involved in epileptogenesis, especially the shell portion. However, little is known about the exact parcellation within the NAc, and its structural abnormalities or connections alterations of each NAc subdivision in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Here, we used diffusion probabilistic tractography to subdivide the NAc into core and shell portions in individual TLE patients to guide stereotactic localization of NAc shell. The structural and connection abnormalities in each NAc subdivision in the groups were then estimated. We successfully segmented the NAc in 24 of 25 controls, 14 of 16 left TLE patients, and 14 of 18 right TLE patients. Both left and right TLE patients exhibited significantly decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased radial diffusivity (RD) in the shell, while there was no significant alteration in the core. Moreover, relatively distinct structural connectivity of each NAc subdivision was demonstrated. More extensive connection abnormalities were detected in the NAc shell in TLE patients. Our results indicate that neuronal degeneration and damage caused by seizure mainly exists in NAc shell and provide anatomical evidence to support the role of NAc shell in epileptogenesis. Remarkably, those NAc shell tracts with increased connectivities in TLE patients were found decreased in FA, which indicates disruption of fiber integrity. This finding suggests the regeneration of aberrant connections, a compensatory and repair process ascribed to recurrent seizures that constitutes part of the characteristic changes in the epileptic network. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Conservative management of Beta-thalassemia major cases in the sub-division level hospital of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ujjwal; Kundu, Dipankar; Sinha, Arijit; Banerjee, Kallol; Bandyopadhyay, Ranjana; Mandal, Tridibeshwar; Ray, Debes

    2013-01-01

    The ideal management of thalassemia involves a multidisciplinary therapeutic team approach and should be preferably done at a comprehensive thalassemia care center with all sorts of specialists and the backup of a well-equipped blood bank. However, in developing country like ours, these facilities are not available in rural set up. So, a situation where conservative therapy with regular blood transfusion is the only choice left to innumerable thalassemic children. To evaluate the existing conservative management protocol of Beta-thalassemia major patients in the setup of a subdivision level Government Hospital of rural West Bengal, India. The study was performed between December 2009 and December 2011. Beta-thalassemia major patients, registered in blood bank for moderate transfusion regimen, were taken in study. All the patients were screened for Transfusion Transmittable Infections at the time of registration and thereafter periodically every six months. Iron chelation therapy was given simultaneously with transfusion at a dose of 20 to 40 mg/kg/day for six days. The patients were advised to follow up with chelation therapy at home by daily infusion with a goal of maintaining serum ferritin level below 1000 ng/ml. Over this long period of study, the patients were periodically evaluated for complications. The average blood requirement (ml/kg/year) in 1-5 years, 6-10 years, and 11-15 years were 110, 150, and 180, respectively. Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus infection in 1-5 years and 6-10 years were 1.75% and 2.08%, respectively. It is well seen that serum ferritin level increase with ascending age as does the blood consumption. Conservative management may be the best alternative and at times the only hope for patients in developing country like ours. However, in order to decrease the disease load, steps need to be taken to introduce preventive measures.

  19. Ethno-medicinal survey of important plants practiced by indigenous community at Ladha subdivision, South Waziristan agency, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Adnan, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Hasan; Rehman, Atiq Ur; Jan, Rahmatullah; Khan, Jafar

    2016-11-15

    Medicinal flora plays a vital role in treating various types of ailments in living beings. The present study was planned to investigate and document systematically the indigenous knowledge in a scientifically little explored area of Ladha sub-division, South Waziristan agency, Pakistan. Hence, this study would contribute positively to the field of ethnopharmacology. Prior to ethnomedicinal data collection, regular field visits were conducted during the month of May and June 2015 to locate the sites and respondents from where the traditional knowledge was to be recorded. Ethno-medicinal data was collected during the month July and August 2015 through rapid appraisal approach (RAA) based on direct interaction with the indigenous communities by making group discussions, corner meetings and semi-structured interviews. Data was evaluated statistically by using the index of Use value (UV) and Frequency of citations (FC). A total of 82 medicinal plants belonging to 42 families were reported in the study. Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts. Highest use values were recorded for Peganum harmala (0.93), Punica granatum (0.91), Thymus mongolicus (0.90), Chenopodium album (0.89), Coriandrum sativum (0.87), Mentha longifolia (0.87), Lactuca serriola (0.87) and Portulaca oleracea (0.87). Medicinal plants used for the gastro intestinal complexities and respiratory diseases were more than 9% followed by skin and diarrhea (7% each), liver disorders (5%) cough and cold fever (5%). People of the area mostly still rely on traditional herbal therapies. Keeping in mind the dependence of the indigenous community for their primary health care on such herbal remedies, pharmacological and critical toxicological investigation of certain flora is necessary. Moreover, projects should be designed to analyze the existing issues and problems related with medicinal plants conservation.

  20. Microsatellites reveal a strong subdivision of genetic structure in Chinese populations of the mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Jing-Tao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two colour forms of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch coexist in China: a red (carmine form, which is considered to be native and a green form which is considered to be invasive. The population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this organism were unclear in China, and there is a controversy over whether they constitute distinct species. To address these issues, we genotyped a total of 1,055 individuals from 18 red populations and 7 green populations in China using eight microsatellite loci. Results We identified 109 alleles. We found a highly significant genetic differentiation among the 25 populations (global FST = 0.506, global FST {ENA} = 0.473 and a low genetic diversity in each population. In addition, genetic diversity of the red form mites was found to be higher than the green form. Pearson correlations between statistics of variation (AR and HE and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude showed that the genetic diversity of the red form was correlated with latitude. Using Bayesian clustering, we divided the Chinese mite populations into five clades which were well congruent with their geographic distributions. Conclusions Spider mites possess low levels of genetic diversity, limit gene flow between populations and significant and IBD (isolation by distance effect. These factors in turn contribute to the strong subdivision of genetic structure. In addition, population genetic structure results don't support the separation of the two forms of spider mite into two species. The morphological differences between the two forms of mites may be a result of epigenetic effects.

  1. Microsatellites reveal a strong subdivision of genetic structure in Chinese populations of the mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Two colour forms of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) coexist in China: a red (carmine) form, which is considered to be native and a green form which is considered to be invasive. The population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this organism were unclear in China, and there is a controversy over whether they constitute distinct species. To address these issues, we genotyped a total of 1,055 individuals from 18 red populations and 7 green populations in China using eight microsatellite loci. Results We identified 109 alleles. We found a highly significant genetic differentiation among the 25 populations (global FST = 0.506, global FST {ENA} = 0.473) and a low genetic diversity in each population. In addition, genetic diversity of the red form mites was found to be higher than the green form. Pearson correlations between statistics of variation (AR and HE) and geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) showed that the genetic diversity of the red form was correlated with latitude. Using Bayesian clustering, we divided the Chinese mite populations into five clades which were well congruent with their geographic distributions. Conclusions Spider mites possess low levels of genetic diversity, limit gene flow between populations and significant and IBD (isolation by distance) effect. These factors in turn contribute to the strong subdivision of genetic structure. In addition, population genetic structure results don't support the separation of the two forms of spider mite into two species. The morphological differences between the two forms of mites may be a result of epigenetic effects. PMID:22348504

  2. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  3. Class 1 Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A "Class 1" area is a geographic area recognized by the EPA as being of the highest environmental quality and requiring maximum protection. Class I areas are areas...

  4. Class, Culture and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2013-01-01

    , discussions within political sociology have not yet utilized the merits of a multidimensional conception of class. In light of this, the article suggests a comprehensive Bourdieusian framework for class analysis, integrating culture as both a structural phenomenon co-constitutive of class and as symbolic...

  5. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. and Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov., subdivision 1 Acidobacteria from Sphagnum peat and decaying wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulichevskaya, Irina S; Kostina, Lilia A; Valásková, Vendula; Rijpstra, W Irene C; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; de Boer, Wietse; Dedysh, Svetlana N

    2012-07-01

    Two strains of subdivision 1 Acidobacteria, a pink-pigmented bacterium KA1(T) and a colourless isolate WH120(T), were obtained from acidic Sphagnum peat and wood under decay by the white-rot fungus Hyploma fasciculare, respectively. Cells of these isolates were Gram-negative-staining, non-motile, short rods, which were covered by large polysaccharide capsules and occurred singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were strictly aerobic mesophiles that grew between 10 and 33 °C, with an optimum at 22-28 °C. Both isolates developed under acidic conditions, but strain WH120(T) was more acidophilic (pH growth range 3.5-6.4; optimum, 4.0-4.5) than strain KA1(T) (pH growth range 3.5-7.3; optimum , 5.0-5.5). The preferred growth substrates were sugars. In addition, the wood-derived isolate WH120(T) grew on oxalate, lactate and xylan, while the peat-inhabiting acidobacterium strain KA1(T) utilized galacturonate, glucuronate and pectin. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(17:1)ω8c; the cells also contained significant amounts of 13,16-dimethyl octacosanedioic acid. The quinone was MK-8. The DNA G+C contents of strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) were 54.1 and 51.7 mol%, respectively. Strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) displayed 97.8% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to each other. The closest recognized relatives were Acidobacterium capsulatum and Telmatobacter bradus (93.4-94.3% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). These species differed from strains KA1(T) and WH120(T) by their ability to grow under anoxic conditions, the absence of capsules, presence of cell motility and differing fatty acid composition. Based on these differences, the two new isolates are proposed as representing a novel genus, Acidicapsa gen. nov., and two novel species. Acidicapsa borealis gen. nov., sp. nov. is the type species for the new genus with strain KA1(T) (=DSM 23886(T)=LMG 25897(T)=VKM B-2678(T)) as the type strain. The name Acidicapsa ligni sp. nov. is proposed for

  6. Class network routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanot, Gyan [Princeton, NJ; Blumrich, Matthias A [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton On Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul W [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Mount Kisco, NY; Takken, Todd E [Mount Kisco, NY; Vranas, Pavlos M [Bedford Hills, NY

    2009-09-08

    Class network routing is implemented in a network such as a computer network comprising a plurality of parallel compute processors at nodes thereof. Class network routing allows a compute processor to broadcast a message to a range (one or more) of other compute processors in the computer network, such as processors in a column or a row. Normally this type of operation requires a separate message to be sent to each processor. With class network routing pursuant to the invention, a single message is sufficient, which generally reduces the total number of messages in the network as well as the latency to do a broadcast. Class network routing is also applied to dense matrix inversion algorithms on distributed memory parallel supercomputers with hardware class function (multicast) capability. This is achieved by exploiting the fact that the communication patterns of dense matrix inversion can be served by hardware class functions, which results in faster execution times.

  7. Puppy socialization classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seksel, K

    1997-05-01

    Setting up a puppy training program is one of the most important services veterinarians can offer. Puppy socialization classes aim not only to socialize the puppies so that they learn to interact well with children, adults, and other dogs, but also to teach basic obedience exercises. The classes build a strong bond between puppy, owner, and veterinary clinic. This article covers the techniques used, the structure of the classes, and outlines benefits for the dog, owner, veterinarian, and community.

  8. Middle classes: theoretical principles, contemporary working out, regarding the hired workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of defining middle classes. Theoretical principles of social and class structures, including middle classes, are examined. The criteria of reckoning some hired workers as middle classes worked out on the basis of normative methodology (normative criteria are submitted, the most important of them being educational qualifications, occupation, personal income and provision of housing. Methods of statistical and sociologic analysing data are applied. The results of analysing the conformity of the hired workers to the normative criteria of representing middle classes are produced. It is determined that today heads of organizations and their subdivisions as well as certified top and middle management specialists representing middle classes comprise only 2-3 per cent of the total number of the hired workers. It should be noted that there are practically no-one among them who has got a family with two and more children. The low level of wages is the main reason for that. In addition there are some other reasons, too. The results of the research could find application in the state social and economic policy

  9. Teaching Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…

  10. Class II Microcins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliadis, Gaëlle; Destoumieux-Garzón, Delphine; Peduzzi, Jean

    Class II microcins are 4.9- to 8.9-kDa polypeptides produced by and active against enterobacteria. They are classified into two subfamilies according to their structure and their gene cluster arrangement. While class IIa microcins undergo no posttranslational modification, class IIb microcins show a conserved C-terminal sequence that carries a salmochelin-like siderophore motif as a posttranslational modification. Aside from this C-terminal end, which is the signature of class IIb microcins, some sequence similarities can be observed within and between class II subclasses, suggesting the existence of common ancestors. Their mechanisms of action are still under investigation, but several class II microcins use inner membrane proteins as cellular targets, and some of them are membrane-active. Like group B colicins, many, if not all, class II microcins are TonB- and energy-dependent and use catecholate siderophore receptors for recognition/­translocation across the outer membrane. In that context, class IIb microcins are considered to have developed molecular mimicry to increase their affinity for their outer membrane receptors through their salmochelin-like posttranslational modification.

  11. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...

  12. Class in disguise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Prieur, Annick

    This paper asks how class can have importance in one of the worlds’ most equal societies: Denmark. The answer is that class here appears in disguised forms. The field under study is a city, Aalborg, in the midst of transition from a stronghold of industrialism to a post industrial economy. The pa...

  13. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  14. Population subdivision of the surf clam Mactra chinensis in the East China Sea: Changjiang River outflow is not the sole driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Gang; Li, Qi; Ni, Lehai; Kong, Lingfeng; Yu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The northwestern Pacific, characterized by unique tectonic and hydrological settings, has greatly intrigued marine phylogeographers. However, current studies mostly focus on the influence of Pleistocene isolation of sea basins in population structure of species in the region, leaving the contribution of other factors (such as freshwater outflow and environmental gradients) largely unexploited. Here we shed light on the question by investigating phylogeography of the surf clam Mactra chinensis in the East China Sea (ECS). Genetic information was acquired from 501 specimens collected from its main distribution in the region, represented by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. A shallow and star-like phylogeny was revealed for all COI haplotypes, indicating the origin of populations from a single refugium. Although no divergent lineages existed, population subdivision was detected in both data sets. The most striking pattern was the significant differentiation between populations north and south of a biogeographic boundary-the Changjiang Estuary, suggesting a barrier effect of the freshwater outflow to gene flow. For the northern group, substructure was revealed by COI result as one southernmost population was significant different from other ones. Clear latitude gradations in allele frequencies were revealed by microsatellite analyses, likely influenced by environmental gradient factors such as temperature. Our results demonstrate that genetic subdivision can arise for populations within the ECS despite they have a single origin, and multiple mechanisms including Changjiang River outflow, environmental gradient factors and life-history traits may act in combination in the process.

  15. Population subdivision of the surf clam Mactra chinensis in the East China Sea: Changjiang River outflow is not the sole driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Ni

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The northwestern Pacific, characterized by unique tectonic and hydrological settings, has greatly intrigued marine phylogeographers. However, current studies mostly focus on the influence of Pleistocene isolation of sea basins in population structure of species in the region, leaving the contribution of other factors (such as freshwater outflow and environmental gradients largely unexploited. Here we shed light on the question by investigating phylogeography of the surf clam Mactra chinensis in the East China Sea (ECS. Genetic information was acquired from 501 specimens collected from its main distribution in the region, represented by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI and nine polymorphic microsatellite loci. A shallow and star-like phylogeny was revealed for all COI haplotypes, indicating the origin of populations from a single refugium. Although no divergent lineages existed, population subdivision was detected in both data sets. The most striking pattern was the significant differentiation between populations north and south of a biogeographic boundary—the Changjiang Estuary, suggesting a barrier effect of the freshwater outflow to gene flow. For the northern group, substructure was revealed by COI result as one southernmost population was significant different from other ones. Clear latitude gradations in allele frequencies were revealed by microsatellite analyses, likely influenced by environmental gradient factors such as temperature. Our results demonstrate that genetic subdivision can arise for populations within the ECS despite they have a single origin, and multiple mechanisms including Changjiang River outflow, environmental gradient factors and life-history traits may act in combination in the process.

  16. On stable Baire classes

    OpenAIRE

    Karlova, Olena; Mykhaylyuk, Volodymyr

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study adhesive spaces. Using this concept we obtain a characterization of stable Baire maps $f:X\\to Y$ of the class $\\alpha$ for wide classes of topological spaces. In particular, we prove that for a topological space $X$ and a contractible space $Y$ a map $f:X\\to Y$ belongs to the $n$'th stable Baire class if and only if there exist a sequence $(f_k)_{k=1}^\\infty$ of continuous maps $f_k:X\\to Y$ and a sequence $(F_k)_{k=1}^\\infty$ of functionally ambiguous sets of the $n$'th...

  17. Pichia pastoris is a Suitable Host for the Heterologous Expression of Predicted Class I and Class II Hydrophobins for Discovery, Study, and Application in Biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Anne Gandier

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The heterologous expression of proteins is often a crucial first step in not only investigating their function, but also in their industrial application. The functional assembly and aggregation of hydrophobins offers intriguing biotechnological applications from surface modification to drug delivery, yet make developing systems for their heterologous expression challenging. In this article, we describe the development of Pichia pastoris KM71H strains capable of solubly producing the full set of predicted Cordyceps militaris hydrophobins CMil1 (Class IA, CMil2 (Class II, and CMil3 (IM at mg/L yields with the use of 6His-tags not only for purification but for their detection. This result further demonstrates the feasibility of using P. pastoris as a host organism for the production of hydrophobins from all Ascomycota Class I subdivisions (a classification our previous work defined as well as Class II. We highlight the specific challenges related to the production of hydrophobins, notably the challenge in detecting the protein that will be described, in particular during the screening of transformants. Together with the literature, our results continue to show that P. pastoris is a suitable host for the soluble heterologous expression of hydrophobins with a wide range of properties.

  18. Semantic Analysis of Virtual Classes and Nested Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    1999-01-01

    Virtual classes and nested classes are distinguishing features of BETA. Nested classes originated from Simula, but until recently they have not been part of main stream object- oriented languages. C++ has a restricted form of nested classes and they were included in Java 1.1. Virtual classes...... the central elements of the semantic analysis used in the Mjølner BETA compiler....

  19. Second-Class Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punke, Harold H.

    1972-01-01

    Those factors which motivate citizens to define themselves as first" or second" class are realistically discussed and alternatives to the present trends in the role of American citizenship are suggested. (JB)

  20. Special classes of semigroups

    CERN Document Server

    Nagy, Attila

    2001-01-01

    In semigroup theory there are certain kinds of band decompositions, which are very useful in the study of the structure semigroups There are a number of special semigroup classes in which these decompositions can be used very successfully The book focuses attention on such classes of semigroups Some of them are partially discussed in earlier books, but in the last thirty years new semigroup classes have appeared and a fairly large body of material has been published on them The book provides a systematic review on this subject The first chapter is an introduction The remaining chapters are devoted to special semigroup classes These are Putcha semigroups, commutative semigroups, weakly commutative semigroups, R-Commutative semigroups, conditionally commutative semigroups, RC-commutative semigroups, quasi commutative semigroups, medial semigroups, right commutative semigroups, externally commutative semigroups, E-m semigroups, WE-m semigroups, weakly exponential semigroups, (m,n)-commutative semigroups and n(2)...

  1. Talking Class in Tehroon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian; Rezakhani, Khodadad

    2016-01-01

    Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...... back to medieval times, whereas others are of modern vintage, the linguistic legacy of television shows, pop songs, social media memes or street vernacular. Every day, it seems, an infectious set of phrases appears that make yesterday’s seem embarrassingly antiquated.......Persian, like any other language, is laced with references to class, both blatant and subtle. With idioms and metaphors, Iranians can identify and situate others, and thus themselves, within hierarchies of social status and privilege, both real and imagined. Some class-related terms can be traced...

  2. Pseudo Class III malocclusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Al-Hummayani, Fadia M

    2016-01-01

    .... This case report represents a none traditional treatment modality to treat deep anterior crossbite in an adult pseudo class III malocclusion complicated by severely retruded, supraerupted upper and lower incisors...

  3. One Class, Many Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Boutonne, Sylvie; Lucas, Keith B.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a study of a physics class in which few interactions occur among students. Concludes, through observations and interviews. that students describe both the social and physical world in different ways. Contains 33 references. (DDR)

  4. Nordic Walking Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    Fitness Club

    2015-01-01

    Four classes of one hour each are held on Tuesdays. RDV barracks parking at Entrance A, 10 minutes before class time. Spring Course 2015: 05.05/12.05/19.05/26.05 Prices 40 CHF per session + 10 CHF club membership 5 CHF/hour pole rental Check out our schedule and enroll at: https://espace.cern.ch/club-fitness/Lists/Nordic%20Walking/NewForm.aspx? Hope to see you among us! fitness.club@cern.ch

  5. Embodying class and gender

    OpenAIRE

    GEERS, ALEXIE

    2015-01-01

    In March 1937, when the first issue of Marie-Claire was published, the images of the female body it presented to its female readers from working-class backgrounds contrasted sharply with those featured in previous magazines. The female bodies are dressed and groomed to seduce and replace the hieratic bodies that presented fashions synonymous with membership in the upper classes. The present essay examines this shift and shows that the visual repertoire employed is borrowed from that of the fe...

  6. Real-time PCR detection of Holophagae (Acidobacteria) and Verrucomicrobia subdivision 1 groups in bulk and leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; van Overbeek, Leonard Simon

    2010-11-01

    In the light of the poor culturability of Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia species, group-specific real-time (qPCR) systems were developed based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences from culturable representatives of both groups. The number of DNA targets from three different groups, i.e. Holophagae (Acidobacteria group 8) and Luteolibacter/Prosthecobacter and unclassified Verrucomicrobiaceae subdivision 1, was determined in DNA extracts from different leek (Allium porrum) rhizosphere soil compartments and from bulk soil with the aim to determine the distribution of the three bacterial groups in the plant-soil ecosystem. The specificity of the designed primers was evaluated in three steps. First, in silico tests were performed which demonstrated that all designed primers 100% matched with database sequences of their respective groups, whereas lower matches with other non-target bacterial groups were found. Second, PCR amplification with the different primer sets was performed on genomic DNA extracts from target and from non-target bacteria. This test demonstrated specificity of the designed primers for the target groups, as single amplicons of expected sizes were found only for the target bacteria. Third, the qPCR systems were tested for specific amplifications from soil DNA extracts and 48 amplicons from each primer system were sequenced. All sequences were >97% similar to database sequences of the respective target groups. Estimated cell numbers based on Holophagae-, Luteolibacter/Prosthecobacter- and unclassified Verrucomicrobiaceae subdivision 1-specific qPCRs from leek rhizosphere compartments and bulk soils demonstrated higher preference for one or both rhizosphere compartments above bulk soil for all three bacterial groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Translation in ESL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Imola Katalin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of translation in foreign language classes cannot be dealt with unless we attempt to make an overview of what translation meant for language teaching in different periods of language pedagogy. From the translation-oriented grammar-translation method through the complete ban on translation and mother tongue during the times of the audio-lingual approaches, we have come today to reconsider the role and status of translation in ESL classes. This article attempts to advocate for translation as a useful ESL class activity, which can completely fulfil the requirements of communicativeness. We also attempt to identify some activities and games, which rely on translation in some books published in the 1990s and the 2000s.

  8. MIDDLE CLASS MOVEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Sravana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The middle class is placed between labour and capital. It neither directly awns the means of production that pumps out the surplus generated by wage labour power, nor does it, by its own labour, produce the surplus which has use and exchange value. Broadly speaking, this class consists of the petty bourgeoisie and the white-collar workers. The former are either self-employed or involved in the distribution of commodities and the latter are non-manual office workers, supervisors and profession...

  9. Working Together in Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pateşan Marioara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The scores obtained by the military students are very important as a lot of opportunities depend on them: the choice of the branch, selection for different in and off-campus activities, the appointment to the workplace and so on. A qualifier, regardless of its form of effective expression, can make a difference in a given context of issuing a value judgment, in relation to the student's performance assessment. In our research we tried to find out what motives students, what determines them to get actively involved in the tasks they are given and the ways we can improve their participation in classes and assignments. In order to have an educated generation we need to have not only well prepared teachers but ones that are open-minded, flexible and in pace with the methodological novelties that can improve the teaching learning process in class. Along the years we have noticed that in classes where students constituted a cohesive group with an increasing degree of interaction between members, the results were better than in a group that did not appreciate team-work. In this article we want to highlight the fact that a teacher can bring to class the appropriate methods and procedures can contribute decisively to the strengthening of the group cohesion and high scores.

  10. Class Actions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the relatively new Danish Act on Class Action (Danish: gruppesøgsmål) which was suggested by The Permanent Council on Civil procedure (Retsplejerådet) of which the article's author is a member. The operability of the new provisions is illustrated through some wellknown Danish...

  11. Classes of Instructional Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Merrill, M. David

    1979-01-01

    Describes three classes of variables which should be considered when one is designing instructional materials, doing research on instruction, or developing better methods of instruction, and proposes a classification scheme which is summarized in the last of the 13 figures that illustrate the article. A blbliography is included. (Author/RAO)

  12. The Class Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 7. The Class Number Problem - An Introduction to Algebraic Number Theory. Rajat Tandon. General Article Volume 3 Issue 7 July 1998 pp 28-37. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Charlo Class Scheduling Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebiger, Leo J.

    The design and implementation of a rotating class schedule which was put into effect in the Charlo High School, Charlo, Montana in September 1969 is discussed in this paper. The schedule, described in this report, consists of a 75-minute period followed by 2, 60-minute periods in the morning and 4, 45-minute afternoon periods. The program…

  14. Virtual Classes, Real Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2010-01-01

    As Internet technology encroached on the public school classroom about a decade ago, Kim Ross, superintendent of the Houston School District in Houston, Minnesota, saw an opportunity. At first, he and his administrative team simply wanted to offer students in the district of 1,300 access to more classes via the web than what a district that size…

  15. An "expanded" class perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steur, Luisa Johanna

    2014-01-01

    -back of Adivasis against their age-old colonization or the work of ‘external’ agitators. Capitalist restructuring and ‘globalization’ was generally seen as simply the latest chapter in the suffering of these Adivasis. Little focused attention was paid to the recent class trajectory of their lives under changing...

  16. Class I Cytokine Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinocher, Helena

    The members of the class I cytokine receptor family are involved in a wide range of cellular processes and of high pharmaceutical importance, however, even though the transmembrane receptors have been studied for decades, it has not been fully elucidated yet, how these receptors induce their intr......The members of the class I cytokine receptor family are involved in a wide range of cellular processes and of high pharmaceutical importance, however, even though the transmembrane receptors have been studied for decades, it has not been fully elucidated yet, how these receptors induce...... their intracellular response. The overall goal of this thesis was to improve the understanding of class I cytokine receptor activation and regulation at an atomic level. Two members of the class I cytokine receptor family, the human growth hormone receptor (hGHR), and the human erythropoietin receptor (hEPOR) have...... the traptamers on the hEPOR TMD dimeric complex in detergent micelles. To gain a better understanding of hGHR regulation a point mutation in the hGHR intracellular domain (ICD), which has recently been linked to lung cancer, was characterized. The mutation was found to decrease binding of suppressor of cytokine...

  17. Adeus à classe trabalhadora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Eley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No início da década de 1980, a política centrada em classes da tradição socialista estava em crise, e comentadores importantes adotaram tons apocalípticos. No final da década, a esquerda permanecia profundamente dividida entre os advogados da mudança e os defensores da fé. Em meados dos anos 1990, os primeiros tinham, de modo geral, ganhado a batalha. O artigo busca apresentar essa mudança contemporânea não como a 'morte da classe', mas como o desa­parecimento de um tipo particular de ­sociedade de classes, marcado pelo ­processo de formação da classe trabalhadora entre os anos 1880 e 1940 e pelo alinhamento político daí resultante, atingindo seu apogeu na construção social-democrata do acordo do pós-guerra. Quando mudanças de longo prazo na economia se combinaram com o ataque ao keynesianismo na política de recessão a partir de meados da década de 1970, a unidade da classe trabalhadora deixou de estar disponível da forma antiga e bastante utilizada, como o terreno natural da política de esquerda. Enquanto uma coletividade dominante da classe trabalhadora entrou em declínio, outra se corporificou de modo lento e desigual para tomar o lugar daquela. Mas a unidade operacional dessa nova agregação da classe trabalhadora ainda está, em grande parte, em formação. Para recuperar a eficácia política da tradição socialista, alguma nova visão de agência política coletiva será necessária, uma visão imaginativamente ajustada às condições emergentes da produção e acumulação capitalista no início do século XXI.

  18. Generalized Frol\\'ik classes

    OpenAIRE

    Lipparini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The class $\\mathfrak C $ relative to countably compact topological spaces and the class $\\mathfrak P$ relative to pseudocompact spaces introduced by Z. Frol\\'ik are naturally generalized relative to every topological property. We provide a characterization of such generalized Frol\\'ik classes in the broad case of properties defined in terms of filter convergence. If a class of spaces can be defined in terms of filter convergence, then the same is true for its Frol\\'ik class.

  19. World Class Facilities Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmstrøm, Ole Emil; Jensen, Per Anker

    2013-01-01

    Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet.......Alle der med entusiasme arbejder med Facilities Management drømmer om at levere World Class. DFM drømmer om at skabe rammer og baggrund for, at vi i Danmark kan bryste os at være blandt de førende på verdensplan. Her samles op på, hvor tæt vi er på at nå drømmemålet....

  20. Storytelling in EFL Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Bala

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Storytelling is one of the oldest ways of education and oral tradition that is continuously being used to transfer the previous nation‘s cultures, tradition and customs. It constructs a bridge between the new and the old. Storytelling in EFL classes usually provides a meaningful context, interesting atmosphere and is used as a tool to highly motivate students. Although it seems to be mostly based on speaking, it is used to promote other skills such as writing, reading, and listening. Storytelling is mainly regarded to be grounded on imitation and repetition; nevertheless many creative activities can be implemented in the classroom since this method directs learners to use their imaginations. This study discusses the importance of storytelling as a teaching method, and it outlines the advantages of storytelling in EFL classes.

  1. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a century, the phenomenon has not played a role in the development of linguistic typology or modern grammatical theory. The current volume aims to address this gap by offering detailed studies on flexible word classes, investigating their properties and what it means for the grammar of a language to have...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  2. FY98 Class Convening Schedule for Coast Guard Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-12

    This Notice publishes the FY98 class convening schedule of Coast Guard Class "A" : and "C" resident and exportable training courses defined by program/force : managers as essential or directly related to mission accomplishment for : achievement of pr...

  3. Using Dynamic Classes and Role Classes to Model Object Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, Roelf J.; de Jonge, Wiebren; Spruit, Paul

    1995-01-01

    n this paper, we argue that object-oriented models must be able to represent three kinds of taxonomic structures: static classes, dynamic classes, and role classes, that behave differently with respect to object migration. If CAR is a static subclass of V EHICLE, then a vehicle that is not a car can

  4. Class impressions : Higher social class elicits lower prosociality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doesum, Niels J.; Tybur, Joshua M.; Van Lange, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Social class predicts numerous important life outcomes and social orientations. To date, literature has mainly examined how an individual's own class shapes interactions with others. But how prosocially do people treat others they perceive as coming from lower, middle, or higher social classes?

  5. Class prediction for high-dimensional class-imbalanced data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusa Lara

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of class prediction studies is to develop rules to accurately predict the class membership of new samples. The rules are derived using the values of the variables available for each subject: the main characteristic of high-dimensional data is that the number of variables greatly exceeds the number of samples. Frequently the classifiers are developed using class-imbalanced data, i.e., data sets where the number of samples in each class is not equal. Standard classification methods used on class-imbalanced data often produce classifiers that do not accurately predict the minority class; the prediction is biased towards the majority class. In this paper we investigate if the high-dimensionality poses additional challenges when dealing with class-imbalanced prediction. We evaluate the performance of six types of classifiers on class-imbalanced data, using simulated data and a publicly available data set from a breast cancer gene-expression microarray study. We also investigate the effectiveness of some strategies that are available to overcome the effect of class imbalance. Results Our results show that the evaluated classifiers are highly sensitive to class imbalance and that variable selection introduces an additional bias towards classification into the majority class. Most new samples are assigned to the majority class from the training set, unless the difference between the classes is very large. As a consequence, the class-specific predictive accuracies differ considerably. When the class imbalance is not too severe, down-sizing and asymmetric bagging embedding variable selection work well, while over-sampling does not. Variable normalization can further worsen the performance of the classifiers. Conclusions Our results show that matching the prevalence of the classes in training and test set does not guarantee good performance of classifiers and that the problems related to classification with class

  6. Class field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Artin, Emil

    2009-01-01

    This classic book, originally published in 1968, is based on notes of a year-long seminar the authors ran at Princeton University. The primary goal of the book was to give a rather complete presentation of algebraic aspects of global class field theory, and the authors accomplished this goal spectacularly: for more than 40 years since its first publication, the book has served as an ultimate source for many generations of mathematicians. In this revised edition, two mathematical additions complementing the exposition in the original text are made. The new edition also contains several new foot

  7. Reference class forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    Underbudgettering og budgetoverskridelser forekommer i et flertal af større bygge- og anlægsprojekter. Problemet skyldes optimisme og/eller strategisk misinformation i budgetteringsprocessen. Reference class forecasting (RCF) er en prognosemetode, som er udviklet for at reducere eller eliminere...... projekterne er almindelige nationalt eller internationalt, er det muligt at etablere en reference-klasse af tilsvarende projekter og dermed alligevel opnå et pålideligt lokalt budget. Denne projekttype er relativt almindelig. RCF kan ikke anvendes på projekter som er reelt unikke, d.v.s. projekter for hvilke...

  8. Population Subdivision of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan Detected by Means of Mitochondrial Phylogenetic Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Shigenobu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2 and subunit-5 (ND5 genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40–41°N and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37–38°N waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φST = −0.00335, p > 0.05, corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher’s exact-test, p < 0.01. Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters.

  9. Special aspects of motivation of the structural subdivisions of the state emergency service of Ukraine in terms of physical self-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stetsenko A.I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the motivation of employees of structural subdivisions of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine to improve their level of professional competence by means of physical training. Material: questionnaire survey of 130 rescue workers aged 25 to 40 years. Results: the main motives of rescue team personnel for physical culture and sports activities are gain in physical health and professional competence, while performing rescue missions. It was established that, when on duty, most of the firefighters and rescue workers are not engaged in physical exercise at all; household chores and poor state of health in case of men prevent rescue team employees from doing exercises outside of working hours. It was found that fire-rescue specialists give preference to the development of muscle strength during professional physical trainings and would like to perform power exercises. Conclusions: the low level of motivation of current fire-rescue workers for physical self-improvement requires optimization of control over professional physical education in departments of the State Emergency Service of Ukraine.

  10. Complex colony-level organization of the deep-sea siphonophore Bargmannia elongata (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) is directionally asymmetric and arises by the subdivision of pro-buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Casey W

    2005-12-01

    Siphonophores are free-swimming colonial hydrozoans (Cnidaria) composed of asexually produced multicellular zooids. These zooids, which are homologous to solitary animals, are functionally specialized and arranged in complex species-specific patterns. The coloniality of siphonophores provides an opportunity to study the major transitions in evolution that give rise to new levels of biological organization, but siphonophores are poorly known because they are fragile and live in the open ocean. The organization and development of the deep-sea siphonophore Bargmannia elongata is described here using specimens collected with a remotely operated underwater vehicle. Each bud gives rise to a precise, directionally asymmetric sequence of zooids through a stereotypical series of subdivisions, rather than to a single zooid as in most other hydrozoans. This initial description of development in a deep-sea siphonophore provides an example of how precise colony-level organization can arise, and illustrates that the morphological complexity of cnidarians is greater than is often assumed. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Pierre Robin sequence: Subdivision, data, theories, and treatment - Part 4: Recommended management and treatment of Pierre Robin sequence and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bütow, Kurt-W; Naidoo, Sharan; Zwahlen, Roger Arthur; Morkel, Jean A

    2016-01-01

    The disorder currently accepted as Pierre Robin syndrome/anomaly/sequence (PRS) has been plagued by controversy ever since initially being described. Controversy exists not only about the appropriate terminology and etiopathogenesis of the disorder but also about its management. Therefore, clinical findings and treatment outcomes of a large database of 266 PRS cases were compared with the current state of knowledge in the scientific literature related to history, clinical description, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, theories of oligohydramnios, mandibular catch-up growth, midfacial hyperplasia, and early management. To provide a systematic treatment protocol for Fairbairn-Robin triad (FRT) and Siebold Robin sequence (SRS) patients based on clinical findings and experience with 266 PRS cases. A plethora of treatment modalities and their outcome in literature have been compared to those applied in this database and their outcomes. The management of SRS/FRT depends on various factors including compromised airways, feeding difficulties, as well as the sequence of the reconstructive ladder. Based on the novel PRS subdivisions, a stepwise sequential treatment approach is outlined, addressing the particular needs of each disorder systematically.

  12. A phylogenetic survey of budding, and/or prosthecate, non-phototrophic eubacteria: membership of Hyphomicrobium, Hyphomonas, Pedomicrobium, Filomicrobium, Caulobacter and "dichotomicrobium" to the alpha-subdivision of purple non-sulfur bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackebrandt, E; Fischer, A; Roggentin, T; Wehmeyer, U; Bomar, D; Smida, J

    1988-01-01

    The phylogenetic position of various budding and/or or prosthecate Gram-negative eubacteria was determined by different methods. Members of the genera Hyphomicrobium, Filomicrobium, Pedomicrobium were investigated by 16S rRNA cataloguing, a 1373 nucleotide long portion of the 16S rRNA was sequenced from Hyphomicrobium vulgare and the 5S rRNAs were analyzed from two Hyphomicrobium strains, Hyphomonas polymorpha and Caulobacter crescentus. Comparison with published sequences indicated a membership of all of these organisms to the alpha subdivision of purple bacteria. While C. crescentus and Hyphomonas polymorpha constitute separate individual lines of descent, the position of a coherent cluster embracing Hyphomicrobium, Pedomicrobium and Filomicrobium is not yet settled. 16S rRNA cataloguing indicate the presence of a distinct line equivalent to other subgroups in its phylogenetic depth. 5S rRNA analysis, on the other hand, groups Hyphomicrobium vulgare and strain IFAM 1761 with members of subgroup alpha-2 (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Nitrobacter winogradskyi and relatives). In contrast to the present classification, Pedomicrobium ferrugineum and Filimicrobium fusiforme are more closely related to certain Hyphomicrobium strains than these are related among each other. Budding mode of reproduction and prosthecate morphology are dominating morphological features of members of the alpha subdivision. These characteristics may gain diagnostic significance in a future formal description of this subdivision and its subgroups as a higher rank.

  13. Defeminization and social class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, J

    1985-02-01

    The hypothesis that there might occur selective defeminization by social class between childhood and adulthood among homosexual men was explored. Interview data on 686 homosexual men were employed. It was found that there is a greater tendency for cross-gender propensities to persist into adulthood among respondents from blue-collar backgrounds. Effeminate respondents from such backgrounds were found to be disproportionately involved in same-sex sexual activities during adolescence. They were also sexually responsive to same-sex persons earlier. The interpretation is offered that early homosexual experiences reinforce cross-gender propensities among blue-collar respondents because of the greater gender role dichotomization found in blue-collar culture. Such reinforcement may explain the tendency for there to be greater persistence of cross-gendering among blue-collar men.

  14. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a mixin based class and method combination mechanism with block structure propagation. Traditionally, mixins can be composed to form new classes, possibly merging the implementations of methods (as in CLOS). In our approach, a class or method combination operation may cause any...... number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...... for each member of the class family, and again by propagation implicitly compose each method from its aspects. As opposed to CLOS, this is type-checked statically; and as opposed to other systems for advanced class combination/ merging/weaving, it is integrated directly in the language, ensuring a clear...

  15. [Helminth fauna of amphibians (Vertebrata: Amphibia) in the Republic of Belarus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimalov, V V

    2009-01-01

    Historical review of the investigations of helminth fauna in amphibians from Belarus is presented. In 12 amphibian species examined by different authors 46 helminth species were found, including 29 Trematoda, 13 Nematoda, 1 Monogenea, 2 Cestoda, and 1 Acanthocephala. Original data on helminths parasitizing Amphibia in Byelorussian Polesie, by the results of long-term investigations in 1986-2004 are given. Distribution of 40 helminth species by hosts and respective infestation rates are reported.

  16. A new Groenlandaspidid Arthrodire (Vertebrata: Placodermi) from the Famennian of Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Janvier, P; Clément, G

    2005-01-01

    A new species of the arthrodire genus Groenlandaspis is described from the upper part of the Evieux Formation (Upper Famennian), based on several specimens collected from quarries at Modave and Villers-le-Temple,Liège Province, Belgium. It is the first occurrence of this widespread genus in continental Europe. This new species is characterized by an almost smooth dermal armour, except for some scattered tubercles on its skull roof, median dorsal and spinal plates. Its median dorsal plate is t...

  17. The early evolution of Synapsida (Vertebrata, Amniota) and the quality of their fossil record

    OpenAIRE

    Brocklehurst, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Synapsiden erscheinen erstmals im Fossilbericht im Oberkarbon (späten Pennsylvanium) und dominierten terrestrische Ökosysteme bis zum Ende des Paläozoikums. Diese Arbeit ist die erste detaillierte Betrachtung der frühen Evolution der Synapsiden. Modifizierte Versionen zuvor publizierter Vollständigkeitsmaße werden benutzt, um die Vollständigkeit von Pelycosaurier Fossilien einzuschätzen. Zudem wird eine Reihe unterschiedlicher Methoden genutzt, um die Übereinstimmung von Fossilbericht und Phy...

  18. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure......) and the advantage of integrating equivalent rules into a European rule set. The Danish rules, which have now been in effect for some years, are then considered....

  19. Adaptive Base Class Boost for Multi-class Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ping

    2008-01-01

    We develop the concept of ABC-Boost (Adaptive Base Class Boost) for multi-class classification and present ABC-MART, a concrete implementation of ABC-Boost. The original MART (Multiple Additive Regression Trees) algorithm has been very successful in large-scale applications. For binary classification, ABC-MART recovers MART. For multi-class classification, ABC-MART considerably improves MART, as evaluated on several public data sets.

  20. Retention and Attrition Factors for Female Certified Athletic Trainers in the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Ashley; Mensch, James M.; Jay, Michelle; French, Karen E.; Mitchell, Murray F.; Fritz, Stacy L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Organizational effectiveness and the continuity of patient care can be affected by certain levels of attrition. However, little is known about the retention and attrition of female certified athletic trainers (ATs) in certain settings. Objective: To gain insight and understanding into the factors and circumstances affecting female ATs' decisions to persist in or leave the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (NCAA D-I FBS) setting. Design: Qualitative study. Setting: The 12 NCAA D-I FBS institutions within the Southeastern Conference. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 23 women who were current full-time ATs (n  =  12) or former full-time ATs (n  =  11) at Southeastern Conference institutions participated. Data Collection and Analysis: Data were collected via in-depth, semistructured interviews, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed via a grounded theory approach. Peer review and member checking methods were performed to establish trustworthiness. Results: The decision to persist involved 4 main factors: (1) increased autonomy, (2) increased social support, (3) enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold, and (4) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of persistence, the NCAA D-I atmosphere and positive athlete dynamics, emerged under the main factor of enjoyment of job/fitting the NCAA D-I mold. The decision to leave included 3 main factors: (1) life balance issues, (2) role conflict and role overload, and (3) kinship responsibility. Two subfactors of leaving, supervisory/coach conflict and decreased autonomy, emerged under the main factor of role conflict and role overload. Conclusions: A female AT's decision to persist in or leave the NCAA D-I FBS setting can involve several factors. In order to retain capable ATs long term in the NCAA D-I setting, an individual's attributes and obligations, the setting's cultural issues, and an organization's social support paradigm should be considered

  1. A new resource for characterizing X-linked genes in Drosophila melanogaster: systematic coverage and subdivision of the X chromosome with nested, Y-linked duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R Kimberley; Deal, Megan E; Deal, Jennifer A; Garton, Russell D; Brown, C Adam; Ward, Megan E; Andrade, Rachel S; Spana, Eric P; Kaufman, Thomas C; Cook, Kevin R

    2010-12-01

    Interchromosomal duplications are especially important for the study of X-linked genes. Males inheriting a mutation in a vital X-linked gene cannot survive unless there is a wild-type copy of the gene duplicated elsewhere in the genome. Rescuing the lethality of an X-linked mutation with a duplication allows the mutation to be used experimentally in complementation tests and other genetic crosses and it maps the mutated gene to a defined chromosomal region. Duplications can also be used to screen for dosage-dependent enhancers and suppressors of mutant phenotypes as a way to identify genes involved in the same biological process. We describe an ongoing project in Drosophila melanogaster to generate comprehensive coverage and extensive breakpoint subdivision of the X chromosome with megabase-scale X segments borne on Y chromosomes. The in vivo method involves the creation of X inversions on attached-XY chromosomes by FLP-FRT site-specific recombination technology followed by irradiation to induce large internal X deletions. The resulting chromosomes consist of the X tip, a medial X segment placed near the tip by an inversion, and a full Y. A nested set of medial duplicated segments is derived from each inversion precursor. We have constructed a set of inversions on attached-XY chromosomes that enable us to isolate nested duplicated segments from all X regions. To date, our screens have provided a minimum of 78% X coverage with duplication breakpoints spaced a median of nine genes apart. These duplication chromosomes will be valuable resources for rescuing and mapping X-linked mutations and identifying dosage-dependent modifiers of mutant phenotypes.

  2. Where do the treeless tundra areas of northern highlands fit in the global biome system: toward an ecologically natural subdivision of the tundra biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Risto; Oksanen, Lauri; Oksanen, Tarja; Cohen, Juval; Forbes, Bruce C; Johansen, Bernt; Käyhkö, Jukka; Olofsson, Johan; Pulliainen, Jouni; Tømmervik, Hans

    2016-01-01

    According to some treatises, arctic and alpine sub-biomes are ecologically similar, whereas others find them highly dissimilar. Most peculiarly, large areas of northern tundra highlands fall outside of the two recent subdivisions of the tundra biome. We seek an ecologically natural resolution to this long-standing and far-reaching problem. We studied broad-scale patterns in climate and vegetation along the gradient from Siberian tundra via northernmost Fennoscandia to the alpine habitats of European middle-latitude mountains, as well as explored those patterns within Fennoscandian tundra based on climate-vegetation patterns obtained from a fine-scale vegetation map. Our analyses reveal that ecologically meaningful January-February snow and thermal conditions differ between different types of tundra. High precipitation and mild winter temperatures prevail on middle-latitude mountains, low precipitation and usually cold winters prevail on high-latitude tundra, and Scandinavian mountains show intermediate conditions. Similarly, heath-like plant communities differ clearly between middle latitude mountains (alpine) and high-latitude tundra vegetation, including its altitudinal extension on Scandinavian mountains. Conversely, high abundance of snowbeds and large differences in the composition of dwarf shrub heaths distinguish the Scandinavian mountain tundra from its counterparts in Russia and the north Fennoscandian inland. The European tundra areas fall into three ecologically rather homogeneous categories: the arctic tundra, the oroarctic tundra of northern heights and mountains, and the genuinely alpine tundra of middle-latitude mountains. Attempts to divide the tundra into two sub-biomes have resulted in major discrepancies and confusions, as the oroarctic areas are included in the arctic tundra in some biogeographic maps and in the alpine tundra in others. Our analyses based on climate and vegetation criteria thus seem to resolve the long-standing biome

  3. Crystallization sequence of the Upper Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion: revised subdivision and implications for chamber-scale magma homogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonsen, Lars Peter; Tegner, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Although it is one of the best-studied layered mafic intrusions in the world, the crystallization sequence of the Skaergaard Intrusion, east Greenland, remains in debate. In particular, it has been argued that the crystallization sequence in the Upper Border Series, which crystallized downwards from the roof of the magma chamber, differs from that in the Layered Series formed at the floor. The proposed deviation would require chemical stratification of the magma, and a reexamination of the crystallization sequence therefore has important implications for understanding the dynamics of the system. Here, we examine a new sample set from the Upper Border Series, combining field observations, petrography and anorthite contents of plagioclase with bulk rock Ti, V, P, Cu and Mn concentrations. We demonstrate that the first phases on the liquidus were plagioclase and olivine followed by augite, then ilmenite and magnetite (simultaneously), sulfides, apatite and finally ferrobustamite (now inverted to hedenbergite). This crystallization sequence represents extreme differentiation along the tholeiitic trend, and it mirrors those at the floor (Layered Series) and walls (Marginal Border Series). We therefore propose a revised subdivision of the Upper Border Series into equivalents of the subzones in the Layered Series denoted by apostrophes (LZa', LZb', etc.). Moreover, the first appearance of each of the cumulus phases occurs at similar plagioclase core anorthite contents. The mirror images of the crystallization sequences and the anorthite contents of plagioclase cores in the three series imply that the Skaergaard magma chamber solidified by in situ crystallization along the floor, walls and roof from one, largely homogenous, convecting magma body.

  4. MHC class II genes in European wolves: a comparison with dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Jennifer M; Ellegren, Hans

    2002-10-01

    The genome of the grey wolf, one of the most widely distributed land mammal species, has been subjected to both stochastic factors, including biogeographical subdivision and population fragmentation, and strong selection during the domestication of the dog. To explore the effects of drift and selection on the partitioning of MHC variation in the diversification of species, we present nine DQA, 10 DQB, and 17 DRB1 sequences of the second exon for European wolves and compare them with sequences of North American wolves and dogs. The relatively large number of class II alleles present in both European and North American wolves attests to their large historical population sizes, yet there are few alleles shared between these regions at DQB and DRB1. Similarly, the dog has an extensive array of class II MHC alleles, a consequence of a genetically diverse origin, but allelic overlap with wolves only at DQA. Although we might expect a progression from shared alleles to shared allelic lineages during differentiation, the partitioning of diversity between wolves and dogs at DQB and DRB1 differs from that at DQA. Furthermore, an extensive region of nucleotide sequence shared between DRB1 and DQB alleles and a shared motif suggests intergenic recombination may have contributed to MHC diversity in the Canidae.

  5. ClassPrep: A Peer Review System for Class Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jooyong

    2017-01-01

    Class preparation is recommended by instructors in most college courses, but checking whether a student does so is not easy. A new blended learning system, named ClassPrep, has been proposed and implemented. The usability of the system was examined for two undergraduate psychology courses: one advanced course (n = 11) and one introductory course…

  6. Subaltern Classes, Class Struggles and Hegemony : a Gramscian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of “overcoming” conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  7. Type Families with Class, Type Classes with Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano, Alejandro; Hage, Jurriaan; Bahr, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Type classes and type families are key ingredients in Haskell programming. Type classes were introduced to deal with ad-hoc polymorphism, although with the introduction of functional dependencies, their use expanded to type-level programming. Type families also allow encoding type-level functions......, now as rewrite rules. This paper looks at the interplay of type classes and type families, and how to deal with shortcomings in both of them. Furthermore, we show how to use families to simulate classes at the type level. However, type families alone are not enough for simulating a central feature...... of type classes: elaboration, that is, generating code from the derivation of a rewriting. We look at ways to solve this problem in current Haskell, and propose an extension to allow elaboration during the rewriting phase....

  8. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saccucci Matteo; D’Attilio Michele; Rodolfino Daria; Festa Felice; Polimeni Antonella; Tecco Simona

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). ...

  9. Predicting Acoustics in Class Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus Lynge; Rindel, Jens Holger

    2005-01-01

    Typical class rooms have fairly simple geometries, even so room acoustics in this type of room is difficult to predict using today's room acoustic computer modeling software. The reasons why acoustics of class rooms are harder to predict than acoustics of complicated concert halls might...

  10. Supervised Object Class Colour Normalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riabchenko, Ekatarina; Lankinen, Jukka; Buch, Anders Glent

    2013-01-01

    . In this work, we develop a such colour normalisation technique, where true colours are not important per se but where examples of same classes have photometrically consistent appearance. This is achieved by supervised estimation of a class specic canonical colour space where the examples have minimal variation...

  11. On uniqueness of characteristic classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feliu, Elisenda

    2011-01-01

    We give an axiomatic characterization of maps from algebraic K-theory. The results apply to a large class of maps from algebraic K-theory to any suitable cohomology theory or to algebraic K-theory. In particular, we obtain comparison theorems for the Chern character and Chern classes and for the ...

  12. Translanguaging in a Reading Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaish, Viniti; Subhan, Aidil

    2015-01-01

    Using translanguaging as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyses findings from a Grade 2 reading class for low achieving students, where Malay was used as a scaffold to teach English. Data come from one class in one school in Singapore and its Learning Support Programme (LSP), which is part of a larger research project on biliteracy. The LSP…

  13. Bringing the Brain to Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Carmany

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses strategies for encouraging the gifted child's brain to make the most of learning opportunities. Strategies include offering programming enrichment classes, accelerated classes, and teachers trained in differentiating instruction. The importance of providing enrichment, challenges, and feedback are stressed and the game…

  14. GENERIC PROPERTIES OF HOMOCLINIC CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    CARLOS MARIA CARBALLO

    2001-01-01

    Uma classe homoclínica de um campo vetorial é o fecho do conjunto de pontos homoclínicos transversais associados a uma órbita periódica hiperbólica. Provamos as propriedades seguintes. 1. As classes homoclínicas de campos vetoriais C¹ genéricos em variedades de dimensão n são conjuntos transitivos maximais, saturados, e isolados se e somente se omega-isolados. 2. Os campos vetorias C¹ genéricos não têm ciclos formados por classes homoclínicas. 3. A...

  15. Mappings on Fuzzy Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Kharal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We define the concept of a mapping on classes of fuzzy soft sets and study the properties of fuzzy soft images and fuzzy soft inverse images of fuzzy soft sets, and support them with examples and counterexamples.

  16. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saccucci Matteo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. Material and methods 200 Caucasian patients (15–30 years old, 95 male and 105 females were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients, skeletal class II (70 patients and skeletal class III (65 patients. Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma. TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI. Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. Results The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p 3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p 2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p  Conclusion Skeletal class appeared to be associated to the mandibular condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  17. Condylar volume and condylar area in class I, class II and class III young adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccucci, Matteo; D'Attilio, Michele; Rodolfino, Daria; Festa, Felice; Polimeni, Antonella; Tecco, Simona

    2012-12-14

    Aim of this study was to compare the volume and the shape of mandibular condyles in a Caucasian young adult population, with different skeletal pattern. 200 Caucasian patients (15-30 years old, 95 male and 105 females) were classified in three groups on the base of ANB angle: skeletal class I (65 patients), skeletal class II (70 patients) and skeletal class III (65 patients). Left and right TMJs of each subject were evaluated independently with CBCT (Iluma). TMJ evaluation included: condylar volume; condylar area; morphological index (MI). Condylar volumes were calculated by using the Mimics software. The condylar volume, the area and the morphological index (MI) were compared among the three groups, by using non-parametric tests. The Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test revealed that: no significant difference was observed in the whole sample between the right and the left condylar volume; subjects in skeletal class III showed a significantly higher condylar volume, respect to class I and class II subjects (p condylar volume was observed in class II subjects, respect to class I and class III (p condylar volume (699.8 ± 63.07 mm3 in males and 663.5 ± 81.3 mm3 in females; p condylar surface (423.24 ± 63.03 mm2 in males and 389.76 ± 61.15 mm2 in females; p condylar volume and to the mandibular condylar area in the Caucasian orthodontic population.

  18. Actions of mapping class groups

    OpenAIRE

    PAPADOPOULOS, ATHANASE

    2014-01-01

    This paper has three parts. The first part is a general introduction to rigidity and to rigid actions of mapping class group actions on various spaces. In the second part, we describe in detail four rigidity results that concern actions of mapping class groups on spaces of foliations and of laminations, namely, Thurston's sphere of projective foliations equipped with its projective piecewise-linear structure, the space of unmeasured foliations equipped with the quotient topology, the reduced ...

  19. Less than a Class Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kristin Redington

    2012-01-01

    The iPad holds amazing potential for classroom use. Just a few--or even only one--is enough to get results. Having a class set promotes traditional, whole-class instruction, but fewer iPads facilitate individualized and tailored instruction. In this article, the author discusses the potential of the iPad and suggests ways to put the iPad to use in…

  20. Conceptual design study of geothermal district heating of a thirty-house subdivision in Elko, Nevada, using existing water-distribution systems, Phase III. Final technical report, October 1, 1979-September 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, D.R.

    1980-09-30

    A conceptual design study for district heating of a 30-home subdivision located near the southeast extremity of the city of Elko, Nevada is presented. While a specific residential community was used in the study, the overall approach and methodologies are believed to be generally applicable for a large number of communities where low temperature geothermal fluid is available. The proposed district heating system utilizes moderate temperature, clean domestic water and existing community culinary water supply lines. The culinary water supply is heated by a moderate temperature geothermal source using a single heat exchanger at entry to the subdivision. The heated culinary water is then pumped to the houses in the community where energy is extracted by means of a water supplied heat pump. The use of heat pumps at the individual houses allows economic heating to result from supply of relatively cool water to the community, and this precludes the necessity of supplying objectionably hot water for normal household consumption use. Each heat pump unit is isolated from the consumptive water flow such that contamination of the water supply is avoided. The community water delivery system is modified to allow recirculation within the community, and very little rework of existing water lines is required. The entire system coefficient of performance (COP) for a typical year of heating is 3.36, exclusive of well pumping energy.

  1. The theory of social classes Maurice Halbwachs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Kozlova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic thesis of Maurice Halbwachs’s theory of social classes outlined in the “Social classes and morphology” (1942: the concept of class is revealed as the object of collective representation, the main characteristics of classes, the criteria for its selection and conditions for classes formation are analyzed.

  2. The shape and size of the sella turcica in skeletal Class I, Class II, and Class III Saudi subjects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alkofide, Eman A

    2007-01-01

    ...; 60 Class I, 60 Class II, and 60 Class III. The sella turcica on each radiograph was analysed and measured to determine the shape of the sella, in addition to the linear dimensions of length, depth, and diameter...

  3. Classes subalternas, lutas de classe e hegemonia: uma abordagem gramsciana Subaltern classes, class struggles and hegemony: a gramscian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Simionatto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo procura resgatar, no pensamento de Antonio Gramsci, a concepção de classes subalternas e a sua relação com outras categorias, especialmente, o Estado, a sociedade civil e a hegemonia, como suportes da luta de classes na realidade contemporânea. Aborda, ainda, as relações entre classes subalternas, senso comum e ideologia, bem como as formas de superação tematizadas por Gramsci, através da cultura e da filosofia da práxis. Nesse sentido, num movimento de totalidade, busca recuperar a discussão das classes subalternas, a partir da original formulação gramsciana no âmbito do marxismo, mediante a interação dialética entre estrutura e superestrutura, economia e política. Além do resgate conceitual, apontam-se alguns elementos como subsídios à discussão das formas de subalternidade presentes na realidade contemporânea e as possibilidades de fortalecimento das lutas de tais camadas de classe, sobretudo em momentos de forte desmobilização da participação popular.This article sought to revive the concept of subaltern classes and their relation with other categories, particularly the State, civil society and hegemony in the thinking of Antonio Gramsci, as a support for contemporary class struggles. It also analyzes the relations between subaltern classes, common sense and ideology, as well as the forms of "overcoming" conceptualized by Gramsci, through the culture and philosophy of praxis. The paper revives the discussion of the subaltern classes, based on the original Gramscian formulation in the realm of Marxism, through the dialectic interaction between structure and superstructure, economy and politics. In addition to the conceptual revival, it indicates some elements that can support the discussion of the forms of subalternity found in contemporary reality and the possibilities for strengthening the struggles of these class layers, above all in moments of strong demobilization of popular participation.

  4. Honoring Class: Working-Class Sensitivities in Honors Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, William H.

    2005-01-01

    The issue of social class rarely injects itself into assignments in honors English composition courses. The students take few chances with structure, analysis, voice, or audience invocation. Clearly bright students, they seemed baffled when asked for complication in their thinking or to take a chance with an unconventional structure. It was time…

  5. Are Ghanaian Diaspora Middle Class? Linking Middle Class to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, since the return to constitutional rule in 1992, Ghana has emerged as one of the most stable countries in the West African sub-region and has become a beacon of democracy for other African countries to emulate. This political stability has been largely attributed to the positive role of the educated middle class ...

  6. Two classes of metric spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Garrido

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The class of metric spaces (X,d known as small-determined spaces, introduced by Garrido and Jaramillo, are properly defined by means of some type of real-valued Lipschitz functions on X. On the other hand, B-simple metric spaces introduced by Hejcman are defined in terms of some kind of bornologies of bounded subsets of X. In this note we present a common framework where both classes of metric spaces can be studied which allows us to see not only the relationships between them but also to obtain new internal characterizations of these metric properties.

  7. Enzymatic Browning: a practical class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva Clerici

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a practical class about the enzymes polyphenol oxidases, which have been shown to be responsible for the enzymatic browning of fruits and vegetables. Vegetables samples were submitted to enzymatic inactivation process with chemical reagents, as well as by bleaching methods of applying heat by conventional oven and microwave oven. Process efficiency was assessed qualitatively by both observing the guaiacol peroxidase activity and after the storage period under refrigeration or freezing. The practical results obtained in this class allow exploring multidisciplinary knowledge in food science, with practical applications in everyday life.

  8. Mappings on Neutrosophic Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets.

  9. Chiral algebras of class S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beem, Christopher [Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Dr., Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Peelaers, Wolfger; Rastelli, Leonardo [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, SUNY,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States); Rees, Balt C. van [Theory Group, Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2015-05-05

    Four-dimensional N=2 superconformal field theories have families of protected correlation functions that possess the structure of two-dimensional chiral algebras. In this paper, we explore the chiral algebras that arise in this manner in the context of theories of class S. The class S duality web implies nontrivial associativity properties for the corresponding chiral algebras, the structure of which is best summarized in the language of generalized topological quantum field theory. We make a number of conjectures regarding the chiral algebras associated to various strongly coupled fixed points.

  10. 47 CFR 74.708 - Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class A TV and digital Class A TV station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.708 Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protection. (a) The Class A TV and digital Class A TV station protected contours are specified in...

  11. Ethnicity, class, and civil war

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hechter, Michael Norman; Siroky, David

    2016-01-01

    Why are some countries prone to ethno-nationalist conflict, whereas others are plagued by class conflict? This is a question that has seldom been raised and rarely been examined empirically. This paper presents a social-structural theory to account for the variable incidence of these two forms of...... and segmented in societies shapes the type of civil war....

  12. "Green" Classes Flourish in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Courses focused on renewable and alternative energy are taking hold across the country as educators seek to channel students' concerns about the environment and conservation into classroom lessons. This article talks about the rising interest in "green" curriculum. Here, the author describes the Green Tech class that introduces students to the…

  13. Developing a Student Leadership Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sandy

    The purpose of this guidebook is to encourage activities advisors and directors to teach their student advisees, in the regular classroom setting, how to become effective leaders, and to provide school administrators and curriculum directors with a sound rationale for leadership classes. The booklet describes the need for leadership instruction…

  14. Nonobtuse simplices & special matrix classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cihangir, A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the study of certain special classes of n-simplices that occur in the context of numerical analysis, linear algebra, abstract algebra, geometry, and combinatorics. The type of simplex that is of central interest is the nonobtuse simplex, a simplex without any obtuse dihedral

  15. Active Learning in Large Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    the lectures in the course. The main idea is to use inductive, case-based learning, with many small exercises/ discussions during the lectures. We describe a framework for the lectures, that most lectures in the class were based on. The framework contains the conceive, design, and implement stage from the CDIO...

  16. Creating Presentations on ICT Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on the creation of presentations on ICT classes. The first part highlights the most important steps when creating a presentation. The main idea is, that the computer presentation shouldn't consist only from the technological part, i.e. the editing of the presentation in a computer program. There are many steps before and after…

  17. Social Class and School Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Vincent C.

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a practical look at social class in school music by exploring the manifestations and impact of three of its dimensions: financial resources, cultural practices, and social networks. Three suggestions are discussed: provide a free and equal music education for all students, understand and respect each student's cultural…

  18. Understanding Class in Contemporary Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2007-01-01

    altogether, sociological theory runs the risk of loosing the capacity for analysing stratification and vertical differentiation of power and freedom, which in late modernity seem to be a of continuing importance. Hence, I argue that although class analysis faces a number of serious challenges, it is possible...

  19. Capitalist modernization and poverty in Mendoza, Argentina. Agroindustrial development and working class life conditions, 1890-1918

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Richard-Jorba

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade of the XIX century and the first two decades of the XX, the argentine province of Mendoza underwent substantial territorial, economical and society changes due to the advance of the capitalism, that formed one of the first regional economy of the country: the viticulture industry. The capitalist development produced an unknown economic expansion in which all the indicators increased in number: extent of the agrarian cultivation, wine vault installment, raise of the capacity of wine elaboration, technological improvement. Pertaining to society land subdivision, enterprise class arising and enlargement of the middle class. However, the majority of the popular sectors, enlarged by the overseas immigration, suffered life conditions characterized by low incomes which were maintained in face values during the studied period, and home and health problems that derived in the propagation of serious contagious disease and high children death rate. This article shows the contrast between a powerful productive forces development and the miserable conditions of population life.

  20. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    M R Yelampalli; M R Rachala

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of p...

  1. STUDENTS’ ANXIETIES IN SPEAKING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyuzar Rahman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research discussed the anxieties the students of semester 3, English Department, IAIN STS Jambi faced during the speaking class. The result of the research indicated that the causes of the students’ anxieties were the lack of grammar mastery, pronunciation problem, lack of vocabulary, unconfident feeling, fear of making mistakes and feared of being laughed by other students. But the dominant factors found were the lack of grammar, the lack of good pronunciation, and lack of vocabulary mastery. The lecturer had taken part to overcome these problems by giving them motivation not to give up easily, how to cope with vocabulary problems, and how to prepare well before coming into the class.

  2. New class of radio pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpar, M.A.; Ruderman, M.A.; Shaham, J. (Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Columbia Astrophysics Lab.); Cheng, A.F. (Rutgers--the State Univ., Piscataway, NJ (USA))

    1982-12-01

    It is proposed that the recently discussed millisecond pulsar 4C21.53, together with the binaries PSRs 1913 + 16, 0820 + 02 and 0655 + 64, a well as possibly several isolated pulsars such as PSRs 1952 + 29 and 1804 + 08, belong to a new class of fast accretion-spun-up pulsars. The spin-down rate, life-time and accretion time of such pulsars, are examined.

  3. Resistance to novel drug classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelin, Anne-Genevieve; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Calvez, Vincent

    2009-11-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that underlie resistance development to novel drugs is essential to a better clinical management of resistant viruses and to prevent further resistance development and spread. Integrase inhibitors and CCR5 antagonists are the more recent antiretroviral classes developed. The HIV-1 integrase, responsible for the chromosomal integration of the newly synthesized double-stranded viral DNA into the host genomic DNA, represents a new and important target; and two integrase inhibitors (INIs), raltegravir and elvitegravir, have been shown promising results in clinical trials. Viral entry is also an attractive step for the development of new drugs against HIV variants resistant to current antiretroviral drugs, and two CCR5 antagonists have been designed to inhibit HIV-1 binding to R5 co-receptor and are under clinical investigation. Drug resistance to INIs occurs through the selection of mutations within HIV integrase. The kinetic of selection seems rapid and one mutation alone is able to confer resistance to integrase inhibitor, suggesting that this class of drug has a low genetic barrier. Two ways could explain the failure of the CCR5 antagonist class: a rapid outgrowth of pre-existing archived X4 virus or the selection of a resistance to CCR5 antagonists through amino acid changes in V3 loop.

  4. Do class size effects differ across grades?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandrup, Anne Brink

    size cap that creates exogenous variation in class sizes. Significant (albeit modest) negative effects of class size increases are found for children on primary school levels. The effects on math abilities are statistically different across primary and secondary school. Larger classes do not affect......This paper contributes to the class size literature by analyzing whether short-run class size effects are constant across grade levels in compulsory school. Results are based on administrative data on all pupils enroled in Danish public schools. Identification is based on a government-imposed class...

  5. Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families...

  6. Investment Company Series and Class Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The Series and Class Report provides basic identification information for all active registered investment company series and classes that have been issued IDs by...

  7. Mandatory Class 1 Federal Areas Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service contains the following layers: Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area polygons and Mandatory Class 1 Federal Area labels in the United States. The polygon...

  8. On a class of nonstationary stochastic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miamee, A. G.; Hardin, Jay C.

    1989-01-01

    A new class of nonstationary stochastic processes is introduced and some of the essential properties of its members are investigated. This class is richer than the class of stationary processes and has the potential of modeling some nonstationary time series. The relation between these newly defined processes with other important classes of nonstationary processes is investigated. Several examples of linearly correlated processes which are not stationary, periodically correlated, or harmonizable are given.

  9. Comprehending text in literature class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purić Daliborka S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of understanding a text and the contribution of methodological apparatus in the reader book to comprehension of a text being read in junior classes of elementary school. By using the technique of content analysis from methodological apparatuses in eight reader books for the fourth grade of elementary school, approved for usage in 2014/2015 academic year, and surveying 350 teachers in 33 elementary schools and 11 administrative districts in the Republic of Serbia we examined: (a to what extent the Serbian language text book contents enable junior students to understand a literary text; (b to what extent teachers accept the suggestions offered in the textbook for preparing literature teaching. The results show that a large number of suggestions relate to reading comprehension, but some of categories of understanding are unevenly distributed in the methodological apparatus. On the other hand, the majority of teachers use the methodological apparatus given in a textbook for preparing classes, not only the textbook he or she selected for teaching but also other textbooks for the same grade.

  10. The Wisdom of Class-Size Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Hatch, Kelly; Rao, Kalpana; Oen, Denise

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore the implementation of a statewide class-size reduction program in nine high-poverty schools. Through qualitative methods, they examined how schools used class-size reduction to change staffing patterns and instructional programs. Requiring changes in space allocation, class-size reduction was accomplished through…

  11. The Social Psychology of Class and Classism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Bernice

    2012-01-01

    In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…

  12. Factors Related to In-Class Spiritual Experience: Relationship between Pre-Class Scripture Reading, In-Class Note-Taking, and Perceived In-Class Spiritual Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, John, III; Sweat, Anthony R.; Plummer, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between student in-class note-taking and pre-class reading with perceived in-class spiritual and religious outcomes. This study surveyed 620 students enrolled in six different sections of an introductory religion course at a private religious university. Full-time religious faculty members…

  13. Encouraging Undergraduate Class Participation: A Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nichole S.; Gragg, Marcia N.; Cramer, Kenneth M.

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate classes typically involve a professor lecturing to 100 or more students. Too often, this results in minimal opportunities for student participation. Positive reinforcement was used to promote student participation (i.e., defined as relevant comments or questions) in a second-year psychology class (N = 97). Class participation was…

  14. 48 CFR 501.404 - Class deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Schedule program is considered to be a class deviation. Each award under such a solicitation is considered... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class deviations. 501.404... SERVICES ADMINISTRATION ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and GSAR 501.404 Class...

  15. A Latent Class Model for Rating Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Jurgen

    1985-01-01

    A latent class model for rating data is presented which provides an alternative to the latent trait approach of analyzing test data. It is the analog of Andrich's binomial Rasch model for Lazarsfeld's latent class analysis (LCA). Response probabilities for rating categories follow a binomial distribution and depend on class-specific item…

  16. Conceptualizing "Homework" in Flipped Mathematics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Zandra; Otten, Samuel; Birisci, Salih

    2017-01-01

    Flipped instruction is becoming more common in the United States, particularly in mathematics classes. One of the defining characteristics of this increasingly popular instructional format is the homework teachers assign. In contrast to traditional mathematics classes in which homework consists of problem sets, homework in flipped classes often…

  17. The character strengths of class clowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of “identified as a class clown,” “comic talent,” “disruptive rule-breaker,” and “subversive joker.” Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors “identified as the class clown” and “comic talent” were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (“disruptive rule-breaker,” “subversive joker”) were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by

  18. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  19. AAMI advice on Class 6 indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Martha

    2010-12-01

    Class 6 emulating indicators may be used as internal chemical indicators and in PCDs to release nonimplant loads. Class 6 CIs could be used in BI PCDs for routine sterilizer efficacy monitoring and sterilizer qualification testing and along with BIs inside products undergoing product testing. In all applications, the Class 6 CIs/CI PCDs must be labeled for the specific cycle you are monitoring. Class 6 CIs and/or Class 6 CI PCDs are available from Getinge, Steris, SteriTec, and 3M.

  20. Context-sensitive intra-class clustering

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yingwei

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a new semi-supervised learning algorithm for intra-class clustering (ICC). ICC partitions each class into sub-classes in order to minimize overlap across clusters from different classes. This is achieved by allowing partitioning of a certain class to be assisted by data points from other classes in a context-dependent fashion. The result is that overlap across sub-classes (both within- and across class) is greatly reduced. ICC is particularly useful when combined with algorithms that assume that each class has a unimodal Gaussian distribution (e.g., Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), quadratic classifiers), an assumption that is not always true in many real-world situations. ICC can help partition non-Gaussian, multimodal distributions to overcome such a problem. In this sense, ICC works as a preprocessor. Experiments with our ICC algorithm on synthetic data sets and real-world data sets indicated that it can significantly improve the performance of LDA and quadratic classifiers. We expect our approach to be applicable to a broader class of pattern recognition problems where class-conditional densities are significantly non-Gaussian or multi-modal. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Middle-class projects in modern Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2017-01-01

    if the Malays constitute the largest and fastest growing section of the middle class in Malaysia. Based on research projects I have carried out from the mid-1990s to the present, this article argues that an unpacking of the Malay Muslim middle class over time is important in order to understand the broader...... picture surrounding this class and its relationship to Malaysian national repertoires such as Islamic revivalism, politics, consumer culture, social mobility and the state-market nexus. I understand middle-class projects to be the making of local class culture in Malaysia and explore these in four...... research projects that each in their own way examine how Malay Muslim informants understand and practice “middle-classness” in different spatial and temporal contexts. In short, my findings show how Malay Muslim middle-class projects such as Islamic consumption shape local class culture in Malaysia....

  2. New specimens and records of chondrichthyan fishes (Vertebrata: Chondrichthyes off the Mexican Pacific coast Nuevos ejemplares y nuevos registros de peces cartilaginosos (Vertebrata: Chondrichthyes de la costa del Pacífico mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgonio Ruiz-Campos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available New specimens and new records of occurrence for 10 species of chondrichthyan (elasmobranch and chimaeroid fishes previously unknown or little documented for the continental shelf of the Mexican Pacific are reported. This contribution provides the first record of Centroscyllium nigrum, Isurus paucus, and Bathyraja trachura for the Mexican Pacific, as well as new specimens of Hydrolagus colliei, Hexanchus griseus, Echinorhinus cookei, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai, and Raja velezi for the western coast of the Baja California Peninsula, including the intermediate record within the known distribution range for Apristurus kampae, and the southernmost record for Raja inornata.Se reportan nuevos ejemplares y nuevos registros de concurrencia para 10 especies de elasmobranquios previamente desconocidos o con muy poca documentación en aguas del Pacífico mexicano. Esta contribución ofrece el primer registro de Centroscyllium nigrum, Isurus paucus, y Bathyraja trachura en el Pacífico mexicano; así como nuevos ejemplares de Hydrolagus colliei, Hexanchus griseus, Echinorhinus cookei, Pseudocarcharias kamoharai y Raja velezi en la costa occidental de la península de Baja California, con la inclusión del registro intermedio en el ámbito de distribución conocida para Apristurus kampae, y el registro más meridional para Raja inornata.

  3. We are all ordinary people : Perceptions of class and class differences in personal relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eijk, G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines people’s perceptions of class and class differences—in general and with regard to personal relationships. Data from an original survey on personal networks (n=195) shows that most people think they are middle class, although many lower class respondents classify themselves as

  4. Teaching the Class with "The Class": Debunking the Need for Heroes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miretzky, Debra

    2017-01-01

    The French film "Entre Les Murs" ("The Class") is a somewhat unusual film in its portrayal of a Parisian working class school and its protagonist, Mr. Marin, who attempts to teach an unruly class of young and very diverse teenagers. This article explores the ways the author used the film "The Class" as a culminating…

  5. 47 CFR 73.6017 - Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV stations. 73.6017 Section 73.6017 Telecommunication FEDERAL... Broadcast Stations § 73.6017 Digital Class A TV station protection of Class A TV and digital Class A TV...

  6. Class-E Amplifier Design Improvements for GSM Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Nadir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Efficient power amplifiers are essential in portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones. Also, the power amplifier (PA is the most power-consuming building block in the transmitter of a portable system. This paper investigates how the efficiency of the power amplifier (which is beneficial for multiple applications in communcation sector can be improved by increasing the efficiency of switching mode class E power amplifiers for frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. The paper tackles modeling, design improvements and verification through simulation for higher efficiencies. This is the continuation of previous work by the authors. These nonlinear power amplifiers can only amplify constant-envelope RF signals without introducing significant distortion. Mobile systems such as Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS and Global System for Mobile communications (GSM use modulation schemes which generate constant amplitude RF outputs in order to use efficient but nonlinear power amplifiers. Improvements in designs are suggested and higher efficiencies are achieved, to the tune of 67.1% (for 900 MHz and 67.0% (1800 MHz.

  7. Residents' Class Status and Social Political Attitude: Two Cases of Middle-Class Community in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    Lipeng  ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    According to the data in two type of middle class community, this paper finds out that differences on residents' objective class status exist, so does subjective class status. The type of the community, occupation, and annual household income influences residents' subjective class status. This paper also compares people's social political attitude in two types of communities. People value some social political issues according to their subjective class status.

  8. Asymmetric molar distalization with miniscrews to correct a severe unilateral Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiao Ling; Conley, R Scott; Wu, Tuojiang; Li, Huang

    2016-05-01

    Asymmetries are among the most challenging problems in orthodontics. Proper diagnosis is critical to discern first whether the asymmetry is dental or skeletal. If it is dental, one must then determine whether one dental arch or both are at fault. Once diagnosed, the next challenge is determining not only an appropriate treatment plan, but also the appropriate mechanics plan. This aim of this article is to present a patient with a severe asymmetry to emphasize the importance of a problem-based differential diagnosis to develop both a sound treatment plan and a mechanics plan that successfully integrates miniscrews from the start of the process. An 18-year-old woman had a Class III subdivision left malocclusion, an asymmetric lower facial third, and a deviated midline. The treatment plan consisted of asymmetric distalization of the maxillary right and mandibular left posterior dentitions to create space to resolve the deviated midlines, correct the canted occlusal plane, and obtain an ideal occlusion. Active treatment with Clarity ceramic 0.022 × 0.028-in appliances (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), temporary anchorage devices, and a pendulum appliance lasted 22 months. The final result and the 2-year retention records demonstrate that a harmonious facial balance, an attractive smile, ideal occlusal relationships, and a stable outcome were achieved. This case report shows that with proper planning, asymmetric use of temporary anchorage devices in multiple posterior quadrants can be used to obtain molar distalization, and this approach is an effective alternative to dental extraction therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social class rank, essentialism, and punitive judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher

    2013-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.

  10. The phylogenetic trunk: maximal inclusion of taxa with missing data in an analysis of the lepospondyli (Vertebrata, Tetrapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J S

    2001-04-01

    The importance of fossils to phylogenetic reconstruction is well established. However, analyses of fossil data sets are confounded by problems related to the less complete nature of the specimens. Taxa that are incompletely known are problematic because of the uncertainty of their placement within a tree, leading to a proliferation of most-parsimonious solutions and "wild card" behavior. Problematic taxa are commonly deleted based on a priori criteria of completeness. Paradoxically, a taxon's problematic behavior is tree dependent, and levels of completeness are not directly associated with problematic behavior. Exclusion of taxa on the basis of completeness eliminates real character conflict and, by not allowing incomplete taxa to determine tree topology, diminishes the phylogenetic hypothesis. Here, the phylogenetic trunk approach is proposed to allow optimization of taxonomic inclusion and tree stability. The use of this method in an analysis of the Paleozoic Lepospondyli finds a single most-parsimonious tree, or trunk, after the removal of one taxon identified as being problematic. Moreover, the 38 trees found at one additional step from this primary trunk were reduced to 2 by removal of one additional taxon. These trunks are compared with the trees that were found by excluding taxa with various degrees of completeness, and the effects of incomplete taxa are explored with regard to use of the trunk. Correlated characters associated with limblessness are discussed regarding the assumption of character independence; however, inclusion of intermediate taxa is found to be the single best method for breaking down long branches.

  11. ``Stacked reservoirs`` in the Zechstein 2 carbonate (Ca2): inversion tectonics in the pre-Zechstein subdivision-saline base of the Lower Saxony basin (Germany); ``Stacked Reservoirs`` im Zechstein 2 Karbonat (Ca2): Inversionstektonik im prae-Zechstein-salinaren Sockel des Niedersaechsischen Beckens (NW-Deutschland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockenbauch, K.; Brauckmann, F.; Schaefer, H.G.; Utermoehlen, S. [BEB Erdgas und Erdoel GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    This article looks at areas in the Lower Saxony basis of North-West Germany where the carbonate of the 2nd Zechstein subdivision cycle (Ca2) was tectonically removed from its stratigraphic compound and is found in several stacks elsewhere. Modern 3D seismology and deep drillings were evaluated and tectonic models were developed which could be compared with examples from other saline provinces. This revealed new aspects of exploration for sour natural gas in the Zechstein subdivision (orig.). [Deutsch] Der Artikel behandelt Bereiche innerhalb des Niedersaechsischen Beckens von Nordwestdeutschland, wo das Karbonat des 2. Zechstein-Zyklus (Ca2) tektonisch aus seinem stratigraphischen Verband geloest wurde und an anderer Stelle mehrfach uebereinander gestapelt anzutreffen ist. Hierzu wurden moderne 3D Seismik sowie Tiefbohrungen ausgewertet und tektonische Modelle entwickelt, die mit Beispielen aus anderen Salinarprovinzen verglichen wurden. Hinsichtlich der Exploration auf Sauergas im Zechstein ergeben sich daraus neue Aspekte und Moeglichkeiten. (orig.)

  12. New class of neutron detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czirr, J.B.

    1997-09-01

    An optimized neutron scattering instrument design must include all significant components, including the detector. For example, useful beam intensity is limited by detector dead time; detector pixel size determines the optimum beam diameter, sample size, and sample to detector distance; and detector efficiency vs. wavelength determines the available energy range. As an example of the next generation of detectors that could affect overall instrumentation design, we will describe a new scintillator material that is potentially superior to currently available scintillators. We have grown and tested several small, single crystal scintillators based upon the general class of cerium-activated lithium lanthanide borates. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is the high scintillation efficiency-as much as five times that of Li-glass scintillators. This increase in light output permits the practical use of the exothermic B (n, alpha) reaction for low energy neutron detection. This reaction provides a four-fold increase in capture cross section relative to the Li (n, alpha) reaction, and the intriguing possibility of demanding a charged-particle/gamma ray coincidence to reduce background detection rates. These new materials will be useful in the thermal and epithermal energy ran at reactors and pulsed neutron sources.

  13. Regulation of class V myosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Yao, Lin-Lin; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2018-01-01

    Class V myosin (myosin-5) is a molecular motor that functions as an organelle transporter. The activation of myosin-5's motor function has long been known to be associated with a transition from the folded conformation in the off-state to the extended conformation in the on-state, but only recently have we begun to understand the underlying mechanism. The globular tail domain (GTD) of myosin-5 has been identified as the inhibitory domain and has recently been shown to function as a dimer in regulating the motor function. The folded off-state of myosin-5 is stabilized by multiple intramolecular interactions, including head-GTD interactions, GTD-GTD interactions, and interactions between the GTD and the C-terminus of the first coiled-coil segment. Any cellular factor that affects these intramolecular interactions and thus the stability of the folded conformation of myosin-5 would be expected to regulate myosin-5 motor function. Both the adaptor proteins of myosin-5 and Ca2+ are potential regulators of myosin-5 motor function, because they can destabilize its folded conformation. A combination of these regulators provides a versatile scheme in regulating myosin-5 motor function in the cell.

  14. Speech-based Class Attendance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizel Amri, Umar; Nur Wahidah Nik Hashim, Nik; Hazrin Hany Mohamad Hanif, Noor

    2017-11-01

    In the department of engineering, students are required to fulfil at least 80 percent of class attendance. Conventional method requires student to sign his/her initial on the attendance sheet. However, this method is prone to cheating by having another student signing for their fellow classmate that is absent. We develop our hypothesis according to a verse in the Holy Qur’an (95:4), “We have created men in the best of mould”. Based on the verse, we believe each psychological characteristic of human being is unique and thus, their speech characteristic should be unique. In this paper we present the development of speech biometric-based attendance system. The system requires user’s voice to be installed in the system as trained data and it is saved in the system for registration of the user. The following voice of the user will be the test data in order to verify with the trained data stored in the system. The system uses PSD (Power Spectral Density) and Transition Parameter as the method for feature extraction of the voices. Euclidean and Mahalanobis distances are used in order to verified the user’s voice. For this research, ten subjects of five females and five males were chosen to be tested for the performance of the system. The system performance in term of recognition rate is found to be 60% correct identification of individuals.

  15. Two-Class Weather Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cewu; Lin, Di; Jia, Jiaya; Tang, Chi-Keung

    2017-12-01

    Given a single outdoor image, we propose a collaborative learning approach using novel weather features to label the image as either sunny or cloudy. Though limited, this two-class classification problem is by no means trivial given the great variety of outdoor images captured by different cameras where the images may have been edited after capture. Our overall weather feature combines the data-driven convolutional neural network (CNN) feature and well-chosen weather-specific features. They work collaboratively within a unified optimization framework that is aware of the presence (or absence) of a given weather cue during learning and classification. In this paper we propose a new data augmentation scheme to substantially enrich the training data, which is used to train a latent SVM framework to make our solution insensitive to global intensity transfer. Extensive experiments are performed to verify our method. Compared with our previous work and the sole use of a CNN classifier, this paper improves the accuracy up to 7-8 percent. Our weather image dataset is available together with the executable of our classifier.

  16. Class of probe brane universes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilić, Milovan

    2013-06-01

    I examine the idea that our world is a branelike object of negligible influence on the bulk spacetime. No particular action functional is specified. Instead, the probe brane dynamics is derived from the universally valid stress-energy conservation equations. As an example, I study the case of a three-sphere in the five-dimensional Minkowski spacetime. The resulting four-universe turns out to depend on the equation of state of the brane constituent matter but differs from that of general relativity. One observes that, for every general relativistic universe, there exists a brane universe of equal geometry but a slightly different equation of state. As for the stability of brane universes, I find that no equation of state leads to a stable solution. However, the situation changes if the bulk spacetime has a Euclidean signature. In this case, a class of stable cosmological solutions is obtained. The brane vibrations are guided by the covariant Klein-Gordon equation with an effective metric of the Minkowski signature. It is this effective metric that local observers actually detect. As a consequence, the detected Universe is of bouncing type, with an accelerating expanding phase.

  17. Towards a class library for mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujo, Oliver; Smith, Simon T.; Starkey, Paul; Wolff, Thilo

    1994-01-01

    The PASTEL Mission Planning System (MPS) has been developed in C++ using an object-oriented (OO) methodology. While the scope and complexity of this system cannot compare to that of an MPS for a complex mission one of the main considerations of the development was to ensure that we could reuse some of the classes in future MPS. We present here PASTEL MPS classes which could be used in the foundations of a class library for MPS.

  18. SSN 774 Virginia Class Submarine (SSN 774)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Report: The VIRGINIA Class Submarine Program continues to deliver submarines within cost, ahead of schedule , with improved quality and with...baseline schedule threshold set ten years earlier, in 1994. June 20, 2006: USS TEXAS, which was essentially the second lead ship of the class , is the first...factored for the VIRGINIA Class based on weight. Public and private shipyard data was used, as well as the maintenance schedule provided in the CARD, Rev E

  19. The capitalist class of modern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Rakhmanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1978 People’s Republic of China has been carrying out the policy of reforms. As the result of these reforms, the powerful capitalist class has emerged. This class has transformed into a junior partner of the party-state bureaucracy of China. The author analyzes the capitalist class of China from different perspectives - number, wealth, age, gender, style of life. The author compares the capitalist class of China with capitalist classes of other countries - the USA, Germany, Japan, Russia, and India and so on. The author highlights the importance of the branch specialization of the capitalist class of China. The development of this class generates causes the industrialization and modernization. By contrast, the formation of the capitalist class causes the deindustrialization of Russia. The author highlights the main contradictions of the development of modern China. The situation of the capitalist class of China is contradictory. On one side, it needs the strong socialist state, on the other side, it needs the dismantlement of socialism.

  20. Investigation of Class 2b Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2002-04-03

    The popularity of trucks in the class 2 category--that is, those with a 6,000 to 10,000 pounds (lbs) gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR)--has increased since the late 1970s/early 1980s. The purpose of this research is to identify and examine vehicles in the upper portion of the class 2 weight range (designated as vehicle class 2b) and to assess their impact. Vehicles in class 2b (8,500-10,000 lbs GVWR) include pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), and large vans (i.e., not minivans). Oak Ridge National Laboratory researched each individual truck model to determine which models were class 2b trucks and arrived at four methodologies to derive sales volumes. Two methods--one for calendar year and one for model year sales--were recommended for producing believable and reliable results. The study indicates that 521,000 class 2b trucks were sold in calendar year 1999--6.4% of sales of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Eighty-two percent of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were pickups; one third of class 2b trucks sold in 1999 were diesel. There were 5.8 million class 2b trucks on the road in 2000, which amounts to 7.8% of all trucks under 10,000 lbs. Twenty-four percent of the class 2b truck population is diesel. Estimates show that class 2b trucks account for 8% of annual miles traveled by trucks under 10,000 lbs and 9% of fuel use. Data on class 2b trucks are scarce. As the Tier 2 standards, which apply to passenger vehicles in the 8,500-10,000 lb GVWR category, become effective, additional data on class 2b trucks may become available--not only emissions data, but data in all areas. At the moment, distinguishing class 2b trucks from class 2 trucks in general is a substantial task requiring data on an individual model level.

  1. Class categories and the subjective dimension of class: the case of Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Pedersen, Helene Helboe

    2017-09-15

    Class relations have been proven to affect various aspects of social life, even in modern individualized societies. However, following claims on individualization and the so-called 'death of class' thesis, studying the subjective dimension of class - that is, the way individuals perceive of class relations and their own position within them - has gone out of style. We argue that even in equalized societies, subjective class perceptions may still influence attitudes and behaviour as they evolve to fit modern class relations. To explore the existence as well as structure and content of perceived social classes, this article investigates how people describe society and social groups in focus group discussions. We find that groups in different positions in terms of education and economy all tend to apply hierarchical class categories to describe Danish society, which is normally seen as one of the most equal societies and political systems in the world. In addition, we find that economic resources serve as a baseline for the hierarchical ordering, often supplemented with notions of education, lifestyle and/or occupational profile. Even though people are somewhat uncomfortable with the notion of class, their descriptions of Danish society and classes are surprisingly similar within and across groups. We conclude that not only do class relations matter; people are also highly aware of the existing classes and able to position themselves and others according to their notion of classes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  2. Presence of third molar germs in orthodontic patients with class II/2 and class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mady Maricić, Barbara; Legović, Mario; Slaj, Martina; Lapter Varga, Marina; Zuvić Butorac, Marta; Kapović, Miljenko

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of third molar germs in patients with Class II/2 and Class III malocclusions. The study comprised 146 examinees from Zagreb and Istria. Examinees with Class II/2 malocclusions amounted to 77 and those with Class III 69. With regard to development of dentition the examinees were divided into two groups: Group I subjects with early mixed dentition (23 subjects with Class II/2 and 21 subjects with Class III), and Group II subjects with late mixed dentition (54 subjects with Class II/2 and 48 subjects with Class III). Assessments were made from panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms. The Pearson chi2-test and Fisher's exact test was used to determine statistical significance in differences. Assessments showed that third molar germs were present significantly more often in the upper jaw in Class II/2 (58% vs. 44%) and in the lower jaw in Class III (83% vs. 69%). In subjects with Class II/2 all third molar germs were present statistically more often in late mixed dentition, which was also determined for maxillary third molar germs in Class III. The presence of mandibular third molar germs in Class III examinees was almost equal in both periods of mixed dentitions. The study confirmed correlation between the presence of third molar germs and sagital maxillomandibular relationship and encourages investigation of the differences in calcifications of all permanent teeth in such malocclusions.

  3. A conceptualisation of whole-class scaffolding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.; van Eerde, H.A.A.; Bakker, A.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of scaffolding refers to temporary and adaptive support, originally in dyadic adult– child interaction. It has become widely used, also in whole-class settings, but often in loose ways. The aim of this paper is to theoretically and empirically ground a conceptualisation of whole-class

  4. Estimating Stability Class in the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonidas G. Lavdas

    1997-01-01

    A simple and easily remembered method is described for estimating cloud ceiling height in the field. Estimating ceiling height provides the means to estimate stability class, a parameter used to help determine Dispersion Index and Low Visibility Occurrence Risk Index, indices used as smoke management aids. Stability class is also used as an input to VSMOKE, an...

  5. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Farias,Vanessa Costa; Tesch,Ricardo de Souza; Denardin,Odilon Victor Porto; Ursi,Weber

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 2...

  6. Science Perceptions of Prospective Class Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulucinar Sagir, Safak

    2017-01-01

    The perceptions of class teachers, who will deliver science education at the elementary school, of information and science are significant as these affect the quality of education received by children. The aim of this research is to determine perceptions of prospective class teachers of science. The sample group of the research consists of 120…

  7. Researcher Perspectives on Class Size Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Rauscher, Erica

    2009-01-01

    This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue's (1999) position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes…

  8. International Master Classes in health informatics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatewood, L.; Limburg, M.; Gardner, R.; Haux, R.; Jaspers, M.; Schmidt, D.; Wetter, T.

    2004-01-01

    Master Classes arose within the performing arts and are now being offered in system sciences. The IPhiE group of faculty from six universities in Europe and the United States has offered Master Classes in health informatics to provide an integrative forum for honors students. Featured are

  9. Cheating in Online Classes: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker Bemmel, Mirella

    2014-01-01

    This applied dissertation was an inquiry into the phenomenon of cheating among students who take their classes online. There is a common perception that cheating is rampant in online classes and the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, the accreditation association in the South, implemented policies, which mandate stricter monitoring of…

  10. Stress in Professional Classes: Causes, Manifestations, Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Fred F.

    1992-01-01

    Investigates whether students in professional journalism and mass communication classes experience class-related stress, what factors contribute to the stress, and whether that stress changes over time. Finds that students perceive stress in their professional course work, and reveals general stress patterns over the 15-week semester. (SR)

  11. 7 CFR 29.2505 - Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2505 Class. A major division of tobacco... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class. 29.2505 Section 29.2505 Agriculture Regulations...

  12. The YouTube Makeup Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, David G.

    2009-01-01

    When a college instructor goes out of town and must miss a lecture, the standard options are to cancel the class meeting or to enlist a colleague to fill in. In the former case a teaching opportunity is lost; in the latter the substitute may not lead the class in the same way as the instructor. Some students routinely skip lectures by a guest…

  13. Genes, genetics, and Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, F; Wong, R W K; Rabie, A B M

    2010-05-01

    To present current views that are pertinent to the investigation of the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion. Class III malocclusion is thought to be a polygenic disorder that results from an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental factors. However, research on family pedigrees has indicated that Class III malocclusion might also be a monogenic dominant phenotype. Recent studies have reported that genes that encode specific growth factors or other signaling molecules are involved in condylar growth under mechanical strain. These genes, which include Indian hedgehog homolog (IHH), parathyroid-hormone like hormone (PTHLH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and variations in their levels of expression play an important role in the etiology of Class III malocclusion. In addition, genome-wide scans have revealed chromosomal loci that are associated with Class III malocclusion. It is likely that chromosomal loci 1p36, 12q23, and 12q13 harbor genes that confer susceptibility to Class III malocclusion. In a case-control association study, we identified erythrocyte membrane protein band 4.1 (EPB41) to be a new positional candidate gene that might be involved in susceptibility to mandibular prognathism. Most of the earlier studies on the genetic etiology of Class III malocclusion have focused on the patterns of inheritance of this phenotype. Recent investigations have focused on understanding the genetic variables that affect Class III malocclusion and might provide new approaches to uncovering the genetic etiology of this phenotype.

  14. CEPHALOMETRIC FEATURES OF CLASS III MALOCCLUSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegan, Georgeta; Dascălu, Cristina; Mavru, R B; Anistoroaei, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to identify quantitative and relational characteristics of bone, dental and soft tissue structures for Class III malocclusion, according to gender and age range. 60 conventional lateral cephalograms were divided into two groups according to ANB angle: the group of cases with skeletal Class III (n = 36) and a control group with skeletal Class I (n = 24). There were performed 53 digital cephalometric measurements according to Steiner, Tweed and Jarabak analyzes. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, t-student and Levene tests were used to find the characteristics of Class III, using SPSS 16.0 for Windows. We found 14 parameters that distinguished the two classes disorders (the angles SNB, SND, FMA, IMPA, MeGoOcP, Mand 1-MeGo, NSAr, ArGoMe, NGoMe and SNPog; the distances Ao-Bo and lu-NPog; Holdaway and AFH ratios) and 3 parameters for the Class III age ranges (NGoAr angle, Ls-NsPog' distance and S-Ar:Ar-Go ratio) (p ≤ 0.05). There were found no significant differences between genders for skeletal Class III. Emphasizing the cephalometric characteristics of Class III malocclusion, with the overall growth together with dental and occlusion development, requires early orthodontic therapy.

  15. Software Training Classes Now Open | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer                                            Data Management Services, Inc. (DMS), has announced the opening of its spring session of software training classes, available to all employees at NCI at Frederick. Classes begin on March 31 and run through June 30.

  16. Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Lois, Ed.; Dolby, Nadine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives" is the first empirically grounded volume to explore the intersections of class, social structure, opportunity, and education on a truly global scale. Fifteen essays from contributors representing the US, Europe, China, Latin America and other regions offer an unparralleled examination of…

  17. Race, class, gender, and American environmentalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorceta E. Taylor

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the environmental experiences of middle and working class whites and people of color in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. It examines their activism and how their environmental experiences influenced the kinds of discourses they developed. The paper posits that race, class, and gender had profound effects on people's...

  18. Class, Mothering and the Values of Food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aamann, Iben Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    scholars, to explore how class matters. Using the values ascribed to food at social arrangements as a lens, I explore different ways of doing class and mothering: through the exchange value of the food, through its use value and through its healthiness. I conclude by arguing that food studies hold a huge...

  19. Class and Pedagogies: Visible and Invisible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Basil

    This paper defines the "invisible pedagogy," a teaching model used in British infant schools, and discusses its relationship to middle class culture, working class culture, and "visible" pedagogy. The invisible pedagogy is characterized by several features including (1) implicit rather than explicit control over the child by…

  20. Structural (Performance) class Potential for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric Jones; David E. Kretschmann; Kevin Cheung

    2014-01-01

    Structural class systems are species-independent product classification systems for structural timber. They are used throughout the world to reduce the number of species and grade choices that face the designer of wood construction projects. Structural class systems offer an opportunity to simplify timber specification in North America and to encourage more effective...

  1. Higher Education and Class: Production or Reproduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiris, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with questions relating to the role of education and especially Higher Education in the reproduction of class division in society. Social classes and how they are formed and reproduced has always been one of the greatest challenges for Marxism and social theory in general. The questions regarding the role of education, and…

  2. Using Mobile Phone Technology in EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Süleyman Nihat

    2008-01-01

    Teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL) who want to develop successful lessons face numerous challenges, including large class sizes and inadequate instructional materials and technological support. Another problem is unmotivated students who refuse to participate in class activities. According to Harmer (2007), uncooperative and…

  3. Introduction to Latent Class Analysis with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Mariano; Giambona, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to group individuals (cases, units) into classes (categories) of an unobserved (latent) variable on the basis of the responses made on a set of nominal, ordinal, or continuous observed variables. In this article, we introduce LCA in order to demonstrate its usefulness to early adolescence…

  4. Our Class as an Icosahedral Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Elizabeth Ann

    Multicultural study, visual and language arts, social studies, and geometry are integrated into this 2-month unit for the elementary classroom. The unit is divided into 3 segments, centering around the creation of a class icosahedron in which each of the shape's 20 faces represents 1 class member. Actual construction of the icosahedron constitutes…

  5. Connections up to homotopy and characteristic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this note is to clarify the relevance of \\connections up to homotopy" [4, 5] to the theory of characteristic classes, and to present an application to the characteristic classes of algebroids [3, 5, 7] (and of Poisson manifolds in particular [8, 13]). We have already remarked [4] that

  6. Connections up to homotopy and characteristic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this note is to clarify the relevance of connections up to homotopy to the theory of characteristic classes and to present an application to the characteristic classes of algebroids and of Poisson manifolds in particular We have already remarked that such connections up to

  7. Characteristic Classes for Curves of Genus One

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taelman, L.

    2015-01-01

    We compute the cohomology of the stackM1 over C with coefficients in Z[12 ], and in low degrees with coefficients in Z. Cohomology classes onM1 give rise to characteristic classes, cohomological invariants of families of curves of genus one. We prove a number of vanishing results for those

  8. Performance of TCP with multiple Priority Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vranken, R.; van der Mei, R.D.; Kooij, R.E.; van den Berg, Hans Leo

    2002-01-01

    We consider the dimensioning problem for Internet access links carrying TCP traffic with two priority classes. To this end, we study the behaviour of TCP at the flow level described by a multiple-server Processor Sharing (PS) queueing model with two customer classes, where the customers represent

  9. Python Classes for Numerical Solution of PDE's

    CERN Document Server

    Mushtaq, Asif; Olaussen, Kåre

    2015-01-01

    We announce some Python classes for numerical solution of partial differential equations, or boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations. These classes are built on routines in \\texttt{numpy} and \\texttt{scipy.sparse.linalg} (or \\texttt{scipy.linalg} for smaller problems).

  10. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhilei; CLASS Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of telescopes that observe Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization over ~65% of the sky from the Atacama Desert, Chile in frequency bands at 40 GHz, 90 GHz, 150 GHz, and 220 GHz. Multi-frequency observation enables CLASS to distinguish CMB from galactic foregrounds. CLASS is making large angular scale CMB polarization measurements as part of a five-year survey that will constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio at the 0.01 level by measuring both the reionization and recombination peaks. CLASS will measure the optical depth to last scattering to near the cosmic variance limit, significantly improving on current constraints. Combining the CLASS optical depth measurement with higher resolution data will improve constraints on the sum of neutrino masses. CLASS will also provide the deepest wide-sky-area Galactic microwave polarization maps for Galactic studies. CLASS has been observing for over one year at 40 GHz frequency band. In my talk, I will introduce the science, design, and current status of the CLASS experiment.

  11. Morphological caracteristics of malocclusion class II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusion are complex anomalies of the skeletal and dental systems. The aim of this study is that the rengenkefalometrics analysis closer determine the morphological characteristics of this malocclusion. For this study were used 30 patients aged 18-30, previously clinically diagnosed class II, before the planned orthodontic treatment. The results analisis lateral cephalometric radiographs were compared with the 30 patients with class I malocclusion. Analyzed three linear and two angular cranial base dimensions and nine angular and four linear measures from the facial skeleton. The Results show: No statistically significant differensis in cranial base angle (SNBa and anterior cranial base length (S-N between class II and control Class I. Angle maxillar prognathism ( SNA is no signifikant different between class I and Class II but SNB angle were signifikant smaller. The length of maxillary base (A'-SnP is longer and the length of mandibule (Pg'-MT1/MT is signifficantly smaller. The gonial angle (ArGo-Me was smaller with open articular angle (GoArSN. Morphological characteristics of class II malocclusion are , retrognathic and smaller mandibular ligth, normognathic and longer maxilla, open articular angle with vertical tendency of the craniofacial growth pattern.

  12. 40 CFR 2.207 - Class determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Class determinations. 2.207 Section 2.207 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Confidentiality of Business Information § 2.207 Class determinations. (a) The General Counsel may make and issue a...

  13. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  14. Stability of latent class segments over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone

    2011-01-01

    logit model suggests significant changes in the price sensitivity and the utility from environmental claims between both experimental waves. A pooled scale adjusted latent class model is estimated jointly over both waves and the relative size of latent classes is compared across waves, resulting...

  15. Conservatoire Students' Perceptions of Master Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Gaunt, Helena; Hallam, Susan; Robertson, Linnhe

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the value and purpose of Master Classes, from the perspective of Conservatoire students. Thirty-seven UK Conservatoire students responded to a questionnaire, providing information about their prior experiences of Master Classes, the factors that they considered to be important in a successful Master…

  16. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-01-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations...

  17. 78 FR 5754 - Proposed Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Class E Airspace; Reading, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class D and Class E Airspace at Reading... Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Reading Regional/Carl A. Spaatz Field. This action would enhance the safety...

  18. 78 FR 21044 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Reading, PA... D and Class E Airspace at Reading, PA, as the SHAPP OM navigation aid has been decommissioned, requiring the modification of Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Reading Regional/Carl A...

  19. Self-Education, Class and Gender in Edwardian Britain: Women in Lower Middle Class Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Once societies embarked on programmes of mass education home schooling became essentially a middle-class project and remains so. This paper looks at the educational experiences of some lower middle class women at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries for whom the resources of the middle-class home were simply not available. It…

  20. Evolution of major histocompatibility complex class I and class II genes in the brown bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuduk, Katarzyna; Babik, Wiesław; Bojarska, Katarzyna; Sliwińska, Ewa B; Kindberg, Jonas; Taberlet, Pierre; Swenson, Jon E; Radwan, Jacek

    2012-10-02

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins constitute an essential component of the vertebrate immune response, and are coded by the most polymorphic of the vertebrate genes. Here, we investigated sequence variation and evolution of MHC class I and class II DRB, DQA and DQB genes in the brown bear Ursus arctos to characterise the level of polymorphism, estimate the strength of positive selection acting on them, and assess the extent of gene orthology and trans-species polymorphism in Ursidae. We found 37 MHC class I, 16 MHC class II DRB, four DQB and two DQA alleles. We confirmed the expression of several loci: three MHC class I, two DRB, two DQB and one DQA. MHC class I also contained two clusters of non-expressed sequences. MHC class I and DRB allele frequencies differed between northern and southern populations of the Scandinavian brown bear. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions (dN) exceeded the rate of synonymous substitutions (dS) at putative antigen binding sites of DRB and DQB loci and, marginally significantly, at MHC class I loci. Models of codon evolution supported positive selection at DRB and MHC class I loci. Both MHC class I and MHC class II sequences showed orthology to gene clusters found in the giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Historical positive selection has acted on MHC class I, class II DRB and DQB, but not on the DQA locus. The signal of historical positive selection on the DRB locus was particularly strong, which may be a general feature of caniforms. The presence of MHC class I pseudogenes may indicate faster gene turnover in this class through the birth-and-death process. South-north population structure at MHC loci probably reflects origin of the populations from separate glacial refugia.

  1. Postura de cabeça nas deformidades dentofaciais classe II e classe III Head posture in the presence of class II and class III dentofacial deformities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ralin de Carvalho Deda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo investiga se existe diferença entre grupos com diferentes deformidades dentofaciais (padrão classe II e classe III e o grupo sem a deformidade em relação à postura de cabeça. MÉTODO: participaram deste estudo, voluntariamente, 25 pacientes (entre 16 e 40 anos. Dez pacientes com diagnóstico de deformidade dentofacial classe II e 15 pacientes com o diagnóstico de classe III esquelética e 15 voluntários sadios, com equivalência em sexo e idade ao grupo de deformidade, formando o grupo controle. Primeiramente foi realizada a inspeção da postura de cabeça. Logo em seguida foi realizada a avaliação postural de cabeça por meio da fotografia postural (fotogrametria. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significante (p>0,05 entre os grupos em relação à avaliação postural utilizando-se a fotogrametria. Já em relação à avaliação postural pela inspeção clínica, observou-se uma postura anterior de cabeça nos indivíduos com a deformidade dentofacial padrão classe II, comparados ao padrão classe III (p = 0,001 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. Foi visto também que o grupo deformidade classe II apresentou um percentual inferior de indivíduos com posição neutra de cabeça comparado ao grupo deformidade classe III (p = 0,008 e ao grupo controle (p = 0,001. CONCLUSÃO: indivíduos com deformidade dentofacial classe II podem apresentar uma anteriorização de cabeça. Não há influência da deformidade no aumento ou na redução do ângulo cabeça-pescoço, analisado por meio da fotogrametria.PURPOSE: this study investigates whether there is a difference in head posture between groups with different dentofacial deformities (class II and class III and a group with no deformity. METHOD: 25 volunteers aged from 16 to 40 year old took part in the study. Ten patients had a diagnosis of class II dentofacial deformity, 15 had a diagnosis of class III skeletal deformity, and 15 healthy volunteers matched for sex and

  2. Early cephalometric characteristics in Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Costa Farias

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Early identification of craniofacial morphological characteristics allows orthopedic segmented interventions to attenuate dentoskeletal discrepancies, which may be partially disguised by natural dental compensation. To investigate the morphological characteristics of Brazilian children with Class III malocclusion, in stages I and II of cervical vertebrae maturation and compare them with the characteristics of Class I control patients. METHODS: Pre-orthodontic treatment records of 20 patients with Class III malocclusion and 20 control Class I patients, matched by the same skeletal maturity index and sex, were selected. The craniofacial structures and their relationships were divided into different categories for analysis. Angular and linear measures were adopted from the analyses previously described by Downs, Jarabak, Jacobson and McNamara. The differences found between the groups of Class III patients and Class I control group, both subdivided according to the stage of cervical vertebrae maturation (I or II, were assessed by analysis of variance (ANOVA, complemented by Bonferroni's multiple mean comparisons test. RESULTS: The analysis of variance showed statistically significant differences in the different studied groups, between the mean values found for some angular (SNA, SNB, ANB and linear variables (Co - Gn, N - Perp Pog, Go - Me, Wits, S - Go, Ar - Go. CONCLUSION: Assessed children displaying Class III malocclusion show normal anterior base of skull and maxilla, and anterior positioning of the mandible partially related to increased posterior facial height with consequent mandibular counterclockwise rotation.

  3. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Yelampalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  4. Timely management of developing class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelampalli, M R; Rachala, M R

    2012-01-01

    Timing of orthodontic treatment, especially for children with developing class III malocclusions, has always been somewhat controversial, and definitive treatment tends to be delayed for severe class III cases. Developing class III patients with moderate to severe anterior crossbite and deep bite may need early intervention in some selected cases. Class III malocclusion may develop in children as a result of an inherent growth abnormality, i.e. true class III malocclusion, or as a result of premature occlusal contacts causing forward functional shift of the mandible, which is known as pseudo class III malocclusion. These cases, if not treated at the initial stage of development, interfere with normal growth of the jaw bases and may result in severe facial deformities. The treatment should be carried out as early as possible for permitting normal growth of the skeletal bases. This paper deals with the selection of an appropriate appliance from the various current options available for early intervention in developing class III malocclusion through two case reports.

  5. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an array of four telescopes designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. CLASS aims to detect the B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves predicted by cosmic inflation theory, as well as the imprint left by reionization upon the CMB E-mode polarization. This will be achieved through a combination of observing strategy and state-of-the-art instrumentation. CLASS is observing 70% of the sky to characterize the CMB at large angular scales, which will measure the entire CMB power spectrum from the reionization peak to the recombination peak. The four telescopes operate at frequencies of 38, 93, 145, and 217 GHz, in order to estimate Galactic synchrotron and dust foregrounds while avoiding atmospheric absorption. CLASS employs rapid polarization modulation to overcome atmospheric and instrumental noise. Polarization sensitive cryogenic detectors with low noise levels provide CLASS the sensitivity required to constrain the tensor-to-scalar ratio down to levels of r ~ 0.01 while also measuring the optical depth the reionization to sample-variance levels. These improved constraints on the optical depth to reionization are required to pin down the mass of neutrinos from complementary cosmological data. CLASS has completed a year of observations at 38 GHz and is in the process of deploying the rest of the telescope array. This poster provides an overview and update on the CLASS science, hardware and survey operations.

  6. Early failure of Class II resin composite versus Class II amalgam restorations placed by dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J D; Sullivan, Diane J

    2012-03-01

    Using the information from remake request slips in a dental school's predoctoral clinic, we examined the short-term survival of Class II resin composite restorations versus Class II dental amalgam restorations. In the student clinic, resin composite is used in approximately 58 percent of Class II restorations placed, and dental amalgam is used in the remaining 42 percent. In the period examined, Class II resin composite restorations were ten times more likely to be replaced at no cost to the patient than Class II dental amalgam restorations. A total of eighty-four resin composite restorations and six amalgam restorations were replaced due to an identified failure.

  7. Automatic Identification Systems the Effects of Class B on the Use of Class A Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Andy

    2006-05-01

    The standards for CSTDMA Class B AIS will shortly be published by the International Electrotechnical Commission and equipment will become available during 2006. The perceived benefits that Class B brings to leisure craft users and its relatively low cost will make it attractive in the market place. A rapid take-up of Class B use can therefore be expected. This paper considers the impact that increased use of Class B will have on users of Class A AIS that are compulsorily fitted to larger vessels to meet the requirements of the International Maritime Organization Safety of Life at Sea convention. The CSTDMA Class B system has been designed to prevent overloading of the AIS VHF data link. This is briefly reviewed but there are a number of other aspects that need to be considered. These include: the increased garbling of Class B messages compared to those of Class A; the problems accruing from the low update rate of Class B information; the increase in display information that will need to be managed; and the possible increase in inappropriate manoeuvres of leisure craft caused by misplaced reliance on AIS. As a result of the investigation the paper highlights the fact that Class B users must not assume that their own presence, in the form of Class B transmissions, will be particularly visible on the bridge of many SOLAS vessels. This will continue to be the case for many years into the future, until such vessels are mandated to carry radar with AIS target overlay capability.

  8. VIRTUAL CLASS FOR STUDENTS’ INDIVIDUAL TRAINING ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lytvynova

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of modernization of individual studies of students rises by modern facilities of computer-reference educational environment. The criteria of determination of level of ІКТ-компетентності of teachers-предметників which work with a virtual class are given, the model of integration of virtual class is described in an educational-educate process. Research of virtual class is in-process presented as a computer-reference educational environment.

  9. The State of the Australian Middle Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread view that the middle class in Australia is doing it tough, that they arefinding it increasingly difficult to maintain a decent standard of living and are suffering frommortgage stress. Indeed, some media reports have announced the end of the middle classdream.This paper tests a number of these popular views against the statistical data. It asks whetherthe typical Australian family can be said to be struggling? Are mortgages creating severeproblems for middle-class families? Is the middle class shrinking? Are families copingfinancially only because wives are going out to work?

  10. Considerations when using videos in lamaze classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotelling, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    There are enough worthwhile videos available today so that a Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator could literally teach an entire class series using only videos and feedback discussion. In this column, the author explores considerations in choosing videos for adult learners in Lamaze birth classes. Some things to consider when using videos should be the adult learner's attention span, whether the video increases fear of birth or empowers the learner, and if the video is appropriate for the culture of the class participants. Finally, the author provides a list of some of the many wonderful videos available to Lamaze birth educators.

  11. Marking the Moral Boundaries of Class

    OpenAIRE

    John Kirk

    2006-01-01

    This article welcomes the recent renewed interest in the topic of class within sociology and cultural studies. This comes after a long period – from around the middle part of the 1980s and into the 1990s – during which social class was dismissed as a mode of understanding socio-economic and cultural conditions on the part of both academics and mainstream political organisations alike. Working-class formations in particular came under scrutiny, increasingly seen to be in terminal decline a...

  12. Malocclusion class III treatment in teething decidua.

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez Sevillano, Manuel Gustavo; Departamento Académico de Estomatología Pediátrica, sección Ortodoncia. Facultad de Odontología UNMSM. Lima – Perú.

    2014-01-01

    According as age increases, growth decreases and Class III skeletal patterns become more stable. The objective of Class III malocclusion’s treatment in primary dentition is to get a favorable environment to achieve a better dentofacial development. This article’s objective is to give a theorical summary about treatment of Class III malocclusions in primary dentition, and to present a case report. A medida que aumenta la edad, la cuantía de crecimiento disminuye y las clases III esquelética...

  13. Software extension and integration with type classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lämmel, Ralf; Ostermann, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    expressiveness, by using the language concept of \\emph{type classes}, as it is available in the functional programming language Haskell. A detailed comparison with related work shows that type classes provide a powerful framework in which solutions to known software extension and integration problems can......The abilities to extend a software module and to integrate a software module into an existing software system without changing existing source code are fundamental challenges in software engineering and programming-language design. We reconsider these challenges at the level of language...... be provided. We also pinpoint several limitations of type classes in this context....

  14. Class 3 Tracking and Monitoring System Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safely, Eugene; Salamy, S. Phillip

    1999-11-29

    The objective of Class 3 tracking system are to assist DOE in tracking and performance and progress of these projects and to capture the technical and financial information collected during the projects' monitoring phase. The captured information was used by DOE project managers and BDM-Oklahoma staff for project monitoring and evaluation, and technology transfer activities. The proposed tracking system used the Class Evaluation Executive Report (CLEVER), a relation database for storing and disseminating class project data; GeoGraphix, a geological and technical analysis and mapping software system; the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) database; and MS-Project, a project management software system.

  15. Class, race, and social mobility in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Costa Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the differences in inter-generational social mobility and schooling between white, brown, and black men in Brazil. The main objective is to analyze inequality of opportunities for mobility and educational transitions. The results indicate that for individuals from lower social origins, inequality of opportunities is significantly marked by racial differences, and that for persons originating in the upper classes, racial inequality influences the odds of social mobility. The results suggest that theories of stratification by race and class in Brazil should be rethought, taking into account the observed interactions between race and class.

  16. Automated Object Classification with ClassX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchkov, A. A.; Hanisch, R. J.; White, R. L.; Postman, M.; Donahue, M. E.; McGlynn, T. A.; Angelini, L.; Corcoran, M. F.; Drake, S. A.; Pence, W. D.; White, N.; Winter, E. L.; Genova, F.; Ochsenbein, F.; Fernique, P.; Derriere, S.

    ClassX is a project aimed at creating an automated system to classify X-ray sources and is envisaged as a prototype of the Virtual Observatory. As a system, ClassX creates a pipeline by integrating a network of classifiers with an engine that searches and retrieves multi-wavelength counterparts for a given target from the worldwide data storage media. At the start of the project we identified a number of issues that needed to be addressed to make the implementation of such a system possible. The most fundamental are: (a) classification methods and algorithms, (b) selection and definition of classes (object types), and (c) identification of source counterparts across multi-wavelength data. Their relevance to the project objectives will be seen in the results below as we discuss ClassX classifiers.

  17. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furquim, Bruna Alves; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; Simoneti, Luis Fernando; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion...

  18. Gems: Nutrition Education in Childbirth Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easches, Janet G.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes a nutrition education packet for natural childbirth (Lamaze) classes. The packet consists of four 15- to 20-minute lessons, each containing goal, objectives, questions (with answers), activities, and pamphlets. List of goals and sample activities are included. (JN)

  19. Class, Social Suffering, and Health Consumerism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand

    2016-01-01

    In recent years an extensive social gradient in cancer outcome has attracted much attention, with late diagnosis proposed as one important reason for this. Whereas earlier research has investigated health care seeking among cancer patients, these social differences may be better understood by looking at health care seeking practices among people who are not diagnosed with cancer. Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork among two different social classes in Denmark, our aim in this article is to explore the relevance of class to health care seeking practices and illness concerns. In the higher middle class, we predominantly encountered health care seeking resembling notions of health consumerism, practices sanctioned and encouraged by the health care system. However, among people in the lower working class, health care seeking was often shaped by the inseparability of physical, political, and social dimensions of discomfort, making these practices difficult for the health care system to accommodate.

  20. Clafer: Unifying Class and Feature Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bąk, Kacper; Diskin, Zinovy; Antkiewicz, Michal

    2015-01-01

    We present Clafer (class, feature, reference), a class modeling language with first-class support for feature modeling. We designed Clafer as a concise notation for meta-models, feature models, mixtures of meta- and feature models (such as components with options), and models that couple feature...... models and meta-models via constraints (such as mapping feature configurations to component configurations or model templates). Clafer allows arranging models into multiple specialization and extension layers via constraints and inheritance. We identify several key mechanisms allowing a meta......-modeling language to express feature models concisely. Clafer unifies basic modeling constructs, such as class, association, and property, into a single construct, called clafer. We provide the language with a formal semantics built in a structurally explicit way. The resulting semantics explains the meaning...

  1. Student Attitudes: A Study of Social Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Clifford A.

    1976-01-01

    Student attitudes toward current controversial problems (bussing for racial integration, legalization of abortion, and legalization of marijuana) were studied with regard to social class. The 1960 revision of the Purdue Master Attitude Scale was used. (LBH)

  2. Distributed optimization of multi-class SVMs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian Alber

    Full Text Available Training of one-vs.-rest SVMs can be parallelized over the number of classes in a straight forward way. Given enough computational resources, one-vs.-rest SVMs can thus be trained on data involving a large number of classes. The same cannot be stated, however, for the so-called all-in-one SVMs, which require solving a quadratic program of size quadratically in the number of classes. We develop distributed algorithms for two all-in-one SVM formulations (Lee et al. and Weston and Watkins that parallelize the computation evenly over the number of classes. This allows us to compare these models to one-vs.-rest SVMs on unprecedented scale. The results indicate superior accuracy on text classification data.

  3. Combination Classes and "Hora de comunicacion."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Dee L.

    1989-01-01

    Ways to combine small classes of higher education students studying Spanish at various levels are described, including judicious use of language laboratories, staggering of the different level groups, and rotation of activities geared toward students' individual proficiency levels. (CB)

  4. Acquired Class D β-Lactamases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno T. Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Class D β-lactamases have emerged as a prominent resistance mechanism against β-lactam antibiotics that previously had efficacy against infections caused by pathogenic bacteria, especially by Acinetobacter baumannii and the Enterobacteriaceae. The phenotypic and structural characteristics of these enzymes correlate to activities that are classified either as a narrow spectrum, an extended spectrum, or a carbapenemase spectrum. We focus on Class D β-lactamases that are carried on plasmids and, thus, present particular clinical concern. Following a historical perspective, the susceptibility and kinetics patterns of the important plasmid-encoded Class D β-lactamases and the mechanisms for mobilization of the chromosomal Class D β-lactamases are discussed.

  5. Designing Class Methods from Dataflow Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoval, Peretz; Kabeli-Shani, Judith

    A method for designing the class methods of an information system is described. The method is part of FOOM - Functional and Object-Oriented Methodology. In the analysis phase of FOOM, two models defining the users' requirements are created: a conceptual data model - an initial class diagram; and a functional model - hierarchical OO-DFDs (object-oriented dataflow diagrams). Based on these models, a well-defined process of methods design is applied. First, the OO-DFDs are converted into transactions, i.e., system processes that supports user task. The components and the process logic of each transaction are described in detail, using pseudocode. Then, each transaction is decomposed, according to well-defined rules, into class methods of various types: basic methods, application-specific methods and main transaction (control) methods. Each method is attached to a proper class; messages between methods express the process logic of each transaction. The methods are defined using pseudocode or message charts.

  6. How Tweens View Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielhagen, Frances R.

    2006-01-01

    Spielhagen reports on her interviews with students in Hudson Valley Middle School, a middle school in a rural district in upstate New York that has offered voluntary single-sex classes for three years. The 24 6th, 7th, and 8th graders whom she interviewed had chosen to take all-boy or all-girl academic classes for at least one year. All Hudson…

  7. A new Class of Extremal Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2000-01-01

    and for both well- and non-well-ordered isotropic constituent phases. The new class of composites constitutes an alternative to the three previously known extremal composite classes: finite rank laminates, composite sphere assemblages and Vigdergauz microstructures. An isotropic honeycomb-like hexagonal...... material phases in a periodic isotropic material structure such that the effective properties are extremized. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Functions of class V myosins in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, John A; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-10-04

    This minireview focuses on recent studies implicating class V myosins in organelle and macromolecule transport within neurons. These studies reveal that class V myosins play important roles in a wide range of fundamental processes occurring within neurons, including the transport into dendritic spines of organelles that support synaptic plasticity, the establishment of neuronal shape, the specification of polarized cargo transport, and the subcellular localization of mRNA.

  9. Optical iconic filters for large class recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D; Mahalamobis, A

    1987-06-01

    Approaches are advanced for pattern recognition when a large number of classes must be identified. Multilevel encoded multiple-iconic filters are considered for this problem. Hierarchical arrangements of iconic filters and/or preprocessing stages are described. A theoretical basis for the sidelobe level and noise effects of filters designed for large class problems is advanced. Experimental data are provided for an optical character recognition case study.

  10. New universality class in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, A.; Safari, M.; Vacca, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    We study the Blume-Capel universality class in d=103-ϵ dimensions. The renormalization group flow is extracted by looking at poles in fractional dimension of three loop diagrams using MS. The theory is the only nontrivial universality class which admits an expansion to three dimensions with ϵ=13......theory results. Finally we discuss a family of nonunitary multicritical models which includes the Lee-Yang and Blume...

  11. Subdivision processes in mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavy, Ruth; Tirosh, Dina

    In the course of a research project now in progress, three successive division problems were presented to students in Grades 7-12. The first problem concerned a geometrical line segment, while the other two dealt with material substances (copper wire and water). All three problems involved the same process: successive division. Two of the problems (line segment and copper wire) were also figurally similar. Our data indicate that the similarity in the process had a profound effect on students' responses. The effect of the similarity in process suggests that the repeated process of division has a coercive effect, imposing itself on students' responses and encouraging then to view successive division processes as finite or infinite regardless of the content of the problem.It is possible to trace out, step by step, a more or less parallel process of development for the ideas of points and continuity and those dealing with atoms and physical objects in the child's conception of the ideal world. The only difference between these two processes is that to the child's way of thinking physical points or atoms still possess surface and volume, whereas mathematical points tend to lose all extension (though during the stages of development which concerns us here, this remains only a tendency.) (Piaget & Inhelder, 1948, pp. 126).Our first naive impression of nature and matter is that of continuity. Be it a piece of matter or a volume of liquid we invariably conceive it as divisible into infinity, and even so small a part of it appears to us to possess the same properties as the whole. (Hilbert, 1925, pp. 162).

  12. Simulating surgical incisions without polygon subdivision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Yogendra; Liu, Alan; Bowyer, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Modeling cuts, bleeding and the insertion of surgical instruments are essential in surgical simulation. Both visual and haptic cues are important. Current methods to simulate cuts change the topology of the model, invalidating pre-processing schemes or increasing the model's complexity. Bleeding is frequently modeled by particle systems or computational fluid dynamics. Both can be computationally expensive. Surgical instrument insertion, such as intubation, can require complex haptic models. In this paper, we describe methods for simulating surgical incisions that do not require such computational complexity, yet preserve the visual and tactile appearance necessary for realistic simulation.

  13. CLASS: The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Ali, Aamir; Amiri, Mandana; Appel, John W.; Araujo, Derek; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Chan, Manwei; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Chuss, David T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is an experiment to measure the signature of a gravitational wave background from inflation in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). CLASS is a multi-frequency array of four telescopes operating from a high-altitude site in the Atacama Desert in Chile. CLASS will survey 70% of the sky in four frequency bands centered at 38, 93, 148, and 217 GHz, which are chosen to straddle the Galactic-foreground minimum while avoiding strong atmospheric emission lines. This broad frequency coverage ensures that CLASS can distinguish Galactic emission from the CMB. The sky fraction of the CLASS survey will allow the full shape of the primordial B-mode power spectrum to be characterized, including the signal from reionization at low-length. Its unique combination of large sky coverage, control of systematic errors, and high sensitivity will allow CLASS to measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio at a level of r = 0:01 and make a cosmic-variance-limited measurement of the optical depth to the surface of last scattering, tau. (c) (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  14. Treatment planning in Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Grant T

    2004-01-01

    In Class III malocclusion, the overjet is reduced and may be reversed, with one or more incisor teeth in lingual crossbite. In the early mixed dentition, and in older patients with mild skeletal discrepancies, orthodontic treatment usually involves proclining the maxilliary anterior teeth into positive overjet. When the permanent dentition has established, orthodontic therapy is usually aimed at compensating for the underlying mild-moderate Class III skeletal discrepancy by proclining and retroclining the maxillary and mandibular incisors, respectively. In contrast, adolescent and non-growing patients with severe Class III skeletal discrepancies require a combination of orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery to correct the underlying skeletal pattern. Adolescent patients with moderately severe skeletal discrepancies require careful treatment planning because they are often at the limits of orthodontic compensation, and further mandibular growth may prevent a stable Class I occlusion from being maintained with growth. In this situation, treatment should be limited to aligning the maxillary arch, accepting that orthognathic surgery will be required to correct the underlying Class III skeletal discrepancy when skeletal growth has been completed. This article will inform dental professionals about the aetiology, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of patients with Class III malocclusions. Specifically, the types of orthodontic treatment that can be completed at the various stages of dental development and skeletal growth will be discussed.

  15. Hidden Advantages and Disadvantages of Social Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.

  16. Mandibular condyle dimensions in Peruvian patients with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Zegarra-Baquerizo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare condylar dimensions of young adults with Class II and Class III skeletal patterns using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Materials and methods: 124 CBCTs from 18-30 year-old patients, divided into 2 groups according to skeletal patterns (Class II and Class III were evaluated. Skeletal patterns were classified by measuring the ANB angle of each patient. The anteroposterior diameter (A and P of the right and left mandibular condyle was assessed from a sagittal view by a line drawn from point A (anterior to P (posterior. The coronal plane allowed the evaluation of the medio-lateral diameter by drawing a line from point M (medium to L (lateral; all distances were measured in mm. Results: In Class II the A-P diameter was 9.06±1.33 and 8.86±1.56 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 8.71±1.2 and 8.84±1.42. In Class II the M-L diameter was 17.94±2.68 and 17.67±2.44 for the right and left condyles respectively, in Class III these values were 19.16±2.75 and 19.16±2.54. Conclusion: Class III M-L dimensions showed higher values than Class II, whereas these differences were minimal in A-P.

  17. First Reformulated Zagreb Indices of Some Classes of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kaladevi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A topological index of a graph is a parameter related to the graph; it does not depend on labeling or pictorial representation of the graph. Graph operations plays a vital role to analyze the structure and properties of a large graph which is derived from the smaller graphs. The Zagreb indices are the important topological indices found to have the applications in Quantitative Structure Property Relationship(QSPR and Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship(QSAR studies as well. There are various study of different versions of Zagreb indices. One of the most important Zagreb indices is the reformulated Zagreb index which is used in QSPR study.In this paper, we obtain the first reformulated Zagreb indices of some derived graphs such as double graph, extended double graph, thorn graph, subdivision vertex corona graph, subdivision graph and triangle parallel graph. In addition, we compute the first reformulated Zagreb indices of two important transformation graphs such as the generalized transformation graph and generalized Mycielskian graph.

  18. Mapping the social class structure: From occupational mobility to social class categories using network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus......, unlike dominant, theoretically defined class schemes, this article derives social class categories from observed patterns in a mobility network covering intra-generational mobility. The network is based on a mobility table of 109 occupational categories tied together by 1,590,834 job shifts on the Danish...... labour market 2001–2007. The number of categories are reduced from 109 to 34 by applying a new clustering algorithm specifically designed for the study of mobility tables (MONECA). These intra-generational social class categories are related to the central discussions of gender, income, education...

  19. A self-oscillating detuning-insensitive class-E transmitter for implantable microsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaie, B; Rose, S C; Nardin, M D; Najafi, K

    2001-03-01

    This paper describes a low-cost, self-oscillating, detuning-in-sensitive, class-E driver for transcutaneous power and data transmission to implantable microsystems. A voltage feedback scheme using a fast comparator for zero-crossing detection and a CMOS start-up circuit were used to stabilize the class-E operation for various transmitter coil inductance values. This technique solves the common problem of mismatch between the switching frequency of the driving device and the resonant frequency of the load network, which can cause excessive power loss and damage to the active device. Data is transmitted by AM modulation of the carrier through switching the power supply between two levels. The transmitter uses a 9-V supply, consumes 212 mA, operates at 3.9 MHz, and has an efficiency of 71%. The efficiency is stable (Biomedical microsystems, class-E transmitter, implantable electronics, inductive powering, transcutaneous links.

  20. Identifying classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouwens, Peter J G; Lucas, Rosanne; Smulders, Nienke B M; Embregts, Petri J C M; van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2017-07-17

    Persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning are often studied as a single group with similar characteristics. However, there are indications that differences exist within this population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning and to examine whether these classes are related to individual and/or environmental characteristics. Latent class analysis was performed using file data of 250 eligible participants with a mean age of 26.1 (SD 13.8, range 3-70) years. Five distinct classes of persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning were found. These classes significantly differed in individual and environmental characteristics. For example, persons with a mild intellectual disability experienced fewer problems than those with borderline intellectual disability. The identification of five classes implies that a differentiated approach is required towards persons with mild intellectual disability or borderline intellectual functioning.

  1. Physical activity in youth dance classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kelli L; Gavand, Kavita A; Conway, Terry L; Peck, Emma; Bracy, Nicole L; Bonilla, Edith; Rincon, Patricia; Sallis, James F

    2015-06-01

    The majority of youth are not meeting the US Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines. Dance is a popular activity, particularly for girls, and has the potential to increase physical activity for many youth. This study investigated physical activity of children and adolescents in 7 dance types: ballet, hip-hop, jazz, Latin-flamenco, Latin-salsa/ballet folklorico, partnered, and tap. Data were collected in 17 private studios and 4 community centers in San Diego, California. A total of 264 girls from 66 classes participated (n =154 children; n = 110 adolescents). Physical activity was measured with accelerometers, and activity levels during class were calculated. Participants recorded an average of 17.2 ± 8.9 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (36% of class), but this varied by age and dance type. For children, dance type differences were observed with percent of class in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity ranging from 13.6% (Latin-flamenco) to 57% (hip-hop). For adolescents, there were no differences across dance types. Children were more active than adolescents in all types except ballet. Children and adolescents were more active in private compared with community center classes. Overall, physical activity in youth dance classes was low; 8% of children and 6% of adolescents met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 30-minute guideline for after-school physical activity during dance. To increase physical activity in dance classes, teaching methods could be employed to increase activity in all types, or emphasis could be placed on greater participation in more active dance types. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Students' different understandings of class diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boustedt, Jonas

    2012-03-01

    The software industry needs well-trained software designers and one important aspect of software design is the ability to model software designs visually and understand what visual models represent. However, previous research indicates that software design is a difficult task to many students. This article reports empirical findings from a phenomenographic investigation on how students understand class diagrams, Unified Modeling Language (UML) symbols, and relations to object-oriented (OO) concepts. The informants were 20 Computer Science students from four different universities in Sweden. The results show qualitatively different ways to understand and describe UML class diagrams and the "diamond symbols" representing aggregation and composition. The purpose of class diagrams was understood in a varied way, from describing it as a documentation to a more advanced view related to communication. The descriptions of class diagrams varied from seeing them as a specification of classes to a more advanced view, where they were described to show hierarchic structures of classes and relations. The diamond symbols were seen as "relations" and a more advanced way was seeing the white and the black diamonds as different symbols for aggregation and composition. As a consequence of the results, it is recommended that UML should be adopted in courses. It is briefly indicated how the phenomenographic results in combination with variation theory can be used by teachers to enhance students' possibilities to reach advanced understanding of phenomena related to UML class diagrams. Moreover, it is recommended that teachers should put more effort in assessing skills in proper usage of the basic symbols and models and students should be provided with opportunities to practise collaborative design, e.g. using whiteboards.

  3. Evaluation depth of the curve of Spee in class I, class II, and class III malocclusion: A cross sectional study

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    Sanjna Nayar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occlusal plane is an essential consideration when multiple long-span posterior restorations are designed. When restorations are added to an existing tooth arrangement characterized by rotated, tipped, or extruded teeth, excursive interferences may be incorporated, resulting in detrimental squeal. The curve of Spee, which exists in the ideal natural dentition, allows harmony to exist between the anterior tooth and condylar guidance. This curve exists in the sagittal plane and is the best viewed from a lateral aspect. It permits total posterior disclusion on mandibular protrusion, given proper anterior tooth guidance. It is unclear that whether the curve of Spee is a description of the occlusal surface of each arch separately or in maximal intercuspation. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in the depth of curve of Spee between the class I, class II, class III and to investigate the relationship of depth of curve of Spee with over jet, over-bite.

  4. APPLICATION OF INCREASED BREAKDOWN VOLTAGE SWITCH TO CLASS-E AMPLIFIER

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    Mustafa SÖNMEZ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Class-E amplifier consist of a switching device (BJT or FET and a rezonant circuit. The power of amplifier depends on current and supply voltage of the transistor. The breakdown voltage of the transistor is increased to the maximum level in order to increase the power of the amplifier. Because of increasing the current increases the reverse induction, the reverse voltage creates a problem for the transistor. In this work, the increased breakdown voltage transistor Configuration is applied to class-E power amplifiers. Therefore, the reverse voltage problem is solved and supply voltage.

  5. Classes, cultura e ação coletiva Classes, culture and collective action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasílio Sallum Jr.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo faz uma revisão da literatura sobre classes e conflito social, analisando seus impasses. Em seguida, faz uma incursão aos legados de Pierre Bordieu e Marx sobre a matéria, indicando como poderiam ser integrados numa teoria renovada das classes sociais.The article surveys the literature on class and social conflict, focusing its theoretical dilemmas. Then it discusses Pierre Bordieu's and Marx's legacies on the subject, pointing out how they could be integrated in a renewed theory of social classes.

  6. Classes and Theories of Trees Associated with a Class Of Linear Orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goranko, Valentin; Kellerman, Ruaan

    2011-01-01

    these classes of trees and between their corresponding first-order theories. We then obtain some general results about the axiomatization of the first-order theories of some of these classes of trees in terms of the first-order theory of the generating class C, and indicate the problems obstructing such general...... results for the other classes. These problems arise from the possible existence of nondefinable paths in trees, that need not satisfy the first-order theory of C, so we have started analysing first order definable and undefinable paths in trees....

  7. BDDCS Class Prediction for New Molecular Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Cruciani, Gabriele; Benet, Leslie Z.; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2012-01-01

    The Biopharmaceutics Drug Disposition Classification System (BDDCS) was successfully employed for predicting drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with respect to drug metabolizing enzymes (DMEs), drug transporters and their interplay. The major assumption of BDDCS is that the extent of metabolism (EoM) predicts high versus low intestinal permeability rate, and vice versa, at least when uptake transporters or paracellular transport are not involved. We recently published a collection of over 900 marketed drugs classified for BDDCS. We suggest that a reliable model for predicting BDDCS class, integrated with in vitro assays, could anticipate disposition and potential DDIs of new molecular entities (NMEs). Here we describe a computational procedure for predicting BDDCS class from molecular structures. The model was trained on a set of 300 oral drugs, and validated on an external set of 379 oral drugs, using 17 descriptors calculated or derived from the VolSurf+ software. For each molecule, a probability of BDDCS class membership was given, based on predicted EoM, FDA solubility (FDAS) and their confidence scores. The accuracy in predicting FDAS was 78% in training and 77% in validation, while for EoM prediction the accuracy was 82% in training and 79% in external validation. The actual BDDCS class corresponded to the highest ranked calculated class for 55% of the validation molecules, and it was within the top two ranked more than 92% of the times. The unbalanced stratification of the dataset didn’t affect the prediction, which showed highest accuracy in predicting classes 2 and 3 with respect to the most populated class 1. For class 4 drugs a general lack of predictability was observed. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) confirmed the degree of accuracy for the prediction of the different BDDCS classes is tied to the structure of the dataset. This model could routinely be used in early drug discovery to prioritize in vitro tests for NMEs (e.g., affinity to transporters

  8. Researcher perspectives on class size reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue’s (1999 position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes political histories of, contextual details about, and assumptions undergirding the conversation. We find divergent (and sometimes competing perspectives on identifying beneficiaries of class size reduction (or CSR and the correct context in which to view CSR research. By contrasting the logic and assumptions embedded in pupil-teacher ratio (PTR, class size (CS, and class size reduction studies, we conclude that sometimes research conflates these constructs and their associated theories of action, and such distortion poorly serves the needs of policymakers and stakeholders in education. We recommend that future inquiry focus on mechanisms of change, particularly instruction—both in terms of instructional strategies that capitalize on the resource of a smaller group and the types of support needed for teacher and administrator professional development.

  9. The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).

  10. Disease concepts and the logic of classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F K

    1981-09-01

    Four different disease concepts are examined. In pre-scientific times, diseases were regarded as independent entities outside and inside the body of patients. This view is still alive in such expressions as "disease carrier' and similar idioms. Sydenham's disease entity was akin to a Platonic "idea'; namely as "species', "substantial form' or "essence' which had a singular independent existence in some metaphysical realm. Therefore, the talk at the time was that a patient suffered from, say, "the' pox. Virchow's disease entities were semi-independent parasitic parts in the bodies of different patients. Therefore, patients were said to suffer from, say "a' pneumonia. In modern times diseases are no longer regarded as independent or semi-independent entities. They are merely attribute complexes in patients. As such, they require no grammatical article. Patients are said to suffer from, say, pneumonia. The different views of disease concepts are finally examined within a framework provided by the modern logic of classes. The pre-scientific and Virchowian disease entities are members in a class "extension'. Sydenham's disease entity corresponds to a class entity abstracted from class members. Modern diseases are attributes listed in the class "intension'. The different disease concepts thus have different logical implications.

  11. VC-dimensions of random function classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ycart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For any class of binary functions on [n]={1, …, n} a classical result by Sauer states a sufficient condition for its VC-dimension to be at least d: its cardinality should be at least O(n d-1. A necessary condition is that its cardinality be at least 2 d (which is O(1 with respect to n. How does the size of a `typical' class of VC-dimension d compare to these two extreme thresholds ? To answer this, we consider classes generated randomly by two methods, repeated biased coin flips on the n-dimensional hypercube or uniform sampling over the space of all possible classes of cardinality k on [n]. As it turns out, the typical behavior of such classes is much more similar to the necessary condition; the cardinality k need only be larger than a threshold of 2 d for its VC-dimension to be at least d with high probability. If its expected size is greater than a threshold of O(log (which is still significantly smaller than the sufficient size of O(n d-1 then it shatters every set of size d with high probability. The behavior in the neighborhood of these thresholds is described by the asymptotic probability distribution of the VC-dimension and of the largest d such that all sets of size d are shattered.

  12. Social class, anxieties and mothers' foodwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jan; Maher, JaneMaree; Tanner, Claire

    2015-03-01

    In the context of concerns about childhood obesity, mothers are placed at the forefront of responsibility for shaping the eating behaviour and consequently the health of their young children. This is evident in a multitude of diverse sites such as government reports, health promotion materials, reality TV shows and the advice of childcare nurses and preschools. These sites produce a range of resources available to mothers to draw on to constitute themselves as mothers in terms of caring for their children's health. Drawing on a qualitative study of mothers recruited through three Australian preschool centres, this article examines how the working-class and middle-class mothers of preschool-aged children engage with knowledge about motherhood, children and health and how those engagements impact on their mothering, their foodwork and their children. We argue that, unlike the working-class mothers pathologised in some literature on obesity, these working-class mothers demonstrated a no-nonsense (but still responsibilised) approach to feeding their children. The middle-class mothers, on the other hand, were more likely to engage in practices of self-surveillance and to demonstrate considerable anxieties about the appropriateness of their practices for their children's current and future health. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  13. COMMUNICATION AND INTERACTION IN ART CLASSES

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    Maja Hrvanović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Numerous indicators affect communication and interaction in art classes. For every teacher, as pedagogue, his successful educational activity is very important as some indicators influence the two-way exchange of information in art classes. Teaching art is very specific way of teaching process, because it is mostly based on exchange of visual information of artistic type which represents a special form of communication. The specificity of artistic information, way of acting on the viewer and intense emotional charge in the process of communication should be used as visual stimulus. The richness of imagery, stimulation of reality, abstraction and other cognitive processes in art classes experientially and visually improve students’ awareness and should be represented and diversified by origin and multiplied by quantity. The research paper aims to demonstrate the importance of connectivity between judgment of taste and ability to evaluate the quality of the work of art in art and non-art schools. Teaching and education in art classes is being realized precisely inside communicative relations and appropriate socio-emotional climate. In this research, visual communication in art classes is defined over the structure of the inventory that will examine the differences between abilities to evaluate the quality of artistic information and the judgment of taste.

  14. Third Class Resolver: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Attilio, M; Festa, F; Filippakos, A; Comparelli, U; Tripodi, D

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the use of Third Class Resolver (TCR), a new fixed and functional orthopaedic appliance for the treatment of skeletal Class III malocclusion in adolescents and young adults. Study design: Retrospective analysis. Twenty subjects, 10 females and 10 males, affected by Class III malocclusion were treated with a new fixed orthopaedic appliance: the Third Class Resolver (TCR). The mean age was 7 years at the beginning of treatment and 9 years at the end of treatment. The mean treatment time was 6 months. Digital cephalometric superimpositions on lateral radiographs taken at the start and end of treatment were assessed. The cephalometric values were statistically analysed. Cephalometric analysis of changes during treatment shows a statistically significant increase of ANB angle (mean 1°) (P = 0.045); increase of Witts Index (mean 3.5 mm) (P = 0.003); decrease of Maxillo-Mandibular angle (MM) (mean -2.3°) (P = 0.047); increase of Upper incisor-Maxilla Plane angle (angle mean 10.5°) (P = 0.02); increase of the distance between Upper Incisor and A-Pg line (mean 2.4 mm) (P = 0.021); increase of the mandibular branch length (mean 4.8 mm) (P = 0.004). TCR can be used fully for treatment of Class III malocclusions.

  15. Effects of emotion on different phoneme classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul Min; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Busso, Carlos; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2004-10-01

    This study investigates the effects of emotion on different phoneme classes using short-term spectral features. In the research on emotion in speech, most studies have focused on prosodic features of speech. In this study, based on the hypothesis that different emotions have varying effects on the properties of the different speech sounds, we investigate the usefulness of phoneme-class level acoustic modeling for automatic emotion classification. Hidden Markov models (HMM) based on short-term spectral features for five broad phonetic classes are used for this purpose using data obtained from recordings of two actresses. Each speaker produces 211 sentences with four different emotions (neutral, sad, angry, happy). Using the speech material we trained and compared the performances of two sets of HMM classifiers: a generic set of ``emotional speech'' HMMs (one for each emotion) and a set of broad phonetic-class based HMMs (vowel, glide, nasal, stop, fricative) for each emotion type considered. Comparison of classification results indicates that different phoneme classes were affected differently by emotional change and that the vowel sounds are the most important indicator of emotions in speech. Detailed results and their implications on the underlying speech articulation will be discussed.

  16. Cumulated UDC Supplement, 1965-1975. Volume II: Class 5 (5 Mathematics and Natural Sciences).

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Federation for Documentation, The Hague (Netherlands). Committee on Classification Research.

    In continuation of the "Cumulated UDC Supplement - 1964" published by the International Federation for Documentation, this document provides a cumulative supplement to the Universal Decimal Classification for 1965-1975. The second of a five volume series lists new classification subdivisions added to the system in the areas of mathematics and…

  17. Novamene: A new class of carbon allotropes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, Larry A; Fahim, Mohamed Al; Wittman, Richard S; Delodovici, Francesco; Manini, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    We announce a new class of carbon allotropes. The basis of this new classification resides on the concept of combining hexagonal diamond (sp 3 bonded carbon - lonsdaleite) and ring carbon (sp 2 bonded carbon - graphene). Since hexagonal diamond acts as an insulator and sp 2 bonded rings act as conductors, these predicted materials have potential applications for transistors and other electronic components. We describe the structure of a proposed series of carbon allotropes, novamene , and carry out a detailed computational analysis of the structural and electronic properties of the simplest compound in this class: the single-ring novamene. In addition, we suggest how hundreds of different allotropes of carbon could be constructed within this class.

  18. Novamene: A new class of carbon allotropes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry A Burchfield

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We announce a new class of carbon allotropes. The basis of this new classification resides on the concept of combining hexagonal diamond (sp3 bonded carbon − lonsdaleite and ring carbon (sp2 bonded carbon − graphene. Since hexagonal diamond acts as an insulator and sp2 bonded rings act as conductors, these predicted materials have potential applications for transistors and other electronic components. We describe the structure of a proposed series of carbon allotropes, novamene, and carry out a detailed computational analysis of the structural and electronic properties of the simplest compound in this class: the single-ring novamene. In addition, we suggest how hundreds of different allotropes of carbon could be constructed within this class.

  19. TEACHER’S POLITENESS IN EFL CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Sülü

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Politeness is considered to promote effective interaction between people. In the context of language teaching, it is believed to enhance learning by providing a lively and friendly atmosphere in classroom (Jiang, 2010. This study investigates an EFL classroom in terms of interaction between English learners and a native English speaking teacher. The aim of the study is to see whether the effects of politeness strategies differ when students and teacher do not share the same culture and native language. Two hours of classes were observed and taperecorded by the researcher. The recordings were transcribed and analyzed by making use of related politeness strategies and functions of speech. Also, three randomly chosen students were interviewed after the class. The findings showed that politeness existed in that EFL classroom and it helped students to have positive feelings towards the lesson and motivated them to participate more in classes.

  20. Management of Skeletal Class II, deep bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorya Naik Dhenu Shilya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II, Division 2 malocclusion is a clinical entity, which presents a considerable difficulty in the provision of the stable result. Management of deep bite in adults has always been critical and requires proper diagnosis, individualized treatment planning and efficient application of treatment technique. Treatment modality depends on various types of skeletal, dental, and soft tissue problems. The correction of deep bite includes one or more of maxillary incisor intrusion, mandibular incisor intrusion, mandibular incisor proclination, maxillary posterior tooth extrusion, mandibular posterior tooth extrusion, or an increase of the lower face height. This case report describes the orthodontic treatment of an adult patient, who had presented a skeletal Class II, hypo divergent jaw pattern, skeletal deep bite, angles Class II Division 2 Malocclusion. The patient was treated with a combination of orthodontics and surgical line of treatment.

  1. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

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    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  2. Class field theory from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Gras, Georges

    2003-01-01

    Global class field theory is a major achievement of algebraic number theory, based on the functorial properties of the reciprocity map and the existence theorem. The author works out the consequences and the practical use of these results by giving detailed studies and illustrations of classical subjects (classes, idèles, ray class fields, symbols, reciprocity laws, Hasse's principles, the Grunwald-Wang theorem, Hilbert's towers,...). He also proves some new or less-known results (reflection theorem, structure of the abelian closure of a number field) and lays emphasis on the invariant (/cal T) p, of abelian p-ramification, which is related to important Galois cohomology properties and p-adic conjectures. This book, intermediary between the classical literature published in the sixties and the recent computational literature, gives much material in an elementary way, and is suitable for students, researchers, and all who are fascinated by this theory. In the corrected 2nd printing 2005, the author improves s...

  3. On HNBUE class after specific age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.W. Mahmoud

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce new classes of life distributions namely harmonic new better (worse than used in expectation after specific age t0 HNBUE∗t0 (HNWUE∗t0. The closure properties under various reliability operations such as convolution, mixture, mixing and the homogeneous Poisson shock model of these classes are studied. Furthermore, nonparametric test is proposed to test exponentiality vs. the HNBUE∗t0 class. The critical values and the powers of this test are calculated to assess the performance of the test. It is shown that the proposed test have high efficiencies for LFR and Weibull distributions. Sets of real data are used as examples to elucidate the use of the proposed test for practical problems.

  4. THE LYGEO-STIPETEA CLASS IN SICILY

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    C. BRULLO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Basing on literature data and unpublished relevés from Sicily, a survey of the syntaxa belonging to the class Lygeo-Stipetea Rivas-Martínez 1978 is presented. This perennial vegetation is characterized by the dominance of big caespitose hemicryptophytes, and it is widely distributed in Sicily from the sea level up to 1500 m a.s.l. The class is represented in Sicily by two orders, floristically and ecologically well differentiated: Lygeo-Stipetalia, including the sole alliance Moricandio-Lygeion exclusively of clayey substrates, and Hyparrhenietalia hirtae, including five alliances (Hyparrhenion hirtae, Avenulo cincinnatae-Ampelodesmion mauritanici, Thero-Brachypodion ramosi, Bromo-Oryzopsion miliaceae, and Arundion collinae occurring on various substrates. Within the class, 50 associations have been recognized. To support the syntaxonomic proposal, a multivariate numerical analysis, considering literature and personal data, has been performed. Nomenclature, floristic settlement, ecology, syndynamism and chorology are examined for each syntaxon.

  5. PEER SUGGESTIVE FEEDBACK IN ENGLISH SPEAKING CLASS

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    Agnes Widyaningrum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Students learn English in Speaking Class should get enjoyable learning atmosphere in order to help them improve their speaking skill. Teacher‘s role as facilitator contributes in reducing students‘ anxiety when they have chance to speak. Nunan (1995 and Richards (2008 argue that speaking is an important skill in language learning whether it is as EFL or ESL that enable language learners to communicate not only in expressing view point but also in giving responses in their communication. This classroom study supports the idea to give positive suggestion as students‘ feedback given by their peers. Each student has their own chance to review and to be reviewed so that they can perform better in speaking class. This study is conducted in order to improve students‘ speaking skill in speaking class.

  6. From State Diagram to Class Diagram

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, Ole; Madsen, Per Printz

    2009-01-01

    UML class diagram and Java source code are interrelated and Java code is a kind of interchange format. Working with UML state diagram in CASE tools, a corresponding xml file is maintained. Designing state diagrams is mostly performed manually using design patterns and coding templates - a time...... consuming process. This article demonstrates how to compile such a diagram into Java code and later, by reverse engineering, produce a class diagram. The process from state diagram via intermediate SAX parsed xml file to Apache Velocity generated Java code is described. The result is a fast reproducible...

  7. Class IIa Bacteriocins: Diversity and New Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhua Cui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Class IIa bacteriocins are heat-stable, unmodified peptides with a conserved amino acids sequence YGNGV on their N-terminal domains, and have received much attention due to their generally recognized as safe (GRAS status, their high biological activity, and their excellent heat stability. They are promising and attractive agents that could function as biopreservatives in the food industry. This review summarizes the new developments in the area of class IIa bacteriocins and aims to provide uptodate information that can be used in designing future research.

  8. SOME REFLECTIONS ABOUT LEADING LARGE CLASSES

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    GIOVANY SUÁREZ PINILLA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article provides some strategies for teachers to deal with large classes having into account that this is a very common situation in different educational levels. Some teaching methods that have been used to make significant progress in the learning and teaching process are presented here, with the aim of getting more efficient and effective educational environment. Under these circumstances, teachers need to assure that they provide an interactive learning environment to their students. Finally, a lesson plan example for a mathematics class considering all these aspects is presented at the end of this paper.

  9. Social Class, Family Background and Intergenerational Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James

    is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was .rst collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson......This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classi.cation scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classi.cation schemes...

  10. A class of symmetric controlled quantum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaccaro, John A.; Steuernagel, O.; Huelga, S.F. [Division of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield (United Kingdom)

    2001-09-07

    Certain quantum gates, such as the controlled-NOT gate, are symmetric in terms of the operation of the control system upon the target system and vice versa. However, no operational criteria yet exist for establishing whether or not a given quantum gate is symmetrical in this sense. We consider a restricted, yet broad, class of two-party controlled gate operations for which the gate transforms a reference state of the target into one of an orthogonal set of states. We show that for this class of gates it is possible to establish a simple necessary and sufficient condition for the gate operation to be symmetric. (author)

  11. Education, class and vernacular awareness on Tyneside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Møller

    2017-01-01

    This chapter reports on a questionnaire study investigating Tyneside residents’ vernacular awareness and attested language use. Participant performance is interpreted on the basis of a cross-tabulation of participants’ social class as determined by their level of education and participants’ own....... This group consisted of mainly older female speakers and results are interpreted in light of first wave studies on the patterning of language use by class, age and gender. Finally, the issue of vernacular awareness is linked to social indexicality and it is suggested that an interpretation of participants...

  12. Student impressions of an art therapy class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Desiree; Bradburn, Taylor Caitlin; Kelly, Amy; Manahan, Isabel; Merriman, Hannah; Metzinger, Faith; Moore, Heather

    2012-12-01

    Art therapy facilitates the expression of thoughts and feelings and thus may serve as a self-care strategy. This paper describes the implementation of an expressive art therapy class to teach self-care during a required sophomore level nursing wellness course and the outcomes of the class through the eyes of six students. While students were initially reluctant to engage in the activity, the shared stories revealed feelings of relaxation, empowerment, value clarification, and increased self-awareness. The implication for nursing education is that the integration of art therapy into curricula may serve as an effective strategy to teaching self-care and core professional values.

  13. Talking about consumption. How an Indian middle class dissociates from middle-Class life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the middle class in the Indian city of Baroda employ a common moral discourse on consumption, one that is shaped through the operationalization of historically rooted ideals of community, family solidarity and asceticism. These ideals are set against the experience of urban middle-class

  14. 78 FR 51138 - Designation of Muncie (IN) To Provide Class X or Class Y Weighing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration Designation of Muncie (IN) To Provide Class X or Class Y Weighing Services AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION..., Acting Administrator, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  15. Invariant generalized ideal classes – structure theorems for p-class ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -fcomte.fr/1998/Maire.pdf. [64] Mayer D C, Principalization algorithm via class group structure, J. Théorie des. Nombres de Bordeaux 26(2) (2014) 415–464, arXiv:1403.3839v1.pdf. [65] Mayer D C, The second p-class group of a number field, ...

  16. Social class and substance use disorders: the value of social class as distinct from socioeconomic status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohlfarth, T.; van den Brink, W.

    1998-01-01

    The relationship between social class and substance use disorders (SUDs) is explored and compared to the relationship between SES and SUDs. Social class and SES are two different conceptualizations of socioeconomic inequality (SEI) which emanate from two different theoretical orientations in

  17. Linking Classes: Learning Communities, "High" Culture, and the Working Class Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ginger G.; Buczinsky, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    How do you teach the humanities to working class students living in the shadow of a BP oil refinery? Calumet College uses freshman learning communities that link humanities, social justice, and English composition classes to provide a foundation for college success to predominantly first-generation students who are often underprepared for…

  18. Comparison of Group Cohesion, Class Participation, and Exam Performance in Live and Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyon, Charles E.; Heaton, Eleanore C. T.; Best, Tiffany L.; Williams, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Though class participation and group cohesion have shown some potential to promote student performance in conventional classrooms, their efficacy has not yet been demonstrated in an online-class setting. Group cohesion, defined as member attraction to and self-identification with a group, is thought to promote positive interdependence and the…

  19. 75 FR 51171 - Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Kaneohe, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation... E airspace at Kaneohe Bay Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), Kaneohe, HI. The FAA is taking this... upward from 700 feet above the surface at Kaneohe Bay MCAS, Kaneohe Bay, HI. The geographic coordinates...

  20. Quem é Classe Média no Brasil? Um Estudo sobre Identidades de Classe*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Salata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo busca contribuir para o debate atual sobre a classe média no Brasil, tendo como foco as identidades de classe e percepções dos brasileiros sobre a classe média. Na última década milhares de indivíduos atingiram níveis intermediários de renda, e passaram a fazer parte da camada mediana da população. No entanto, partimos da hipótese de que esses indivíduos não seriam aqueles que mais tipicamente se identificariam com essa classe. A fim de testá-la, trabalhamos com os dados provenientes da “Pesquisa sobre Classe Média” (Cesop/Unicamp, 2008, fazendo uso de estatísticas descritivas e modelos multivariados. Os resultados alcançados mostram que os indivíduos de perfil socioeconômico intermediário não são aqueles que habitualmente se percebem como classe média. De fato, é apenas entre aqueles mais privilegiados que podemos verificar uma identificação mais provável com esta classe. Além disso, também fica evidente que a imagem que se faz da classe média no Brasil diz respeito aos setores mais abastados, e não intermediários, da população.

  1. Airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern: A computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Deepthi; Varma, Sapna; Ajith, V V

    2015-01-01

    A normal airway is required for the normal growth of the craniofacial structures. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern and to see if there is any association between the airway and maxillomandibular relationship. Peripheral nervous system computed tomography scans of 30 patients were divided into two groups as Class I (ANB ≤ 4.5°), Class II (ANB ≥ 4.5°). The Dolphin three-dimensional version 11 was used to assess the airway. Correlations between the variables were tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the averages between the two groups. P skeletal pattern showing a reduced airway in Class II patients with a high ANB angle.

  2. Classes sociais, relações de classe e trabalho: política e teoria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Amorim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Na célebre passagem do Manifesto do Partido Comunista (1848: "A história de toda sociedade até hoje é a história de luta de classes" (1996, p. 66 podemos notar o peso histórico da luta de classes e das classes sociais e a relevância teórica do tema para Karl Marx e Friedrich Engels. Só isso já nos valeria um dossiê concentrado na discussão das classes sociais e do trabalho. Não obstante, devemos fugir de um suposto argumento de autoridade e refletirmos sobre os problemas sociais concretos que figuram como síntese das relações de classe nas sociedades capitalistas contemporâneas.

  3. Structural properties of MHC class II ligands, implications for the prediction of MHC class II epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Winther Jørgensen

    Full Text Available Major Histocompatibility class II (MHC-II molecules sample peptides from the extracellular space allowing the immune system to detect the presence of foreign microbes from this compartment. Prediction of MHC class II ligands is complicated by the open binding cleft of the MHC class II molecule, allowing binding of peptides extending out of the binding groove. Furthermore, only a few HLA-DR alleles have been characterized with a sufficient number of peptides (100-200 peptides per allele to derive accurate description of their binding motif. Little work has been performed characterizing structural properties of MHC class II ligands. Here, we perform one such large-scale analysis. A large set of SYFPEITHI MHC class II ligands covering more than 20 different HLA-DR molecules was analyzed in terms of their secondary structure and surface exposure characteristics in the context of the native structure of the corresponding source protein. We demonstrated that MHC class II ligands are significantly more exposed and have significantly more coil content than other peptides in the same protein with similar predicted binding affinity. We next exploited this observation to derive an improved prediction method for MHC class II ligands by integrating prediction of MHC- peptide binding with prediction of surface exposure and protein secondary structure. This combined prediction method was shown to significantly outperform the state-of-the-art MHC class II peptide binding prediction method when used to identify MHC class II ligands. We also tried to integrate N- and O-glycosylation in our prediction methods but this additional information was found not to improve prediction performance. In summary, these findings strongly suggest that local structural properties influence antigen processing and/or the accessibility of peptides to the MHC class II molecule.

  4. Single-Sex Classes. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The research that has been conducted on single-sex schools and classes, has for the most part, been done in the private school and college realm, primarily because very few public schools established single-sex programs. One of the consistent findings has been that with so much emphasis having been placed on the development of girls, that boys are…

  5. The Promise of Single-Sex Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotsky, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite the enthusiasm and the absence of definitive research on the pros and cons of single-sex classes, a 2011 article in Science, titled "The Pseudoscience of Single-Sex Schooling," by a new organization called American Council for CoEducational Schooling (ACCES) came out with the astonishing conclusion that single-sex education is…

  6. Alternative Class Ranks Using Z-Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Philip H.; Van Niel, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    Grades at US colleges and universities have increased precipitously over the last 50 years, suggesting that their signalling power has become attenuated. Moreover, average grades have risen disproportionately in some departments, implying that weak students in departments with high grades may obtain better class ranks than strong students in…

  7. Obsolescence Management for Virginia-Class Submarines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    mast contains several high-resolution cameras with light-intensification and infrared sen- sors, an infrared laser range tinder , and an integrated... BENEFITS Since the program’s inception in October 2001, the TR IPT has opened more than 1,000TRIs for I ’irginia—class nonpropulsion electronic

  8. Integrating Creativity into Online University Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Brent

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author provides a concise discussion on creativity, defining the term, sharing theoretical background information and offering insights into promoting creativity in online university classes. Emphasis will be placed on relevant ways to integrate creativity into instructional activities across the academic disciplines. He…

  9. The Class of 2011 Student Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Colleges and Employers (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Based on responses from 20,000 college seniors nationwide, "The Class of 2011 Student Survey Report" gives you hard numbers "plus" the analysis you need to develop your college recruiting strategy and build your brand among college students. Align your recruiting strategies tactics with students' wants, needs, attitudes, and behaviors--you'll get…

  10. Liquidity Constraints of the Middle Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, J.R.; Hercowitz, Zvi

    2015-01-01

    Among U.S. middle-class households, the marginal propensity to consume is either invariant to household wealth or a U-shaped function thereof. In contrast, precautionary savings models predict that wealth reduces the marginal propensity to consume. We bridge this gap between theory and data with

  11. Technology and the Class of 2020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The class of 2020 includes some of the youngest members of the millennial generation. Most having been born in 1998, these students are so-called "digital natives." The academy must be ready to accept, welcome, and instruct these students. Doing so effectively may mean increasing the understanding of the issues that have shaped their…

  12. On a Class of Solvable Difference Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Stević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A class of difference equations which can be solved in closed form is presented in this paper. Obtained formulas for the solutions are used in the study of the asymptotic behavior of their solutions in a particular case.

  13. Mainstreaming Visually Handicapped Students in Mathematics Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, M. Michael; Wise, Joe L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop on teaching high school geometry to the blind. Includes general suggestions for teachers with a blind student in their classes as well as suggestions related to lecture assignments, homework, and testing. Information on equipment and resource materials is also included. (JN)

  14. Class III Malocclusion Surgical-Orthodontic Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furquim, Bruna Alves; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; Simoneti, Luis Fernando; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto; de Freitas, Daniel Salvatore

    2014-01-01

      The aim of the present case report is to describe the orthodontic-surgical treatment of a 17-year-and-9-month-old female patient with a Class III malocclusion, poor facial esthetics, and mandibular and chin protrusion...

  15. Increasing Class Participation in Social Phobic Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Michael V.

    2008-01-01

    The "Find Your Classroom Voice Program" has been offered at Kingsborough Community College for the past three years. Its purpose is to enable students who are consistently inactive in class discussions (and who might be called "classroom-specific social phobic") to develop the ability to take a more active role in the classroom. With its success,…

  16. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  17. Disseny d'un amplificador classe D

    OpenAIRE

    Sangüesa Cremades, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Diseny i muntatge en circuit imprés d'un amplificador commutat classe D. Disseny i testeig dels subsistemes i muntatge i verificació final. Permet treballar amb electrònica analògica i amb commutada, i amb dispositius de potencia mitjana. Potencia de sortida (aprox): 5 - 10 W.

  18. Using Nonverbal Communication in Efl Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysenil Barabar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing information about nonverbal communication and to state its use in EFL classes. Briefly, this paper introduces the definition, aspects and importance of nonverbal communication. Especially, this study explains some ways of using nonverbal communication in EFL classes, in order to have good classroom management in the class. Based upon this assumption, we aimed to shed light on this area of research, by showing that teachers’ nonverbal behaviour plays a highly significant and essential role in foreign language classrooms for managing the students’ behaviour. This study was conducted in Lefke, Northern Cyprus. The participants were two female English language teachers who were working at the English Preparatory School of Lefke. The study was qualitative in design and the data was gathered through interviews and reflective reports. A triangulation technique was used to enhance confidence in the ensuing findings. Cross-case analysis was used to examine and identify common themes between the cases. The results showed that nonverbal communication has a pivotal role in classroom management. In EFL classes in Northern Cyprus, in order to guide teachers to use nonverbal communication before verbal communication, some seminars or workshops should be organized regarding the use of body language in classroom management to improve teachers professionally.

  19. 29 CFR 1614.204 - Class complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... that discriminates against the group on the basis of their race, color, religion, sex, national origin...; (ii) A description of the issues accepted as part of the class complaint; (iii) An explanation of the... entitled to reasonable development of evidence on matters relevant to the issues raised in the complaint...

  20. 12 CFR 268.204 - Class complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discriminates against the group on the basis of their race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age or... of the complaint; (ii) A description of the issues accepted as part of the class complaint; (iii) An.... Both parties are entitled to reasonable development of evidence on matters relevant to the issues...

  1. Class II malocclusion occlusal severity description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Janson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: It is well known that the efficacy and the efficiency of a Class II malocclusion treatment are aspects closely related to the severity of the dental anteroposterior discrepancy. Even though, sample selection based on cephalometric variables without considering the severity of the occlusal anteroposterior discrepancy is still common in current papers. In some of them, when occlusal parameters are chosen, the severity is often neglected. The purpose of this study is to verify the importance given to the classification of Class II malocclusion, based on the criteria used for sample selection in a great number of papers published in the orthodontic journal with the highest impact factor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A search was performed in PubMed database for full-text research papers referencing Class II malocclusion in the history of the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJO-DO. RESULTS: A total of 359 papers were retrieved, among which only 72 (20.06% papers described the occlusal severity of the Class II malocclusion sample. In the other 287 (79.94% papers that did not specify the anteroposterior discrepancy severity, description was considered to be crucial in 159 (55.40% of them. CONCLUSIONS: Omission in describing the occlusal severity demands a cautious interpretation of 44.29% of the papers retrieved in this study.

  2. Cyclic cohomology and characteristic classes for foliations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crainic, M.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with the cohomology theories and the theory of characteristic classes for leaf spaces of foliations, as well as with the interaction between the classical approach (of Grothendieck, Bott-Haefliger) and the non-commutative approach (of Connes-Moscovici) to these theories.

  3. Can Gamification Be Introduced within Primary Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Veronica; López, Magdalena; Maldonado, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    Training through gamification is everyday a more evident reality in Primary Education classes. The teachers' view about this has been modified as it is shown in the study published by aDeSe in 2012. However, does it really have place in the students' curricular development in the primary education stage? For the sake of responding to this…

  4. The CLASS blazar survey - II. Optical properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJ; Anton, S; Mack, KH; Neeser, MJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the optical properties of the objects selected in the CLASS blazar survey. Because an optical spectrum is now available for 70 per cent of the 325 sources present in the sample, a spectral classification, based on the appearance of the emission/absorption lines, is possible. A

  5. SMA observations of Class 0 Protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xuepeng; Arce, Héctor G.; Zhang, Qizhou

    2013-01-01

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 μm dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance <500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in...

  6. From class society to the individualized society?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasborg, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    which the sociology of individualization puts on ‘‘liberation’’, choice and social change is challenged by the sociology of stratification and power (Bourdieu, Dean, and others) with its greater emphasis on class, power and social reproduction. This paper seeks to ‘‘overcome’’ this schism between social...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION THROUGH ORNITHOLOGY LIKE OPTIONAL CLASSES

    OpenAIRE

    GACHE, Carmen; ZBUGHIN, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Students from theprimary and secondary schools manifest a huge curiosity for nature and specialhigh interest for the animals’ life and behaviours. Unfortunately, the ordinarycurriculum in Biology classesprovides just summary information about animals’ ecology, while data on theirbehaviour and complex interspecific relations established inside the ecosystemsare completely missing. The Ornithology classes can be included inthe students’ curriculum through the curriculumin schools’ deci...

  8. A class of Sudan-decodable codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    2000-01-01

    In this article, Sudan's algorithm is modified into an efficient method to list-decode a class of codes which can be seen as a generalization of Reed-Solomon codes. The algorithm is specialized into a very efficient method for unique decoding. The code construction can be generalized based...

  9. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM... forth in § 73.211. If a station has an ERP and an antenna HAAT such that it cannot be classified using...

  10. GPS queues with heterogeneous traffic classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, Sem; Mandjes, M.R.H.; van Uitert, Miranda

    2002-01-01

    We consider a queue fed by a mixture of light-tailed and heavy-tailed traffic. The two traffic classes are served in accordance with the generalized processor sharing (GPS) discipline. GPS-based scheduling algorithms, such as weighted fair queueing (WFQ), have emerged as an important mechanism for

  11. Cultural Consciousness in a Language Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Haimanti

    1997-01-01

    Acknowledging that the Suggestopedia approach is not very popular, this paper focuses on the use of Suggestopedia's distinctive features to promote awareness of the linguistic and cultural features of the target culture in a language class. The role of the classroom environment in this approach is also examined. The context considered here is a…

  12. On identifiability of certain latent class models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.

    2005-01-01

    Blischke [1962. Moment estimators for the parameters of a mixture of two binomial distributions. Ann. Math. Statist. 33, 444-454] studies a mixture of two binomials, a latent class model. In this article we generalize this model to a mixture of two products of binomials. We show when this

  13. Technology Uptake in Chinese EFL Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Walsh, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article presents findings from what we believe to be the first large-scale study of its kind on the use of ICT (information and communications technology) in English language classes in China. Participants are 400 EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers from different types of schools in Beijing. The purpose of the study was to examine…

  14. Economies of Scale and Large Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Making classes larger saves money--and public universities across the country have found it a useful strategy to balance their budgets after decades of state funding cuts and increases to infrastructure costs. Where this author teaches, in the College of Social and Behavioral Sciences at California State University, Northridge (CSUN),…

  15. Getting Students to Prepare for Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Z. T.

    2004-05-01

    Why, oh why won't the students crack their textbook until the night before the test? How can you get your class of over 100 students to engage in the material without having to grade over 100 homework assignments? If you are tired of having students look at you with blank faces in class because they didn't do the assigned reading, this talk is for you. You CAN make students read the textbook before coming to class with Just In Time Teaching (JiTT). Although Just In Time is a phrase borrowed from best industry practices, it may soon be taken over by educators as one of the best practices. Learn how quickly you can have students in your classroom ready to ask good questions and eager to know what you have to say in class. I am a recent covert to JiTT after attending the New Faculty in Physics and Astronomy Workshop sponsored in part by the AAS. I have taught a large lecture format Astrobiology course and Calculus based Physics using the JiTT method.

  16. Student Debt and the Class of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew; Cochrane, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Student Debt and the Class of 2011 is the seventh annual report on the cumulative student loan debt of recent graduates from four-year public and private nonprofit colleges. The authors' analysis found that the debt levels of students who graduate with loans continued to rise, with considerable variation among states as well as among colleges. The…

  17. Small Group Multitasking in Literature Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurain, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of teaching American literature to large, multilevel classes in Vietnam, the writer developed a flexible small group framework called "multitasking". "Multitasking" sets up stable task categories which rotate among small groups from lesson to lesson. This framework enabled students to work cooperatively…

  18. 48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201...) Diminish any preference given small business concerns by the FAR or DFARS; or (D) Extend to requirements imposed by statute or by regulations of other agencies such as the Small Business Administration and the...

  19. Perspectives on a Whole Class Mindfulness Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George; Atkinson, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to establish pupil and teacher views about a six-hour, whole-class mindfulness programme called Paws.b. Pupil post-intervention focus groups and teacher semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain what was interesting and useful about Paws.b, and how it could be developed. Audio recordings were transcribed and thematically…

  20. Utilization of Social Media in Marketing Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to highlight how instructors may integrate the different social media into various marketing classes. The paper will address the major social networks, and then follow with discussions of microblogging, media sites, and social gaming. Given that there is a great deal of research highlighting the effectiveness of utilizing…

  1. Computer Graphics Instruction in VizClass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Douglas; Warschauer, Mark; Hutchinson, Tara; Kuester, Falko

    2005-01-01

    "VizClass" is a university classroom environment designed to offer students in computer graphics and engineering courses up-to-date visualization technologies. Three digital whiteboards and a three-dimensional stereoscopic display provide complementary display surfaces. Input devices include touchscreens on the digital whiteboards, remote…

  2. Incorporating Sociology into Community Service Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochschild, Thomas R., Jr.; Farley, Matthew; Chee, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Sociologists and instructors who teach about community service share an affinity for understanding and addressing social problems. While many studies have demonstrated the benefits of incorporating community service into sociology courses, we examine the benefits of incorporating sociological content into community service classes. The authors…

  3. A Climbing Class' Reinvention of Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyhn, Anne Birgitte

    2008-01-01

    A previous study shows how a twelve-year-old girl discovers angles in her narrative from a climbing trip. Based on this research, the girl's class takes part in one day of climbing and half a day of follow-up work at school. The students mathematise their climbing with respect to angles and they express themselves in texts and drawings. Their…

  4. First-class rules and generic traversal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolstra, E.; Visser, Eelco

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present a functional language supporting first-class rules and generic traversal. This is achieved by generalizing the pattern matching constructs of standard functional languages. The case construct that ties rules together and prevents their reuse, is replaced by separate,

  5. Measuring the Community in Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Beth; Fernandes, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes both theoretical and empirical approaches to differentiating the community of inquiry (CoI) in online classes at individual and group levels. Following the example of research on organizational climate, it assesses the strength of shared perceptions of teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence. The paper…

  6. Saharan Africa: A Latent Class Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    1University of Southern California School of Social Work, 669 W. 34th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA; 2University of ... Abstract. While studies have examined factors associated with condom use behaviors, few have assessed risk perception and condom use among SSA .... approach (latent class analysis) to identify.

  7. JAVA CLASSES FOR NONPROCEDURAL VARIOGRAM MONITORING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A set of Java classes was written for variogram modeling to support research for US EPA's Regional Vulnerability Assessment Program (ReVA). The modeling objectives of this research program are to use conceptual programming tools for numerical analysis for regional risk assessm...

  8. On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…

  9. Using Drama in the Composition Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radavich, David A.

    Dramatic texts are an ideal pedagogical tool for clarifying certain aspects of communication such as authorial stance, point of view, role, persona, impersonation, ethos, shared communal values, cultural assumptions, genre expectations, audience, performance, dialogue, and enactment. Using dramatic texts in a composition class can broaden student…

  10. Virtual Teamwork in Very Large Undergraduate Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, P. M.

    2006-01-01

    Collaborative work is an important part of tertiary education but it is very difficult to arrange and supervise for extremely large classes of students in their first year. The possibility that computer-mediated communication can be used to facilitate this type of learning is appealing from a pragmatic organisational point of view. This paper…

  11. Childbirth and parenting preparation in antenatal classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barimani, M; Forslund Frykedal, K; Rosander, M; Berlin, A

    2018-02-01

    to describe topics (1) presented by midwives' during antenatal classes and the amount of time spent on these topics and (2) raised and discussed by first-time parents and the amount of time spent on these topics. qualitative; data were gathered using video or tape recordings and analysed using a three-pronged content analysis approach, i.e., conventional, summative, and directed analyses. 3 antenatal courses in 2 antenatal units in a large Swedish city; 3 midwives; and 34 course participants. class content focused on childbirth preparation (67% of the entire antenatal course) and on parenting preparation (33%). Childbirth preparation facilitated parents' understanding of the childbirth process, birthing milieu, the partner's role, what could go wrong during delivery, and pain relief advantages and disadvantages. Parenting preparation enabled parents to (i) plan for those first moments with the newborn; (ii) care for/physically handle the infant; (iii) manage breastfeeding; (iv) manage the period at home immediately after childbirth; and (v) maintain their relationship. During the classes, parents expressed concerns about what could happened to newborns. Parents' questions to midwives and discussion topics among parents were evenly distributed between childbirth preparation (52%) and parenting preparation (48%). childbirth preparation and pain relief consumed 67% of course time. Parents particularly reflected on child issues, relationship, sex, and anxiety. Female and male participants actively listened to the midwives, appeared receptive to complex issues, and needed more time to ask questions. Parents appreciated the classes yet needed to more information for managing various post-childbirth situations. while midwifery services vary among hospitals, regions, and countries, midwives might equalise content focus, offer classes in the second trimester, provide more time for parents to talk to each other, allow time in the course plan for parents to bring up new

  12. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipset, Mark A.; Lemery, Jay; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A long-duration exploration class mission is fraught with numerous medical contingency plans. Herein, we explore the challenges of symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) occurring during an exploration class mission. The actions and resources required to ameliorate the situation, including the availability of appropriate pharmaceuticals, monitoring devices, treatment modalities, and communication protocols will be investigated. Challenges of Atrial Fibrillation during an Exploration Mission: Numerous etiologies are responsible for the initiation of AF. On Earth, we have the time and medical resources to evaluate and determine the causative situation for most cases of AF and initiate therapy accordingly. During a long-duration exploration class mission resources will be severely restricted. How is one to determine if new onset AF is due to recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, fluid overload, thyrotoxicosis, cardiac structural abnormalities, or CO poisoning? Which pharmaceutical therapy should be initiated and what potential side effects can be expected? Should anti-coagulation therapy be initiated? How would one monitor the therapeutic treatment of AF in microgravity? What training would medical officers require, and which communication strategies should be developed to enable the best, safest therapeutic options for treatment of AF during a long-duration exploration class mission? Summary: These questions will be investigated with expert opinion on disease elucidation, efficient pharmacology, therapeutic monitoring, telecommunication strategies, and mission cost parameters with emphasis on atrial fibrillation being just one illustration of the tremendous challenges that face a long-duration exploration mission. The limited crew training time, medical hardware, and drugs manifested to deal with such an event predicate that aggressive primary and secondary prevention strategies be developed to protect a multibillion-dollar asset like the

  13. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  14. Evaluation and Comparison of Intermaxillary Tooth Size Discrepancy among Class I, Class II Division 1, and Class III Subjects Using Bolton’s Analysis: An in vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, A Lakshmi; Venkatramana, V; Aryasri, A Srikanth; Katta, Anil Kumar; Santhanakrishnan, K; Maheshwari, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluation and comparison of intermaxillary tooth size discrepancy among Class I, Class II division 1, and Class III subjects using Bolton’s analysis. Materials and Methods: The pre-treatment casts were selected from the records of patients attending the Department of Orthodontics of Meenakshi Ammal Dental College, Chennai. The sample consists of 180 pre-treatment casts with both sexes evenly distributed with 60 casts in each type of malocclusion, i.e., Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusion. The sample was selected according to angles classification. All patients were Indian nationals, between the age group of 12 to 20 years and Bolton’s analysis done on all the casts. Results: Statistically no significant difference in all types of malocclusion except anterior Bolton’s discrepancy in Class III. Conclusion: Mean Bolton’s anterior ratio for angles Class III subjects was significantly greater than for Class I and Class II subjects. When Bolton’s overall ratio was compared there was no statistically significant difference among Class I, Class II div 1, and Class III malocclusions. PMID:26435619

  15. Amalgam matrix for class II and class V preparations connected at the proximal box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamoun, John S; Ahmed, Mairaj K

    2006-02-01

    The authors present a technique for placing and reinforcing an amalgam matrix around combined Class II and Class V preparations that connect at the proximal box. First, the dentist fills the Class V aspect of the preparation, using a temporary resin-based composite wall at the line angle to support amalgam condensation. The dentist then removes the wall and places a matrix band around the tooth, internally reinforcing the band with smaller pieces of matrix band and resin-saturated cotton balls that are light-polymerized and externally reinforcing the band with fast-polymerizing vinyl polysiloxane. Finally, the dentist condenses the line angle amalgam through the proximal box and condenses the proximal box and occlusal aspects. For connected Class II and Class V preparations, this matrix technique permits controlled amalgam condensation, even at the line angle aspect, where it is difficult to condense amalgam without voids or microleakage. This technique allows dentists to provide a stable, inexpensive direct restoration for teeth with connected Class II and Class V preparations, providing an alternative for patients who do not wish to have crowns placed.

  16. Soft Classes and Soft Rough Classes with Applications in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Karaaslan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rough set was defined by Pawlak in 1982. Concept of soft set was proposed as a mathematical tool to cope with uncertainty and vagueness by Molodtsov in 1999. Soft sets were combined with rough sets by Feng et al. in 2011. Feng et al. investigated relationships between a subset of initial universe of soft set and a soft set. Feng et al. defined the upper and lower approximations of a subset of initial universe over a soft set. In this study, we firstly define concept of soft class and soft class operations such as union, intersection, and complement. Then we give some properties of soft class operations. Based on definition and operations of soft classes, we define lower and upper approximations of a soft set. Subsequently, we introduce concept of soft rough class and investigate some properties of soft rough classes. Moreover, we give a novel decision making method based on soft class and present an example related to novel method.

  17. Single-sex Classes: Female Physics Students State Their Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitmatter, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Examines data collected from a girls-only physics class in a public coeducational high school. Interview and observation data from this class, as well as from coeducational physics classes taught by the same teacher, illustrate that the girls in the single-sex class made substantial gains in both academic achievement and in perceptions of…

  18. Gender Differences in School Achievement: A Within-Class Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahan, Sorel; Barneron, Meir; Kassim, Suhad

    2014-01-01

    Relying on the results of the achievement tests in mathematics, science, native language (Hebrew/Arabic) and English, administered to 1430 5th-grade co-educational classes in Israel, this study examines the between-class variability of the within-class mean score gender differences and its class and school correlates. The four main results of the…

  19. 76 FR 51257 - First-Class Package Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... Package Service, Periodicals, and Package Services pieces addressed to a discontinued Post Office may be... have all Express Mail, Priority Mail, First-Class Mail, First-Class Package Service, Periodicals, and... Personnel All Express Mail, First-Class Mail, First-Class Package Service, Periodicals, and Package Services...

  20. Using Storytelling Strategies to Improve Student Comprehension in Online Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Rasby Marlene; Murray, Ottis

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that presenting class material in story formats can improve student learning in lecture classes. This pilot study of eight sociology classes investigates the efficacy of using storytelling as a means to improve student comprehension in online classes. Our findings show that when material is presented in story format rather…

  1. The Effect of Mixed-Age Classes in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Elly-Ann; Lindahl, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Mixed-aged (MA) classes are a common phenomenon around the world. In Sweden, these types of classes increased rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s, despite the fact that existing empirical support for MA classes is weak. In this paper, the effect of attending an MA class during grades 4-6 on students' cognitive skills is estimated. Using a unique…

  2. Group Projects in Interior Design Studio Classes: Peer Feedback Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Group projects have been shown to be effective for providing peer feedback in classrooms. While students in regular enrollment classes benefit from peer feedback, low-enrollment classes face many challenges. This study compares peer feedback effectiveness between two interior design studio classes with different design projects. In one class,…

  3. ClassWide Peer Tutoring. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "ClassWide Peer Tutoring" is a teaching strategy that involves the entire class in tutoring using a game format. "ClassWide Peer Tutoring" typically uses existing curriculum materials and can be adapted across different grade levels and content areas. The class is divided into two competing teams, and pairs of students are…

  4. Class Size and College Teaching: Attitudes and Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michal C.

    What effect would the manipulation of class size have on students, faculty, and institutional productivity? By providing each student with a class schedule of varying sized classes (at least one very large and at least one small class per student per semester), the student would derive educational benefits and maintain feelings of community in…

  5. Laptop Use during Class: A Review of Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cismaru, Romulus; Cismaru, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Laptop use in class is a characteristic of universities that is changing rapidly. Although much of the attention and research regarding this issue has focused on the debate of whether to impose mandatory laptop programs, the reality of wireless campuses allows students to use their laptops in class for class related and non-class related…

  6. 7 CFR 1610.9 - Class B stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Class B stock. 1610.9 Section 1610.9 Agriculture... POLICIES § 1610.9 Class B stock. Borrowers receiving loans from the Bank shall be required to invest in class B stock at 5 percent of the total amount of loan funds advanced. Borrowers may purchase class B...

  7. A Comparative Analysis of Kiswahili and Echijita Noun Classes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (ii) The class is indicated by a prefix on the noun. (iv) Plural is indicated by a change of prefix of a singular noun. The singular or plural prefix of a noun is a class marker for that noun, hence singular and plural forms constitute different noun classes. (v) A noun class marker is always attached to an adjective or locative where ...

  8. Social Class in English Language Education in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gopar, Mario E.; Sughrua, William

    2014-01-01

    This article explores social class in English-language education in Oaxaca, Mexico. To this end, first, we discuss social class in Mexico as related to coloniality; second, for illustration, the paper presents the authors' own social-class analysis as language educators in Oaxaca; third, we discuss how social class impacts English education…

  9. 7 CFR 985.104 - Changed classes of spearmint oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Changed classes of spearmint oil. 985.104 Section 985... Regulations § 985.104 Changed classes of spearmint oil. Pursuant to § 985.4, the classes of spearmint oil contained in that section are changed by deleting the term and definition Class 2 Oil and changing the...

  10. Multiple meanings of the middle class in Soweto, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the meanings of middle class amongst those who label themselves middle class. 2559 people were surveyed in Soweto, South Africa biggest township. The study revealed that a diverse number of people call themselves middle class and defined class in terms of ability to afford basic goods.

  11. Understanding the Quality of Out-of-Class English Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun; Zhu, Weimin; Gong, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Out-of-class learning constitutes an important context for human development, and active engagement in out-of-class activities is associated with successful language development. However, not all out-of-class experiences are equally beneficial to learning, and it is of paramount importance to understand what quality out-of-class English language…

  12. "Our class does not smoke"; the Czech version of the "smoke-free class competition" programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubá, Drahoslava; Zachovalová, Veronika; Matejová, Halina; Danková, Irena

    2007-12-01

    The "Smoke-Free Class Competition" programme stems from a theory of the consequences of cultural and social miming in the onset of smoking addiction: it initiates non-smokers' active encouragement in supporting a non-smoking environment in class groups of teenagers. The first experience with the programme (Our Class Does Not Smoke) in the Czech Republic was obtained from a set of 13 classes from 6 primary schools with 261 14-year-olds who had been acquainted with the programme rules and voluntarily agreed to abide by them. Methodological instruction for teachers, school psychologists, pupils and parents providing motivation to various activities (discussion, craft projects, group therapy with smokers, demonstrations of ascertaining exposure and health consequences of smoking) were compiled to support the programme. The one-year programme schedule had a number of control points for assessing its immediate and long-term effect on the prevalence of smoking: (1) prior to programme onset, (2) after a half-year of intensive intervention, (3) after a further 3 months, (4) in the 12th month from programme onset. A complete abstaining condition in the four-months of the competition period was observed by all pupils in 31% of the classes; the number of smokers dropped in other 23% classes, remained unchanged in the same number of classes and increased in the same number of classes. In the second half of the programme, 38.5% of classes dropped out of the competition; the prevalence of smoking children was identical in 15.5% and higher in 46%, in the 12th month compared to the programme onset. However, the final prevalence of regular smokers in the competition set is only at the level of one third (10.3% versus 29.7%) compared to the same age group of the Czech population. The programme successfully swayed the smoking habits of children.

  13. Class and Politics in Denmark: Are Both Old and New Politics Structured by Class?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer; Prieur, Annick; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    background, although in complex ways, which can only be discovered with a multidimensional conception of what class is. This conception may be found in Pierre Bourdieu's analytical approach, which we here apply in an analysis of survey data from a Danish city, Aalborg. Data from a survey of political...... the constructed space of attitudes to a set of indicators based on a two-dimensional conception of social class. On the basis of this analysis the article concludes that the political landscape appears as highly structured by the two principles of social differentiation from Bourdieu’s class model: volume...

  14. Conservative compensatory Angle Class III malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Costa Sobral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Angle's Class III malocclusion is a dental discrepancy in a sagittal view that may appear or not with an important skeletal discrepancy. Facial esthetics may be affected by this skeletal discrepancy and it is one of the most common complaints of patients who seek orthodontic treatment. Class III treatment, in adults, may be done by compensatory tooth movement, in simple cases, or through an association between orthodontics and orthognathic surgery, in more severe cases. OBJECTIVE: This article describes a non-extraction compensatory Class III treatment case, applying the Tweed-Merrifield mechanical principles with headgear (J-Hook in the mandibular arch. This case was presented at the V Brazilian Association of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (ABOR Meeting, it was evaluated by members of Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and obtained third place in the general classification.INTRODUÇÃO: a má oclusão de Classe III se caracteriza por uma desarmonia dentária anteroposterior, podendo estar ou não acompanhada por discrepâncias esqueléticas. A estética facial pode se apresentar comprometida, em maior ou menor grau, a depender da magnitude da discrepância, constituindo um dos principais fatores motivadores da procura por tratamento ortodôntico. O tratamento da Classe III em pacientes adultos pode ser realizado mediante compensação dentária, nos casos mais simples, ou, em situações mais severas, mediante a associação entre Ortodontia e Cirurgia Ortognática. OBJETIVO: o presente artigo objetiva relatar um caso clínico caracterizado por uma má oclusão de Classe III de Angle, tratado de forma compensatória, com extração dos terceiros molares inferiores, mediante a utilização de aparelhagem extrabucal na arcada inferior (J-hook, aplicando-se princípios da técnica de Tweed-Merrifield. Esse caso foi apresentado no 5º Congresso da Associação Brasileira de Ortodontia e Ortopedia Facial (ABOR, na categoria

  15. Orthopedic cervical headgear in Class II treatment: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Enoki Carla; Matsumoto Mírian Aiko Nakane; Ferreira José Tarcísio Lima

    2003-01-01

    Early treatment for Class II malocclusion was undertaken with the objective of correcting skeletal disproportion by altering the growth pattern. A case of Class II, Division 1 malocclusion in the mixed dentition was corrected to Class I molar relationship using orthopedic cervical headgear, with nonextraction edgewise therapy. Cephalometric analysis indicated a reduction in the maxillomandibular discrepancy (ANB) correcting the Class II malocclusion to Class I malocclusion. The treatment show...

  16. 78 FR 72001 - Amendment of Class D and E Airspace, and Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salisbury, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... Class E Airspace; Salisbury, MD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class D and Class E airspace, and establishes Class E airspace at Salisbury-Ocean City Wicomico Regional Airport, Salisbury, MD, due to the decommissioning of the Salisbury VHF...

  17. 78 FR 33015 - Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TX, and Establishment of Class D Airspace; Waco...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TX, and Establishment of Class D Airspace; Waco, TSTC-Waco Airport, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... airspace at Waco, TX, by separating the Class D airspace at Waco Regional Airport from the Class D airspace...

  18. [A comparative study of the transverse dimensions of the dental arches between Class I dental occlusion and Class II1 and Class II2 malocclusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, A; Azeroual, M F; Abouqal, R; Zaoui, F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare transverse dimensions of the maxillary and mandibular arches in the canine and molar region between three groups of patients: the first group had an occlusion in class II division 1, the second one a dental class II division 2 and the third one, a class I bite. Our sample is composed of 94 patients, with an average age of 20 +/- 3 years: 31 patients presented a class I occlusion, 33 a class III1 and 30 cases presented a dental class II2. For this study, we measured, on the maxillary and mandibular dental casts of each patient, the intercanine and intermolar canine (central inter fossa). Comparison of variables was conducted using the variance analysis ANOVA; the selected post-hoc test is the Bonferrroni test. On the basis of our study, we can get the following results: Maxillary intercanine distance is narrower in class II1 compared to class II2 of 2 mm "p < 0.05". Mandibular intercanine distance is narrower in class III1 compared to class II2 of 1, 3 mm "p < 0.05". Maxillary intermolar distance (inter fossa) is narrower in class II1 compared to class I of 2, 2 mm "p < 0.05".

  19. Asymmetry assessment using cone beam CT. A Class I and Class II patient comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Matthew M; Larson, Brent E; Gaillard, Philippe R; Wey, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    To estimate possible differences in skeletal asymmetry between patients with skeletal Class I and skeletal Class II relationships. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were examined from 70 consecutive patients who presented for orthodontic care and fit the inclusion criteria. Asymmetry was quantified using an asymmetry index developed by Katsumata et al. Anatomic landmarks were defined and reference planes were established to determine the asymmetry of the landmarks using a constructed coordinate plane system. Thirty randomly selected patients were reanalyzed to assess the reliability of the method. Statistical analysis did not find any significant relationship between asymmetry and A-P skeletal relationship for any of the landmarks. Asymmetry index scores were reproducible within a certain range of agreement for each landmark. Based on this study, the discrepant jaw growth resulting in a Class II skeletal pattern results in no more skeletal asymmetry than Class I skeletal patterns.

  20. [Early treatment of Class III malocclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gall, Michel; Philip, Camille; Salvadori, André

    2011-09-01

    Optimum treatment timing for orthodontic problems continues to be one of the more controversial topics in orthodontics. Especially regarding the correction of Class III malocclusion, there is little consensus as to proper timing or methods for correcting these problems. The orthopedic approach for growth modification is usually limited to children with growth remaining subjected to non hereditary pattern. If the skeletal malocclusion is within the range of an orthodontic treatment, fixed orthodontic appliances with dentoalveolar compensation mechanism can achieve a normal occlusion. Otherwise in patients with a severe skeletal discrepancy, it will be necessary to consider a combined surgical and orthodontic approach. The purpose of this study was to describe treatment planning according to the age and to the initial diagnosis. The management of skeletal Class III malocclusion is still a challenge to orthodontists especially because of relapse due to the late growth of the mandible. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2011.